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Sample records for studie ueber die

  1. In-service monitoring of piping and vessels in nuclear power plants. Report on BMU-study SR 2218; Betriebsueberwachung von Rohrleitungen und Behaeltern in Kernkraftwerken. Bericht ueber die BMU-Studie SR 2218

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofstoetter, P. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland e.V., Koeln (Germany); Dittmar, S. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Nord e.V., Hamburg (Germany); Maile, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Metzner, K.J. [Preussen Elektra AG, Hannover (Germany). Hauptverwaltung

    1998-11-01

    Messergebnisse. Im folgenden soll ueber die wesentlichen Ergebnisse der Studie berichtet werden. Dabei wurde der Teil Berechnung der Bauteilermuedung fuer einen spaeteren Beitrag ausgeklammert. (orig./MM)

  2. Ueber die arten und den Skelettbau von Culcita

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartlaub, Clemens

    1892-01-01

    Das Genus Culcita Agass. zählt durch die merkwürdige Form und die ansehnliche Grösse seiner Arten zu den interessantesten Asteriden, und gut conservirte Exemplare davon gehören zu den Zierden unsrer Museen. Um so bedauerlicher erschien es mir, als ich vor einiger Zeit den Versuch machte die von

  3. Letters on nuclear controversy. Streitbriefe ueber Kernenergie. Zwei Physiker ueber Wissenschaft, Fortschritt und die Folgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafka, P; Maier-Leibnitz, H

    1982-01-01

    Heinz Maier-Leibnitz a well-known scientist, nuclear physicist, for 50 years, who publicily supported the idea not to overrate the dangers of peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, has grown tired of talking only to colleagues. He invites a junior fellow physicist, who held engaged speeches against the nuclear power plant Zwentendorf, to an exchange of thoughts. Peter Kafka, an astro-physicist studied the self organisation of the universe from the big bang to the economic crisis and encountered the question of which conditions have to be fulfilled to prevent progress from becoming caranogenous. He became one of the spokesmen of 'political ecology' and called for resistance again large-scale technological use of scientific knowledge. He was enthusiastic about the idea of an exchange of letters, because he - just like his partner - believes in gaining knowledge by discussion. The variety of subjects is sketched briefly in form of three lectures. In the letters both scientists discuss intensly about: - Freedom of science and responsibility of science. - Decisions on energy questions under time-pressure. - Risks of nuclear plants. - Large scale technology and large-scale research or decentralization. - Energy utilization and energy waste. - Nuclear energy and alternatives. - Sense and nonsense of detailed future planning. In the end no one has convinced the other. The reader however finds a lot of new incentives in the letters - printed in unabridged form - a lot of new and significant arguments for a discussion which has only just started.

  4. Retrospective study on radiotherapy efficacy in case of painful heel spur; Retrospektive Studie ueber die Wirksamkeit der Strahlentherapie beim schmerzhaftem Fersensporn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klossok-Niethammer, Ruth Giuliana

    2011-07-01

    Objective: The effect of radiotherapy in context of a plantar fasciitis in order to reduce pain was evaluated in this retrospective study. Patients and methods: The data of 188 patients who suffered of heel spur pain and who were irradiated in the period from 1994 to 2009 were evaluated in this study. All of them had at least one follow up examination after radiatiotherapy. The mean age amounted to 57 years. 76.5% of the patients were female. All patients described a local pain which was the basis for the indication. 74.4 % of the patients described pain especially under stress. The duration of anamnesis was averaged as follows: 15 % of the patients had pain for some weeks to 3 months, 43 % for 4 to 6 months, 28% even for 7 to 12 months. The period of medical history was longer than 12 months for 12 % of the patients in this study. 122 of 188 patients received orthopedic arch support (shoe inlays) as first therapy method. Most of the patients were irradiated using regular lateral opposing fields with photons of the energy 4 MV and 6 MV of a linear accelerator, applying a total dose of 6Gy in 6 fractions to 1,0Gy twice weekly. Only one patient was irradiated using a Co{sup 60} machine. The acquisition of data regarding the effect was performed on the last day of the radiotherapy and in 3 to 6 monthly follow ups. Additionally the doctors who attended the patients beyond the radiotherapy received a special questionnaire about the pain reduction, so that the follow up data could be completed. Results: On the last day of radiotherapy 120/188 patients (63,8%)reported an improvement of pain reduction, 7/188 patients (3,7%) absence of pain. For 52/188 patients (27.6 %) pain remained constant. At the second follow up examination after in the median 100 days the effect of radiotherapy of 165 patients could be evaluated, 43/165 patients (26 %) were pain free, 79/165 patients (47,8 %) reported an obvious pain reduction, and for 33/165 patients there was no pain improvement. At

  5. New jobs - renewable energies. Congress. Proceedings; Neue Arbeitsplaetze durch Erneuerbare Energien. Kongress ueber die wirtschaftlichen Chancen der oekologischen Energiewende. Konferenzband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The number of jobs in the field of renewable energy sources is disproportionately high as compared to conventional energy sources. For example, the German wind industry has 30,000 jobs for a 3% share in power supply. According to the White Book on Renewable Energy Sources of the European Commission, the share of renewable energy sources is to be increased to 12% by 2010. This will mean 1.2 million new jobs. If the share is increased to 20%, 2 million new jobs will be created in the European Union according to an EUROSOLAR study. [German] Die erneuerbaren Energien haben im Verhaeltnis zu konventionellen Energietraegern ein ueberproportional hohes Arbeitsplatzangebot. So sind bereits heute in der deutschen Windenergiebranche, die zur Zeit etwa 3 Prozent des Stromverbrauchs deckt, 30000 Menschen beschaeftigt. Das Weissbuch der Europaeischen Kommission ueber erneuerbare Energien hat das Ziel formuliert, den Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien bis zum Jahr 2010 auf 12 Prozent zu steigern. Die Europaeische Kommission sieht damit die Schaffung von 1,2 Millionen Arbeitsplaetzen verbunden. Wenn der Anteil der erneuerbaren Energien in der Europaeischen Union auf 20 Prozent erhoeht wird, werden gemaess einer EUROSOLAR - Studie in der EU sogar 2 Millionen neue Arbeitsplaetze entstehen. (orig.)

  6. Study on the planning of a demonstration plant for hydrogen fuel production by electrolysis using caching in salt caverns under pressure; Studie ueber die Planung einer Demonstrationsanlage zur Wasserstoff-Kraftstoffgewinnung durch Elektrolyse mit Zwischenspeicherung in Salzkavernen unter Druck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-05

    In a two year research project the long-term storage of hydrogen as energy carrier has been assessed in detail for large renewable electricity quantities in underground storage caverns in Germany. Next to a regions analysis for potential storage sites, the benchmarking against other large scale storage concepts, a comparative and perspective analysis of alkaline and PEM-electrolysers also potential business cases for Power-to-Hydrogen in the mobility sector as well as for the chemical, electricity and natural gas industry have been analysed. [German] Durch den geplanten Ausbau der Stromerzeugung aus fluktuierenden, erneuerbaren Energien in Deutschland ruecken Speichertechnologien fuer elektrische Energie immer staerker in den Fokus des industriellen und politischen Interesses. Eine vielversprechende Moeglichkeit fuer eine Langzeitspeicherung bei hohen Anteilen von Wind- und Photovoltaikanlagen sind Speichertechnologien wie die Wasserstoffspeicherung mit Hilfe von Wasserelektrolyseuren. Diese koennen erneuerbaren Strom in grossen Mengen und bei entsprechender Steuerung selektiv in Zeiten mit hohem Dargebot z.B. an Windstrom chemisch speichern. Der gespeicherte Wasserstoff kann dann entweder zu einem spaeteren Zeitpunkt wieder rueckverstromt oder direkt stofflich verwertet werden, z.B. als Kraftstoff fuer den Verkehrssektor, als chemischer Rohstoff oder fuer den Hausenergiebereich durch Einspeisung in das Erdgastransportnetz. Thema der vorliegenden Studie sind Analysen und Planungen fuer die Erprobung des Gesamtsystems ''Wasserstoff-Elektrolyse-Speicherung'' in energiewirtschaftlich relevanten Dimensionen. Dazu werden mit einem neuen Ansatz techno-oekonomische Entwicklungspfade fuer Wasserstoff-Systeme unterschiedlicher Groesse und Technologien charakterisiert und technologische Risiken bei der Realisierung dieser Systeme identifiziert und bewertet. Diese Arbeiten werden ergaenzt durch Arbeiten auf dem Gebiet der Salzkavernenspeicherung in Form

  7. Derelict radioactivity in Rhineland-Palatinate: A first report; Herrenlose Radioaktivitaet in Rheinland-Pfalz. Ein erster Bericht ueber das Ausmass, die Massnahmen und die Folgen fuer die Behoerden und den Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, J. [Landesamt fuer Umweltschutz und Gewerbeaufsicht Rheinland-Pfalz, Mainz (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Following of theft of a radioactive source and radioactively contaminated material from the Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe (WAK), persons, flats and vehicles in the Federal State of Rhineland-Palatinate were grossly contaminated. The article gives quantitative information about kind and height of the contaminations and describes the actions, measurements and measures taken by the radiation protection staff members in this extraordinary case. (orig.) [German] Nach dem Diebstahl einer Strahlenquelle und von kontaminiertem Material aus der Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (WAK) wurden im Bundesland Rheinland-Pfalz Personen, Wohnungen und Fahrzeuge stark kontaminiert. Der Aufsatz gibt zahlmaessige Angaben ueber die Art und Hoehe der Kontaminationen und beschreibt die Vorgehensweise bei den Messungen und die Massnahmen, die vom Strahlenschutz in diesem aussergewoehnlichen Fall getroffen werden mussten. (orig.)

  8. Can we omit scintiscanning of the skeleton in follow-up aftercare of carcinoma of the breast. A prospective study of 630 cases. Ist die Skelettszintigraphie in der Nachsorge des Mammakarzinoms entbehrlich. Eine prospektive Studie ueber 630 Faelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuenemann, H [Onkologische Klinik Bad Trissl, Oberaudorf (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-08-01

    630 women patients of the Bad Trissl clinic were admitted in 1987/88 to a prospective study to find out whether scintiscanning, or radionuclide imaging, of the skeleton can be omitted completely or in part in the after care and follow-up of carcinoma of the breast. The initial criterion was a postoperative carcinoma of the breast without metastasizing in the skeleton at the time the study began or the patient was admitted to the study. Careful pain anamnesis was performed by means of prepared questions, and a detailed clinical examination conducted to detect any pain in the skeleton of the patient concerned. This was followed by whole body scintiscanning of the skeleton and complementary X-ray films, if necessary additional examinations. It was found that clinical findings and imaging methods agreed in 545 patients. In 55 cases a finding that was clinically suspicious of metastases or doubtful, could be refuted by both scintiscan and by X-ray, osseous metastasizing would have been overlooked without skeleton scintiscan in 14 patients only (2.2%), 11 of these 14 patients were high-risk patients (negative hormonal receptor status, axillary lymph node metastases). Hence, it will be sufficient to employ scintiscanning in the aftercare and follow-up of carcinoma of the breast on a risk-adapted basis provided this is preceded by careful pain analysis and clinical examination. Failure to detect metastasizing in the skeleton will then occur in only 3 of 630 patients (0.48%). In this manner 40% of scintiscans can be omitted in future. (orig.).

  9. Survey of legislation applicable in Germany for implementation of the EC Directive on environmental audits; Ueberblick ueber die in Deutschland fuer die Ausfuehrung der EG-Umwelt-Audit-Verordnung geltenden Rechtsvorschriften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The brochure presents a comprehensive survey of the relevant legislation applicable in Germany to implementation of the EC Directive on environmental auditing. Readers interested in performing such auditing at one glance will find in this compiulation all relevant laws and regulations in full text that are to be observed for implementation of this novel environmental auditing instrument. (orig./RHM) [Deutsch] Diese Broschuere vermittelt einen umfassenden Ueberblick ueber die in Deutschland fuer die Ausfuehrung der EG-Umwelt-Audit-Verordnung geltenden Rechtsvorschriften. Damit wird fuer alle Interessenten ein rascher Zugriff auf die Rechtstexte, die zur praktischen Anwendung des neuartigen Umwelt-Audit-Instruments notwendig sind, ermoeglicht. (orig./RHM)

  10. On the responsibility of the environmentalists; Ueber die Verantwortlichkeit der Umweltschuetzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosonyi, E.

    1995-02-20

    The author deals with the precepts and credibility of environmentalists, the pseudo-scientific dameanour of certain authorised experts, and the sometimes ruinous activities of `environmental organisations`. In analogy to the spirit of humanism as an attitude of respect towards one`s fellow human beings he sees environment protection as a friendly attitude towards nature. He points to the case of a premature, careless concellation of a hydropower project as an example of the far-reaching consequences of what he considers false environmentalism. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Verfasser setzt sich mit dem Anspruch und der Glaubwuerdigkeit der Umweltschuetzer, der anzutreffenden Pseudowissenschaftlichkeit von Sachverstaendigen und dem teilweise verhaengnisvoll wirkenden Aktivitaeten von `Umweltorganisationen` auseinander. Er postuliert in Anlehnung an den Humanismus, als positive Einstellung gegenueber den Mitmenschen, den Umweltschutz als positive Haltung gegenueber der Natur. Beispielhaft weist er auf die Tragweite einer leichtfertigen Vorverurteilung im Falle eines Wasserkraft-Projektes hin. (orig.)

  11. Studies on the influence of ionising radiation on leukemogenesis using 1-N-n-butyl-1-nitroso-urea. Untersuchungen ueber den Einfluss von ionisierenden Strahlen auf die Leukaemogenese durch 1-N-n-Butyl-1-Nitroso-Harnstoff (BNU)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischof, S.

    1982-11-26

    Female BDF/sub 1/-mice were used for the study. Even a BNU-concentration which in comparison to other authors was reduced from 0.04 to 0.02%, caused in a 12-week application in the drinking water leukemia in 96% of the mice. Additional X-radiation of 12x50 R and 4x100 R had no influence on the death rate. On the other hand, 12x25 R doses caused a significant acceleration and 12x75 R a significant delay in leukemogenesis by BNU. The leukemia incidence was not changed. The number of ETL increased in the groups with BNU and irradiation with the received radiation doses, whereas it decreased in the groups which were only irradiated. The groups which were only irradiated showed an increase in leukemia incidence with the received total dose. In the groups which were only irradiated the number of CFU/sub S/ and the thymus weight near the end of irradiation showed a good correlation with the leukemia incidence. In the groups with BNU and irradiation the superadditive effects in the collaboration of both noxae on immune status, thymus weight, and the stem cell number in the bone marrow and the spleen are confirmed. The extent of immunosuppression, bone marrow damage and thymus suppression is not correlated with the leukemia development.

  12. Die Hervormde Teologiese Studies na vyftig jaar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INLEIDEND. In die tweede helfte van die jaar 1943 het die Hervormde Teologiese Studies die eerste maal verskyn. Dit was die produk van lang besinning en beplanning. Die dryfkrag agter die totstandkoming was prof dr S P Engeibrecht, 'n man wie se idealisme en toewyding aan die kerk groot dinge vir die kerk en ook die ...

  13. Summarizing report on results obtained by institutions in Germany and Switzerland applying high-resolution detectors for health physics monitoring; Zusammenfassender Bericht ueber die Inkorporationsmessstellen mit hochaufloesenden Detektoren in Deutschland und der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahre, P. [Verein fuer Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    In order to gather as much information as possible about the performance of high-resolution detectors in whole-body and partial-body counters, a questionnaire was distributed to those health physics monitoring institutions in Germany and Switzerland known to apply such instruments. The inquiry also covered institutions in Prague, Budapest, and Seibersdorf which participate in activities of the AKI. The results of the inquiry are given in tabulated form. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Um moeglichst viele Informationen ueber Ganz- und Teilkoerperzaehler, die mit hochaufloesenden Detektoren arbeiten, zu erfassen, wurde an alle in Deutschland und in der Schweiz arbeitenden Inkorporationsmessstellen ein Formular zur Erfassung von Erfahrungen mit hochaufloesenden Detektoren gesendet. In die Abfrage einbezogen wurden auch Messstellen aus Prag, Budapest und Seibersdorf, die im AKI involviert sind. Die Ergebnisse der Umfrage fuer Ganzkoerperzaehler und fuer Teilkoerperzaehler werden tabellarisch zusammengefasst. (orig./SR)

  14. Ultrasound guided implantation of chest port systems via the lateral subclavian vein; Die sonographisch gezielte Implantation von Portkathetersystemen ueber die laterale Vena subclavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehringer, M.; Hilgers, J.; Krueger, K.; Strohe, D.; Bangard, C.; Neumann, L.; Lackner, K. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Warm, M. [Gynaekologie, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Reiser, M. [Medizinische Klinik I, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany); Toex, U. [Medizinische Klinik IV, Univ. zu Koeln (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: Retrospective analysis of the success and complication rates of chest port implantation via the lateral subclavian vein. Materials and methods: Between January 2003 and June 2004, the lateral subclavian vein in 271 patients (186 women, 85 men, mean age 53.2 years) was punctured guided by ultrasound. This access was used to insert a port system, and the catheter tip was placed at the cavoatrial junction. The port reservoir was implanted in a subcutaneous infraclavicular pocket and fixed to the fascia of the pectoralis muscle. Indications for port implantation were chemotherapy (n=239), total parenteral nutrition (n=2) and intravenous medication (n=30). The patient follow-up was mainly performed either by the oncology division of the department of gynecology or by the department of internal medicine. Results: A chest port catheter system was successfully implanted in all patients. The catheter remained in place for a mean duration of 269.4 days (SD 192.3 days). No complications occurred during implantation. In the post-interventional period, 6 catheter dysfunctions were found (thrombotic 0.09 per 1000 catheter days; mechanic 0.05 per 1000 catheter days). While one local infection occurred in the early post-interventional period, 3 local and 15 systemic infections were independent of the port catheter placement (0.39 per 1000 catheter days). The rate of port catheter explantations due to dysfunction or infection was 0.07 per 1000 catheter days. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided puncture of the lateral subclavian vein is a safe procedure for the insertion of central venous port catheter systems and had a very low complication rate in our study. For further evaluation of our port placement technique, prospective studies compared to placement through the internal jugular vein are necessary. (orig.)

  15. Overview on available animal models for application in leukemia research; Uebersicht ueber vorhandene Tiermodelle, die fuer die Leukaemieforschung angewandt werden koennten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkhardt, A.; Sanchez-Garcia, I.; Cobaleda, C.; Hauer, J.

    2015-01-15

    The term ''leukemia'' encompasses a group of diseases with a variable clinical and pathological presentation. Its cellular origin, its biology and the underlying molecular genetic alterations determine the very variable and individual disease phenotype. The focus of this review is to discuss the most important guidelines to be taken into account when we aim at developing an ''ideal'' animal model to study leukemia. The animal model should mimic all the clinical, histological and molecular genetic characteristics of the human phenotype and should be applicable as a clinically predictive model. It should achieve all the requirements to be used as a standardized model adaptive to basic research as well as to pharmaceutical practice. Furthermore it should fulfill all the criteria to investigate environmental risk factors, the role of genomic mutations and be applicable for therapeutic testing. These constraints limit the usefulness of some existing animal models, which are however very valuable for basic research. Hence in this review we will primarily focus on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) to study the most frequent types of childhood leukemia. GEMMs are robust models with relatively low site specific variability and which can, with the help of the latest gene modulating tools be adapted to individual clinical and research questions. Moreover they offer the possibility to restrict oncogene expression to a defined target population and regulate its expression level as well as its timely activity. Until recently it was only possible in individual cases to develop a murin model, which fulfills the above mentioned requirements. Hence the development of new regulatory elements to control targeted oncogene expression should be priority. Tightly controlled and cell specific oncogene expression can then be combined with a knock-in approach and will depict a robust murine model, which enables almost physiologic oncogene

  16. Studies of volatile secondary molasses constituents with inhibitory effect on yeast fermentation. Pt. 1. Determination of molasses and yeast components by GC and HPLC; Untersuchungen ueber fluechtige Nebenbestandteile der Melasse mit inhibitorischer Wirkung auf die Hefegaerung. T. 1. Bestimmung von Melasse- und Hefeinhaltsstoffen mittels GC und HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattohi, N.

    1994-07-20

    Beet molasses, the principal raw material of molasses distilleries and yeast factories, have in recent times with increasing frequency shown negative effects on the fermentation and quality of baking yeast. Based on the fact that with many ``problem molasses`` the inhibitory effect on fermentation can be substantially reduced and often even totally eliminated by prior aeration of the hot acidic molasses solution, the chemical-analytical and biological investigations presented here focused on the components of such problem molasses volatilizable in water vapour. The water vapour distillates contain, in particular, low carbon acids (C1-C10), and alkanols (C6-C7), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (m.i.c.) of which for yeast fermentation were established. This showed very high m.i.c. levels for an inhibitory effect on fermentation, which in practice are not reached by the individual carbon acid and alkanol constituents of the problem molasses. However, these acids and alcohols exhibit marked synergic effects which were confirmed by determining the m.i.c. values of mixtures. The inhibitory effect on yeast fermentation is due above all to the presence in problem molasses of butyric acid + caprilic acid + hexanol and heptanol. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ruebenmelasse, der Hauptrohstoff fuer die Melassebrennereien und Hefefabriken, zeigt in letzter Zeit immer haeufiger nachteilige Wirkungen bei der Vergaerung sowie der Qualitaet des Produkts Backhefe. Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass sich bei vielen ``Problemmelassen`` der Gaerhemmeffekt durch vorangehende Belueftung der heiss-sauren Melasseloesung deutlich vermindern, haeufig sogar gaenzlich eliminieren laesst, wurde der Schwerpunkt der vorliegenden chemisch-analytischen und biologischen Untersuchungen auf die wasserdampffluechtigen Komponenten solcher Problemmelassen gelegt. Die Wasserdampfdestillate enthalten insbesondere niedere Carbonsaeuren (C1-C10) und Alkanole (C6-C7). Ihre minimalen Hemmkonzentrationen (MHK) bei der

  17. Power transmission in combined compressors comprising a radial and side channel stage. Final report and appendices; Untersuchungen ueber die Energieuebertragung in kombinierten Verdichtern aus Radial- und Seitenkanalstufe. Abschlussbericht und Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, D.

    2001-07-30

    In the field of turbo-compressors, the following problems must be solved in order to extend the range of operation: (a) Prevention of rotating stall at part load; (b) Extension of the permissible operating range at part load; (c) Extension of the operation range of radial and side channel compressors in higher vacuum below p{sub s}=50kPa. (c) can be achieved by changing the flow pattern in the rotor and in the region of interaction between the blade wheel and guide wheel of radial compressors or by actively influencing transient flow, e.g. by coupling radial compressor stages with a side channel compressor stage as final stage. The contribution goes into detail about the latter solution. [German] Fuer den Turboverdichterbau sind gegenwaertig folgende Probleme zur Erweiterung der Betriebsbereiche dringend zu loesen: (a) Vermeiden oder beseitigen von Rotating Stall im Teillastbereich,(b) Erweiterung des zulaessigen Arbeitsbereiches im Teillastgebiet, (c) Erschliessung des Arbeitsbereichs von Radial- und Seitenkanalverdichtern im hoeheren Vakuumbereich unterhalb von p{sub s}=50 kPa. Die Erweiterung des zulaessigen Arbeitsbereichs im Teillastgebiet kann durch Veraenderung der Stroemungsstruktur im Laufrad und im Interaktionsbereich zwischen Lauf- und Leitrad von Radialverdichtern oder durch die aktive Beeinflussung der instationaeren Stroemung z.B. durch Kopplung von Radialverdichterstufen mit einer Seitenkanalverdichterstufe als Endstufe erfolgen. Seitenkanalverdichter verfuegen ueber stabile Kennlinien im gesamten Betriebsbereich. Im Kombinationsbetrieb einer Radialverdichterstufe mit nach- oder vorgeschalteter Seitenkanalverdichterstufe praegte die Seitenkanalverdichterstufe dem Kombinationsverdichter ihr stabiles Kennlinienverhalten auf, so dass sich eine stabile Gesamtkennlinie ergibt. Eine Pumpgrenze tritt nicht mehr auf, so dass der Betrieb von Verdichterkombinationen aus Radial- und Seitenkanalstufe im gesamten Kennlinienbereich moeglich ist. Die

  18. Atlas Asse. Information about the Asse II mine (2009-2016); Atlas Asse. Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II (2009-2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The newly published ''Atlas Asse'' provides an overview of the challenges and tasks of the Asse decommissioning project. On about 140 pages you will find a selection of reports, graphics and reports, which have been published since 2009 with the first publication of the magazine ''Asse Einblicke''. The atlas also provides orientation for those who have so far dealt little or little with the complex topic. [German] Einen Ueberblick rund um die Herausforderungen und Aufgaben des Stilllegungsprojektes Asse liefert der neu herausgegebene Atlas Asse. Auf etwa 140 Seiten findet sich eine Auswahl von Reportagen, Grafiken und Berichten, die seit 2009 mit dem ersten Erscheinen des Magazins ''Asse Einblicke'' veroeffentlicht wurden. Der Atlas verschafft Orientierung auch fuer diejenigen, die sich bislang wenig oder kaum mit dem komplexen Thema beschaeftigt haben.

  19. Ueber einige Entwicklungsstadien von Rhopilema hispidum (Vanhoeffen) Maas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiasny, G.

    1933-01-01

    Gelegentlich der Durchsicht einiger älterer Planktonfänge aus dem malayischen Archipel in den Sammlungen des Rijks Museum van Natuurlijke Historie in Leiden fanden sich zahlreiche Entwicklungsstadien von Rhopilema hispidum (VANH.) MAAS vor, über die ich hier kurz berichten will. Ueber die

  20. About the nature of competing interactions in cerium based 1-9-4 compounds; Ueber die Natur konkurrierender Wechselwirkungen in Cer-basierten 1-9-4 Verbindungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, Christian

    2014-02-04

    In addition to the high-temperature superconductors, the so-called heavy fermion systems are among the most fascinating representatives of strongly correlated electron systems. Caused by the competition of Kondo effect, RKKY interaction and electrostatic crystal field effects these compounds reveal a wide variety of different ground state properties. For example, many of these systems are located in the vicinity of a magnetic instability. At such a quantum critical point a continuous transition between two states with different symmetry occurs at absolute zero temperature. Apart from the three classic tuning parameters (i) chemical substitution, (ii) hydrostatic pressure, and (iii) external magnetic field also the reduction of the effective spin degeneracy N, i.e. the reduction of the number of crystal field levels which are shielded by the Kondo effect seems to induce quantum critical behavior. The proximity to a quantum critical point together with an unusually high effective spin degeneracy of N=4 make the ternary 1-9-4 compound CeNi{sub 9}Ge{sub 4} the perfect starting system for experimental studies of this new parameter. For the first and so far only time such a scenario could be observed in the substitution series CeNi{sub 9-x}Cu{sub x}Ge{sub 4} (0≤x≤1). Extensive studies show that in this system quantum criticality is not only caused by the balance between Kondo effect and RKKY interaction but also by a reduction of the effective spin degeneracy. The results on the copper series provided the incentive to synthesize and analyze related systems with regard to quantum criticality in the scope of this work. The focus here was on the systems CeNi{sub 9}Ge{sub 4-x}Si{sub x}, CeNi{sub 9}Ge{sub 4-x}Ga{sub x}, CeNi{sub 9-x}Fe{sub x}Ge{sub 4} and CeNi{sub 9-x}Co{sub x}Ge{sub 4}. This thesis was methodologically supported by X-ray studies, theoretical LDA+U calculations and extensive thermodynamic and magnetic investigations on the macroscopic and microscopic

  1. On the effects of endotoxin in previously irradiated mice and their time relationships. Ueber die Wirkung von Endotoxin auf vorbestrahlte Maeuse in Abhaeengigkeit von der Zeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenig, H; Oehlert, W [Institut fuer Pathologie, Histologie und Zytologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Oehlert, M [Institut fuer Pathologie, Histologie und Zytologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Konermann, G [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie

    1993-01-01

    Adult mice were subjected to non-lethal wholebody irradiation with doses of 2.5 and 5.0 Gy. Non-irradiated animals served as controls. Following periods varying from one day to one year after irradiation, the animals were once administered endotoxin (LPS from S. abortus equi) using doses of 100, 200 or 400 [mu]g. Twelve to 48 hours following the single administration of endotoxin the animals were sacrificed and examined for changes to the liver, lungs, kidneys, small intestine and stomach. It was confirmed on a histological basis that the causes of death differed between irradiated and non-irradiated animals. The studies have shown that the responsiveness to endotoxin subsequent to irradiation was characterized by considerable fluctuations over time. Histology further provided evidence to prove that regenerative processes were in progress in the liver as well as the intestinal and gastric mucosae, with the number of differentiated cells determined here being lower than that of mitotic cells. To summarize it can be stated that wholebody irradiation with 2.5 Gy to 5 Gy in the course of weeks or months clearly adds to the damage already done by endotoxin. Conversely, irradiation a few days prior to administration of endotoxin provides protection against those damaging influences. (orig./MG)

  2. Factors of influence on body lead and cadmium levels in regions of Saxony Anhalt with different pollution levels, with special consideration to heavy metal uptake via household dust; Einflussfaktoren auf die innere Blei- und Cadmiumbelastung in unterschiedlich belasteten Regionen Sachsen-Anhalts unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Schwermetallaufnahme ueber den Hausstaub

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, I.

    2002-07-01

    levels in children decreased markedly in the time from 1992/93 to 1998/99. Cadmium is largely deposited in the kidneys and liver. Urine cadmium levels reflect the cumulative life-long exposure to cadmium. Cadmium deposition in household dust was likewise found to be governed largely by the proximity of the home to the relevant emitters as well as by the cadmium input rate into the home. The degree of cadmium deposition was reflected by the children's body cadmium levels. Older children showed higher cadmium levels than younger ones. Urine cadmium levels in children decreased markedly in the time from 1992/93 to 1998/99. In women the only significant determinant of body cadmium levels was whether or not they lived in the heavily cadmium polluted Hettstedt region. There were only a few cases in which examined children from the Hettstedt region showed a transgression of the values recommended by ''Human Biomonitoring'' Commission of the German Federal Environmental Office. [German] Die vorliegende Arbeit basiert auf Daten einer umweltmedizinischen Untersuchung, die zum Ziel hatte, moegliche gesundheitliche Beeintraechtigungen der Bevoelkerung in dem Huettenstandort Hettstedt im Vergleich zu der Industrieregion Bitterfeld und dem Kontrollgebiet Zerbst zu ermitteln. Diese Studie wurde als Laengsschnittsstudie ueber sechs Jahre konzipiert, aufbauend auf drei regionalen Querschnittsuntersuchungen, die in den Schuljahren 1992/93, 1995/96 und 1998/99 durchgefuehrt wurden. Als Studienpopulation wurden in allen drei Surveys Einschulungskinder (5-7 Jahre) sowie Kinder der 3. (8-10 Jahre) und 6. Klassen (11-14 Jahre) ausgewaehlt sowie im 1. Survey zusaetzlich Frauen im Alter von 50-59 Jahren. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die Praediktoren des Blei- bzw. Cadmiumniederschlags in den Haushalten von Kindern aus Hettstedt und von Frauen aus Hettstedt, Bitterfeld und Zerbst zu bestimmen. Ausserdem wurde untersucht, in welchem Masse die innere Belastung durch den Blei

  3. Studie: Die Generation Y und deren organisatorische Implikationen

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Die vorliegende Studie betrifft die Gen. Y und ihre spezifischen Anforderungen an die Unternehmensorganisation. Im Ergebnis einer durchgeführten Befragung ist festzuhalten, dass die Gen. Y die Kernkompetenzen eines Managers verstärkt einfordert und eine hohe Betreuungsintensität verlangt. Dies hat Auswirkungen auf die Führungsspanne, Planung und Kontrolle von Aufgaben, die Gestaltung der vertikalen und horizontalen Prozesse sowie die Zusammensetzung von Teamarbeitsformen. Projektarbeit sowie ...

  4. Saarbergwerke AG. Report on the business year 1995; Saarbergwerke AG. Bericht ueber das Geschaeftsjahr 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The business report 1995 contains informations about the position of the energy economics, the position of the Saarberg trust and the yearly balance. The activities of the Saarberg trust are reported. (RHM) [Deutsch] Der Geschaeftsbericht 1995 enthaelt Ausfuehrungen ueber die Lage der Energiewirtschaft, die Lage des Saarberg-Konzerns und den Jahresabschluss. Die Aktivitaeten des Saarberg-Konzerns werden dargestellt. (RHM)

  5. Solar-aided air conditioning through sorption. Final report. Phase 2; Solar unterstuetzte Klimatisierung ueber Sorption. Endbericht zur Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laevemann, E; Kessling, W; Peltzer, M

    1996-09-24

    The present article reports on possibilities of using solar energy for cooling buildings. It contains the following chapters: Current state of research and development; room air conditioning; planning and results of the studies; theory; experimental studies on the sorption dehumidifier; development of exchange surfaces; development of solution distributors; cooling of exchange surfaces; construction of a sorption dehumidifier. (HW) [Deutsch] Die Arbeit berichtet ueber Moeglichkeiten der Anwendung von Solarenergie zur Kuehlung von Gebaeuden. Die Arbeit enthaelt folgende Kapitel: - Stand der Forschung und Entwicklung - Raumklimatisierung - Planung und Ergebnis der Untersuchungen - Theorie - Experimentelle Untersuchungen am Sorptionsentfeuchter - Entwicklung von Austauschflaechen - Entwicklung von Loesungsverteilern - Kuehlung von Austauschflaechen - Konstruktion eines Sorptionsentfeuchters. (HW)

  6. Studies on allergic reactions after exposure to platinum compounds; Untersuchungen ueber allergische Reaktionen bei Exposition gegen Platinverbindungen (VPT 07A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merget, R; Schultze-Werninghaus, G [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken, Bergmannsheil - Universitaetsklinik, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Abt. fuer Pneumologie, Allergologie und Schlafmedizin, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the allergic hazard potential of Pt-containing substances emitted from automotive catalytic converters for the population. This was done by determining exposure-effect relationships in subjects occupationally exposed to platinum compounds in a catalytic converter manufacturing company. The company had been deemed suitable because it could be assumed that the extensive technical industrial safety measures implemented there would make for a considerably reduced exposure to platinum compounds compared to, for example, a platinum separating plant. Exposure-effect relationships were determined on the basis of platinum measurements in a catalytic-converter-manufacturing plant and of a record of new sickness cases. [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchung war eine Risikoabschaetzung des Allergie-Gefaehrdungspotentials Pt-haltiger Automobilkatalysatoremittate fuer die Bevoelkerung durch Ermittlung der Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung bei beruflich gegenueber Platinverbindungen Exponierten in einem Katalysatorfertigungsbertrieb. Der gewaehlte Katalysatorbetrieb war deshalb als geeignet betrachtet worden, weil durch weitgehende technische Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen eine wesentlich geringere Exposition gegenueber Platinverbindungen anzunehmen war als zum Beispiel in Platinscheidereien. Die Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung sollte durch Platinmessungen in einem Katalysator-Betrieb und Erfassung der Haeufigkeit von Neuerkrankungen im Laengsschnitt definiert werden. (orig.)

  7. Studies on allergic reactions after exposure to platinum compounds; Untersuchungen ueber allergische Reaktionen bei Exposition gegen Platinverbindungen (VPT 07A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merget, R.; Schultze-Werninghaus, G. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken, Bergmannsheil - Universitaetsklinik, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Abt. fuer Pneumologie, Allergologie und Schlafmedizin, Bochum (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The aim of the present study was to assess the allergic hazard potential of Pt-containing substances emitted from automotive catalytic converters for the population. This was done by determining exposure-effect relationships in subjects occupationally exposed to platinum compounds in a catalytic converter manufacturing company. The company had been deemed suitable because it could be assumed that the extensive technical industrial safety measures implemented there would make for a considerably reduced exposure to platinum compounds compared to, for example, a platinum separating plant. Exposure-effect relationships were determined on the basis of platinum measurements in a catalytic-converter-manufacturing plant and of a record of new sickness cases. [Deutsch] Ziel der Untersuchung war eine Risikoabschaetzung des Allergie-Gefaehrdungspotentials Pt-haltiger Automobilkatalysatoremittate fuer die Bevoelkerung durch Ermittlung der Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung bei beruflich gegenueber Platinverbindungen Exponierten in einem Katalysatorfertigungsbertrieb. Der gewaehlte Katalysatorbetrieb war deshalb als geeignet betrachtet worden, weil durch weitgehende technische Arbeitsschutzmassnahmen eine wesentlich geringere Exposition gegenueber Platinverbindungen anzunehmen war als zum Beispiel in Platinscheidereien. Die Expositions-Wirkungsbeziehung sollte durch Platinmessungen in einem Katalysator-Betrieb und Erfassung der Haeufigkeit von Neuerkrankungen im Laengsschnitt definiert werden. (orig.)

  8. Comparative studies in the cellular immunostimulation by whole body irradiation. Vergleichende Untersuchungen ueber die zellulaere Immunstimulation durch Ganzkoerperbestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R.; Schwarze, G. (Service de Radiologie, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg (Luxembourg) Medizinische Universitaetsklinik I, Homburg/Saar (Germany))

    1992-04-01

    The effect of the cellular immune response by total body irradiation was investigated. The transplant survival (skin grafts) was determined as immune parameter. Donors were colony bred Wistar rats and recipients were colony bred Sprague Dawley rats. The investigations were carried out with irradiated rats and with rats irradiated after thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy as well as with animals without irradiation. A single total-body irradiation (1 and 2 Gy) was administered. The skin graft survival in irradiated rats was significant shorter (radiogenic immunostimulation) than in unirradiated rats; there were no significant differences between the operated (thymectomy and/or adrenalectomy) and not operated animals. Including precedent examinations this radiogenic immunostimulation is caused by relativly selective inactivation of T-suppressor cells. (orig.).

  9. Competition compliant wholesale electricity prices. An examination of the regulation on the integrity and transparency of wholesale energy market; Wettbewerbskonforme Stromgrosshandelspreise. Eine Untersuchung der Verordnung ueber die Integritaet und Transparenz des Energiegrosshandelsmarkts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konar, Selma

    2015-07-01

    The development of wholesale electricity prices showed in recent years a very fluctuating course. The starting point for ensuring competitive compliant electricity prices have uniform rules that establish effective competition in the overall wholesale electricity, ensure greater transparency in the market and prohibit market abuse influence exercised on the wholesale price. The REMIT regulation creates a first union-law rules to this standardized specifications. The volume first examines the transparency, competitiveness, and supervisory structures in the wholesale electricity before legislating a regulation. It is clear, as the transparency and supervisory structures should be designed from the wholesale electricity ideally. On this basis, the work is dealing with the REMIT regulation. The author works out to market participants relevant notification and publication requirements, the follow-up demands on the company as well as the now existing prohibitions on market abuse and the related penalty catalog and analyze the supervisory structures newly created in the wholesale electricity. Here, the work also identified the weaknesses of the regulation and shows suitable solution approaches. [German] Die Entwicklung der Stromgrosshandelspreise zeigte in den letzten Jahren einen sehr schwankenden Verlauf. Ausgangspunkt fuer die Gewaehrleistung wettbewerbskonformer Strompreise sind einheitliche Bestimmungen, die im gesamten Stromgrosshandel einen funktionierenden Wettbewerb etablieren, fuer mehr Transparenz am Markt sorgen und marktmissbraeuchliche Einflussnahmen auf den Grosshandelspreis verbieten. Die REMIT-Verordnung schafft als erstes unionsrechtliches Regelwerk hierzu einheitliche Vorgaben. Der Band untersucht zunaechst die Transparenz-, Wettbewerbs-, und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel vor Erlass der Verordnung. Dabei wird deutlich, wie die Transparenz- und Aufsichtsstrukturen im Stromgrosshandel idealerweise ausgestaltet sein sollten. Auf dieser Grundlage

  10. Patristiek en die studie van die Nuwe Testament | Stander | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patristics and the study of the New Testament This article consists of two main parts. In the first part the importance of the study of Patristics is discussed. The author underscores Outler's logion that 'by itself, the New Testament is not a field of inquiry'. The heading of the second part is Instrumenta Studiorum. In this section ...

  11. Fuel cells in mobile applications; Die Brennstoffzelle im mobilen Einsatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, J.K.H. [Daimler Benz AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1996-06-01

    The contribution presents the new electric vehicle developed by Daimler Benz AG, NECAR II (New Electric Car), which is fuelled by fuel cells. The future prospects of this technology are discussed. (MM) [Deutsch] Berichtet wird kurz ueber das von Daimler Benz AG vorgestellte Brennstoffzellen-Elektrofahrzeug NECAR II - New Electric Car - sowie ueber die Zukunftsaussichten dieses Antriebs. (MM) (MM)

  12. High-performance HVDC transmission over long distances; Hochleistungsuebertragung ueber grosse Entfernungen mit hochgespanntem Gleichstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U. [PreussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    High-voltage DC transmission is a world-wide established technology for low-cost transmission of large amounts of electricity over long distances. Thanks to HVDC transmission, large amounts of electricity can now for the first time also be transmitted over long distances via ocean cable, something that cannot be done with AC power cables. HVDC transmission is independent of grid frequencies and can link grids of different frequency and different quality of frequency. Interconnected grids coupled via DC circuits can exploit additional technical and economic advantages such as mutual supply of power reserves, balancing of peak load, and modulation of active and reactive power. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Hochspannungs-Gleichstromuebertragung (HGUe) ist eine weltweit etablierte Technik zur kostenguenstigen Uebertragung grosser elektrischer Leistungen ueber grosse Entfernungen. Sie schafft erstmals die Moeglichkeit, auch mittels Seekabel grosse Leistungen ueber Entfernungen zu uebertragen, die mit der Drehstromtechnik nicht moeglich sind. HGUeist unabhaengig von den Netzfrequenzen und kann Netze unterschiedlicher Frequenz und Frequenzguete miteinander verbinden. Ueber Gleichstromkreise gekuppelte Verbundnetze koennen zusaetzliche technische und wirtschaftliche Vorteile wie gegenseitige Bereitstellung von Kraftwerksreserven, Spitzenlastausgleich sowie Wirk- und Blindleistungsmodulation nutzt. (orig.)

  13. Effects of UV and microwave radiation on biological material. A bibliographic survey on biochemical effects. Pt. 1. Der Einfluss von UV- und Mikrowellenstrahlung auf biologisches Material. Eine Literaturstudie ueber die biochemischen Wirkungen. T. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielitz, J; Boegl, W; Stockhausen, K; Kossel, F

    1977-01-01

    For the present study, ten publications on the effect of UV radiation were analyzed. In vitro tests were carried out with one biological substance and seven different human or animal organs and biocytocultures. In vivo, three bacterial strains were irradiated and four irradiation experiments were carried out on mice. As to the effect of microwave radiation, eleven publications were analyzed. In vitro tests were carried out with one biological substance and three animal organs. In vivo, one bacterial strain was irradiated and eight irradiation experiments were carried out on different types of animals. The study's aim was to obtain a survey on biochemical changes of the organisms. Phenomenological changes were given only when the corresponding articles contained further investigation results. Behavioral changes were not taken into account. The results published by the authors of the original papers were compiled in a kind of dictionary. All relevant data are listed in a defined order.

  14. The electricity exchange. On the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading as seen from the viewpoint of market sociology; Die Stromboerse. Ueber Form und latente Funktionen des boerslichen Stromhandels aus marktsoziologischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovelli, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Electricity exchange trading in Germany has existed since the year 2000. Since this time, the Leipzig electricity exchange, a reference market for off-exchange electricity trading, has operated in an environment marked by both criticism and acceptance. Taking this field of controversy as a point of departure the present empirical study in market sociology undertakes to investigate the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading. The ensuing analysis provides answers to questions as to how prices are formed on the electricity exchange and what officially incommunicable functions are served by price formation on exchanges.

  15. Influence of tensides and lipophilic substrates on the biological availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); Ueber dem Einfluss von Tensiden und lipophilen Substraten auf die Bioverfuegbarkeit von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C.J. von; Kleespies, M; Eschner, C; Webb, L; Groeneweg, J [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). IBT-3/ICG-6

    1998-12-31

    The objects of the study were as follows: isolation and characterization of PAH-degrading micro-organisms from lysimeters; tests relating to the experimental simulation of the conditions permitting pollutant degradation in soil; investigation of the influence of tensides and other dissolved organic compounds on the biological availability and degradation of PAHs. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] - Isolierung und Charakterisierung PAK-abbauender Mikroorganismen aus Lysimetern; Versuche zur experimentellen Simulation der Bedingungen, unter denen der Abbau von Schadstoffen im Boden erfolgt. - Untersuchung des Einflusses von Tensiden und anderen geloesten organischen Verbindungen auf Bioverfuegbarkeit und Abbau von PAK. (orig./SR)

  16. Influence of tensides and lipophilic substrates on the biological availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); Ueber dem Einfluss von Tensiden und lipophilen Substraten auf die Bioverfuegbarkeit von polyzyklischen aromatischen Kohlenwasserstoffen (PAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeder, C.J. von; Kleespies, M.; Eschner, C.; Webb, L.; Groeneweg, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). IBT-3/ICG-6

    1997-12-31

    The objects of the study were as follows: isolation and characterization of PAH-degrading micro-organisms from lysimeters; tests relating to the experimental simulation of the conditions permitting pollutant degradation in soil; investigation of the influence of tensides and other dissolved organic compounds on the biological availability and degradation of PAHs. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] - Isolierung und Charakterisierung PAK-abbauender Mikroorganismen aus Lysimetern; Versuche zur experimentellen Simulation der Bedingungen, unter denen der Abbau von Schadstoffen im Boden erfolgt. - Untersuchung des Einflusses von Tensiden und anderen geloesten organischen Verbindungen auf Bioverfuegbarkeit und Abbau von PAK. (orig./SR)

  17. Knowledge based literature data base on the effect of electromagnetic fields on the organism and implants; Wissensbasierte Literaturdatenbank ueber die Einwirkungen elektromagnetischer Felder auf den Orgnismus und auf Implantate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wienert, Roman; Dechent, Dagmar; Silny, Jiri

    2005-07-01

    The ''EMF-Portal'' is an Internet-based information platform in the research area of non-ionizing radiation effects. It is supplied by a variety of linked information sources and it provides scientific knowledge based on the results of at present approx. 7.700 (mainly peer-reviewed) publications related to bioelectromagnetic interaction. Different help tools support the interested user in both finding and interpreting relevant data. The EMF-Portal is multi-lingual: English and German are currently supported, other languages can be added. It is the aim of the portal to enable all users, regardless of their education or occupation, to ask complex questions about EMF and their effects and to receive specific and comprehensive answers. Assisted by an interdisciplinary glossary and a database of everyday's exposure sources, as well as an in-depth literature database, the user obtains a dynamically generated answer based on the results of all related publication data. The answer may consist of either a list of corresponding literature references or of different types of statistics e.g. regarding investigated endpoints. The Information System consists of two main components: The knowledge based literature database (a.k.a. WBLDB) and the EMF-Portal. The WBLDB contains most of the relevant scientific literature published so far. In addition to the publication data, the descriptors (exposure, methods, results etc.) of each study are extracted. With the help of this database the user has detailed insight into individual publications without having to read the full text, and he can produce statistical overviews over corresponding related studies as well as an objective comparison between different publications. The EMF-Portal which is the subject of this research project consists of the following modules: The interdisciplinary glossary comprehensively explains related biological, medical, epidemiological, technical or dosimetric terms. The database of

  18. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  19. Information on Asse II; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-15

    The information on Asse II include the following topics: The image and what is behind - the barrier building Dammjoch built 1914; Fact finding - underground explorations; concept for a site comparison; Learning from experiences - the final repository projects Asse, Gorleben and Morsleben show what should not be done; At first drilling - thereafter building - progress of the recovery duct; The retrieval can only go on in dialogue with the public.

  20. Information on Asse II; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-02-15

    The information brochure on Asse II describes the situation in the repository for radioactive wastes that was closed by law due to the violations of safety standards. The discussed topics include the necessity of waste retrieval, the problems with public anxiety and public information, the hazard of an uncontrolled water ingress (worst case scenario), the work sites in the cavern, man-machine interactions and the cost of the project.

  1. 'n Verkennende studie met die oog op die identifísering en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De Klerk 1977:74-75). ... de leermodel bepaalde gevolgtrekkings gemaak. ..... Maslow word die basiese vraag tot die leerproses - hoekom leer mense, ... Gagne se piramide van leervorme bied inderdaad 'n werkbare en sinvolle integrasie.

  2. die kerk, maatskappy en vrye verenigings: 'n studie van die kerkorde ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engelhard en Hofman 2001; PKN 2003). Die begrip “moderne gedifferensieerde samelewing”, saamgelees met 'n selfstandigheid in eie bevoegdheid, kom net so van Dooyeweerd af (1957:379; 1963:81). NGK-KO 1962 neem vorm aan in 'n tyd waarin. Dooyeweerd akademies op die kruin van die golf is – gemeet aan sy.

  3. Die topkwark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tegen

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available ’n Oorsig van die belangrikheid van die onlangs ontdekte topkwark by Fermilab in Chicago word gegee. Daar word aangetnon dat die topkwark belangrik is in fisika van die Oerknal, oftewel "Big Bang", en in die Standaard Model van Elementêredeeltjie-fisika. Toepaslike literatuur vir verdere studie kan van die lys van verwysings in hierdie kort, nietegniese artikel, nagegaan word.

  4. Numerical Studies of Low Cycle Fatigue in Forward Extrusion Dies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Ø

    2000-01-01

    of describing the elastic-plastic material behaviour under cyclic loadings is used to study the effects of different pre-stressing concepts on the accumulation of plastic strain and the development of fatigue damage. The results show, that the accumulation of plastic strain in the critical region can......Forward extrusion dies typically fail due to transverse fatigue cracks or wear. Fatigue cracks are initiated in regions where the material is subjected to repeated plastic deformations, e.g. the transition radius in a forward extrusion die, in the present work, a material model capable...... be controlled by means of the pre-stressing system or the geometry of the die insert. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Ontwikkelingsekonomie — Bestek en metode vir die studie daarvan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.J. Weber

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Kennis van die probleme van onderontwikkelde gebiede is baie oud. Sodra verskille in ontwikkeldheid, hetsy op militêre, ekonomiese of ander gebiede duidelik word, en as sodanig erken word, wys die probleme van die minderontwikkelde gebiede hulself uit. Die ekonomiese geskiedenis is vol sodanige erkende verskille o.a. Hellenistiese kultuursentra, Imperiale Rome, Byzantium en sy florerende stadstaat; Noord- en Wes- Europa na die ontdekking van die nuwe wêreld en die vasstelling van effektiewe marinekommunikasie tussen Wes- Europa, Amerika en Oos-Asië.

  6. Wie bewerten die Fluggäste den Klimaeinsatz und die Klimakommunikation von Fluggesellschaften? - eine empirische Studie der Haltungen deutscher und dänischer Flugreisenden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Aase Voldgaard

    . Wittmer (2010) hat die Haltung der Fluggäste der SWISS quantitativ untersucht und festgestellt, dass der Klimaeinsatz die Fluggäste anspricht und die Kommunikation darüber positiv auf das Image einwirkt. Diese Studie trägt jedoch den bei Larsen & Pedersen (2010) aufgedeckten Unterschieden nicht Rechnung......, sind: - Inwieweit unterscheiden sich die Passagierhaltungen bezüglich der Klimakommunikation und der erwarteten Klima-Einsatzgebiete? - Inwieweit beeinflusst die Klimakommunikation der Fluggesellschaften ihr Image und ihre Identität? Die auf bisherigen Untersuchungen gegründete Hypothese ist, dass die...

  7. First results about effects of liming on saprophytic fungal communities in the Ah-horizon of a spruce forest soil in France (Vosges); Erste Resultate ueber den Effekt von Kalkung auf die Pilzpopulation (Saprophyten) im Ah-Horizont eines Fichtenwaldbodens in Frankreich (Vogesen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devevre, O [Centre I.N.R.A. de Nancy, Lab. de Microbiologie Forestiere, 54 - Champenoux (France); Roquebert, M F [Musee National d` Histoire Naturelle, Lab. de Cryptogamie, 75 - Paris (France); Garbaye, J [Centre I.N.R.A. de Nancy, Lab. de Microbiologie Forestiere, 54 - Champenoux (France)

    1993-04-01

    Soil fungi, including mycorrhiza, are strongly affected by zoil chemical parameters such as the ratio of calcium and/or magnesium to aluminium and the pH-value. So, it was very interesting to compare the rhizospheric microfungal flora between a declining spruce stand and a healthy spruce stand. The site chosen for this investigation was situated in the Vosges in the northeast of France. The rhizospheric soil, from the Ah-horizon of a sandy loam podzol, limed (the healthy spruce stand) or unlimed (the declining spruce stand) was sampled in a 65-year-old Norway spruce forest. The study was made 7 years after liming. Fungal isolations were performed using the dilution plate method. Pronounced differences in species abundance and composition were found between the limed and the unlimed stands. Of the 49 isolated species (24 from declining spruce plot and 34 from healthy spruce plot) only nine were found at both plots. The greatest diversity is observed at the healthy spruce stand; it may be due to the liming. This study indicates that soil microfungi could be sensitive to increased acidity of the rain with subsequent effects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bodenpilze einschliesslich der Mykorrhizapilze sind stark von bodenchemischen Parameters wie dem Verhaeltnis von Calcium und/oder Magnesium zu Aluminium sowie vom pH-Wert des Bodens abhaengig. Deshalb wurde die Pilzmikroflora eines geschaedigten Fichtenbestand mit einem gesunden Fichtenbestand in den Vogesen, im Nordosten Frankreichs verglichen. In einem 65jaehrigen Fichtenbestand wurde der durchwurzelte Boden des Ah-Horizontes eines sandig-lehmigen Podsols einer gekalkten (gesunder Fichtenbestand) sowie einer ungekalkten Parzelle (geschaedigter Fichtenbestand) beprobt. Die Studie wurde 7 Jahre nach der Kalkung durchgefuehrt. Die Isolation der Pilze wurde anhand der Verduennungstechnik auf Kulturmedium mit DRBC-Agar durchgefuehrt. Sowohl im Artenvorkommen als auch in den Populationsstaerken bestanden betraechtliche Unterschiede

  8. 'n Redaksionele voonvoord tot die Hervorrade Teologiese Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hy is nie net 'n geëerde oud-redaksielid nie, maar was self vanaf 1957 tot 1971 verantwoordelik vir die versorging van die tydskrif en het ook vanaf 1982 tot 1985 as redaksiesekretaris opgetree. Hierbenewens is prof Pont dié medewerker wat verreweg die meeste artikels in HTS laat publiseer het, te wete ses en sestig tot ...

  9. Heating technology: Listen to where the music is playing; Heiztechnik: Hier spielt die Musik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-12-31

    The choice between an oil-fired and a gas-fired heating system is often not a matter of task but simply of which energy carrier happens to be available. The present article therefore provides information in equal depth on both types of heating system and explains their respective strong and weak points. In this context it also discusses possible future developments. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ueber die Anschaffung einer oel- oder gasbefeuerten Heizung entscheidet haeufig nicht die persoenliche Sympathie, sondern schlicht und ergreifend die Verfuegbarkeit des Energietraegers. Wir wollen Sie deshalb gleichermassen ausfuehrlich ueber beide Heizsysteme informieren und dabei die jeweiligen Staerken und Schwaechen herausarbeiten und einen Blick in die Zukunft werfen. (orig.)

  10. Die meting van neurolinguistiese programmering se verteenwoordigende stelsels: 'n Eksploratiewe studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Bester

    2000-06-01

    Opsomming 'n Oorsig van die Sielkunde-literatuur wys daarop dat verskeie outeurs saamstem oor die bestaan van Neurolinguistiese Programmering (NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels. Tot onlangs toe is geen studie oor die bestaan van n omvattende meetinstrument vir NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels in die literatuur gerapporteer nie. Die hoofdoel van die onderhawige studie was om vas te stel of dit wenslik is om NLP se verteenwoordigende stelsels met 'n omvattende normatiewe vraelys te meet. Drie konstrukte is voorveronderstel en 'n "Vraelys oor Sensoriese Modaliteite", bestaande uit 84 items, is gekonstrueer. Hierdie vraelys is afgeneem op studente (N=338 van drie verskillende tersiere instellings. hTweede faktorontleding op die 18 subtellings van n eerste faktorontleding, het twee faktore opgelewer wat nie die drie verteenwoordigende stelsels suiwer weergee nie. Die implikasies van hierdie bevindinge word bespreek.

  11. Mining lakes in Germany; Tagebauseen in Deutschland. Gegenwaertiger Kenntnisstand ueber wasserwirtschaftliche Belange von Braunkohlentagebaurestloechern - ein Ueberblick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixdorf, B.; Hemm, M.; Schlundt, A.; Kapfer, M.; Krumbeck, H. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ., Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl Gewaesserschutz]|[UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2001-06-01

    More than 500 mining lakes of different age and maturity have formed in the lignite mining areas in Germany during the last hundred years. Compared to natural lakes mining lakes have a complex and diverse morphometry. They will be among the largest and deepest lakes in Germany (Hambacher See, Goitsche, Garzweiler II, Geiseltal) and have good chance of avoiding eutrophication. About 100 mining lakes will be greater than 50 ha. 230 lakes are documented in this report concerning morphometry, flooding and mixis regime, hydrochemistry, limnology, colonization, use and development of water quality. They are among the largest (Hambacher See, Goitsche, Garzweiler II, Geiseltal) and most acidic lakes in Germany. The extremely high acidity is from both iron and hydrogen ions due to pyrit oxidation. It influences trophic situation and food webs in mining lakes and reduces a diverse use of these lakes. (orig.) [German] Die Seelandschaft Deutschlands wird durch den Braunkohlenbergbau um ueber 500 Seen reicher. Technologiebedingt herrscht dabei eine grosse morphologische Vielfalt innerhalb der Tagebauseen vor, welche die groessten und tiefsten Seen Deutschlands hervorbringen wird (Hambacher See, Goitsche, Garzweiler II, Geiseltal), aber auch zahlreiche kleine, meist flachere Gewaesser miteinschliesst. Etwa 100 Taugebauseen sind groesser als 50 ha. Kleinere Tagebauseen wie z.B. die der Ville in Nordrhein-Westfalen wurden ebenfalls ausfuehrlich dokumentiert. In dieser Dokumentation wurden ueber 490 Seen erfasst, 230 davon wurden in der Dokumentation nach folgenden Kriterien beschrieben: Entstehung, Flutungsregime, Morphometrie und Mixis, Chemismus und Gewaesserentwicklung, Besiedlung und Nutzung. Dem Problem der Versauerung durch die Verwitterung sulfidischer Mineralien (Pyrit, Markasit) wurde besondere Aufmerksamkeit gewidmet, weil sich biologische Komponenten und Gewaesserzustaende (Trophie, Nahrungsketten) abweichend zu den normalen Hartwasserseen Deutschlands verhalten und

  12. Future in modesty. Zukunft in Bescheidenheit. Ueber die Alternativen, die wir noch haben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlemmer, J

    1981-08-01

    Re-orientation is a must if we want to get on. And one of the central notions of such re-orientation, a sort of general denominator summing up the changes of our thinking, so often only brought about in small steps, and eventually of our habits, is the notion of modesty. It is here used to describe an attitude of mind rooted in the discernment of necessities by insight. Such modesty is not at all comparable with sourish renunciation or exhibitionist virtue. Modesty out of insight is the willingness to submit to necessities, is turning away from boasting mania, showiness and extravagance, from routine in thinking and habits. Modesty means to accept a wise and powerful conduct of life.

  13. How energy efficient are hotels really? An investigation on the energy consumption in the hotel business; Wie energieintensiv sind Hotels wirklich? Studie ueber den Energieverbrauch in der Hotellerie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Soara [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany); Voss, Karsten [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Architektur

    2012-11-01

    Energy savings and increased energy efficiency gain in importance in the hotel sector. But at which energy consumption is a hotel energy efficient? What are the typical energy consumption figures? Compared to other utilizations of buildings the available data for hotels is low. Against this background, the Department of Building Physics and Building Services of the University of Wuppertal (Wuppertal, Federal Republic of Germany) investigates energy consumption in hotels. These studies are funded by the Federal Ministry of Economy and Technology within the research initiative EnOB (Research for energy-optimized construction).

  14. Older people dying with dementia: a nationwide study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; van den Block, L.; Echteld, M.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; van Casteren, V.; Deliens, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Large-scale nationwide data describing the end-of-life characteristics of older people with dementia are lacking. This paper describes the dying process and end-of-life care provided to elderly people with mild or severe dementia in Belgium. It compares with elderly people dying without

  15. ''Improving the EEG''. PHOTON discussion with experts of German political parties on the future of reimbursement for alternative energy; ''Das EEG weiter entwickeln''. PHOTON-Streitgesprach mit Energie-Experten der Bundestagsfraktionen ueber die kuenftige Solarstromfoerderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2002-08-01

    In a PHOTON discussion with Rainer Brinkmann (SPD), Franz Obermeier (CSU), Hans-Josef Fell (Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen), Walter Hirche (FDP) and Eva Bullinger-Schrter (PDS), it became clear that the FDP is not the only political party in Germany to oppose the EEG (Renewable Energy Act). The CSU is thinking about replacing reimbursement for alternative energy sources by a tendering procedure. [German] Weil Wahlprogramme sich meist in Allgemeinplaetzen verlieren, baten wir Energie-Experten aus den fuenf Bundestagsfraktionen in einem Streitgespraech um Klartext: Wie sehen die Plaene zur Solarstromfoerderung aus? Bei der lebhaften Diskussion zwischen Rainer Brinkmann (SPD), Franz Obermeier (CSU), Hans-Josef Fell (Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen), Walter Hirche (FDP) und Eva Bulling-Schroeter (PDS) wurde deutlich: Nicht nur die FDP ist gegen das Erneuerbaree-Energien-Gesetz (EEG). Auch in der Union gibt es Ueberlegungen, die Einspeiseverguetung fuer Solarstrom durch einen Ausschreibungswettbewerb abzuloesen. (orig.)

