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Sample records for students remained flat

  1. Prevalence of flat foot and hallux valgus deformity among primary school female students in Kiar city of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Vahab Kashani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foot deformities are common among complaints of patients referred to the orthopedic centers. Most of naturally occurring lower limb deformities in children, which are rather common, would be corrected with further normal growth. However, a small percentage of these problems remain unresolved and may cause complications in the future. The main aim of this study is determination of prevalence of flat foot and hallux valgus deformity among primary school female students in Kiar city of Chaharmahal and BakhtiariMaterial and Methods: This is a cross sectional study. Foot posture index (FPI 6 test evaluate for 345 students in age range 7- 11 years and two groups of 7 to 9 years and 11 to 10 years. Also prevalence of hallux valgus among 345 students evaluated.Results: 7.8 % of studied subjects had flat foot deformity. Among 345 students, 12 (6.6% students in range of age 7 -9 years and 15 (9.3 % students in range of 10-11 had flat foot deformity. Also prevalence of hallux valgus was 16.5%.Conclusion: These findings point to the importance of proper physical examination, early diagnosis and on-time treatment of foot deformities such as flat foot and hallux valgus deformity in children.

  2. Prevalence of Flat Foot: Comparison between Male and Female Primary School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reihaneh Askary Kachoosangy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 7-12 year old students and to investigate the relationship between flat foot and age and sex. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 945 students (460 girls and 485 boys were examined. The presence of flatfoot and the degree of its severity according to Tachdjian's system of grading for flatfoot was assessed. Results: The data showed that the overall prevalence of flat foot was 74% out of which 23% were mild, 34% were moderate and 17% were severe. The prevalence of flat foot in girl and boy students were 75.2% and 72.6% respectively, but this difference was not significant. Moreover, no significant relationship was observed between the prevalence of flat foot and age. Discussion: This study showed that flat foot is a common problem among primary school students and should be addressed by responsible organizations.

  3. The relationship between flat feet and cavus foot with body mass index in girl students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajirezaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between flat feet and cavus foot with body mass index in girl students. Methods: The study population consisted of the Mazandaran University students that their number was 260 (130 girl college students and 130 girl students of non-physical education formed. Sampling of participants over the two days. Height and weight of the subjects were measured, then they were placed on a mirror box and were taken the photographs of the Plantar foot. for picture Plantar foot was used of the mirror box (pedescope. data analyzed by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results: The results of Pearson correlation coefficient test in physical education subjects showed there was no relationship the between BMI and flat feet (0.306. Also, the relationship between BMI and cavus foot was significant and direct (0.330. The results of Spearman correlation coefficient test in physical education subjects showed that the relationship between BMI and flat feet was significant (0.457. Also, there was no relationship between BMI and cavus foot (-0.026. The results in non-physical education subjects showed the relationship between BMI and flat feet was significant, but was in the opposite direction (-0.493. Also, the relationship between BMI and cavus foot was significant and direct (0.424. The results of Spearman correlation test showed that the relationship and flat feet was significant but was in the opposite direction (-0.648. Also, the relationship between BMI and cavus foot was significant (0.413. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it seems to there was no relationship between flat feet and cavus foot with body mass index in girl students.

  4. The Chemical Engineering behind How Carbonated Beverages Go Flat: A Hands-On Experiment for Freshmen Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Keith L.

    2007-01-01

    A hands-on project was developed to educate new chemical engineering students about the types of problems chemical engineers solve and to improve student enthusiasm for studying chemical engineering. In this project, students studied the phenomenon of carbonated beverages going flat. The project was implemented in 2003 and 2004 at Kansas State…

  5. The Lived Experiences of International Students Who's Family Remains at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Theresa; Robinson, Carolyn; Welch, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    The significant increase of international students, who leave their family at home, to study abroad, especially in the discipline of nursing, has implications for educational practice. This study's aim was to explore adult international students' experiences of leaving spouse and children--for further education overseas. A descriptive…

  6. Performance of Dental Hygiene Students in Mass Fatality Training and Radiographic Imaging of Dental Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Tara L; Bruhn, Ann M; Ulmer, Loreta H; Diawara, Norou

    2015-10-01

    Mass fatality incidents can overwhelm local, state and national resources quickly. Dental hygienists are widely distributed and have the potential to increase response teams' capacity. However, appropriate training is required. The literature is void of addressing this type of training for dental hygienists and scant in dentistry. Hence, the purpose of this study was to assess one facet of such training: Whether the use of multimedia is likely to enhance educational outcomes related to mass fatality training. A randomized, double-blind, pre- and post-test design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of comparable educational modules for 2 groups: a control group (n=19) that received low media training and a treatment group (n=20) that received multimedia training. Participants were second-year, baccalaureate dental hygiene students. Study instruments included a multiple-choice examination, a clinical competency-based radiology lab scored via a standardized rubric, and an assessment of interest in mass fatality education as a specialty. ANOVA was used to analyze results. Participants' pre- and post-test scores and clinical competency-based radiology lab scores increased following both educational approaches. Interest in mass fatality training also increased significantly for all participants (p=0.45). There was no significant difference in pre- and post-test multiple choice scores (p=0.6455), interest (p=0.9133) or overall competency-based radiology lab scores (p=0.997) between groups. Various educational technique may be effective for mass fatality training. However, mass fatality training that incorporates multimedia is an appropriate avenue for training instruction. Continued research about multimedia's role in this specialty area is encouraged. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  7. Must we remain blind to undergraduate medical ethics education in Africa? A cross-sectional study of Nigerian medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoye, Onochie; Nwachukwu, Daniel; Maduka-Okafor, Ferdinand C

    2017-12-08

    As the practice of medicine inevitably raises both ethical and legal issues, it had been recommended since 1999 that medical ethics and human rights be taught at every medical school. Most Nigerian medical schools still lack a formal undergraduate medical ethics curriculum. Medical education remains largely focused on traditional medical science components, leaving the medical students to develop medical ethical decision-making skills and moral attitudes passively within institutions noted for relatively strong paternalistic traditions. In conducting a needs assessment for developing a curriculum germane to the Nigerian society, and by extension most of Sub-Saharan Africa, this study determined the views of Nigerian medical students on medical ethics education, ethical issues related to the doctor-patient relationship and the ethical/professional dilemmas they are confronted with. Using self-administered 63-item structured questionnaires, a cross-sectional survey of the final year medical students of the University of Nigeria was conducted in July 2015.Using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software (SPSS Version 17), frequency counts and percentages were generated. The sample included 100 males (71.4%) and 40 females (28.6%), with the respective mean (SD) age being 24.6(5.61) and 21.8 (6.38) years. Only 35.7% were satisfied with their medical ethics knowledge, and 97.9% indicated that medical ethics should be taught formally. Only 8.6% had never witnessed a medical teacher act unethically. The dilemmas of poor communication between physicians and patients, and the provision of sub-standard care were reported highest for being encountered 'often'. A majority (60.7%) indicated that "a doctor should do his best always, irrespective of the patient's wishes". No significant difference in responses across gender was noted. There is a strong desire by the contemporary Nigerian medical student for medical ethics education. Their lack of exposure in medical

  8. Blower door tests of a group of identical flats in a new student accommodation in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Vahala, Jan

    is as high as 400%. This result is without consideration of one particular flat which had the extreme result of being 940% as leaky as the unit with the highest air tightness. The reasons for such poor air tightness are lack of the installation gap between the vapour barrier and the inner wall......, and insufficient connections of the vapour barrier to the interior walls as explained in the paper. The large variation in results can be attributed to insufficient consideration of the importance of airtighness during construction of some parts of the building – despite of an intent to make a rather air tight...... air quality (IAQ) as well as performance of some single components. In summer 2012 a blower door test was performed on all 37 living units out of which 33 are identical single room flats and 4 are larger double room flats. The purpose was to evaluate the air tightness of the envelope and to find out...

  9. Testing the Flat World Thesis: Using a Public Dataset to Engage Students in the Global Inequality Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabandi, Bhavani; Sweet, Stephen; Swords, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    We present a learning module to engage students in the global inequality debate using Google Public Data World Development Indicators. Goals of this article are to articulate the importance and urgency of teaching global issues to American students; situate the central debate in the globalization literature, paying particular attention to global…

  10. Owhership of flats

    OpenAIRE

    Přibil, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Ownership of Flats Summary In his diploma thesis "Ownership of Flats", the author focuses on applicable law of flat ownership in the Czech Republic, especially the Flat Ownership Act 72/1994 Sb. The author puts the contemporary regulation in historical context; he describes the theoretical principles underlining the current applicable law and defines in detail the basic legal terms used by the Flat Ownership Act. Original and derivative forms of flat ownership acquisition are explained, namel...