  16. Why do older people oppose physician-assisted dying? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpas, Phillipa J; Wilson, Maria K R; Rae, Nicola; Johnson, Malcolm

    2014-04-01

    Physician-assisted dying at the end of life has become a significant issue of public discussion. While legally available in a number of countries and jurisdictions, it remains controversial and illegal in New Zealand. The study aimed to explore the reasons some healthy older New Zealanders oppose physician-assisted dying in order to inform current debate. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analysed by the authors after some edits had been made by respondents. In all, 11 older participants (over 65 years) who responded to advertisements placed in Grey Power magazines and a University of Auckland email list were interviewed for around 1 h and asked a number of open-ended questions. Four central themes opposing physician-assisted dying were identified from the interviews: one's personal experience with health care and dying and death, religious reasoning and beliefs, slippery slope worries and concern about potential abuses if physician-assisted dying were legalised. An important finding of the study suggests that how some older individuals think about physician-assisted dying is strongly influenced by their past experiences of dying and death. While some participants had witnessed good, well-managed dying and death experiences which confirmed for them the view that physician-assisted dying was unnecessary, those who had witnessed poor dying and death experiences opposed physician-assisted dying on the grounds that such practices could come to be abused by others.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in clinical diagnosis of dementia; Die Magnetresonanztomographie in der klinischen Demenzdiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J. [Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik, Vossstr. 4, 69115, Heidelberg (Germany); Pantel, J.; Schoenknecht, P. [Sektion Gerontopsychiatrie, Psychiatrische Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Essig, M. [Forschungsschwerpunkt Radiologische Diagnostik und Therapie, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Dementing disorders belong to the most frequent neuropsychiatric diseases of the elderly population with prevalence rates of 5% in the 75 year old, but more than 10% in subjects older than 80 years. It is broadly accepted that the dementias are not caused by a single etiological factor but are attributed to a variety of different disease processes that affect the brain either directly or indirectly. According to pathoanatomic studies, two thirds of all dementias are caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Early recognition and differential diagnosis, which represent an important prerequisite for an optimized therapy, can be facilitated considerably by neuroimaging as well as by molecular biological findings. Therapeutic approaches include general medical management, psychosocial interventions as well as pharmacotherapy of cognitive and non-cognitive deficits. In general, early intervention using a combination of different therapeutic measures is recommended. In future, structural and functional neuroimaging might not only be used for diagnostic purposes but also to objectify and monitor the effect of treatment on relevant brain structures (orig.) [German] Mit einer Praevalenz von ca. 5% bei den ueber 75-Jaehrigen, aber ueber 10% bei den ueber 80-Jaehrigen gehoeren dementielle Erkrankungen zu den haeufigsten geriatrischen Leiden. Dementielle Erkrankungen haben keine einheitliche Ursache, sondern koennen durch eine Vielzahl das Gehirn unmittelbar bzw. mittelbar betreffende Krankheitsprozesse verursacht werden. Nach pathoanatomischen Studien sind ca. 2/3 der Demenzen auf die Alzheimer-Demenz (AD) zu beziehen. Frueherkennung und Differenzialdiagnostik - die Voraussetzungen einer optimierten Behandlung - koennen durch bildgebende Verfahren und molekularbiologische Befunde erheblich vereinfacht werden. Zur Therapie sind allgemeinmedizinische Massnahmen, psychosoziale Interventionen sowie die Pharmakotherapie kognitiver Defizite und nichtkognitiver Symptome bekannt

  18. Deregulation of the electric power market and chances of ecopolicy-based regulatory action. Report on the symposium organised by Forschungsstelle Umweltrecht at Hamburg University on June 2, 1994; Liberalisierung des Strommarktes und die Chancen fuer umweltpolitische Steuerungen. Bericht ueber das Symposium der Forschungsstelle Umweltrecht an der Universitaet Hamburg am 2. Juni 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebs, A [Freiherr-vom-Stein-Institut, Muenster (Germany)

    1994-08-01

    The report briefly discusses each paper presented at the symposium. Eleven experts from academia, administration and the power industry have been ventilating the various models of reform for deregulation of the electric power market currently under debate at national and international level, and the possibilities available under these models for ecopolicy-based regulatory activities for avoiding adverse effects on the environment. Other topics discussed addressed framework conditions to be defined for the reform models on the basis of constitutional laws, and rules of competition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Elf Experten aus Wissenschaft, Verwaltung und Energiewirtschaft eroertern die zur Zeit auf nationaler und internationaler Ebene diskutierten Reformmodelle fuer eine Liberalisierung des Strommarktes sowie die mit diesen jeweils verbundenen Moeglichkeiten der umweltpolitischen Steuerung von oekologischen Folgewirkungen. Weitere Themen des Symposions waren die wettbewerbs- und verfassungsrechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen einer Deregulierung des Strommarktes. Der Bericht behandelt in kurzer Form alle beim Symposion gehaltenen Referate. (orig.)

  19. Ultrasonic trap as analytical tool; Die Ultraschallfalle als analytisches Werkzeug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiterer, Jork

    2009-11-30

    wandfreie und konzentrationsabhaengige Untersuchung ueber einen Volumenbereich von drei Groessenordnungen an derselben Probe ist eine einzigartige Moeglichkeit. So konnte wesentlich zur Aufklaerung von Fragestellungen der unterschiedlichen Forschungsgebiete beigetragen werden. Diese Untersuchungen sind die ersten in situ Studien der Agglomeration in einem akustisch levitierten Tropfen, angefangen von kleinen (an)organischen Molekuelen ueber Proteine bis hin zu Nanopartikeln. Zusammenfassend eroeffnen die Ergebnisse dieser Arbeit einen breiten Anwendungsbereich zur Benutzung der Ultraschallfalle als analytisches Werkzeug.

  20. A comparative evaluation of linear dimensional accuracy of the dies obtained using three conceptually different die systems in the fabrication of implant prosthesis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manawar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the linear dimensional accuracy between the implant master die and three conceptually different die systems such as Pindex system, Accu-trac precision die system, and Conventional brass dowel pin system. Materials and Methods: Thirty impressions of implant master die were made with polyether impression material. Ten experimental implant casts were fabricated for each of the three different die systems tested: Accu-trac precision die tray system, Pindex system, and conventional brass dowel pin system. The solid experimental casts were sectioned and then removed from the die system 30 times. Linear distances between all six possible distances were measured from one centre of the transfer coping to the other, using a co-ordinate measuring machine in millimeters up to accuracy of 0.5 microns. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed by Binomial non parametric test using SPSS version 15. Results: Significant differences were found for distance A-B (P = 0.002, A-C ( P = 0.002, A-D (P value = 0.002, and B-D ( P = 0.021 in Conventional Dowel pin system however for Accu-trac precision die tray system, it was significant only for distance A-D (P = 0.002 but for Pindex system it was non-significant for all the distances measured. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, use of Pindex system is recommended when sectioned dies are needed for a multi implant retained prosthesis.

  1. Die subtiele aanleg en moontlikhede van die nominale styl: 'n Studie in Nuwe-Testamentiese Grieks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Boshoff

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available The subtle nature and possibilities of the nominal style: A study New Testament Greek Nominalization as a figure of speech in the New Testament Greek, or any other literature has not yet come to its full value. Nominatization occurs when events in the deep structure are presented in the aurface structuring in nominal form. The nominal form is chosen for the sake of certain fed. The method used to determine the specific contribution of the nominal form is to compare the nominal form with its verbal variant. Five functions of style have been determined for the nominal form: Acceptance ation, Spatialization, Degrading, Manifestation of courtesy and Profiling.

  2. Quality of dying in nursing home residents dying with dementia: does advanced care planning matter? A nationwide postmortem study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Vandervoort

    Full Text Available Advance care planning is considered a central component of good quality palliative care and especially relevant for people who lose the capacity to make decisions at the end of life, which is the case for many nursing home residents with dementia. We set out to investigate to what extent (1 advance care planning in the form of written advance patient directives and verbal communication with patient and/or relatives about future care and (2 the existence of written advance general practitioner orders are related to the quality of dying of nursing home residents with dementia.Cross-sectional study of deaths (2010 using random cluster-sampling. Representative sample of nursing homes in Flanders, Belgium. Deaths of residents with dementia in a three-month period were reported; for each the nurse most involved in care, GP and closest relative completed structured questionnaires.We identified 101 deaths of residents with dementia in 69 nursing homes (58% response rate. A written advance patient directive was present for 17.5%, GP-orders for 56.7%. Controlling for socio-demographic/clinical characteristics in multivariate regression analyses, chances of having a higher mean rating of emotional well-being (less fear and anxiety on the Comfort Assessment in Dying with Dementia scale were three times higher with a written advance patient directive and more specifically when having a do-not-resuscitate order (AOR 3.45; CI,1.1-11 than for those without either (AOR 2.99; CI,1.1-8.3. We found no association between verbal communication or having a GP order and quality of dying.For nursing home residents with dementia there is a strong association between having a written advance directive and quality of dying. Where wishes are written, relatives report lower levels of emotional distress at the end of life. These results underpin the importance of advance care planning for people with dementia and beginning this process as early as possible.

  3. Study on interfacial heat transfer coefficient at metal/die interface during high pressure die casting process of AZ91D alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUO Zhi-peng

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The high pressure die casting (HPDC process is one of the fastest growing and most efficient methods for the production of complex shape castings of magnesium and aluminum alloys in today’s manufacturing industry.In this study, a high pressure die casting experiment using AZ91D magnesium alloy was conducted, and the temperature profiles inside the die were Measured. By using a computer program based on solving the inverse heat problem, the metal/die interfacial heat transfer coefficient (IHTC was calculated and studied. The results show that the IHTC between the metal and die increases right after the liquid metal is brought into the cavity by the plunger,and decreases as the solidification process of the liquid metal proceeds until the liquid metal is completely solidified,when the IHTC tends to be stable. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient shows different characteristics under different casting wall thicknesses and varies with the change of solidification behavior.

  4. P. J. N. Smal, Die Universalisme in die Psalms. Academisch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    dat die historiese element in Israel se Godsopenbaring en daarmee die insig in sy betekenis te kort gedoen word. Die betekenis van die studie vir die historia revelationis is daardeur gering; as duidelike „tydlose” sistematisering van Outestamentiese gegewens oor die betrokke onder- werpe, soos die laaste hoofstuk, bl.

  5. die rol van die unieverdedigingsmag in die onderdrukking van die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agv regeringsoptrede nie.39. Siotsom. In die geskiedenis van die Unieverdedigings- mag word die gebeure random die 1914-staking oorskadu deur die Rebellie en Suid-Afrika se deelname aan die Eerste Wereldoorlog. Tog was dit 'n belangrike mylpaal in die geskiedenis van die organisasie, omdat dit sy eerste optrede ...

  6. Study of radial die-wall pressure changes during pharmaceutical powder compaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Hamid, Sameh; Betz, Gabriele

    2011-04-01

    In tablet manufacturing, less attention is paid to the measurement of die-wall pressure than to force-displacement diagrams. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate radial stress change during pharmaceutical compaction. The Presster(TM), a tablet-press replicator, was used to characterize compaction behavior of microcrystalline cellulose (viscoelastic), calcium hydrogen phosphate dihydrate (brittle), direct compressible mannitol (plastic), pre-gelatinized starch (plastic/elastic), and spray dried lactose monohydrate (plastic/brittle) by measuring radial die-wall pressure; therefore powders were compacted at different (pre) compaction pressures as well as different speeds. Residual die-wall pressure (RDP) and maximum die-wall pressure (MDP) were measured. Various tablet physical properties were correlated to radial die-wall pressure. With increasing compaction pressure, RDP and MDP (P compaction behavior of materials and detecting friction phenomena in the early stage of development.

  7. Die gebruik van parallelplaatreologie vir die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. C. Vorster

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Die bepaling van die intrinsieke viskositeit van poli-etileentereftalaat word bemoeilik deur die feit dat daar tans slegs twee metodes in gebruik is. In die eerste metode word die bepaling deur middel van oplossingsviskometrie gedoen, maar die toksisiteit van die oplosmiddel, asook die tydperk wat dit neem om die bepaling te doen, is ’n probleem. Die tweede metode word beperk deur die kompleksiteit en beskikbaarheid van die apparatuur in Suid-Afrika. In hierdie studie word ’n alternatiewe metode, gebaseer op parallelplaatreologie, voorgestel wat albei hierdie probleme oorkom en die resultate sodoende verkry, word vergelyk met dié wat met bestaande metodes verkry is.

  8. Determinants of care outcomes for patients who die in hospital in Ireland: a retrospective study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeown, Kieran

    2015-04-18

    More people die in hospital than in any other setting which is why it is important to study the outcomes of hospital care at end of life. This study analyses what influenced outcomes in a sample of patients who died in hospital in Ireland in 2008\\/9. The study was undertaken as part of the Irish Hospice Foundation\\'s Hospice Friendly Hospitals Programme (2007-2012).

  9. Dutch pediatricians' views on the use of neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, K.; van de Vathorst, S.

    2015-01-01

    To assess Dutch pediatricians' views on neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 10 Dutch pediatricians working with severely ill neonates. Data were analyzed using appropriate qualitative research techniques. Participants explained their view

  10. ʼn Studie van die gesondheid van die Olifantsrivier soos weerspieël deur die makro-invertebraatbiodiversiteit en geselekteerde abiotiese faktore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kemp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Riviere in Suid-Afrika is ‘n belangrike waterbron en onderhou ‘n ryk biodiversiteit van fauna en flora. Toenemende druk op hierdie riviere en hulle opvanggebiede kan ʼn enorme impak op die lewe wat hulle onderhou, uitoefen.

  11. A study on die wear model of warm and hot forgings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, J. H.; Park, I. W.; Jae, J. S.; Kang, S. S.

    1998-05-01

    Factors influencing service lives of tools in warm and hot forging processes are wear, mechanical fatigue, plastic deformation and thermal fatigue, etc. Wear is the predominant factor for tool failure among these. To predict tool life by wear, Archard's model where hardness is considered as constant or function of temperature is generally applied. Usually hardness of die is a function of not only temperature but operating time of die. To consider softening of die by repeated operation it is necessary to express hardness of die by a function of temperature and time. In this study wear coefficients were measured for various temperatures and heat treatment for H13 tool steel. Also by experiment of reheating of die, die softening curves were obtained. From experimental results, relationships between tempering parameters and hardness were established to investigate effects of hardness decrease by the effect of temperatures and time. Finally modified Archard's wear model in which hardness is considered to be a function of main tempering curve was proposed. And finite element analyses were conducted by adopting suggested wear model. By comparisons of simulations and real profiles of worn die, proposed wear model was verified.

  12. Die binding van die konfessie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Coetzee

    1970-05-01

    Full Text Available Ons moet waak teen twee uiterstes. Aan die een kant het die dogma as onversoenlike vyand die dogmatisme en aan die ander kant die antidogmatisme — dit hou enersyds die gevaar in van verabsolutering (oorskatting, en ander- syds die gevaar van relativisme (onderskatting.

  13. Patients who die during palliative radiotherapy. Status survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, B.; Ankele, H.; Bamberg, M.; Zips, D. [University of Tuebingen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Palliative radiotherapy (RT) is routinely used in end of life care of patients with advanced malignancies; however, unnecessarily burdensome treatment shortly before death should be avoided. There is little knowledge on incidence and causes of intercurrent deaths during palliative RT. In this study death events among inpatients receiving palliative RT between January 2009 and December 2011 at this department were retrospectively analyzed. Among epidemiological factors, treatment schedule and chronology, latency and duration of treatment in relation to the actual survival were identified. In this study 52 patients died during or shortly after palliative RT. Symptomatic bone metastases and brain metastases represented the most common RT indications. The general health status was poor with a median Karnofsky performance score of 50 %, RT was realized with a median single dose of 2.5 Gy to a median total dose of 30.5 Gy and was stopped prematurely in 73 % of patients. On average 53 % of the remaining lifetime was occupied by latency to starting RT. Once RT was begun the treatment duration required a median 64 % of the still remaining lifetime. The majority of patients who died had explicitly adverse pre-existing factors and rarely completed RT as scheduled. Latency to RT and RT duration occupied more than half of the remaining lifetime. (orig.) [German] Die palliative Radiotherapie (RT) hat einen hohen Stellenwert in der Symptomenkontrolle terminal erkrankter Tumorpatienten. Unnoetig belastende Therapien kurz vor Lebensende sollten jedoch vermieden werden. Bislang gibt es kaum strukturierte Daten ueber Sterbefaelle unter palliativer RT. Im Rahmen der vorgestellten Studie wurden die Sterbefaelle unter stationaer palliativ bestrahlten Patienten der eigenen Abteilung zwischen Januar 2009 und Dezember 2011 analysiert. Ausgewertet wurden epidemiologische Faktoren, Behandlungskonzept und -verlauf. Zeit bis zum RT-Beginn und RT-Dauer wurden ins Verhaeltnis zur tatsaechlichen

  14. Traditional and Contemporary Lakota Death, Dying, Grief, and Bereavement Beliefs and Practices: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Joseph B.

    1998-01-01

    Bereavement beliefs and practices in the modern, American culture have been well documented. However, virtually no research has been conducted on traditional and contemporary death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices among native tribes, such as the Lakota. The present study was conducted with the Lakota, and fulfilled two goals. iii First, the contemporary and traditional death, dying, grief, and bereavement beliefs and practices of the Lakota were documented and summariz...

  15. Der Einfluss von Mixed Emotions auf die Werbewirkung : eine experimentelle Studie

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Hans H.; Donnevert, Tobias; Exler, Stefanie; Hobusch, Sonja

    2007-01-01

    Emotionale Appelle haben heutzutage einen festen Platz in der Werbung. Neben rein positiven sowie rein negativen Emotionen werden auch Mixed Emotions verstärkt eingesetzt. Die Erforschung der konsumentenverhaltensrelevanten Wirkungen von Mixed Emotions, die das gleichzeitige oder sequentielle Erleben gegensätzlicher Emotionen bezeichnen, steckt jedoch noch in den Kinderschuhen. In der vorliegenden Studie wird daher der Einfluss von Mixed Emotions auf zentrale psychographische Werbewirku...

  16. Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region

    OpenAIRE

    Klemm, Ulrich

    1995-01-01

    Die Region braucht die Kultur - die Kultur braucht die Region. - In: Region in Aktion - oder: Region im Abseits? - Boxberg-Wölchingen : Eigenständige Regionalentwicklung Baden-Württemberg, 1995. - S. 25 f.

  17. Nurses attitudes towards death, dying patients and euthanasia: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Melike Ayça; Öz, Fatma

    2018-01-01

    Attitudes of nurses towards death and related concepts influence end-of-life care. Determining nurses' views and attitudes towards these concepts and the factors that affect them are necessary to ensure quality end-of-life care. The purpose of this study was to determine nurses' views and attitudes about death, dying patient, euthanasia and the relationships between nurses' characteristics. Participants consist of the nurses who volunteered to take part in this descriptive study from 25 hospitals (n = 340) which has a paediatric or adult intensive care unit and located within the boundaries of Ankara, Turkey. 'Nurse Information Form' and 'Attitude Scale about Euthanasia, Death and Dying Patients (DAS)' were used as data collection tool. Ethical consideration: Written permissions were received from the 'Noninterventional Clinical Researches Ethics Board' of authors' university and education councils of each hospital. Informed consent was obtained from participants. It is found that there are statistically significant difference among the factors of marital status, having a child, years of experience, bereavement experience, affected by working with dying patient, definition of euthanasia, views about patients who are appropriate for euthanasia, views about patients who desire to die and feeling need for counselling on these concepts according to the mean total score of nurses' attitudes about euthanasia, death and dying patient (p euthanasia and work with dying patient. This is reflected in their attitude. In order to gain positive attitude towards death, dying patient and euthanasia, the implementation of training and consulting services to nurses at appropriate intervals during both education and professional life are required.

  18. Die nabyheid van die Koninkryk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.J. Snyman

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Vanweë die belangrikheid daarvan volg hier ’n breër bespreking van die proefskrif van dr. Tjaart van der Walt oor die nabyheid van die Koninkryk as wat in ’n gewone resensie kan geskied. Die vraagstuk wat onder oë gesien word is so oud as die kerk en die teologie, soms minder en soms meer op die voorgrond. Tans kan gesê word, staan dit in die middelpunt. Daarby is dit nie maar ’n akademiese vraagstuk nie, maar ’n vraagstuk waarvoor elke nadenkende leser van die Skrif te staan kom.

  19. Study of protective coatings for aluminum die casting molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Ildiko, E-mail: ildiko.peter@polito.it; Rosso, Mario; Gobber, Federico Simone

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Development and characterization of some protective coatings on steel substrate, realized by plasma spray techniques, were presented. • The substrate material used is a Cr–Mo–V based hot work tool steel. • The main attention is on the study of wear and on the characterization of the interface, because of their key role in determining the resistance of the coating layer. • Simulation of friction and wear processes is performed by pin-on-disk test and the tested samples are observed by scanning electron microscopy. - Abstract: In this paper, the development and characterization of some protective coatings on steel substrate are presented. The coatings are realized by plasma spray techniques. The substrate material used is a Cr–Mo–V based hot work tool steel, initially submitted to vacuum heat treatment to achieve homogeneous hardness. The main attention is focused on the study of wear and on the characterization of the interface between the substrate material and the coating layer, because of their key role in determining the resistance of the coating layer. Simulation of friction and wear processes is performed by pin-on-disk test and the tested samples are observed by scanning electron microscopy.

  20. Case study: an ethical dilemma involving a dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Alsacia L

    2008-01-01

    Nursing often deals with ethical dilemmas in the clinical arena. A case study demonstrates an ethical dilemma faced by healthcare providers who care for and treat Jehovah's Witnesses who are placed in a critical situation due to medical life-threatening situations. A 20-year-old, pregnant, Black Hispanic female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) in critical condition following a single-vehicle car accident. She exhibited signs and symptoms of internal bleeding and was advised to have a blood transfusion and emergency surgery in an attempt to save her and the fetus. She refused to accept blood or blood products and rejected the surgery as well. Her refusal was based on a fear of blood transfusion due to her belief in Bible scripture. The ethical dilemma presented is whether to respect the patient's autonomy and compromise standards of care or ignore the patient's wishes in an attempt to save her life. This paper presents the clinical case, identifies the ethical dilemma, and discusses virtue ethical theory and principles that apply to this situation.

  1. Styles of nuclear regulation and their consequences; Stile der Aufsicht ueber die Kerntechnik und ihre Folgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilpert, B. [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Forschungsstelle Systemsicherheit (FSS)

    2005-03-01

    This contribution is about the document published as 'Announcement of the Basic Principles of Safety Management Systems in Nuclear Power Plants' in the Federal Gazette (Bundesanzeiger) by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU) on July 27, 2004. A kind of checklist contains requirements to be taken into account as 'boundary conditions' in the implementation of safety management systems. In fact, every sentence in the document begins with a 'must' provision. Remarkably enough, these 'Basic Principles' were promulgated by the Ministry without any consultation with advisory bodies, such as the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK), or organizations of plant operators. The paper contains much that is worth considering, but also many truisms. This article was written because of the way in which the document had been prepared and publicized. An effort is made in this article to generate some understanding of the consequences, in terms of labor psychology and organizational psychology, of the different approaches pursued by regulatory authorities. A key point in this respect is the fundamental difference it makes whether regulations (reglementations) by supervisory authorities address the design of technical components or human behavior. In the former case, precise criteria without any constraints can serve the purpose. Behavioral rules, on the other hand, need a certain measure of flexibility, also in the way mistakes are handled, in order to avoid negative reactions on the part of those concerned. (orig.)

  2. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Responsibility; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Verantwortung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-03-15

    The information brochure (BfS) on Asse - responsibility - discusses the issue of radioactive waste disposal. The members of the final repository commission have to present the final report on the site selection for the final repository. The central question is the safe disposal of nuclear waste for a million of years.

  3. Ueber die Funktion von Sprache in erzieherischen Prozessen (On the Function of Language in Educational Processes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlau, Angelika; Scherfer, Peter

    1975-01-01

    The educator should always strive to use only "emancipative" language: not authoritarian, but rather aimed at developing maturity and cooperation on the matter in hand. It should be pertinent, consistent, comprehensible, reversible, and practice-oriented. It is consciously undertaken, normative behavior, oriented toward political and social…

  4. Telemedicine’s potential to support good dying in Nigeria: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gurp, J.; Soyannwo, O.; Odebunmi, K.; Dania, S.; van Selm, M.; van Leeuwen, E.; Vissers, K.; Hasselaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals’ concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice. Materials and Methods Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN)

  5. Dying in Hospital with Dementia and Pneumonia: A Nationwide Study Using Death Certificate Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houttekier, D.; Reyniers, T.; Deliens, L.; Den Noortgate, N.; Cohen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: For people with dementia dying from pneumonia, hospitalization at the end of life may be of little benefit and result in unfavourable outcomes such as hospital death. Objective: The aim of this study is to estimate the incidence of and factors associated with hospital death in people

  6. Death and Dying Attitudes, Anxieties, and Fears of Certified Nursing Assistants: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Josephine A.

    2010-01-01

    The critical role of Certified Nursing Assistants (CNAs) to help elderly nursing home residents' move through declining conditions or diseases to death is salient. It is important for CNAs and nursing home leaders to understand CNAs' attitudes, fears, and anxieties toward death and dying. The quantitative study investigated CNA's…

  7. Environmental medicine disaster. Pt. 1; Umweltmedizinische Katastrophen. T. 1. Die Minamata-Krankheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, H.J.; Krefeldt, T. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1998-07-01

    The list of environmental disasters after World War II includes events which were detected by an epidemy of adverse health effects and others with an acute event as a starting point. Their analysis should contribute to knowledge in human toxicology and also to the formulation of regulatory toxicology. The present study shows to what extent this has been performed, beginning with the description of the Minamata Disease. During the 50ies, neurological symptoms were discovered in people living at the shore of a Japanese lake, especially the Minamata bay which contained industrial effluents from a chemical plant. After years, methyl-mercury was identified as the toxic agent. The substance had found its way into the food chain, especially via contaminated fish. Besides man, cats were also affected to a high degree. The long-lasting process of scientific analysis, including official reactions, is described. Regulatory toxicology concerning organic mercury now makes use of the data from this event and another one in Iraq. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Liste der grossen umweltmedizinischen Katastrophen seit dem II. Weltkrieg umfasst z.T. Schadensereignisse, auf die man wegen der Haeufung von Gesundheitsstoerungen aufmerksam wurde und solche, bei denen ein akutes Ereignis am Anfang stand. Aus der systematischen wissenschaftlichen Analyse sollten sich Erkenntnisse zur Humantoxikologie und zur Gestaltung von Regelwerken ergeben. Inwieweit dies getan wurde, wird hiermit aufgrund einer Literaturanalyse dargestellt, beginnend mit der Minamata-Erkrankung. In den 50er Jahren fielen bei Anwohnern eines japanischen Sees, in der Bucht von Minamata, in die Abwaesser aus einer chemischen Fabrik gleitet wurden, neurologische Erkrankungen auf, die erst nach Jahren eindeutig als Intoxikation mit Methylquecksilber identifiziert wurden. Methylquecksilber war in die Nahrungskette, und hier insbesondere ueber kontaminierten Fisch, gelangt. Ausser dem Menschen waren auffaelligerweise Katzen betroffen

  8. The WTO ministerial conference in Seattle - results and future prospects for environmental protection; Die WTO-Ministerkonferenz in Seattle - Ergebnisse und Perspektiven fuer den Umweltschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, P; Pfahl, S; Reichert, T [AG Handel des Forums und Entwicklung im Deutschen Naturschutzring (DNR), Bonn (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    The third Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) took place in Seattle (USA) from November 30{sup th} to December 3{sup rd} 1999. WTO members failed to agree on an agenda for a new round of trade-negotiation that should also include environmental and sustainability aspects. The Seattle Ministerial Conference provoked massive protests from non-governmental organisations (NGO) dealing with environment and development issues. They see the GATT/WTO regime - and globalisation in general - as a threat to their concerns. Against this background, the study analyses possibilities for the integration of environmental and sustainability aspects into upcoming WTO-negotiations. The focus is on views and proposals from international NGOs and critical scientists. First, the study deals with current and potential future areas of conflicts between environmental and trade policies. Furthermore, the environmental aspects of trade liberalisation in specific sectors and regulatory fields are discussed, which are currently negotiated in the WTO (agriculture, services) or which should be included in further negotiations (forest products, investment, etc.). The study moves on to an account of the WTO-Conference in Seattle from an environmental perspective and demonstrate a multitude of factors contributed to the failure of the conference. (orig.) [German] Vom 30.11. bis 03.12.1999 tagte in Seattle (USA) die 3. Ministerkonferenz der Welthandelsorganisation (WTO). Sie scheiterte bei dem Versuch, eine Einigung ueber die Agenda fuer eine neue WTO-Verhandlungsrunde herbeizufuehren, die auch Umwelt- und Nachhaltigkeitsaspekte einschliessen sollte. Die Konferenz stand unter dem starken Eindruck massiver Proteste von zahlreichen Umwelt- und Entwicklungsorganisationen, die im GATT/WTO-Regime - sowie grundsaetzlich in der Globalisierung - eine Bedrohung fuer Umwelt- und Nachhaltigkeitsanliegen sehen. Vor diesem Hintergrund untersucht die Studie die Moeglichkeiten einer

  9. Ueber Patrick Browne’s Gattungen zweifelhafter Stellung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallier, Hans

    1918-01-01

    Vornehmlich durch die Arbeiten GRISEBACH’S und URBAN’S ist die Flora Westindiens schon verhältnismässig gut bekannt. Obgleich aber ersterer die Kenntnis seiner Zeit in seiner bekannten „Flora of the British West Indian Islands” (1864) zusammenfasste und letzterer in seinen Symbolae Antillanae VI, 1

  10. Sedimentêre omgewings van die Inhaca-eilandstelsel met spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente spesiale verwysing na die petrografiese en geochemiese eienskappe van die sedimente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Peché

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Die Inhaca-eilandstelsel is geleë langs die suidooskus van Mosambiek. Die oostekant van die stelsel grens aan die Indiese Oseaan en die westekant aan die Baai van Maputo. Hierdie eilandstelsel bestaan uit Inhaca- en Portugese eiland, asook ’n groep sandbanke wat van die noordlike punt van Inhaca na Portugese eiland strek. Die doel van hierdie studie is om die verskillende moderne en oer-sedimentêre omgewings op die eilandstelsel te identifiseer en te beskryf, die invloed van getye en golfaksie op die moderne sedimentêre omgewing vas te stel en die geochemiese en petrografiese samestelling van die geologiese eenhede te bepaal.

  11. Telemedicine's Potential to Support Good Dying in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle van Gurp

    Full Text Available This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals' concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice.Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN and the University College Hospital (UCH in Ibadan, Nigeria, the authors organized three focus groups with Nigerian health care professionals interested in palliative care, unstructured interviews with key role players for palliative care and representatives of telecom companies, and field visits to primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare clinics that provided palliative care. Data analysis consisted of open coding, constant comparison, diagramming of categorizations and relations, and extensive member checks.The focus group participants classified good dying into 2 domains: a feeling of completion of the individual life and dying within the community. Reported barriers to palliative care provision were socio-economic consequences of being seriously ill, taboos on dying and being ill, restricted access to adequate medical-technical care, equation of religion with medicine, and the faulty implementation of palliative care policy by government. The addition of telemedicine to Nigeria's palliative care practice appears problematic, due to irregular bandwidth, poor network coverage, and unstable power supply obstructing interactivity and access to information. However, a tele-education 'lite' scenario seemed viable in Nigeria, wherein low-tech educational networks are central that build on non-synchronous online communication.Nigerian health care professionals' concepts on good dying/a good death and barriers and opportunities for palliative care provision were, for the greater part, similar to prior findings from other studies in Africa. Information for and education of patient, family, and community are essential to further improve palliative care in Africa. Telemedicine can only help

  12. Telemedicine's Potential to Support Good Dying in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gurp, Jelle; Soyannwo, Olaitan; Odebunmi, Kehinde; Dania, Simpa; van Selm, Martine; van Leeuwen, Evert; Vissers, Kris; Hasselaar, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores Nigerian health care professionals' concepts of good dying/a good death and how telemedicine technologies and services would fit the current Nigerian palliative care practice. Supported by the Centre for Palliative Care Nigeria (CPCN) and the University College Hospital (UCH) in Ibadan, Nigeria, the authors organized three focus groups with Nigerian health care professionals interested in palliative care, unstructured interviews with key role players for palliative care and representatives of telecom companies, and field visits to primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare clinics that provided palliative care. Data analysis consisted of open coding, constant comparison, diagramming of categorizations and relations, and extensive member checks. The focus group participants classified good dying into 2 domains: a feeling of completion of the individual life and dying within the community. Reported barriers to palliative care provision were socio-economic consequences of being seriously ill, taboos on dying and being ill, restricted access to adequate medical-technical care, equation of religion with medicine, and the faulty implementation of palliative care policy by government. The addition of telemedicine to Nigeria's palliative care practice appears problematic, due to irregular bandwidth, poor network coverage, and unstable power supply obstructing interactivity and access to information. However, a tele-education 'lite' scenario seemed viable in Nigeria, wherein low-tech educational networks are central that build on non-synchronous online communication. Nigerian health care professionals' concepts on good dying/a good death and barriers and opportunities for palliative care provision were, for the greater part, similar to prior findings from other studies in Africa. Information for and education of patient, family, and community are essential to further improve palliative care in Africa. Telemedicine can only help if low

  13. Die ontwikkeling van die bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Engelbrecht

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ: Several criticisms of the psychometric suitability of existing measures of managerial motivation are reported in the literature. This study aimed at developing a new psychometrically sound instrument, the Managerial Motivation Questionnaire (MMQ. This was done on the basis of a comprehensive study of the literature on managerial motivation and the role-motivation theory. The preliminary MMQ was systematically shortened and refined until the final MMQ of 98 items was composed. This was based on social desirability and semantic appraisal, item analysis and factor analysis of the questionnaire. The results indicate that it was possible to develop a final MMQ that was relatively free of social desirability. It further demonstrated satsifactory internal consistencies on two samples (a = 0/90, N = 360; a = 0/91, N = 535, where all subscale items were found to be relatively pure measures of the isolated factors. Although some evidence was found providing support for the reliability of the MMQ, a need for further research on the construct validity of managerial motivation still exists. Opsomming In die literatuur word verskeie punte van kritiek teen die psigometriese geskiktheid van bestaande meetinstrumente van bestuursmotivering gerapporteer. Die doelstelling van hierdie studie was dus om aan die hand van die konseptuele omiyning van bestuursmotivering, en die rolmotiveringsteorie as algemene verwysingsraamwerk, 'n nuwe psigometries aanvaarbare meetinstrument, die Bestuursmotiveringsvraelys (BMV, te ontwikkel. Op grond van sosiale wenslikheids- en semantiese beoordeling, itemontleding en faktorontleding van die voorlopige BMV is die vraelys stelselmatig verkort en verfyn totdat die finale BMV van 98 items saamgestel is. Die resultate dui daarop dat hierdie studie wel daarin geslaag het om 'n finale BMV te ontwikkel wat relatief vry van sosiale wenslikheid is, bevredigende interne

  14. Die sestienpersoonlikheidsfaktorvraelys as hulpmiddel by die takseersentrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The 16PF Personality Test as an aid to the assessment centre Assessment centres still remains costly and thime consuming. This study investigates the reduction of time and costs by the use of the 16 PF Personality Test as a method for measuring management dimensions. Promising results were obtained with a relatively small sample for the prediction of initiative and perseverance. Significant multiple correlations were also found for three criteria of management success. Further research may establish the use of the 16 PF as an aid to management assessment and thereby reduce the costs and time involved in assessment centres. Opsomming Takseersentrums se grootste probleem is gelee in die koste en tyd wat dit behels. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid om beide te verminder deur die aanwending van die 16 PF Persoonlikheidsvraelys vir die meting van bestuursdimensies. Belowende resultate is met 'n relatiewe klein steekproef bevind ten opsigte van die voorspelling van inisiatiefen deursettingsvermoe. Beduidende meervoudige korrelasies is ook ten opsigte van drie kriteria van bestuursukses bevind. Verdere navorsing kan die gebruik van die 16 PF as hulpmiddel by bestuursevaluering vestig en sodoende die tydsduur en koste van takseersentrums verminder.

  15. Demands on digital automation; Anforderungen an die Digitale Automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 12 of the anthology about building control the demands on digital automation are presented. The following aspects are discussed: variety of the companies` philosophies, demands of the customer/investor, demands of the use of buildings/rooms, the user, point of view of manufacturer of technical plants. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 12 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control stellt die Anforderungen an die Digitale Automation vor. In diesem Zusammenhang wird auf folgende Themenbereiche eingegangen: Spektrum der Firmenphilosophien, Forderungen der Auftraggeber/Investoren, der Gebaeude-/Raumnutzung, der Betreiber sowie Sicht der Ersteller betriebstechnischer Anlagen. (BWI)

  16. Blanke vroue-arbeid in die Unie van Suid-Afrika : 'n sosiologiese studie, met spesiale verwysing na die grootstedelike gebiede van die land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsloo, Maria Johanna Magdalena

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present a sociological analysis of the phenomenon of European female-labour in the Union of South Africa, with special reference to the industrial areas of the country. The inspiration for this undertaking can be summed up in two main points: (i) That female-labour is

  17. Die funksie van die belydenis in die struktuur van die kerk en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ter wille van die argument wat in hierdie voordrag na vore gebring word, word vier sodanige konstituerende elemente van die kerklike struktuur onderskei, te wete die belydenis, die teologie, die verkondi- ging (meer bepaald die prediking) en die kerkorde (kerkwet volgens ons terminologie). Ons gaan nou elkeen hiervan ...

  18. Cultural beliefs about a patient's right time to die: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Henry S; Cortez, Josie D; Hazuda, Helen P

    2009-11-01

    Generalist physicians must often counsel patients or their families about the right time to die, but feel ill-prepared to do so. Patient beliefs may help guide the discussions. Because little prior research addresses such beliefs, we investigated them in this exploratory, hypothesis-generating study. Anticipating culture as a key influence, we interviewed 26 Mexican Americans (MAs), 18 Euro-Americans (EAs), and 14 African Americans (AAs) and content-analyzed their responses. Nearly all subjects regardless of ethnic group or gender said God determines (at least partially) a patient's right time to die, and serious disease signals it. Yet subjects differed by ethnic group over other signals for that time. Patient suffering and dependence on "artificial" life support signaled it for the MAs; patient acceptance of death signaled it for the EAs; and patient suffering and family presence at or before the death signaled it for the AAs. Subjects also differed by gender over other beliefs. In all ethnic groups more men than women said the time of death is unpredictable; but more women than men said the time of death is preset, and family suffering signals it. Furthermore, most MA women--but few others--explicitly declared that family have an important say in determining a patient's right time to die. No confounding occurred by religion. Americans may share some beliefs about the right time to die but differ by ethnic group or gender over other beliefs about that time. Quality end-of-life care requires accommodating such differences whenever reasonable.

  19. Study on Manufacturing Process of Hollow Main Shaft by Open Die Forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yong Chul; Kang, Jong Hun; Kim, Sang Sik

    2016-01-01

    The main shaft is one of the key components connecting the rotor hub and gear box of a wind power generator. Typically, main shafts are manufactured by open die forging method. However, the main shaft for large MW class wind generators is designed to be hollow in order to reduce the weight. Additionally, the main shafts are manufactured by a casting process. This study aims to develop a manufacturing process for hollow main shafts by the open die forging method. The design of a forging process for a solid main shaft and hollow shaft was prepared by an open die forging process design scheme. Finite element analyses were performed to obtain the flow stress by a hot compression test at different temperature and strain rates. The control parameters of each forging process, such as temperature and effective strain, were obtained and compared to predict the suitability of the hollow main shaft forging process. Finally, high productivity reflecting material utilization ratio, internal quality, shape, and dimension was verified by the prototypes manufactured by the proposed forging process for hollow main shafts

  20. Study on Manufacturing Process of Hollow Main Shaft by Open Die Forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yong Chul [Gyeongnam Technopark, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jong Hun [Jungwon Univ., Goisan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Sik [Gyeongsang Natiional Univ., Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The main shaft is one of the key components connecting the rotor hub and gear box of a wind power generator. Typically, main shafts are manufactured by open die forging method. However, the main shaft for large MW class wind generators is designed to be hollow in order to reduce the weight. Additionally, the main shafts are manufactured by a casting process. This study aims to develop a manufacturing process for hollow main shafts by the open die forging method. The design of a forging process for a solid main shaft and hollow shaft was prepared by an open die forging process design scheme. Finite element analyses were performed to obtain the flow stress by a hot compression test at different temperature and strain rates. The control parameters of each forging process, such as temperature and effective strain, were obtained and compared to predict the suitability of the hollow main shaft forging process. Finally, high productivity reflecting material utilization ratio, internal quality, shape, and dimension was verified by the prototypes manufactured by the proposed forging process for hollow main shafts.

  1. Is Email Business Dying?: A Study on Evolution of Email Spam Over Fifteen Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing dedication and sophistication of spammers, email spam is a persistent problem even today. Popular social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ are not exempt from email spam as they all interface with email systems. While some report predicts that email spam business is dying due to the decreasing volume of email spam. Whether email spam business is really dying is an interesting question. In this paper, we analyze email spam trends on Spam Archive dataset, which contains 5.5 million spam emails over 15 years (1998 – 2013. We statistically analyze emails contents including header information (e.g. content type and embedded items (e.g. URL links. Also, we investigate topic drift using topic modeling technique. Moreover, we perform network analysis on sender-to-receiver IP routing networks. Our study shows the dynamic nature of email spam over one and a half decades and demonstrate that the email spam business is not dying but more capricious.

  2. Interdisciplinary approach to the management of childhood ependymomas; Die interdisziplinaere Therapie von Ependymomen im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermann, B.; Kortmann, R.D.; Bamberg, M. [Abt. Strahlentherapie der Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Kuehl, J. [Kinderklinik der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany); Willich, N. [Abt. Strahlentherapie der Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Material and Method: Based on historical reports, the recent literature, present guidelines, and ongoing trials an overview is provided for the management of ependymomas in childhood. Results: Local tumor control is the most important aim. Recurrences occur predominantly at the primary tumor region. The main instrument is surgery to effect maximal tumor resection. The addition of radiotherapy could improve survival significantly from 10% to 50%. Regarding the volume of irradiation there is confidence today that local fields are sufficient for all non-disseminated ependymomas. Local dose escalation has been introduced using hyperfractionated schedules. In recent studies this has been shown to increase local control up to 70%. Regarding chemotherapy in ependymomas trials have shown limited efficacy to date. For metastatic disease standard treatment has shown to be insufficient and high dose chemotherapy regimens to increase survival are in study. In younger children radiotherapy should be delayed using early chemotherapy. With preirradiation chemotherapy survival rates of 63.3% for children under age of 3 were achieved. (orig.) [German] Material und Methode: Auf der Grundlage der historischen Entwicklung, aktueller Literatur, geltender Leitlinien und laufender Studien wird ein Ueberblick ueber das Management von Ependymomen gegeben. Ergebnisse: Die lokale Tumorkontrolle ist von ausschlaggebender prognostischer Bedeutung; nur wenige Rezidive treten ausserhalb des Primaertumorgebietes auf. Daher dominiert eine moeglichst komplette Resektion das Therapiekonzept. Bei intrakraniellen Tumoren hat die postoperative Strahlentherapie die Ueberlebenschance deutlich verbessern koennen von ehemals 10 auf ueber 50%. Bei der Zielvolumendefinition hat bei nicht metastasierten Ependymomen unabhaengig von Histologie oder Tumorsitz die ausschliessliche Behandlung der Tumorregion aehnliche Erfolge gezeigt wie eine Liquorraumbehandlung. Mit lokaler Dosiseskalation durch

  3. Die verband tussen die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Stanz

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The aim of this study is to design a measuring instrument with acceptable metric characteristics for the strength of the psychological contract within the South African context, and to determine empirically the relation between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment. The Dhammanungune Model served as foundation for the design of the Strength of the Psychological Contract Questionnaire which consists of two scales namely, a needs expectation scale and a needs fulfilment expectation scale. The items of each scale have been formulated in the manner that ensures that the respondent reacts consecutively to two instructions namely, (a the level of the expectation and (b the importance of the expectation. This questionnaire was administered together with the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire to two population groups within the military environment. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was calculated between the strength of the psychological contract and organisational commitment and the significance of the correlations was evaluated. Opsomming Die doel van die studie is om 'n meetinstrument met aanvaarbare metriese eienskappe vir die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vir Suid-Afrikaanse omstandighede te ontwerp en om empirics die verband tussen die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak en organisasieverbondenheid te bepaal. Die sterkte van die sielkundige kontrak vraelys is op grond van die Dhammanungune-model ontwerp en het uit twee skale naamlik, die behoefteverwagting- en vervullingsverwagtingskale bestaan. Items vir eike skaal is sodanig geformuleer dat die respondent agteropeenvolgens op twee instruksies naamlik (a die vlak van die verwagting en (b die belangrikheid van die verwagting moet reageer. Die vraelys is saam met die organisasieverbondenheidsvraelys op twee populasies uit 'n militere omgewing toegepas. Die Pearson

  4. Results obtained so far with the production of turbine and valve casings made of the new 9% Cr cast steel types G-X 12 CrMoWVNbN 10 11 and G-X 12 CrMoVNbN 91; Erfahrungsbericht ueber die Herstellung von Turbinen- und Ventilgehaeusen aus den neuen 9% Cr-Stahlgusssorten G-X 12 CrMoWVNbN 10 1 1 und G-X 12 CrMoVNbN 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuster, F.; Buberl, A.; Hanus, R. [VOEST-ALPINE STAHL LINZ GmbH, Linz (Austria); Cerjak, H. [Technische Univ., Graz (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    In the course of production start-up of new 9-10% Cr cast steel types, and application of R and D results to practice, the following examinations and modifications have been performed: 1. Reduction of average chromium content from 10.5 to 9.5% in order to suppress delta ferrite segregation, and adjustment of austenite and ferrite stabilizing alloying constituents. 2. Analysis of typical defects in castings, and modification of casting and feeding techniques in compliance with the saturation behaviour of the new 9-10% Cr steels. These measures achieved a reduction of feeding-based flaws (shrinkage) in the last few cast pieces. 3. The good weldability was proven of the new 9-10% Cr steels by means of welding tests and crack-free production and construction welds made in cast pieces. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Im Zuge der Produktionsaufnahme neuer 9-10% Cr-Stahlgusssorten und der Ueberleitung der F and E Ergebnisse in die betriebliche Praxis wurden folgende Untersuchungen und Anpassungen vorgenommen: 1. Um die Deltaferritausscheidung zu unterdruecken, wurde der mittlere Chromgehalt von 10,5 auf 9,5% abgesenkt und die austenit- und ferritstabilisierenden Legierungselemente besser angepasst. 2. Die Analyse typischer Fehlererscheinungen an Gussstuecken machten eine Anpassung der Giess- und Speisungstechnik an das Saettigungsverhalten der neuen 9-10% Cr-Staehle erforderlich. Diese Massnahmen fuehrten zu einer Verringerung der Speisungsfehler (Lunker) bei den zuletzt abgegossenen Gussstuecken. 3. Bei Schweissversuchen und an Gussstuecken rissfrei ausgefuehrten Fertigungs- und Konstruktionsschweissungen konnte die gute Schweisseignung der neuen 9-10% Cr-Staehle nachgewiesen werden. (orig./MM)

  5. Long-Wave Radiation Divergence over Water and Land from Measurement and Calculation (Die Langwellige Strahlungsdivergenz ueber Wasser und ueber dem Festen Boden nach Messung und Rechnung),

    Science.gov (United States)

    surface temperature field. If these are eliminated, which is relatively simple over a water surface, the differences between calculated and measured...divergences at these levels is less than 20%, on the average. The relative variation of the divergence with height is somewhat greater over water than over land, due to the different temperature profiles. (Author)

  6. Die posisie van die Helper in die sending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. van der Walt

    1972-05-01

    Full Text Available Gedurende die aanvangsjare van die sending het die helper ’n onmisbare funksie vervul. Hulle het die onherbergsame binnelande geken, waardevolle kontakpunte vir die sendelinge geopen en hulle mense geestelik help voorlig en voorberei.

  7. Effects of long-term exposure to raod traffic imissions on the pathogenesis of diseases of the skin and respiratory tract in children; Auswirkungen langfristiger Expositionen gegenueber Strassenverkehrsimissionen auf die Entwicklung von Haut- und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ising, H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany); Lange-Asschenfeldt, H. [Bundesministerium fuer Gesundheit, Berlin (Germany); Lieber, G.F.; Weinhold, H.; Eilts, M.

    2002-10-01

    The pathogenesis of allergies can be stimulated by adjuvant effects, i.e. air pollutants such as NO{sub x} and particles from diesel engines and also noise - the latter especially during the night. During sleep, noise signals that are associated with danger (e.g. noise from lorries) can potentially trigger stress reactions even if the noise level is low. Higher cortisol levels in the first half of the night seem to have an important role in this. In a blind interview study, the combined effects of chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution and noise upon the risk of allergic skin and respiratory diseases in children were studied. All children between 5 and 12 years of age who had consulted one of two of the participating pediatricians were included in the study. The paediatricians' diagnoses for 400 children were analysed together with their parents' answers to questions on the density of road traffic in the streets where they live and several confounding factors. Multiple regression analyses revealed relative risks of asthma, chronic bronchitis and neurodermitis that rose significantly with increasingly heavy traffic. A comparison with corresponding results reported in the literature for air pollution alone showed that traffic noise during the night might have an enhancing (adjuvant) effect in the pathogenesis of these diseases. (orig.) [German] Die Entstehung von Allergien kann durch adjuvante Effekte - z.B. Immissionen aus dem Verkehrsbereich - gefoerdert werden. Zu solchen Immissionen zaehlen gas- und partikelfoermige Schadstoffe wie Stickoxide und Dieselruss sowie Laerm, insbesondere in der Nacht. Waehrend des Schlafs koennen Geraeusche, die mit Gefahren assoziiert sind (z.B. Lkw-Geraeusche) auch bei niedrigen Pegeln Stressreaktionen ausloesen. Kortisolerhoehungen in der ersten Haelfte der Nacht scheinen dabei eine wichtige Rolle zu spielen. In einer 'einfach-blind' durchgefuehrten Befragungsstudie wurden langzeitige Auswirkungen

  8. Digilanid C by die behandeling van hartlyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snyman, Hendrik Willem

    1942-01-01

    In die voorafgaande word 'n literatuur studie oor die ontwikkeling en huidige stand van die chemie en farmakologie van die Digitalis purpurea en Digitalis lanata gegee, waarin spesiaal gelet word op die chemiese samestelling en farmakologiese aktiwiteit van die Digitalis lanata glikoside. Daarna

  9. Supportive and palliative care needs of families of children who die from cancer: an Australian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterosso, Leanne; Kristjanson, Linda J

    2008-01-01

    To obtain feedback from parents of children who died from cancer about their understanding of palliative care, their experiences of palliative and supportive care received during their child's illness, and their palliative and supportive care needs. A qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. 24 parents from Perth (n = 10), Melbourne (n = 5), Brisbane (n = 5) and Sydney (n = 4). Five Australian tertiary paediatric oncology centres. Results Parents whose children died from cancer live within a context of chronic uncertainty and apprehension. Parents construed palliative care negatively as an independent process at the end of their children's lives rather than as a component of a wider and continuous process where children and their families are offered both curative and palliative care throughout the cancer trajectory. The concept of palliative care was perceived to be misunderstood by key health professionals involved in the care of the child and family. The importance and therapeutic value of authentic and honest relationships between health professionals and parents, and between health professionals and children were highlighted as a critical aspect of care. Also highlighted was the need to include children and adolescents in decision making, and for the delivery of compassionate end-of-life care that is sensitive to the developmental needs of the children, their parents and siblings. There is a need for health professionals to better understand the concept of palliative care, and factors that contribute to honest, open, authentic and therapeutic relationships of those concerned in the care of the dying child. This will facilitate a better understanding by both parents and their children with cancer, and acceptance of the integration of palliative and supportive care in routine cancer care.

  10. Characteristics of Mexican children and adolescents who died by suicide: A study of psychological autopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Castro, Thelma Beatriz; Tovilla-Zárate, Carlos Alfonso; Hernández-Díaz, Yazmín; Juárez-Rojop, Isela E; León-Garibay, Alejandra Giovanna; Guzmán-Priego, Crystell Guadalupe; López-Narváez, Lilia; Frésan, Ana

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, suicide in children and adolescents has increased considerably, becoming the second cause of death in this age group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify characteristics and factors that could precipitate deaths by suicide in children and adolescents. Using the psychological autopsy method, we studied 28 suicide cases of children and adolescents between 10 and 17 years old. Socio-demographic factors, characteristics of the suicide and family history were documented. The proportion of deaths by suicide was the same in females and males (50% each). Most of the suicides were performed at the child/adolescent's home (78.6%) and no history of previous suicide attempts were registered (85.7%). Also, the majority of suicidal individuals came from a dysfunctional family (60.7%). Our results identified characteristics of children and adolescents that had died by suicide, such as dying at their homes and coming from dysfunctional families. Knowing the characteristics of children and adolescents that had ended their lives by suicide should be considered in future studies to help developing preventive programs and strategies for treating suicidal behaviors in Mexican children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. STUDY OF THE flat die pellet mills kinematic diagram with active cylindrical press rolLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osokin Anton Vladislavovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Though being widely spread, the designs of such machines as flat die pellet mills have hardly been comprehensively theoretically studied. At the same time, the kinematic motion of the ring die pellet mill executive parts have been studied quite thoroughly. The machine executive parts kinematics determines the nature of their motion and velocity parameters, as well as the energy costs for the unit operation of the assembly. In addition, a detailed analysis of the facility kinematic diagram enables a rational approach to the design process for a new equipment. In view of this, this paper proposes a classification of flat matrix granulators over the kinematic diagrams of the executive parts interactions. We performed an analytical study of the kinematic diagram flat matrix granulator with active cylindrical press rolls. We considered the forces acting on the press roll during its operation. We determined the kinematic parameters and their interrelation with the design parameters of the press roll. We obtained the analytical equations for the of the neutral cross-section determination - the most characteristic section of the press-roll granulator

  12. Oorsigartikel – F. Gerrit Immink se prakties–teologiese studie van die geloofspraktyk: Liturgiese vernuwing in die Protestantse tradisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik (Hennie J.C. Pieterse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a review article on the three most important books by F. Gerrit Immink in practical theology. His approach to this discipline is studying faith praxis of the Protestantse Kerk in Nederland (Protestant Church in the Netherlands which is a church in the Reformed tradition. In his first book he explained his approach to practical theology in a discussion with the action theory and hermeneutical-communucative approaches. His choice for the study of faith praxis opens the way for a more theological approach to him in which communication between God and people is an important aspect. His second book forms the central part of this article. He uses the concept performance in the liturgy which is adopted from the theater world. In the performance by means of the execution of the liturgy by the congregation (preacher, organ, music, singing, praying they all get involved in the message from the Bible of that Sunday, they are touched by it, it has an effect on them, and they get a new perspective on the problems of everyday life. This is possible through the work of the Holy Spirit. The epiclese prayers in the liturgy are prayers for the enlightening and work by the Spirit. He discusses singing, praying, preaching, baptism and Holy Communion in detail. The main idea is that the performance in the liturgy does something to you, it has an effect on you, something happens to you. To my mind there is no need to choose between the ritual approach and the approach he is putting on the table. The approaches can enrich each other.

  13. Case study of lean manufacturing application in a die casting manufacturing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ching, Ng Tan; Hoe, Clarence Chan Kok; Hong, Tang Sai; Ghobakhloo, Morteza; Pin, Chen Kah

    2015-05-01

    The case study of lean manufacturing aims to study the application of lean manufacturing in a die casting manufacturing company located in Pulau Penang, Malaysia. This case study describes mainly about the important concepts and applications of lean manufacturing which could gradually help the company in increasing the profit by studying and analyzing their current manufacturing process and company culture. Many approaches of lean manufacturing are studied in this project which includes: 5S housekeeping, Kaizen, and Takt Time. Besides, the lean tools mentioned, quality tool such as the House of Quality is being used as an analysis tool to continuously improve the product quality. In short, the existing lean culture in the company is studied and analyzed, with recommendations written at the end of this paper.

  14. DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN DIE PERSONEELFUNKSIE IN DIE SA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stel (kortdiensstelsel). Met die uitbreek van die oorlog in 1939 het die. Unieverdedigingsmag uit 40% Staandemag en. 60% aktiewe Burgermag bestaan. Op 22 Sept. 1939 is magtiging aan die Aktiewe Burgermag- eenhede verleen om vrywilligers vir die duur van die oorlog te aanvaar. Agv beswaar dat die Verdedigingswet.

  15. Die Formatestadt

    OpenAIRE

    Günter Trojan

    2013-01-01

    Zu Zeiten von DV oder VHS (wer kennt das eigentlich noch?) war die Welt noch in Ordnung: Da hatte man eine Kassette in der Hand und wenn das passende Gerät gefunden wurde konnte man das Video auch abspielen. Günter Trojan diskutiert die Geschichte und Gegenwart unterschiedlicher Videoformate ...

  16. Die Formatestadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Trojan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Zu Zeiten von DV oder VHS (wer kennt das eigentlich noch? war die Welt noch in Ordnung: Da hatte man eine Kassette in der Hand und wenn das passende Gerät gefunden wurde konnte man das Video auch abspielen. Günter Trojan diskutiert die Geschichte und Gegenwart unterschiedlicher Videoformate ...

  17. Frictional interactions in forming processes: New studies with transparent sapphire strip-drawing dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R. S.; Lu, C. Y.; Wright, P. K.; Devenpeck, M. L.; Richmond, O.; Appleby, E. J.

    1982-05-01

    This research is concerned with the frictional interactions at the toolwork interfaces in the machining and strip-drawing processes. A novel feature is that transparent sapphire (single crystal Al2O3) is being used as the tool and die material. This allows the tribological features of the interface to be directly observed and recorded on movie-film. These qualitative studies provide information on the role of lubricants. In addition, techniques are being developed to quantify the velocity gradient along the interface. For example, in the drawing work it has been found that tracer markings (e.g. dye-spots), applied to the undrawn strip, remain intact during drawing and can be tracked along the sapphire/strip interface. Such data will be used as input to a finite-element, elasto-plastic-workhardening model of the deformation process. The latter can compute strip deformation characteristics, drawing forces and local coefficients of friction at the interface. Introductory results will be presented in this paper, obtained from drawing tin-plated mild steel with sapphire and cemented carbide dies. Drawing loads and die-separating forces will be presented and movie-films of the action of tracer markings at the interface shown. In order to demonstrate how this data can be used in an analysis of a large strain deformation process with friction, initial results from running the FIPDEF elasto-plastic code will be discussed. From a commercial viewpoint research on strip-drawing is of special interest to the can-making industry. From a physical viewpoint stripdrawing is of particular interest because it is a symmetrical, plane strain deformation and, in comparison with other metal processing operations, it is more readily modeled. However, until now the elasto-plastic codes that have been developed to predictively model drawing have had limitations: the most notable being that of quantifying the friction conditions at the die-work interface. Hence the specification of the

  18. Politics and legislation related to the final disposal of radioactive wastes. Socio-juridical case study on the Konrad ore mine; Politik und Recht der Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Mit einer rechtssoziologischen Fallstudie ueber Schacht Konrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pape, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The energy revolution leads not only to build more wind turbines and the much-discussed circuit line from northern to southern Germany. Instead, the now old energy form of nuclear power needs to be handled. The disposal is one of the biggest unsolved issues of our time. In the conflict between energy and environment policies, the radioactive contamination of nuclear energy must be disposed of. The book is a highly topical compendium of legal and political aspects, which are not sufficiently taken into account because of their specialty in the public discourse. Based on the case study Konrad almost all legal and political priorities are treated very understandable.

  19. Medizinstudierende Eltern – die Dichotomie der Erfahrungswelten [Parents Studying Medicine – the dichotomy of studying with a family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iden, Kirstin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Introduction: In this article the personal study and life situation of parents who are also medical students at the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main is discussed. There is a special focus on the topics “studying with children” and “family-friendly university”, which have been present in discussions about university development and in the daily life of academics, especially during the last decade. The workgroup “Individual Student Services” at the medical faculty at the Goethe University tries to meet the necessities of the individual study courses and to support the study success with a new counselling and student service concept.Methods: The experience of parents studying medicine was recorded in semi-structured interviews (Date: April 2010, which were held as part of the sponsored pilot project on part-time medical studies (“Pilot Project Part-time Medical Studies”. Additionally, study results from the Medical School of the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main were integrated as well as a literature analysis.Results: It was found that the teaching demands and support services, which have been suggested and needed for years now, have been partially implemented and are without sufficient support at the faculty level to date. Thus the current situation of medical students with children is still difficult and seems a big challenge for everyone involved.Solution: As part of the “Individual Student Services” a new pilot project on part-time medical studies was established in November 2009. Only the use of new, unconventional and innovative ideas allows universities to adequately support the changing and heterogeneous student population and support them to successfully completing their medical studies.[german] Einleitung: In dem vorliegenden Artikel wird die persönliche Studien- und Lebenssituation von Studierenden mit Kindern am Fachbereich Medizin der Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main

  20. Psychotherapie und Spiritualität : eine qualitative Studie über die Integration spiritueller Konzepte und Methoden in die psychotherapeutische Arbeitsweise

    OpenAIRE

    Hundt, Ulrike

    2003-01-01

    Anhand biographischer Interviews werden die Motive von sechs Psychotherapeuten untersucht, sich einem spirituell orientierten Weg zuzuwenden und spirituelle Werte und Methoden in ihr westliches Therapiekonzept zu integrieren. Auffälligstes Ergebnis ist die Argumentation der Notwendigkeit von Spiritualität bzw. Religiosität für den therapeutischen Prozess, verbunden mit einer großen Offenheit für das Weltbild des Klienten. Die befragten Therapeuten lehnten es ab, eine spirituelle Perspektive v...

  1. Delayed somatic effects following extended radiotherapy. Studies of 135 patients with Hodgkin's disease in long-term remission (Freiburg collective, treatment years 1948 to 1974). Untersuchungen ueber somatische Spaetschaeden nach ausgedehnter Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slanina, J

    1977-01-01

    A group of 135 patients who suffered from Hodgkin's disease with long-term remission following radiotherapy was investigated. By restricting the investigations to the patient group with long-term remission and correlative examinations, it was tried to differentiate between exclusive or principal delayed radiation effects and delayed effects due to other factors. The study reports about the most significant results obtained in the fields of catamnesis, laboratory diagnostics, hematology, pulmology, cardiology, thyroid function tests, neurology, andrology and dermatology. Due to the numerous detectable delayed effects the group of patients with long-term remission receives a special status. Although those effects are in no proportion to the deletary risks of an untreated Hodgkin's disease and though they are consequently tolerable in the present state of the therapeutic development, they must initiate the completion of the therapeutic concept including performance of radiotherapy and aftercare, because only then the risk for the patient provoked by these effects, which ranges beyond the malignity of this disease can be reduced or prevented.

  2. Suffering and euthanasia: a qualitative study of dying cancer patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Although intolerable suffering is a core concept used to justify euthanasia, little is known about dying cancer patients' own interpretations and conclusions of suffering in relation to euthanasia. Sixty-six patients with cancer in a palliative phase were selected through maximum-variation sampling, and in-depth interviews were conducted on suffering and euthanasia. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The analysis demonstrated patients' different perspectives on suffering in connection to their attitude to euthanasia. Those advocating euthanasia, though not for themselves at the time of the study, did so due to (1) perceptions of suffering as meaningless, (2) anticipatory fears of losses and multi-dimensional suffering, or (3) doubts over the possibility of receiving help to alleviate suffering. Those opposing euthanasia did so due to (1) perceptions of life, despite suffering, as being meaningful, (2) trust in bodily or psychological adaptation to reduce suffering, a phenomenon personally experienced by informants, and (3) by placing trust in the provision of help and support by healthcare services to reduce future suffering. Dying cancer patients draw varying conclusions from suffering: suffering can, but does not necessarily, lead to advocations of euthanasia. Patients experiencing meaning and trust, and who find strategies to handle suffering, oppose euthanasia. In contrast, patients with anticipatory fears of multi-dimensional meaningless suffering and with lack of belief in the continuing availability of help, advocate euthanasia. This indicates a need for healthcare staff to address issues of trust, meaning, and anticipatory fears.