  11. The Chasm Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul T.; Guin, Kacey; Celio, Mary Beth

    2003-01-01

    Argues that "A Nation at Risk" failed to address adequately problems of urban education, and thus the achievement gap between minority and white students still exists. Describes several problems that still plague low-performing urban schools, such as bureaucratic aversion to change, high levels of poverty, and low teacher quality and…

  12. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  13. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  14. Flat plate collector. Solarflachkollektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, N

    1979-03-29

    The invention refers to a flat solar collector with an absorber plate, which is arranged on a support and is covered by a transparent window, between which and the plate there is an air space. The previously known structures of this type had the disadvantage that the thermal expansion of the enclosed air caused considerable difficulties. The purpose of the invention is therefore to create a collector, which can be used on the modular system, retains its properties and is safe in spite of the great temperature variations. According to the invention this problem is solved by providing a compensating space in the collector, which is separated by a diaphragm from the airspace between the plate and the covering window. The airspace therefore remains sealed against the atmosphere, so that no dirt, corrosion of the inside and no condensation can reduce the efficiency of the collector. A rise in pressure due to an increase in temperature is immediately reduced by expansion of the diaphragm, which enters the compensation space. In order to increase the pressure in the airspace above the plate for increases in temperature, the compensation space is connected to the atmosphere. The diaphragm can be mirrored on the side towards the absorber, which makes the diaphragm into an insulating element, as it reflects radiated heat from the absorber.

  15. The more it changes; the more it remains the same: a Foucauldian analysis of Canadian policy documents relevant to student selection for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razack, Saleem; Lessard, David; Hodges, Brian D; Maguire, Mary H; Steinert, Yvonne

    2014-05-01

    Calls to increase the demographic representativeness of medical classes to better reflect the diversity of society are part of a growing international trend. Despite this, entry into medical school remains highly competitive and exclusive of marginalized groups. To address these questions, we conducted a Foucauldian discourse analysis of 15 publically available policy documents from the websites of Canadian medical education regulatory bodies, using the concepts of "excellence" (institutional or in an applicant), "diversity," and "equity" to frame the analysis. In most documents, there were appeals to broaden definitions of institutional excellence to include concerns for greater social accountability. Equity concerns tended to be represented as needing to be dealt with by people in positions of authority in order to counter a "hidden curriculum." Diversity was represented as an object of value, situated within a discontinuous history. As a rhetorical strategy, documents invoked complex societal shifts to promote change toward a more humanistic medical education system and profession. "Social accountability" was reified as an all-encompassing solution to most issues of representation. Although the policy documents proclaimed rootedness in an ethos of improving the societal responsiveness of the medical profession, our analysis takes a more critical stance towards the discourses identified. On the basis of our research findings, we question whether these calls may contribute to the maintenance of the specific power relations they seek to address. These conclusions lead us to consider the possibility that the discourses represented in the documents might be reframed to take into account issues of power distribution and its productive and reproductive features. A reframing of discourses could potentially generate greater inclusiveness in policy development processes, and afford disadvantaged and marginalized groups more participatory roles in the discussion.

  16. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2017-05-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for connectors used with electronic devices, such as input and/or output ports to connect peripheral equipment or accessories. More specifically, various flat-port are provided that can be used in place of standard connectors including, but not limited to, audio jacks and Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports. The flat-port connectors are an alternate connection design to replace the traditional receptacle port (female-port), making the device more sealed creation more dust and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot of space and contribute to the increase thickness of the device. The flat-port receptacle improves the overall appearance of the device and makes it more resistant to dust and water.