  3. [The meaning of dying with dignity from caregivers perspective: a phenomenological study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Masero, Olivia; Ortega-Galán, Ángela M; Carmona-Rega, M Inés; Ruiz-Fernández, M Dolores; Cabrera-Troya, José; García-Cisneros, Rogelio; Medina, Fernando Relinque

    To explore the meaning of dying with dignity from the perspective of the direct witnesses who have accompanied this process in dying people from Andalusia. Phenomenological study conducted in different centres, which including analysing the transcriptions of the dialogues from discussion groups with 40 participants in five provinces in Southern Spain. The data was analysed using the Van Manen proposal and Atlas Ti 7.0 program was applied as a software tool. Being in the company of loved ones is noted as a key element in the perception of a dignified death. The following elements, according to a priority order, were also pointed out: relief of suffering, a good professional care, decision making ability, and the opportunity to consider their spiritual dimension. Achievement of their Living Wills is hardly mentioned. The essential elements defined in the Death with Dignity Law, 2/2010 are confirmed as being true (without suffering, with company, respecting living wills, having possibilities of the farewell, and the transcendental meaning of the death process). Caregivers, at the end of life, give priority to psychological aspects, underlying the need of company, a farewell of the loved ones, and a good professional care on the physical aspects. The promotion of the dignified Death Law and Living Wills are still being developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Dimensional control of die castings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karve, Aniruddha Ajit

    The demand for net shape die castings, which require little or no machining, is steadily increasing. Stringent customer requirements are forcing die casters to deliver high quality castings in increasingly short lead times. Dimensional conformance to customer specifications is an inherent part of die casting quality. The dimensional attributes of a die casting are essentially dependent upon many factors--the quality of the die and the degree of control over the process variables being the two major sources of dimensional error in die castings. This study focused on investigating the nature and the causes of dimensional error in die castings. The two major components of dimensional error i.e., dimensional variability and die allowance were studied. The major effort of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively study the effects of casting geometry and process variables on die casting dimensional variability and die allowance. This was accomplished by detailed dimensional data collection at production die casting sites. Robust feature characterization schemes were developed to describe complex casting geometry in quantitative terms. Empirical modeling was utilized to quantify the effects of the casting variables on dimensional variability and die allowance for die casting features. A number of casting geometry and process variables were found to affect dimensional variability in die castings. The dimensional variability was evaluated by comparisons with current published dimensional tolerance standards. The casting geometry was found to play a significant role in influencing the die allowance of the features measured. The predictive models developed for dimensional variability and die allowance were evaluated to test their effectiveness. Finally, the relative impact of all the components of dimensional error in die castings was put into perspective, and general guidelines for effective dimensional control in the die casting plant were laid out. The results of

  5. Compatibility of the Spanish regulatory system governing the electric power industry with provisions of the Treaty of Rome. Art. 30, 34, 37 Treaty of Rome; Art. 48 of the protocol containing the conditions governing access of the Kingdom of Spain and the Republic of Portugal, and modification of the treaties; Vereinbarkeit des spanischen Elektrizitaetssystems mit Regelungen des EG-Vertrages. Art. 30, 34, 37 EGV; Art. 48 der Akte ueber die Bedingungen des Beitritts des Koenigreichs Spanien und der Portugiesischen Republik und die Anpassungen der Vertraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-06-01

    The decision of the European Court of Justice of 23 October 1997 - C-160/94 - is reproduced in full. The Court dismissed the action brought by the European Commission. The matter to be decided was whether Spain by legislation created trade monopolies in imports and exports of electric power which are not in compliance with the Treaty of Rome. (CB) [Deutsch] Das Urteil des Europaeischen Gerichtshofes (EuGH) vom 23.10.1997 - C-160/94 - wird in vollem Wortlaut wiedergegeben. Der EuGH hat die Klage der Kommission abgewiesen. Es ging um die Frage, inwieweit in Spanien per Gesetz gegen den EG-Vertrag verstossende, ausschliessliche Ein- und Ausfuhrrechte fuer Elektrizitaet geschaffen wurden. (CB)

  6. Die funksie van die skeppingstradisie in die boek Jeremia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gedeeites voor wat sterk ooreenkomste toon met die beskrywings van die skep pingsgebeure in die boek Jeremia. • Volgpns Von Rad (1957:144-146) het daar wel 'n groep bestaan wat belange ge- had liet by die oorlewering van die skeppingstradisies. Dit was waarskynlik die. Sadokitiese priesters wat om twee redes aan ...

  7. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun-Jin [Oh-Sung Co. Ltd., Siheung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  8. A Study on Development of High Strength Al-Zn Based alloy for Die Casting Ⅲ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang-Soo; Park, Ik-Min; Yeom, Gil-Young; Lim, Kyoung-Mook; Son, Hyun-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and various characteristics of Al-20⁓45wt%Zn alloys were investigated. In terms of microstructure, as the amount of Zn addition to the alloys increased, the α-phase size decreased and the α+η non-equilibrium solidification phase fraction increased. Also, increasing Zn content improved the wear resistance of the alloys, but reduced the damping capacity and toughness of the alloys. Their physical properties of the Al-Zn alloy with high Zn content, specifically the wear resistance and toughness, were superior to those of commercial ALDC12 alloys for die-casting. Based on these results, we considered the possibility of application of the developed Al-Zn alloy as a structural material.

  9. The studies on ash dying (Fraxinus excelsior L. in the Włoszczowa Forest Unit stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Kowalski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were carried out in the Włoszczowa Forest Unit, in 9 ash stands differing in respect of age, origin (natural, artificial, site and in the nursery on 3 quarters differing due to a silvicultural method (transplanted and not transplanted and seedlings age. In each stand an analysis of disease symptoms was carried out on 100 trees (2 - 20 years old stands or 50 trees (21 - 80 years old stands growing side by side in central part of the stand, while in the nursery in each block 200 seedlings were analyzed (4 sectors with 50 seedlings each. From the infected seedlings and trees 120 fragments of dead branches, living branches with cankers, and dead roots were taken. Identification of fungi was made on the basis of fructification and over 300 isolations of fungi on malt agar medium. The most frequent disease symptoms in ash stands were: the dead top (34.7% trees, the dying of whole branches (83.5%, the dying of the top of branches (20.1%, the occurrence of healed (36.0% and unhealed cankers (18.9% and the slime flux (23.7% on the trunk, also the chlorosis of leaves (7.5% and their atrophy (11.2%. Most of the types of disease symptoms appeared irrespectively of the tree age, origin and site, sometimes showing only a difference in the frequency of occurrence. On the seedlings in the nursery the shoot discolouration, healed and unhealed cankers on shoots and necrosis of a part of leaves were recorded most frequently. Disease symptoms occurred more frequently on 4-year-old seedlings in comparison with 3-year-old. In respect of transplanted seedlings the leaves dying was more frequent. Within cankers and on dead tops of shoots the most frequent were: Alternaria alternata, Chalara sp., Cytospora ambiens, Diplodia mutila, Fusarium lateritium, Gloeosporidiella turgida, Phomopsis controversa and Phomopsis scobina. In sparsely found dead roots of living trees appeared mostly: Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Cylindrocarpon destructans and Phialocephala

  10. Nanostructured films of inorganic-organic hybrid materials for application in photovoltaics; Nanostrukturierte Filme aus anorganisch-organischen Hybridmaterialien fuer die Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlich, Jan

    2009-06-25

    Nanostructured thin films of crystalline TiO{sub 2} for applications in photovoltaics were studied. The fabrication of the thin films is based on a hybrid approach. The anorganic metal oxide prepared via a sol-gel synthesis is structurated by the template properties of the applied organic block-copolymer. Via the film epitaxy by means of centrifugal coating first hybrid films (polymer-nanocomposite films) were fabricated, which were changed by calcination into crystalline TiO{sub 2} films with taylored morphology. The successful development of novel preparation approaches to the adaption to consisting conditions in the application field of photovoltaics contains a route to the fine-tuning of the morphology as well as the fabrication of hierarchical morphologies in different configurations. The structural study of the single nanostructurated TiO{sub 2} films up to the functional multilayer arrangement as photovoltaic demonstration cell was performed with conventionally imaging methods, as for instance scanning force microscopy and electron microscopy as well as the special small-angle X-ray scattering method under rigid incident angle (GISAXS). [German] Es wurden nanostrukturierte duenne Filme aus kristallinem TiO{sub 2} fuer Anwendungen in der Photovoltaik untersucht. Die Herstellung der duennen Filme basiert auf einem Hybridansatz. Das ueber eine Sol-Gel-Synthese bereitgestellte anorganische Metalloxid wird durch die Template-Eigenschaften des eingesetzten organischen Block-Copolymers strukturiert. Ueber die Filmaufbringung mittels Schleuderbeschichtung wurden zunaechst Hybridfilme (Polymer-Nanokompositfilme) hergestellt, die durch Kalzinierung in kristalline TiO{sub 2}-Filme mit massgeschneiderter Morphologie umgewandelt werden. Die erfolgreiche Entwicklung von neuartigen Praeparationsansaetzen zur Adaption an bestehende Gegebenheiten im Anwendungsgebiet der Photovoltaik beinhaltet eine Route zur Feineinstellung der Morphologie sowie die Herstellung von

  11. Die regsposisie van die gemolesteerde kind 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Schabort

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoe reik die reg uit na die seksueel gemolesteerde kind? As na die reg in wye verband gekyk word, sou dit alie wetgewing en alle gemeneregsbeginsels en alle regsprosedures insluit waardeur die Staat poog om molestering te voorkom en die gemolesteerde kind in beskerming te neem. Dit le baie wyd en sou byvoorbeeld die maatreels insluit van die Kindenvet 33 van 1960; die Wet op Egskeiding 70 van 1979; die Wet op Kindersorg 74 van 1983; die Wet op die Status van Kinders 82 van 1987 en die Wet op Bemiddeling in Sekere Egskeidingsaangeleenthede 24 van 1987. Eersdaags sal dit moontlik ook ’n Manifes vir die Regte van Kinders insluit wat vermoedelik geskoei sal wees op die W O se Konvensie vir die Regte van die Kind (1989 w a arv an die RSA tan s nog nie ’n ondertekenaar is nie.

  12. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - multi-element analysis of water samples from the Elbe and selected tributaries; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Multielementanalysen von Wasserproben der Elbe und ausgewaehlter Nebenfluesse. Laengsprofilbeprobung vom September 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, F.; Berger, H. [Umweltbehoerde Hamburg (Germany). Amt fuer Umweltschutz, Umweltuntersuchungen; Aulinger, A.; Stachel, B.; Reincke, H. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    This special report focuses on measurements of elements whose scope goes far beyond the routine monitoring for metals. The present studies are intended to extend the existing knowledge on the pollution situation of the Elbe and certain of its tributaries as well as provide a basis for formulating future guidelines for action. The first step towards this goal is sampling by means of an helicopter. The sampling is followed by a very involved and costly analysis programme, accompanied by extensive quality assurance measures. This is the only way of reliably analysing a large number of elements occurring in extremely low concentrations. Once the data have been recorded the question arises how they are to be evaluated. What schemes are suitable for categorising a large number of elements measured in either the suspended matter or the water compartment? What elements are to be regarded as the result of anthropogenic influences and what are their respective background concentrations in the fluvial system under study? These questions are approached by means of statistical methods which permit identifying elemental patterns and pollution sources as well as optimising the selection of measuring points for future studies. [German] In diesem Sonderbericht steht die Bestimmung von Elementen, die in ihrem Umfang ueber die routinemaessig erfassten Metalle deutlich hinausgeht, im Vordergrund. Die vorliegenden Untersuchungen sollen das bereits vorhandene Wissen zur Beschreibung der Immissionssituation der Elbe und von bestimmten Nebenfluessen erweitern, verbunden mit der Moeglichkeit, zukuenftige Handlungsmaximen zu erarbeiten. Zur Erreichung dieses Ziels steht zu Beginn die Probenahme mit einem Helicopter. Im Anschluss an die Probenahme folgt eine sehr aufwendige und teure Analytik, die begleitet wird von umfassenden Massnahmen zur Qualitaetssicherung. Nur so ist es moeglich, eine grosse Vielzahl von Elementen in extrem niedrigen Konzentrationen sicher analysieren zu koennen. Sind

  13. Suicide assisted by right-to-die associations: a population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Junker, Christoph; Maessen, Maud; Reisch, Thomas; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    In Switzerland, assisted suicide is legal but there is concern that vulnerable or disadvantaged groups are more likely to die in this way than other people. We examined socio-economic factors associated with assisted suicide. We linked the suicides assisted by right-to-die associations during 2003-08 to a census-based longitudinal study of the Swiss population. We used Cox and logistic regression models to examine associations with gender, age, marital status, education, religion, type of household, urbanization, neighbourhood socio-economic position and other variables. Separate analyses were done for younger (25 to 64 years) and older (65 to 94 years) people. Analyses were based on 5 004 403 Swiss residents and 1301 assisted suicides (439 in the younger and 862 in the older group). In 1093 (84.0%) assisted suicides, an underlying cause was recorded; cancer was the most common cause (508, 46.5%). In both age groups, assisted suicide was more likely in women than in men, those living alone compared with those living with others and in those with no religious affiliation compared with Protestants or Catholics. The rate was also higher in more educated people, in urban compared with rural areas and in neighbourhoods of higher socio-economic position. In older people, assisted suicide was more likely in the divorced compared with the married; in younger people, having children was associated with a lower rate. Assisted suicide in Switzerland was associated with female gender and situations that may indicate greater vulnerability such as living alone or being divorced, but also with higher education and higher socio-economic position.

  14. Study the effect of elevated dies temperature on aluminium and steel round deep drawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, Yeong Wei; Azuddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Round deep drawing operation can only be realized by expensive multi-step production processes. To reduce the cost of processes while expecting an acceptable result, round deep drawing can be done at elevated temperature. There are 3 common problems which are fracture, wrinkling and earing of deep drawing a round cup. The main objective is to investigate the effect of dies temperature on aluminium and steel round deep drawing; with a sub-objective of eliminate fracture and reducing wrinkling effect. Experimental method is conducted with 3 different techniques on heating the die. The techniques are heating both upper and lower dies, heating only the upper dies, and heating only the lower dies. 4 different temperatures has been chosen throughout the experiment. The experimental result then will be compared with finite element analysis software. There is a positive result from steel material on heating both upper and lower dies, where the simulation result shows comparable as experimental result. Heating both upper and lower dies will be the best among 3 types of heating techniques. (paper)

  15. Die Energiesicherheit Europas in Bezug auf Erdgas und die Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung im Gassektor

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Luis-Martín

    2011-01-01

    Die Dissertation untersucht die aktuelle Sicherheit der europaeischen Erdgasversorgung. Sie beruecksichtigt zudem die moeglichen Auswirkungen einer Kartellbildung auf die europaeische Gasversorgungssicherheit. Die Arbeit besteht aus einer detaillierten empirischen Studie und darauf aufbauender Szenarioanalyse. Hierzu wird auf den Interdependenzansatz von Robert O. Keohane und Joseph Nye zurueckgegriffen. Zur Darstellung des komplexen Themenbereichs wird auf die Darstellungspraxis der Dichten ...

  16. Study of die-away time for a slab type passive neutron detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, S.; Gubbi, G.K.; Dange, S.P.; Ali, M.Y.; Tomar, B.S.; Basu, T.K.; Anand, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A slab type passive neutron detector coincidence counting system has been fabricated to estimate the plutonium content in nuclear materials. The present work focuses on the measurement of the die-away time of the system. The results obtained by carrying out neutron counting experiments, using the slab detector and a PC-based data acquisition system, are compared to the die-away time estimated by using Monte Carlo N-particle Transport (MCNP) code for the detector configuration. These results are presented along with the parameters and method for measuring the die-away time both experimentally and theoretically. Results of this validity check are in good agreement

  17. The new composting and fermentation plant at Wuerselen; Die neue Kompostierungs- und Vergaerungsanlage Wuerselen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambadt, Karl [AWA Entsorgungs GmbH, Eschweiler (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    AWA Entsorgung GmbH has been operating a biomass waste composting plant since 1995. Early in January 2012, the plant was extended by a KOMPOFERM-System fermentation plant by Messrs. Eggersmann. This raised the capacity from ca. 11,000 tonnes to < 30,000 tonnes. AWA Entsorgung GmbH gets about 62,000 tonnes of biowaste per annum from its cooperative owner, Zweckverband Entsorgungsregion West. Excess waste volumes that cannot be treated at Wuerselen are treated externally after a tender procedure. The contribution outlines the ecological and economic aspects on which the extension plans were based. Construction was finished on schedule and at lower cost than expected due to the combined efforts of project leader Eggersmann, Ingenieurgesellschaft PBO, the city of Wuerselen (development planning) and the urban region of Aachen (licensing). (orig.) [German] Die AWA Entsorgung GmbH betreibt seit 1995 eine Kompostierungsanlage zur Verarbeitung von Bioabfaellen. Seit Anfang Januar 2012 wurde die Anlage um eine Vergaerungsstufe nach dem KOMPOFERM-System der Firma Eggersmann erweitert. Damit steigt die Kapazitaet von bisher ca. 11.000 Tonnen auf eine Durchsatzleistung von < 30.000 Tonnen. Insgesamt hat die AWA Entsorgung GmbH ueber den Gesellschaftseigner, den Zweckverband Entsorgungsregion West, einen Zugriff auf ca. 62.000 Tonnen Bioabfaelle pro Jahr. Die nicht am Standort Wuerselen zu behandelnden Ueberhaenge gingen in der Vergangenheit und gehen auch zukuenftig aufgrund regelmaessiger Ausschreibungen in externe Behandlungsanlagen. Die nachfolgende Zusammenstellung gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die oekologischen und die wirtschaftlichen Aspekte, die der Erweiterungsplanung zugrunde liegen. Die Massnahme konnte bei Unterschreitung des Kostenrahmens und Einhaltung des Terminplanes umgesetzt werden. Der Generalunternehmer Eggersmann, die Ingenieurgesellschaft PBO, die Stadt Wuerselen (Bauleitplanung) und die StaedteRegion Aachen (Genehmigung) haben zum Erfolg in hervorragender

  18. Is Email Business Dying?: A Study on Evolution of Email Spam Over Fifteen Years

    OpenAIRE

    De Wang; Danesh Irani; Calton Pu

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing dedication and sophistication of spammers, email spam is a persistent problem even today. Popular social network sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Google+ are not exempt from email spam as they all interface with email systems. While some report predicts that email spam business is dying due to the decreasing volume of email spam. Whether email spam business is really dying is an interesting question. In this paper, we analyze email spam trends on Spam Archive dataset, ...

  19. The photon tagging facility for the Crystal-Barrel/TAPS experiment at ELSA; Die Photonenmarkierungsanlage fuer das Crystal-Barrel/TAPS-Experiment an ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornet-Ponse, Kathrin

    2009-11-15

    With the CBELASA/TAPS experiment in the framework of the SFB/TR 16 measurements of single- and double-polarization observables in the photoporoduction were performed. The energy of the high-energetic, polarized photon beams required for this, is determined by means of a so-called tagging system. In the framework of this thesis such a tagging system was constructed. It allows the energy tagging of the photons in an energy range from 0.021.E{sub 0} to 0.871.E{sub 0} with a time resolution of {sigma}=0.240 ns and an energy resolution from 0.1%.E{sub 0} to 0.4%.E{sub 0}. The reached time resolution allows to use the tagging system as time reference for the remaining experimental components. For the calculation of cross sections the knowledge of the photon flux at the experimental target is necessary. Thereby the photon definition probability P{sub {gamma}} plays a central role, which indicates, with which probability for a signal from the tagging system the corresponding photon in the {gamma} beam at the production target is present. It could be found a prescription for the determination of P{sub {gamma}}, which yields at tagging rates from 1 MHz to 10 MHz consistent results. A relative systematic error for P{sub {gamma}} was determined. Furthermore the effects of collimation and divergence of the photon beam on the number of the really in the experiment available photons and by this on the maximally reachable P{sub {gamma}} were extensively studied and experimental observations explained. [German] Mit dem CBELSA/TAPS-Experiment werden im Rahmen des SFB/TR 16 Messungen von Einfach- und Doppelpolarisationsobservablen in der Photoproduktion durchgefuehrt. Die hochenergetischen, polarisierten Photonenstrahlen werden ueber den Bremsstrahlungsprozess erzeugt. Die Energie der Photonen bestimmt sich aus der Differenz zwischen der Elektronenergie vor (E{sub 0}) und nach (E{sub e{sup -}}) dem Bremsstrahlungsprozess. Dies erfordert den Nachweis der Sekundaerelektronen mit Hilfe

  20. Reliable energy supply. The new measuring of the world; Energiesicherheit. Die neue Vermessung der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Kraenner, S.

    2007-07-01

    The author presents a convincing final speech for a cooperative energy policy in an European frame, which supplies our economy with energy from different sources: payable, nonpolluting, reliable. The main topics are: what is reliability of energy supply; new measuring of the world during exploitation of new energy resources; energy superpower Russia; way up of Asia; common European energy policy; the defence of the last paradise's; ways out of dependency - sun or atom; the power of right and the diplomacy of the future. (GL) [German] Beim Run auf die letzten Energieressourcen wird derzeit die Welt neu vermessen. Die internationalen Machtverhaeltnisse verschieben sich entlang der Frage, wer die Ressourcen und den Zugang zum Weltmarkt kontrolliert. Das neue Sorgenkind der Weltgemeinschaft heisst Energiesicherheit. Der Begriff meint nicht nur die sichere und bezahlbare Versorgung mit Energie, sondern eine Politik, die im Kampf um Rohstoffe nicht neue Konflikte schafft und die Umwelt schaedigt. Was bedeutet es, wenn Russland die neue Erdgaspipeline durch die Ostsee fuehren will, ueber Meeresboden, in dem die Giftgasgranaten zweier Weltkriege liegen? Gibt es eine Alternative zu der gefaehrlichen Grossmachtpolitik, die Laender wie China, die USA und Russland derzeit verfolgen? Als Antwort auf die weltweite Energiekrise plaediert Mueller-Kraenner fuer eine kooperative Energiepolitik im europaeischen Rahmen, die unsere Wirtschaft mit Energie aus unterschiedlichen Quellen versorgt: bezahlbar, umweltfreundlich, sicher. (orig.)

  1. Modeling the Mechanical Performance of Die Casting Dies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Allen Miller

    2004-02-27

    The following report covers work performed at Ohio State on modeling the mechanical performance of dies. The focus of the project was development and particularly verification of finite element techniques used to model and predict displacements and stresses in die casting dies. The work entails a major case study performed with and industrial partner on a production die and laboratory experiments performed at Ohio State.

  2. Klinische Studie zur Messung der Dimensionsstabilität von digitalen Ganzkieferabformungen und die Entwicklung einer neuen Messmethode

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhr, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Digitale Abformungen mit intraoralen Scannern haben klinisch bereits bewiesen, dass sie einzelne Zähne detail- und dimensionsgenau aufnehmen und in dieser Hinsicht eine Alternative zur konventionellen zahnärztlichen Abformung bieten können. Ob dies klinisch auch mit dem Scannen gesamter Zahnreihen möglich ist, wurde bislang nicht untersucht. Sowohl für konventionelle wie auch für digitale Abformungen gibt es keine In-vivo-Studie, die eine Methode zur Überprüfung der dimensionsgetreuen Übertra...

  3. [The right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Morales-Asencio, Jose Miguel; Morales-Gil, Isabel María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Crespillo-García, Eva; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    2014-01-01

    To examine the perceptions and beliefs of doctors and nurses, and the barriers and facilitators they must address as regards the right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital, and to consider the applicability of the provisions of Law 2/2010 of 8 April in this respect. A qualitative descriptive study, based on the focus group technique, using discourse analysis of the views of doctors and nurses responsible for the health care of terminal cancer and non-cancer patients in an acute-care hospital. The results obtained show that there are diverse obstacles to assure the rights of terminal patients, and to ensure the proper performance of their duties by healthcare professionals and institutions. The nature and impact of these difficulties depend on the characteristics of the patients and their families, the health workers involved, the organisation of health care, and cultural factors. The study highlights the need to improve the process of communication with patients and their families, to facilitate shared decision making and to establish measures to clarify issues such as palliative sedation and treatment limitation. It is necessary to improve the applicability of the law on living wills and dignified death in non-cancer specialist areas. Further training is needed regarding ethical, spiritual and anthropological aspects of care in these situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Does ethnicity affect where people with cancer die? A population-based 10 year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Koffman

    Full Text Available Ageing is a growing issue for people from UK black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME groups. The health experiences of these groups are recognised as a 'tracer' to measure success in end of life patient-preferred outcomes that includes place of death (PoD.To examine patterns in PoD among BAME groups who died of cancer.Mortality data for 93,375 cancer deaths of those aged ≥65 years in London from 2001-2010 were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS. Decedent's country of birth was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Linear regression examined trends in place of death across the eight ethnic groups and Poisson regression examined the association between country of birth and place of death.76% decedents were born in the UK, followed by Ireland (5.9%, Europe(5.4% and Caribbean(4.3%. Most deaths(52.5% occurred in hospital, followed by home(18.7%. During the study period, deaths in hospital declined with an increase in home deaths; trend for time analysis for those born in UK(0.50%/yr[0.36-0.64%]p<0.001, Europe (1.00%/yr[0.64-1.30%]p<0.001, Asia(1.09%/yr[0.94-1.20%]p<0.001 and Caribbean(1.03%/yr[0.72-1.30%]p<0.001. However, time consistent gaps across the geographical groups remained. Following adjustment hospital deaths were more likely for those born in Asia(Proportion ratio(PR1.12[95%CI1.08-1.15]p<0.001 and Africa(PR 1.11[95%CI1.07-1.16]p<0.001. Hospice deaths were less likely for those born in Asia(PR 0.73 [0.68-0.80] p<0.001, Africa (PR 0.83[95%CI0.74-0.93]p<0.001, and 'other' geographical regions (PR0.90[95% 0.82-0.98]p<0.001. Home deaths were less likely for those born in the Caribbean(PR0.91[95%CI 0.85-0.98]p<0.001.Location of death varies by country of birth. BAME groups are more likely to die in a hospital and less likely to die at home or in a hospice. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these differences result from patient-centred preferences, or other environment or service-related factors. This knowledge

  5. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR "DIE PUNCH" DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees.

  6. The attitudes of brain cancer patients and their caregivers towards death and dying: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmelman Jonathan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much money and energy has been spent on the study of the molecular biology of malignant brain tumours. However, little attention has been paid to the wishes of patients afflicted with these incurable tumours, and how this might influence treatment considerations. Methods We interviewed 29 individuals – 7 patients dying of a malignant brain tumor and 22 loved ones. One-on-one interviews were conducted according to a pre-designed interview guide. A combination of open-ended questions, as well as clinical scenarios was presented to participants in order to understand what is meaningful and valuable to them when determining treatment options and management approaches. The results were analyzed, coded, and interpreted using qualitative analytic techniques in order to arrive at several common overarching themes. Results Seven major themes were identified. In general, respondents were united in viewing brain cancer as unique amongst malignancies, due in large part to the premium placed on mental competence and cognitive functioning. Importantly, participants found their experiences, however difficult, led to the discovery of inner strength and resilience. Responses were usually framed within an interpersonal context, and participants were generally grateful for the opportunity to speak about their experiences. Attitudes towards religion, spirituality, and euthanasia were also probed. Conclusion Several important themes underlie the experiences of brain cancer patients and their caregivers. It is important to consider these when managing these patients and to respect not only their autonomy but also the complex interpersonal toll that a malignant diagnosis can have.

  7. Geslagsverskille in die ouditiewe ontlokte potensiaal van die brein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Gender differences in the auditory evoked potential of the brain. Based on literature indications of an association between temperament characteristics and the evoked potential of the brain, and indications of gender differences in certain temperament traits, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether evoked responses also differentiated between the genders. A sample of 81 male and 210 female students was randomly selected. Two auditory evoked potential procedures were applied. The results indicated statistically significant differences in evoked potential responses between the genders. The results are interpreted against the background of sensory and neurological sources of the evoked potential responses and linked to the neurophysiological foundations of temperament. Opsomming: Gegrond op aanduidings in die literatuur van ’n assosiasie tussen temperamentskenmerke en die ontlokte potensiaal van die brein, sowel as aanduidings van geslagsverskille in sekere temperamentstrekke, was die doel van die huidige studie om te bepaal of ontloktepotensiaal-response ook tussen die geslagte onderskei. ’n Steekproef van 81 manlike en 210 vroulike studente is ewekansig geselekteer. Twee ouditiewe ontloktepotensiaal- prosedures is toegepas. Die resultate het op statisties beduidende verskille tussen die geslagte gedui. Die bevindinge word teen die agtergrond van die sensoriese en neurologiese oorsprong van ontloktepotensiaal–response geïnterpreteer en verbind aan die neurofisiologiese verankering van temperament.

  8. Comparative study on laser welding and TIG welding of semi-solid high pressure die cast A356 aluminium alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, G

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available components. The low porosity levels in SSM high pressure die castings (HPDC) improves the weldability of these components. The aim of the current research was to perform a comparative study of laser and TIG welding of SSM HPDC aluminium alloy A356. SSM...

  9. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - endocrineously active substances in the Elbe, its tributaries and the North Sea; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Endokrin wirksame Stoffe in der Elbe, in Nebenfluessen und in der Nordsee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemken, O.P. [GALAB, Geesthacht (Germany); Theobald, N. [Bundesamt fuer Seeschiffahrt und Hydrographie, Hamburg (Germany); Hebbel, H. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Hamburg (Germany); Stachel, B. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Endocrineously active substances are discharged into surface bodies of water with communal and industrial effluents. Especially estrogenic substances like Bisphenol A, alkyl phenols and alkyl phenol ethoxylates in the Elbe and its tributaries have been neglected so far. In the context of an interdisciplinary project, chemists, biologists and mathematicians investigated the concentrations and fate of these xenoestrogens, relative potential effects of unknown water constituents and quantitative statistical mechanisms based on the available analytical findings. The contribution intends to contribute information on the pollutant situation of selected endocrineously active substances in the Elbe and its tributaries. [German] Ein relevanter Eintragspfad fuer endokrin wirksame Stoffe in die Oberflaechengewaesser sind die Abwaesser kommunaler und industrieller Klaeranlagen. Insbesondere das Vorkommen und der Verbleib von oestrogen wirkenden Stoffen wie Bisphenol A, den Alkylphenolen und Alkylphenolethoxylaten in der Elbe und in Elbenebenfluessen wurde bisher zu wenig Aufmerksamkeit geschenkt. In einem interdisziplinaeren Projekt, an dem sich Chemiker, Biologen und Mathematiker beteiligten, wird versucht, eine erste Antwort zu geben ueber das Vorkommen und den Verbleib dieser Xenooestrogene, ueber relative Wirkpotenzen von unbekannten Wasserinhaltsstoffen durch die Anwendung von In-vitro-Tests und ueber quantitative statistische Zusammenhaenge, die auf vorhandenen Analysenergebnissen basieren. Dieser Bericht soll einen Beitrag leisten zur Immissionssituation von ausgewaehlten endokrin wirksamen Stoffen in der Elbe und in Elbenebenfluessen. (orig.)

  10. James Henry Greathead en die Londense Moltrein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Wright

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel ondersoek die oorsprong en vroeë geskiedenis van die toestel genaamd die ‘Greathead Skild’, ‘n belangrike nuwigheid in Viktoriaanse ingenieurwetenskap, wat van deurslaggewende belang was in die konstruksie van die Londense Moltrein. Die doel is om die basis te ontleed waarop, baie jare later, ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse ingenieur wye openbare erkenning in die vorm van ‘n standbeeld vir die ‘ontwerp’ van die Skild geniet het. Uit die perspektief van kulturele studies beskou, hoe moet ons uitvinding verstaan, gegewe dat ander briljante ingenieurs ook betrokke was? Hierdie vraag word ontleed met die gebruik van die konsep ‘extelligence’ (Stewart and Cohen 1997, in samehang met ander kontemporêre en geskiedkundige weergawes, insluitend Greathead se eie rekord van sy prestasies in die verrigtinge van die Instituut van Siviele Ingenieurs en voorgelê in The City and South London Railway (1896, onder redaksie van James Forrest. Hierdie artikel is die eerste keer as referaat aangebied by die konferensie oor ‘Nuuthede en Innovasie in die Negentiende Eeu’ aan die Noordwes-Universiteit, Mei 2016.

  11. Euthanasia in patients dying at home in Belgium: interview study on adherence to legal safeguards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Van den Block, Lieve; Cohen, Joachim; Van Casteren, Viviane; Deliens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Background Euthanasia became legal in Belgium in 2002. Physicians must adhere to legal due care requirements when performing euthanasia; for example, consulting a second physician and reporting each euthanasia case to the Federal Review Committee. Aim To study the adherence and non-adherence of GPs to legal due care requirements for euthanasia among patients dying at home in Belgium and to explore possible reasons for non-adherence. Design of study Large scale, retrospective study. Setting General practice in Belgium. Method A retrospective mortality study was performed in 2005–2006 using the nationwide Belgian Sentinel Network of General Practitioners. Each week GPs reported medical end-of-life decisions taken in all non-sudden deaths of patients in their practice. GP interviews were conducted for each euthanasia case occurring at home. Results Interviews were conducted for nine of the 11 identified euthanasia cases. Requirements concerning the patient's medical condition were met in all cases. Procedural requirements such as consultation of a second physician were sometimes ignored. Euthanasia cases were least often reported (n = 4) when the physician did not regard the decision as euthanasia, when only opioids were used to perform euthanasia, or when no second physician was consulted. Factors that may contribute to explaining non-adherence to the euthanasia law included: being unaware of which practices are considered to be euthanasia; insufficient knowledge of the euthanasia law; and the fact that certain procedures are deemed burdensome. Conclusion Substantive legal due care requirements for euthanasia concerning the patient's request for euthanasia and medical situation were almost always met by GPs in euthanasia cases. Procedural consultation and reporting requirements were not always met. PMID:20353662

  12. Die rol van die blanke werker in die motivering van die swart werker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Oosthuizen

    1980-11-01

    Opsomming Die motivering van die Swart werker kan nie in die huidige situasie in isolasie bestudeer word nie, omdat die Blanke werker steeds in die bestuursposisie is en daarom die motivering van die Swart werker kan beïnvloed. Hierdie ondersoek was daarop gerig om die rol van die Blanke werker in die motivering van die Swart werker nader te ondersoek. Die houding en die leierskapsbenadering van die Blanke werker teenoor die Swart werker is gemeet, asook die behoeftes wat volgens die Blanke werker by die Swart werker bestaan, bevredig is, of nie bestaan nie. Die behoeftes van Swart werkers, soos deur hulleself gesien, is ook ondersoek. Ten opsigte van sekere aspekte is beduidende verskille gevind.

  13. Die lewensvatbaarheid van 'n slaghuisfranchise / deur Johan Smit

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, Johan

    2009-01-01

    Die Suid-Afrikaanse rooivleisindustrie is lomp en wyd. Een van die redes vir hierdie toedrag van sake is die verskeie rolspelers in die industrie. 'n Moontlike oplossing vir hierdie probleem is die vertikale integrasie-sisteem gerugsteun deur 'n lewensvatbare franchise in die kleinhandelsektor. Die studie fokus op die lewensvatbaarheid van 'n slaghuisfranchise. Daar moet egter ook bepaal word of 'n slaghuis wei gefranchise kan word, voordat die lewensvatbaarheid van 'n slaghuisfranchise be...

  14. Comparative Evaluation of Tensile Strength in Die Stone Incorporated with Sodium and Calcium Hypochlorite as Disinfectants: An in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodh, N R; Kumar, C N Vijay; Pradeep, M R; Naik, Ravi; Mahesh, C S; Kumari, Manju R

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the tensile strength of die stone incorporated with sodium and calcium hypochlorite as disinfectants. Two commercially available type IV die stone (Kalrock: Kalabhai Karson Pvt., Ltd and Pearlstone: Asian Chemicals) and two commercially available disinfectant solutions (sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite: Beachem Laboratory Chemical Private Limited, Chennai and Leo Chem Private Limited, Bengaluru) were used in this study, and the tensile strength was measured using Lloyd's Universal Testing Machine. The results show that incorporating the disinfecting solutions decreases the tensile strength of both products. The effect of decreasing tensile strength on type IV gypsum product is seen more in calcium hypochlorite when compared with sodium hypochlorite disinfecting solution, and the tensile strength of Kalrock specimens is higher than Pearlstone specimens after disinfecting with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite solution. The statistical results also show significant results in all the groups when compared with the control group. The incorporation of sodium and calcium hypochlorite disinfecting solutions is not an encouraging method for both die materials as it reduces the tensile strength of type IV gypsum product. Tensile strength of Kalstone® die material is superior than Pearlstone® die material after mixing with sodium hypochlorite and calcium hypochlorite. According to the recommendations of Americans with Disability Act (ADA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, disinfecting the whole cast without or minimal changes in physical and mechanical properties was the motto of the study. The tensile strength in type IV gypsum product plays a most important role in retrieval of cast from impression, especially in narrow tooth preparation. This study reveals that incorporating method of disinfecting solutions is not recommended as it reduces the tensile strength.

  15. Zero-leakage shut-off butterflies for high-temperature applications; Dichtschliessende Absperrklappen fuer die Hochtemperaturtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, N. [Krombach Armaturen, Kreuztal (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    Over many years, zero-leakage butterfly valves have eminently proven their capabilities in a large range of elevated-temperature and elevated-pressure processes. This article examines the basic design differences between various butterfly valves. These differences are, among other factors, important indicators of the suitability of the various valve types for their use in industry. (orig.) [German] Dichtschliessende Absperrklappen haben sich ueber Jahre in vielen Prozessen, die unter hoeherem Druck und hoeherer Temperatur ablaufen, bestens bewaehrt. Der Beitrag zeigt die grundsaetzlichen konstruktiven Unterschiede dichtschliessender Absperrklappen. Diese Unterschiede sind unter anderem Indikatoren fuer die Prozesstauglichkeit von Absperrklappen in der Industrie. (orig.)

  16. a study of attitudes of nurses toward death and dying in tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    disease/illness. Transition to the terminal stage of care is tension packed and care burden enormous. The nurses should therefore muster the necessary resources to ensure effective control of pain and other symptoms (palliative care) Anarado (2010). The attitudes of nurses toward death and dying patients may influence to.

  17. Modeling the Smartphone Game to Improve Players Focus Case Study of Game Dumb Ways to Die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Purnamasari

    2014-10-01

    There are a need to find some characteristics of a game which has positive effects for the players. Those characteristics can be formulated as the example of a good game. This paper will analyze the opinion and produce the conclusion from a survey of playing "Dumb Ways to Die to generate a positive game model.

  18. Natural Body Posture of Preference in the Dying Process : An Explorative Observational Study in a hospicesetting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboeket-Crul, Cathelijne; Thien, Nynke; Teunissen, SCCM

    2016-01-01

    Background: All people have different postures while sleeping. Most people will prefer a lateral position. In the last days and hours before dying, patients are usually to be found in a supine position. In literature so far it has never been questioned whether the supine position is the most

  19. Progress report within the series of GRS-F progress reports on reactor safety, sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour. Period: 1 July - 31 December 2003; Berichte ueber vom Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit gefoerderte Forschungsvorhaben auf dem Gebiet der Reaktorsicherheit. Berichtszeitraum: 01. Juli - 31. Dezember 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, by order of the BMWi, continuously issues information on the status of the investigations into the safety of nuclear power plants by publishing semi-annual and annual progress reports within the series of GRS-F-Fortschrittsberichte (GRS-F-Progress Reports). Each progress report represents a compilation of individual reports about the objectives, work performed, results achieved, next steps of the work etc. The individual reports are prepared in a standard form by the research organisations themselves as documentation of their progress in work and are published by the Research Management Division of GRS within the framework of general information on the progress in reactor safety research. The compilation of the reports is classified according to general topics related to reactor safety research. Further, use is made of the classification system ''Joint Safety Research Index'' of the CEC (commission of the european communities). The reports are arranged in sequence of their project numbers. (orig.) [German] Die Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH informiert im Auftrag des BMWi halbjaehrlich und jaehrlich ueber den Stand der Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit von Kernreaktoren in den Fortschrittsberichten der GRS-F-Berichtsreihe. Jeder Fortschrittsbericht stellt eine Sammlung von Einzelberichten ueber Zielsetzung, durchgefuehrte Arbeiten, erzielte Ergebnisse, geplante Weiterarbeit etc. dar, die von den Forschungsstellen selbst als Dokumentation ihres Arbeitsfortschritts in einheitlicher Form erstellt und von der Forschungsbetreuung (FB) in der GRS im Rahmen der allgemeinen Information ueber die Fortschritte von Untersuchungen zur Reaktorsicherheit herausgegeben werden. Die inhaltliche Gliederung der Berichtssammlung erfolgt durch sachliche Zuordnung der Vorhaben zu uebergeordneten Themenbereichen der Reaktorsicherheitsforschung, ferner nach dem Klassifikationsschema

  20. Die hervertolking van die paradigma in verband met die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kerkorde van De Mist en die Algemene Reglement van 1816, wat onderskeidelik vir die Kaapse Kerk en die .... Een van die eerstes was Sam Freiherr von Pufendorf (1632-1694) wat in sy werk De habitu religionis ..... Koning was weer aan bewind (vgl Diepenhorst sj:74w; De Visser 1926/1927 lll:202w). 43.1 JD Janssen ...

  1. die heidelbergse kategismus en die kategesemateriaal van die ned

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    subjek, objek, leerstof en die metodiek van die senior kategese. Bloemfontein: Algemene Jeugkommissie Sondagskoolboekhandel. de rAAd oer ned ger kerken in Zuid AfrikA. 1921. De zevende vergadering: handelinge. 1925. De negende vergadering: handelinge. de villierS, d. W. 1957. Die Kategese in die Ned. Geref.

  2. die sinodale verband van die nederduitse gereformeerde kerk in die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liezel

    Strauss. Die sinodale verband van die Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk. 122 die Vrystaatse Sinode anti-veranderingsgesind of eerder gesond-behoudend of gereformeerd-gematig? Veral as dit .... howe) in moeilike omstandighede gebring is (NG Kerk in die OVS 1865-1912:5). In 'n brief op 8 Augustus 1864 ontken Ds.

  3. Die kerkregtelike posisie van die ouderling en diaken in die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... drie dekades die Kerkreg gevestig as 'n selfstandige vak in die teologiese curriculum, maar ook 'n baie groot rol gespeel daarin dat die beginsels van die kerk like reg beter begryp word. Naas sy wetenskaplike bydrae word met eweveel genoegdoening gedink aan sy bcsondere persoonlikheid, sy werkvermoe, sy humor-.

  4. Incidence of Suicide Among Persons Who Had a Parent Who Died During Their Childhood: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Li, Jiong; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Obel, Carsten; Agerbo, Esben; Gissler, Mika; Cnattingius, Sven; Olsen, Jørn; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-12-01

    Parental death from suicide is associated with increased risk of suicide in the bereaved child, but little is known about the long-term risks of suicide after parental death from other causes. A better understanding of this association may improve suicide prevention efforts. To examine the long-term risks of suicide after parental death and how the risk trajectories differed by cause of parental death while accounting for major potential confounding variables. A population-based matched cohort study was performed using information from nationwide registers (data from 1968 to 2008) in 3 Scandinavian countries (for a total of 7,302,033 persons). We identified 189,094 children (2.6%) who had a parent who died before the child reached 18 years of age (ie, the bereaved cohort). Each bereaved child was matched by sex and age to 10 children who did not have a parent who died before they reached 18 years of age (for a total of 1,890,940 children) (ie, the reference cohort). Both cohorts were followed for up to 40 years. Poisson regression was used to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR), while accounting for age at parental death, sex, time since bereavement, maternal/paternal death, birth order, family history of psychiatric illness, and socioeconomic status. Data analyses were finalized June 24, 2015. The main exposure was death of a parent within the first 18 years of life. Incidence of suicide among persons who had a parent who died during their childhood. During follow-up, 265 bereaved persons (0.14%) and 1342 nonbereaved persons (0.07%) died of suicide (IRR = 2.02 [95% CI, 1.75-2.34]); IRR = 3.44 (95% CI, 2.61-4.52) for children who had a parent who died of suicide, and IRR = 1.76 (95% CI, 1.49-2.09) for children who had a parent who died of other causes. The IRR tended to be higher for children who had a parent who died before they reached 6 years of age, and the IRR remained high for at least 25 years. During 25 years of follow-up, the absolute risk

  5. Rezension zu: Rebecca Pates, Daniel Schmidt: Die Verwaltung der Prostitution. Eine vergleichende Studie am Beispiel deutscher, polnischer und tschechischer Kommunen. Bielefeld: transcript Verlag 2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Künkel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Die aus dem Forschungsprojekt ‚Verwaltung der Prostitution‘ an der Universität Leipzig heraus entstandene Publikation geht der Frage nach, welche Problemdefinitionen, Kategorisierungen und Wissensbestände lokale Verwaltungsakteure/-innen in Deutschland, Polen und Tschechien der Prostitutionsregulierung zugrunde legen. Die Studie zeigt, dass teilautonomes Verwaltungshandeln Recht nicht nur umsetzt, sondern auch produziert. Durch den Fokus auf die lokale Ebene der Prostitutionsregulierung und durch den staatsethnographischen Zugang ist die Monographie in zweierlei Hinsicht innovativ. Lediglich etwas mehr Informationen zum methodischen Vorgehen sowie ein expliziteres Aufgreifen der theoretischen Konzepte bei der Aufbereitung des empirischen Materials wären wünschenswert gewesen.

  6. Die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werks prestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Coetzer

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. The aim of the study was to establish the relationship between locus of control and the work performance of black marketers in the life assurance industry. These constructs were selected by virtue of the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship between them. The Locus of Control Scale of Schepers (1995 was used for measuring locus of control. Work performance was measured by the commission earned per month by the marketer, the number of policies generated by the marketer, as well as the percentage of lapsed policies. The relevant measurements were obtained in respect of a sample of 149 black marketing personnel. The results indicated a modest but statistically significant relationship between external locus of control and the work performance of black marketers. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die verband tussen lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf te bepaal. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies op grond van die gebrek aan empiriese navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband tussen genoemde konstrukte. Die Lokus van Beheer-vraelys van Schepers (1995 is in die meting van lokus van beheer gebruik. Werksprestasie is aan die hand van kommissie per maand verdien, aantal polisse gegenereer deur 'n bemarker en die persentasie vervalde polisse, gemeet. Die tersaaklike metinge is verkry ten opsigte van 'n steekproef van 149 swart bemarkers. Die resultate toon 'n klein, dog statisties beduidende verband tussen eksterne lokus van beheer en die werksprestasie van swart bemarkers in die lewensversekeringsbedryf.

  7. Home to die from the intensive care unit: A qualitative descriptive study of the family's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amy L; Van Wissen, Kim A

    2017-12-01

    Many people would choose to die at home, and this can be an option for intensive care patients. However, there is limited exploration of the impact on the family. To gain insight into family members' experiences when an adult intensive care unit patient is taken home to die. Methodology is qualitative description, utilising purposeful sampling, unstructured interviews and thematic analysis. Four participants, from two different families were interviewed. The setting was a tertiary level Intensive Care Unit in New Zealand. The experience was described as a kaleidoscope of events with two main themes: 'value' family member's found in the patient going home, and their experience of the 'process'. 'Value' subthemes: going home being the patient's own decision, home as an end-of-life environment, and the patient's positive response to being at home. 'Process' subthemes: care and support received, stress of a family member being in intensive care, feeling that everything happened quickly, and concerns and uncertainties. Going home to die from the intensive care unit can be a positive but challenging experience for the family. Full collaboration between the patient, family and staff is essential, to ensure the family are appropriately supported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological studies at subchondral bone structures in human early arthrosis. Final report; Morphologische Studien an subchondralen Knochenstrukturen bei humanen Frueharthrosen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Quantitative histomorphometric studies using an image analysis system were performed simultaneously on hyaline cartilage, calcified cartilage and subchondral cancellous bone of human tibial heads for detailed information about the pathogenesis of arthrosis. Joint structures need to be fully detected in three dimensions since measurement values are more affected by topographical aspects than by either age, or sex, or arthrosin stage. Mechanical factors were found to affect essentially the initiation and progression of arthrosis. Results are demonstrated in detail. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um detaillierte Aussagen ueber die Pathogenese der Arthrose machen zu koennen, wurden hyaliner Knorpel, Kalkknorpel und subchondrale Spongiosa menschlicher Tibiakoepfe gleichzeitig mit Hilfe eines Bildanalysesystems quantitativ histomorphometrisch untersucht. Eine umfangreiche dreidimensionale Erfassung der Gelenkstrukturen ist erforderlich, da sich topographische Aspekte wesentlich staerker auf die Messwerte auswirken als Alter, Geschlecht oder Arthrosestadium. Insgesamt zeigt sich ein wesentlicher Einfluss mechanischer Faktoren auf die Arthroseinitiierung und -progredienz. Die Ergebnisse werden detailliert dargestellt. (orig.)

  9. Riglyne vir die onderwys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. du Plooy

    1960-03-01

    Full Text Available In die afgelope vyftig jaar sedert die Unie tot stand gekom het, is veel op die gebied van onderwys tot stand gebring. Dit is heel natuurlik dat ’n mens sou vra: Wat van die toekoms?

  10. Bevordering van transformerende leer: Die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna R. du Toit

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die doel van die artikel is om aan te toon hoe die skryf van ’n reflektiewe joernaal in die Natuurwetenskappe die perspektiewe en denke van onderwysstudente kan transformeer en/of leer kan bevorder. Die studie maak voorspraak vir die gebruik van ’n reflektiewe joernaal as ’n instrument vir studente om betekenis te gee aan die leeromgewing vanuit verskillende perspektiewe deur te leer in praktyk. ’n Kwalitatiewe navorsingsmetode is gevolg om die inskrywings in ’n joernaal te analiseer aan die hand van bepaalde indikatore. Die bevindinge toon dat die meeste studente na die praktykervaring positief was en sommiges het tot ander perspektiewe vanweë hul ervaring gekom.

  11. Information on the Schacht Asse II. Key aspect concentration; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Schwerpukt Konzentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The information brochure on the Schacht Asse II covers the following issues: without the main mine fan the operation of Asse II would not be possible; the site selection for a final repository as a democratic challenge; the final radioactive waste disposal management in Germany, Asse, Morsleben and Konrad are rather close.

  12. Investigation on the applicability of dust protection helmets in the mining industry. Untersuchungen ueber die Einsatzmoeglichkeiten von Staubschutzhelmen im Bergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, H.D.; Werner, W.; Fuerst, E.

    1984-10-01

    In case of static ambient air, leakages for volumes of 25 x 1,5 l/min and air supplies >= 120 l/min or 25 x 2,0 l/min and >= 160 l/min do not occur. The increasing flow rate of moving ambient air leads to an increase of leakages. They show their largest extensions in case of lateral flow. In addition, they expand together with increasing physiological load. Therefore, the inherent air supply should not be below 160 l/min. The comparison of the dust protection helmet 'Airstream AH 1' with two respirators revealed the lowest additional physiological load for the dust protection helmet. Applicability tests in situ resulted in the following principal objections: contamination and scratches on the visor leading to visibility restriction of the wearer, bad fit, weight distribution and helmet dimensions, pressure sores and chafes of sealing parts and edges, lamp installation. Air supply and movement were felt as too high in case of low ambient temperatures, and in case of high temperatures and physiological strain it was considered as too low. There were only few objections against fan noise, weight and impediment by cable and battery. Based on the results, a specification including monitoring and maintenance of the helmet was made and additional tests for DIN design 58 645, item 7, were induced. Furthermore, a proposal regarding helmet optimisation was made.

  13. Report about the agricultural situation in Austria 2000; Gruener Bericht 2000. Bericht ueber die Lage der oesterreichischen Landwirtschaft 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poschacher, G; Panholzer, L; Hofer, O; Moravec, K; Fehrer, R; Brier, K [eds.

    2001-07-01

    In 2000 economic growth in Austria amounted to 3.2 %. The inflation rate rose from 0.6 % in 1999 to 2.3 % in 2000. Apart from the increase in crude oil price the rise in indirect taxes contributed as well to the upward trend of prices. According to Eurostat the unemployed rate went down to 3.7 %. According to the agricultural accounts agricultural incomes were rising again in 2000 for the first time since 1995 (+1.6 %). The final production of agriculture and forestry amounted to ATS 62.9 billion (+0.4 %, of which agriculture ATS 50.3 billion, and forestry ATS 12.6 billion). Whereas the yields in plant production decreased in particular due to the drought (-6.1 %), the gross yield from animal husbandry increased by 8.1 %. this rise is in particular due to the recovery of the pig market. According to the Austrian Institute of Economic Research (Wirtschafts-forschungsinstitut WIFO) direct payments rose compared to the year before by ATS 0.5 billion to ATS 17.8 billion. The share of agriculture and forestry in the GDP decreased to 1.3 %. According to WIFO the number of persons working full-time in the agricultural sector totalled 140,000 in 2000. The agricultural quota amounted to 4.0 %. In agricultural trade a rise was recorded again in exports (15.6 %) as well as in imports (14.7 %) in 2000 compared to the year 1999. Exports of agricultural goods totalled almost ATS 47 billion, of which two thirds were exports to EU member countries. Agricultural imports amounted to almost ATS 61 billion, of which three quarters came from EU member countries. The agricultural trade balance decreased to - ATS 14 billion. In 2000 the food industry was severely hi in particular by the current meat crises. European consumers organizations and associations call for the rethinking in the subsidisation policy and a promotion of organic farming. The core elements of the European foodstuffs model should be in particular security and safety, quality, origin, and diversity. In 2000 Austrian tourism recorded a slight increase in overnight stays of 0.8 % (in 1999: +1.4 %). The number of overnight stays amounted to 113.7 million. As far as overnight stays on farms are concerned there was in particular an increase in the category 'holiday apartments' (+7.4 %) compared to the year before. The number of overnight stays in the category private farm holidays (up to 10 beds, without holiday apartments) decreased by 3.8 %. (author)

  14. Offshore wind energy. An overview on the activities in Germany; Offshore-Windenergie. Ein Ueberblick ueber die Aktivitaeten in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, Anja [media consulta Deutschland GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The brochure under consideration provides an overview of the activities of offshore wind energy in Germany. The first offshore wind farms are built and generate more electricity than expected. The offshore wind farms serve as a field of learning for new technologies. The power of offshore wind farms opened new prospects for the economy. The northern Federal States of Germany as well as the traditional locations for mechanical engineering and steel production benefit from offshore wind energy.

  15. Minergie-Eco system audit - Results of the concept phase; Systemnachweis MINERGIE-ECO. Bericht ueber die Ergebnisse der Konzeptphase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenel, S.; Schinabeck, J.; Sigg, R. [Intep, Integrale Planung GmbH, Zuerich (Switzerland); Foradini, F. [E4tech Sarl, Lausanne (Switzerland); Citherlet, S. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs du Canton de Vaud (EIVD), Yverdon (Switzerland); Roulet, C.-A. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment (LESO-PB), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2006-05-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of the concept phase of a project that developed a system-verification method for the Swiss Minergie-Eco label. This label considers not only energy aspects of building but also the materials used along with health aspects. Swiss and international standards that form the basis for the audit are described. The methods used and the work packages involved in the whole project are described and their implementation is discussed in detail. The framework for the software building-blocks to be developed is presented. The further project phases involved in the project are briefly discussed and the planned implementation time-scales are presented.

  16. On the separation and association of vapour in large power stations; Ueber die Trennung und Vereinigung von Dampf in Grosskraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matschke, Alan

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives for the improvement of utility boilers are to increase their overall efficiency. Therefore, steam parameters need to be increased leading to temperatures which may exceed the limiting temperatures of the tube materials. Considering these aspects, the single tube temperatures of a powerplant have to be determined to prevent material failure. In order to account for the mutual impact of combustion and water-steam-cycle, a coupled simulation is performed to calculate the single tube temperatures. Apart from the interaction of combustion and water-steam-cycle, the design of the heat exchanger headers is relevant. On the basis of a detailed investigation of the pressure distribution in steam distributors and headers, a new quality regarding the prediction and calculation of single tube temperatures will be obtained. By means of a similarity analysis, the governing geometry relations associated with the pressure change in steam distributors and headers are identified. The parametrisation of this approach is done by comparing the measured pressure values of an air-flow divider-collector-combination. The portability of the air-flow results to water, respectively steam is approved. Based on the experimental data, computational fluid dynamic simulations of all governing geometrical relations are performed. The validity of the similarity based approach is shown for nearly all geometrical relations corresponding to real utility boiler application. Deviations between experiment and calculations based on the similarity approach are only evident for very short distances of separating tubes originating from secondary vortices. However, the impact of these vortices to the global mass distribution is minimal. The comparison between measured and calculated single tube temperatures from a lignite-fired utility boiler shows the good match between the simulated and measured temperatures. The single tube temperatures of a heat exchanger across the boiler width are calculated correctly. The predicted temperatures of vertically arranged tubes show certain discrepancies due to the fact that the soot-blowing equipment leads to different deposit thicknesses within the heat exchanger. This effect is currently neglected in the coupled simulation. By enabling the use of high performance computing, a significant reduction of computing time for the coupled simulation is achieved. This is a necessary condition to optimize utility boilers already in operation and those yet to be built.

  17. Studies of the quality and cost-effectiveness of a novel conceptof open-die forged powerplant main shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skubisz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An innovatory concept of open-die forging of windmill main shaft is described. Comparative study of the new technology based on the concept of cogging hollow shaft on mandrel featuring material savings and higher quality of a finished part versus traditional production chain of this component is presented, indicating benefits and technological setbacks of industrial implementation. Results of industrial sampling aided with numerical simulation form guidelines for technological realization.

  18. Die partypolitiek en die toekoms van die Afrikaanse volkskultuur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Treurnicht

    1970-03-01

    Full Text Available Reeds in 1853 het die Zuid Afrikaan hom soos volg uitgelaat: „Dis ’n dwaling wat ons reeds meermale bestry het dat ons as Britse onderdane verplig sou wees, om die Britse nasionaliteit ons s’n te maak. Die Kolonis van Hollandse oorsprong kan geen Engelsman word nie, en moet ook geen Nederlander wil wees nie. Wanneer hy weet om sy standpunt te waardeer, dan sal hy as verligte kolonis die grondtrekke van die Engelse volkskarakter met dié van die Nederlandse harmonies leer verenig en daardeur word wat hy as Kapenaar moet word.”

  19. Die Defects and Die Corrections in Metal Extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyad Zahid Qamar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Extrusion is a very popular and multi-faceted manufacturing process. A large number of products for the automotive, aerospace, and construction sectors are produced through aluminum extrusion. Many defects in the extruded products occur because of the conditions of the dies and tooling. The problems in dies can be due to material issues, design and manufacturing, or severe usage. They can be avoided by maintaining the billet quality, by controlling the extrusion process parameters, and through routine maintenance. Die problems that occur on a day-to-day basis are mostly repairable and are rectified through various types of die correction operations. These defects and repair operations have not been reported in detail in the published literature. The current paper presents an in-depth description of repairable die defects and related die correction operations in metal extrusion. All major die defects are defined and classified, and their causes, preventive measures, and die correction operations are described. A brief frequency-based statistical study of die defects is also carried out to identify the most frequent die corrections. This work can be of direct benefit to plant engineers and operators and to researchers and academics in the field of metal extrusion.

  20. Die Voortrekker-Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Moerdyk

    1938-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Eeufeesjaar is vir die Afrikaner ’n tydperk van besieling. Nog nooit sedert die ontstaan van ons volk het een enkele gebeurtenis soveel nasietrots gewek as die honderdjarige herdenking van die Groot Trek. Vir die eerste keer in ons geskiedenis voel ons ons nie meer Kapenaars, Vrystaters, Natalers, en Transvalers nie, maar Afrikaners, saamgesnoer deur die tradisies van ’n selfstandige kultuurvolk. Wanneer die klimaks van die Ossewatrek met die hocksteenlegging van die Voortrekker-Monument bereik word, sal die besieling nie uitsterf nie, die krag wat geskep is sal bly voortgroei tot ’n onweerstaanbare mag. Die Afrikaner sal homself vind, en as die Monument na sowat vyf jaar onthul word, sal die saad wat in hierdie jaar gesaai is, tot voile rypheid gekom het. Dan sal die Monument self tot die volk spreek; intussen egter, is dit wenslik, nee noodsaaklik selfs, om die Monument aan die Afrikaners te verklaar, om ‘n uiteensetting te gee van die noodsaaklikheid van so ’n Monument, sowel as om die motief te verduidelik wat as inspirasie gedien het vir die ontwerpdaar van.

  1. Calvyn en die kerklike orde: Enkele opmerkings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Om dié saak verder te belig word ook van die latere uitsprake van Calvyn in hierdie verband in berekening gebring. Met hierdie beperkte studie word dus in die eerste plek die feit in herinnering geroep dat dit vanjaar 450 jaar gelede is dat Calvyn se. Institusie die eerste maal in Basel verskyn het. Terselfdertyd word hier-.

  2. Die Britse owerheid en die onderwys op Heidelberg gedurende die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The establishment of Christian National Education (CNE) Schools stimulated the concept of mother tongue education. Oor die klaskamerpraktyk en die werklike gehalte van onderrig tydens die kampskooltydperk is daar min bekend. Heidelberg wat na 1902 in 'n belangrike onderwyssentrum in Transvaal ontwikkel het, het ...

  3. Die belangrikste kenmerk van die diereproduksie- bedrywe oor die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    digdhede teen 1980 uit 'n kudde van 30 rnilj.skape ge- produseer moet word. Tweedens sal die faktore ... die Republiek van Suid-Mrika teen 1980 in totaal 28 milj. sal wees. Indien die produsente dit as 'n ..... Appendix Table 4 in Digestive Physiology and nutrition of ruminants Vol. 3 Ed. and Publ. D.C. Church, Oregon State ...

  4. DIE ROL VAN DIE TAALWETENSKAP IN DIE ONTWIKKELING VAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aanslag op die sogenaamde "Intentional Fallacy", heelwat verder. n. Mens sou hier eintlik ook op die invloed van Lacan se toepassing van. De Sacs sure op Freud moet wys, en op Macherey se Theory of Literary. Production. Barthes is naamlik besig om repressie teen te werk, en die teks as produksieproses in stede van ...

  5. Alkaline earth metal, silicon, chlorine, hydrogen. A reaction system for the heterogeneous hydrodehalogenation of silicon tetrachloride to nanocrystalline silicon; Erdalkalimetall-Silicium-Chlor-Wasserstoff. Das Reaktionssystem fuer die heterogene Hydrodehalogenierung von Siliciumtetrachlorid bis zum nanokristallinen Silicium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, Katja

    2012-02-17

    Reactions of an alkaline earth metal with a SiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2} result in a quaternary system with a metastable quaternary phase which separates into the metal chloride and nanocrystalline silicon upon cooling. The present study was dedicated to a making a detailed characterisation of the quaternary phase. For this purpose the properties of the quaternary system were derived from those of the six binary and four ternary systems. The first ever characterisation of the surface by means of photoelectron spectroscopy was undertaken. It also proved possible for the first time to follow the formation reaction by measuring the potential difference across the reaction system. Using the results of the characterisation the author presents first steps towards identifying the formation mechanism involved. [German] Im quaternaeren System Erdalkalimetall-Silicium-Chlor-Wasserstoff bildet sich bei der Umsetzung des Metalls mit einer SiCl{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Atmosphaere eine quaternaere Phase. Diese metastabile Phase zerfaellt beim Abkuehlen in das Metallchlorid und Silicium in nanokristalliner Form. Die vorliegende Arbeit hat sich mit der tiefergehenden Charakterisierung der quaternaeren Phase beschaeftigt. Dazu wurden die Eigenschaften des quaternaeren Systems aus den Eigenschaften der sechs binaeren und vier ternaeren Systemen abgeleitet. Die Oberflaeche wurde erstmals mit Photoelektronenspektroskopie charakterisiert. Zusaetzlich gelang erstmalig die Verfolgung der Bildungsreaktion durch Messung des Spannungsabfalls ueber das Reaktionssystem. Erste Ansaetze zur Aufklaerung des Bildungsmechanismus ausgehend von den Ergebnissen der Charakterisierung wurden zusaetzlich aufgezeigt.

  6. An Experiment Study on Surface Roughness in High Speed Milling NAK80 Die Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Fa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces that the high speed milling experiments on NAK80 die steel was carried out on the DMU 60 mono BLOCK five axis linkage high speed CNC machining center tool by the TiAlN coated tools, in order to research the effect of milling parameters on surface roughness Ra. The results showed that the Ra value increased with the decrease of milling speed vc, increased with the axial depth of milling ap, and feed per tooth fz and radial depth of milling ae. On the basis of the single factor experiment results, the mathematics model for between surface roughness and milling parameters were established by linear regression analysis.

  7. Wêreldmededingendheid en die tegnologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. I. Pistorius

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available Afgesien van die interne uitdagings wat die Heropbou- en Ontwikkelingsprogram (HOP aan Suid-Afrika bied, moet die land ook tred hou met die veranderende globale omgewing, spesifiek die toenemende belangrikheid van ekonomiese sekuriteit as komponent van nasionale sekuriteit. Die konsep van mededingendheid vergestalt die doelwit wat nagestreef moet word ten einde die ontluikende globale ekonomiese stryd aan te durf. As ’n belangrike drywer van ekonomiese welvaart is tegnologie een van die belangrikste sleutels tot internasionale mededingendheid. Tegnologiese innovasie is die proses wat as hefboom hiervoor gebruik moet word. Dit is egter nodig dat tegnologie, en spesifiek die proses van tegnologiese innovasie, formeel en gestruktureerd bestuur moet word, sowel op nasionale as firmavlak. Op nasionale vlak is die voorsiene Nasionale Innovasiestelsel beslis ’n stap in die regte rigting.

  8. European aid control policy and environmental protection - an evaluation of the new Community guidelines; Die europaeische Beihilfenaufsicht im Umweltschutz - Darstellung und Kritik des neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewringmann, D.; Thoene, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Finanzwissenschaftliches Forschungsinstitut; Fischer, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    On 3 February 2001 the European Commission adopted the new Community guidelines on state aid for environmental protection. These guidelines outline the methods and criteria used by the Commission when controlling environmental state aid according to Art. 87 and 88 of the EC-Treaty. The study analyses the development of the new guidelines and their potential effects on environmental protection and environmental policy in the Member States of the European Union. In essence, the guidelines display three harmful tendencies: - they hamper progressive and innovative environmental policy that improves on 'least common denominator'-Community standards; - they do not respect the limits of the Commissions's authority, and interfere with the Member States' exclusive authority to decide on strategies and instruments of their respective environmental policies, and they especially affect Member States' choices between different energy sources and the general structure of its energy supply; - finally, they do not improve the protection of air competition on the common market. Based on these findings, the report delineates perspectives for an aid control policy that protects fair competition, and that gives incentives for voluntary national and regional environmental protection, allows for the equal treatment of clean techniques, and provides a consistent framework for exemptions from ecological taxes and environmental levies at the same time. (orig.) [German] Die Europaeische Kommission hat mit Wirkung vom 3. Februar 2001 einen neuen Gemeinschaftsrahmen fuer staatliche Umweltschutzbeihilfen erlassen. Dieser skizziert die Verfahren und Kriterien, welche die Kommission in ihrer Ueberpruefung staatlicher Umweltschutzbeihilfen auf Vereinbarkeit mit dem gemeinsamen Markt nach Art. 87 u. 88 EGV nutzen will. Die vorliegende Untersuchung schildert die Entstehung des Beihilferahmens und analysiert dessen potenzielle Wirkungen auf den Umweltschutz und die

  9. die ontstaan en die ontwikkeling van die skoolkadette-stelsel in die rsa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    toe algemene diensplig ingestel is. Die diens- plig het intussen sy volle beslag gekry en in. Weermagkringe het die gedagte posgevat dat skoolkadette. 'n deeglike ondersoek vereis ten einde die skoolgaande seun vir sy komende nasionale diensplig te orienteer. Tydens kadetopleldlng leer die seuns al die fynere kunsles ...

  10. Van die Gasredakteur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cherish and teach.'1. Die Fakulteit Geneeskunde van die Universiteit van die Oranje-Vrystaat het pragtig gegroei ge- durende die eerste 21 jaar van sy bestaan. Die entoesiasme, doelgerigtheid, harde werk en inisia- tiewe van 'n groot aantal persone was hiervoor verantwoordelik. 'If we see a bit more clearly than they, it is ...

  11. Halfkrone vir die Nagmaal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    die omgewing van Velddrif en Laaiplek, ook noordwaarts verby Lambertsbaai tot by. Doringbaai en Strandfontein. “Haar seeverhale is Sussie (Kotze) se belangrikste bydrae tot die Afrikaanse letterkunde”, sê Kotzé-Myburgh in die voorwoord van die versamelbundel. Die leser word herinner aan Kotze se debuutroman, ...

  12. Die uitbeelding van die vrou in Huisgenoot (1963 en 2013: ’n Multimodale diskoersanalise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann H. Marais

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Die standpunt dat die mens en die media in ’n verhouding van wedersydse beïnvloeding staan, sowel as die studie wat die kulturele konseptualisering van vroulikheid in twee Huisgenoot-uitgawes (1953 en 2003 ondersoek, geld as uitgangspunt vir dié studie. Hierdie studie het ten doel om te bepaal of daar ’n verskil is in die uitbeelding van die vrou in die Huisgenoot uitgawes van onderskeidelik 1963 en 2013. Volgens navorsing werk die visuele beeld en geskrewe teks saam om ’n boodskap oor te dra. Multimodale diskoersanalise (MDA word juis gebruik om beide visuele beeld en geskrewe teks te bestudeer. Sodoende word die metode van intersemiotiese komplementariteit binne MDA in hierdie studie gebruik. Die studie kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat die uitbeelding van die ideale vrou se verantwoordelikhede uitgebrei is, maar dat die vrou se rol tóg tot sekere ruimtes beperk word, soos die sigbaarheid van die moeder-stereotipe weerspieël.

  13. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 3, effects on the national economy; Die Energieperspektiven 2035 - Band 3: Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen. Ergebnisse des dynamischen Gleichgewichtsmodells, mit Anhang ueber die externen Kosten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voehringer, F.; Mueller, A.

    2007-03-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the effects of the four scenarios concerning future developments in Swiss energy supply policy on the Swiss national economy. The four energy scenarios include variants entitled 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. This report presents and discusses the results of a dynamic balance model and includes an appendix that presents data on the external costs of the energy sector in Switzerland. Swiss energy scenarios are discussed in an international context and five climate-policy scenarios are developed. Effects on CO{sub 2} emissions and energy consumption are discussed, as are socio-economic effects. The results of a so-called cross-impact analysis are discussed and the opinions of Swiss climate experts are reviewed. External costs are reviewed in a comprehensive appendix to the report

  14. Die teologie in gesprek met die ekonomie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (1723-1790) sy vertrekpunt neem, ontwikkel, as oorwinnaars uit die Franse Revolu .... Die onmiddellike sukses van Adam Smith se 'Wealth of Nations' was .... alle vorme van sosialisme niks anders as 'kommunisme' (Wassenaar 1977:12) nie.

  15. Brief Study and Spanish Translation of Die Kunst das Clavier zu Spielen by Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (Berlin, Henning, 1750

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de las Nieves Pascual León

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper includes the fi rst Spanish version of F. W. Marpurg’s treaty Die Kunst das Clavier zu spielen, which had been restricted for the common Spanish-speaking reader since its fi rst appearance in 1750. This philological translation of the treaty (with the facsimile of the fi rst edition and its Spanish translation on the opposite page is instroduced by a brief study of the text’s various editions published during the author’s life, and pretends to offer an initial approach to the treaty, to facilitate the public’s access to the work and to contribute to its full disclosure.

  16. MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recovery. Basics studies on the suitability of microorganisms for improved oil recovery. Final report; MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recovery. Grundlagen der Eignung von Mikroorganismen fuer die Verbesserung der Erdoelgewinnung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeveke, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Fischer, K. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Timmis, K.N. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Yakimov, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Kroeger, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Bosecker, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Kruckemeyer, I. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Mengel-Jung, G. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Bock, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Schink, B. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Mikrobielle Oekologie; Denger, K. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Mikrobielle Oekologie; Kessel, D. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Amro, M. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Jacobs, G. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Hoffmann, G.G. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Wagner, M. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Ziran, B. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Nowak, H.U. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Eins, I. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Rosenspiess, K. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Lungershausen, D. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    . Ziel des Projektes war es, die Anwendbarkeit von MIOR-Verfahren auf Sandsteinlagerstaetten, wie sie in Norddeutschland haeufig vorkommen, zu untersuchen. Aus Proben von Erdoelfoerdersonden, erdoelverarbeitenden Betrieben und oelkontaminierten Boeden wurden Mikroorganismen angereichert, isoliert und charakterisiert. Mit einem Screening wurden ueber 500 Bakterienstaemme auf die Bildung von viskositaetssteigender oder oberflaechenaktiven Substanzen, auf anaerobes Wachstum, auf Halotoleranz und Temperaturtoleranz getestet. Einer weitergehenden Untersuchung wurden 39 ausgewaehlte Staemme unterzogen, aus denen wiederum die Staemme Bacillus licheniformis BNP 29 und Sporohalobacter als besonders MIOR-geeignet eingestuft werden konnten. Um die Entoelungswirksamkeit der Bakterienstaemme zu quantifizieren und Entoelungsmechanismen aufzuklaeren, wurden dynamische Flutversuche unter realen Lagerstaettenbedingungen an Sandsteinkernen durchgefuehrt. Mit Hilfe dieser Versuche konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Injizierbarkeit sowie die Migration der Bakterien im poroesen Medium gewaehrleistet sind. Die Bakterienstaemme sind darueber hinaus in der Lage, unter Bedingungen, wie sie in norddeutschen Lagerstaetten auftreten, zu wachsen. Ihr Einsatz bei den Flutversuchen fuehrte zu einer signifikanten Erhoehung des Entoelungsgrades. Als wichtigste Mechanismen, die fuer eine Mehrentoelung verantwortlich sind, wurden die Reduzierung der Permeabilitaet durch das Wachstum der Bakterien im Porenraum und die Aenderung des Benetzungszustandes der Porenwand des Gesteins ermittelt. Durch die Einfuehrung von pH-Puffersubstanzen ist es gelungen, geeignete Naehrmedien fuer die MIOR-Anwendung in Sandsteinlagerstaetten zu entwickeln. (orig.)

  17. MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recovery. Basic studies on the suitability of microorganisms for improved oil recovery. Executive summary; MIOR - Microbial Improved Oil Recocery. Grundlagen der Eignung von Mikroorganismen fuer die Verbesserung der Erdoelgewinnung. Kurzbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeveke, R. [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikrobiologie; Timmis, K.N. [Gesellschaft fuer Biotechnologische Forschung mbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Bosecker, K. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Schink, B. [Konstanz Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Mikrobielle Oekologie; Kessel, D. [Institut fuer Erdoel- und Erdgasforschung, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Wagner, M. [Erdoel - Erdgas Gommern GmbH (Germany); Tessmer, G. [Deutsche Wissenschaftliche Gesellschaft fuer Erdoel, Erdgas und Kohle e.V., Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-03-01

    -Verfahren auf Sandsteinlagerstaetten, wie sie in Norddeutschland haeufig vorkommen, zu untersuchen. Aus Proben von Erdoelfoerdersonden, erdoelverarbeitenden Betrieben und oelkontaminierten Boeden wurden Mikroorganismen angereichert, isoliert und charakterisiert. Mit einem Screening wurden ueber 500 Bakterienstaemme auf die Bildung von viskositaetssteigernden oder oberflaechenaktiven Substanzen, auf anaerobes Wachstum, auf Halotoleranz und Temperaturtoleranz getestet. Einer weitergehenden Untersuchung wurden 39 ausgewaehlte Staemme unterzogen, aus denen wiederum die Staemme Bacillus licheniformis BNP 29 und Sporohalobacter als besonders MIOR-geeignet eingestuft werden konnten. Um die Entoelungswirksamkeit der Bakterienstaemme zu quantifizieren und Entoelungsmechanismen aufzuklaeren, wurden dynamische Flutversuche unter realen Lagerstaettenbedingungen an Sandsteinkernen durchgefuehrt. Mit Hilfe dieser Versuche konnte nachgewiesen werden, dass die Injizierbarkeit sowie die Migration der Bakterien im poroesen Medium gewaehrleistet sind. Die Bakterienstaemme sind darueber hinaus in der Lage, unter Bedingungen, wie sie in norddeutschen Lagerstaetten auftreten, zu wachsen. Ihr Einsatz bei den Flutversuchen fuehrte zu einer signifikanten Erhoehung des Entoelungsgrades. Als wichtigste Mechanismen, die fuer eine Mehrentoelung verantwortlich sind, wurden die Reduzierung der Permeabilitaet durch das Wachstum der Bakterien im Porenraum und die Aenderung des Benetztungszustandes der Porenwand des Gesteins ermittelt. Durch die Einfuehrung von pH-Puffersubstanzen ist es gelungen, geeignete Naehrmedien fuer die MIOR-Anwendung in Sandsteinlagerstaetten zu entwickeln. (orig.)

  18. Technical-scale realization of simultaneous aerobic nitrification/denitrification in cyclic plants for a population of more than 100 000; Grosstechnische Realisierung der simultanen, aeroben Nitrifikation/Denitrifikation in zyklischen Anlagen ueber 100.000 EGW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demoulin, G. [SFC-Umwelttechnik, Salzburg (Austria); Goronszy, M.C. [Tri Tech Inc., Lake Forest, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    On account of local requirements and because of its economic and technical advantages, cyclic activated sludge process was given preference over conventional technology when building the sewage treatment plant at Neubrandenburg. The process-technical installations were completely accommodated in two circular ponds of the diameter 62.3 m and water depth 5.5 m each, with two reactors to one circular pond each. Construction of the biological treatment plant started in 1998. At its start of operation in November 1998, it was the first European plant employing this technology. With the plant currently running to some 80 to 90 % of its capacity, specified elimination efficiency has been met since spring 1999. (orig.) [German] Aufgrund der oertlichen Gegebenheiten sowie der wirtschaftlichen und technischen Vorzuege des zyklischen Belebtschlammverfahrens wurde diesem beim Bau der Klaeranlage Neubrandenburg der Vorzug ueber die konventionelle Technologie gegeben. Die Verfahrensbauwerke fuer die biologische Abwasserbehandlung wurden komplett in zwei Rundbecken mit je 62,3 m Durchmesser und 5,5 m Wassertiefe untergebracht, wobei zwei Reaktoren jeweils ein Rundbecken ergeben. Im Februar 1998 wurde mit dem Bau der Biologie begonnen. Diese nahm bereits im November 1998 als erste Anlage nach diesem Verfahren in Europa den Betrieb auf. Die geforderten Entfernungsleistungen werden bei einer derzeitigen Auslastung von ca. 80-90% seit Fruehjahr 1999 eingehalten. (orig.)

  19. Die faktore gemeenskaplik aan die selfondersoekvraelys van Holland en die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Swanevelder

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The factors common to the Self Directed Search of Holland (SDS and the new South African Vocational Interest Inventory (SAVII. The new South African Vocational Interest Inventory was locally developed with the purpose to create a single vocational interest inventory for all population groups in the RSA. In this study the common factors underlying the SDS and the SAVII were determined with the aid of interbattery factor analysis. The results indicate that there are six common factors underlying the two instruments for both the standard nine boys and girls, and that these factors agree with the six factors built into the SDS by Holland. Opsomming Die nuwe Suid-Afrikaanse Beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys (SABBV is plaaslik ontwikkel met die doel om 'n enkele beroepsbelangstellingsvraelys vir alle bevolkingsgroepe binne die RSA, daar te stel. In hierdie studie is daar ondersoek ingestel na die gemeenskaplike faktore onderliggend aan die SABBV en die Selfondersoekvraelys (SOV van Holland met behulp van 'n interbatteryfaktorontleding. Daar is bevind dat daar ses gemeenskaplike faktore onderliggend aan die twee instrumente is vir sowel standerd nege seuns as dogters, en dat hierdie faktore ooreenstem met die ses faktore wat deur Holland in die SOV ingebou is.

  20. Die dogmatiese binding van die prediking

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    genoemde probleemstelling wat ons homileties na riglyne wil soek, sonder die pretensie dat finale oplossings gevind sal word. Om hierdie probleem te ontleed is dit nodig om eers kortliks 'n begripsbepaling van die begrippe dogma, binding en prediking te maak. Vanuit die begripsbepaling kan ons dan probeer vasstel wat ...

  1. DIE PERSOON VAN VREDE IN DIE SENDING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aan dat 'n lewe onder die gesag van God tot volle vrede lei: “In coming under the rule of Yahweh, moreover, life was made whole and safe.” Dit is spesifiek in die tempel waar die volheid van God se vrede ondervind word (1997:662):. The temple is indeed the place where Israel entered into Yahweh's full zone of shalom.

  2. The industrial application of fracture mechanics concepts discussed at the background of international standards and guidelines; Die industrielle Anwendung bruchmechanischer Konzepte vor dem Hintergrund internationaler Bewertungsvorschriften und Regelwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerbst, U. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung; Langenberg, P. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Werkstofftechnik, Aachen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Many features from the background for an intensified application of fracture mechanics concepts in many industries world-wide. These include requirements for a permanent increase of the level of performance of technical components and structures by the introduction of new materials, joining technologies and design principles, the problem of ageing components and life extension, an increased emphasis on non-destructive in-service inspection combined with improved NDT techniques, and also a number of failure events caused by fatigue and fracture The aim of the present paper is to give a brief state-of-the-art review on how fracture mechanics is applied in different industrial branches today. This is based on standards and guidelines in the aerospace industry, in the nuclear and fossil power generation, in the chemical and petrochemical and the pipeline industry, in civil engineering, offshore technique and other fields. Based on the review an outlook is given on a future development that would be reasonable and desirable from the point of view of a basically unified philosophy of fracture mechanics application. (orig.) [German] Die Erhoehung der Leistungsparameter vieler Maschinen und Anlagen verbunden mit dem Einsatz neuer Werkstoffe, Fuegeverfahren und Konstruktionsprinzipien, der Betrieb vieler Strukturen ueber ihre projektierte Lebensdauer hinaus, technische Verbesserungen und ein durchgaengigerer Einsatz zerstoerungsfreier Defektpruefverfahren, aber auch immer wieder einmal auftretende Schadensfaelle bilden den Hintergrund fuer die zunehmende Nutzung bruchmechanischer Bewertungsvorschriften in der industriellen Praxis. Die vorliegende Studie zieht eine momentane Bilanz dieser Entwicklung am Beispiel von Fachbereichsstandards der Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie, der konventionellen und Kernkrafttechnik, der Chemie und Petrochemie, der Pipelineindustrie, des Stahlbaus, der Offshore-Technik und anderer Bereiche. Ausgehend von dieser Bestandsaufnahme wird ein Ausblick

  3. Consequences of the amended Biomass Waste Ordinance for biological waste treatment; Konsequenzen der novellierten Bioabfallverordnung fuer die biologische Abfallbehandlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehres, Bertram [Bundesguetegemeinschaft Kompost e.V. (BGK), Koeln (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The amended Biomass Waste Ordinance will bring about changes in biological waste treatment to which operators of composting and fermenting plants will have to adapt. The contribution outlines the most relevant changes; at the time of publication, it was not known how the Bundesrat would decide with regard to the Amendment, probably in late March 2012. (orig.) [German] Die Novelle der Bioabfallverordnung wird fuer die biologische Abfallbehandlung verschiedene Veraenderungen mit sich bringen, auf die sich Betreiber von Kompostierungs- und von Vergaerungsanlagen einzustellen haben. Auf die wesentlichen Aenderungen wird in diesem Beitrag eingegangen. Zum Zeitpunkt der Abfassung dieses Beitrages ist allerdings noch nicht vollstaendig bekannt, wie der Bundesrat - voraussichtlich Ende Maerz 2012 - ueber die Novelle abschliessend entscheiden wird. (orig.)

  4. Level of consciousness in dying patients. The role of palliative sedation: a longitudinal prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Patricia; Menten, Johan; Schotsmans, Paul; Broeckaert, Bert

    2012-05-01

    Patients suffering from a terminal illness often are confronted with severe symptoms during the last phase of their lives. Palliative sedation, although one of the options of last resort, remains a much debated and controversial issue and is often referred to as a form of slow euthanasia or euthanasia in disguise. A prospective longitudinal and descriptive design was used. Each patient admitted in one of the 8 participating units was included if they met the inclusion criteria and gave written informed consent. 266 patients were included. The incidence of palliative sedation was 7;5%. For the group of sedated patients results show that 90% entered the palliative care unit being fully conscious. Two patients were comatose upon arrival. 90% of the patients remained fully conscious up to the day palliative sedation was started. When looking at the effect of palliative sedation on the level of consciousness the analysis strongly suggest that the palliative sedation - as expected- has an impact on the GCS score. Irrespective of the dichotomization of the score the probability of having a lower GCS increases substantially once sedation is initiated. Additionally, results show that once palliative sedation is administered, the level of consciousness gradually goes down up until the day of death. Palliative sedation is nor slow euthanasia nor an ambivalent practice. It is an intentional medical treatment which is administered in a proportional way when refractory suffering occurs. It occurs in extraordinary situations and at the very end of the dying process.

  5. Die attach dimension and material on thermal conductivity study for high power COB LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarukunaselan, K.; Ong, N. R.; Sauli, Z.; Mahmed, N.; Kirtsaeng, S.; Sakuntasathien, S.; Suppiah, S.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    High power LED began to gain popularity in the semiconductor market due to its efficiency and luminance. Nonetheless, along with the increased in efficiency, there was an increased in the junction temperature too. The alleviating junction temperature is undesirable since the performances and lifetime will be degraded over time. Therefore, it is crucial to solve this thermal problem by maximizing the heat dissipation to the ambience. Improvising the die attach (DA) layer would be the best option because this layer is sandwiched between the chip (heat source) and the substrate (channel to the ambient). In this paper, the impact of thickness and thermal conductivity onto the junction temperature and Von Mises stress is analyzed. Results obtained showed that the junction temperature is directly proportional to the thickness but the stress was inversely proportional to the thickness of the DA. The thermal conductivity of the materials did affect the junction temperature as there was not much changes once the thermal conductivity reached 20W/mK. However, no significant changes were observed on the Von Mises stress caused by the thermal conductivity. Material with the second highest thermal conductivity had the lowest stress, whereas the highest conductivity material had the highest stress value at 20 µm. Overall, silver sinter provided the best thermal dissipation compared to the other materials.

  6. Dying cancer patients' own opinions on euthanasia: an expression of autonomy? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marit; Milberg, Anna; Strang, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Deliberations on euthanasia are mostly theoretical, and often lack first-hand perspectives of the affected persons. Sixty-six patients suffering from cancer in a palliative phase were interviewed about their perspectives of euthanasia in relation to autonomy. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis with no predetermined categories. The informants expressed different positions on euthanasia, ranging from support to opposition, but the majority were undecided due to the complexity of the problem. The informants' perspectives on euthanasia in relation to autonomy focused on decision making, being affected by (1) power and (2) trust. Legalization of euthanasia was perceived as either (a) increasing patient autonomy by patient empowerment, or (b) decreasing patient autonomy by increasing the medical power of the health care staff, which could be frightening. The informants experienced dependence on others, and expressed various levels of trust in others' intentions, ranging from full trust to complete mistrust. Dying cancer patients perceive that they cannot feel completely independent, which affects true autonomous decision making. Further, when considering legalization of euthanasia, the perspectives of patients fearing the effects of legalization should also be taken into account, not only those of patients opting for it.

  7. n Oorsig van die huidige stand van navorsing oor die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    7 Jun 2011 ... Die eerste maal wat dit as deel van die teks van 1 Johannes aangehaal word, is in die. 4de eeu in 'n Latynse teks, Liber Apologeticus (hf 4). Eers aan die einde van die 16de eeu is dit in 'n amptelike Katolieke uitgawe van die Vulgaat ingesluit. Die doel van die Johannesbriewe. Waarom is die Briewe ...

  8. American Prometheus. The Triumph and Tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. Biography; J. Robert Oppenheimer. Die Biographie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Kai; Sherwin, Martin J.

    2009-07-01

    A definitive portrait of legendary scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer, the ''father'' of the atomic bomb, discusses his seminal role in the twentieth-century scientific world, as well as his lesser-known roles as family man, supposed communist, and head of Princeton's Institute for Advanced Studies. ''American Prometheus'' is a rich evocation of America in mid-century and a compelling portrait of scientist J. Robert Oppenheimer, a man shaped by its major events--the Depression, World War II, and the Cold War. (orig.) [German] J. Robert Oppenheimer (1904-1967), der ''Vater der Atombombe'', zaehlt zu den schillerndsten Figuren der juengeren Zeitgeschichte. Fuer ihre glaenzende Biographie des ''amerikanischen Prometheus'' erhielten der Journalist Kai Bird und der Historiker Martin J. Sherwin den Pulitzer-Preis. Exemplarisch lassen sie das Drama eines Forschers lebendig werden, der sich zwischen Erkenntnisdrang und ethischer Verantwortung entscheiden muss. Oppenheimer leitete das streng geheime Manhattan-Projekt in der Wueste von New Mexico, wo am 16. Juli 1945 die erste Atombombe gezuendet wurde. Kurz darauf starben in Hiroshima und Nagasaki mehr als 200 000 Menschen durch die neue ''Wunderwaffe'' - die Menschheit war ins Atomzeitalter eingetreten. Erschuettert von der Zerstoerungskraft seiner Schoepfung, engagierte sich Oppenheimer fortan gegen den Einsatz nuklearer Waffen. Das machte ihn im Amerika der McCarthy-Aera verdaechtig. Er geriet ins Visier des FBI, wurde als Spion der Sowjetunion verleumdet und musste den Staatsdienst quittieren. Sein Privatleben wurde an die Oeffentlichkeit gezerrt, seine Wohnung verwanzt, sein Telefon abgehoert. Erst 1963 rehabilitierte ihn Praesident Kennedy. Ueber dreissig Jahre hinweg haben die Autoren Interviews mit Oppenheimers Angehoerigen, Freunden und Kollegen gefuehrt, FBI-Akten gesichtet, Tonbaender von Reden und Verhoeren

  9. Die Ware Buch und die Philologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Hurch

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Die im 19. Jahrhundert sich verändernden Produktionsbedingungen für Druckwerke (Buchdruck, Satz, Papier, Bindung wirkten katalysierend auf die Fachkonstitution und Institutionalisierung der Philologien. Hier steht der tatsächliche Buchmarkt im Vordergrund der Darstellung, das Käuferpublikum und die Voraussetzungen des Vertriebs. Dazu gehören auch die Rezension als entstehende Textsorte und die rasch arbeitenden Rezensionsorgane. F.-R. Hausmann wurde in den letzten Jahren unentbehrlicher Mitarbeiter dieses im Rahmen des Grazer Schuchardt-Projekts "Netzwerk des Wissens" angesiedelten Ansatzes.

  10. Die stand van wiskundeonderwys in Afrikaanse skole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Stols

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hoërordedenkvaardighede is noodsaaklike basiese vaardighede vir die een-en-twintigste eeu aangesien rekenaars berekeninge en algoritmes baie vinniger en akkurater kan doen as mense. Dit beteken dat skole leerders moet toerus om logies te dink, patrone te ontdek, bewyse te lewer, asook om nieroetineprobleme op te los. Hierdie fasette wat as hoërordedenke geklassifiseer word, is die kern van wiskundige denke en ontwikkeling. Suid-Afrika neem aan verskeie internasionaal vergelykende studies deel. Met behulp van hierdie vergelykende studies kan bepaal word hoe die Afrikaanse wiskundeleerders in Suid-Afrika se prestasie met dié van leerders in ander lande vergelyk en ook wat die tekortkominge in die wiskundeonderwys is. Volgens die 2003-TIMSS-uitslae is die probleem in Afrikaanse skole juis dié vrae wat hoërordedenke vereis. Dit beteken dat die Afrikaanse skole ’n doelbewuste poging sal moet aanwend om hoërordedenke te ontwikkel. Die 1999-TIMSS-videostudie toon dat die lande wat die beste presteer, soos Japan, tydens onderrig meer tyd wy aan die ontwikkeling van begripsvorming en aan die oplos van moeiliker probleme. Die fokus in die presterende lande is op die ontwikkeling van hoërordedenke deur probleemoplossing. Daar word dus minder tyd afgestaan aan herhaling van roetine- of soortgelyke oefeninge wat ’n rekenaar ook kan doen. Die omgekeerde hiervan is ’n tipiese verskynsel in Afrikaanse skole, waar ’n onderwyser byvoorbeeld een of meer voorbeelde op die bord doen waarna die leerders ’n hele aantal soortgelyke roetine-oefeninge doen.

  11. Emission factors and chemical characterisation of fine particulate emissions from modern and old residential biomass heating systems determined for typical load cycles; Emissionsfaktoren und chemische Charakterisierung von Feinstaubemissionen moderner und alter Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen ueber typische Tageslastverlaeufe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelz, Joachim [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Brunner, Thomas; Obernberger, Ingwald [BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz (Austria); Technische Universitaet Graz, Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Graz (Austria); BIOS BIOENERGIESYSTEME GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    concerning gaseous and PM emissions of different old and modern biomass combustion systems over whole day operation cycles are now available. Derived from these data, correlations between burnout quality, particulate emissions as well as particle composition of the PM emissions can be deduced. (orig.) [German] Es ist allgemein bekannt, dass es signifikante Unterschiede bezueglich partikelfoermiger Emissionen von modernen und alten sowie automatisch und nicht automatisch geregelten Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungsanlagen gibt. Die Unterschiede beziehen sich einerseits auf die Hoehe der Partikelemission und andererseits auf deren chemische Zusammensetzung. Um Emissionsfaktoren fuer partikelfoermige Emissionen ueber typische realitaetsnahe Tageslastverlaeufe zu bestimmen und die Feinstaubemissionen chemisch zu charakterisieren, wurde ein Projekt an der BIOENERGY 2020+ GmbH, Graz, Oesterreich, in Kooperation mit dem Institut fuer Prozess- und Partikeltechnik, Technische Universitaet Graz, Oesterreich, initiiert. Fuenf moderne, dem aktuellen Stand der Technik entsprechende, Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie zwei Altanlagen, die den aktuellen Anlagenbestand widerspiegeln, wurden im Zuge von Testlaeufen an einem Teststand untersucht. Dabei wurden alle relevanten Betriebsparameter der Biomasse-Kleinfeuerungen sowie die im Zuge des Verbrennungsprozesses entstehenden gas- und partikelfoermigen Emissionen kontinuierlich gemessen und aufgezeichnet. Des Weiteren wurden Partikelemissionsproben gezogen und anschliessend chemisch analysiert. Fuer die Testlaeufe wurden typische Tageslastverlaeufe, die den Betrieb dieser Feuerungen in der Praxis abbilden, beruecksichtigt. Dabei wurde zwischen automatisch beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln, manuell beschickten und automatisch geregelten Kesseln sowie manuell beschickten Naturzugoefen unterschieden. Die Ergebnisse zeigen einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen den gasfoermigen Emissionen, die durch unvollstaendigen Gasphasenausbrand (CO- und org

  12. Die waarde van voorafopleiding deur die ouer vir pedo-oudiometrie by drie- en vierjarige kleuters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merisa Lodewyckx

    1981-11-01

    Full Text Available Die verkryging van akkurate, betroubare inligting aangaande die gehoorvermoë van jong kinders is van besondere belang vir die oudioloog, maar word dikwels bemoeilik aangesien die kleuter nie goeie samewerking bied in die vreemde pedo-oudiometriese situasie nie. Die oplossing hiervoor is grootliks geleë in die opleiding van die kind voor formele  gehoortoetsing en meer spesifiek  opleiding tuis deur die ouer. Die doel van hierdie studie was om 'n voorbereidende program op te stel wat die ouer tuis met die kind kan uitvoer, voordat formele  toetsing plaasvind. Die waarde en effek van hierdie program in die pedo-oudiometriese situasie is geevalueer by 'n groep drie- en vierjarige kleuters. Resultate dui daarop dat laer en meer akkurate drempels, 'n korter toetstydperk, verminderde angs en beter samewerking verkry is by die kleuters wat vooraf  opleiding ontvang het. Die opleidingsprogram kan dus in die kliniese praktyk benut word as voorafopleiding  vir pedo-oudiometrie.

  13. A Case Study in Analysing Digitised Archive Data: Authors at the Comédie-Italienne, 1760-70

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Goodman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of ‘big data’ in the humanities is becoming increasingly prevalent, as researchers try to exploit the capacities of modern computing to provide new perspectives on and access to more traditional forms of documentation. In this vein, two major projects currently seek to digitise and analyse the financial records of the major Parisian theatres in the eighteenth century, creating searchable databases that promise to bring the information to worldwide audiences and allow entirely new types of analysis. This article uses a small-scale study of a subset of the Comédie-Italienne’s administrative records in the period 1760-70 to explore the potential benefits and challenges of such enterprises. It makes new data on audience, takings and authorial payments for this decade freely available to readers, and examines the process of capturing and rationalising data drawn from early modern records. To demonstrate the potential of the larger projects, this subset of data is then used both to reconsider the commercial status of the Comédie-Italienne with respect to its French counterpart, and to provide the first account of the finances of the authors who wrote for the Italian troupe. Finally, this article argues that despite the many and varied benefits of digitisation and computational manipulation of archive data, in order for such projects to make a serious contribution to scholarship, it is vital that the material, contingent, human element of original records is not lost.

  14. Wear studies on diamond layers; Verschleissuntersuchungen an Diamantschichten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuerler, F. [Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Materialkunde; Pohl, M.; Tikana, L. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffe

    2000-08-01

    Wear studies were carried out on thin CVD diamond layers on WC/Co hard metal substrate. The diamond and hard metal system was exposed to abrasive particles, and the time to initial failure and the size of the wear crater were recorded. In the cavitation test, vibrational cavitation is induced by a sonotrode immersed in a liquid and excited by ultrasonic waves. The wear damage on the surface are recorded by quantitative image analysis as percent surface damage. The mechanism of layer failure (adhesive, cohesive) can be assessed qualitatively by means of SEM pilctures. The effects of surface pretreatment on the adhesive strength of the coating are investigated as well. [German] Das Verhalten von duennen CVD-Diamantschichten auf WC/Co-Hartmetallsubstraten unter Verschleissbeanspruchung wird beschrieben. Dabei wird der Schichtverbund Diamant-Hartmetall im Strahlverschleisstest abrasiven Partikeln ausgesetzt und die Zeit bis zum ersten Schichtversagen sowie die Groesse des Verschleisskraters registriert. Beim Kavitationstest erzeugt eine durch Ultraschall angeregte Sonotrode, die in eine Fluessigkeit eintaucht, Schwingungskavitation. Die durch Oberflaechenzerruettung verursachten Verschleissschaeden an der Schichtoberflaeche werden ueber quantitative Bildanalyse als prozentuale Flaechenschaedigung erfasst. Der Mechanismus des Schichtversagens (adhaesiv, kohaesiv) kann anhand von REM-Aufnahmen qualitativ beurteilt werden. Die Auswirkungen einer Vorbehandlung der Oberflaeche des Hartmetalls auf die fuer die Anwendung massgebliche Haftfestigkeit der Beschichtung werden betrachtet. (orig.)

  15. Thermal Neutron Die-Way-Time Studies for P and DGNAA of Radioactive Waste Drums at the MEDINA Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mildenberger, Frank; Mauerhofer, Eric [Institute of Energy and Climate Research - Nuclear Waste Management and Reactor Safety, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In Germany, radioactive waste with negligible heat production has to pass through a process of quality checking in order to check its conformance with national regulations prior to its transport, intermediate storage and final disposal. Additionally to its radioactive components, the waste may contain non-radioactive chemically toxic substances that can adversely affect human health and pollute the environment, especially the ground water. After an adequate decay time, the waste radioactivity will become harmless but the non-radioactive substances will persist over time. In principle, these hazardous substances may be quantified from traceability and quality controls performed during the production of the waste packages. As a consequence, a research and development program was initiated in 2007 with the aim to develop a nondestructive analytical technique for radioactive waste packages based on prompt and delayed gamma neutron activation analysis (P and DGNAA) employing a DT-neutron generator in pulsed mode. In a preliminary study it was experimentally demonstrated that P and DGNAA is suitable to determine the chemical composition of large samples. In 2010 a facility called MEDINA (Multi Element Detection based on Instrumental Neutron Activation) was developed for the qualitative and quantitative determination of nonradioactive, toxic elements and substances in 200-l steel drums. The determination of hazardous substances and elements is generally achieved measuring the prompt gamma-rays induced by thermal neutrons. Additional information about the composition of the waste matrix could be derived measuring the delayed gamma-rays from short life activation products. However a sensitive detection of these delayed gamma-rays requires that thermal neutrons have almost vanished. Therefore, the thermal neutron die-away-time has to be known in order to achieve an optimal discrimination between prompt and delayed gamma-ray spectra acquisition. Measurements Thermal neutron

  16. Die vrede van Münster / Westfale en die betekenis daarvan vir die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Suid-Afrikaanse kerkgeskiedenis egter is die Vrede van Münster as epogmakende gebeure tot dusver nie net in die algemeen verwaarloos nie, maar boonop is die direkte verband tussen hierdie sentrale historiese baken aan die een kant en aan die ander kant die vestiging van die VOC se verversingspos aan die ...

  17. Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling in die gesprek tussen wetenskap en geloof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Erasmus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis bely dat God deur twee middele geken word, te wete deur middel van die skepping, onderhouding en regering van die wêreld (waaronder die wetenskap en deur die heilige en goddelike Woord (die Bybel. Hierdie belydenis is van groot belang vir die gesprek tussen Wetenskap en Teologie. In hierdie artikel word gepoog om die verskille, maar ook die ooreenkomste tussen hierdie twee middele van openbaring uit te lig, elkeen tot sy reg te laat kom, maar hulle ook in balans met mekaar te stel. Die wyse waarop te werk gegaan word, is die volgende: eers word gestel wat vooronderstellings is, asook die plek wat vooronderstellings in die beoefening van wetenskap sowel as geloof inneem. Daarna word nagevors watter perspektiewe artikel 2 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis as geloofsvooronderstelling vir die wetenskaps- en teologiebeoefening respektiewelik bied. Hieruit word ’n aantal gevolgtrekkings gemaak wat kan help om die problematiek in die wetenskap-geloofsgesprek op te los. Die kernbevinding van hierdie artikel is die volgende: Vanweë die verskil in die aard en die doel tussen Bybelfeite en wetenskaplike navorsingsresultate kan en sal klaarblyklike harmonieprobleme tussen die Skrif en die wetenskap ontstaan. Hierdie is egter slegs klaarblyklike probleme, omdat ’n verrekening van die verskil in die aard en die bedoeling van die wetenskapresultate en die Bybelfeite hierdie probleem sal oplos. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession as faith presupposition in the science-faith debate. Article 2 of the Belgic Confession confesses that God can be known by two means: firstly by studying the creation, preservation and government of the universe (i.e. science and secondly by studying the Word of God (the Bible. This confession is very important for the discussion between science and faith. In this article the similarities, but also the differences between these two means of revelation are researched. The aim is to

  18. Tegnologie en die mens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    omgewingsbesoedeling, volgend op industrialisasie en verstedeliking, gee uit- ing tot krete van wanhoop en frustrasie. Die maatskaplike ontwrigting agv outomatisasie het die begrippe van vervreemding en naam- loosheid op die voorgrond van sosiale be- wustheid geplaas. • Die Neutrale Siening. Tegnologie was nag. 34.

  19. GODSBEELDE IN DIE LITURGIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15 Mei 2010 ... Biezeveld, de Boer, Brümmer, Muis. 2001; Brown 2006; Durand 2007). ... Wanneer sal hy weer in God se teenwoordigheid verskyn (vers 3)? Dié vraag is vol onsekerheid. (Schuman 2004:8). Sy onsekerheid ... God se volk en die enkeling in die geskiedenis het al die trou van God ervaar waarop die digter ...

  20. Varswateralge en die ekonomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Scott

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel bespreek die ekonomiese belong wat varswateralge alreeds het en hul moontlike verdere ontginning in die toekoms. Sowel gewenste as ongewenste aspekte word oorweeg en hoofsaaklik met voorbeelde uit Suid-Afrika geïllustreer. Die oormatige ontwikkeling van ongewenste alge in varswater verlaag die watergehalte dear verskeie chemiese veranderinge, wat kan wissel van smake en geure tot die produksie van verbindings wat gesondheidsgevare vir mens of dier inhou. Verwydering van ongewenste alge dra aansienlik by tot die koste van waterbehandeling. Oormatige alggroei belemmer ontspanningsgebruike en kan eiendomswaardes langs rivier- en damoewers beïnvloed.

  1. Die spacer thickness reproduction for central incisor crown fabrication with combined computer-aided design and 3D printing technology: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Lisa N; Thompson, Geoffrey A; Cho, Seok-Hwan; Berzins, David W; Ahn, Kwang Woo

    2015-05-01

    The inability to control die spacer thickness has been reported. However, little information is available on the congruency between the computer-aided design parameters for die spacer thickness and the actual printout. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the die spacer thickness achieved by combining computer-aided design and 3-dimensional printing technology. An ivorine maxillary central incisor was prepared for a ceramic crown. The prepared tooth was duplicated by using polyvinyl siloxane duplicating silicone, and 80 die-stone models were produced from Type IV dental stone. The dies were randomly divided into 5 groups with assigned die spacer thicknesses of 25 μm, 45 μm, 65 μm, 85 μm, and 105 μm (n=16). The printed resin copings, obtained from a printer (ProJet DP 3000; 3D Systems), were cemented onto their respective die-stone models with self-adhesive resin cement and stored at room temperature until sectioning into halves in a buccolingual direction. The internal gap was measured at 5 defined locations per side of the sectioned die. Images of the printed resin coping/die-stone model internal gap dimensions were obtained with an inverted bright field metallurgical microscope at ×100 magnification. The acquired digital image was calibrated, and measurements were made using image analysis software. Mixed models (α=.05) were used to evaluate accuracy. A false discovery rate at 5% was used to adjust for multiple testing. Coefficient of variation was used to determine the precision for each group and was evaluated statistically with the Wald test (α=.05). The accuracy, expressed in terms of the mean differences between the prescribed die spacer thickness and the measured internal gap (standard deviation), was 50 μm (11) for the 25 μm group simulated die spacer thickness, 30 μm (10) for the 45 μm group, 15 μm (14) for the 65 μm group, 3 μm (23) for the 85 μm group, and -10 μm (32) for the 105 μm group. The

  2. Prediking aan die hand van die metafoor van fiksieskryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    HTS 64(3) 2008 siening van die self en waarheid. In die pre-moderne paradigma kan die dominante metafoor verstaan word aan die hand van 'n spieël wat die lig uit 'n transendente oorsprong weerkaats, terwyl die moderne paradigma uitgedruk word met die metafoor van 'n lamp wat 'n eie, oorspronklike lig binne die self.

  3. e .Kuraioriufn. DIE W ETENSKAPLIKE BETEKENIS VAN DIE W ERK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    ENGELBRECHT ver antwoordelik vir die Ou-Testamentiese vakke en Hebreeus. Die aan stelling van 'n derde professor het noodsaaklik geword, want dit sou. 85 .... De .Spreuken ran 5a/o?no omvat die nuwe vertaling en die ekse gese van die eerste 24 hoofstukke van die Spreukeboek. Die geskoold- heid in die Semitiese ...

  4. Process development for utilizing asbestos cement waste in rotary kilns for the cement industry. Final report; Erarbeitung eines Verfahrens zur stofflichen Verwertung von zementgebundenen Asbestprodukten in Drehrohroefen fuer die Zementindustrie. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, R.; Kieser, J.; Kraehner, A.

    1999-11-01

    The law for recycling and waste demands the utilization also for waste of asbestos cement (ac). The procedure of thermal utilization of ac in the flame of a rotary cement kiln was developed and patented by the research institute IBU-tec Weimar, Germany. The ac-material has to be pre-pulverized and grinded to a degree of fineness of R{sub 90}<15%. Considerations of safety engineering lead to the idea of common fine grinding of old oil (oo) and ac. This new procedure was searched in FuE-project in 1998/99 (financial support by BMBF). A mash of ac and oo was generated as a utilization product ready for firing which was injected into the flame of the rotary cement kiln. This particles of ac smelt to spherical shaped particles at a temperature above 1500 C. They were utilized by clinker formation. The material and gas stream leaving the kiln does not contain fibres of asbestos. This was demonstrated in a small equipment burning test. The industrial realization concerning cement plant Ruedersdorf, near Berlin, was searched, technologically described and safety engineeringly and financially assessed by a project study. Process-technical and financial advantages were seen for the dry fine grinding. The wet fine grinding with old oil could be used in cement plants using old oil as fuel. (orig.) [German] Das Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetz (1994) fordert u.a. die stoffliche Verwertung auch fuer Asbestzementabfaelle (AZ). Das vom Institut fuer Baustoff- und Umweltschutz-Technologie Weimar 1995 entwickelte und patentierte Verfahren zur thermischen Verwertung von AZ in der Flamme eines Zementdrehrohrofens erfuellt diese Forderung. Das AZ-Material muss vorzerkleinert und bis zur Rohmehlfeinheit (R{sub 90}<15%) feingemahlen werden. Sicherheitstechnische Ueberlegungen fuehrten zu der Idee, die Feinmahlung zusammen mit Altoel (AOe) zu erproben. Diese Verfahrensvariante wurde im Rahmen eines FuE-Projektes 1998/99 untersucht (finanzielle Foerderung durch das BMBF). Als

  5. Die dialogiese prinsipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. de Klerk

    1981-08-01

    Full Text Available Met die dialogiese prinsipe word daardie beginsel bedoel, waarin die tweerigtingverkeer of kommunikasie onder, of met, of deur die mense op 'n heel besondere gesprekmatige wyse gere�l word. Tot die wese van die dialogiese prinsipe behoort "als Grundvoraussetzung das Ernstnehmen des Gesprachspartners und das darin enthaltene zuhoren-konnen. Dialog ist also etwas anderes als Disput oder Diskussion. Er setzt gegenseitiges Vertrauen und Hochachtung voraus."

  6. Die identifisering van maatstawwe vir die navorsingsprestasie van akademici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Labuschagne

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of criteria for academic research performance. At South African universities, the achievement of objectives is usually measured in terms of so-called "process criteria" (e.g. pass rates, instead of performance criteria which reflect the quality of academic personnel. Stimulated by the need to identify valid indices of research performance, as a component of academic performance, this study investigated the dimensionality of several criteria, identified from empirical and literature studies. It was found that various valid criteria could be represented by six constructs, viz.: the stature of the researcher as scientist; scientific contributions; enhancement of own profession; community development; participation in research projects; and giving advice to persons or institutions outside the university. Opsomming By Suid-Afrikaanse universiteite word doelwitbereiking gewoonlik aan die hand van sogenaamde "prosesmaat-stawwe" (bv. slaagsyfers in plaas van prestasiemaatstawwe wat die gehalte van akademiese personeel weerspieel, gemeet. Na aanleiding van 'n behoefte aan die identifisering van geldige rigtingwysers vir navorsingsprestasie as 'n komponent van akademiese prestasie, is daar ondersoek ingestel na die dimensionaliteit van verskillende maatstawwe wat vooraf deur middel van empiriese- en literatuurstudies geidentifiseer is. Daar is gevind dat verskeie geldige maatstawwe deur ses konstrukte verteenwoordig word, te wete: die statuur van die navorser as wetenskaplike, wetenskaplike bydraes, uitbouing van eie professie, gemeenskapsontwikkeling, deelname aan navorsingsprojekte en advieslewering aan persone of instellings buite die Universiteit.

  7. Combined application of numerical simulation models and fission tracks analysis in order to determine the history of temperature, subsidence and lifting of sedimentary basins. A case study from the Ruhr Coal basin inWest Germany; Die kombinierte Anwendung numerischer Simulationsmodelle und Spaltspurenuntersuchungen zur Entschluesselung der Temperatur-, Subsidenz- und Hebungsgeschichte von Sedimentbecken - Ein Fallbeispiel aus dem Ruhrkohlenbecken Westdeutschlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karg, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel und organische Geochemie; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen (Germany); Bueker, C. [Univ. Bern (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Geologie

    1998-12-31

    The Ruhr Coal basin is one of the globally best known sedimentary basins. According to classical, established the Ruhr Basin is a typical foreland molasse basins. The thermal history (heating and cooling) and the structural and sedimentary development since the formation of the basin, i.e. subsidence and lifting and erosion are of the first importance for the potential formation of hydrocarbons. In order to quantify these processes, two-dimensional numerical simulation models (based on geological and seismological sections) of the Ruhr basin were developed from which one could conclude the heat flow at the time of maximum basin depth after variscis orogenesis, maximum temperatures of individual strata sections and thickness of eroded strata. The PetroMod program package of the company IES/Juelich was used for these analyses. Finite-element-grids enable mathematican mapping and reconstruction of complex geological structures and processes. The models on temperature history are calibrated by comparing measured and calculated carbonification (vitrinite reflection) data. (orig./MSK). [Deutsch] Das Ruhrkohlenbecken stellt weltweit eines der am besten erforschten Sedimentbecken dar. Nach klassischen und etablierten Beckenmodellen kann das Ruhrbecken als typisches Vorlandmolassebecken angesehen werden. Besonders relevant fuer die potentielle Bildung von Kohlenwasserstoffen sind in erster Linie die thermische Geschichte (Aufheizung und Abkuehlung) sowie die strukturelle und sedimentaere Entwicklung seit der Beckenbildung, sprich Versenkungs-, Hebungs- und Erosionsprozesse. Um solche Prozesse zu quantifizieren, wurden im Ruhrbecken zweidimensionale (d.h. auf der Grundlage von geologischen und seismischen Sektionen) numerische Simulationsmodelle entwickelt, die Aufschluss ueber Waermefluesse zur Zeit der maximalen Beckeneintiefung im Anschluss an die variszische Orogenese, erreichte Maximaltemperaturen einzelner Schichtglieder sowie die Maechtigkeit erodierter Schichten im

  8. Awareness of dementia by family carers of nursing home residents dying with dementia: a post-death study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Yolanda W H; Albers, Gwenda; Deliens, Luc; Vander Stichele, Robert; Van den Block, Lieve

    2015-01-01

    High-quality palliative care for people with dementia should be patient-centered, family-focused, and include well-informed and shared decision-making, as affirmed in a recent white paper on dementia from the European Association for Palliative Care. To describe how often family carers of nursing home residents who died with dementia are aware that their relative has dementia, and study resident, family carer, and care characteristics associated with awareness. Post-death study using random cluster sampling. Structured questionnaires were completed by family carers, nursing staff, and general practitioners of deceased nursing home residents with dementia in Flanders, Belgium (2010). Of 190 residents who died with dementia, 53.2% of family carers responded. In 28% of cases, family carers indicated they were unaware their relative had dementia. Awareness by family carers was related to more advanced stages of dementia 1 month before death (odds ratio = 5.4), with 48% of family carers being unaware when dementia was mild and 20% unaware when dementia was advanced. The longer the onset of dementia after admission to a nursing home, the less likely family carers were aware (odds ratio = 0.94). Family carers are often unaware that their relative has dementia, that is, in one-fourth of cases of dementia and one-fifth of advanced dementia, posing considerable challenges for optimal care provision and end-of-life decision-making. Considering that family carers of residents who develop dementia later after admission to a nursing home are less likely to be aware, there is room for improving communication strategies toward family carers of nursing home residents. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. DIE GESKIEDENIS VAN AFDELING LOGISTIEK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Aug 1978 ... dan ook aangebied, Agv die probleem wat ont- staan het met die gebrek aan goedgekeurde poste vir die Afdeling en as gevolg van die ver- wagte vertraging met die ondersoek van die. DOS-span, het die Afdeling Logistiek en Afde- ling Personeel oorleg gepleeg en laasgenoemde het ingestem dat die ...

  10. Film Presentation: Die Urknallmaschine

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    Die Urknallmaschine, an Austrian film by Gerd Baldauf, narrated by Norbert Frischauf (Alpha Österreich - ORF, 2009).  In CERN’s gigantic complex particles are accelerated to almost the speed of light, brought to collision and made to divide into even smaller particles. Public opinion of CERN’s research is also divided. Sceptics fear that black holes may be created. Might the goal to study the origin of the world lead to its destruction? The Austrian researcher Norbert Frischauf worked at CERN for many years. With his guidance it is possible to explore the world’s largest research centre, get a glimpse of the fascinating work the scientists do there and take a crash course in particle physics. Die Urknallmaschine will be presented on Friday, 25 June from 13:00 to 14:00 in the Main Auditorium. Language: German

  11. Die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. de Kock

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. The aim of the study was to establish the effects of intelligence on the relationship between locus of control and task complexity. These constructs were selected by virtue of their importance in the literature, as well as the lack of empirical research regarding the assumed relationship which exists between them. The Human Sciences Research Council's (HSRC General Scholastic Aptitude Test (ASAT was used for measuring intelligence, Duttweiler's Internal Control Index (ICI was used for determining locus of control and the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM was used as a criterion for coping with task complexity. These instruments were administered to 292 subjects to determine whether the relationship between locus of control and task complexity was effected when the effect of intelligence was controlled. The results indicated a significant relationship between locus of control and task complexity, however the relationship was no longer significant after the effect of intelligence was controlled. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om die effek van intelligensie op die verhouding tussen lokus van kontrole en taak-kompleksiteit te ondersoek. Hierdie konstrukte is gekies na aanleiding van hulle belangrikheid in die literatuur asook die leemte in empiric se navorsing rakende die veronderstelde verband wat tussen hulle bestaan. Die Algemene Skolastiese Aanlegtoets (ASAT van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing (RGN is gebruik vir die meting van intelligensie, die Internal Control Index (ICI van Duttweiler is gebruik vir die meting van lokus van kontrole en die Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM van Raven is gebruik as maatstaf vir die bantering van taakkompleksiteit. Die genoemde meetinstrumente is op 292 proefpersone toegepas om te bepaal of die verband tussen lokus van kontrole en taakkompleksiteit geaffekteer word wanneer daar vir die effek

  12. Annual report references to dog longevity studies in which all dogs have died

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, B B

    1988-12-01

    All of the dogs in several of the-lifespan studies with beta-emitting radionuclides are dead. Routine annual summaries of these studies have been discontinued. To aid the reader interested in obtaining further information, this report provides summaries of the final status of each study and lists all previous ITRI Annual Report references for each study. (author)

  13. Annual report references to dog longevity studies in which all dogs have died

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    All of the dogs in several of the-lifespan studies with beta-emitting radionuclides are dead. Routine annual summaries of these studies have been discontinued. To aid the reader interested in obtaining further information, this report provides summaries of the final status of each study and lists all previous ITRI Annual Report references for each study. (author)

  14. Die relevansie van die boek Prediker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ook in die dogmatiek te bespeur is nie. 'n Vinnige oorsig oor die teksverwysings van. 'n paar wydgelese dogmatiekhandboeke kan dit bevestig. In Karl Barth se omvang- ryke Kirchliche Dogmatik word Prediker slegs vyf en dertig maal aangehaal en slegs sewe maal word teksgedeeltes bespreek. Emil Brunner haal Prediker ...

  15. Influence of Training on First-Year Nursing Department Students' Attitudes on Death and Caring for Dying Patients: A Single-Group Pretest-Posttest Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerit, Birgül

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the influence of training on first-year nursing department students' attitudes on death and caring for dying patients. Utilizing the experimental model, the study sample consisted of 81 first-year students attending the nursing department of a university. Death Attitude Profile-Revised and Frommelt Attitude toward Care of the Dying Scale were used for data collection. Data analysis included means, standard deviation, and t test for related samples. Student attitudes toward death were measured as 146.43 (16.741) and 152.75 (15.132) for pre- and posttraining, respectively. Student attitudes toward caring for dying patients were established to be 103.02 (7.655) during pretraining period and 111.02 (10.359) at posttraining period. The difference between pre- and posttests for mean attitudes toward death and caring for the dying patient was statistically significant. Study results determined that training was effective in forming positive student attitudes toward death and caring for dying patients.

  16. The battered child syndrome; Die nicht unfallbedingte Verletzung (battered child)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorantin, E.; Lindbichler, F. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie, Graz (Austria). Abt. fuer Kinderradiologie

    2002-03-01

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.) [German] Die Aufdeckung einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt eine grosse Herausforderung fuer alle in der Kinderbetreuung taetigen Berufsgruppen dar. Der Radiologie kommt eine besondere Rolle zu, da sie einerseits durch die Erkennung typischer Verletzungsmuster einen Verdacht bestaetigen, als auch bei ''Zufallsbefunden'' die moeglicherweise fatalen Folgen fuer die betroffenen Kinder verhindern kann. Der typische Verletzungsmechanismus im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung stellt das sog. ''shakin baby syndrome'' dar. Dabei wird der Thorax mit beiden Haenden umfasst und das Kind geschuettelt. Durch dieses repetitive Akzelerations-Dezelerationstrauma entstehen typische Verletzungen mit paravertebralen Rippenfrakturen, ZNS- sowie Retinablutungen. Anschliessend wird das Kind weggeworfen mit entsprechend weiteren Verletzungen. Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, einen Ueberblick ueber die Radiologie der wichtigsten Verletzungen und deren Abklaerung im Rahmen einer Kindesmisshandlung zu geben sowie die Demonstration der Befunde

  17. Experimental determination of the dynamic properties of screw compressors; Die experimentelle Bestimmung der dynamischen Eigenschaften von Schraubenkompressoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinder, L. [Technische Univ., Wien (Austria). Abt. Maschinenelemente; Svigler, J.; Pasek, M.; Albl, P. [Westboehmische Univ., Pilsen (Czech Republic). Lehrstuhl fuer Mechanik

    1998-12-31

    The demand for continuing improvements of screw machines leads to a vibration research of these machines. The presented paper deals with the experimental measurement of screw compressor operational vibrations and the determination of vibration sources. The measuring of operational vibrations, modal analysis and the determination of mode shape forms of a screw compressor were performed. The main sources of the operational vibrations were determined and the screw compressor eigenfrequencies were found in the frequency spectrum. This contribution forms a basis for the comparison of the theoretical and experimental results. This work was done in cooperation between the University of West Bohemia Pilsen and the Technical University Vienna. (orig.) [Deutsch] Staendig steigende Anforderungen an die Laufruhe von Schraubenkompressoren machen Schwingungsuntersuchungen an diesen Maschinen notwendig. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt Messungen des Betriebs-Schwingungszustandes und die Bestimmung der Erregerquellen an einem oeleingespritzten Schraubenverdichter. Es wird der Schwingungszustand mit Beschleunigungsaufnehmern gemessen, eine Modalanalyse beider Rotoren durchgefuehrt und es werden die Eigenformen der Laeufer bestimmt. Die Haupterregerquellen fuer die Schwingungen koennen ermittelt werden. Die Eigenfrequenzen des Kompressors sind im Frequenzspektrum festzustellen. Die Ergebnisse dienen als Basis fuer den Vergleich zwischen experimenteller Schwingungsanalyse und theoretischen Schwingungsuntersuchungen. Ueber theoretische Ergebnisse soll in naechster Zukunft berichtet werden. Die Arbeit entstand im Rahmen einer Zusammenarbeit zwischen der Westboehmischen Universitaet Pilsen und der Technischen Universitaet Wien. Die Schwingungsmessungen wurden am Schraubenverdichterpruefstand des Instituts fuer Maschinenelemente der TU Wien durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  18. The hydrogen economy. When there is no more oil. The creation of the worldwide energy web and the redistribution of power on earth; Die H{sub 2}-Revolution. Wenn es kein Oel mehr gibt. Mit neuer Energie fuer eine gerechte Weltwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rifkin, J.

    2002-07-01

    The author explains that the next great economic era will be powered by hydrogen. Drawing on a variety of well-balanced research studies, his premise is that the world must switch from a fossil-fuel economy to a hydrogen based economy. This must happen soon for three reasons: the imminent peak of global oil production, the increased concentration of remaining oil reserves in the Middle East one of the most politically and socially unstable regions of the world and the steady heating up of the world atmosphere from fossil-fuel dependency. This revolution will make energy available to each country, not just the wealthiest nations, and would be the first democratic energy regime in history. [German] Das Zeitalter der fossilen Brennstoffe (Kohlenwasserstoffzeitalter) ist an einem kritischen Punkt angelangt. In dem Buch von Jeremy Rifkin beweisen nach einem kurzen Abriss der Energiegeschichte akribisch angefuehrte umfangreiche Statistiken, dass das Erdoel und Erdgas spaetestens 2010 spuerbar knapp sein wird. Die wenigen verbliebenen Erdoelreserven liegen ausserdem ueberwiegend in politisch instabilen Gebieten. Bei steigender Oelknappheit treiben die alternativ verwendeten anderen fossilen Energiequellen die globale Erwaermung voran und gefaehrden das Oekosystem der Erde. Jeremy Rifkin sieht den einzigen Ausweg in einer neuen, auf Wasserstoff basierenden Weltwirtschaft. Die ''Dekarbonisierung'' der Energie, die unvermeidlich zur Wasserstoffzukunft fuehren wird, ist abzusehen. Wasserstoff wird eine basisdemokratische, nachhaltige Energie- und Brennstoffquelle der Zukunft, unabhaengig von Oelimporten. Brennstoffzellen auf Wasserstoffbasis koennen den Energiebedarf der gesamten Menschheit ueber einen sehr langen Zeitraum decken. Die realisierung einer neuen dezentralen Form der Energienutzung und demokratischen Energiekontrolle durch Millionen von Verbrauchern (lokalen Kleinstkraftwerken mit Brennstoffzellen), angeschlossen an ein weltweites

  19. Moderator veranderlikes en differensiele geldigheid van die aansoekvorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. de Bod

    1977-11-01

    Empiriese studies toon dat die Geweegde Aansoekvorm (G.A.V. 'n doeltreffende voorspellingsinstrument in personeelseleksie is. Daar is egter studies wat voorspel dat die voorspellingsgeldigheid van die G.A.V. in die literatuur aansienlik oorbeklemtoon word. Teenstrydig met die beginsels van klassieke psigometriese teorie word voorgestel dat moderator veranderlikes vir hierdie paradoks verantwoordelik is. Hierdie studie toon hoe die biografiese korrelate van dienstyd as moderators fungeer en empiriese bewys van die modererende effek op die voorspellingsgeldigheid van die G.A.V. word gelewer. Daar word voorgestel dat ‘n nuwe benadering tot die ontwikkeling van die G.A.V. noodsaaklik is ten einde die effek van moderators te benut.