  17. Flat-space singletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronsdal, C.

    1987-01-01

    Singletons exist, as particles and as local fields, only in 3+2 de Sitter space. Their kinematical properties make them natural candidates for constituents of massless fields, and perhaps for quarks. It is interesting to find out how to describe this type of compositeness in flat space. A theory of interacting singleton fields in de Sitter space is now available, and in this paper we study the flat-space limit of the Green's functions of that theory. The flat-space limit is an autonomous theory of Green's functions, but is not an operator field theory. The three-point function is calculated and its flat-space limit is found to reveal glimpses of a physical interpretation. Causal and spectral properties are in accord with the tenets of axiomatic field theory. The theory is a generalization of local field theory, in which photons appear as composite objects although the physical S matrix is the same as in conventional QED

  18. Rocky Flats Compliance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development (EM-50) (OTD) as an element of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) in November 1989. The primary objective of the Office of Technology Development, Rocky Flats Compliance Program (RFCP), is to develop altemative treatment technologies for mixed low-level waste (wastes containing both hazardous and radioactive components) to use in bringing the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) into compliance with Federal and state regulations and agreements. Approximately 48,000 cubic feet of untreated low-level mixed waste, for which treatment has not been specified, are stored at the RFP. The cleanup of the Rocky Flats site is driven by agreements between DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Colorado Department of Health (CDH). Under these agreements, a Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan (CTMP) was drafted to outline the mechanisms by which RFP will achieve compliance with the regulations and agreements. This document describes DOE's strategy to treat low-level mixed waste to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and sets specific milestones related to the regulatory aspects of technology development. These milestones detail schedules for the development of technologies to treat all of the mixed wastes at the RFP. Under the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA), the CTMP has been incorporated into Rocky Flats Plant Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP). The CSTP will become the Rocky Flats Plant site Treatment Plan in 1995 and will supersede the CTMP

  19. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot

  20. Piecewise flat gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the continuum limit of the piecewise flat locally finite gravity model introduced by ’t Hooft. In the linear weak field limit, we find the energy–momentum tensor and metric perturbation of an arbitrary configuration of defects. The energy–momentum turns out to be restricted to satisfy

  1. Flat out and bluesome

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Mark; Snaebjornsdottir, Bryndis; Byatt, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    ‘Nanoq: flat out and bluesome’ is the story of polar bears, the largest land predators on earth, and their journey from the arctic wilderness to the museums and stately homes of the UK. The work documents the histories of each of these bears, the legacies of the hunters who shot them and the skills and expertise of the taxidermists who stuffed them.

  2. Closing Rocky Flats by 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuor, N. R.; Schubert, A. L.

    2002-01-01

    Safely accelerating the closure of Rocky Flats to 2006 is a goal shared by many: the State of Colorado, the communities surrounding the site, the U.S. Congress, the Department of Energy, Kaiser-Hill and its team of subcontractors, the site's employees, and taxpayers across the country. On June 30, 2000, Kaiser-Hill (KH) submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE), KH's plan to achieve closure of Rocky Flats by December 15, 2006, for a remaining cost of $3.96 billion (February 1, 2000, to December 15, 2006). The Closure Project Baseline (CPB) is the detailed project plan for accomplishing this ambitious closure goal. This paper will provide a status report on the progress being made toward the closure goal. This paper will: provide a summary of the closure contract completion criteria; give the current cost and schedule variance of the project and the status of key activities; detail important accomplishments of the past year; and discuss the challenges ahead

  3. Flat feet in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe flatfoot, as one of very frequent deformities in everyday medical practice. A special condition of the deformity associated with a calcaneal valgus position and complicated by a knee valgus position (as a consequence of non-treatment is described. Also, the precise anatomy of the longitudinal foot arches (medial and lateral, definition and classification of the deformity, clinical findings and therapeutic protocols are proposed. The authors especially emphasise that the need for having extensive knowledge on the differences between a flexible and rigid flatfoot, having in mind that the treatment of flexible flat foot is usually not necessary, while the treatment of rigid flatfoot is usually unavoidable.

  4. Ricci-flat branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, D.; Perry, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Up to overall harmonic factors, the D8-brane solution of the massive type IIA supergravity theory is the product of nine-dimensional Minkowski space (the world-volume) with the real line (the transverse space). We show that the equations of motion allow for the world-volume metric to be generalised to an arbitrary Ricci-flat one. If this nine-dimensional Ricci-flat manifold admits Killing spinors, then the resulting solutions are supersymmetric and satisfy the usual Bogomol'nyi bound, although they preserve fewer than the usual one half of the supersymmetries. We describe the possible choices of such manifolds, elaborating on the connection between the existence of Killing spinors and the self-duality condition on the curvature two-form. Since the D8-brane is a domain wall in ten dimensions, we are led to consider the general case: domain walls in any supergravity theory. Similar considerations hold here also. Moreover, it is shown that the world-volume of any magnetic brane - of which the domain walls are a specific example - can be generalised in precisely the same way. The general class of supersymmetric solutions have gravitational instantons as their spatial sections. Some mention is made of the world-volume solitons of such branes

  5. Flat Engineered Multichannel Reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Asadchy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in engineered gradient metasurfaces have enabled unprecedented opportunities for light manipulation using optically thin sheets, such as anomalous refraction, reflection, or focusing of an incident beam. Here, we introduce a concept of multichannel functional metasurfaces, which are able to control incoming and outgoing waves in a number of propagation directions simultaneously. In particular, we reveal a possibility to engineer multichannel reflectors. Under the assumption of reciprocity and energy conservation, we find that there exist three basic functionalities of such reflectors: specular, anomalous, and retroreflections. Multichannel response of a general flat reflector can be described by a combination of these functionalities. To demonstrate the potential of the introduced concept, we design and experimentally test three different multichannel reflectors: three- and five-channel retroreflectors and a three-channel power splitter. Furthermore, by extending the concept to reflectors supporting higher-order Floquet harmonics, we forecast the emergence of other multichannel flat devices, such as isolating mirrors, complex splitters, and multi-functional gratings.

  6. Flat Engineered Multichannel Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadchy, V. S.; Díaz-Rubio, A.; Tcvetkova, S. N.; Kwon, D.-H.; Elsakka, A.; Albooyeh, M.; Tretyakov, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    Recent advances in engineered gradient metasurfaces have enabled unprecedented opportunities for light manipulation using optically thin sheets, such as anomalous refraction, reflection, or focusing of an incident beam. Here, we introduce a concept of multichannel functional metasurfaces, which are able to control incoming and outgoing waves in a number of propagation directions simultaneously. In particular, we reveal a possibility to engineer multichannel reflectors. Under the assumption of reciprocity and energy conservation, we find that there exist three basic functionalities of such reflectors: specular, anomalous, and retroreflections. Multichannel response of a general flat reflector can be described by a combination of these functionalities. To demonstrate the potential of the introduced concept, we design and experimentally test three different multichannel reflectors: three- and five-channel retroreflectors and a three-channel power splitter. Furthermore, by extending the concept to reflectors supporting higher-order Floquet harmonics, we forecast the emergence of other multichannel flat devices, such as isolating mirrors, complex splitters, and multi-functional gratings.

  7. UVIS Flat Field Uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Jessica Kim

    2009-07-01

    The stability and uniformity of the low-frequency flat fields {L-flat} of the UVIS detector will be assessed by using multiple-pointing observations of the globular clusters 47 Tucanae {NGC104} and Omega Centauri {NGC5139}, thus imaging moderately dense stellar fields. By placing the same star over different portions of the detector and measuring relative changes in its brightness, it will be possible to determine local variations in the response of the UVIS detector. Based on previous experience with STIS and ACS, it is deemed that a total of 9 different pointings will suffice to provide adequate characterization of the flat field stability in any given band. For each filter to be tested, the baseline consists of 9 pointings in a 3X3 box pattern with dither steps of about 25% of the FOV, or 40.5", in either the x or y direction {useful also for CTE measurements, if needed in the future}. During SMOV, the complement of filters to be tested is limited to the following 6 filters: F225W, F275W, F336W, for Omega Cen, and F438W, F606W, and F814W for 47 Tuc. Three long exposures for each target are arranged such that the initial dither position is observed with the appropriate filters for that target within one orbit at a single pointing, so that filter-to-filter differences in the observed star positions can be checked. In addition to the 9 baseline exposures, two sets of short exposures will be taken:a} one short exposure will be taken of OmegaCen with each of the visible filters {F438W, F606W and F814W} in order to check the geometric distortion solution to be obtained with the data from proposal 11444;b} for each target, a single short exposure will be taken with each filter to facilitate the study of the PSF as a function of position on the detector by providing unsaturated images of sparsely-spaced bright stars.This proposal corresponds to Activity Description ID WF39. It should execute only after the following proposal has executed:WF21 - 11434