  20. Physicians' willingness to grant requests for assistance in dying for children: a study of hypothetical cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrakking, A.M.; Heide, van der A.; Looman, C.W.; Delden, van J.J.M.; Philipsen, B.D.; Maas, van der P.J.; Wal, van der G.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the willingness of Dutch physicians to use potentially life-shortening or lethal drugs for severely ill children. STUDY DESIGN: We asked 63 pediatricians about their approach to 10 hypothetical cases of children with cancer. The age of the child (15, 11, or 6 years), the child's

  1. Factors associated with dying at the place of wish: a cross-country comparison of cancer patients with the EURO SENTI-MELC Study 2009-2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ko, W.; Miccinesi, G.; Beccaro, M.; Vanthomme, K.; Donker, G.A.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Alonso, T.V.A.V; Deliens, L.; Block, L. van den

    2013-01-01

    Aims: 1) To study demographic and clinical factors associated with dying at a preferred place for cancer patients 2) To study cross-country differences in the intensity of factors Methods: A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2009-2010 via representative nationwide networks of general

  2. The German uranium miners study. Knowledge for radiation protection; Die deutsche Uranbergarbeiterstudie. Erkenntnisse fuer den Strahlenschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Michaela; Schnelzer, Maria [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany). Fachbereicih fuer Strahlenschutz und Gesundheit

    2015-07-01

    The Wismut cohort comprises about 60.000 former Wismut employees. Due the size and the large surveillance time from 1946 to 2013 the German uranium miners study is of high significance and worldwide unique.

  3. Die rol van persoonlikheidstrekke in die weerstand teen stres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja V. R. van Oudtshoorn

    1988-05-01

    Full Text Available The role of personality characteristics in resistance to stress: A study was conducted to establish whether certain personality characteristics contribute to resistance to stress. Rescue brigadesmen, performing dangerous rescue operations in the goldmining industry, served as basis for the study. The sample consisted of 63 current, 56 ex- and 50 non-brigadesmen. Results indicate that brigadesmen, on the basis of their personality structure, are better equipped to cope with stress. Scores on the 16PF show that they have a lower level of interpersonal anxiety (Factor Q4 and that they are more practical (Factor I, emotionally stable (Factor C, and conscientious (Factor G. These findings support existing knowledge of the 16PF. Opsomming Ten einde vas te stel ofdaar sekere persoonlikheidstrekke bestaan wat bydra tot weerstand teen stres, is 'n studie uitgevoer met reddingspanlede, wat lewensgevaarlike reddingsdiens in die goudmynbedryf verrig, as ondersoekgroep. Die streekproefhet uit 63 huidige, 56 oud-reddingspanlede en 50 amptenare, wat nog nooit aan die span behoort het nie, bestaan. Dit blyk dat reddingspanlede, op grond van hulle persoonlikheidstruktuur, beter toegerus is om stres te hanteer. Tellings op die 16PF toon dat hulle oor 'n laervlakvan interpersoonlike angs beskik, (Faktor Q4, dat hulle meer prakties (Faktor I, emosioneel stabiel (Faktor C en konsensieus is (Faktor G. Hierdie bevindinge sluit aan by die reeds bestaande kennis oor die 16PF.

  4. DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE HUIDIGE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    DIE ONTVC'ERP VAN 'N SENDINGBELEID IN DIE. HUIDIGE SITUASIE. Sending is 'n deel van die vervulling van die apostoliese opdrag van die kerk. Dit geskied op grond van en in gehoorsaamheid aan Gods. \\C'oord. Teologiese besinning is daarom die eerste en grondliggende vereiste by die ontwerp van 'n ...

  5. Research for the thermal change. Contributions; Forschung fuer die Waermewende. Beitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepanski, Petra; Wunschick, Franziska; Martin, Niklas (comps.)

    2016-05-15

    The energy transition in the heating sector is not a sure-fire success and it is too slow. This is alarming since the heating / cooling sector is responsible for more than half of the final energy demand. That the ''thermal change'' has accelerated hardly despite many efforts by politics, industry and research in recent years, is the reason for the scientists the FVEE institutes to examine the perspectives of renewable energy and the need to increase efficiency in the heating sector systematically. therefore FVEE-2015 Annual Meeting, is entitled ''Research for the thermal change''. The contributions of this conference proceedings present the latest research results and show ways to implement the heat change technically, economically and politically. They are dedicated to the drivers, but also the barriers of heat change. The authors report on innovative projects to provide buildings with heat from geothermal energy, biomass and solar thermal energy. Several contributions are dedicated to the application of efficient components, such as thermal insulation, thermal storage and heat pumps. [German] Die Energiewende im Waermesektor ist kein Selbstlaeufer und kommt zu langsam voran. Das ist alarmierend, da der Waerme-/Kaeltesektor fuer ueber die Haelfte des Endenergiebedarfs verantwortlich ist. Dass die ''Waermewende'' trotz vielerlei Bemuehungen von Politik, Industrie und Forschung in den letzten Jahren kaum Fahrt aufgenommen hat, ist Anlass fuer die Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler der FVEE-Institute, die Perspektiven der erneuerbaren Energien und der notwendigen Effizienzsteigerung im Waermesektor systematisch zu untersuchen. Die FVEE-Jahrestagung 2015 steht deshalb unter dem Leitthema ''Forschung fuer die Waermewende''. Die Beitraege dieses Tagungsbandes praesentieren aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse und zeigen Wege auf, um die Waermewende technisch, wirtschaftlich und politisch

  6. Die vier Social-Media-Typen in der Wissenschaft. Ergebnisse einer bundesweiten Studie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrzinski, Ulrike

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] ZB MED and its partners within the Leibniz Research Alliance Scienc participated in a nationwide study involving academics and researchers from universities and Leibniz Association research institutions. The purpose was to examine the use of social media tools. One of the key goals was to learn more about the usage patterns and behaviours of target groups, and the study has provided some important pointers to assist in this task. The preliminary part of the study identified four types of social media user who display significantly different patterns of behaviour in their use of and attitudes toward social web applications. The poster shows the figures for researchers working in the fields of medicine and life sciences – the main user group of ZB MED.

  7. Residents Learning from a Narrative Experience with Dying Patients: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…

  8. Sodomie, gender studies und die baltische Geschichte : Anmerkungen zu einer schwedischen Dissertation / Aivar Põldvee

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldvee, Aivar, 1962-

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Sjödin Lindenskoug, Susanna. Manlighetens bortre gräns : tidelagsrättegångar i Livland åren 1685-1709. (Stockholms Studie in history, 94 ; Södertörn doctoral dissertations, 55). Stockholm, 2011

  9. (2008) SWJ:21-25 Comparative Studies On the Dying rate Migration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DYEING RATE MIGRATION AND WASH FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF AZO DYES. DERIVED FROM ..... The dyeing of Cellulose Fibres Publication thrust,. London. Standard methods for determination of fastness properties of textiles and leather, 4th Edition. 1978. Soceity of dyers and ...

  10. DIE PLEK VAN SANG EN MUSIEK IN DIE PROTESTANTSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Sy moet hierdie opdrag uitvoer deur mid del van die Prediking d.w.s. deur middel van die Woord-vorm, maar ook deur die bediening van die sakramente, dws. deur middel van die vorm van die Daad. Maar nou wil God nie hê dat die Kerk slegs één maal die Evangelie sal predik en die mense sal doop om hulle daarna.

  11. Packaged die heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielberger, Richard; Ohme, Bruce Walker; Jensen, Ronald J.

    2011-06-21

    A heater for heating packaged die for burn-in and heat testing is described. The heater may be a ceramic-type heater with a metal filament. The heater may be incorporated into the integrated circuit package as an additional ceramic layer of the package, or may be an external heater placed in contact with the package to heat the die. Many different types of integrated circuit packages may be accommodated. The method provides increased energy efficiency for heating the die while reducing temperature stresses on testing equipment. The method allows the use of multiple heaters to heat die to different temperatures. Faulty die may be heated to weaken die attach material to facilitate removal of the die. The heater filament or a separate temperature thermistor located in the package may be used to accurately measure die temperature.

  12. Die radio in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. de Villiers

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Omvang van radio-uitsendings in en na Afrika. — Redes vir die versnelde tempo van uitbreiding. — Radio as die geskikste massa-kommunikasiemiddel vir Afrika. — Faktore wat die verspreiding bemoeilik. — Skouspelagtige toename in luistertalle.Toe Plinius, wat in die jaar 79 oorlede is, in sy „Historia Naturalis” verklaar het dat daar altyd iets nuuts uit Afrika afkomstig is, kon hy nouliks voorsien het dat die „iets" negentien eeue later in die lug sou setel wat hierdie reuse-vasteland oorspan — ’n Babelse spraakverwarring en ’n ongekende, verbete woorde-oorlog in die etergolwe, onder meer daarop bereken om die harte en hoofde van derduisendes te verower.

  13. The power rate, a matter of negotiation. Influence of power rates on the economy of refrigerators and airconditioning systems; Verhandlungssache Stromtarif. Energiepreiseinfluss auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Kaelte- und Klimaanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannow, K. [Ingenieurbuero fuer Energiecontrolling, St. Ingbert (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    The economy of refrigerators and airconditioning systems is essentially determined by the rates of the different types of energy. The drives commonly used in refrigerators are electric motors, but some larger systems have gas engines. Apart from the investment cost, therefore, it is above all the the cost of operation or power cost that shows in the books. These costs accrue over the entire service-life of the system and represent current annual costs. (orig.) [German] Die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Kaelte- und Klimaanlagen wird im wesentlichen von den Preisen der verschiedenen Energiearten bestimmt. Ueblicherweise sind Elektromotoren fuer den Antrieb in Kaelteanlagen in Verwendung, die aber bei groesseren Systemen auch durch Gasmotoren ersetzt werden. Neben den Anlagenkosten fuer die Investitionen sind es vor allem die Betriebs- und damit also die Stromkosten, die zu Buche schlagen. Diese fallen ueber die gesamte Betriebszeit bzw. Lebensdauer der Anlage an und sind damit laufende Jahreskosten. (orig.)

  14. Development of a test system for the determination of biodegradability in surface waters; Entwicklung eines Testsystems fuer die Pruefung des biologischen Abbaus in Oberflaechengewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalsch, W; Knacker, T; Robertz, M; Schallnass, H J

    1997-04-01

    The study presented here describes the development of a laboratory test system for the determination of aerobic biodegradability of substances at low concentrations in surface water. It was aimed to prepare a draft guideline for a biodegradation simulation test according to OECD format. The experimental approach was based on a literature study conducted within the frame of this project. Further useful information on the possible test design was derived from the German BBA guideline 5-1. Natural water and sediments were collected. Radiolabelled Lindane or 4-Nitrophenol was added. The test vessels (reactors) were aerated and incubated under controlled conditions for up to 92 days. The results showed biological stability of the sediment/water systems even without addition of nutrients and adherence to non-reducing conditions. Mineralisation of 4-Nitrophenol was influenced by the sediment type, the method of aeration and temperature. Factors affecting the mineralisation of Lindane were the method of application and again, the sediment type and temperature. Considerable amounts of the radioactivity were bound to the sediment and were to a large extent unextractable. The potential of a reactor to mineralise a test substance could not be correlated with the biological parameters measured. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Studie beschreibt die Entwicklung eines Labortestverfahrens zur Pruefung des aeroben Abbaus niedrig konzentrierter Stoffe in Oberflaechengewaessern. Dabei war es ein Ziel, das Verfahren so weit abzusichern, dass ein Entwurf fuer eine Pruefrichtlinie als Simulationstest im Format der OECD-Richtlinien abgefasst werden konnte. Grundlage fuer die Konzeption war eine zuvoerderst durchgefuehrte Literaturstudie. Hinweise auf ein moegliches Testdesign ergaben sich auch aus der BBA-Richtlinie 5-1. Wasser und Sediment wurden der Natur entnommen und nach Zugabe der radioaktiven Pruefsubstanz Lindan oder 4-Nitrophenol in einem beluefteten Gefaess unter

  15. Die kortikale Verarbeitung semantischer Domänen : eine ERP-Studie

    OpenAIRE

    Wengenroth, Alexandra

    2005-01-01

    From a semantic point of view concrete nouns can be divided into different categories or domains such as living - non-living as well as into different lexical hierarchies (e.g. dog - beagle). Psycholinguistic and aphasiological case studies as well as neurophysiological investigations have shown that distinct semantic categories can be selectively damaged or show advantages in processing. However, these mental lexicon structures are still sketchy with regard to psycho- and neurolinguistics. I...

  16. Study of the upper die clamping conditions in the small punch test

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrés, D.; Dymáček, Petr

    86A, DEC (2016), s. 117-123 ISSN 0167-8442 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Small punch test * Finite element method * Parametric study * High temperature * Creep Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167844216301835

  17. High-performance ceramic filters for energy engineering. Final report; Filter aus Hochleistungskeramik fuer die Energietechnik. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerheide, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Adler, J. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Sinterwerkstoffe (IKTS), Dresden (Germany); Buhl, H. [ESK-SIC GmbH, Frechen-Grefrath (Germany); Fister, D. [H.C. Starck GmbH, Laufenburg (Germany); Krein, J. [LLB Lurgi Lentjes Energietechnik GmbH, Frankfurt (Germany); Voelker, W. [Annawerk GmbH, Roedental (Germany); Walch, A. [eds.] [USF Schumacher Umwelt- und Trenntechnik GmbH, Crailsheim (Germany)

    1999-09-30

    The hot gas particulate removal of many advanced coal fired power generation technologies works at temperatures above 800 C. The filter elements for these applications are often based on ceramic materials, e.g. silicon carbide. However, the mostly clay bonded silicon carbide is subject to creep and oxidation due to probable changes of the binder phase. In this work the development of new ceramic filter materials based on silicon carbide and alumina is described. The goal of the development was to increase the potential application temperature. To obtain the goal, the work was performed together with ceramic powder manufacturers, developers of ceramic materials and components as well as with companies who operate test facilities. Different routes were chosen to increase the high temperature resistance in consideration of corrosion resistance, fracture strength and pressure loss of the filter materials. One of these routes was the optimization of the binder phase of the silicon carbide materials. Other routes were concentrated on the base material and the investigation of other possibilities for the silicon carbide bonding, i.e. a recrystallization process of SiC (RSiC) or a self bonding of granulated small grained silicon carbide powder. Additionally filter materials based on alumina were developed. The report covers these material development oriented topics as well as the additional work in materials reliability, coating development and modeling of microstructure. (orig.) [German] In der Kombikraftwerkstechnik wird insbesondere bei Kohlefeuerung die Heissgasreinigung oft bei Temperaturen ueber 800 C eingesetzt. Die Filterelemente fuer diese Anwendungen bestehen oft aus keramischen Materialien. Das haeufig eingesetzte tongebundene Siliciumcarbid unterliegt jedoch besonders aufgrund der Beschaffenheit der Bindephase Kriech- und Oxidationsschaedigungen. In diesem Bericht wird die Entwicklung von neuen keramischen Filtermaterialien, die auf Siliciumcarbid oder

  18. Families' experiences with patients who died after assisted suicide: a retrospective interview study in southern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamondi, C; Pott, M; Payne, S

    2013-06-01

    In Switzerland, if certain conditions are met, assisted suicide is not prosecuted. International debate suggests that requests for hasten death are often altered by the provision of palliative care. Aims of the study were to explore patients' reasons for choice of assisted suicide and family perceptions of the interactions with health care professionals. This is a qualitative study upon 11 relatives of 8 patients cared for by a palliative care team, deceased of assisted suicide. Pain and symptom burden were not regarded by patients as key reasons to seek assisted suicide: existential distress and fear of loss of control were the determinants. Most patients had made pre-illness decisions to use assisted suicide. A general need for perceived control and fear of dependency were reported as a common characteristic of these patients. Patients held misunderstandings about the nature and purpose of palliative care, and the interviewed indicated that patients did not regard provision of palliative care services as influential in preventing their decision. Assisted suicide was preferred despite provision of palliative care. Better understanding of the importance placed on perceived control and anticipated dependency is needed. Further research is needed to develop appropriate support for patients contemplating assisted suicide.

  19. Pre- and postoperative radioligical evaluation of knee joint endoprothesis. Orthopedist's view; Die prae- und postoperative radiologische Evaluation der Kniegelenkendoprothese. Aus der Sicht des Orthopaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazoochian, F.; Fottner, A.; Hauptmann, S.M.; Schulze Pellengahr, C. von; Jansson, V. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik, Muenchen (Germany); Glaser, C.; Triantafyllou, M.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians- Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer klinische Radiologie

    2006-09-15

    The implantation of a knee arthroplasty is still a demanding operation. There is still no ''golden standard'' available, although a lot of guidelines have been declared. Because of this fact this article should provide the radiologist with an overview of and some background knowledge for the radiological evaluation of knee arthroplasty. (orig.) [German] Die Implantation eines kuenstlichen Kniegelenks ist nach wie vor eine anspruchsvolle Operation. Einen ''Goldstandard'' gibt es bis heute nicht, obwohl vielfach Richtlinien der Knieendoprothetik aufgestellt werden. Deshalb soll dieser Artikel dem Radiologen einen Ueberblick und Hintergrundinformation ueber die radiologische Evaluation der Knieendoprothetik geben. (orig.)

  20. Die Erfindung des Manuskripts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benne, Christian

    Die Entstehung der literarischen Moderne ging seit dem 18. Jahrhundert damit einher, dass die Anzahl literarischer Manuskripte ebenso wuchs wie deren Bedeutung. Der Buchdruck hatte die Handschrift keineswegs überflüssig gemacht, sondern provozierte im Gegenteil einen neuen, am Autographen...

  1. "Please. Don't. Die.": A Grounded Theory Study of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausz, Justin; Snobelen, Paul; Tavares, Walter

    2018-02-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an important determinant of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), yet rates of bystander CPR are highly variable. In an effort to promote bystander CPR, the procedure has been streamlined, and ultrashort teaching modalities have been introduced. CPR has been increasingly reconceptualized as simple, safe, and easy to perform; however, current methods of CPR instruction may not adequately prepare lay rescuers for the various logistical, conceptual, and emotional challenges of resuscitating a victim of cardiac arrest. We adopted a constructivist grounded theory methodology to qualitatively explore bystander CPR and invited lay rescuers who had recently (ie, within 1 week) intervened in an OHCA to participate in semistructured interviews and focus groups. We used constant comparative analysis until theoretical saturation to derive a midrange explanatory theory of bystander CPR. We constructed a 3-stage theoretical model describing a common experiential process for lay rescuer intervention in OHCA: Being called to act is disturbing, causing panic, shock, and disbelief that must ultimately be overcome. Taking action to save the victim is complicated by several misconceptions about cardiac arrest, where victims are mistakenly believed to be choking, and agonal respirations are misinterpreted to mean the victim is alive. Making sense of the experience is challenging, at least in the short term, where lay rescuers have to contend with self-doubt, unanswered questions, and uncomfortable emotional reactions to a traumatic event. Our study suggests that current CPR training programs may not adequately prepare lay rescuers for the reality of an OHCA and identifies several key knowledge gaps that should be addressed. The long-term psychological consequences of bystander intervention in OHCA remain poorly understood and warrant further study. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Die begrafnisdíens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Num 20: 1; Jos 24: 30; Hand 5: 5 - 11). Selfs van die ... Gebruike rondom die begrafnis het van geslag tot geslag gewissel. De Vaux ... der geskied deur die hoorders 'te onderrig, te vermaan, te vertroos en te bestraf, soos dit in elke geval ..... gehandhaaf hoef te word, veral in die lig van die feit dat die predikant die kerklike.

  3. Exploring Canadian Physicians' Experiences Providing Medical Assistance in Dying: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnood, Narges; Hopwood, Marie-Clare; Lokuge, Bhadra; Kurahashi, Allison; Tobin, Anastasia; Isenberg, Sarina; Husain, Amna

    2018-05-15

    MAiD allows a practitioner to administer or prescribe medication for the purpose of ending a patient's life. In 2016, Canada was the latest country, following several European countries and American states, to legalize physician-assisted death. Although some studies report on physician attitudes towards MAiD or describe patient characteristics, there are few that explore the professional challenges faced by physicians who provide MAiD. To explore the professional challenges faced by Canadian physicians who provide MAiD. Sixteen physicians from across Canada who provide MAiD completed in-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews. An inductive thematic analysis approach guided data collection and the iterative, interpretive analysis of interview transcripts. Three members of the research team systematically co-coded interview transcripts and the emerging themes were developed with the broader research team. NVivo was used to manage the coded data. Participants described three challenges associated with providing MAiD: 1) their relationships with other MAiD providers were enhanced and relationships with objecting colleagues were sometimes strained, 2) they received inadequate financial compensation for time, and, 3) they experienced increased workload, resulting in sacrifices to personal time. Although these providers did not intend to stop providing MAiD at the time of the interview, they indicated their concerns about whether they would be able to sustain this service over time. Physicians described relationship, financial, and workload challenges to providing MAiD. We provide several recommendations to address these challenges and help ensure the sustainability of MAiD in countries that provide this service. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Die invloed van die neo-marxistiese kultuuranalise op die Wêreldraad van Kerke en die Gereformeerde Kerke van Nederland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Vorster

    1979-05-01

    Full Text Available Toe die studente dwarsoor die VSA en Europa in die laat sestigerjare ’n plotselinge en radikale verset openbaar het teen die bestaande orde, het hulle die deur geopen vir ’n nuwe mededinger om die hart van die Westerse kultuur. Dit is die nou reeds bekende neo-Marxisme. Sedertdien het hierdie jongeling sy voetspore op vele vlakke van die Westerse kultuur gelaat.

  5. Morir con dignidad: Estudio sobre voluntades anticipadas Dying with dignity: A study of living wills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nebot

    2010-12-01

    draw up a living will, to analyze physicians´ knowledge of living wills and attitudes toward them, and to compare the regulations pertaining to this right in the distinct autonomous regions of Spain. Method: A descriptive study that included an analysis of a systematic sample of 931 living wills registered in the autonomous region of Valencia (Spain, a self-administered structured questionnaire administered to a sample of 84 physicians working in emergency departments and intensive care units (45% response rate, and a comparison of the regional legislation covering living wills. Results: A total of 1.6% of inhabitants aged 16 or over had registered a living will (female/male ratio: 1.8/1. Most (73.8% used a standard document drawn up by a particular religious faith. The most common reasons for writing a living will were to limit therapeutic efforts (99% and obtain pain-relieving drugs (98%. Although 61 physicians (72.6% frequently attended the terminally ill, only 6% consulted the register of living wills in these situations and 28% did not know how to consult this register. There is wide variation among regions in the minimum age for registering a living will, in the procedure to be followed if the signer is pregnant, in designating a person as having the authority to make a living will, and in the number of registration points available to deposit livingwills. Conclusions: Most persons registering a living will are healthy individuals with a particular religious faith who reject certain treatments. Most health professionals do not check whether critically ill patients have made a living will. Exercising the rights contained in living wills is complicated by the diversity of criteria among different regions.

  6. Scientific colloquium on medical supervision of workers exposed to ionizing and non ionizing radiations[Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium ueber die medizinische ueberwachung von arbeitern, die ionisierenden und nicht-ionisierenden strahlungen ausgesetzt sind]; Colloque scientifique sur la surveillance medicale des travailleurs exposes aux rayonnements ionisants et non ionisants. Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium ueber die medizinische Ueberwachung von Arbeiten, die ionisierenden und nicht-ionisierenden Strahlungen ausgesetzt sind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-07-01

    The general principles of medical surveillance for workers exposed to ionizing radiation were defined in the Euratom Basic Standards in 1959. These principles, which are in accordance with the early IGRP publications, have been adopted by the national authorities and implemented without difficulty. However, because of the forthcoming publication of the revised Basic Standards- in accordance with recent IGRP recommendations, the Commission decided to organize a meeting of doctors responsible for the medical surveillance of workers exposed to ionizing radiation in order to disseminate as widely as possible the results of experience gained in the field of radiological protection and to pinpoint the practical difficulties which might arise when the principles were applied. The Commission also considered it important to inform doctors specializing in radiological protection about the principles to be followed by those responsible for the health protection of workers exposed to non-ionizing radiation, particularly microwaves and Laser beams. The complete text of each report in the original language is given in this volume.

  7. die pers as bron oor die geskiedenis van die eerste vrydeidsoorlog

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dood agv wonde wat hy tydens die slag opgedoen het. Dit was vir die Britse volk onaanvaarbaar dat slegs twee Boere gedood is nadat daar tussen. 20 000 en 30 000 rondtes op die Boere afgevuur is. Die pers kon net nie die ware syfers publiseer nie, want dit sou na 'n onwaarheid Iyk. Het die. Britse volk egter die Boere ...

  8. die impak van metodologie op die verstaan van die nuwe testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    voorbeeld eers een maal deur die bril van die vorm- en redaksiekritiek na die Evangelies gekyk het, dink jy vir altyd anders oor hulle tot- standkoming. Inderdaad, nuwe metodes lei tot nuwe perspektiewe! Dit is dan ook waar die fokus van hierdie artikel val: die impak van metodologie op die verstaan van die Nuwe ...

  9. Verskuiwing in die moraal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. van der Walt

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Modewoorde het ons deesdae oorgenoeg in die Christelike sedeleer en hulle kan nogal verwarring stig. U moet my vergun om met u te spreek oor een so ’n modewoord nl „verskuiwing’’ in die moraal. Dis nogal ’n mooi woord, wat so dikwels gebruik word op baie terreine en tog meer wil aandui as maar net ’n veranderde sienswyse, ’n wysiging in opvattinge of nuwe riglyne wat al gangbaar geword het in die praktyk. Die begrip wil eintlik die ewolusionêre gang beklemtoon, want dit is dan eintlik net die ou norme wat effens anders bekyk word of nie meer so nou geneem of dik onderstreep word nie. Die verskuiwing beteken dan dat alles nog dieselfde bly, net die posisie of plek het verander. Verskuiwing beteken tog plekverandering of plekwisseling en dan sekerlik nie in die sin dat die plekke ver uitmekaar lê nie. Verskuiwing beteken net maar vlak langs die vorige te staan kom. As dit dan ’n beter plek is, is dit ewolusie, ontwikkeling, verbetering.

  10. WHAT IS THE BEST RADIOGRAPHIC VIEW FOR “DIE PUNCH” DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES? A CADAVER MODEL STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcochio, Diego Figueira; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; Trindade, Christiano Augusto; da Costa, Antonio Carlos; Chakkour, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of this study is try to show the best view for distal radius fractures so called die-punch fractures. Methods: There has been used a human cadaver radius bone from the Salvador Arena Tissue Bank. This bone was cleaned up after removing the soft tissues and osteotomies created displaced lunate fossa fractures of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5 mm. We have fixed this fragment with adhesive tape. Then the joint deviation were significantly increased with step-offs of 1 mm. Radiographs were then taken into 5 different positions: postero-anterior view, lateral view, oblique views and tangencial view for each of the deviations. The resulting lunate fossa depression in each X-ray film was analyzed by the AutoCAD 2010® software. Results: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. The pronated oblique view was the best to see the 2mm degrees and the oblique supinated view wasn't able to see the degrees between 1 and 2mm. Conclusion: The tangencial view was the best one to see the 1mm and 3mm bone degrees and the second one view to see the 2mm and 5 mm degrees. PMID:27027079

  11. End-of-Life Care and Circumstances of Death in Patients Dying As a Result of Cancer in Belgium and the Netherlands: A Retrospective Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; van den Block, L.; Echteld, M.A.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; van Casteren, V.; Abarshi-Fatiregun, E.A.B.; Donker, G.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Deliens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine and compare end-of-life care in patients with cancer dying in Belgium and the Netherlands. Patients and Methods: A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2008 via representative nationwide sentinel networks of general practitioners (GPs) in Belgium and the Netherlands. By

  12. End-of-life care and circumstances of death in patients dying as a result of cancer in Belgium and the Netherlands: a retrospective comparative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeussen, K.; Block, L. van den; Echteld, M.A.; Boffin, N.; Bilsen, J.; Casteren, V. van; Abarshi, E.; Donker, G.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.; Deliens, L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine and compare end-of-life care in patients with cancer dying in Belgium and the Netherlands. Patients and methods: A mortality follow-back study was undertaken in 2008 via representative nationwide sentinel networks of general practitioners (GPs) in Belgium and the Netherlands. By

  13. Relatives' Perspective on the Terminally Ill Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Interview Study in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Jean-Jacques; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; Muller, Martien T.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van der Maas, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This study used retrospective interviews with 87 relatives to describe the experiences of patients who died by euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS) in the Netherlands. Most of the patients suffered from cancer (85%). The relatives were most often a partner (63%) or a child (28%) of the patient. Before explicitly requesting EAS most…

  14. PET-Studies in parkinson's disease; Untersuchungen mit der Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) bei Patienten mit Morbus Parkinson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, J. [Klinik fuer Neurologie, Univ. Leipzig (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Positron-emission-tomography (PET) has enabled to study the metabolism and blood flow in specific brain areas. Besides, there is a variety of radiotracers that allow quantification of the function of distinct molecules. In respect to Parkinson's disease, PET allowed for the first time to assess the number of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Thus, helping confirming a dopaminergic deficit, measuring disease progression and also help to determine the function of dopaminergic grafts. Current research has shifted to determine the role of related neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (orig.) [German] Die positronen-emissions-tomographie (PET) bietet neben der Messung von Metabolismus und Blutfluss die Moeglichkeit der Darstellung von einzelnen Molekuelen. Bei Patienten mit Morbus Parkinson hat es diese Technik erstmals erlaubt, die Anzahl der dopaminergen Neurone zu quantifizieren, wodurch die Diagnose gesichert, die Progression der Erkrankung beurteilt und auch das Anwachsen von Implantaten beurteilt werden kann. Die PET hat einen wesentlichen Beitrag zu unserem heutigen Wissen ueber die Pathophysiologie dieser Erkrankung beigetragen. (orig.)

  15. Spanische Identität unter der Voraussetzung des trikulturellen Mittelalters: zu Fabian Sevillas StudieDie ‚Drei Kulturen‘ und die spanische Identität“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Henrik Witthaus

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fabian Sevilla, Die „Drei Kulturen“ und die spanische Identität: ein Konflikt bei Américo Castro und in der spanischsprachigen Narrativik der Moderne, Siegener Forschungen zur romanischen Literatur- und Medienwissenschaft 26 (Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 2014, 372 S.

  16. oor die inhoud en boodskap van die heidelbergse kategismus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Smit. Oor die Inhoud en Boodskap van die Heidelbergse Kategismus. 52. Uiteraard sal dié tema saamhang met die bedoelinge agter die opstel van die Kategismus. Ook die vraag na moontlike bedoelinge of motiewe is egter 'n ingewikkelder vraag as wat miskien gedink mag word. Uiteraard was daar agter elke kategismus ...

  17. Thomas Erastus oor die struktuur van die gemeenskap'^

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    óók aansprake en regte het, is die opvatting dat sowel die burgerlike gemeenskap as die kerk 'n perfecta societas sibi sufficiens is, nié werklik aanvaar nie. Die Middeleeuse gemeenskap was die corpus christianum,. 'n gemeenskap wat nie deur fisiese of politieke grense beperk was nie. Sy grense het gelê waar die grense ...

  18. die doel en wese van opvoedende onderwys en die implikasies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oaar moet onderskei word tussen die doelstellings van opvoedende onderwys en die einddoel wat bereik word deur die nastrewing van hierdie doelstellings. Gunter praat van die naderliggende doelstellings (1981, b1.105). \\/at die enddoel van opvoedende onderwys bet ref, gaan die meeste opvoedkundi ges akkoord dat ...

  19. ’n Oorsig van die bepaling van die vroeë bakterisidiese aktiwiteit van verskeie antituberkulosemiddels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Donald

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Die vroeë bakterisidiese aktiwiteit (VBA van ’n antituberkulosemiddel is die daaglikse afname van M tuberculosis in log10 kolonievormende eenhede per ml sputum, tydens die eerste twee dae van behandeling met die middel. Dit weerspieël die vermoë van ’n middel om aktief metaboliserende organismes in tuberkulose-longholtes te dood. Dit is ’n relatief goedkoop metode om in ’n klein groep pasiënte die antituberkulose-aktiwiteit van ’n middel, binne maande, in vivo te evalueer. Hierdie artikel som ons ondervinding op tydens sewe gepubliseerde VBA-studies, en die bronne van variasie in die prosedure word identifiseer. Die pasiënte in hierdie studies was gemiddeld 33 jaar oud, met ’n gemiddelde gewig van 50 kg en 55% het ekstensiewe of massiewe longaantasting gehad. Die hoogste VBA-waardes (0,50-0,66 is gevind in pasiënte wat isoniasied ontvang het, en die laagste waardes (0,05 en 0,09 respektiewelik was gevind in pasiënte wat die aminoglikosiede amikasien en paromomisien, albei in doserings van 15 mg/kg liggaamsgewig, ontvang het. Die algehele variasie in die VBA van 248 pasiënte was 0,0312, en die variasie toegeskryf aan die proses van sputumproduksie en -versameling was 0,0223. Dit blyk dat die verskillende aspekte van sputumproduksie en -versameling, betrokke by die lewering van ’n verteenwoordigende sputummonster, ’n groter bydrae maak tot variasie tydens die prosedure as die laboratoriumaspekte van die tegniek. Die keuring van pasiënte vir insluiting in VBA-studies, en hulle vermoë om saam te werk om ’n verteenwoordigende sputummonster te produseer, is van deurslaggewende belang in die suksesvolle voltooiing van VBA-studies.

  20. Undistorted, crack-free and low-cost ceramic components for the transportation, power and medical sector - numerical simulation of pressing and sintering. Final report; Formgenaue, rissfreie und kostenguenstige Bauteile aus Keramik fuer die Verkehrs-, Energie- und Medizintechnik - Numerische Simulation des Pressens und Sinterns. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stingl, P.; Wittig, F.

    1999-02-01

    One of the economically most important production routes for ceramic parts is die pressing and sintering. Up to now the development cycle is mainly based on empirical experience and sample production. Success or failure can be often determined only after sintering. This procedure is time and cost-intensive and sometimes could lead to the conclusion that a part is not producible at all considering economical restrictions. Finite element simulations in combination with appropriate material laws for pressing and sintering allow qualitative and quantitative predictions of undesirable distortions. Agreement with experimental data of real parts is very good. Using these simulations, the development time of a new part can be significantly reduced by optimizing die geometries, punch movements or temperature-time-curves during sintering. Thus, an effective method to improve the quality is available. (orig.) [German] Das Konstruieren und Einrichten von Werkzeugen wurde bisher hauptsaechlich ueber Musterproduktionen sowie ueber empirische Erfahrungswerte abgestimmt. Erfolg oder Misserfolg konnte oft erst nach dem Sintern beurteilt werden. Dieses Vorgehen ist zeit- und kostenintensiv und fuehrt manchmal nach langen und zeitintensiven Versuchsreihen zu dem Ergebnis, dass ein Bauteil ueber Trockenpresstechnik nicht oder nur mit unzureichender Prozesssicherheit hergestellt werden kann. Mit der numerischen Simulation des Pressens und Sinterns ist es moeglich, die Gruendichteunterschiede und damit auch den Sinterverzug beim Pressen rein rechnerisch zu ermitteln. Die Uebereinstimmung der Simulationsergebnisse mit dem realen Bauteil ist sehr gut. Damit koennen die Realisierbarkeit komplizierter Bauteile bereits am Rechner ueberprueft und Korrekturmassnahmen vorgeschlagen werden. Eine effektive Methode zur Qualitaetsverbesserung ist damit gegeben. (orig.)

  1. Ein (neuer Blick auf die Konkurrenz unter Frauenforscherinnen A (New Look at Competition Among Women Scholars in Women’s Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina Mischau

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Die Solidarität unter Frauenforscherinnen wird bis heute als politisch-ideologisches Postulat der Frauenforschung aufrechterhalten, obwohl im Zuge einer zunehmenden Institutionalisierung und Professionalisierung bei einer gleichzeitig nahezu unveränderten Marginalisierung der Frauenforschung an deutschen Hochschulen eine stärker werdende Konkurrenz auch unter Frauenforscherinnen zu beobachten ist. Sünne Andresen geht der Frage nach den möglichen Ursachen von Konkurrenz unter Frauenforscherinnen in der Hochschule nach. Diese Fragestellung ist in der Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung nicht neu, wenngleich sie bislang eher allgemein auf die Konkurrenz unter Wissenschaftlerinnen bezogen worden ist. Innovativ ist jedoch, dass die Autorin hierfür den subjektwissenschaftlichen Ansatz der Kritischen Psychologie und die Habitus-Feld-Konzeption Bourdieus als theoretischen Bezugsrahmen auswählt und damit deutlich über die vorherrschenden subjektzentrierten oder strukturtheoretischen Erklärungsansätze hinausgeht. Die empirische Basis ihrer Studie sind sechs qualitative Interviews mit Habilitandinnen der geistes- und sozialwissenschaftlichen Fächer, die sich auf die Frauen- und Geschlechterforschung spezialisiert haben. Insgesamt arbeitet die Autorin interessante Aspekte möglicher Ursachen des Konkurrenzverhaltens unter und der Konkurrenzerfahrungen von Frauenforscherinnen heraus. Sie bleibt der Leserin aber mindestens genauso viele Antworten schuldig, wie sie durch die dargestellten „empirischen Ergebnisse" zu geben vermag.Until the present day, solidarity among feminist scholars is upheld as an ideological-political postulate in this particular scholarly community. These views continue to be upheld despite the increasing institutionalisation and professionalisation of research in women’s studies research. These institutional changes result in an increased sense of competition among feminist scholars, while women’s studies continue to

  2. Die tug oor ampsdraers tydens die doleansie van 1886

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Visser

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available In art 29 van die Nederlandse Geloofsbelydenis word bely: “Die merktekens om die ware Kerk te ken is die volgende: As die Kerk die suiwere prediking van die evangelie uitoefen, as dit die suiwer bediening van die sakramente gebruik soos Christus dit ingestel het, as die kerklike tug gebruik word om die sondes te straf.” Dit spreek vanself dat wanneer ampsdraers, aan wie Christus sy kudde toevertrou het (Hand 20 : 28, met leer en /of lewenswandel in sonde volhard en nie daarin met tug gestuit word nie, word die ware kerk nie gebou nie maar afgebreek. 0ns sal later in hierdie artikel aantoon hoedanig die suiwer tug oor ampsdraers, veral leertug, tydens die Doleansie tot skade van die kerk van Christus agterweë gebly het.

  3. Die verhouding tussen vertroue en diversiteitsklimaat by 'n Suid-Afrikaanse universiteit

    OpenAIRE

    McCallaghan, Sean; Heyns, Marita

    2016-01-01

    Hierdie studie stel ondersoek in na die verwantskap tussen vertroue en die diversiteitsklimaat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse tersiêre inrigting. 'n Kwantitatiewe benadering met behulp van 'n nie-waarskynlikheidsgerieflikheidsteekproef (N=350) is gevolg. Die vraelys wat in die studie gebruik is, maak gebruik van 'n kombinasie van drie vooraf-gevalideerde instrumente. Die resultate dui aan dat die werknemers saamstem dat die instelling bereid is tot diversiteitsbestuur en die uitskakeling van diskri...

  4. die ontstaan van vrouelugverenigings in suid-afrika voor die tweede

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aangestel. Ander eenhede het later gevolg. Drle van die Vrouehulplugmag se lelersflgure staan voor die VHLM se kleure wat gewy Is In Durban op 18 Mei 1940. Die vroue Is vlnr mal (meil E. Percival-Hart, It-kol (mev) D. Dunning en mal (mel) M. Egerton-Bird. 24. Scientia Militaria, South African Journal of Military Studies, ...

  5. Where do the elderly die? The impact of nursing home utilisation on the place of death. Observations from a mortality cohort study in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hecke Ettiene

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the research concerning place of death focuses on terminally ill patients (cancer patients while the determinants of place of death of the elderly of the general population are not intensively studied. Studies showed the influence of gender, age, social-economical status and living arrangements on the place of death, but a facet not taken into account so far is the influence of the availability of nursing homes. Methods We conducted a survey of deaths, between January 1999 and December 2000 in a small densely populated area in Belgium, with a high availability of nursing homes (within 5 to 10 km of the place of residence of every elderly. We determined the incidence of total mortality (of subjects >60 years from local official death registers that we consulted via the priest or the mortician of the local parish, to ask where the decedent had died and whether the deceased had lived in a nursing home. We compared the distribution of the places of death between parishes with a nursing home and with parishes without nursing home. Results 240 women and 217 men died during the two years study period. Only 22% died at home, while the majority (78% died in an institutional setting, either a hospital (50% or a nursing home (28%. Place of death was influenced by individual factors (age and gender and the availability of a nursing home in the 'own' parish. The chance of in-hospital death was 65% higher for men (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 14 to 138%; p = 0.008 and decreased by 4% (CI: -5.1% to -2.5%; p Conclusion Demographic, but especially social-contextual factors determine where elderly will end their life. The majority of elderly in Flanders die in an institution. Age, gender and living situation are predictors of the place of death but the embedment of a nursing home in the local community seems to be a key predictor.

  6. Symptoms, unbearability and the nature of suffering in terminal cancer patients dying at home: a prospective primary care study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, C.D.M.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; van der Wal, G.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Primary care physicians provide palliative home care. In cancer patients dying at home in the Netherlands (45% of all cancer patients) euthanasia in about one out of every seven patients indicates unbearable suffering. Symptom prevalence, relationship between intensity of symptoms and

  7. Die metafoor by Breyten Breytenbach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    23 Jun 2009 ... metafories, of spesifiek verwysend, te werk gegaan is. Tyd sou mens die hoofmotief van die bundel noem, tyd en geheue wat verbygaan: 1 en 2; en die einde van die storie wat gekom het: “fluit-fluit my storie is uit”. (Die tema van verbygaan word weer opgeneem in 8 en 9: die stories wat nooit meer gehoor ...

  8. IRAN IN DIE INTERNASIONALE MAGSTRYD

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die verband kan genoem word dat die Russe nog grotendeels gebruik maak van 'n metode waarvolgens water in die oliestratum gepomp word om 'n opwaartse druk van ru-olie te verseker; een nadeel hiervan is dat die water mettertyd deur die oliehoudende laag ontsnap en agv die drukverlies isvoortgesette ontginning.

  9. Ueber den begriff "Kinoplasma" in der spermiogenese von Australorbis Glabratus Olivaceus (Mollusca, Pulmonata, Planorbidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Barth

    1960-11-01

    Full Text Available Zur Klaerung der Frage, ob der Begriff "Kinoplasma" fuer gewisse, von MERTON (1924,1926, 1930 beobachtete Bildungen an den reifenden Spermiden von pulmonaten Mollusken oder fuer Bestandteile des Cytoplasmas im Sinne von STRASBURGER und SCARTH zu verwenden ist, werden in der vorliegenden Mitteilung die Vorgaenge bei der Spermiohistogenese von Australorbis glabratus olivaceus untersucht. Es ergibt sich: 1. Das von MERTON bezeichnete "Kinoplasma" existiert nicht als solches, es handelt sich bei den von ihm dargestellten Protoplasmabildungen um kugelige, von den Spermiden abgeschnuerte Restkoerper nicht verwendeten Baumaterials, bestehend aus Protoplasma und einigen Mitochondrien. Sie werden von den Naehr- oder Bazalzellen phagozytiert. Der Ausdruck "Kinoplasma" kann nur fuer die submikroskopischen, geformten, faedigen Elemente des Cytoplasmas reserviert bleiben, die den geradlinigen Fall der uebrigen nicht geformten Komponenten bremst oder ablenkt; damit muss das Kinoplasma aber aus dem Begriff des Cytoplasmas herausgenommen werden, da es, wenn auch vermutlich reversibel, eine Differenzierung darstellt. 2. Der Spermienfaden wird von den Centriolen (Axialfilament und den Mitochondrien (zwei peripher gelegene Spiralfilamente, sowie einem Plasmamantel gebildet. 3. Nach Beendigung des Auswachsens der Spermiengeissel, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt nur aus dem Achsenfaden und dem Protoplasmazylinder besteht, setzt sich eine Protoplasmamasse vom Kopf in Richtung zum Geisselende in Bewegung. Sie fuehrt den Golgi-Koerper und sehr viele Mitochondrien mit sich. Aus diesen entwickeln sich Fibrillen, die sich zu den beiden Spiralfilamenten zusammenfuegen. Diese Masse entspricht der von MERTON in seiner Theorie als Kinoplasma bezeichneten Komponente. 4. Die Bewegung dieses Protoplasmateils wird auf den Schub zurueckgefuehrt, den die sich bildenden Fibrillen auf die Mitochondrien ausueben. 5. Die Rueckwaertsbewegung dieses Protoplasmakoerpers beruht wahrscheinlich auf

  10. Die singulation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiler, Thomas P.; Garcia, Ernest J.; Francis, Kathryn M.

    2013-06-11

    A method is disclosed for singulating die from a semiconductor substrate (e.g. a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate or a bulk silicon substrate) containing an oxide layer (e.g. silicon dioxide or a silicate glass) and one or more semiconductor layers (e.g. monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon) located above the oxide layer. The method etches trenches through the substrate and through each semiconductor layer about the die being singulated, with the trenches being offset from each other around at least a part of the die so that the oxide layer between the trenches holds the substrate and die together. The trenches can be anisotropically etched using a Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) process. After the trenches are etched, the oxide layer between the trenches can be etched away with an HF etchant to singulate the die. A release fixture can be located near one side of the substrate to receive the singulated die.

  11. Prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip replacement. Using nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs versus radiation therapy: a prospective randomized trial; Prospektive Studie zur Vermeidung heterotoper Ossifikationen nach Hueftgelenksersatz. Nichtsteroidales Antirheumatikum versus Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelbl, O.; Flentje, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie; Eulert, J.; Barthel, T.; Knelles, D.; Kraus, U. [Orthopaedische Klinik Koenig-Ludwig-Haus Wuerzburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Purpose: Two prospective trials were undertaken to assess the comparative efficacy of early postoperative irradiation with different radiation doses versus the postoperative use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) for prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) following prothetic total hip replacement (THP). Patients and Method: Between 1992 and 1994 585 patients received THP. These patients were randomized in two longitudinal studies each with 3 treatment arms comparing postoperative irradiation with 4x3 Gy (101 patients), 1x5 Gy (93 patients), 1x7 Gy (95 patients) and the postoperative use of the NSAID indometacin for 7 days (113 patients) respectively for 14 days (90 patients) and acetyl salicyl acid (ASS) for 14 days (93 patients). Heterotopic ossification was scored according to the Brooker grading system. One hundred patients receiving no prophylactic therapy after total hip arthroplasty between 1988 and 1992 were analysed and defined as historical control group. Conclusion: Prophylactic irradiation of the operative site after hip replacement is more effective than the use of NSAID. Because no significant difference between the fractionated single dose irradiation was found and the latter is more comfortable for patients and more economical, irradiation with single 7 Gy fraction should be prefered. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Zielsetzung: Mittels zweier prospektiver Studien wurde untersucht, inwieweit eine postoperative Radiotherapie mit unterschiedlichen Bestrahlungsdosen und die postoperative Gabe nichtsteroidaler Antirheumatika die Inzidenz heterotoper Ossifikationen nach endoprothetischem Gelenkersatz der Huefte reduzieren koennen. Patienten und Methode: 585 Patienten erhielten in den Jahren 1992 bis 1994 eine Totalendoprothese des Hueftgelenks. Diese Patienten wurden innerhalb zweier longitudinal angelegter, jeweils dreiarmiger Studien randomisiert. Verglichen wurde dabei eine postoperative fraktionierte Bestrahlung mit 4x3 Gy (101 Patienten), eine

  12. No Negative Impact of Palliative Sedation on Relatives' Experience of the Dying Phase and Their Wellbeing after the Patient's Death: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Bruinsma

    Full Text Available Palliative sedation is the widely-used intervention of administering sedating agents to induce a state of unconsciousness to take away a dying patient's perception of otherwise irrelievable symptoms. However, it remains questionable whether this ethically complex intervention is beneficial for patients and whether the associated lack of communication in the last phase of life has a negative impact on relatives' wellbeing.An observational questionnaire study was conducted among relatives of a consecutive sample of patients who died a non-sudden death in the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute or in the hospice 'Laurens Cadenza' (both in Rotterdam between 2010 and 2013.Relatives filled in questionnaires regarding 151 patients who had been sedated and 90 patients who had not been sedated. The median time since all patients had passed away was 21 (IQR 14-32 months. No significant differences were found in relatives´ assessments of the quality of end-of-life care, patients´ quality of life in the last week before death and their quality of dying, between patients who did and did not receive sedation, or in relatives' satisfaction with their own life, their general health and their mental wellbeing after the patient's death.The use of sedation in these patients appears to have no negative effect on bereaved relatives' evaluation of the patient's dying phase, or on their own wellbeing after the patient's death.

  13. No Negative Impact of Palliative Sedation on Relatives’ Experience of the Dying Phase and Their Wellbeing after the Patient’s Death: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lee, M. L.; Vergouwe, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Palliative sedation is the widely-used intervention of administering sedating agents to induce a state of unconsciousness to take away a dying patient’s perception of otherwise irrelievable symptoms. However, it remains questionable whether this ethically complex intervention is beneficial for patients and whether the associated lack of communication in the last phase of life has a negative impact on relatives’ wellbeing. Methods An observational questionnaire study was conducted among relatives of a consecutive sample of patients who died a non-sudden death in the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute or in the hospice ‘Laurens Cadenza’ (both in Rotterdam) between 2010 and 2013. Results Relatives filled in questionnaires regarding 151 patients who had been sedated and 90 patients who had not been sedated. The median time since all patients had passed away was 21 (IQR 14–32) months. No significant differences were found in relatives´ assessments of the quality of end-of-life care, patients´ quality of life in the last week before death and their quality of dying, between patients who did and did not receive sedation, or in relatives’ satisfaction with their own life, their general health and their mental wellbeing after the patient’s death. Conclusions The use of sedation in these patients appears to have no negative effect on bereaved relatives’ evaluation of the patient’s dying phase, or on their own wellbeing after the patient’s death. PMID:26871717

  14. No Negative Impact of Palliative Sedation on Relatives' Experience of the Dying Phase and Their Wellbeing after the Patient's Death: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, S M; van der Heide, A; van der Lee, M L; Vergouwe, Y; Rietjens, J A C

    2016-01-01

    Palliative sedation is the widely-used intervention of administering sedating agents to induce a state of unconsciousness to take away a dying patient's perception of otherwise irrelievable symptoms. However, it remains questionable whether this ethically complex intervention is beneficial for patients and whether the associated lack of communication in the last phase of life has a negative impact on relatives' wellbeing. An observational questionnaire study was conducted among relatives of a consecutive sample of patients who died a non-sudden death in the Erasmus MC Cancer Institute or in the hospice 'Laurens Cadenza' (both in Rotterdam) between 2010 and 2013. Relatives filled in questionnaires regarding 151 patients who had been sedated and 90 patients who had not been sedated. The median time since all patients had passed away was 21 (IQR 14-32) months. No significant differences were found in relatives´ assessments of the quality of end-of-life care, patients´ quality of life in the last week before death and their quality of dying, between patients who did and did not receive sedation, or in relatives' satisfaction with their own life, their general health and their mental wellbeing after the patient's death. The use of sedation in these patients appears to have no negative effect on bereaved relatives' evaluation of the patient's dying phase, or on their own wellbeing after the patient's death.

  15. Evaluation of the Luting Cement Space for Provisional Restoration by using Various Coats of Die Spacer Materials-An Invitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiramana, Sandeep; Siddineni, Krishna Chaitanya; Jyothula, Ravi Rakesh Dev; Gade, Phani Krishna; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Kondaka, Sudheer; Hussain, Zakir; Paluri, Geetha Bhavani

    2014-09-01

    The present study was to evaluate the space provided for the temporary luting cement, after the application of various coats of die spacers, during the fabrication of provisional crowns and bridges. A total of 50 specimens of dental stone with provisional crowns on all these samples were prepared and were divided into five groups based on the application of various coats of different die spacers. Later these specimens were sectioned buccolingually and were observed using a stereomicroscope under 100X magnification. The images thus obtained were evaluated and noted for the amount of space between the inner surface of the provisional crown and the specimens at five different locations using Image Pro 6.0 Express software and the values were subjected to one-way ANOVA test, and unpaired t-test. There was a significant increase of luting space thickness with various die spacer applications than the specimens of control group. Specimens of double coat applications of silver and gold die spacers showed higher luting cement space than the separating media application specimens.

  16. Ontsporing van die regstaatsbegrip en sy konsekwensies vir die afrikanervolk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G.S. Van der Walt

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Die opvatting van die suiwere regstaat bring sy vraagstukke mee wanneer dit in verband gebring word met die leer van die soewereiniteit in eie kring. Laasgenoemde leer wortel in die geloof dat God die mens roep tot diens aan Hom, en dat die mens vry moet wees om ten opsigte van alle lewensaspekte God na die hoogste mate te kan dien. Hierdie verskeidenheid van aspekte is deur dr. A. Kuyper en sy volgelinge gesistemati- seer tot menslike verbande en lewenskringe, elk met ’n be- paalde sfeer waarin ander kringe nie mag inmeng nie. Elkeen is dan soewerein binne sy eie kring. Met verwysing na die staat is dan gespreek van die staatstaak as synde die hand- hawing van die reg, en omdat die staat in toenemende mate hom veral in die latere tyd ook besig gehou het met bedrywig- hede wat nouliks as van juridiese aard beskou kan word, is daar die onderskeid gemaak tussen die primêre en sekundêre taak van die staat. Die sistematiek van die wetsidee, deur prof. Dooyeweerd ontwikkel, waar die staat sy bestemmingsfunksie in die regsaspek vind, het vanselfsprekend geen plek vir so 'n dualistiese staatstaak nie, en die oplossing is deur sommige daarin gesoek om sulke staatsoptrede te vertolk as hebbende wel betrekking op die regsgemeenskap of die regsverkeer. Staatsondernemings soos paaie, spoorweë, spellingreëling, ens. word dan beskou as noodsaaklik vir die instandhouding van die regsgemeenskap en regsverkeer. Tereg wys A. M. Donner1 daarop dat so ’n vertolking eintlik neerkom op ’n oorspanning van die regsbegrip. Hy self sien dan die staatstaak in vrede- of orde-handhawing, wat in die eerste plaas wel regshandha- wing veronderstel. Onder orde word dan alles verstaan wat noodsaaklik is vir die gladde verkeer in die ontwikkelingsgang van die regsgemeenskap. Die wese van die staat het dan vol- gens hom te doen met reg, maar sy taak is meer as suiwere regshandhawing. Wat onrus verwek en die orde versteur, moet uit die openbare lewe verwyder word, en die

  17. S-commerce: Internet sales; S-Commerce: Verkauf uebers Internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, E. [Heindl Internet AG, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    While the number of internet users is growing just as quickly as the solar market, users tend to concentrate on a few of many portals (e.g. www.solarserver.de). Newcomers must take care to offer high-grade contents and user-friendly navigation as the competitors are only a mouse click away. [German] Die Anzahl der Internetnutzer waechst genauso schnell wie der Solarmarkt. Doch nur wenige Portale locken einen Grossteil der Surfenden an (z.B.: www.solarserver.de). Das heisst, die Anbieter muessen viel Wert auf sorgfaeltig erarbeitete Inhalte und gute Navigation legen, denn die Konkurrenz ist immer nur einen Mausklick weit entfernt. (orig.)

  18. Die sterwende kindjie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.T. De Jongh van Arkel

    1983-09-01

    Full Text Available The thought of a child dying appears as an antithesis and thus the feelings evoked by the dying child are stronger than when older persons are dying. Around the child’s death bed there is no place for detached spectators and all become involved in caring for and supporting him. Caregivers also have a supporting responsibility towards the members of the child’s family.

  19. Mu opioid receptor availability in people with psychiatric disorders who died by suicide: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarr Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mu opioid receptors have previously been shown to be altered in people with affective disorders who died as a result of suicide. We wished to determine whether these changes were more widespread and independent of psychiatric diagnoses. Methods Mu receptor levels were determined using [3 H]DAMGO binding in BA24 from 51 control subjects; 38 people with schizophrenia (12 suicides; 20 people with major depressive disorder (15 suicides; 13 people with bipolar disorder (5 suicides and 9 people who had no history of psychiatric disorders but who died as a result of suicide. Mu receptor levels were further determined in BA9 and caudate-putamen from 38 people with schizophrenia and 20 control subjects using [3 H]DAMGO binding and, in all three regions, using Western blots. Data was analysed using one-way ANOVAs with Bonferroni’s Multiple Comparison Test or, where data either didn’t approximate to a binomial distribution or the sample size was too small to determine distribution, a Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s Multiple Comparison Test. Results [3 H]DAMGO binding density was lower in people who had died as a result of suicide (p3 H]DAMGO binding densities, but not mu protein levels, were significantly decreased in BA9 from people with schizophrenia who died as a result of suicide (p Conclusions Overall these data suggest that mu opioid receptor availability is decreased in the brains of people with schizophrenia who died as a result of suicide, which would be consistent with increased levels of endogenous ligands occupying these receptors.

  20. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  1. Place of death in the population dying from diseases indicative of palliative care need: a cross-national population-level study in 14 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivodic, Lara; Pardon, Koen; Morin, Lucas; Addington-Hall, Julia; Miccinesi, Guido; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; Naylor, Wayne; Ruiz Ramos, Miguel; Van den Block, Lieve; Wilson, Donna M; Loucka, Martin; Csikos, Agnes; Rhee, Yong Joo; Teno, Joan; Deliens, Luc; Houttekier, Dirk; Cohen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Studying where people die across countries can serve as an evidence base for health policy on end-of-life care. This study describes the place of death of people who died from diseases indicative of palliative care need in 14 countries, the association of place of death with cause of death, sociodemographic and healthcare availability characteristics in each country and the extent to which these characteristics explain country differences in the place of death. Death certificate data for all deaths in 2008 (age ≥1 year) in Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, England, France, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Spain (Andalusia), the USA and Wales caused by cancer, heart/renal/liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diseases of the nervous system or HIV/AIDS were linked with national or regional healthcare statistics (N=2,220,997). 13% (Canada) to 53% (Mexico) of people died at home and 25% (the Netherlands) to 85% (South Korea) died in hospital. The strength and direction of associations between home death and cause of death, sociodemographic and healthcare availability factors differed between countries. Differences between countries in home versus hospital death were only partly explained by differences in these factors. The large differences between countries in and beyond Europe in the place of death of people in potential need of palliative care are not entirely attributable to sociodemographic characteristics, cause of death or availability of healthcare resources, which suggests that countries' palliative and end-of-life care policies may influence where people die. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Nina Degele: Gender/Queer Studies. München: UTB Fink 2008. — Franziska Schößler: Einführung in die Gender Studies. Berlin: Akademie Verlag 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Kahlert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nina Degele und Franziska Schößler treiben mit ihren Einführungsbüchern in die Gender Studies beziehungsweise in die Gender/Queer Studies die Disziplinierung dieser neuen Wissensfelder voran. Ausgehend von ihren jeweiligen Herkunftsdisziplinen (Soziologie und Literaturwissenschaft legen sie übersichtliche Überblicke vor, die explizit für die Hochschullehre konzipiert sind. Beide Bücher leisten einen wichtigen Beitrag zur Kanonisierung der Gender Studies als akademisches Fach, bleiben aber in ihrer Konzeption stark den Herkunftsdisziplinen ihrer Verfasserinnen verhaftet. Hier stößt die viel beschworene Interdisziplinarität der Gender Studies an ihre Grenzen.Nina Degele and Franziska Schößler promote the disciplinary establishment of new fields of knowledge with their introductory books in Gender Studies and Gender/Queer Studies. Using their individual home disciplines (sociology and literary studies as a starting point, they present clear overviews of these new fields of knowledge explicitly conceived for use in higher education. Both books contribute to the canonization of Gender Studies as an academic discipline, however they remain in their conception strongly attached to the home disciplines of their authors. It is here that the often-touted interdisciplinarity of Gender Studies reaches its limits.

  3. Analise van die Tswanaraaisel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Swanepoel

    1984-05-01

    Full Text Available ’n Strukturele, stilistiese en funksionele bcskrywing van die Twanaraaisel bring mee dat daar aan die volgende aspekte aandag gegee moet word: •\tWat is ’n raaisel en lioe word dit in Tswana genoem. •\tTot watter studiegebied en literere genre hoort die raaisel en watter subvorme kan vir Tswana onderskei word. •\tHoe sien die struktuur van Tswanaraaisels daar uit. •\tDeur wie, waar, wanneer en hoe word Tswanaraaisels voorgedra. •\tWatter stilistiese kenmcrke kan in Tswanaraaisels onderskei word. •\tWatter funksies vervul raaisels in ’n Tswanagcmeenskap.

  4. The Angry Dying Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert E.

    1999-02-01

    Over 25 years ago, Kubler-Ross identified anger as a predictable part of the dying process. When the dying patient becomes angry in the clinical setting, all types of communication become strained. Physicians can help the angry dying patient through this difficult time by using 10 rules of engagement. When physicians engage and empathize with these patients, they improve the patient's response to pain and they reduce patient suffering. When physicians educate patients on their normal responses to dying and enlist them in the process of family reconciliation, they can impact the end-of-life experience in a positive way.

  5. Die brein soos beskou deur die Grieke en Romeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In Ou Egipte is mummifikasie met uitgebreide reseksie of uitsnyding van organe geassosieer, maar geen kennis is geneem van die morfologie van die brein nie. Griekse skrywers van die sesde en vyfde eeue v.C. het die brein aanvanklik gesien as die setel van intelligensie, die orgaan van sensoriese waarneming en gedeeltelik die oorsprong van sperma. Pneuma het ’n belangrike rol in breinfunksie gespeel. Hippokrates was die eerste om die brein te beskryf as ’n dubbele orgaan, wat met harsingvlies (meninges bedek, funksioneel van pneuma afhanklik en vertolker van begrip is. Tydgenote soos Plato, Aristoteles en Diokles het tot die beskrywing bygedra, maar laasgenoemde twee het beweer dat die hart die middelpunt van intelligensie is en nie die brein nie. Gedurende die laaste helfte van die vierde eeu v.C. is disseksie van die menslike liggaam tydelik aan die mediese skool van Alexandrië toegelaat en het dit tot merkwaardige vooruitgang in die begrip van die menslike anatomie en fisiologie gelei. Herofilus en Erasistratus het uitstekende beskrywings van die struktuur en funksie van die brein gegee wat eers in die tweede eeu n.C. deur Galenus geëwenaar is.

  6. DIE SUID-AFRIKAANSE JEUG IN VOORTREKKERTYDPERK

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dien. Die planke en velie moes keer dat die assegaaie die mense tref. Voor die geveg het die vrouens en groter dogters koeels gegiet. Tydens die geveg het die seuns gehelp skiet terwyl die vrouens en dogters die gewere vir die mans gelaai het. Van die dogters soos Nellie. Botha (11 jaar oud) en haar sussie Fya (15 jaar.

  7. Dogmatiek en Christelike Etiek binne die Fakulteit Teologie (Afd A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their influence on the study of Dogmatics and Ethics in the Department. The article concludes with a vision for ... heid door systematische ordening' (Berkhof 1982:14) aan die een kant en om diens aan die kerklike verkondiging aan die ander kant gaan, sal bogenoemde twee sake beslis nie uit die cog verloor kan word nie.

  8. Die uitbouing van die Bybelse kanon in antieke Judaïsme en die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Jul 2015 ... die oer-Christelike boodskap tot by sy Ou Testamentiese wortels, die geskrifte van Israel wat cum grano salis die 'Bybel' van die oer-Christendom geword het en die blywende verwysingspunt van die Christelike boodskap is. Erkenning. Hierdie artikel is vertaal na Afrikaans deur Prof. Jan G. van der Watt.