  8. Smallpox still haunts scientists: results of a questionnaire-based inquiry on the views of health care and life science experts and students on preserving the remaining variola virus stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Thangavelu; Dedeepiya, Vidyasagar Devaprasad; John, Sudhakar; Senthilkumar, Rajappa; Reena, Helen C; Rajendran, Paramasivam; Balamurugan, Madasamy; Kurosawa, Gene; Iwasaki, Masaru; Preethy, Senthilkumar; Abraham, Samuel J K

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) declared eradication of the dreadful disease "smallpox" in 1980. Though the disease has died down, the causative virus "variola" has not, as it has been well preserved in two high security laboratories-one in USA and another in Russia. The debate on whether the remaining stocks of the smallpox virus should be destroyed or not is ongoing, and the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 2011 has decided to postpone the review on this debate to the 67th WHA in 2014. A short questionnaire-based inquiry was organized during a one-day stem cell meeting to explore the views of various health care and life science specialists especially students on this aspect. Among the 200 participants of the meeting, only 66 had answered the questionnaire. 60.6% of participants who responded to the questionnaire were for preserving the virus for future reference, while 36.4% of the participants were for destroying the virus considering the magnitude with which it killed millions. However, 3% of the respondents were not able to decide on any verdict. Therefore, this inquiry expresses the view that "what we cannot create, we do not have the right to destroy."

  9. The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Art

    1998-01-01

    Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…

  10. Exact piecewise flat gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.

    2011-01-01

    We generalize our previous linear result (van de Meent 2011 Class. Quantum Grav 28 075005) in obtaining gravitational waves from our piecewise flat model for gravity in 3+1 dimensions to exact piecewise flat configurations describing exact planar gravitational waves. We show explicitly how to

  11. 40 CFR 230.42 - Mud flats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud flats. 230.42 Section 230.42... Aquatic Sites § 230.42 Mud flats. (a) Mud flats are broad flat areas along the sea coast and in coastal rivers to the head of tidal influence and in inland lakes, ponds, and riverine systems. When mud flats...

  12. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  13. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons

  14. Flat slices in Minkowski space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchadha, Niall Ó.; Xie, Naqing

    2015-03-01

    Minkowski space, flat spacetime, with a distance measure in natural units of d{{s}2}=-d{{t}2}+d{{x}2}+d{{y}2}+d{{z}2}, or equivalently, with spacetime metric diag(-1, +1, +1, +1), is recognized as a fundamental arena for physics. The Poincaré group, the set of all rigid spacetime rotations and translations, is the symmetry group of Minkowski space. The action of this group preserves the form of the spacetime metric. Each t = constant slice of each preferred coordinate system is flat. We show that there are also nontrivial non-singular representations of Minkowski space with complete flat slices. If the embedding of the flat slices decays appropriately at infinity, the only flat slices are the standard ones. However, if we remove the decay condition, we find non-trivial flat slices with non-vanishing extrinsic curvature. We write out explicitly the coordinate transformation to a frame with such slices.

  15. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  16. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.

  17. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    installed. What to do at this limit, at the transgressive encounter between saying yes and no to history, remains the challenge. It is the very challenge of what insistently remains.

  18. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  19. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  20. Observations of ebb flows on tidal flats: Evidence of dewatering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinehimer, J. P.; Thomson, J. M.; Chickadel, C.

    2010-12-01

    Incised channels are a common morphological feature of tidal flats. When the flats are inundated, flows are generally forced by the tidally varying sea surface height. During low tide, however, these channels continue to drain throughout flat exposure even without an upstream source of water. While the role of porewater is generally overlooked due to the low permeability of marine muds, it remains the only potential source of flows through the channels during low tide. In situ and remotely sensed observations (Figure 1) at an incised channel on a tidal flat in Willapa Bay from Spring 2010 indicate that dewatering of the flats may be driving these low tide flows. High resolution Aquadopp ADCP velocity profiles are combined with observations from tower-based infrared (IR) video to produce a complete time series of surface velocity measurements throughout low tide. The IR video observations provide a measurement of surface currents even when the channel depth is below the blanking distance of the ADCP (10 cm). As the depth within the channel drops from 50 cm to 10 cm surface velocities increase from 10 cm/s to 60 cm/s even as the tide level drops below the channel flanks and the flats are dry. As the drainage continues, the temperature of the flow rises throughout low tide, mirroring temperatures within the sediment bed on the tidal flat. Drainage salinity falls despite the lack of any freshwater input to the flat indicating that less saline porewater may be the source. The likely source of the drainage water is from the channel flanks where time-lapse video shows slumping and compaction of channel sediments. Velocity profiles, in situ temperatures, and IR observations also are consistent with the presence of fluid muds and a hyperpycnal, density driven outflow at the channel mouth highlighting a possible pathway for sediment delivery from the flats to the main distributary channels of the bay. Figure 1: Time series of tidal flat channel velocities and temperatures

  1. Wetting of flat gradient surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, Edward

    2018-04-01

    Gradient, chemically modified, flat surfaces enable directed transport of droplets. Calculation of apparent contact angles inherent for gradient surfaces is challenging even for atomically flat ones. Wetting of gradient, flat solid surfaces is treated within the variational approach, under which the contact line is free to move along the substrate. Transversality conditions of the variational problem give rise to the generalized Young equation valid for gradient solid surfaces. The apparent (equilibrium) contact angle of a droplet, placed on a gradient surface depends on the radius of the contact line and the values of derivatives of interfacial tensions. The linear approximation of the problem is considered. It is demonstrated that the contact angle hysteresis is inevitable on gradient surfaces. Electrowetting of gradient surfaces is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil decontamination at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.L.; Hayden, J.A.; Alford, C.E.; Kochen, R.L.; Stevens, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A soils decontamination project was initiated, to remove actinides from soils at Rocky Flats. Wet screening, attrition scrubbing with Calgon at high pH, attrition scrubbing at low pH, and cationic flotation were investigated. Pilot plant studies were carried out. Conceptual designs have been generated for mounting the process in semi-trailers

  3. Individual energy savings for individual flats in blocks of flats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    and 1980. Normally, we expect the reduction in energy consumption to be around 20% for a 2 °C lower temperature, but for an inner flat the reduction can be up to 71%. The owners of the adjoining flats get an increase in energy demand of 10 to 20% each. They will not be able to figure out whether...... this is because the neighbour maintains a low temperature or the fact that they maintain a higher temperature. The best solution is to keep your own indoor temperature low. We can also turn the problem around: if you maintain a higher temperature than your neighbours, then you will pay part of their heating bill....

  4. Flat H Redundant Frangible Joint Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris

    2016-01-01

    changes to better disperse loads paths and to minimize air gaps. The design additionally added more structural strength to enhance the structural limits in static loads testing. The design also implemented a smoother load line through the assembly. Results / Knowledge Gained The new Flat H RFJ successfully fractured at WSTF with thicker ligaments and lower cord size. Where failure to separate occurred earlier, there is now excessive energy available for structural separation. The new challenge to provide some structural support to prevent secondary fracturing of the break plate remains to be completed. This future work is being funded by the JSC Engineering Directorate in 2017 to elevate the TRL on curved Flat H RFJs that configure with the Orion Service Panel Separation. Additional funding from JSC Engineering will provide new design testing to avoid secondary fracturing.

  5. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  6. Polyurethane adhesives in flat roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Bogárová Markéta; Stodůlka Jindřich; Šuhajda Karel

    2017-01-01

    It is necessary to stabilize individual layers of flat roofs, mainly because of wind suction. Apart from anchoring and surcharge, these layers can be secured by bonding. At present gluing is an indispensable and widely used stabilization method. On our market we can found many types of adhesives, most widely used are based on polyurethane. This paper focuses on problematic about stabilization thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene to vapor barrier from bitumen. One of the main issues is...

  7. Flat space physics from holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational back reaction. Instead, it is protected by - and in this sense, predicts - the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. (author)

  8. Flat panel planar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1994-11-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  9. A small flat fission chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yijun; Wang Dalun; Chen Suhe

    1999-01-01

    With fission materials of depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, 239 Pu, and 237 Np, the authors have designed and made a series of small flat fission chamber. The authors narrated the construction of the fission chamber and its technological process of manufacture, and furthermore, the authors have measured and discussed the follow correct factor, self-absorption, boundary effect, threshold loss factor, bottom scatter and or so

  10. Residue management at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olencz, J.

    1995-01-01

    Past plutonium production and manufacturing operations conducted at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) produced a variety of plutonium-contaminated by-product materials. Residues are a category of these materials and were categorized as open-quotes materials in-processclose quotes to be recovered due to their inherent plutonium concentrations. In 1989 all RFETS plutonium production and manufacturing operations were curtailed. This report describes the management of plutonium bearing liquid and solid wastes