  9. Feasibility study on superconducting energy storages for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. Final report; Machbarkeitsuntersuchung von supraleitenden Energiespeichern zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hockl, V [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Koetschau, S [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Nick, W [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Peschel, H [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Prescher, K [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Rzezonka, B [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Thiel, C [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Voelzke, R [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Zaviska, O [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Radtke, U [Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG (Preussenelektra), Hannover (Germany); Kleimaier, M [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany); Uttich, R [RWE Energie AG, Essen (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    The present integrated research project conducted by Siemens AG in cooperation with the power supply companies PreussenElektra AG and RWE Energie AG was started in March 1994 and finally concluded in March 1996 after a run time of 25 months. On the strength of their know-how as manufacturers of electrotechnical installations and power plants the cooperating partners were fully equipped to examine the technical and economic conditions relevant to the practical application of superconducting energy storages. The aim of the study was to examine the feasibility and economic efficiency of superconducting magnetic energy storages (SMES) for instantaneous provision of reserve capacities. The SMES is also to provide the power for primary regulation, a function effected by slight throttling of live steam valves in conventional thermal power plants. A basic cost estimation was made for economic assessment purposes. The estimated cost of the first plant (including development costs and component testing) and subsequent (series produced) plants is to serve as a basis for the ensuing decision on prototype construction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Maerz 1994 wurde das vorliegende Forschungsverbundprojekt von der Siemens AG in Zusammenarbeit mit den Energieversorgungsunternehmen PreussenElektra AG und RWE Energie AG begonnen und nach einer Laufzeit von 25 Monaten im Maerz 1996 abgeschlossen. Die beteiligten Unternehmen bringen durch ihr Know-how als Hersteller von elektrotechnischen Anlagen und Kraftwerken und als Betreiber von Stromversorgungsnetzen und Kraftwerken alle Voraussetzungen mit, die technischen und wirtschaftlichen Randbedingungen fuer den Anwendungsfall zu untersuchen. Das Ziel der Untersuchung war, die technische Machbarkeit und die Wirtschaftlichkeit eines supraleitenden magnetischen Energiespeichers (SMES) fuer den Einsatz zur Bereitstellung der Sekundenreserveleistung zu untersuchen. Hierbei soll der SMES die Primaerregelleistung liefern, die bisher in thermischen

  10. Die opleiding van bedryfsielkundiges aan die universiteit van Fort Hare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Botha

    1977-11-01

    Full Text Available Die Departement Bedryfsielkunde aan die Universiteit van Fort Hare is 'n relatiewe jong departement en het eers in 1965 tot stand gekom. Voor hierdie datum is Bedryfsielkunde as 'n kort kursus deur die departement van suiwer Sielkunde aangebied en een van die destydse dosente, Dr. W. Backer, het die inisiatief geneem om 'n selfstandige departement van Bedryfsielkunde in die Fakulteit van Ekonomiese Wetenskappe op die been te bring.

  11. Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - selected organic trace pollutants in the Elbe and its tributaries 1994-1999; Arbeitsgemeinschaft fuer die Reinhaltung der Elbe - Ausgewaehlte organische Spurenverunreinigungen in der Elbe und Elbenebenfluessen im Zeitraum 1994 - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fooken, C.; Stachel, B.; Reincke, H. [Wasserguetestelle Elbe, Hamburg (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    The present report contains results on the occurrence of polar and nonpolar substances in the Elbe and selected tributaries which were analysed in the period from 1994 to 1999. It shows that industrial and municipal purification plants still have an insufficient cleaning capacity for certain substances. The process by which ubiquitous pollutants can enter the Elbe via a small, widely ramified fluvial system is exemplified for the family of chloroalkyl phosphates. These mainly occur in flame retardants and plasticisers in polyurethanes. The paper also presents results from a selection of 28 substances listed in Directive 76/464/ECC. They provide a decision aid for the planning of future measuring concepts based on the EU Water Framework Directive. In the ARGE ELBE programme organic pollutants are recorded and published on a routine basis. These are mostly nonpolar substances such as the well-known polychlorinated biphenyls or slow-evaporating insecticidal chlorinated hydrocarbons such as DTT. Recent analysis results show that this group of substances is relevant now as before and that it will remain so for the years to come. Special studies involving aqueous phase measurements were performed on a different group of substances, namely polar substances, which are generally readily soluble. The substances on which this report is chiefly focused originate from different sources: industrial and municipal effluents, diffuse inputs from agriculture and atmospheric depositions. In many cases they are difficultly degradable and could attain significance where river water in the form of river bank filtrate is used for drinking water production. However, due to complex and effective purification technologies they rarely enter drinking water. [German] Der vorliegende Bericht enthaelt Ergebnisse zum Vorkommen polarer und unpolarer Stoffe in der Elbe und in ausgewaehlten Nebenfluessen, die in dem Zeitraum von 1994 bis 1999 analysiert worden sind. Er zeigt, dass fuer einzelne

  12. [Dying with cancer: Hollywood lessons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Fernanda; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2013-12-01

    The study attempts to understand how dying from cancer is portrayed by five movies produced in Hollywood between 1993 and 2006. Based on the cultural studies and their post-structuralism version and supported by the notions of discourse and subjectivity, as proposed by philosopher Michel Foucault, we suggest one of the possible readings of the movie picture corpus. We assess how the movie picture discourse acts as a cultural pedagogy that produces ways of seeing dying with cancer: immortalizing the healthy body image, silencing death, taking care of the dead body and, finally, accepting death. Our proposal is intended to stimulate reflections that may contribute to care and education in nursing.

  13. Oor die Bybel in die Afrikaanse digkuns

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    another. As a matter of fact, the development of Afri kaans, the instrument of the poet, has been significantly influenced the Afrikaans translation of the Bible. Belie ... ook gesê het: Saam met ons literatuur, so oud as hy is. Die eerste Afrikaanse digter by wie ons omvattende Bybelse invloed kry, is. Totius, een van ons vroegste ...

  14. What contribution can the gas infrastructure make to the energy transition?; Welchen Beitrag kann die Gasinfrastruktur fuer die Energiewende leisten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothe, David; Janssen, Matthias; Poel, Sander van der [Frontier Economics, Koeln (Germany); and others

    2017-11-15

    In the long term, the sector coupling will convert other areas of consumption such as heat and transport to purely renewable energy sources. A model-based analysis of system costs across all stages of the value chain shows that the existing gas infrastructure in particular can make an important contribution to achieving a comprehensive energy turnaround at low cost. Preserving the gas networks in connection with the use of green gas as a further end energy carrier in addition to electricity leads to significantly lower overall costs than a comprehensive electrification of all end applications. This can also help overcome acceptance problems. [German] Mit der Sektorkopplung werden langfristig weitere Verbrauchsbereiche wie Waerme und Verkehr auf rein erneuerbare Energiequellen umgestellt. Eine modellgestuetzte Analyse der Systemkosten ueber alle Wertschoepfungsstufen hinweg zeigt, dass insbesondere die vorhandene Gasinfrastruktur einen wichtigen Beitrag leisten kann, eine umfassende Energiewende kostenguenstig zu erreichen. Ein Erhalt der Gasnetze in Verbindung mit der Nutzung von Gruenem Gas als weiterem Endenergietraeger neben Strom fuehrt zu deutlich niedrigeren Gesamtkosten als eine umfassende Elektrifizierung aller Endanwendungen. Zudem kann dies helfen, Akzeptanzprobleme zu ueberwinden.

  15. calvyn oor die leiding van die heilige gees in die verklaring van die

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mittel alters, bis er zur Ruhe kommt bei den kanonischen Schriften der. Urzeit der christlichen Ära (Barth ... (ego tamen dimoveri non possum ab amore compendii, CO 10, 403). Deur die boodskap van die .... Idem ergo spiritus qui per os prophetarum loquutus est, in corda nostra penetret necesse est, ut persuadeat fideliter ...

  16. KERKWEES IN DIE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acta Theologica is an accredited South. African journal publishing ... SciELO South Africa. REDAKSIE/ ... 'n persoon belydenis van geloof af wat instemming met die betrokke kerk se ...... Ek was na my ongeluk buite aksie en op Clarens. 'n Mede-lid ...... Die “formation of new confessions, change to current confessions, and.

  17. Dying with dignity

    OpenAIRE

    S P Kalantri

    2003-01-01

    The concept of dignity has beeen one of the ambiguous concepts in biomedical ethics. Thus the ambiguous nature of this concept has been extended to what it means to die with dignity. This research work is an investigation into the complexity in the understanding of "dying with dignity" in Applied Ethics.

  18. The day Madiba died

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8 Apr 2016 ... shibien en ma is nie happy nie. Susan Gaigher se allegoriese fanta- sie- oftewel wetenskapsfiksieverhale. “Martine se teepot” (46–55) en “Maslow”. (56–67) is verfrissend. Gaigher is een van die min skrywers in die bundel wat 'n kenmerkende en oorspronklike stem laat klink. 'n Mens sal 'n Gaigher-verhaal.

  19. Die entwicklung, die metamorphose, die entstehung: Die konzepte des organismus von Aristoteles bis Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamerer Eva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (nemački In diesem Aufsatz versuche ich, die Elemente verschiedener Konzepte des Organismus in der Philosophie und in der Wissenschaft zu analysieren. Die Deutungen des Organismus und der Einheit der Natur bei Aristoteles, Kant und Goethe werden als ein Beispiel der Bewegung von einem finalistischen zum antifinalistischen Bild der Natur verstanden.

  20. Sewage sludge disintegration - a review of current processes; Klaerschlammdesintegration - Ueberblick ueber verschiedene Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickel, K. [ULTRAWAVES Wasser- und Umwelttechnologien GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Neis, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Abwasserwirtschaft

    2003-07-01

    Anaerobic stabilisation is an established technology for reducing sewage sludge volumes, but it has the drawback of low conversion rates. The speed of the process is determined by the hydrolysis of the solid fraction of the sludge. According to the current state of knowledge, exoenzymes produced by the fermenting microorganisms attack the particulate material and dissolve monomers. Production of exoenzymes is an energy-consuming process for the microorganisms; it reduces the energy gain and slows down cell growth. The same bacteria are responsible for aerobic and anaerobic hydrolysis. Therefore, the process of sludge destabilisation can be intensified considerably by making the whole organic fraction biologically available, i.e. by replacing the slow stage of enzymatic sludge hydrolysis by a chemical, thermal or mechanical stage. Sludge disintegration by one of these processes would intensify anaerobic degradation, reduce sludge volumes and enhance biogas production. (orig.) [German] Die anaerobe Stabilisierung ist anerkannte Regel der Technik und fuehrt zu einem teilweisen Abbau der organischen Bestandteile des Rohschlammes. Eine Verminderung der zu entsorgenden Schlammmasse geht damit einher. Wesentlicher Nachteil der anaeroben Klaerschlammstabilisierung ist die geringe Umsatzleistung dieses Prozesses. Dem Aufschluss der Feststoffe/grossen Molekuele des Schlammes kommt eine Schluesselrolle zu: die Hydrolyse der Rohschlammfeststoffe stellt den geschwindigkeitsbestimmenden Teilschritt des aneroben Abbauprozesses dar. Nach den gegenwaertigen Vorstellungen greifen von den fermentierenden Mikroorganismen produzierte Exoenzyme das partikulaere Material an und loesen Monomere heraus. Die Herstellung der Exoenzyme ist fuer die Mikroorganismen energetisch sehr aufwendig und vermindert den Energiegewinn und damit das Zellwachstum. Die Hydrolyse ist unabhaengig davon, ob sie aerob oder anaerob erfolgt, sie wird von denselben Bakterien bewerkstelligt. Man kann sich demnach

  1. Mu opioid receptor availability in people with psychiatric disorders who died by suicide: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarr, Elizabeth; Money, Tammie Terese; Pavey, Geoffrey; Neo, Jaclyn; Dean, Brian

    2012-08-28

    Mu opioid receptors have previously been shown to be altered in people with affective disorders who died as a result of suicide. We wished to determine whether these changes were more widespread and independent of psychiatric diagnoses. Mu receptor levels were determined using [3 H]DAMGO binding in BA24 from 51 control subjects; 38 people with schizophrenia (12 suicides); 20 people with major depressive disorder (15 suicides); 13 people with bipolar disorder (5 suicides) and 9 people who had no history of psychiatric disorders but who died as a result of suicide. Mu receptor levels were further determined in BA9 and caudate-putamen from 38 people with schizophrenia and 20 control subjects using [3 H]DAMGO binding and, in all three regions, using Western blots. Data was analysed using one-way ANOVAs with Bonferroni's Multiple Comparison Test or, where data either didn't approximate to a binomial distribution or the sample size was too small to determine distribution, a Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's Multiple Comparison Test. [3 H]DAMGO binding density was lower in people who had died as a result of suicide (pendogenous ligands occupying these receptors.

  2. Paradigmas en progressie in die teologie: *n Perspektief op die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die metodologie as besinningsterrein word egter al belangriker. Gedurende die tweede week van April 1988 het teoloë van dwarsoor Suid-. Afrika by die nuwe gebou van die Raad vir Geesteswetenskaplike Navorsing in. Pretoria byeen gekom vir 'n kongres van amper drie dae met die tema Paradigma.'> 476. ISSN 0259 ...

  3. die korrelasie tussen die gemiddelde daaglikse toename van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'n Regressielyn is uit die gegewens bereken deur 'n beswaarde regressieanaliese en die 80 persent-voorspellings- bande is bepaal. Die punte wat ver buite die normale ver- spreidingsband geval hetkon almal met goeie rede as abnor- maal beskou word (sien tabel 1) en is nie ingesluit by die statistiese berekenings nie.

  4. amp' van die ouderling in die Nuwe Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jesus self het geen kerk gestig nie en daarom, veral omdat die Jesus-beweging inter mums ten opsigte van die Joodse godsdiens van sy tyd tot stand gekom het, het ...... Die klem val dus nie op die npoTCTT0fievo<; se rang of outoriteit nie, maar op sy pastorale funksie in die huishouding of huisgemeente (kyk Reicke.

  5. Cooperation with UNEP/IRPTC as a contribution to the implementation of the 'Agenda 21' action programme, chapter 19 in the field of information exchange on hazardous substances; Kooperation mit UNEP/IRPTC als Beitrag zur Umsetzung des Aktionsprogramms 'Agenda 21', Kapitel 19 im Bereich Informationsaustausch ueber gefaehrliche Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schock-Schmelzer, U.

    1999-09-01

    The United Nations 'Conference on Environment and Development' (Rio de Janeiro, June 1992) adopted the 'Agenda 21' action programme. Agenda 21, Chapter 19 'Environmentally Sound Management of Toxic Chemicals including the Prevention of Illegal International Traffic with Toxic and Dangerous Products' includes detailed instructions for activities for the improvement of chemical safety. As described in Programme Area C 'Information Exchange on Toxic Chemicals and Chemical Risks', international institutions responsible for the exchange of information on chemical risks are to be strengthened. The close cooperation between the Federal Environmental Agency and UNEP Chemicals (until 1995 UNEP/IRPTC (United Nations Environment Programme / International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals)) on the exchange of scientific and legal information on hazardous chemicals represents a direct and successful contribution to the implementation of Agenda 21, Chapter 19. UNEP Chemicals was supported in the area of data collection. In return, the noted data of UNEP Chemicals, which were elaborated in international cooperation, were made directly available to the Federal Environmental Agency. This cooperation with UNEP Chemicals represents an important contribution to the international exchange of data on hazardous chemicals. (orig.) [German] Die 'Konferenz der Vereinten Nationen fuer Umwelt und Entwicklung' (Rio de Janeiro, Juni 1992) verabschiedete das Aktionsprogramm 'Agenda 21'. Kapitel 19 der Agenda 21 'Umweltvertraeglicher Umgang mit giftigen Chemikalien einschliesslich der Verhinderung illegalen internationalen Handels mit giftigen und gefaehrlichen Produkten' enthaelt detaillierte Handlungsauftraege zur Verbesserung der Chemikaliensicherheit. Wie im Programmbereich C 'Informationsaustausch ueber giftige Chemikalien und Chemikalienrisiken' beschrieben, sollen internationale Zentren zum

  6. Methods of heat transformation for solar facilities in buildings; Verfahren der Waermetransformation fuer die solare Gebaeudetechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, H.M. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Freiburg (Germany). Gruppe Aktive Thermische Systeme; Treffinger, P. [Deutsche Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Lampoldshausen (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    1998-02-01

    Processes in which a heat pump cycle is driven by thermal energy may be defined as heat transformation processes. The technical realization of this type of processes in general is based on sorption techniques. Depending on the temperature level of the utilized heat these technologies may be used for either cooling or heating of buildings. The paper presents state-of-the-art technologies and new developments. It comprises solar cooling of buildings, utilization of environmental energy sources (earth, air) by thermal driven heat pumps and seasonal storage of solar thermal energy by means of sorption processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Unter Waermetransformationsverfahren werden im allgemeinen Verfahren verstanden, in denen ein Waermepumpenprozess mit thermischer Energie angetrieben wird. Die technische Realisierung dieser Verfahren erfolgt ueberwiegend mit Hilfe von Sorptionsvorgaengen. Abhaengig vom Temperaturniveau des Nutzwaermestroms koennen solche Verfahren im Gebaeudebereich fuer die Kuehlung oder Heizung eingesetzt werden. Im Beitrag werden der Stand der Technik sowie neue Entwicklungen vorgestellt. Im einzelnen umfasst der Beitrag die solare Kuehlung von Gebaeuden, die Nutzung von Umweltenergie (Erdreich, Luft) mittels thermisch angetriebener Waermepumpen sowie die saisonale Speicherung von Solarenergie ueber Sorptionsprozesse. (orig.)

  7. Stable algorithms for magnetotomography of fuel cells; Stabile Algorithmen fuer die Magnetotomographie an Brennstoffzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannert, Martin

    2010-07-01

    For optimum fuel cell operation, the power distribution must be as homogeneous as possible. It is therefore important for research, diagnosis and maintenance to be able to measure the power distribution inside a fuel cell. The book presents a non-invasive measuring method that reconstructs the internal power distribution from the magnetic field outside the fuel cell. Reconstruction algorithms are developed and tested for stability. The algorithms comprise a certain prior knowledge of the real power distribution; on the other hand, the magnetic field is split up numerically into different part-fields in order to reduce the complexity of the problem. [German] Um einen optimalen Brennstoffzellenbetrieb zu gewaehrleisten, ist es notwendig, eine moeglichst homogene Stromverteilung sicher zu stellen. Daher ist es aus Forschungs-, Diagnose- und Wartungszwecken von Interesse, die Stromverteilung in einer Zelle messen zu koennen. In diesem Buch wird ein nicht-invasives Messverfahren vorgestellt, das aus dem Magnetfeld ausserhalb der Brennstoffzelle die innere Stromverteilung rekonstruiert. Dabei werden Rekonstruktionsalgorithmen entwickelt und auf ihre Stabilitaet hin analysiert. Die Algorithmen beinhalten zum einen ein gewisses Vorwissen ueber die wahre Stromverteilung, zum anderen wird zuerst das Magnetfeld numerisch in unterschiedliche Teilfelder aufgespaltet, um so die Komplexitaet des Problems zu reduzieren.

  8. Leerteoretiese basis van die andragogie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. A. Simpson

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Learning theory basis of andragogy. A cursory glance at andragogy creates the impression that humanistic learning theory plays an all encompassing role in the learner centered approach andragogy espouses. A closer look, however, reveals that Knowles (1973, after having made an intensive study of learning theory, created an extensive framework within which human resource development can take place. The fact that Knowles attracted critique from different areas, led to a need to ascertain the role different learning theories, if any, played in the emergence of andragogy. Having looked at the assumptions displayed by the andragogical approach, as well as a comparison of different learning theories and their connection with andragogy, it became clear that andragogy contains elements of various learning theories in an adapted way. These adaptations resulted in an approach to adult education in which learners are given the opportunity to be part of the learning process in such a way that they themselves contribute to the development which takes place. Opsomming Met 'n eerste oogopslag wil dit voorkom asof humanistiese leerteorie 'n oorheersende rol in die leerdergesentreerde benadering van andragogie speel. By nadere ondersoek blyk dit egter dat Knowles (1973, na 'n deeglike studie van verskillende leerteoretiese beginsels, 'n omvangryke raamwerk geskep het waarbinne, aan die hand van verskeie aangepaste leerteoretiese beginsels, menslike hulpbronontwikkeling kan plaasvind. As gevolg van die feit dat Knowles vanuit verskillende oorde kritiek op die lyf geloop het, is besluit om die rol wat verskillende leerteorieë in andragogie speel, te bestudeer. Dit blyk dat andragogie nie net elemente van verskillende leerteorieë bevat nie, maar dat toepaslike aspekte van die teoriee wat ondersoek is, benut en aangepas is om 'n geintegreerde benadering te bewerkstellig waarin veral volwassene-leerders by leergeleenthede en hulle selfontwikkeling betrek word.

  9. Zukunftssicherung für die Zeit nach der Krise

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Karl-Friedrich; Wehner, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Die Studie berichtet zusammenfassend über die Ergebnisse der 9. HR-Expertenbefragung mit der Zeitschrift „Personalwirtschaft“ zum Thema „Employer Branding“. Berichtet wird über die Verbreitung des Employer Branding, die dabei verfolgten Ziele und die Instrumente, mit denen ein erfolgreiches Employer Branding realisiert werden kann. Eng damit verbunden sind ergänzende Fragen nach den Einflussfaktoren und den Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten der Arbeitgebermarke sowie nach den eingesetzten Methoden zur...

  10. Feasibility study for new ecolabels for the product group: Wood pellet firings. Final report; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen fuer die Produktgruppe: Holzpelletfeuerungen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Weiss, J.; Hirschl, B.

    2002-07-01

    This assessment is a feasibility study according to ISO 14024. It deals with the question whether an ecolabel is suitable for wood pellet heating systems and how concrete criteria for an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants could be specified. The study begins with a comprehensive market analysis in order to identify possible plants for which an ecolabel would make sense. In the main part of the study, the environmental relevance of the chosen plants is analysed. For this analysis, plant manufacturers were interviewed and a comparison between wood pellet heating systems and heating systems which use gas, oil or wood was carried out. On the basis of this analysis, it was possible to derive a number of criteria which were discussed with company representatives and other experts in this field. As a result of this dialogue and the investigation process as a whole, the introduction of an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants can be recommended. Wood pellet heating systems are characterized by their high level of automatation and the use of standardized fuels with constant high quality. Thus, they reach high combustion quality with low emission rates, and risks of misuse are minimized. They may contribute to the increased use of renewable energies and thereby to the achievement of climate protection goals. The proposed certification principles comprise requirements regarding (a) the efficient energy use (efficiency factor under partial load and nominal load, plant's supplementary energy consumption), (b) emission values for CO, NO{sub x}, dust and organic substances, (c) the offer of additional services, as well as (d) requirements with regard to the operating instructions. The transcription of the label is proposed as 'Ecolabel.. because low emission and energy-efficient'. (orig.) [German] Beim vorliegenden Gutachten handelt es sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie nach ISO 14024. Es behandelt die Frage, ob ein Umweltzeichen fuer Holzpelletfeuerungen

  11. Hemofilie onder die nasate van koningin Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Retief

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie studie bespreek die uitwerking van die sogenaamde Victoriaanse hemofilie op Europese koningshuise gedurende die negentiende en twintigste eeu. Hemofilie as molekulêre defek word verduidelik en die kliniese beeld van die siekte word aangedui. ’n Bespreking van toepaslike terapeutiese ingrepe volg. Dan word ’n historiese oorsig verskaf van die verspreiding van Victoriaanse hemofilie vanaf koningin Victoria (Britse monarg, 1837–1901 via sommige van haar dogters na ander lede van die Britse koningshuis en ook na die Duitse, Russiese en Spaanse koningshuise. Elf bevestigde gevalle van hemofilie onder lede van koningin Victoria se nageslag word vermeld, asook drie ander moontlike gevalle van die siekte. Die effek van hemofilie op die verloop van die geskiedenis word ook ondersoek.Haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria. This study discusses the impact of ‘Victorian haemophilia’ on the royal houses of Europe during the 19th and 20th centuries. Haemophilia as a molecular defect is explained and the clinical picture of the condition is indicated. Applicable therapeutic interventions also receive attention. Next, an historical review is provided of how ‘Victorian haemophilia’ spread from Queen Victoria (British monarch, 1837–1901 via some of her daughters to other members of the British royal family and also to the royal houses of Germany, Russia and Spain. Eleven confirmed cases of haemophilia amongst the descendants of Queen Victoria are mentioned, as well as three other possible cases. The effect of haemophilia on the course of history is also investigated.

  12. Declarations on euthanasia and assisted dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbadas, Hamilton; Zaman, Shahaduz; Whitelaw, Sandy; Clark, David

    2017-10-01

    Declarations on end-of-life issues are advocacy interventions that seek to influence policy, raise awareness and call others to action. Despite increasing prominence, they have attracted little attention from researchers. This study tracks the emergence, content, and purpose of declarations concerned with assisted dying and euthanasia, in the global context. The authors identified 62 assisted dying/euthanasia declarations covering 1974-2016 and analyzed them for originating organization, geographic scope, format, and stated viewpoint on assisted dying/euthanasia. The declarations emerged from diverse organizational settings and became more frequent over time. Most opposed assisted dying/euthanasia.

  13. Declarations on euthanasia and assisted dying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbadas, Hamilton; Zaman, Shahaduz; Whitelaw, Sandy; Clark, David

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Declarations on end-of-life issues are advocacy interventions that seek to influence policy, raise awareness and call others to action. Despite increasing prominence, they have attracted little attention from researchers. This study tracks the emergence, content, and purpose of declarations concerned with assisted dying and euthanasia, in the global context. The authors identified 62 assisted dying/euthanasia declarations covering 1974–2016 and analyzed them for originating organization, geographic scope, format, and stated viewpoint on assisted dying/euthanasia. The declarations emerged from diverse organizational settings and became more frequent over time. Most opposed assisted dying/euthanasia. PMID:28398131

  14. Die toekoms en ons roeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. du Toit

    1954-03-01

    Full Text Available Om te weet wat ons roeping in die toekoms sal wees, moet ons eers besef wat in ons eie tyd aan die gang is en langs watter lyne die dinge beweeg. Dit is ons plig om te let op die tekens van die tye in die lig van die profetiese Woord. En dan wil ons dadelik beklemtoon dat ons in Suid-Afrika nie in die waan moet lewe dat ons hier onbekommerd en onaangetas deur die wêreldgebeure ons roeping en bestemming kan uitwerk nie.

  15. Lieing light. The dark sides of the energy-saving lamp; Luegendes Licht. Die dunklen Seiten der Energiesparlampe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worm, Thomas; Karstedt, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    To save world climate, the EU has decreeded by force all their citizens a saving energy lamp (SEL): light bulb is to be banished. Many don't feel happy about it. This book researches, wether for disaproval of the SEL there are objective reasons. Danger of mercury, unhealthy light, doubtful utilization for environment - resistance against it grow, discussions are still finished. The book will uncover discreet facts and initiate ideas. Because light is not equal light. Artificial lighting systems influence deeply our life, even we don't remark it. This is the book for a debate about a controversial light source. (orig./GL) [German] Um das Weltklima zu retten, hat die EU all ihren Buergern zwangsweise Sparlampenlicht verordnet: Die Gluehbirne wird verbannt. Vielen ist aber nicht wohl dabei. Ob es fuer die Ablehnung der Energiesparlampe auch objektive Gruende gibt, erforscht dieses Buch. Quecksilbergefahr, ungesundes Licht, zweifelhafter Nutzen fuer die Umwelt - die Proteste wachsen, die Diskussion ist noch laengst nicht beendet. Das Buch will verschwiegene Fakten aufdecken und Gedankenanstoesse geben. Denn Licht ist nicht gleich Licht. Kuenstliche Beleuchtung beeinflusst unser Leben tiefgreifend, selbst wenn wir das oft nicht merken. Dies ist das Buch zur Debatte ueber eine umstrittene Lichtquelle. (orig./GL)

  16. Die owerheidsinmenging met betrekking tot kerklike tughandelinge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roeleveld

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Volgens art 29 NGB is die merktekens van die ware kerk die suiwere prediking van die Evangelie, die suiwere bediening van die Sakramente en die gebruik van die kerklike tug. Art. 32 NGB spreek uit dat die Kerkorde nie mag afwyk van wat Christus ingestel het nie. Menslike vindinge en wette om die gewetens te bind en te dwing, moet daarom verwerp word. Die ekskommunikasie of die ban moet toegepas word volgens die Woord van God.

  17. Pentateugtradisies in die boek Hosea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    om te bepaal of die verwysing na 'n gebeure te doen het met die verre verlede of met die .... Hosea 2:1-2 JHWH se trou aan sy beloftes. ... dat huile na Egipte sal terugkeer. Die presiese bedoeiing van die woorde 'huile sal terugkeer na Egipte' is omstre- de. Kommentatore soos Rudolph meen dat dit verstaan moet word as ...

  18. Die begrafnisdíens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (De Vaux 1961:108). Was die begrafnis 'n familie of 'n kerklike aangeleentheid? Hierdie vraag word nie in die Bybel beantwoord nie. Abraham het sy vrou begrawe (Gen 23: 19-. 20). Isak en Ismael ..... ver gekom om die begrafnis 'n kerklike aangeleentheid te maak nie. Hierdie stap .... trou aan die sorg van God. * Die kerk ...

  19. Metodes in die Christelike etiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The basic question in Christian ethics is not primarily. 'What should I do?' The basic question is rather ' ... should therefore be accepted as being part of the method used in Christian ethics. 1. INLEIDEND ..... aan die kant van die onderdrukte' verkondig word, word die Christen opgeroep om horn te skaar aan die kant van die ...

  20. Antiretroviral therapy status among people who died of AIDS-related causes from 2009 to 2013 in Brazil: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marcelo Araújo; Miranda, Angélica Espinosa; Pascom, Ana Roberta Pati; de Oliveira, Silvano Barbosa; Mesquita, Fabio; Ford, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    To describe the antiretroviral therapy status of people living with HIV (PLHIV) who died of AIDS-related causes between 2009 and 2013. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study. Data were obtained by linking the mortality information system and the national ART dispensing database. Trends were modelled using linear regression analysis. A total of 61 425 AIDS-related deaths were registered in Brazil between 2009 and 2013. Median age at death was 41 years (IQR: 33-49), and 65.7% (40 337) of deaths were among men; 47.2% (29 004) of PLHIV who died during the study period had never started treatment, 7.0% (4274) had discontinued it, 15.9% (9775) were on ART for 6 months or less and 29.9% (18 372) were on ART for more than 6 months. Only 1.3% of PLHIV were on third-line ARV regimens when they died. AIDS-related mortality remains a challenge even in a context of sustained universal access to antiretroviral treatment due to failure of service provision, not to therapy failure. Robust health policies closing gaps in the HIV continuum of care are crucial to further reduce mortality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Die teologiese skool in die P.U.K vir C.H.O.: met die betekenis van die teologiese skool vir die Christelike wetenskap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Postma

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available Die Teologiese Skool van die Gereformeerde Kerk gedink op 29 November 1944 sy vyf-en-sewentigjarige bestaan.Die Raad en Senaat van die P.U.K. vir C.H.O. wil ook langs hierdie weg die Teologiese Skool van harte gelukwens en die versekering gee dat daar by die outoriteite van die P.U.K. ’n diepgevoelde dankbaarheid heers dat hierdie inrigting sovele jare deur onse God en Vader gedra en gespaar is.

  2. Planning of digital building automation. Fundamentals of system and constructor selection, construction, acceptance testing and billing; Die Planung der digitalen Gebaeudeautomation. Grundlage fuer Systemfestlegung, Vergabe, Ausfuehrung, Abnahme und Abrechnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, J. [Ingenieurbuero Dr. Ellrich und Partner, Muenchen (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    In chapter 6 of the anthology about building control the planning of digital building automation is described. The basics for the system arrangements are presented such as award, construction, inspection approval, and cashing up. Major points are quality criteria as well as the separation of the performance ranges. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 6 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control ist der Planung der digitalen Gebaeudeautomation gewidmet. Es werden dabei Grundlagen fuer die Systemfestlegung vorgestellt sowie Vergabe, Ausfuehrung, Abnahme und Abrechnung diskutiert. Wesentliche Punkte sind dabei Qualitaetskriterien sowie die Abgrenzung der Leistungsbereiche. (BWI)

  3. Die omvang en aard van afwesigheid in die werkplek: ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse gevalstudie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anel Du Plessis

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The scope and nature of absenteeism in the workplace: A South African case study. The objective of the study was to develop quantitative measures for monitoring trends of absenteeism in a company within the meat industry and to assess qualitatively the possible existence of a collective culture of absenteeism within the organisation. The scope and frequency of absenteeism, costs incurred due to absenteeism, and individual absenteeism patterns of 145 employees, were studied over a period of one year. It was found that 2900 planned and 912 unplanned leave workdays that were lost, resulted in direct costs of R895,054.55. Five employees who were absent most often accounted for 18.60% of the unplanned leave taken. The extraordinary levels of absenteeism found in this case study were ascribed to specific employees. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om kwantitatiewe metings vir die monitering van afwesigheidstendense vir ‘n maatskappy in die vleisbedryf te ontwikkel en om die moontlike bestaan van ‘n kollektiewe afwesigheidskultuur kwalitatief te ondersoek. Die omvang, frekwensie en koste van afwesigheid, asook individuele afwesigheidspatrone, is bestudeer vir 145 werknemers oor ‘n tydperk van een jaar. Daar is bevind dat 2900 beplande en 912 onbeplande verlofwerkdae wat verloor is, die maatskappy R895,054.55 gekos het. Vyf werknemers wat die meeste afwesig was, was verantwoordelik vir 18,60% van die onbeplande verlof geneem. Die uitsonderlike vlakke van afwesigheid in hierdie gevalstudie is toegeskryf aan spesifieke werknemers.

  4. Living and dying: responsibility for end-of-life care in care homes without on-site nursing provision - a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Melanie; Goodman, Claire; Froggatt, Katherine; Mathie, Elspeth; Gage, Heather; Manthorpe, Jill; Barclay, Stephen; Crang, Clare; Iliffe, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the expectations and experiences of end-of-life care of older people resident in care homes, and how care home staff and the healthcare practitioners who visited the care home interpreted their role. A mixed-method design was used. The everyday experience of 121 residents from six care homes in the East of England were tracked; 63 residents, 30 care home staff with assorted roles and 19 National Health Service staff from different disciplines were interviewed. The review of care home notes demonstrated that residents had a wide range of healthcare problems. Length of time in the care homes, functional ability or episodes of ill-health were not necessarily meaningful indicators to staff that a resident was about to die. General Practitioner and district nursing services provided a frequent but episodic service to individual residents. There were two recurring themes that affected how staff engaged with the process of advance care planning with residents; 'talking about dying' and 'integrating living and dying'. All participants stated that they were committed to providing end-of-life care and supporting residents to die in the care home, if wanted. However, the process was complicated by an ongoing lack of clarity about roles and responsibilities in providing end-of-life care, doubts from care home and primary healthcare staff about their capacity to work together when residents' trajectories to death were unclear. The findings suggest that to support this population, there is a need for a pattern of working between health and care staff that can encourage review and discussion between multiple participants over sustained periods of time. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Die Frage nach Gerechtigkeit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jäggle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ENGLISH: In the first part six stages in the author’s path of life are described, which have influenced his engagement with justice. The second part gives an insight into his religious educational work, in which the issue of justice was especially significant on the example of ‘religion in the context of migration’ and of the ecumenic initiative ‘lebens.werte.schule’ (school worth living. The vision of the Kingdom of God and the necessity of participation become apparent. DEUTSCH: Im ersten Teil werden sechs Stationen am Lebensweg des Autors beschrieben, die seine Auseinandersetzung mit Gerechtigkeit geprägt haben. Der zweite Teil gibt Einblick in seine religionspädagogische Arbeit, in der die Frage nach Gerechtigkeit besonders bedeutsam war am Beispiel ‚Religion im Kontext Migration‘ und der ökumenischen Initiative ‚lebens.werte.schule‘. Die Vision vom Reich Gottes und die Notwendigkeit von Partizipation werden dabei deutlich.

  6. Die EG-Kabotageverordnung

    OpenAIRE

    Basedow, Jürgen

    1990-01-01

    Die EG-Kabotageverordnung : e. Schritt zur Verwirklichung d. Dienstleistungsfreiheit im Straßengüterverkehr / Jürgen Basedow ; Ansgar Held. - In: Europäische Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsrecht. 1. 1990. S. 305-308

  7. Die Bibliothek des Bezirksmuseums Josefstadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ettl

    2015-01-01

    Josefstadt in Wien werden die Herkunft der Bibliotheksbestände und die beengte Raumsituation beschrieben. Abschließend wird auf die Erfassung der Medien mittels der Bibliothekssoftware „Biblioweb“ eingegangen.

  8. Die Freunde im und die Freude am Fernsehen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Ovcina Cajacob

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit besteht darin, die Wirkungen von Popstars und Popbands auf Jugendliche (13- bis 17-Jährige zu erforschen. Im Mittelpunkt der Interessen steht die Frage, welche Wirkungen aus der Rezeption von Musiksendungen (bzw. Videoclips von Musiksendern entstehen und welche Charakteristika innerhalb der aufgebauten Beziehungen zu den Stars bemerkbar sind. Andererseits wurden die Unterschiede und Parallelen zwischen parasozialen Beziehungen zu den Stars und orthosozialen Beziehungen aufgezeigt. Im Zusammenhang mit der empirischen Untersuchung bezieht sich die Autorin auf den Uses-and-Gratifications-Approach, wobei die bedürfnissbefriedigenden Wirkungen von Musikkanälen und den dazu gehörigen Popstars im Mittelpunkt stehen. Mit Hilfe des Uses-and-Gratifications-Approach wird angenommen, dass das Konsumieren der Musiksendungen und der Musikstars von den Jugendlichen gezielt zur Befriedigung bestimmter Bedürfnisse eingesetzt wird.The objective of this study is to explore the effects of pop stars on adolescents (aged between 13 and 17. The focus of interest is the question what effect music channels (i.e. video clips from music channels produce and what characteristics are noticeable from the formed relationship between adolescents and pop stars. On the other side, parallels and differences have been drawn between the para-social relationships to pop stars and ortho-social relationships. In connection with empirical study, the author also refers to Uses-and Gratification-Approach where the need satisfying effects of music channels and pop stars are in focus. With the help of Uses-and Gratification-Approach it will be assumed, that aim of watching music channels and therefore pop stars will be pointed toward the gratification of specific needs.

  9. Experimental studies on improving the performance of electrochemical machining of high carbon, high chromium die steel using jet patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sathiyamoorthy

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical machining (ECM is a non-traditional process used mainly to cut hard or difficult-to-cut metals, where the application of a more traditional process is not convenient. Stiff market competition and ever-growing demand for better, durable and reliable products has brought about a material revolution, which has greatly expanded the families of difficult-to-machine materials namely highcarbon,high-chromium die steel; stainless steel and superalloys. This investigation attempts to analyze the effect of electrolyte distribution on material removal rate (MRR and surface roughness (SR on electrochemical machining of high-carbon, high-chromium die steel using NaCl aqueous solution. Three electrolyte jet patterns namely straight jet in circular, inclined jet in circular and straight jet in spiral were used for this experimentation. The results reveal that electrolyte distribution significantly improves the performance of ECM and the straight jet in spiral pattern performs satisfactorily in obtaining better MRR and surface roughness.

  10. Die postpolitische Stadt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Swyngedouw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Die Polis ist tot, es lebe die kreative Stadt! Während die Stadt, zumindest in Teilen des städtischen Raums, blüht und gedeiht, scheint die Polis im idealisierten griechischen Sinn dem Untergang geweiht; in diesem Verständnis ist sie der Ort der öffentlichen politischen Auseinandersetzung und demokratischen Unterhandlung und somit eine Stätte (oft radikaler Abweichung und Unstimmigkeit, an der die politische Subjektivierung buchstäblich ihren Platz hat. Diese Figur einer entpolitisierten (oder postpolitischen und postdemokratischen Stadt im Spätkapitalismus bildet das Leitmotiv des vorliegenden Beitrags. Ich lehne mich dabei an Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Chantal Mouffe, Mustafa Dikeç, Alain Badiou und andere Kritiker jenes zynischen Radikalismus an, der dafür gesorgt hat, dass eine kritische Theorie und eine radikale politische Praxis ohnmächtig und unfruchtbar vor jenen entpolitisierenden Gesten stehen, die in der polizeilichen Ordnung des zeitgenössischen neoliberalen Spätkapitalismus als Stadtentwicklungspolitik [urban policy] und städtische Politik [urban politics] gelten. Ziel meiner Intervention ist es, das Politische wieder in den Mittelpunkt der zeitgenössischen Debatten über das Urbane zu stellen. [...

  11. Feasibility study for new ecolabels according to ISO 14024 (type 1) within the product group: wood pellet heating systems; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen fuer die Produktgruppe: Holzpelletfeuerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Weiss, J.; Hirschl, B. [Institut fuer Oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung (IOEW) gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    This assessment is a feasibility study according to ISO 14024. It deals with the question whether an ecolabel is suitable for wood pellet heating systems and how concrete criteria for an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants could be specified. The study begins with a comprehensive market analysis in order to identify possible plants for which an ecolabel would make sense. In the main part of the study, the environmental relevance of the chosen plants is analysed. For this analysis, plant manufacturers were interviewed and a comparison between wood pellet heating systems and heating systems which use gas, oil or wood was carried out. On the basis of this analysis, it was possible to derive a number of criteria which were discussed with company representatives and other experts in this field. As a result of this dialogue and the investigation process as a whole, the introduction of an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants can be recommended. Wood pellet heating systems are characterized by their high level of automatation and the use of standardized fuels with constant high quality. Thus, they reach high combustion quality with low emission rates, and risks of misuse are minimized. They may contribute to the increased use of renewable energies and thereby to the achievement of climate protection goals. The proposed certification principles comprise requirements regarding (a) the efficient energy use (efficiency factor under partial load and nominal load, plant's supplementary energy consumption), (b) emission values for CO, NO{sub x}, dust and organic substances, (c) the offer of additional services, as well as (d) requirements with regard to the operating instructions. The transcription of the label is proposed as 'Ecolabel.. because low emission and energy-efficient'. (orig.) [German] Beim vorliegenden Gutachten handelt es sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie nach ISO 14024. Es behandelt die Frage, ob ein Umweltzeichen fuer Holzpelletfeuerungen

  12. Die invloed van gesondheidsopvoeding op die prevalensie van skistosoombesmettings by leerders in ’n skistosoom - endemiese gebied in die Limpopoprovinsie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrie Wolmarans

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie studie is geselekteerde direkte en indirekte onderrigmetodes geëvalueer ten opsigte vanhulle potensiaal om die prevalensie van skistosoombesmettings by skoolgaande kinders, woonagtigin ’n landelike omgewing in ’n skistosoom-endemiese gebied, te verlaag. Twee direkte (poppekas enblaaibord en drie indirekte (plakkaat, kennisgewingbord en onderrig via ouers of voogdeonderrigmetodes is geëvalueer.Skistosoombesmette leerders is met behulp van parasitologiese metodes geïdentifiseer en aan ’nvraelys in hul moerdertaal onderwerp om onder andere op hoogte van hulle kennis ten opsigte vanskistosomose te kom en te bepaal hoe die infrastruktuur tot hulle beskikking wat water en sanitasiebetref, daar uitsien. Leerders is met behulp van plaaslike gesondheidspersoneel vir die siekte behandelen daarna op verskeie geleenthede in samewerking met plaaslike onderwysers aan die verskillendeonderrigmetodes blootgestel.’n Aansienlike toename in die leerders se kennis aangaande skistosomose is reeds na die tweedeonderrigsessie waargeneem. Ten spyte van die feit dat die leerders in ’n skistosoom-endemiesegebied woonagtig was, het slegs 2% die siekte met ’n natuurlike waterhabitat soos ’n rivier geassosieer.Daar is verder gevind dat relevante amptelike strukture soos klinieke, geneeshere en skole byna geenrol speel in die verskaffing van inligting van wat die siekte behels en hoe dit oorgedra word nie.Betekenisvolle afnames in die kumulatiewe prevalensie van besmetting het by al die groepe, wat aandie onderskeie onderrigmetodes blootgestel was gedurende die ondersoek, voorgekom, wanneer ditmet die kontrolewaarde waar die leerders geen onderrig ontvang het nie, vergelyk is. Statistiesevergelykings tussen die verskillende onderrigmetodes het getoon dat die poppekas, blaaibord enplakkaat die effektiefste was om die prevalensie te verlaag, terwyl die gebruik van ouers of voogdedie minste effektief was. Alhoewel die kumulatiewe prevalensie van

  13. Participation of concerned citizens in site selection decisions; Einbeziehung der Betroffenen in die Entscheidungen bei Standortauswahlverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appel, D. [PanGeo - Geowissenschaftliches, Buero (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The contribution presents preliminary results of two international projects aimed at integrating the general public, or parts thereof, in the decision process of selecting ultimate storage sites. The author participated in these projects and is a former member of the task group for selection of ultimate storage sites (Arbeitskreis Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte - AkEnd). The two projects are: Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) OECD, Project 'COWAM' (Community Waste Management) of the European Commission. The participants, goals and methods of the two projects were different, but they both presented concrete methods of selecting ultimate storage sites from the view of different actors in the form of case studies. The focus was on the participation of the public and its importance for success. Apart from meeting technical requirements the selection process should also take account of the requirements of democracy and citizens' participation in order to gain wide acceptance for its results. Deficiencies and advantages of the proposed selection processes are analyzed, and general requirements on the decision process in site selection are derived. (orig.) [German] Im folgenden wird ueber (vorlaeufige) Ergebnisse zweier internationaler Projekte zur Einbeziehung der Oeffentlichkeit bzw. von Teilen davon in den Entscheidungsprozess bei der Auswahl von Endlagerstandorten berichtet, an denen der Autor im Auftrag des Bundesumweltministers und als (ehemaliges) Mitglied des Arbeitskreises Auswahlverfahren Endlagerstandorte (AkEnd) beteiligt war bzw. ist: - Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) der Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) OECD, - Projekt 'COWAM' (Community Waste Management) der Europaeischen Kommission (abgeschlossen, Abschlussbericht erscheint in diesem Jahr). Die Zusammensetzung der Teilnehmergruppen beider Projekte, genaue Zielsetzung der Projekte und die Arbeitsweise sind unterschiedlich. In beiden

  14. Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Nel

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Die histologie en ultrastruktuur van die hepatopankreas van die bloukurper Oreochromis mossambicus word beskryf. ’n Dun bindweefselkapsel omring die lewer. Die hepatosietrangskikking vertoon as lobules, met die koorde van hepatosiete wat vanaf ’n sentrale vene uitradieer en met mekaar anastomaseer. Indiwiduele lewerlohules vertoon nie duidelike grense nie, maar enkele duidelike triades word wel in die lewer van O. mossambicus aangetref. Die hepatosiete bevat ’n enkele ronde kern met ’n duidelike nukleolus en die growwe endoplasmiese retikula kom in twee of meer rye om die kerne en teen die selgrense van die hepatosiete voor. Die ander sitoplasmiese organelle kom verspreid in die hepatosietsitoplasma voor. Die eksokriene pankreasselle is om die portale venes gesetel. Die kerne van hierdie selle is rond en is hasaal in die kubies- tot silindervormige selle gelee. ’n Goedontwikkelde growwe endoplasmiese retikulum — vesikulêr, tubulêr en sirkulêr in vorm — en sektretoriese granules wat apikaal in die sel gelee is, kom voor.

  15. Specifications for dumping of residues from mechanical-biological waste treament facilities; Anforderungen an die Ablagerung von MBA-Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockreis, A.; Steinberg, I.; Jager, J. [Fachgebiet Afalltechnik, Institut WAR, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    For purposes of assessing the dumpability of wastes, Article 1 - Ordinance on the Environmentally Responsible Landfilling of Household Wastes (AbfAblV) - of the Ordinance on the Environmentally Responsible Landfilling of Household Wastes and Biological Waste Treatment Plants defines classificaton criteria for biologically and mechanically treated wastes destined for landfilling. The practical experiences that have been gathered with these classification criteria and values were evaluated in a questionnaire-based survey. This was done in particular for the purpose of verifying and validating proposals on the methodology of respiration and fermentation tests. A general finding has been that the application and implementation of the regulations of the AbfAblV is fraught with difficulties. This is evident for one thing in the frequency of analyses and for another in the difficulty of complying with the limit values of the classification criteria. The authors are in support of demands that the methodological specifications for AT{sub 4} and GB21 and their classification values in connection with those for TOC both in the solid phase and in the eluate and with the calorific values H{sub o} must be thoroughly reassessed and revised after further practical experiences have been gathered. [German] Zur Beurteilung der Ablagerbarkeit wurden Zuordnungskriterien fuer mechanisch-biologisch behandelte Abfaelle zur Ablagerung im Artikel 1 - Verordnung ueber die umweltvertraegliche Ablagerung von Siedlungsabfaellen (Abfallablagerungsverordnung - AbfAblV) - der Verordnung ueber die umweltvertraegliche Ablagerung von Siedlungsabfaellen und ueber biologische Abfallbehandlungsanlagen definiert. Im Rahmen einer Fragebogenaktion wurde ausgewertet, welche Erfahrungen in der Praxis mit den Zuordnungskriterien und -werten gesammelt wurden, um insbesondere die Methodenvorschlaege zur Durchfuehrung des Atmungs- bzw. Gaertests fuer feste Abfallstoffe verifizieren und validieren zu koennen

  16. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management. Report of the Federal Republic of Germany for the sixth review meeting in May 2018; Gemeinsames Uebereinkommen ueber die Sicherheit der Behandlung abgebrannter Brennelemente und ueber die Sicherheit der Behandlung radioaktiver Abfaelle. Bericht der Bundesrepublik Deutschland fuer die sechste Ueberpruefungskonferenz im Mai 2018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-08-15

    The joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management covers the following topics: historical development and actual status of the civil use of nuclear power, politics and the spent fuel management, inventories and listing, legislation and executive systems, other safeguard regulations, safety during spent fuel handling, safety during radioactive waste processing, transport across national borders, disused enclosed radioactive sources, general regulations for safety enhancement.

  17. Die teologiese arbeid van Antonius HJ Gunneweg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En dis 'n klein treetjie van klagte na aanklag en na protes teen die gode, die heersers wat die mens vernietig deur hom oor sy ware lewe te bedrieg. Die ideologie eis dan ook dienooreenkomstig die bevryding en emansipasie van die mens van die gode en van God (1983: 118—119). Volgens die Jahwis is dit die slang wat, ...

  18. Pyramids and Prejudice: A Study of Cultural Discrimination in Lauretta Ngcobo’s And they didn’t die

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia I. Akh uemokhan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A South African classic, Lauretta Ngcobo’s novel, And they didn’t die, explores the nexus of hegemony, culture, and transformation under apartheid rule. Edward Said’s thesis on the hierarchy of culture provides the conceptual framework for an analysis of politico-cultural agency in Ngcobo’s novel. Three characters in the narrative—Siyalo, Jezile, and Lungu—are used to comment on the cultural dynamics inherent in three different but interlocking sites: the nine-to-five working environment, rural Bantu culture, and the ambiguous location of “African Whiteness.” The paper establishes that the life of each character betrays culture’s negative discriminating power and the amplification of negativity by State policy

  19. Wie is die goeie Samaritane? Eienskappe van vrywilligers in Suid-Afrika

    OpenAIRE

    Krugell, Waldo

    2010-01-01

    Mense wat vrywillig en sonder betaling hul arbeid aanbied vir die produksie van goedere en dienste waaruit ander voordeel trek, speel 'n belangrike rol in die ekonomie en gemeenskap. As vrywilligers beter verstaan word, kan hul kragte dalk beter gemobiliseer word. Die vraag is dus: Wie is die goeie Samaritane? Hierdie studie ondersoek die eienskappe van vrywilligers in Suid-Afrika met behulp van data uit die Arbeidsmagopname van September 2007. Die resultate toon dat vrywilligers in Suid-Afri...

  20. Die benutting van vraelyste met die oog op meer effektiewe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    effektiewe stresbeheer as een van die temas te hanteer. Op grond van die navorsing deur onder andere Lawson (1985) en Taylor (1999) sou ek graag die proses van differensiasie2 ook by genoemde lys voeg as tema vir bespreking tydens huweliksvoorbereiding. 2 Differensiasie kan beskryf word as die losmaakproses ...

  1. die aard van wetgewende diskresies by die suid-afrikaanse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    In enige moderne demokrasie is daar een of ander vorm van skeiding van magte tussen die wetgewende, uitvoerende en regsprekende gesag. Hierdie skeiding van magte, die sogenaamde trias politica, kan sover teruggevoer word as 1215, met die ondertekening van die Magna Carta deur Koning John van Engeland.

  2. die doeltreffendheid van die afrikaanse woordelys en spelreels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sluiting by die reel vir die verdubbeling van medeklinkers na 'n kort, be- klemtoonde klinker, woorde soos ballet, ballon, terras, terrein, dissipel en dissipline slegs met een konsonant na die eerste vokaal gespel moes word, omdat daardie voorafgaande vokaal onbeklemtoon is. Ook hierdie uit- sondering op die reel word ...

  3. Die aanspraak op Goddelike steun in 'n konfliksituasie volgens die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    laws, and ethical or political principles. A synchronic investigation of relevant Old ... die toneel gebring met die vraag: 'aan wie se kant is God' (vgl bv The road to. Damascus 1979:6)? Volgens .... betrekking tot die Ou Testament: Hoe moet ons vasstel wie se kant God nou regtig kies, of wie veg aan die kant van God en wie ...

  4. Die evaluering van 'n bestuursopleidingskursus met behulp van die posmandjie-tegniek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. de Jager

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of a management training course by using the in-basket technique. A management training course was evaluated for effectiveness by using two specially compiled in-basket exercises equivalent in complexity. Outcome evaluation was performed so as to determine whether learning transfer took place, ie., whether management skills in the application of planning, organising and control manifest in the work context afterwards. Significant differences were found between the experimental and the control group and were investigated by means of the "Univariate procedure". This management training course could effectively be measured with the behaviour assessment approach using two groups, where only the one group was exposed to a management training course to assess whether management behaviour changed as a result of learning transfer. This study utilises the in-basket technique as an instrument for training course evaluation. Opsomming Die effektiwiteit van 'n bestuursopleidingskursus is geevalueer aan die hand van gedragverandering soos gemeet deur twee posmandjies van dieselfde moeilikheidsgraad. Uitkomsevaluering is gedoen om te bepaal of leeroordrag plaasgevind het, met ander woorde/ of the nuut aangeleerde bestuursvaardighede in die toepassing van die bestuursdimensies beplanning, organisering en beheer wel na die tyd in die konteks van werkgedrag manifesteer. Beduidende verskille tussen die eksperimentele en die kontrole groep is gevind. Dit is ondersoek met behulp van enkelveranderiike-variansie-ontleding. Die bestuursopleidingskursus kon effektief vanuit die gedragbeoordelingsbcnadering gemeet word by twee groepe, waar slegs die een groep aan 'n bestuursopleidingskursus blootgestel word om te kon bepaal of bestuursgedrag verander het. Die studie benut die posmandjie-tegniek as kursusevalueringsinstmment.

  5. Silicon carbide, a ceramic material for the pump technology?; Siliciumcarbid - eine Keramik fuer die Pumpentechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitzthum, E. [CeramTec AG, Lauf (Germany). Marketing und Customer Service

    2000-12-01

    Pumping of gases and liquids makes extreme demands on sliding bearings and their seals, especially if the material to be pumped is corrosive or contains abrasive constituents. Wear and corrosion are important economic factors. They shorten the life of machines and systems and cause standstill times and repair cost. All this decides the profitability of pumps and the competitive strength of products. In view of all this, it becomes clear why optimal materials selection is a crucial points in pumps and pumping systems. [German] Beim Foerdern von Gasen und Fluessigkeiten werden extrem hohe Anforderungen an Gleitlager und Gleitringdichtungen in Pumpen gestellt, die im direkten Kontakt mit dem zu foerdernden Medium sind, besonders dann, wenn das Medium korrosiv ist oder abrasive Bestandteile enthaelt. Verschleiss und Korrosion sind wesentliche Wirtschaftsfaktoren. Sie bestimmen die Standzeit von Maschinen und Anlagen, verursachen Betriebsstillstandszeiten und Reparaturkosten. Diese entscheiden ueber die Rentabilitaet von Prozessen und die Wettbewerbsfaehigkeit von Produkten, was eine optimale Auswahl des Werkstoffs auch in Pumpen und Pumpenanlagen unerlaesslich macht. (orig.)

  6. Die verband tussen waargenome leierskap en die vlak van outonomie binne spanverband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Van der Heyde

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between perceived leadership and the level of outonomy in a team context remains a contemporary theme in the work environment and seemingly has a substantial influence on organisational success. This study attempted to ascertain the relationship between leadership and the level of outonomy in a team context. Two hundred and thirty (N=230 individuals, grouped into 56 teams from four South African companies participated in the study. The superordinate’s leadership style as well as the level of outonomy in the specific group was measured. Apart from the useful information obtained in comparison with international research, especially in terms of leadership data, the study did conclusively point out a significant correlation between leadership style and autonomy in team context. Opsomming Leierskap en selfgerigte spanfunksionering bly kontemporêre temas in die bedryfsmilieu, wat oënskynlik organisasiesukses wesenlik kan beïnvloed. Die doel van hierdie studie was om die waargenome verband tussen leierskap en die vlak van outonomie binne spanverband te bepaal. Tweehondered-en-dertig (N=230 individue, gegroepeer in 56 spanne vanuit vier Suid-Afrikaanse maatksappye het aan die studie deelgeneem. ‘n Meting van sowel die bogeskikte se leierskapstyl en die vlak van outonomie binne spanverband is verkry. Afgesien van bruikbare inligting rondom veral die leierskapdata in vergelyking met internasionale navorsing, het die studie ‘n beduidende verband tussen leierskapstyl en outonomie binne spanverband uitgewys.

  7. Die design and process optimization of die cast V6 engine blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Hu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of aluminum, particularly for engine blocks, has grown considerably in the past ten years, and continues to rise in the automotive industry. In order to enhance the quality and engineering functionality of die cast engine blocks, die design and processes have to be optimized. In this study, a computer simulation software, MAGMAsoft, as an advanced tool for optimizing die design and casting process, was emplooyed to virtually visualize cavity filling and patterns of a V6 engine block. The original die design and process was simulated first to establish a baseline. A reality check was used to verify the predicted results. Then, the die modification with a different unner system was made by using a CAD software, Unigraphics (UG. The simulation on combinations of the modified die design and revised process was performed to examine the effect of die modification and process change on flow filling of V6 engine blocks. The simulated prediction indicateds that the enhancement of cavity filling due to the die and process modification minimizeds the occurrence of defects during casting, and consequently improves the quality of blocks. The results of mechanical testing show a significant increase in fatigue strengths, and a moderately improvement on tensile properties for the blocks die cast with the new die design and prpocess in comparison with those produced by the original ones.

  8. Comparison Re-invented: Adaptation of Universal Methods to African Studies (Conference Report Die Wiederentdeckung des Vergleichs: Zur Anwendung universeller Methoden in der Afrikaforschung (Konferenzbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franzisca Zanker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from a combination of specific, empirical research projects with different theoretical backgrounds, a workshop discussed one methodological aspect often somewhat overlooked in African Studies: comparison. Participants addressed several questions, along with presenting overviews of how different disciplines within African Studies approach comparison in their research and naming specific challenges within individual research projects. The questions examined included: Why is explicit comparative research so rare in African Studies? Is comparative research more difficult in the African context than in other regions? Does it benefit our research? Should scholars strive to generalise beyond individual cases? Do studies in our field require an explicit comparative design, or will implicit comparison suffice? Cross-discipline communication should help us to move forward in this methodological debate, though in the end the subject matter and specific research question will lead to the appropriate comparative approach, not the other way round.Mit Blick auf einige empirische Forschungsprojekte mit jeweils unterschiedlichem theoretischem Hintergrund wurde im Rahmen eines Workshops ein methodologischer Aspekt debattiert, der in der Afrikaforschung wenig Beachtung erfährt: der Vergleich. Die Teilnehmer(innen entwickelten Fragestellungen, stellten jeweils dar, inwieweit in den verschiedene Disziplinen der Afrikaforschung der Vergleich als Methode eingesetzt wird, und benannten spezifische Herausforderungen in diesem Zusammenhang für einzelne Forschungsprojekte. Unter anderem wurden folgende Fragen erörtert: Warum ist die explizit vergleichende Methode in der Afrikaforschung so selten? Ist vergleichende Forschung im Kontext Afrikas schwieriger anwendbar als in der Forschung zu anderen Regionen? Verbessert sie unsere Forschungsresultate? Sollten sich Forscher um Generalisierungen jenseits der Einzelfallstudien bemühen? Ist in der Afrikaforschung eine

  9. Awareness of Dying Preface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently The New York Times reported: “VERY ILL CHILDREN TOLD OF DISEASE; Leukemia Patients at N.I.H. Not Shielded From Truth. . . . A child should always be told the truth, even when he has an incurable disease such as leukemia, according to two researchers who interviewed 51 children hospitalized at the National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, for treat¬ment of leukemia.” This kind of news item reflects the growing concern among researchers and public about matters which touch on morality as much as on the technical aspects of medi¬cine. The rapidly increasing proportion of elderly people in the American population presents a range of personal and social questions; not the least is how they view their newly won longevity (often including anticipated years of chronic disease as well as their attitudes toward death. In consequence, many geriatric specialists are beginning to study American attitudes toward death, while others, spurred on by what seems a sense-less prolonging of life within hospital walls by medical tech¬nology run wild, are raising questions about death and dying in American life.

  10. Die huwelik as identiteitsmerker in die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Gen 2:18). Uit die woorde van Genesis 2:24 dat man en vrou een sal wees, lei die derde formulier af dat dit “getuig dat die huwelik 'n allesinsluitende gemeenskap is ..... die formule gebruik word: “Hier volg die vertelling oor X se nageslag.” (Gen ..... verwys daarna as “intertwining the principal value concepts of tradition”.

  11. Water emission inventory for the Federal Republic of Germany; Emissionsinventar Wasser fuer die Bundesrepublik Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, E.; Hillenbrand, T.; Marscheider-Weidemann, F.; Schempp, C. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fuchs, S.; Scherer, U. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft; Luettgert, M. [RISA Sicherheitsanalysen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    Within the frame of this project, a concept for setting up exemplary emission inventories for water was put forward. An overview is given of the international activities on emission inventories and the status of national emission inventories. Based on the data situation in Germany, it was necessary to include both plant-specific, aggregated and calculated data of the point sources in the inventories. Due to their increasing significance, diffuse material emissions into water were also taken into account. Based on the conceptual work, exemplary emission inventories were compiled for nitrogen, phosphorous and adsorbable organic combined halides (AOX) as well as the heavy metals arsenic, cadmium, chrome, copper, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. These were evaluated according to the areas of origin (sectors) or the emission paths as well as according to the large river basins Danube, Rhine, Ems, Weser, Elbe, Oder, North Sea and Baltic Sea. In addition, lists of the ten largest industrial direct dischargers were compiled. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen dieses Vorhabens wurde ein Konzept fuer die Erstellung von beispielhaften Emissionsinventaren fuer Gewaesser erarbeitet. Es wird ein Ueberblick ueber die internationalen Aktivitaeten zu Emissionsinventaren und den Stand beim Aufbau von nationalen Emissionsinventaren gegeben. Auf Grund der Datensituation in Deutschland war es erforderlich, dass sowohl anlagenspezifische als auch aggregierte sowie berechnete Daten der Punktquellen in die Inventare einbezogen wurden. Wegen ihrer zunehmenden Bedeutung werden die diffusen Stoffeintraege in die Gewaesser ebenfalls beruecksichtigt. Aufbauend auf den konzeptionellen Arbeiten wurden beispielhafte Emissionsinventare fuer Stickstoff, Phosphor und adsorbierbare organisch gebundene Halogene (AOX) sowie die Schwermetalle Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Kupfer, Quecksilber, Nickel, Blei und Zink zusammengestellt. Die Auswertung erfolgte sowohl nach den Herkunftsbereichen (Branchen) bzw. den

  12. Die doeltreffendheid van talentbestuursprogramme in uitgesoekte Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Ann P. Gainsford

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oriëntasie: Die identifisering, behoud en ontwikkeling van talent moet doeltreffend bestuur word. Navorsingsdoelwit: Die studie het ten doel om die doeltreffendheid van bestaande talentbestuursprogramme in uitgesoekte Suid-Afrikaanse organisasies in die finansiële, vervoer- en mynbousektore te evalueer.Motivering vir die studie: Streng wetgewing (soos regstellende aksie en die swak ekonomiese situasie in Suid-Afrika veroorsaak dat goeie presteerders as baie waardevol beskou word en behou moet word. Indien organisasies nie oor ’n doeltreffende talentbestuursprogram beskik nie, sal hulle waarskynlik talentvolle werknemers verloor.Navorsingsontwerp, -benadering en -metode: Hierdie studie maak van ’n kwantitatiewe navorsingsontwerp gebruik. Deur middel van toevallige steekproefneming is 117 werknemers in die onderskeie sektore ingesluit. Die ANOVA-toets en Tukey se paarsgewyse vergelykingstegniek is aangewend om die verskille tussen die drie sektore te bepaal.Resultate: Die resultate van die studie dui daarop dat die organisasies wat aan die studie deelgeneem het grootliks al die noodsaaklike komponente in die talentbestuursprogramme insluit. Die uitsondering is egter talentbestuursagteware, wat oor die algemeen nie in die talentbestuursprogramme ingesluit is nie. Verdere resultate dui daarop dat die oorgrote meerderheid van die respondente nie baie tevrede is met die komponente van die talentbestuursprogramme in hul organisasies nie. Die respondente van die mynbousektor het die laagste tevredenheidsvlakke ten opsigte van die talentbestuursprogram getoon. Die resultate dui verder daarop dat die finansiële sektor se talentbestuursprogram meer doeltreffend as dié van die mynbousektor is.Praktiese/bestuursimplikasies: ’n Omvattende lys van komponente van ’n talentbestuursprogram is ontwikkel om organisasies te ondersteun in die ontwerp en implementering van ’n doeltreffende talentbestuursprogram.Bydrae/waardetoevoeging: Die resultate van

  13. Percutaneous liver biopsy. Overview of different techniques; Perkutane Leberbiopsie. Uebersicht ueber verschiedene Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettenbach, J.; Blum, M.; El-RaBadi, K.; Langenberger, H.; Happel, B.; Berger, J.; Ba-Ssalamah, A. [Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik, Medizinische Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2005-01-01

    To classify a liver tumor, image-guided percutaneous biopsy of a liver lesion is indicated. Using ultrasound (US) to guide a biopsy needle into a liver lesion has been proven useful and safe. If a lesion cannot be seen on US or the access to a lesion has been complicated by its position, CT-guided biopsy can be performed. If a lesion cannot be delineated on US or CT, MR-guided biopsy is recommended. Using hepatospecific contrast agents, the time span to delineate tumor tissue can be prolonged. To differentiate diffuse liver disease, transvenous biopsy under fluoroscopic control can be performed if a percutaneous biopsy is contraindicated. In recent years fine-needle aspiration biopsy has been increasingly replaced by coaxial 14-20 G core biopsy, which is a safe and efficient technique to classify liver lesions and has a low complication rate. (orig.) [German] Zur definitiven Klaerung der Dignitaet und Tumorklasse einer Leberlaesion ist eine bildgesteuerte perkutane Biopsie indiziert. Unter Verwendung der Sonographie ist das Verfahren treffsicher und einfach. Die computertomographiegezielte Biopsie ist wegen der ueberlagerungsfreien, reproduzierbaren Darstellung von Leberherden und ihren Nachbarstrukturen in vielen Faellen besser geeignet. Fuer Laesionen, die sich weder mit Ultraschall noch mit CT biopsieren lassen, bietet sich die Magnetresonanztomographie an. Durch den Einsatz leberspezifischer Kontrastmittel kann das Zeitfenster zur Durchfuehrung einer Biopsie verlaengert werden. Zur Abklaerung diffuser Lebererkrankungen wird bei kontraindizierter perkutaner Biopsie eine transvenoese Leberbiopsie unter Durchleuchtung empfohlen. Die in den 1980er Jahren propagierte Feinnadelaspirationsbiopsie wurde zunehmend durch Stanzbiopsien (Durchmesser 14-20 gg) in koaxialer Technik ersetzt, da diese eine zuverlaessige artdiagnostische Klassifikation bei niedriger Komplikationsrate ermoeglichen. (orig.)

  14. Frequency converters increase the energy efficiency of electric motors in refrigerators; Frequenzumrichter steigern die Energieeffizienz von Elektromotoren in Kaelteanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, Alexander [Ziehl-Abegg AG Produktmanagement System- und Regeltechnik, Kuenzelsau (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Refrigerators have vast potential for energy conservation. Blowers mounted on condensers and recirculation coolers are commonly controlled via phase angle control. It is shown how modern frequency converters can improve the energy balance of existing systems. The advantages of a combination of frequency converter and sinus filter are explained by the example of the Fcontrol frequency converter, which has an integrated all-phase sinus filter. Retrofitting is easy, and the payback period will be short. An example is presented to show that more than 50 % of the energy cost can be saved this way. In addition to blower control, also the compressor motor can be controlled by frequency converters, with advantages for the whole refrigerating system. The paper shows how retrofitting of modern frequency converters will reduce the energy cost and operating cost of existing refrigeration systems. [German] Kaelteanlagen, insbesondere bestehende Kaelteanlagen, bieten grosses Potenzial Energie einzusparen. Ventilatoren, die auf Verfluessigern oder Rueckkuehlern montiert sind, werden ueberwiegend mit Regelgeraeten betrieben, die die Drehzahl ueber die Spannung variieren (Phasenanschnittregelung). Es wird aufgezeigt, dass durch moderne Frequenzumrichter auf einfache Art und Weise bestehende Anlagen energetisch verbessert werden koennen. Am Beispiel des Frequenzumrichters Fcontrol, der einen allpolig wirksamen Sinusfilter integriert hat, werden die Vorteile durch die Kombination von Frequenzumrichter und Sinusfilter erklaert. Die nachtraegliche Installation in bestehende Anlagen ist einfach. Die Investition in eine solche Umruestung rechnet sich in der Regel sehr schnell. Beispielhaft wird gezeigt, dass beim Ersetzen der Phasenanschnittregelung gegen einen Frequenzumrichter mehr als 50 % der Energiekosten an den Ventilatoren eingespart werden koennen. Neben der energiesparenden Regelung der Ventilatoren auf Verfluessigern oder Rueckkuehlern, kann auch der Verdichtermotor durch

  15. Narratiwiteit en die Ou Testament

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INLEIDING. Die literêre benadering tot die Ou-Testamentiese narratiewe word algemeen as 'n alternatiewe paradigma in die Bybelwetenskappe aanvaar. Oor die filosofiese uit- gangspunte wat hierdie nuwe paradigma ten grondslag lê, bestaan daar egter nog weinig eenstemmigheid. Heelwat probleme van filosofiese en ...

  16. Eksistensialisme in die Franse letterkunde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Teurlinckx

    1966-03-01

    Full Text Available Nooit sou die Franse jeug — en die van Europa en verder — in dié mate deur die eksistensialisme be'invloed gewees het nie, indien hierdie filosofie in wysgerige traktate sou begrawe gelê het. Die eksistensialiste het die koning van die filosofiese verhaal, Voltaire, met sukses op sy Candide- en Zadig-pad gevolg en hulle teorieë in letterkundige werke, ver- hale, romans en ook toneelstukke kwytgeraak, wat baie gelees is en waaruit ook ander literatore kragte en inspirasie geput het. Omrede daarvan is daar inderdaad baie eksistensialisme in die Franse letterkunde, maar ’n eintlike eksistensialistiese letterkunde was daar nie, en ’n Eksistensialistiese Letterkun­ dige skool het nooit bestaan nie. Ook sit hierdie eksistensialiste nie langs dieselfde vuur nie. Die Christelike eksistensialis Gabriel Marcel het op 21 April van hierdie jaar uitgevaar teen die „Sartriane” na aanleiding van die opvoering van Les Paravents, Die W indskerms van Jean Genêt in ’n Paryse staatsondersteunde teater. „Mens mag seker wees”, skryf Marcel in Les Nouvelles Littéraires, „dat die hele sartriaanse parogie sal skreeu: groot meesterwerk”. Voortgaande op sy distansiëring kan die literêre eksistensialiste in drie groepe ingedeel word: 1. Die Sartriane; 2. Die Christelike Eksistensialiste; 3. Die Onafhanklikes.

  17. Information on the shaft facility Asse II. That much is sure; Informationen ueber die Schachtanlage Asse II. Soviel ist mal sicher. Schwerpunkt Wissen and Wahrheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-15

    The following issues are discussed in the brochure on Asse II: collapse hazard, knowledge on the inventory, cancer incidence in the vicinity of Asse II, fact finding and waste retrieval delay, possibility of new shaft excavation, emergency preparedness - retrieval delay, retrieval only if intermediate storage facility is found, consequences in case of Asse flooding, salt caverns for final repository.

  18. On the relation of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory; Ueber die Beziehung der begrifflichen Grundlagen der Quantentheorie und der Allgemeinen Relativitaetstheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kober, Martin

    2010-07-01

    The specific content of the present thesis is presented in the following way. First the most important contents of quantum theory and general relativity theory are presented. In connection with the general relativity theory the mathematical property of the diffeomorphism invariance plays the deciding role, while concerning the quantum theory starting from the Copenhagen interpretation first the measurement problem is treated, before basing on the analysis of concrete phenomena and the mathematical apparatus of quantum theory the nonlocality is brought into focus as an important property. This means that both theories suggest a relationalistic view of the nature of the space. This analysis of the theoretical foundations of quantum theory and general relativity theory in relation to the nature of the space obtains only under inclusion of Kant's philosophy and his analysis of the terms space and time as fundamental forms of perception its full persuasive power. Then von Weizsaeckers quantum theory of the ur-alternatives is presented. Finally attempts are made to apply the obtained knowledge to the question of the quantum-theoretical formulation of general relativity theory.

  19. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 4, side-notes; Die Energieperspektiven 2035 - Band 4: Exkurse. Einzelthemen, wie fossile Energieressourcen, Einfluss der Klimaerwaermung, Flugverkehr, Ueberblick ueber andere Energieperspektiven des Energiesektors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-06-15

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a number of side-notes pertaining to the first three volumes of the Energy Perspectives series of reports. Various topics are discussed by the authors of the first three volumes of the perspectives in the meetings held by the Energy Perspectives Working Group. The sixteen side-notes presented here cover the following topics: General conditions, fossil resources, the influence of climate warming, CO{sub 2} emissions trading (Joint Implementation JI and Clean Development Mechanism CDM), definition of potentials, air traffic, imported renewable electricity, hydro power, electricity cost calculation, sensitivity analysis of centralised power production facilities, heat-pumps and their power consumption, cold spells and heat-waves, risk and its perception, the 2000-Watt society and international and national energy perspectives

  20. Atmospheric input of trace substances into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Stoffeintrag in Nord- und Ostsee ueber die Atmosphaere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H; Eppel, D; Petersen, G; Schneider, B; Weber, H; Gandrass, J; Reinhardt, K H; Wodarg, D; Fliess, J

    1989-01-01

    The concentrations and deposition of atmospheric trace substances were measured over the Kiel Bight and the Southern North Sea. A European longrange-transport model was used to calculate the atmospheric concentrations of trace metals and their deposition into the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Natural and anthropogenic emitted element concentrations could be separated definitely by the measurements, and preferred transport directions of anthropogenic contributions could be found. Concentrations measured over the North Sea could be related to the surrounding emission areas by airmass trajectory analyses. The deposition measurements show that the main removal process is due to deposition by precipitation. Calculated and measured concentrations at several receptor points agreed well. The model results confirm the dominating role of wet deposition. It could be shown that extrapolations from measurements at coastal stations to the whole sea area tend to overestimate the total deposition into North Sea and Baltic Sea. (orig.) With 78 refs., 26 tabs., 85 figs.

  1. Ueber die akzentologische Interferenz einiger Internationalismen in der russischen und deutschen Sprache (On Accent Interference of a Few Internationalisms in Russian and German)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlew, Wladislaw I.

    1976-01-01

    Common internationalisms in Russian and German are listed. In general German loan-words underwent a phonetic assimilation. Even if there are overall tonal similarities, there are differences, especially in accentuation, that result from the different structures of the languages. (Text is in German.) (MS)

  2. Regulatory oversight report 2007 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2007 ueber die nukleare Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (HSK) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2007. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions and personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the point of view of safety. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management. Finally, the disposal of nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories in Switzerland is commented on.

  3. On the reliability of thionyl chloride/lithium batteries. [Li/SOCl sub 2 -battery]. Ueber die Zuverlaessigkeit der Thionylchlorid-Lithium-Batterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajenescu, T.I.

    1991-10-10

    Lithium batteries must be mentioned as the most sophisticated system for back-up functions, whose great advantage is the very low, self-discharge, ie: the stored energy is only consumed by the battery to a very small extent and is largely available for use. The normal working temperature is between -55 and +75deg C. Higher working temperatures are possible if one accepts a shorter service life, as the self-discharge rises more than proportionally. Some ideas are given on possible causes of failure, reliability tests, a complete qualification test, design test and final inspection. A specific failure definition, the concept of 'total quality' and non-destructive test methods are proposed in order to be able to check the reliability of the thionyl chloride/lithium battery in a better way. (orig./MM).

  4. The Asse. On inconvenient truths and the suppression of disagreeable principles; Die Asse. Ueber unbequeme Wahrheiten und das Verdraengen unliebsamer Prinzipien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gellermann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    The retrieval of radioactive wastes and the closure of the repository Asse II is a very complex project: not only with respect to technical aspects but also with respect to public information. The information brochure no 29 edited by the Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz BfS is dealing with the rather philosophic questions knowledge and truth. The German expert on constitutional law Peter Bull answered to the question whether subjectively assumed health hazards could inhibit a reasonable solution: it has to be expected from the public to bear inconvenient truth. Clarification is necessary instead of wrong populism and suppression of obnoxious findings.

  5. The EKZ goes to its customers: A mobile exhibition on energy saving. Die EKZ gehen zu ihren Kunden: Rollende Austellungen ueber Energiesparen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, R.; Starkemann, B. (Elektrizitaetswerke Zurich (Switzerland))

    1991-09-18

    The Elektrizitaetswerke des Kantons Zuerich (EKZ) is bringing the subject of power and energy-saving closer to its customers with mobile exhibitions. Starting in the autumn of 1991, three new exhibition vehicles will be touring around the EKZ supply area they will give information on modern forms of lighting with power-saving light bulbs, on the heating of buildings by means of electrical heat pumps, on microwave appliances and power production from solar energy. (orig.).

  6. Regulatory oversight report 2008 concerning nuclear safety in Swiss nuclear installations; Aufsichtsbericht 2008 ueber die nukleare Sicherheit in den schweizerischen Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    This annual report issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Inspectorate (ENSI) reports on the work carried out by the Inspectorate in 2008. This report reviews the regulatory activities in the four Swiss nuclear power stations and in four further nuclear installations in various Swiss research facilities. It deals with topics such as operational details, technologies in use, radiation protection, radioactive wastes, emergency dispositions, personnel and provides an assessment of operations from the safety point of view. Also, the transportation of nuclear materials - both nuclear fuels and nuclear wastes - is reported on. General topics discussed include probabilistic safety analyses and accident management, earthquake damage analysis and agreements on nuclear safety. The underground disposal of highly-radioactive nuclear wastes and work done in the rock laboratories are discussed, as are proposals for additional nuclear power stations.

  7. The Chernobyl effect. An investigation into the causes of political protest. Der Tschernobyl-Effekt. Eine Untersuchung ueber die Ursachen politischen Protests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opp, K.D.; Roehl, W. (Hamburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    In what way and to what extent does an event like the Chernobyl reactor accident influence the citizen's attitudes and political commitment. This book evolves a number of theses on these questions dealing above all with the determinants of political protest. Two investigations are presented in order to verify those theses: in 1982 and 1987 (some nine months after the Chernobyl reactor accident), the same persons were interviewed. In addition, representative surveys in the Federal Republic of Germany are analysed, in order to assess in general the impact of Chernobyl. From the contents: explanation model for political protest; Chernobyl effect: effect of critical events on the mobilization of political protest; discontent with nuclear energy use, political alienation and protest; internal incentives for protest: norms, readiness for aggression, and entertainment quality of protest; resources as determinants of political protest; sanctions and protest; social nets and political protest; verification of a central model of political protest, and problems encountered by research. Appendix: investigation plan and random sampling of the panel of nuclear power opponents. (orig./HP).

  8. Verslaggewing oor volhoubaarheid in die mynbousektor: die identifisering van kritieke aan geleenthede

    OpenAIRE

    Viviers, S; Boudler, J-M

    2010-01-01

    Hierdie studie ondersoek tendense in die volhoubaarheidsverslaggewing deur vyf prominente mynmaatskappye wat op die JSE genoteer is. Die 2005-, 2006-, 2007- en 2008- jaar- en volhoubaarheidsverslae van hierdie maatskappye is ontleed deur middel van inhoudsanalise. Sleutelwoorde wat verband hou met ekonomiese bemagtiging, MIV/VIGS, ander gesondheid- en veiligheidsaangeleenthede en omgewingsimpak sowel as opleiding en onderwys, is getel. Hierdie aangeleenthede is ook gekategoriseer in terme van...

  9. Gaining consensus on family carer needs when caring for someone dying at home to develop the Carers' Alert Thermometer (CAT): a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knighting, Katherine; O'Brien, Mary R; Roe, Brenda; Gandy, Rob; Lloyd-Williams, Mari; Nolan, Mike; Jack, Barbara A

    2016-01-01

    To report a multi-phase modified Delphi study conducted with carers and professionals to identify the priority areas for inclusion in an alert screening tool for carers providing support to someone dying at home. Internationally, there is a growing emphasis on increasing choice for patients who wish to die at home which relies heavily on care provided by the unpaid family carers. Family carers can have high levels of unmet needs comprising their psychological and physical health and their ability to provide effective care and support. Development of an alert tool to identify carers' needs in everyday practice required identification and consensus of the priority areas of need for inclusion. Multi-phase modified Delphi study and instrument development. Qualitative and quantitative data collection took place between 2011-2013 with 111 carers and 93 professionals to identify carers' needs and gain consensus on the priority areas for inclusion in the alert tool. An expert panel stage and final evidence review post-Delphi were used. The Delphi panels had high levels of agreement and consensus. Ten areas of carer need across two themes of 'the current caring situation' and 'the carer's own health and well-being' were prioritized for inclusion in the alert tool. An optional end-of-life planning question was included following the final stages. The results provide evidence of carers' needs to be assessed, areas for consideration in the education of those who support carers and someone dying at home and targeting of services, while demonstrating the usefulness and adaptability of the Delphi method. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  11. Profitability aspects of combined power/heat plants based on the example of a gas turbine; Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen ueber KWK-Anlagen am Beispiel einer Gasturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, W. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    The efficiency of a combined power/heat plant is treated in an example relating to a gas turbine. An important prior condition for optimum planning of a combined power/heat plant is assessment of the current position in addition to a demand analysis. Constituting a vital planning instrument for the process are systematic annual continuous curves in respect of electricity and heat. Aided by a PC software program it is possible, on the basis of a few key figures, to establish whether a detailed study is able to bring about any economical solution. In addition, a primary-energy and emission balance-sheet is compiled illustrating the advantages to be gained from combined power/heat systems of relevance to the environment. A sensitivity analysis shows main influential factors exercised on the efficiency of the gas turbine project. As might be expected, the greatest influenc eon profitability comes from the electricity proceeds, the price of fuel and capital costs. Finally, different financing models for combined power/heat plants are discussed along with a price safeguarding method. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Wirtschaftlichkeit einer KWK-Anlage wird am Beispiel einer Gasturbine erlaeutert. Wichtige Voraussetzung fuer die optimale Planung einer KWK-Anlage ist die Bestandsaufnahme mit Bedarfsanalyse. Ein entscheidendes Planungsinstrument stellen hierbei geordnete Jahresdauerlinien fuer Strom und Waerme dar. Mit Hilfe eines PC-Programms kann anhand weniger Eckdaten festgestellt werden, ob eine Detailbetrachtung zu einer wirtschaftlichen Loesung fuehren koennte. Zusaetzlich wird eine Primaerenergie- und Emissionsbilanz erstellt, die die umweltrelevanten Vorteile der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung verdeutlicht. Eine Sensitivitaetsanalyse zeigt Haupteinflussfaktoren auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit des Gasturbinenprojektes. Die Stromgutschrift, der Brennstoffpreis und die Investitionskosten ueben erwartungsgemaess den groessten Einfluss auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit aus. Abschliessend werden

  12. Study on the Surface Microstructure of a Modified STD61 Steel Mold Used for the Die Casting Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ha-Young; Lee, Seung-Joon; Kang, Minwoo; Lee, Suk-Jin; Lee, Young-Kook [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Won Jon [Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Suk; Kim, Byung-Hoon [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The surface microstructure and crack formation of an aluminum die-casting mold were investigated. The mold was made of a modified STD61 steel, and was used for more than 165,000 cycles. The mold surface consisted of four layers; an oxidized layer, a decarburized layer, a network carbide layer and a tempered martensite matrix. The depth down to the hardest network carbide layer was ⁓200 μm. Inside the matrix, M{sub 3}C transition carbides were dissolved so that solute C joined pre-existing M{sub 2}3C{sub 6} and MC carbides to make them coarse. About 60% of thermal fatigue cracks had a depth less than 200 μm due to the hard network carbide layer, which obstructed the propagation of cracks. Cracks of over 200 μm were filled with oxide wedges of Al and Si which was which flown from the molten alloy as well as the Fe oxide.

  13. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian; Hummel, Helga; Bruns, Michael; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm

    2016-06-01

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N'-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-(1,1'-biphenyl)-4,4'-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  14. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Peters

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs. Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-diamine and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline-(4-phenylphenoxyaluminum, originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  15. Living and dying with dignity: a qualitative study of the views of older people in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sue; Longhurst, Susan; Higginson, Irene

    2009-07-01

    most older people living in nursing homes die there. An empirically based model of dignity has been developed, which forms the basis of a brief psychotherapy to help promote dignity and reduce distress at the end of life. to explore the generalisability of the dignity model to older people in nursing homes. qualitative interviews were used to explore views on maintaining dignity of 18 residents of nursing homes. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. The analysis was both deductive (arising from the dignity model) and inductive (arising from participants' views). the main categories of the dignity model were broadly supported: illness-related concerns, social aspects of the illness experience and dignity conserving repertoire. However, subthemes relating to death were not supported and two new themes emerged. Some residents saw their symptoms and loss of function as due to old age rather than illness. Although residents did not appear to experience distress due to thoughts of impending death, they were distressed by the multiple losses they had experienced. these findings add to our understanding of the concerns of older people in care homes on maintaining dignity and suggest that dignity therapy may bolster their sense of dignity.

  16. Formation of blade and slot die coated small molecule multilayers for OLED applications studied theoretically and by XPS depth profiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Katharina; Raupp, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.raupp@kit.edu; Scharfer, Philip; Schabel, Wilhelm [Institute of Thermal Process Engineering, Thin Film Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Hummel, Helga [Philips Technologie GmbH Innovative Technologies, Aachen (Germany); Bruns, Michael [Institute for Applied Materials and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Slot die coaters especially designed for low material consumption and doctor blades were used to process small molecule solutions for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Optimum process parameters were developed for the large-scale coating techniques to generate stable single and multiple layers only a few nanometers thick. Achieving a multilayer architecture for solution-processed OLEDs is the most challenging step. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy sputter depth profiling was performed to determine defined interfaces between coated organic layers. Commercially available small molecules NPB (N,N’-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N’-diphenyl-(1,1’-biphenyl)-4,4’-diamine) and BAlq (Bis(8-hdroxy-2methylquinoline)-(4-phenylphenoxy)aluminum), originally developed for vacuum deposition, were used as hole, respectively electron transport material. Defined double-layers were processed with both scalable coating methods using the orthogonal solvent approach. The use of non-orthogonal solvents resulted in complete intermixing of the material. The results are explained by calculations of solubilities and simulating drying and diffusion kinetics of the small molecule solutions.

  17. Die afrikaner en sy pers*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Scholtz

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Die versoek w at van u inrigting tot my gekom het om buitengewone professor in die Persw etenskap te word, was vir my deels vererend, m aar deels het dit my in 'n moeilike posisie gestel. Dit was vir my vererend, om dat dit gekom het van 'n universiteit m et wie se Christelik- Nasionale koers ek my ten voile kan vereenselwig. Dit was dan ook vir my vererend, om dat ek daardeur in staat gestel kan w ord om die volk w aartoe ek behoort, op 'n vir my nuwe terrein te dien. As sodanig is dit vir my im m ers m oontlik om ook ’n beskeie bydrae te lewer tot die geestelike vorm ing van die jeug van ons volk. Dit het my m oeilik geval om, w aar ek reeds die m iddeljarige leeftyd bereik het, nou vir die eerste maal as dosent op te tree, aangesien ek daarvan in die verlede nie die m inste kennis en ervaring opgedoen het nie. As joernalis rig ek my im m ers tot die breë publiek deur middel van die pen. As dosent m oet ek my deur middel van die mond tot die studente rig. Dit lê voor die hand dat die eise w at so aan my gestel word, totaal anders is as dié waar- aan ek oor 'n tydperk van m eer as 'n kw arteeu as joer­ nalis gewoond geraak het.

  18. Die vestiging van die Kerk in Natal, die Vrystaat en Transvaal na ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    as eerste predikant van die Voortrekkers laat orden en bevestig. Daama het verskeie kerksake van tyd tot tyd aandag geniet. Met betrekking tot die bevestiging van huwelike stel Retief 'n meer ordelike reëling daar, naamlik dat die gebooie van voomemende egpa- re van nou af drie maal in die kerk afgekondig moes wrord ...

  19. 'n Ondersoek na die potensiaal-bepaling van werknemers in die landbousektor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. D. Augustyn

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into determining the potential of workers in the agricultural sector. Industrial Psychological principles and concepts are not being applied extensively in the agricultural sector. Against this background an attempt was made to scientifically identify potential and predict job performance amongst farm labourers. Using the PAQ method of job analysis, critical attributes were identified and a satisfactorily valid battery of tests was developed. The results of this study underlines the importance of the identification of the potential of farm labourers as a first step in the personnel management process. It also serves as a source of information that could be used by farmers for counselling purposes. Opsomming Wat die toepassing van Bedryfsielkundige beginsels en konsepte betref bestaan daar in die landboubedryf nog groot leemtes. Teen hierdie agtergrond is 'n poging aangewend om op 'n wetenskaplike wyse die potensiaal van plaasarbeiders te bepaal. Deur middel van die WOV-metode van posontleding is kritieke attribute by workers geidentifiseer en kon 'n toetsbattery met aanvaarbare geldigheid saamgestel word. Die resultate van die studie bevestig dat die identifisering van die potensiaal van plaaswerkers 'n noodsaaklike eerste stap in die personeelbestuursproses is. Dit kan ook met groot vrug as voorligtingshulpmiddel deur boere gebruik word.

  20. Kennisbasisse, gebruikspatrone en gebruikshindernisse ten opsigte van die riglyne vir die ontwikkeling en validering van personeelkeuringsprosedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boolsen

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The guidelines for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures: knowledge, usage and obstacles. Selection is a key human resources function in any organization. Expected changes in South African Labour Law combined with the importance of advancing organizational efficiency lead in 1992 to the publication of the Guidelines on the Development and Validation of Personnel Selection Procedures. The study in question is aimed at a description of the current knowledge base, usage patterns and usage obstacles vis-a-vis the Guidelines of a specific group of human resource specialists in South Africa. Recommendation based on the research findings are made. Opsomming Keuring is 'n sleutel menslike hulpbronbestuursfunksie in enige onderneming. Verwagte veranderinge in Suid-Afrikaanse Arbeidswetgewing en die noodsaaklikheid van die bevordering van organisatoriese doeltreffendheid lei in 1992 tot die publikasie van die Riglyne vir die Ontwikkeling en Validering van Personeelkeuringsprosedures. Die onderhawige studie is gerig op 'n beskrywing van die heersende kennisbasisse, gebruikspatrone en gebruiks- hindernisse vis-a-vis die Riglyne by 'n spesifieke groep menslike hulpbronkundiges in Suid-Afrika. Aanbevelings word op grond van die bevindinge gemaak.

  1. Die skool en die onderwyser as faktore in die geestesgesondheid van die kind*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. Schutte

    1961-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons hou geestesgesondheidsweke, stig beroepsentrums, samel geld in om mense wat geestelik siek is te genees, klae oor die tekort aan psigiaters, kliniese sielkundiges, bedryfsielkundiges, voorligters, skoolpsigoloë,ens. ’n Karige kwarteeu gelede het ons aan al hierdie dinge slegs akademiese aandag gewy. In hierdie kursus wordverskeie tipes kinders bespreek en geleer hoe om hulle probleme te benader.

  2. When Somebody Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottle became useless. The container is gone, but what's inside — the water — remains. The part of a person that's left after the body dies is often called the "soul" or "spirit." Some people believe the soul is the part ...

  3. Die Kunst des Scheiterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Menschen haben von Kindesbeinen an das Verlangen, Erfolge zu erzielen und Kompetenz zu erreichen. Computerspieler entscheiden sich jedoch fortlaufend für eine Aktivität, die oft und wiederholt zum Verlieren führen muss und ein taubes Gefühl der Unfähigkeit erzeugt. Im Kino, im Theatersaal und bei...

  4. Modelle in die onderrig van fisika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. Smit

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Die rol van modelle in die onderrig van fisika is sedert die vroeë tagtigerjare erken. In die onderrig word die absent op die kwantitaiewe aspekte van die vak geplaas, terwyl die kwatitatiewe aspekte min aandag kry.

  5. DIE SAGD - SY ONTSTAAN EN ONTWIKKELING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Okt 1977 ... stelling van 'n higiene afdeling het in 'n belang- rike behoefte voorsien. Die pligte van die SAGO het dus op hierdie stadium die ondersoek van soldate, die sanita- sie van kampe, die verpleging van pasiente in militere hospitale en die opleiding van lede be- hels. 'n Hoogtepunt was die opening van die.

  6. The impact of the social and physical environments on parent-healthcare provider relationships when a child dies in PICU: Findings from a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ashleigh E; Copnell, Beverley; Hall, Helen

    2017-12-30

    This study explores the influences of the paediatric intensive care environment on relationships between parents and healthcare providers when children are dying. It forms part of a larger study, investigating parental experiences of the death of their child in intensive care. Constructivist grounded theory. Four Australian paediatric intensive care units. Audio-recorded, semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six bereaved parents. Data were analysed using the constant comparison and memoing techniques common to grounded theory. The physical and social environment of the intensive care unit influenced the quality of the parent-healthcare provider relationship. When a welcoming, open environment existed, parents tended to feel respected as equal and included members of their child's care team. In contrast, environments that restricted parental presence or lacked resources for parental self-care could leave parents feeling like 'watchers', excluded from their child's care. The paediatric intensive care unit environment either welcomes and includes parents of dying children into the care team, or demotes them to the status of 'watcher'. Such environments significantly influence the relationships parents form with healthcare staff, their ability to engage in elements of their parental role, and their experiences as a whole. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Die transvaalse ontwerp-ordonnansie oor die onderwys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Coetzee

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available In ’n Buitengewone Provinsiale Koerant van die Provinsie Transvaal is onder datum 25 Junie 1952 gepubliseer ’n „Ontwerp-Ordonnansie tot samevatting en wysiging van die Wette betreffende die Sentrale Beheer van die Onderwys, die Plaaslike Beheer van Skole, Godsdiensonderrig in Openbare Skole, Taal en die Onderwys, Onderwyspersoneel, Verpligte Onderwys, Toelating van Leerlinge tot Skole, Klasse of Inrigtings, Openbare Onderwys, Private Skole, Onderwys vir Kleurlinge en Asiate en Onderwys vir Naturelle, en om vir sake in verband daarmee voorsiening te maak” .

  8. DIE HEDENDAAGSE SIENING VAN DIE NORMERING VAN DUITS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    v a k t a a l k w a l i £ i k a s i e s ) neem d i e I n s t i t u t t a l l e take waar ter u i t b r e i d i n g van kennis van die Duitse taal in die buiteland. Sedert 1964 publiseer die. Institut die tydskrif Deutsch als Fremdsprache met die bylae Sprachpraxis, asook 'n handboek met die titel Deutsch - eln Lehrbuch Eur Auslander (Duits.

  9. Navigating "Assisted Dying".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Harvey

    2016-02-01

    Carter is a bellwether decision, an adjudication on a narrow point of law whose implications are vast across society, and whose impact may not be realized for years. Coupled with Quebec's Act Respecting End-of-life Care it has sharply changed the legal landscape with respect to actively ending a person's life. "Medically assisted dying" will be permitted under circumstances, and through processes, which have yet to be operationally defined. This decision carries with it moral assumptions, which mean that it will be difficult to reach a unifying consensus. For some, the decision and Act reflect a modern acknowledgement of individual autonomy. For others, allowing such acts is morally unspeakable. Having opened the Pandora's Box, the question becomes one of navigating a tolerable societal path. I believe it is possible to achieve a workable solution based on the core principle that "medically assisted dying" should be a very rarely employed last option, subject to transparent ongoing review, specifically as to why it was deemed necessary. My analysis is based on 1. The societal conditions in which have fostered demand for "assisted dying", 2. Actions in other jurisdictions, 3. Carter and Quebec Bill 52, 4. Political considerations, 5. Current medical practice. Leading to a series of recommendations regarding. 1. Legislation and regulation, 2. The role of professional regulatory agencies, 3. Medical professions education and practice, 4. Public education, 5. Health care delivery and palliative care. Given the burden of public opinion, and the legal steps already taken, a process for assisted-dying is required. However, those legal and regulatory steps should only be considered a necessary and defensive first step in a two stage process. The larger goal, the second step, is to drive the improvement of care, and thus minimize assisted-dying.

  10. Die verband tussen werkbetrokkenheid en werkprestasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. E. Bleeker

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between work involvement and work performance. The primary goal of the study was to determine whether a relationship exists between the work involvement scores and work performance ratings of employees. A secondary goal was to determine whether work involvement could predict future work performance. The ‘‘Alienation-Involvement Scale’’ together with the ‘‘Comprehensive Structured Interviewing for Potential’’, were applied to a sample of convenience of 200 employees in job levels of workers, teamleaders and managers in a large manufacturing organisation. Opsomming Die primere doel van die studie was om vas te stel of daar ’n verband bestaan tussen die werkbetrokkenheidtellings en die werkprestasie-beoordelings van werkers.’n Sekondere oogmerk was om te bepaal of werkbetrokkenheid toekomstige werkprestasie kan voorspel. Die ‘‘Alienation-Involvement Scale’’ saam met die ‘‘Comprehensive Structured Interviewing for Potential’’ is op ’n gerieflikheidsteekproef van 200 werknemers op die posvlakke vanwerkers, spanleiers en bestuurders in ’n goot vervaardigingsonderneming toegepas.

  11. The value of radiotherapy in comparison with extracorporeal shockwave therapy for supraspinatus tendinitis; Die Wertigkeit der Strahlenbehandlung im Vergleich zur extrakorporalen Stosswellentherapie (ESWT) beim Supraspinatussehnensyndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.W.; Engenhart-Cabillic, R. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie der Philipps-Univ. Marburg (Germany); Sattler, A.; Haake, M.; Schmitt, J.; Hildebrandt, R. [Orthopaedische Klinik der Philipps-Univ. Marburg (Germany); Mueller, H.H. [Inst. fuer Medizinische Biometrie und Epidemiologie, Philipps-Univ. Marburg (Germany)

    2002-06-01

    Bestrahlung untersucht. Patienten und Methode: Insgesamt 30 Patienten mit chronischem Supraspinatussehnensyndrom wurden in diese prospektive randomisierte Studie aufgenommen. Nach der Randomisierung wurden die Patienten entweder durch eine Strahlentherapie mit 6 x 0,5 Gy im ICRU-Referenzpunkt (fuenf Fraktionen/Woche) mit Kobalt-60-Gammastrahlen oder durch eine Stosswellentherapie (Storz Minilith SL1) mit 3 x 2000 Impulsen (Energieflussdichte ED+ 0,11 mJ/mm{sup 2}) im Wochenabstand behandelt. Hauptzielkriterium war der alterskorrigierte Constant Score 3 Monate nach der Intervention. Ergebnisse: Die Bestrahlung wurde erwartungsgemaess ohne das Auftreten von Akutreaktionen vertragen, nach ESWT traten jeweils in einem Fall Schmerzen und Hautreizung auf. In der Bestrahlungsgruppe stieg der durchschnittliche alterskorrigierte Constant Score von 47,6 Punkten vor Therapie auf 79,5 Punkte nach 12 Wochen und 87,4 nach 52 Wochen. In der ESWT-Gruppe verbesserte er sich von 50,1 Punkten ueber 91,4 Punkte auf 97,8 Punkte. Schlussfolgerung: Bei allen untersuchten Parametern liessen sich keine statistisch signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen ESWT und Bestrahlung nachweisen. Die ESWT erscheint beim chronischen Supraspinatussehnensyndrom der Bestrahlung mit 3,0 Gy gleichwertig, nicht jedoch ueberlegen. Eine umfangreiche randomisierte Studie ist demzufolge erforderlich, um die Gleichwertigkeit der ESWT zu sichern. (orig.)

  12. Long-term observations on the influence of groundwater level variations on BTEX concentrations in groundwater; Langzeituntersuchungen zum Einfluss von Grundwasserschwankungen auf die BTEX-Konzentration im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puettmann, W. [J.W. Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt a. M., Institut fuer Atmosphaere und Umwelt, AG Umweltanalytik, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Hettwer, K.; Warrelmann, J. [Universitaet Bremen, Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung und Umwelttechnologie, Bremen (Germany); Gaab, S.

    2007-06-15

    A long-term study on natural attenuation and remediation in soil and groundwater at the former military base Schaeferhof-Sued (Niedersachsen) was performed at a former gasoline filling station. At this locality, a large residual source of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes (BTEX) and additional petroleum hydrocarbons is present in the soil. BTEX-concentrations in the groundwater and their correlation with groundwater level variations were monitored for three years. Within the monitoring period, a very dry summer was recorded, which caused the groundwater level to drop by 1.7 m and the BTEX concentrations to increase from 240 {mu}g/l to 1300 {mu}g/l at the site of contamination. The microbial degradation of BTEX was documented by data on consumption of electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate or sulphate) and production of reduced products (Fe(II), methane). The degradation is further supported by the detection of metabolites. Therefore, the increasing BTEX concentrations were not a consequence of limited biological degradation. (orig.) [German] Auf dem frueher militaerisch genutzten Gelaende Schaeferhof-Sued (Niedersachsen) wurden im Bereich einer ehemaligen Abfuellstation fuer Kraftstoffe Langzeituntersuchungen zum natuerlichen Schadstoffabbau und -rueckhalt im Boden und Grundwasser durchgefuehrt. Der Standort weist eine hohe Restkontamination der Verbindungen Benzol, Toluol, Ethylbenzol und Xylole (BTEX), sowie Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffen (MKW) in der ungesaettigten Bodenzone auf. Ueber einen Zeitraum von drei Jahren wurden die BTEX-Konzentrationen im Grundwasser und deren Abhaengigkeit von einer Aenderung des Grundwasserstandes untersucht und eine negative Korrelation der Schadstoffkonzentrationen mit der Hoehe des Grundwasserstandes festgestellt. Im Beobachtungszeitraum lag das sehr trockene Sommerhalbjahr 2003, was im Vergleich zum vorhergehenden Winterhalbjahr eine Absenkung des Grundwasserspiegels um 1,7 m zur Folge hatte und die BTEX-Konzentrationen am

  13. Noodlottige kindermishandeling: 'n literatuuroorsig en die profiel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literatuuroorsig en bespreking. Literatuuroorsig. 'n Studie wat in The Children's Hospital in Camperdown, Australië, onderneem is,3 toon dat die meerderheid slagoffers van noodlottige kindermishandeling (9 van 17 gevalle) jonger as een jaar oud was, terwyl die res van die slagoffers almal jonger as drie jaar oud was.

  14. Die Entnahmemorbidität und Resensibilisierung des Acromiopectorallappens im Vergleich zum Pectoralis-Major-Lappen in der rekonstruktiven Mund-, Kiefer-, Gesichtschirurgie: Retrospektive Studie 2000-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Acar, Selva

    2015-01-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Rolle der gestielten Lappen, am Beispiel des Acromiopectoral- und Pectoralis-Major-Lappens, in der modernen Mund-, Kiefer-, Gesichtschirurgie in einer Ära, in der mikrochirurgisch revaskularisierten, freien Transplantaten meist der Vorzug gegeben wird. Insbesondere wird auf die Einheilung und Resensibilisierung des Acromiopectoral- und Pectoralis-Major-Lappens in der Empfängerregion des Kopf-/Halsbereiches eingegangen. Es wurde die Leben...

  15. Natural gas qualities in the Southern Permian basin; Die Erdgasqualitaeten im suedlichen Permbecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, P.; Kockel, F. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Lokhorst, A.; Geluk, M.C. [TNO, Haarlem (Netherlands); Nicholson, R.A. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Laier, T. [Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, Kopenhagen (Denmark); Pokorski, J. [Panstwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warsaw (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    There is a substantial amount of molecular and isotopic gas data in the literature but mostly in the archives of companies and geological services. As the geological services of most European countries traditionally contain (confidential and non-confidential) data on geology and resources these institutions from Great Britain, the Netherlands, Denmark, Poland and Germany decided to compile molecular and isotopic natural gas data from the area of the Southern European Permian basin. The partially EU-subsidised project was carried out between 1994 and 1997 (LOKHORST ed. 1998) The atlas is based on existing data and also on newly determined molecular and isotopic gas parameters. Ring analyses of national and international standard gases ensure the quality and comparability of the data thus obtained. The aim of the ``stocktaking`` of natural gas was to describe the gas qualities from the Southern North Sea in the West to the Eastern borders of Poland, to characterise them genetically and to relate the to the geological environment. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ein substantieller Anteil von molekularen und isotopischen Gasdaten existiert, teilweise in der Literatur, vor allem aber in den Archiven der Firmen und der geologischen Dienste. Da die geologischen Dienste der meisten europaeischen Laender traditionell (oeffentliche und vertrauliche) Daten ueber die Geologie und Rohstoffe vorhalten, haben sich diese Institutionen aus Grossbritanien, den Niederlanden, Daenemark, Polen und Deutschlands entschlossen, molekulare und isotopische Erdgasdaten aus dem Bereich des suedlichen europaeischen Permbeckens zu kompilieren. Das partiell von der EU gefoerderte Projekt wurde in den Jahren 1994 bis 1997 durchgefuehrt (LOKHORST ed. 1998). Ausser auf bereits vorhandenen Daten beruht der Atlas auf etwa 200 Neu-Bestimmungen molekularer und isotopischer Gasparameter. Ringanalysen nationaler und internationeler Standardgase gewaehrleisteten die Qualitaet und die Vergleichbarkeit der gewonnenen

  16. Die faktorstruktuur van Bass se veelfaktor- leierskapsvraelys in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C .P. Ackermann

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire in the South African context. The aim of the study was to determine whether the factor structure of Bass's Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ, as a measure of transformational leadership, could be replicated within the South African context. The MLQ was chosen not only because it promised to be a valid and reliable measuring instrument of the construct in question, but also due to the fact that there was an urgent need for such an instrument in the management of human resources within organisations undergoing transformation. The MLQ was administered to 406 subjects within the military context and was subjected to factor analysis and item analysis. The factor analysis yielded three factors, namely transformational leadership, transactional leadership and avoidance of leadership ("laissez faire" leadership. The reliabilities of the scales were determined by means of Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and yielded coefficients of 0,944, 0,736 and 0,803 respectively. The factor structure as conceptualised by Bass (1985 was largely confirmed in the present study. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om vas te stel of die faktorstruktuur van die Veelfaktorleierskapsvraelys (MLQ van Bass, as maatstafvan transformasionele leierskap, in die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks gerepliseer kon word. Die MLQ is gekies omdat dit belofte inhou as n geldige en betroubare meetinstrument van die onderhawige konstruk, en ook weens die feit dat daar 'n dringende behoefte bestaan aan so n instrument vir gebruik in die bestuur van menslike hulpbronne in organisasies tydens verandering. Die MLQ is op 406 proefpersone binne militêre konteks toegepas, en aan n faktorontleding en n itemontleding onderwerp. Die faktorontleding het drie faktore opgelewer, te wete transformasionele leierskap, transaksionele leierskap en vermyding van leierskap ("laissez faire"-leierskap. Die betroubaarheid van die skale is bepaal

  17. Die historiese betroubaarheid van die aartsvadervertellinge. 'n Beknopte bespreking van die huidige debat na aanleiding van die jongste publikasie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Vosloo

    1982-08-01

    Full Text Available Die afgelope twintig jaar was daar �n toenemende belangstelling in die aartsvadervertellinge in Genesis. Benewens die talle tydskrifartikels het skrywers soos die volgende ook boeke oor die onderwerp die lig laat sien: A. Parrot (1962, W. M. Clark (1964, R. Kilian (1966, R. E. Clements (1967, N. Lohfink (1967, H. Weidemann (1968, R. Martin-Achard (1969, T. L. Thompson (1974, J. van Seters (1975, J. P. Fokkelman (1975, C. Westermann (1976, R. Rendtorff (1977, J. Bright (1977, W. McKane (1979 en A. R. Millard en D. J. Wiseman (1980.

  18. 'n Kwalitatiewe ondersoek na die invloed van aspekte van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 26: No1, 1998. 15 ...... van byvoorbeeld die televisie en gedrukte media 'n invloed op die .... fashion promotion and advertising. New York. ... Consumer behaviour to-.

  19. The expedition ARCTIC `96 of RV `Polarstern` (ARK XII) with the Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Cruise report; Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 des FS `Polarstern` (ARK XII) mit der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS). Fahrtbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augstein, E.

    1997-11-01

    The multinational expedition ARCTIC `96 was carried out jointly by two ships, the German RV POLARSTERN and the Swedish RV ODEN. The research programme was developed by scientists from British, Canadian, Finish, German, Irish, Norwegian, Russian, Swedish and US American research institutions and universities. The physical programme on POLARSTERN was primarily designed to foster the Arctic Climte System Study (ACSYS) in the framework of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP). Investigations during the recent years have provided substantial evidence that the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent shelf seas play a significant role in the thermohaline oceanic circulation and may therefore have a distinct influence on global climate. Consequently the main ACSYS goals are concerned with studies of the governing oceanic, atmospheric and hydrological processes in the entire Arctic region. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Expedition ARCTIC `96 wurde von zwei Forschungsschiffen, der deutschen POLARSTERN und der schwedischen ODEN unter Beteiligung von Wissenschaftlern und Technikern aus Deutschland, Finnland, Grossbritannien, Irland, Kanada, Norwegen, Russland, Schweden und den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika durchgefuehrt. Die physikalischen Projekte auf der POLARSTERN dienten ueberwiegend der Unterstuetzung der Arctic Climate System Study (ACSYS) des Weltklimaforschungsprogramms, die auf die Erforschung der vorherrschenden ozeanischen, atmosphaerischen, kryosphaerischen und hydrologischen Prozesse der Arktisregion ausgerichtet ist. (orig.)

  20. In-situ remediation strategy for enhanced microbial de-acidification of geogenic sulphuric acid mining lakes - mesocosmic studies; In situ-Sanierungsstrategie zur Foerderung der mikrobiellen Entsaeuerung von geogen schwefelsauren Bergbaurestseen - Mesokosmosstudien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froemmichen, R.

    2001-07-01

    The author investigated whether neutralisation of acid mining lakes can be enhanced by adding low-cost, complex organic carbon sources. Subjects: Selection of a complex carbon source suited for stimulation of dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction; design and observation of a near-natural landscape compartment (mesocosmos) at different scales as a preparation for the field study; Description of reactions in the mesocosmic lake water and sediment; Assessment of neutralisation equivalents and neutralisation rates on the basis of an identification of reduced iron and sulphur compounds. [German] Die Hypothese, dass durch Zugabe kostenguenstiger komplexer organischer Kohlenstoffquellen in die sedimentnahe Wasserzone eines sauren Tagebaurestsees seeinterne Neutralisierungsprozesse gefoerdert werden, liegt dieser Arbeit zu Grunde. Seeinterne Neutralisationsprozesse, wie die dissimilatorische Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion, fuehren ueber die Akkumulierung von reduzierten Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen im Sediment zur Alkalinitaetsbildung im Gewaessersystem und im Seewasser zu hoeheren pH-Werten. Daher leiten sich folgende Ziele fuer diese Arbeit ab: - Auswahl einer geeigneten komplexen Kohlenstoffquelle zur Stimulierung der dissimilatorischen Eisen- und Sulfatreduktion - Design und Beobachtung eines naturnahen Landschaftsausschnittes (Mesokosmos) unterschiedlicher Massstabsebenen in Vorbereitung fuer die Fallstudie im Freiland - Beschreibung von Stoffumsetzungen im Seewasser und -sediment der Mesokosmen - Abschaetzung von Neutralisationsaequivalenten und Bestimmung von Neutralisationsraten anhand der Identifizierung reduzierter Eisen- und Schwefelverbindungen. (orig.)

  1. End-of-life care: nurses' experiences in caring for dying patients with profound learning disabilities--a descriptive case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Ng, J

    2008-12-01

    This qualitative study identifies areas of expertise and deficits in the specific knowledge and practical skills of nurses in the care of dying patients with profound learning disabilities in one NHS Primary Care Trust in the UK. In response to these findings, we have developed a simple observational checklist applicable to profound learning disability nursing to identify disease-related personality and physiological changes. The method consists of a descriptive case study of five nurses qualified in learning disabilities nursing, using semi-structured interviews. The disease trajectory was used as a framework of reference to guide the data analysis. Themes showed were 'certainty of knowing' about disease-related changes in patients' habits and behaviour and 'uncertainty and ambiguity' in the patho-physiology of advanced diseases and disease progression. This study interprets a lack of patho-physiological knowledge in both malignant and non-malignant diseases leading to delayed diagnosis and timely intervention. Timeliness of observation and intervention are emphasised.

  2. Die stryd teen die voorpposte: 1-2 Februarié 1941 | Du Plessis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Die stryd teen die voorpposte: 1-2 ...

  3. Paths of science. An introduction to science theorie. 5. tot. new rev. and enl. ed.; Wege der Wissenschaft. Einfuehrung in die Wissenschaftstheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, N [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik; Altstoetter-Gleich, C [Landau Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Psychologie; Chalmers, A F

    2001-07-01

    Chalmers' critical reflections on schools of science theory has become a standard work in academic teaching which has been translated into 15 languages. It owes its popularity to Chalmers' manner of presenting this complex subject in an easily understandable way using a wealth of illustrative examples. This tradition has been preserved in the present completely revised edition, which again has been supplemented by a number of chapters. In addition to providing an outstanding overview of classical approaches to science theory, i.e. inductionism, critical rationalism and falsificationism, and presenting the theories of Karl Popper, Imre Lakatos, Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend it also deals with more recent developments in science theory. Special emphasis is placed on the 'new experimentalism', the stochastic approach of Thomas Bayes, the nature of the laws of natural science and the current realism versus antirealism debate. [German] Chalmers kritische Reflexion ueber wissenschaftstheoretische Schulen ist zu einem Standardwerk universitaerer Lehre avanciert, das inzwischen in ueber 15 Sprachen uebersetzt wurde. Seine Popularitaet verdankt das Buch der Tatsache, dass es Chalmers gelingt, die komplexe Thematik in eine auch fuer Laien verstaendliche Form zu bringen und mit zahlreichen Beispielen zu illustrieren. In dieser voellig ueberarbeiteten und erneut um einige Kapitel erweiterten Auflagen bleibt Chalmers dieser Tradition treu. Es bietet nicht nur einen hervorragenden Ueberblick ueber klassische Ansaetze der Wissenschaftstheorie, den Induktivismus, den kritischen Rationalismus sowie den Falsifikationismus und stellt die Theorien von Karl Popper, Imre Lakatos, Thomas Kuhn und Paul Feyerabend vor, sondern geht auch auf neuere wissenschaftstheoretische Entwicklungen ein. Sein besonderes Augenmerk gilt dabei der Bedeutung des Experiments und dem 'Neuen Experimentalismus', dem wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretischen Ansatz von Thomas Bayes, dem Wesen naturwissenschaftlicher

  4. Paths of science. An introduction to science theorie. 5. tot. new rev. and enl. ed.; Wege der Wissenschaft. Einfuehrung in die Wissenschaftstheorie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, N. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Psychiatrische Klinik; Altstoetter-Gleich, C. (eds.) [Landau Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Psychologie; Chalmers, A.F.

    2001-07-01

    Chalmers' critical reflections on schools of science theory has become a standard work in academic teaching which has been translated into 15 languages. It owes its popularity to Chalmers' manner of presenting this complex subject in an easily understandable way using a wealth of illustrative examples. This tradition has been preserved in the present completely revised edition, which again has been supplemented by a number of chapters. In addition to providing an outstanding overview of classical approaches to science theory, i.e. inductionism, critical rationalism and falsificationism, and presenting the theories of Karl Popper, Imre Lakatos, Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend it also deals with more recent developments in science theory. Special emphasis is placed on the 'new experimentalism', the stochastic approach of Thomas Bayes, the nature of the laws of natural science and the current realism versus antirealism debate. [German] Chalmers kritische Reflexion ueber wissenschaftstheoretische Schulen ist zu einem Standardwerk universitaerer Lehre avanciert, das inzwischen in ueber 15 Sprachen uebersetzt wurde. Seine Popularitaet verdankt das Buch der Tatsache, dass es Chalmers gelingt, die komplexe Thematik in eine auch fuer Laien verstaendliche Form zu bringen und mit zahlreichen Beispielen zu illustrieren. In dieser voellig ueberarbeiteten und erneut um einige Kapitel erweiterten Auflagen bleibt Chalmers dieser Tradition treu. Es bietet nicht nur einen hervorragenden Ueberblick ueber klassische Ansaetze der Wissenschaftstheorie, den Induktivismus, den kritischen Rationalismus sowie den Falsifikationismus und stellt die Theorien von Karl Popper, Imre Lakatos, Thomas Kuhn und Paul Feyerabend vor, sondern geht auch auf neuere wissenschaftstheoretische Entwicklungen ein. Sein besonderes Augenmerk gilt dabei der Bedeutung des Experiments und dem 'Neuen Experimentalismus', dem wahrscheinlichkeitstheoretischen Ansatz von Thomas Bayes, dem

  5. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    vergewe. Dit sou in orde gewees het as daar gestaan het, ReMomë- j^onta^is hepta?ds. wat die grieks is vir sewentig maal sewe. Die uitdrukking. heMom&ontabis heptd sien hoogswaarskynlik op Gen. 4 : 24 (LXX) waar. Lameg meedeel dat hy sewe-en-sewentig-maal gewreek sal word. Daar sit die Afr. Vert, die uitdrukking ...

  6. Dying for security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchan, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  7. Dying for Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Buchan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available If political statements and media coverage are any guide, it seems Australians today are dying for security. At no other moment in our history has the spectre of war and terrorism so haunted popular, political and scholarly perceptions of Australia’s colonial past and of its geopolitical future. And yet, debates over colonial war or genocide and contemporary terrorism have been conducted in more or less complete isolation. In this article I argue that our contemporary obsession with ‘security’ is premised on the perennial threat of ‘insecurity’. This is the problem of in/security, and it has played a central role in the development of Western political thought. More importantly, its formulation in Western political thought provided a powerful justification for the violence of the early decades of Australia’s colonisation during which Indigenous Australians could also be said to have been dying for security.

  8. Verbal autopsy as a tool for identifying children dying of sickle cell disease: a validation study conducted in Kilifi district, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where it is associated with high early mortality. In the absence of newborn screening, most deaths among children with SCD go unrecognized and unrecorded. As a result, SCD does not receive the attention it deserves as a leading cause of death among children in SSA. In the current study, we explored the potential utility of verbal autopsy (VA) as a tool for attributing underlying cause of death (COD) in children to SCD. Methods We used the 2007 WHO Sample Vital Registration with Verbal Autopsy (SAVVY) VA tool to determine COD among child residents of the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), Kenya, who died between January 2008 and April 2011. VAs were coded both by physician review (physician coded verbal autopsy, PCVA) using COD categories based on the WHO International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition (ICD-10) and by using the InterVA-4 probabilistic model after extracting data according to the 2012 WHO VA standard. Both of these methods were validated against one of two gold standards: hospital ICD-10 physician-assigned COD for children who died in Kilifi District Hospital (KDH) and, where available, laboratory confirmed SCD status for those who died in the community. Results Overall, 6% and 5% of deaths were attributed to SCD on the basis of PCVA and the InterVA-4 model, respectively. Of the total deaths, 22% occurred in hospital, where the agreement coefficient (AC1) for SCD between PCVA and hospital physician diagnosis was 95.5%, and agreement between InterVA-4 and hospital physician diagnosis was 96.9%. Confirmatory laboratory evidence of SCD status was available for 15% of deaths, in which the AC1 against PCVA was 87.5%. Conclusions Other recent studies and provisional data from this study, outlining the importance of SCD as a cause of death in children in many parts of the developing world, contributed to the inclusion of specific SCD

  9. N HERSIENING VAN DIE AFRIKAANSE VERTALING VAN DIE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    aangetoon het, 'n huis in Kapernaum gehad en hierdie geskiedenis speel in Kapernaum of daar digby af. Jesus en sy dissipele het namelik, volgens 6:35 geland by Gennesaret, net suid van Kapernaum Die gevolgtrekking word ondersteun deur Joh. 6:17 waarvolgens die dissi pele na die spysiging op Kapernaum gevaar ...

  10. 'n Verkenning van die soorte vennootskappe in die Amerikaanse reg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In die Amerikaanse literatuur word talle verwysings gevind na die vennootskap in mynbou ("mining partnership"), familievennootskap ("family partnership", vennootskap in vaste eiendom ("partnership in real estate") en vennootskap vir boerdery ("farming partnership"). Hierdie onderskeiding is primer gebaseer op die tipe ...

  11. Die 'postmoderne' stempel in die Nuwe-Testamentiese hermeneutiek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    georiënteerde teorie en kritiek wat volgens Moore opbou tot 'n herhaling binne. Bybelnavorsing. Dit het reeds by Immanuel Kant begin. Sedert Kant is dit proble- maties cm die objek van kennis te beskou as iets wat kennis objektief in sigself bevat. Objektiwisme is prys gegee. Dialektiek het in die plek daarvan gekom. Die.

  12. duele verse sowel as die somtotaal die leser

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    27 Jan 2006 ... selfs 'n landkaart afgedruk) terwyl dit ter- selfdertyd ver bo die lokale uitstyg. Die digter is sterk bewus van sy omgewing, geskiedenis en tradisies, maar veral van die algemene menslike kondisie wat binne hierdie referensiekader vergestalt word. Hy gebruik 'n bekende historiese slagveld as bundeltitel (en ...

  13. Die Leben Einsteins eine Reise durch die Geschichte der Physik

    CERN Document Server

    Fiami

    2005-01-01

    Jeder kennt die Namen Einstein, Newton oder Galilei. aber was weiss man über sie? Hier ein Porträt Einsteins anhand von sechs Meilensteinen aus der Geschichte der Physik. Einstein tritt auf als Protagonist in verschiedenen Epochen und bei verschiedenen Entdeckungen, die die Welt verändert haben.

  14. DIE KONINGSBEDE AS ELEMENT IN DIE KRONINGSRITUEEL. By ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Die offerfees te Gibeon was 'n plegtigheid, waaraan geheel Israel deelgeneem het. Die duisend. "brandoffers" wat sowel Kon. as Kron. vermeld, sal wel opgevat moet word as „brandoffers en dankoffers", sodat daar vir die aanwesiges. *n groot feesmaaltyd aangerig is, vgl. I Kon. 3:15. n Sodanige maal- tyd verbind vors en ...

  15. Ruimtelike beplanning: die rol van die stads - en streeksbeplanner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruimtelike beplanning: die rol van die stads - en streeksbeplanner in die saw. R Erasmus. Abstract. Since 1978 regional and town planners are employed in the SADF on a permanent basis as well as in the capacity of national service men. These men are all academically qualified and as such satisfy a need that developed ...

  16. n opinie oor die behaviouristiese siening versus die fenomenologie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    verband die eksperimente van Pavlov, Thorndike,. Skinner, Tolmann en Hull.) Fenomenologie. Die fenomenologie is 'n essensie-openbarende denkrigting. Dit impliseer'n denkende soektog na dit wat 'n besondere verskynsel of werklikheid maak juis dit wat dit is en nie iets anders nie. In die fenomenologiese antropologie ...

  17. Bevacizumab treatment in malignant meningioma with additional radiation necrosis. An MRI diffusion and perfusion case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostroem, J.P. [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Bonn (Germany); MediClin Robert Janker Clinic and MVZ MediClin, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); Seifert, M.; Greschus, S. [University of Bonn Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Schaefer, N.; Herrlinger, U. [University of Bonn Medical Center, Division of Clinical Neurooncology, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Glas, M. [University of Bonn Medical Center, Division of Clinical Neurooncology, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); University of Bonn Medical Center, Stem Cell Pathologies, Institute of Reconstructive Neurobiology, Bonn (Germany); MediClin Robert Janker Clinic, Clinical Cooperation Unit Neurooncology, Bonn (Germany); Lammering, G. [MediClin Robert Janker Clinic and MVZ MediClin, Department of Radiosurgery and Stereotactic Radiotherapy, Bonn (Germany); MediClin Robert Janker Clinic, Clinical Cooperation Unit Neurooncology, Bonn (Germany); Heinrich-Heine-University of Duesseldorf, Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Recently two retrospective cohort studies report efficacy of bevacizumab in patients with recurrent atypical and anaplastic meningioma. Another successful therapeutic option of bevacizumab seems to be treatment of cerebral radiation necrosis. However, the antiangiogenic effects in MRI diffusion and perfusion in meningiomas have not been previously described in detail. The objective of this research was to evaluate the clinical and MR imaging effects of bevacizumab in a malignant meningioma patient harboring additional cerebral radiation necrosis. We report the case of an 80-year-old woman who underwent bevacizumab therapy (5 mg/kg every 2 weeks for 2 months) for treatment of a symptomatic radiation necrosis in malignant meningiomatosis of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III. The patient was closely monitored with MRI including diffusion and perfusion studies. Upon bevacizumab therapy, the clinical situation was well stabilized over a period of 4 months until the patient unfortunately died due to pneumonia/septicemia probably unrelated to bevacizumab therapy. Consecutive MRI demonstrated 4 important aspects: (1) considerable decrease of the contrast medium (CM)-enhanced radiation necrosis, (2) mixed response with respect to the meningiomatosis with stable and predominantly growing tumor lesions, (3) a new diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesion in a CM-enhanced tumor as described in gliomas, which we did not interpret as a response to bevacizumab therapy, and (4) new thrombembolic infarcts, which are a known side-effect of bevacizumab treatment. Bevacizumab is effective in the treatment of radiation necrosis. We could not confirm the potential antitumor effect of bevacizumab in this patient. However, we could describe several new radiographic effects of bevacizumab therapy in malignant meningioma. (orig.) [German] In zwei aktuellen retrospektiven Kohortenstudien konnte eine Wirksamkeit von Bevacizumab bei Patienten mit rezidivierenden atypischen und

  18. On new paths. Hitchhiker's guide through beryllium chemistry; Auf neuen Pfaden. Per Anhalter durch die Berylliumchemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naglav, Dominik; Bendt, Georg; Schulz, Stephan [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Chemie; Buchner, Magnus R.; Kraus, Florian [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Anorganische Chemie, Fluorchemie

    2016-08-26

    This short essay is intended as an introduction to all less experienced people in the field of beryllium chemistry. Current research findings on the toxicity of the element and its compounds are reviewed and various basic and necessary orientation aids for safe and correct handling in modern chemical research laboratories are presented. Phenomenological observations concerning the uniqueness of the element and its chemistry are communicated and placed in the historical context. We summarize many contributions and experiences of passionate scientists in this field. It is a matter of heart for us that our fellow students critically question and rethink the reservations about beryllium and their connections built up over generations, thus initiating a new era of intensive research into this scorned element. Who in the world should be able to manage beryllium and its connections more safely and more expertly than we do chemists? [German] Dieser Kurzaufsatz soll eine Einfuehrung fuer alle weniger Erfahrenen auf dem Gebiet der Berylliumchemie darstellen. Aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse ueber die Giftigkeit des Elements und seiner Verbindungen werden rezensiert und diverse grundlegende und noetige Orientierungshilfen fuer die sichere und richtige Handhabung in modernen chemischen Forschungslaboren vorgestellt. Phaenomenologische Beobachtungen bezueglich der Einzigartigkeit des Elements und seiner Chemie werden mitgeteilt und in den historischen Kontext gestellt. Wir fassen viele Beitraege und Erfahrungen von auf diesem Gebiet leidenschaftlich taetigen Wissenschaftlern zusammen. Es ist uns ein Herzensanliegen, dass unsere Kommilitonen die ueber Generationen aufgebauten Vorbehalte gegenueber Beryllium und seinen Verbindungen kritisch hinterfragen und ueberdenken und so eine neue Aera intensiver Forschung zu diesem verschmaehten Element eingeleitet wird. Wer in aller Welt soll denn das Beryllium und seine Verbindungen sicherer und fachkundiger handhaben koennen als wir

  19. Die Vier Typen von Projektmanagern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Pedersen, Carsten; Ritter, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Bevor Sie einem Mitarbeiter die Leitung eines Projekts anvertrauen, sollten Sie sich über dessen Managementstil klar werden. Passt dieser nicht zur Art des Vorhabens, wird er scheitern. So treffen Sie die richtige Wahl....

  20. Die historiese Jesus as wondenverker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biblical Association, te wete 'The social sciences and second Testament exegesis'. John Pilch is die leier van die Society of Biblical Literature se 'Social sciences and ..... Hollenbach, P 1982. ... Stauffer, E 1982. Jesus ... London: Collins.

  1. Lead exposure via drinking water - unnecessary and avoidable; Bleiexposition ueber das Trinkwasser - unnoetig und vermeidbar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, M. [Univ. Bochum (Germany). Abt. Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin; Dieter, H.H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden-, Lufthygiene

    2003-07-01

    Despite successful reduction of the general lead exposure, this heavy metal is still a matter of public concern due to the fact that associations with intellectual impairment or delayed puberty are found to correlate with very low lead blood concentrations. Lead in tap water is still an important contribution to lead exposure which may cause health risk for infants. Therefore, lead pipes should be completely sanitated by exchange against pipes made from more healthy materials. (orig.) [German] Trotz erfolgreicher Reduktion der allgemeinen Belastung ist Blei auch heute noch umweltmedizinisch relevant, weil es moeglicherweise bei niedrigeren als bisher angenommenen Belastungen gesundheitlich nachteilige Wirkungen, insbesondere waehrend der fruehkindlichen Entwicklung des Nervensystems, ausloest. Insbesondere Blei aus bleiernen Trinkwasserleitungen ist eine Belastung, die fuer Saeuglinge und Kleinkinder nach wie vor ein gesundheitliches Risiko darstellen kann. Solche Leitungen sollten deswegen durch Austausch gegen gesundheitlich besser geeignete Materialien saniert werden. (orig.)

  2. A Study of the First Year of the End-of-Life Clinic for Physician-Assisted Dying in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijdewind, Marianne C; Willems, Dick L; Deliens, Luc; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Chambaere, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Right to Die NL, an organization in the Netherlands that advocates for the option of euthanasia, founded the End-of-Life Clinic in 2012 to provide euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide for patients who meet all legal requirements but whose regular physicians rejected their request. Many patients whose requests are rejected have less common situations, such as a psychiatric or psychological condition, dementia, or being tired of living. To study outcomes of requests for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide received by the clinic and factors associated with granting or rejecting requests. Analysis of application forms and registration files from March 1, 2012, to March 1, 2013, the clinic's first year of operation, for 645 patients who applied to the clinic with a request for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide and whose cases were concluded during the study period. A request could be granted, rejected, or withdrawn or the patient could have died before a final decision was reached. We analyzed bivariate and multivariate associations with medical conditions, type of suffering, and sociodemographic variables. Of the 645 requests made by patients, 162 requests (25.1%) were granted, 300 requests (46.5%) were refused, 124 patients (19.2%) died before the request could be assessed, and 59 patients (9.1%) withdrew their requests. Patients with a somatic condition (113 of 344 [32.8%]) or with cognitive decline (21 of 56 [37.5%]) had the highest percentage of granted requests. Patients with a psychological condition had the smallest percentage of granted requests. Six (5.0%) of 121 requests from patients with a psychological condition were granted, as were 11 (27.5%) of 40 requests from patients who were tired of living. Physicians in the Netherlands have more reservations about less common reasons that patients request euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, such as psychological conditions and being tired of living, than the medical staff working for the End

  3. Die Rolle von RANK-Ligand und Osteoprotegerin bei Osteoporose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofbauer LC

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF- κB ligand (RANKL, sein zellulärer Rezeptor RANK und der Decoy-Rezeptor Osteoprotegerin (OPG stellen ein essentielles Zytokinsystem für die Zellbiologie von Osteoklasten dar. Verschiedene Untersuchungen belegen die Bedeutung von Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei der Pathogenese metabolischer Knochenerkrankungen. In dieser Arbeit werden die wichtigsten Störungen des OPG/RANKL/RANK-Systems bei verschiedenen Osteoporoseformen dargestellt. Östrogenrezeptor- (ER- Agonisten wie 17 β-Östradiol, Raloxifen und Genistein stimulieren die osteoblastäre Produktion von OPG durch Aktivierung von ER- α in vitro, während Lymphozyten von Patientinnen mit Östrogenmangel RANKL überexprimieren. Die parenterale Gabe von OPG vermag den mit Östrogenmangel assoziierten Knochenverlust im Tiermodell und in einer kleineren klinischen Studie zu verhindern. Glukokortikoide und Immunsuppressiva steigern gleichzeitig die RANKL-Expression und hemmen die OPG-Produktion in osteoblastären Zellen in vitro. Glukokortikoide sind auch in vivo imstande, die OPG-Serumspiegel deutlich zu reduzieren. Dagegen hemmen biomechanische Reize in vitro die RANKL-Produktion und steigern die OPG-Produktion. Ein Fehlen dieser biomechanischen Reize bei längerer Immobilisierung kann daher den RANKL/OPG-Quotienten steigern, während die tierexperimentelle Immobilisierungs-Osteoporose durch die parenterale Gabe von OPG gemildert werden kann.

  4. Precision die design by the die expansion method

    CERN Document Server

    Ibhadode, A O Akii

    2009-01-01

    This book presents a new method for the design of the precision dies used in cold-forging, extrusion and drawing processes. The method is based upon die expansion, and attempts to provide a clear-cut theoretical basis for the selection of critical die dimensions for this group of precision dies when the tolerance on product diameter (or thickness) is specified. It also presents a procedure for selecting the minimum-production-cost die from among a set of design alternatives. The mathematical content of the book is relatively simple and will present no difficulty to those who have taken basic c

  5. The effect of resveratrol in combination with irradiation and chemotherapy. Study using Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiduschka, G. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Pharmacology, Vienna (Austria); Lill, C.; Brunner, M.; Thurnher, D. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Seemann, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Maxillo-Facial Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Schmid, R. [Medical University of Vienna, Radiotherapy and -biology, Vienna (Austria); Houben, R. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Dermatology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Bigenzahn, J. [CeMM-Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-01-15

    Expression von Zielgenen, welche fuer die Krebstherapie relevant sind, wurde mittels Real-time-PCR untersucht. Resveratrol wirkt in MCC-Zelllinien zytotoxisch. Die Hemmung der Zellproliferation funktioniert ueber die Induktion von Apoptose. Die Kombination mit Cisplatin und Etoposid ergab teilweise eine synergistische Inhibierung der Zellproliferation. Resveratrol und Bestrahlung fuehrten synergistisch zu einer geringeren Koloniebildung als die Bestrahlung alleine. Die Bestimmung der Genexpression zeigte keinen signifikanten Unterschied zwischen den Zelllinien. Die in dieser Studie nachgewiesene strahlensensibilisierende Wirkung von Resveratrol macht es zu einem vielversprechenden Additiv beim MCC in vivo. Die Chemosensibilisierung ist von der untersuchten Zelllinie abhaengig. (orig.)

  6. Die Dokter-Pasient Rolverwantskap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    17 Aug 1974 ... en as sodanig 'n ral sped in die persoon se siektegedrag en uiteindelike patroon van hulpsoeke. SIEKEROL EN SOSIALISERING IN DIE. PASIENTROL ..... more cumulative, resulting in a more gradual social and professional maturation.' Vit die voorafgaande word dit duidelik dat Dewy se pragmatiese ...

  7. prosesseringsmetodes op die voedingswaarde van

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gebring is, kon geen betekenisvolle verskille tussen die drie monsters gevind word nie. Volgens Opstvedt (1976) kan ME waardes ook dien as 'n kriteria van proteien- kwaliteit, hoofsaaklik a.g.v. die verhoogde stikstofuit- skeiding in die urine wat sal plaasvind a.g.v. beskadiging van aminosure. De Groote (1968) het gevind ...

  8. DIE SAW SE ROL IN SWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wei die verdediging van die landsgrense teen 'n vyand wat die orde, gesag, vrede, stabiliteit en welvaart in Suidwes-Afrika en die Republiek van. Suid-Afrika wil vernietig. Hierdie oorlog moet nie ge'lsoleerd gesien word nie, maar in perspektief geplaas word teen die agtergrond van 'n nag groter konflik, naamlik die van die ...

  9. Die Subjektiewe en Objektiewe doelwitte van Arbeid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Veldsman

    1982-11-01

    Die artikel gee aandag aan die subjektiewe en objektiewe doelwitte van arbeid. Hul plek en funksie binne 'n voorgestelde geïntegreerde motiveringsmodel word eerstens aangedui. Vervolgens word die verwantskap tussen die twee doelwitte uitgelig, gevolg deur 'n bespreking van die aard van die objektiewe doel. Laastens word die invloed van moderne arbeid op hierdie doelwitte uitgestippel.

  10. DIE EKSISTENSIEFILOSOFIE VAN KARL JASPERS. ENKELE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Kierkegaard en Nietzsche, Max Weber en Dilthey, om maar enkeles te noem, en 5.) Jaspers se persoonlike beskouing oor die roe ping en die taak van die Filosofie, sy aanvoeling van die filosofiese problematiek en sy grondhouding teenoor die eksistensiële verbonden- hede. Die woord van Fichte, naamlik dat die Filosofie ...

  11. Computed tomography for imaging of pediatric congenital heart disease; Die Computertomographie bei der Bildgebung von Kindern mit kongenitalen Herzvitien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser-Gallion, N.; Stinn, B.; Wildermuth, S.; Leschka, S. [Kantonsspital St.Gallen, Universitaet Zuerich, Institut fuer Radiologie, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Alkadhi, H. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Institut fuer Diagnostisch und Interventionelle Radiologie, Zuerich (Switzerland); Lell, M. [Universitaetsklinikum Erlangen, Institut fuer Radiologie, Erlangen (Germany); Goo, H.W. [University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paul, J.F. [Marie Lannelongue Hospital, Radiology Unit, Plessis Robinson (France)

    2011-01-15

    Zirkulation sowie des systemischen Kreislaufs. Dieser Beitrag gibt eine Uebersicht ueber die technischen Aspekte der kardialen CT und die Anpassung des Untersuchungsprotokolls an die zu erwartende Pathologie und das Alter des Kindes. Zudem werden die Moeglichkeiten und Limitationen der unterschiedlichen dosissparenden Protokolle erlaeutert. (orig.)

  12. ’n Vergelyking van die Mollusca-diversiteit in die Mooirivier (Noordwes-Provinsie soos gevind met opnames wat gemaak is in 1963 en weer 50 jaar later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius T. Wolmarans

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Die hoogste getal gedokumenteerde uitsterwings van enige belangrike taksonomiese groepword aan die Mollusca toegedig. Faktore wat hoofsaaklik hiervoor verantwoordelik is, sluitonder meer omgewingsveranderinge en antropogeniese impakte in wat tot die tot niet gaanvan die habitat aanleiding gee. Daarbenewens is die bewaringstatus van minder as 2% van dieongeveer 7000 molluskspesies wêreldwyd bekend tot dusver nog nie behoorlik geassesseernie. Die doel van die huidige ondersoek wat in 2014 uitgevoer is, was om die molluskdiversiteitvan die Mooirivier met die resultate van 1963 te vergelyk. Dit is gedoen deur ’n opnameuit te voer van die molluskdiversiteit by dieselfde lokaliteite as in 1963. Twee opnames isgemaak tydens ’n vroeë- en laatlaagvloeiperiode in 2014 by agt lokaliteite wat met dié vandie 1963-opnames ooreenstem. Die pH, elektriese geleiding (EG en temperatuur is ook byelk van die lokaliteite gemeet. Die identiteit van die 14 slakspesies wat in 1963 gevind is, hetooreengestem met 14 van die 15 in 2014. Die uitheemse indringerspesie Physa acuta is tydensdie 2014-opname vir die eerste keer in hierdie rivier gevind, waarskynlik weens ’n toename inorganiese verryking. In die 1963-opname is Burnupia mooiensis en Pisidium langlyanum by diemeeste lokaliteite gevind, en in 2014 Gyraulus connollyi en Ferrissia cawstoni. Die meeste van diemolluske uit hierdie gebied wat voorheen op rekord gestel is, is in 2014 gevind. Die pH watin 2014 ’n geringe tot aansienlike verlaging getoon het, word aan mynversuring toegeskryfen het nie ’n merkbare invloed op die molluskdiversiteit gehad nie. Die hoër elektriesegeleiding wat tydens die 2014-opname gemeet is, het vanweë die verdraagsaamheid vanvarswatermolluske in hierdie verband, ook geen verandering in die molluskdiversiteit teweeggebring nie. Die temperatuur was in die laatlaagvloei deurgaans hoër. Ondanks die feit dathierdie studies vyf dekades uitmekaar gedoen is en antropogeniese impakte

  13. Leibniz's relationalism and the crisis of Anschauung in quantum mechanics; Der Relationalismus von Leibniz und die Krise der Anschauung in der Quantenmechanik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbig, Ralf

    2009-05-07

    Heisenberg's pioneering work ''Ueber quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen'' (1925) illustrates corner points of Leibniz's theory of knowledge. It succeeds to distill kinematics of circles with velocity from an analysis of the Larmor model for the Zeeman effect. Aim of this novel kinematics is Heisenberg's time-free quantum algebra. The circle kinematica are strictly relational, and they can serve as fundament of a prototheory of quantum physics just to be developed. The kinematics of the circles implicates finally a staged term of illustrativeness. [German] Heisenbergs Pionierarbeit ''Ueber quantentheoretische Umdeutung kinematischer und mechanischer Beziehungen'' (1925) illustriert Eckpunkte der Leibnizschen Erkenntnistheorie. Es gelingt, eine Kinematik von Kreisen mit Geschwindigkeit aus einer Analyse des Larmor-Modells fuer den Zeeman-Effekt herauszudestillieren. Zielrichtung dieser neuartigen Kinematik ist Heisenbergs zeitfreie Quantenalgebra. Die Kreiskinematik ist strikt relational, und sie kann als Fundament einer erst noch zu entwickelnden Prototheorie der Quantenphysik dienen. Die Kinematik der Kreise mit Geschwindigkeit impliziert schliesslich einen gestuften Begriff von Anschaulichkeit. (orig.)

  14. Spondarthritis hyperostotica pustulo-psoriatica - Review and a clinical-radiological study with special emphasis on SAPHO syndrome; Die Spondarthritis hyperostotica pustulo-psoriatica: Nosologische Studie mit klinischer und radiologischer Darstellung innerhalb des SAPHO-Syndroms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling, F. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany)]|[Zentrum fuer Rheuma-Pathologie, Mainz (Germany); Kessler, S. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik Mainz (Germany)

    1998-12-01

    Spondarthritis hyperostotica pustulo-psoriatica (Spond.hyp.pp-Schilling), corresponding nosologically to pustulotic arthroosteitis, is a dermato-skeletal `double system` disease of adults. It consists of the triad (a) palmo-plantar pustulosis (Ppp) or, alternatively, Koenigsbeck-Barber-type psoriasis, (b) sternocostoclavicular hyperostosis (SCCH), and (c) truncal-skeletal changes with syndesmophite-like, hyperostotic and/or parasyndesmophite-like ossifications of layers of the anterior vertebral ligament taken together in the sense of a desmophytal hyperostosis. There is also a potential for sclerosing inflammatory arthritis of the sacro-iliac joints and `dry` inflammatory arthritis of the sacro-iliac joints and `dry` inflammatory arthritis of peripheral joints. Thus, the pustulo-psoriatic terrain seems to have a decisive influence on osseous pathology. A total of 38 cases from a study during the years 1982 to 1992 is analysed with regard to morphological characteristics. Rare cases with diaphyseal and pelvic hyperostotic lesions subsequent to bland sclerosing osteomyelitis constitute an overlapping region to chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and illustrate the relationship between hyperostotic spondarthritis and CRMO. The syndromes of `acquired hyperostosis` and `SAPHO`, the former more radiologically oriented and the latter more clinically oriented, together with mainly CRMO and hyperostotic spondarthritis and its forms, constitute the `Spond.hyp.pp.`. Although hyperostosis is a guidepost for the radiologist and SAPHO symptoms are one for the clinician, the syndrome does not represent a diagnosis by itself and requires further differentiation. In this report the entity `Spond.hyp.pp.` is considered and requires contributions from rheumatologically and osteologically oriented radiologist. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Uebersicht beschreibt unter vorwiegend radiologischen Gesichtspunkten das Krankheitsbild der Spondarthritis hyperostatica

  15. Die oorsake van en bydraende faktore tot eensaamheid: 'n literatuuroorsig

    OpenAIRE

    Doman, LCH; le Roux, A

    2010-01-01

    'n Groot deel van die bevolking ervaar gereeld eensaamheid en dit word as 'n algemene verskynsel in die menslike bestaan beskou. Verskeie studies dui daarop dat jong mense veral vatbaar is vir eensaamheid. Eensaamheid word ook beskou as 'n risiko-faktor vir 'n wye verskeidenheid probleme wat 'n potensiële gevaar vir die mens se gesondheid inhou. Verskeie faktore wat 'n invloed op die mate van eensaamheid het, is ook kenmerkend van die Suid-Afrikaanse konteks. Rokach se model van eensaamheidsv...

  16. Die Rolle des Gerichtsdolmetschers - Experte oder notwendiges Übel?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2012-01-01

    Die Zahl der gedolmetschten Gerichtsverhandlungen steigt weiterhin in vielen Rechtssystemen, weshalb es immer wichtiger wird, dass Rechtssysteme über qualifizierte Dolmetscher verfügen. In Dänemark begegnen Richter, die Rezipienten von Gerichtsdolmetschleistungen sind, sowohl professionellen als...... auch nicht- oder semi-professionellen Gerichtsdolmetschern. Dies lässt vermuten, dass die Richter in der Praxis Dolmetschleistungen von sehr unterschiedlicher Qualität erleben und vermutlich kein einheitliches Bild von der Rolle des Gerichtsdolmetschers haben. Ziel der Studie, die ich in diesem Beitrag...

  17. Dying with dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, T N

    1992-08-01

    Death is a theme of central importance in all cultures, but the manner in which it is interpreted varies from society to society. Even so, traditional cultures, including Christian, Hindu and Jain religious traditions, exhibited a positive attitude to death and did not look upon it in a dualistic framework of good vs bad, or desirable vs undesirable. Nor was pessimism the dominant mood in their thinking about death itself. A fundamental paradigm shift occurred in the West in the eighteenth century when death was desacralized and transformed into a secular event amenable to human manipulation. From those early beginnings, dying and death have been thoroughly medicalized and brought under the purview of high technology in the twentieth century. Once death is seen as a problem for professional management, the hospital displaces the home, and specialists with different kinds and degrees of expertise take over from the family. Everyday speech and the religious idiom yield place to medical jargon. The subject (an ageing, sick or dying person) becomes the object of this make-believe yet real world. As the object of others' professional control, he or she loses the freedom of self-assessment, expression and choice. Or, he or she may be expected to choose when no longer able to do so. Thus, not only freedom but dignity also is lost, and lawyers join doctors in crisis manipulation and perpetuation. Although the modern medical culture has originated in the West, it has gradually spread to all parts of the world, subjugating other kinds of medical knowledge and other attitudes to dying and death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. The data acquisition system PHON for the detectors of the PHOENICS experiment; Das Datenerfassungssystem PHON fuer die Detektoren des PHOENICS-Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W.

    1991-07-01

    The PHON data acquisition system for the PHOENICS experiment at the stretcher ring ELSA in Bonn and its development is described. PHON is based on a fast parallel CAMAC readout with VME front-end processors and a VAX/VMS computer, allowing c omfortable control and programming. The current configuration of the PHON system at the PHOENICS detector uses two CAMAC branches that are read out in parallel. The data is transferred to the VAX by either the ethernet (max. rate 100 kByte/sec) or a bus coupler device (max. rate 650 kByte/sec). On the VAX the data can be stored on a harddisk and analyzed by several PHON online tasks. The harddisk limits the maximum data rate to a value of approximately 180 kByte/sec. The maximum trigger rate achieved is about 150 Hz. Two kinds of user shells are realized to control the PHON system. A command shell follows the standard of the control language of the VMS operating system and a graphic user interface uses the `X Window System`. The modular structure of the PHON system and the unique kind of creation of all PHON programs makes a further development of the system easy to do. (orig.). [Deutsch] Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die Entwicklung und Funktion des Datenerfassungssystems PHON. Das System basiert auf einer parallelen Auslese von CAMAC-Branchen mit VME-Front-End-Prozessoren und einem VAX/VMS-Hauptrechner, der eine komfortable Programmsteuerung und -Entwicklung erlaubt. Momentan werden an dem PHOENICS-Detektor zwei CAMAC-Branche von jeweils einem VME-Front-End-Prozessor ausgelesen. Die Daten koennen wahlweise ueber Ethernet (max. Uebertragungsrate ca. 100 kByte/sec), oder ueber einen Buskoppler (max. 650 kByte/sec) auf den Hauptrechner (VAXStation 3200) transferiert werden. Dort koennen sie auf einer Festplatte abgespeichert und von verschiedenen Analyseprozessen verarbeitet werden. In dieser Konfiguration werden Datenraten von 180 kByte/sec erzielt. Die maximale Triggerrate betraegt etwa 150 Hz. Die Steuerung des PHON

  19. Sal die ‘ewolusie’ vanaf biologie na lewenswetenskappe ‘uitsterwing’ van die vakgebied voorkom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna G. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel word die wysiging van die skoolvak van ‘biologie’ na ‘lewenswetenskappe’ bespreek, asook die gepaardgaande en verwagte implikasies van die verandering. Die vraag word gestel of die beoogde wysiging wel noemenswaardig is en of dit enigsins ‘n verskil aan die dalende belangstelling in die lewenswetenskappe op tersiêre vlak sal maak. Die wysigings in die nuwe kurrikula verhoog die relevansie van die vakinhoud vir leerders en vir die gemeenskap, maar sekere kwessies kry nie aandag nie. Voorstelle word gemaak om die kurrikulum te wysig en onderrigmetodes aan te pas om die nodige vaardighede by leerders te vestig.

  20. enkele fasette van die problematiek van die akademikus by die skryf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Om verskeie redes het dit van die allergrootste belong geword dot 'n his- tories korrekte, wetenskaplike weerga- we van bogenoemde gebeure opge- teken moet word. Die sluier, in sommige gevalle am logiese redes toegepas, moes eenvoudig gelig word am gebeure wat die gewone man op stroot in Suid-Afrika dikwels ...

  1. Die debat rondom die vertolking van die amptelike ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies ... Debate around the interpretation of the official language policy principles of the ... Any discussion of language planning must first take into account the underlying orientation.

  2. Further development of the BEKON dry fermentation process for hygienisation of substrates in the fermenter according to BioAbfV; Weiterentwicklung der BEKON-Trockenfermentation ermoeglicht die Hygienisierung der Substrate gemaess BioAbfV im Fermenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebeneiner, Rolf; Lutz, Peter [Bekon Energy Technologies GmbH und Co. KG, Unterfoehring (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In the draft amendment to the BioAbfV (BMU, 2011), temperatures and times of residue to ensure hygienisation of substrates for thermophilic fermentation were revised on the basis of EU law on animal by-products and fertilizer law and on the basis of practical experience with the directive and recent research findings on hygienisation of biomass waste. To test the process, the required thermophilic process temperature of 50 must be ensured for the totality of substrates for a minimum time of residue. The fermentation substrates are then tested for phytohygiene and epidemic hygiene. BEKON developed their patented fermenter heating system into the world's first batch dry fermentation plant for hygienisation inside the fermenter, which was commissioned in 2010 at Spiez, Switzerland. The plant was capable of ensuring the required temperature levels and substrate hygienisation standards. The advanced thermophilic BEKON dry fermentation process thus ensures reliable hygienisation of substrates already inside the fermenter, without aerobic post-treatment of fermenation residues. This simplifies process monitoring in the subsequent composting stage. (orig.) [German] Im Entwurf zur Novellierung der BioAbfV (BMU, 2011) wurden die erforderlichen Temperaturen und Verweilzeiten zur Sicherstellung der Hygienisierung der Substrate fuer die thermophile Vergaerung ueberarbeitet. Grundlage hierfuer waren unter anderem sowohl neue und geaenderte rechtlicher Vorschriften des EU-Rechts ueber die tierischen Nebenprodukte und des Duengerechts, als auch Praxiserfahrungen seit Inkrafttreten der Verordnung und neue Forschungsergebnisse zur Hygienisierung von Bioabfaellen. Die Prozesspruefung muss dabei so vorgenommen werden, dass ueber einen zusammenhaengenden Zeitraum (der sogenannten Mindestverweilzeit) die geforderte thermophile Behandlungstemperatur von mindestens 50 C auf die gesamten Substrate einwirkt. Die seuchen- und phytohygienische Unbedenklichkeit der Gaersubstrate ist dabei

  3. Thermal Fatigue of Die-Casting Dies: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Hassan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled studies by experimental and numerical simulations are necessary for an increased understanding of the material behaviour as related to the interaction between the thermal and mechanical conditions. This paper focus on the mechanisms of thermal fatigue in the failure of dies and cores used in the die casting of aluminum alloys. The thermal fatigue resistance is expressed by two crack parameters which are the average maximum crack and the average cracked area. Samples of various types of H13 steel were compared with a standard H13 steel by testing under identical thermal fatigue cycles. To determine the thermal constraint developed in the sample during the test, a finite difference technique was used to obtain the temperature distribution, based on temperature measurements at the boundaries. The resulting stresses and strains were computed, and the strain calculated at the edge or weakest point of the sample was used to correlate the number of cycles to crack initiation. As the strain at the edge increased, the number of cycles to failure decreased. The influence of various factors on thermal fatigue behavior was studied including austenitizing temperature, surface condition, stress relieving, casting, vacuum melting, and resulfurization. The thermal fatigue resistance improved as the austenitizing temperature increased from 1750 to 2050ºF.

  4. Announcement of the agreement between the Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany and the Department of Energy of the United States about the exchange of information in the area of energy. As of November 30, 1994; Bekanntmachung der Vereinbarung zwischen dem Bundesministerium fuer Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und dem Department of Energy der Vereinigten Staaten ueber den Austausch von Informationen auf dem Energiegebiet. Vom 30. November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-11

    The contracting parties establish under this agreement for the benefit of both sides and as support for their research and development work in the field of energy and exchange of information in the area of energy. This exchange includes publicly available scientific-technical information, concluded energy research and development projects, current energy research and development projects, relevant facts and figures as well as research in the area of information technology. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Die Vertragsparteien richten im Rahmen dieser Vereinbarung zum beiderseitigen Nutzen und zur Ergaenzung ihrer Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten auf dem Energiesektor einen Austausch von Informationen auf dem Energiegebiet ein. Dieser Austausch umfasst oeffentlich zugaengliche wissenschaftlich-technische Informationen ueber abgeschlossene Energieforschungs- und -entwicklungsvorhaben, laufende Energieforschungs- und -entwicklungsvorhaben, einschlaegige Fakten und Zahlen sowie informationstechnische Forschung. (orig./HP)

  5. Die hermeneutiek van gereformeerde kerkreg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries le Roux du Plooy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Die artikel het op die belangrikheid en noodsaaklikheid van ‘n hermeneutiek vir die gereformeerde kerkreg gefokus. Die kerkregtelike dokument wat besonderlik ter sake was, is die kerkorde van die Gereformeerde kerke in Suid-Afrika, met sy besondere band met die Dordtse kerkorde van 1618 en 1619. Agtereenvolgens is aandag gegee aan die volgende aspekte soos (1 die eiesoortige aard van ‘n kerkorde as ‘n teologiese dokument en teks, in onderskeiding van regsdokumente; (2 die aard van die hermeneutiek van kerkreg; (3 enkele teorieë oor die interpretasie of uitleg van tekste, veral regstekste en (4 normatiewe vooronderstellings en reëls vir die interpretasie en verstaan van die teks en artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite van kerklike vergaderinge. Die gevolgtrekking was dat weinig indringende navorsing gedoen is oor die saak van hermeneutiek vir kerkreg, hoewel dit noodsaaklik is. Duidelike hermeneutiese reëls is gesuggereer en verduidelik, wat sou kon meehelp dat kerke en kerklike vergaderinge die artikels van die kerkorde asook besluite en reglemente wat daarop berus het, kan interpreteer en toepas. The hermeneutics of reformed church polity. The article focused on the importance and urgency of a design for reformed hermeneutics on church polity. The Church Order referred to in the article is the Church Order of the Reformed Churches in South Africa, which are closely related to the Church Order of Dordt of 1618 and 1619. The following aspects received attention namely (1  the unique character of a Church Order, in comparison to and distinguished from legal documents and statutes; (2 the character and nature of hermeneutics of church polity; (3 theories of interpretation in the common law tradition and their relevance to church polity and (4 normative presuppositions and marks for the interpretation and understanding of the text and articles of the Church Order, as well as the resolutions of church assemblies. It was found that

  6. Is die ortodoksie se verstaan van die sondeval belemmerend vir die gesprek tussen teologie en natuurwetenskap?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Buitendag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel is betoog dat die Gereformeerde Ortodoksie se begrip van die sondeval ’n  belemmering  was  vir  die  gesprek  tussen  teologie  en  natuurwetenskap.  Die  rede hiervoor was dat dit ten eerste ’n bepaalde verstaan van liniêre tyd nahou en ten tweede dat dit ’n bonatuurlike ingryp veronderstel het. Albei hierdie aspekte het die debat onnodig problematiseer. Die argument is ontwikkel deur eerstens die probleem te definieer, gevolg deur ’n uiteensetting van die standpunte van Augustinus en Calvyn onderskeidelik oor die sondeval. As ’n heuristiese sleutel is die konsepte van infralapsarisme en supralapsarisme aangewend om die tema te ontleed. Die artikel is afgesluit met die oortuiging dat die imago Dei ’n beliggaamde menslike persoon is wat biologies in die geskiedenis in terme van selfbewussyn en morele verantwoordelikheid ontluik het. Is the Orthodoxy’s notion of the Fall inhibitory for the dialogue between theology and science? In this article it was argued that the Reformed Orthodoxy’s interpretation of the Fall had become an impediment in the dialogue between theology and science. The reason was that it assumed firstly a specific understanding of linear time and secondly a metaphysical intervention. Both events were unnecessarily problematising the debate. The argument was deployed by stating the problem, followed by an exposition of the views of Augustine and Calvin on the Fall. As a heuristic key, the concepts of infralapsarism and supralapsarism were applied respectively to analyse the topic. The article concluded with the conviction that the imago Dei is an embodied human person that had biologically emerged in history as a center of self-awareness, and moral responsibility.

  7. Berufserfolg im Transformationsprozeß : eine theoretisch empirische Studie über die Gewinner und Verlierer der Wende in Ostdeutschland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropp, Per Bruno

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on the explanation of changes in occupational success in East Germany since the political turnover in 1989. The theoretical considerations, which are used in this study, are mainly based on results of labor market research in western economies (i.e., theories on labor market

  8. Die veranderende rol van die man in die dubbelinkomstegesin

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. In recent research studies that have been done within the cadre of family sociology, researchers have emphasised the fact that the role of the man in the family is an important topic. This interest in the role of the husband/father has been facilitated by significant trends and changes of our time, manifesting world-wide, as well as in South Africa. These trends, such as the continuous rise in the rate of married women entering the labour market and the accompanying issues...

  9. Ueber Arten der Gattungen Anisodera Chevr. und Lasiochila WS. 18. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Hispinen (Col. Chrys.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uhmann, E.

    1930-01-01

    Zu dieser Arbeit erhielt ich Material von den Museen zu Leiden, Brüssel, Dresden und dem Deutschen Entomol. Institut Berlin-Dahlem. Besonders wertvoll war nur die Zusendung der Typen von Chapuis aus dem Museum zu Brüssel. Für die liebenswürdige Bereitstellung des zahlreichen und wertvollen

  10. Talking about living and dying with the oldest old: public involvement in a study on end of life care in care homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Claire

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public involvement in research on sensitive subjects, such as death and dying, can help to ensure that questions are framed to reflect the interests of their peers, develop a shared understanding of issues raised, and moderate the often unequal power relationship between researcher and participant. This paper describes the contribution and impact of older members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg to a study on living and dying in care homes. Methods A longitudinal study, with a mixed method approach, its aims were to capture key experiences, events and change over one year, of older people resident in participating care homes in the East of England. Residents were interviewed up to three times and their case notes were reviewed four times over the year. Interviews were semi structured, and recorded. Four members of a Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg contributed to preliminary discussions about the research and three were involved with many of the subsequent stages of the research process including the facilitation of discussion groups with residents. Results There were three areas where the involvement of the Public Involvement in Research group (PIRg positively influenced the study process. These were recruitment, governance and safeguarding, and in collaboration with the residents in the care homes, the discussion and interpretation of emergent findings. PIRg members were of similar age to the residents and their involvement provided different and often more reflective insights of the significance of the findings for the participants. There were examples where decision making about the range of PIRg participation was not always negotiable, and this raised issues about power relationships within the team. Nevertheless, PIRg members expressed personal benefit and satisfaction through participating in the research and a commitment to continue to support research with this older age group. Conclusions

  11. Comparison of 2D and 3D sequences for MRCP. Clinical value of the different techniques; Vergleich von 2D- und 3D-Sequenzen fuer die MRCP. Klinischer Stellenwert der einzelnen Techniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallnoefer, A.M.; Herrmann, K.A.; Zech, C.J.; Gourtsoyianni, S.; Reiser, M.F.; Schoenberg, S.O. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Beuers, U. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilian-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin II

    2005-11-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreaticograpy (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging modality of the pancreatico-biliary system which plays an increasingly important role in the clinical and diagnostic workup of patients with biliary or pancreatic diseases. The present review is designed to give an overview of the currently available and appropriate sequences, their technical background, as well as new developments and their relevance to the various clinical issues and challenges. The impact of the latest technical innovations, such as integrated parallel imaging techniques and navigator-based respiratory triggering, on the diagnostic capacities of MRCP is discussed. In this context, the individual value of RARE, T2w single shot turbo/fast spin echo (SSFSE) and the recently introduced 3D T2w turbo/fast spin echo sequences (T2w 3D-T/FSE) is reviewed. RARE imaging may be preferred in severely ill patients with limitations in cooperation, SSFSE is particularly effective in differentiating benign and malignant stenosis, and 3D-FSE offers additional advantages in the detection of small biliary concrements. (orig.) [German] Die Magnetresonanzcholangiopankreatikographie (MRCP) ist eine nichtinvasive Untersuchungsmethode des pankreatikobiliaeren Systems, die heute einen festen Platz in der klinischen Diagnostik eingenommen hat. Die vorliegende Arbeit gibt einen Ueberblick ueber die derzeit gaengigen Sequenzen, ihre technischen Grundlagen sowie ihre jeweilige Bedeutung in den verschiedenen klinischen Einsatzgebieten und Fragestellungen. Darueber hinaus werden die Bedeutung der parallelen Bildgebung, der navigatorbasierten Atemtriggerung und der neu eingefuehrten dreidimensionalen Sequenzen fuer die MRCP sowie ihre moeglichen Einsatzgebiete behandelt. Fuer die MRCP haben die 3 gaengigen Sequenzen, die SS-RARE-Sequenz, die T2w-single-shot-fast-spin-echo- (SSFSE) und die 3D-FSE-Sequenz spezifische Vor- und Nachteile. Die SS-RARE-Sequenz ist aufgrund der sehr kurzen Messzeit bei

  12. Die vangnet van die woord: forensies-linguistiese getuienis in 'n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Een van die redes daarvoor is waarskynlik die gepaardgaande sleurwerk verbonde aan die verwerking van die betrokke taaldata — iets wat egter deur die onlangse meteoriese vooruitgang in tegnologiese tegnieke op die agtergrond geskuif is en nuwe moontlikhede na vore laat kom het. In die lig van die kompleksiteit van ...

  13. het om die Woord van God aan die gemeente te bedien. A. D. P ont ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    Sizoo vertel met die vlotheid van die ervare skrywer en die ver antwoordelikheid van die wetenskaplike ... Maar in stiptelike trou aan die feitelikheid, verlaat die skrywer hom uitsluitlik op die outentieke bronne om ... de leser; in sy rykdom van gegewens en wetenskaplike betroubaarheid kan dit met vrug gelees word deur die ...

  14. Beliefs concerning death, dying, and hastening death among older, functionally impaired Dutch adults : A one-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sullivan, M.; Ormel, J.; Kempen, G.I J M; Tymstra, T.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Population surveys have documented increasing public support for euthanasia and assisted suicide but have not focused on the population of chronically ill older persons, obtained detailed sociocultural or health status information, or performed repeat assessments. This study seeks to

  15. ["Good dying"--definition and current state of research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Nico; Stößel, Ulrich; Meffert, Cornelia; Körner, Mirjam; Bozzaro, Claudia; Becker, Gerhild; Baumeister, Harald

    2015-08-01

    The advances of modern medicine did not only result in prolongation of life expectancy, but also led to a shift from dying at home to dying in public institutions. In western countries most people die at advanced age in medical facilities. Hence, the question regarding the conditions, which should be provided by society and especially medicine, to allow terminally ill people to experience "good dying" is substantial. For this purpose, an examination of patients', family members' and health care providers' understanding of the term " good dying" is required. The present paper aims at shedding light on the term "good dying" and to summarize the current state of research. Therefore, the attributes of "good dying" will be described from the perspectives of patients, family members and health care providers, which are discussed and examined in current medical-sociological research. These attributes can be illustrated on three dimensions: Quality of life at the end of life (e. g. pain relief, mental well-being), quality of dying (e. g. avoiding prolonged dying, autonomy, presence of relatives) and quality of health care at the end of life (e. g. patient-oriented health care, positive communication between health care providers and patients, availability of guidelines). Although the attributes of "good dying" are described in detail in the existing literature, further studies have to clarify the relevance and impact of these attributes as predictors of "good dying". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Prediking en spiritualiteit : 'n homiletiese studie oor die verband tussen prediking en geestelike groei / Jan Andries Erasmus

    OpenAIRE

    Erasmus, Jan Andries

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how preaching can stimulate spiritual growth and intensify the spirituality of Listeners. The working method for the study has been based on the mode[ formulated by Zerfass (1974) for Practical Theology and follows a Reformatory angle. • In the first place, basis-theoretical principles regarding preaching, spirituality and spiritual growth have been researched, as well as the relationship between preaching and spiritual growth. To do this, exege...

  17. Die invloed van herbivorie en vuur op die oorlewing van sekere meerjarige kruide langs die Sabierivier, Kruger Nasionale Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Myburgh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Die groot vloede wat in die jaar 2000 in die Kruger Nasionale Park plaasgevind het, het dierivieroewerplantegroei versteur. Dit het die geleentheid gebied om heinings op te rig langsdie Sabierivier om herbivore uit sekere gebiede uit te sluit en sodoende die herstel van die rivieroewerekosisteme te monitor.

  18. Everything you always wanted to know about air pollution abatement. Dictionary. Was Sie schon immer ueber Luftreinhaltung wissen wollten. Woerterbuchausgabe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moecker, V [comp.; Bartholomae, H [comp.

    1992-08-01

    No other environmental subject has been discussed so passconately as the damage connected with air pollution. The dying of forests and trees moves many hearts and minds there are many theories and many analyses and studies to have been conducted. The lost link in the chain of evidence is still missing but everything points to the fact that the air pollution is the cause. Gases, dusts, acids and heavy metals from stacks and exhausts have almost broken the camel's back. What kind of substances are these And how can they cause such large damage Where do the come from and how do they act Is it only the forest or are we affected as well What can be done What does the government do These are many questions which this pocket book answers competently in alphabetical order. (orig./BBR)

  19. PANDA experiment and International Standard Problem for passive cooling systems for afterheat removal; PANDA-Versuch und Internationales Standardproblem zu passiven Kuehlsystemen fuer die Nachwaermeabfuhr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Aksan, N.S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Thermohydraulik

    1999-09-03

    In the context of OECD/NEA, Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) is working on an International Standard Problem which is to provide information on the efficiency and use of computer program systems for passive afterheat removal systems. The PANDA test facility of PSI was designed for these investigations. A six-phase PANDA experiment provides a basis for pre-calculation and recalculation of selected phases covering a limited number of system-typical operating states and phenomena. The experiment was specified and carried out in the year under report. [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der OECD/NEA fuehrt das Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) ein Internationales Standardproblem durch, das Aufschluss ueber die Leistungsfaehigkeit und Handhabung von Computer-Programmsystemen geben soll, die im Zusammenhang mit passiven Nachwaerme-Abfuhrsystemen eingesetzt werden. Die Versuchsanlage PANDA am PSI ist speziell auf die Untersuchung derartiger Systeme ausgerichtet. Ein PANDA-Versuch in sechs Phasen liefert den teilnehmenden Organisationen die Basis fuer Voraus- und Nachrechnungen einzelner oder mehrerer Phasen, die jeweils eine begrenzte Anzahl von systemtypischen Betriebszustaenden und Phaenomenen abdecken. Im Berichtsjahr wurde der Versuch spezifiziert und gefahren. (orig.)

  20. Die heelal en sy onstaan (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Van Rooy

    1952-03-01

    Full Text Available Ons kennis en wetenskap van die hemelliggame word volkome bepaal deur die lig wat ons van hulle ontvang, d.w.s. as ons die feite wat die Bybel daaromtrent meedeel, buite rekening laat.

  1. Versoening tussen leerders: Is parallelmediumskole die antwoord op die rassismeprobleem?

    OpenAIRE

    Du Plessis, Elize; Marais, Petro

    2017-01-01

    Die Suid-Afrikaanse Grondwet stel dit duidelik dat enige vorm van diskriminasie nie toegelaat mag word nie. In ons skole beteken dit dat elke leerder ʼn reg het op goeie opvoeding en ʼn veilige skoolomgewing. Die fokus van hierdie navorsing is gerig op bestaande parallelmediumskole. Die uiteindelike vraagstuk is dus hoe multikulturele onderwys bevorder word en hoe rassisme aangespreek kan word? As teoretiese raamwerk is Kohlsberg se kognitiewe ontwikkelingsbenadering en Whitehouse se univerele ...

  2. Die ontmaskering van die bose: Eksegetiese perspektiewe op ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    2 Yarbro Collins (1983) bied tans nog die beste agtergrond vir 'n besinning oor geweld in ..... John's grammatical howlers are intentionally designed to alert listerners ..... 26 In die Nuwe Testament word Paul se snydende opmerking teenoor die Korintiërs as ..... rnt g0r`m nh8 ldfhrs`}m du sg}u fg}u + n2sh d/m sg>}} e`ql`jdh.

  3. "Perhaps I will die young." Fears and worries regarding disease and death among Danish adolescents and young adults with cancer. A mixed method study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Timm, Helle U; Graugaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    worries about death; hereof, more than half of them expressed quite a bit or very much. The analysis showed significant gender differences, whereas age and duration of disease did not have any significant impact on such thoughts. Q2: One third had not talked to anybody about his or her worries. Q3...... about dying; (Q2) with whom, if anyone, they had shared those worries; and finally, (Q3) how fears and worries influenced their daily life. The emphasis will be on Q3. METHODS: A 151-item questionnaire (including two closed- and one open-ended questions about fears of death and dying) was distributed...... dying, but one third of them had not talked to anybody about those thoughts. It is an important clinical point that young age does not preclude fears and worries about dying in AYAs with cancer....

  4. Die beroepsoriëntasie van professioneel-rekeningkundiges tydens die vroeë beroepsjare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. Van Vuuren

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available The career orientation of professional accountants during the early career stage. The purpose with this study was to conduct research into the career orientations of aspiring and qualified persons in the accounting profession. Schein's Career Orientation Inventory was administered to 221 respondents in the early career stage and in different phases of Involvement in the profession. Managerial skill featured as the most prominent career orientation. It was also evident that respondents who had had occupational experience measured highest on the same orientation, i.e. managerial skill, irrespective of their phase within the early career stage. Furthermore, there were indications that career orientation differentiation increased in accordance with occupational experience. Opsomming Die doel met hierdie studie was om die beroepsoriëntasies van aspirant en gekwalifiseerde persone in die rekenmeesterprofessie na te vors. Schein se Beroepsorientasievraelys is afgeneem op 221 proefpersone in hul vroee beroepsjare en in verskillende fases van betrokkenheid in die professie. Bestuursbedrewenheid is as die mees kenmerkende beroepsorientasie geidentifiseer. Dit het ook aan die lig gekom dat proefpersone wat oor beroepsondervinding beskik, ongeag hul fase van betrokkenheid in die vroee beroepsjare, dieselfde orientasie naamlik bestuursbedrewenheid, realiseer. Aanduidings is verder verkry dat beroepsorientasie-differensiasie na gelang van beroepsblootstelling toeneem.

  5. Accurate defect die placement and nuisance defect reduction for reticle die-to-die inspections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Vincent; Huang, L. R.; Lin, C. J.; Tseng, Y. N.; Huang, W. H.; Tuo, Laurent C.; Wylie, Mark; Chen, Ellison; Wang, Elvik; Glasser, Joshua; Kelkar, Amrish; Wu, David

    2015-10-01

    Die-to-die reticle inspections are among the simplest and most sensitive reticle inspections because of the use of an identical-design neighboring-die for the reference image. However, this inspection mode can have two key disadvantages: (1) The location of the defect is indeterminate because it is unclear to the inspector whether the test or reference image is defective; and (2) nuisance and false defects from mask manufacturing noise and tool optical variation can limit the usable sensitivity. The use of a new sequencing approach for a die-to-die inspection can resolve these issues without any additional scan time, without sacrifice in sensitivity requirement, and with a manageable increase in computation load. In this paper we explore another approach for die-to-die inspections using a new method of defect processing and sequencing. Utilizing die-to-die double arbitration during defect detection has been proven through extensive testing to generate accurate placement of the defect in the correct die to ensure efficient defect disposition at the AIMS step. The use of this method maintained the required inspection sensitivity for mask quality as verified with programmed-defectmask qualification and then further validated with production masks comparing the current inspection approach to the new method. Furthermore, this approach can significantly reduce the total number of defects that need to be reviewed by essentially eliminating the nuisance and false defects that can result from a die-to-die inspection. This "double-win" will significantly reduce the effort in classifying a die-to-die inspection result and will lead to improved cycle times.

  6. Die pastorale sielkundige as diakonale pastor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Smuts

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available In die bedieningspatroon van die Ned. Geref. Kerk het die pastorale sielkundige die afgelope aantal jare steeds meer op die voorgrond begin tree. Hy is egter 'n problematiese figuur, wie se identiteit van meer as een kant onder bespreking is. In ander lande, selfs in die VSA waar die kerk veel gebruik maak van die sielkunde, is dit moeilik om 'n presiese parallel vir hom te vind. Sowel binne as buite die kerk word hy deur sommige bevraagteken. Daarom is dit noodsaaklik om vanuit die teologie te kyk na die werk wat hy doen.

  7. Berufserfolg im Transformationsprozess : eine theoretisch-empirische Studie über die Gewinner und Verlierer der Wende in Ostdeutschland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kropp, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    This study focuses on the explanation of changes in occupational success in East Germany since the political turnover in 1989. In a broader context it aims to explain how the winners and losers of transformation processes as in East Germany emerge. The explanation of occupational success is

  8. Die dialektiek in die waardes van die 1996 Grondwet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Swanepoel

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available In his paper The Dialectics in the Values of the 1996 Constitution Jan Swanepoel discusses various value statements in the 1996 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and focuses the attention on indications of a lack of coherence as far as these value statements are concerned.He does this against the background of some introductory perspectives on the 1996 Constitution. In this regard he points out that the 1996 Constitution, as successor to the 1993 Constitution with its set of thirty four constitutional principles, can be regarded as a document of political and ideological compromise. He points out that constitutions (and in particular the value statements in Bills of Rights generally tend to be formulated rather broadly in order to promote flexibility and adaptability. He also focuses the attention on the fact that such a dialectic of values point to the variety of interests that has to be harmonized in a modern state, something which is unmistakably the case in South Africa with its heterogeneous society.The 1996 Constitution contains a variety of "value terms". A closer study of these terms does, however, indicate that these terms (value, principle, foundation, and the like are not used in a very systematic or technical fashion.The problems regarding the value statements are, however, not only of a terminological nature. There are also some substantive problems, as becomes clear from a discussion of value terms in the Preamble and in Sections 1 and 7 of the 1996 Constitution. Swanepoel indicates that a tension exists between what can be called the "process" formulation in section 1(a and the "state of affairs" formulation of the values in section 7(1. . While section 1(a speaks of "the achievement of equality" and "the advancement of human rights and freedoms", section 7(1 simply makes mention of "equality" and "freedom". The dialectic between these two formulations is discussed with reference to other relevant sections of the 1996

  9. The century storage facility. Why we have to give thoughts to the castor halls; Die Jahrhundert-Lager. Warum wir uns dringend Gedanken ueber die Castor-Hallen machen muessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-01-15

    The authors discuss the situation of the German interim storage facilities for high-level nuclear waste. The Castor casks are supposed to be licensed as storage casks for 40 years. It is already foreseeable that after 40 years a final repository will not be available. This means that the Castor casks and the interim storage halls will have to be operated at least for the 21st century without valid licensing.

  10. Cleaner drive - Obstacles in the way of a market for a new generation of vehicles; Cleaner Drive. Hindernisse fuer die Markteinfuehrung von neuen Fahrzeug-Generationen. Bericht ueber die Beteiligung von e'mobile am EU-Projekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwegler, U. [e' mobile, der Schweizerische Verband fuer elektrische und effiziente Strassenfahrzeuge, Berne (Switzerland); Domeniconi, R. [AssoVEL2, Mendrisio (Switzerland); Kaufmann, J. [Kaufmann Consulting, Berne (Switzerland); Werfeli, A. [Verband der Schweizerischen Gasindustrie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Association of Swiss Traffic Engineers describes work done within the framework of the fifth European Research Framework Programme involving the development of tools to speed up the introduction of a new generations of vehicles. This report lists the work done by the Swiss e'mobil organisation and discusses the limitations placed on the work by its international framework. The report presents the 'Cleaner Drive' environmental evaluation methods used for vehicles. This considers greenhouse-gas emissions and external costs. Factors not considered, noise and bio-fuels, are mentioned. A data-base based decision-support tool is introduced. The development of the 'Cleaner Drive' web site is described. A further chapter takes a look at efforts being made in the area of filling stations for gaseous fuels.

  11. Physics for all, who want to join in conversation. On atomic power, dirty bombs, space research, solar energy, and the global heating; Physik fuer alle, die mitreden wollen. Ueber Atomkraft, schmutzige Bomben, Weltraumforschung, Solarenergie und die globale Erwaermung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard A.

    2009-07-01

    Which dangers contains the global heating really? What can happen at an attack on a atomic power plant?. Which chances offer renewable energies? Questions which are put daily in the pursuing of news - but to which we have only seldomly answers ready, because basic physical knowledge is absent. But it must not even be the great world policy. Already at the decision wether solar cells shall be mounted on the roof or punted on geothermal heat physics are not unimportant. More often than we think it are natural sciences, which yield the foundations for important decisions. Richard A. Muller explains simply and illustratively, how physics determines our life. Thereby he removes prejudices and mediates quite surprising insights.

  12. Cu/sub x/S-CdS thin film solar cells - aftertreatment and stability. Cu/sub x/S-CdS Duennschicht-Solarzellen - Untersuchungen ueber die Nachbehandlung und die Stabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfisterer, F

    1987-02-19

    The performance of Cu/sub x/S-CdS thin film solar cells can be improved significantly by a secondary treatment of the Cu layer. The physical mechanisms underlying the aftertreatment process were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A historical review is followed by an outline of the technology and theory of these solar cells (material properties, process engineering, photovoltaic properties) and a description of Cu aftertreatment and H glowing (experimental set-up, surface potential shift, electron beam scanning). Capacity measurements in this type of thin film cell are described (space charge profile, electrolytic decomposition, copper depletion between the contact web). Aftertreatment of the copper layer enhances the solar cell efficiency, stability, and productivity, makes the immersion process less tedious, and corrects the stoichiometry. (HWJ).

  13. Die skrifbeskouing van feministiese teoloë, in die besonder dié van Fiorenza, Brenner en Van Dijk-Hemmes – beoordeel in die lig van die gereformeerde teologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alta E. Swart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dit wil voorkom asof die feministiese Skrifbeskouing op die beginsel van selektiewe Skrifgesag berus. Dit beteken dat slegs dié dele in die Bybel wat met die feministiese ideologie ooreenstem, as gesaghebbend aanvaar word. Dit is veral die sogenaamde androsentriese taalgebruik wat dit vir aanhangers van hierdie benadering moeilik maak om die hele Skrif as gesaghebbend te erken. Hermeneuties vertoon hierdie benadering groot ooreenkomste met die Postmodernisme, waarin geen vaste reëls bestaan om die betekenis van tekste te bepaal nie. Gesien in die lig van die gereformeerde teologie, soos veranker in die Woord en belydenisskrifte, vertoon die feministiese teologie ernstige leemtes. Die bydraes (Skrifbeskouing van drie prominente feministiese teoloë – Fiorenza, Brenner en Van Dijk-Hemmes – word onder die loep geneem en teologies-krities geëvalueer ten einde hierdie leemtes uit te wys. It appears that the feminist view of Scripture is based on the principle of selective authority of the Scriptures, which means that only the parts of the Bible corresponding with the feminist ideology are accepted as authoritative. The use of androcentric language, in particular, makes it difficult for followers of feminism to accept the whole Bible as authoritative. Hermeneutically, their approach resembles Postmodernism, interpreting without any rules. Viewed from the paradigm of the reformed theology, which is anchored in Scripture and the articles of faith, feminist theology shows serious shortfalls. The contributions of three prominent feminist theologians – Fiorenza, Brenner and Van Dijk-Hemmes – are studied closely and evaluated critically in the light of the reformed theology, to underline these shortfalls.

  14. HISTORIESE OORSIG VAN DIE ONTSTAAN EN ONTWIKKELING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 1933 belas Rykskanselier. Hitler vir. Goering, Minister van Lugvaart, in die geheim met die skepping van die Luftwaffe. Die basis in Rusland is gesluit en toekomstige vlieeniers is nou in die geheim na Italie waar hulle elke aspek van moderne oorlog- voering oefen en die Blitzkrieg-gedagte, deur op ondersteuning van 'n.

  15. EUNUG IN DIE ANTIEKE NABYE OOSTE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rang. In Assiries beteken die woord “hoof-eunug”. Soos reeds vermeld (by 2), vorm die eunug 'n belangrike deel van die Assiriese burokrasie. Dokumente dui aan ... rang in die Babiloniese weermag, en so 'n amptenaar het saam met die rabsag ..... baie laat, in die inter-testamentêre periode, gebruik is vir 'n gekastreerde.

  16. Treating palliative care patients with pain with the body tambura: A prospective case study at St. Joseph′s hospice for dying destitute in Dindigul South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordula Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Body Tambura is a recently invented stringed instrument that is used for receptive music therapy designed to be placed and attached on the human body. The aim of this study was to record perceived effects of a treatment with the Body Tambura on palliative care patients with special reference to pain. Materials and Methods: A prospective case study was carried out with patients of St. Joseph′s Hospice for Dying Destitute in Dindigul/South India. Patients were treated with a treatment after baseline assessment and also on the next day. Outcomes were measured quantitatively by using a numeric rating scale (0-10, 10 maximum intensity of pain felt at baseline, directly after treatment, and the day after the treatment to determine the intensity of the pain. Results: Ten patients (five women and five men participated in the study. The majority described the therapy as a pleasant experience. The pain intensity at baseline was reduced from 8.3 ± standard deviation (SD 1.16 to 4.6 ± 1.52 at day 1 and from 4.6 ± 2.07 to 2.4 ± 1.58 at day 2. Conclusion: A clinically relevant pain reduction was described as short time outcome; the therapy was received and perceived well. Forthcoming research should include a control group, randomization, a larger number of participants, and a longer period of treatment.

  17. Voedingpraktyke en behoeftes van hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe deur die oë van laerskoolonderwysers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronel Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel bespreek ons die persepsies van onderwysers (n = 45 wat betref die voedingpraktyke van ’n steekproef laerskoolleerders en hul gesinne in ’n hulpbron-arm gemeenskap. Ons fokus spesifiek op die behoeftes, praktyke en verwagtings ten opsigte van die gebruik van voedsel, wat die produksie, keuse en voorbereiding van voedsel impliseer. Ons studie vorm die eerste deel van ’n groter institusionele navorsingprojek. Vir die doel van ons studie het ons deelnemende refleksie en aksie-gebaseerde werkwinkels gehou om data te genereer en tydens die interpretasie van bevindinge op interpretivisme staatgemaak. Hierdie studie beklemtoon die behoeftes van hulpbron-arm en werklose gemeenskapslede wat dikwels genoodsaak is om teen verlaagde pryse voedsel te koop waarvan die kwaliteit nie optimaal is nie. ’n Verskraalde ontbyt, middagete of aandete waarvan die keuse algemeen beperk is tot swart tee, pap en een of twee snye ou brood, bevestig die manifestasies van armoede in hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe. Maaltye is dikwels beperk tot groot hoeveelhede koolhidrate, min groente, ingelegde vis, pap met inkomazi en marog. Hoenderpote en afval vul soms die spyskaart aan. Onderwysers beklemtoon die feit dat gemeenskapslede tipies op skenkings van werkgewers, kerke en kruidenierswinkels staatmaak om hul voedselbegroting aan te vul. Onderwysers fokus verder op die behoeftes aan opleiding vir gemeenskapslede. Na hulle mening moet gemeenskappe ingelig word oor voedselproduksie, groentetuine, die wyses waarop die kwaliteit van grond bepaal kan word, besproeiing en die toepassing van volhoubare wisselbou. Die artikel word afgesluit met uitvoerbare en leersame wenke vir die opleiding van landelike gemeenskappe. Op grond van dié navorsingsbevindinge word ’n intervensieprogram tans ontwikkel, met die doel om dit in die onderskeie deelnemende skole te implementeer ter bevordering van gesonde voedselverwante gedrag en welsyn.

  18. Die Transition zur pflegenden Tochter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Dräger

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch aus der Reihe „Studien zur Gesundheits- und Pflegewissenschaft“ beschreibt den theoretischen Hintergrund, das methodische Vorgehen und die Ergebnisse einer biografischen Untersuchung, die sich dem Übergang von der Tochter zur pflegenden Tochter widmete. Grundlage der Publikation ist die Dissertation (2002 der Autorin. Mit der Berücksichtigung biographischer und familiärer Hintergründe wird eine neue Perspektive in der Forschung zu pflegenden Angehörigen eingenommen.

  19. Maintaining Low Voiding Solder Die Attach for Power Die While Minimizing Die Tilt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, Randy; Peterson, Kenneth A.

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses work to minimize voiding and die tilt in solder attachment of a large power die, measuring 9.0 mm X 6.5 mm X 0.1 mm (0.354” x 0.256” x 0.004”), to a heat spreader. As demands for larger high power die continue, minimizing voiding and die tilt is of interest for improved die functionality, yield, manufacturability, and reliability. High-power die generate considerable heat, which is important to dissipate effectively through control of voiding under high thermal load areas of the die while maintaining a consistent bondline (minimizing die tilt). Voiding was measured using acoustic imaging and die tilt was measured using two different optical measurement systems. 80Au-20Sn solder reflow was achieved using a batch vacuum solder system with optimized fixturing. Minimizing die tilt proved to be the more difficult of the two product requirements to meet. Process development variables included tooling, weight and solder preform thickness.

  20. A case study exploring the ethical and policy dimensions of allocating acute care resources to a dying patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Mary; Hurley, Ciarán

    2008-05-01

    We aimed to identify policy, process and ethical issues related to allocation of National Health Service resources when patients with end-of-life illness are referred to acute care services. Sharing healthcare decisions denotes a different partnership between professionals and patients when patients are empowered to define their needs. Implementation of a transition from professional to patient decision-making appears to be dependent upon its interpretation by personnel delivering care using the local trust policy. The outcome of this is a reformation of responsibility for budget allocation, choice of acute care provider and selecting services, currently in the realm of primary care; be it the general practitioner, community practitioners, or the patient. We used a 'lens' approach to case study analysis in which the lens is constructed of a model of policy analysis and four principles of biomedical ethics. A patient's decision to decline care proposed by an Accident and Emergency department nurse and the nurse's response to that decision expose a policy that restricts the use of ambulance transport and with that, flexibility in responses to patients' decisions. End-of-life care partnership decisions require sensitivity and flexibility from all healthcare practitioners. We found that policy-based systems currently used to deliver care across the primary care - hospital care border are far from seamless and can lead to foreseeable problems. Health professionals responsible for the care of a patient at the end of life should consider the holistic outcomes of resource allocation decisions for patients. Government and health professional agenda suggest that patients should be given a greater element of control over their healthcare than has historically been the case. When patients take responsibility for their decisions, healthcare personnel should recognize that this signals a shift in the nature of the professional-patient relationship to one of partnership.