  11. Flat beams in the SLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adolphsen, C.; Barklow, T.; Burke, D.; Decker, F.J.; Emma, P.; Hildreth, M.; Himel, T.; Krejcik, P.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Stanford Linear Collider was designed to operate with round beams; horizontal and vertical emittance made equal in the damping rings. The main motivation was to facilitate the optical matching through beam lines with strong coupling elements like the solenoid spin rotator magnets and the SLC arcs. Tests in 1992 showed that open-quote flat close-quote beams with a vertical to horizontal emittance ratio of around 1/10 can be successfully delivered to the end of the linac. Techniques developed to measure and control the coupling of the SLC arcs allow These beams to be transported to the Interaction Point (IP). Before flat beams could be used for collisions with polarized electrons, a new method of rotating the electron spin orientation with vertical arc orbit bumps had to be developed. Early in the 1993 run, the SLC was switched to open-quote flat close-quote beam operation. Within a short time the peak luminosity of the previous running cycle was reached and then surpassed. The average daily luminosity is now a factor of about two higher than the best achieved last year. In the following the authors present an overview of the problems encountered and their solutions for different parts of the SLC

  12. Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this note we reprove the known theorem: Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat. It turns out that our proof is simpler and more direct than the original one. We also reprove the theorem: Ricci flat harmonic manifolds are flat, which is generally affirmed by appealing to Cheeger–Gromov splitting ...

  13. Harmonic Manifolds with Minimal Horospheres are Flat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this note we reprove the known theorem: Harmonic manifolds with minimal horospheres are flat. It turns out that our proof is simpler and more direct than the original one. We also reprove the theorem: Ricci flat harmonic manifolds are flat, which is generally affirmed by appealing to Cheeger–Gromov splitting theorem.

  14. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  15. Trajectory Optimization for Differential Flat Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kahina Louadj; Benjamas Panomruttanarug; Alexandre Carlos Brandao Ramos; Felix Mora-Camino

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The purpose of this communication is to investigate the applicability of Variational Calculus to the optimization of the operation of differentially flat systems. After introducingcharacteristic properties of differentially flat systems, the applicability of variational calculus to the optimization of flat output trajectories is displayed. Two illustrative examples are also presented.

  16. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  17. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2005-01-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified

  18. Flexible flat feet in children: a real problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, A; Martín-Jiménez, F; Carnero-Varo, M; Gómez-Gracia, E; Gómez-Aracena, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J

    1999-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of flexible flat feet in the provincial population of 4- to 13-year-old schoolchildren and the incidence of treatments considered unnecessary. Province of Málaga, Spain. We examined and graded by severity a sample of 1181 pupils taken from a total population of 198 858 primary schoolchildren (CI: 95%; margin of error: 5%). The sample group was separated into three 2-year age groups: 4 and 5 years, 8 and 9 years, and 12 and 13 years. The plantar footprint was classified according to Denis1 into three grades of flat feet: grade 1 in which support of the lateral edge of the foot is half that of the metatarsal support; grade 2 in which the support of the central zone and forefoot are equal; and grade 3 in which the support in the central zone of the foot is greater than the width of the metatarsal support. The statistical analysis for the evaluation of the differences between the groups was performed with Student's t and chi2 tests as appropriate. The prevalence of flat feet was 2.7%. Of the 1181 children sampled, 168 children (14.2%) were receiving orthopedic treatment, but only 2.7% had diagnostic criteria of flat feet. When we inspected the sample, we found that a number of children were being treated for flat feet with boots and arch supports. Most of them did not have a flat plantar footprint according to the criteria that we used for this work. Furthermore, in the group of children that we diagnosed as having flat feet, only 28.1% were being treated. We found no significant differences between the number of children receiving orthopedic treatments and the presence or absence of a flat plantar footprint. Children who were overweight in the 4- and 5-year-old group showed an increased prevalence for flat feet as diagnosed by us. The data suggest that an excessive number of orthopedic treatments had been prescribed in the province. When extrapolated to the 1997 population of schoolchildren within the age groups studied the figures

  19. Reflections on a flat wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, G.R.; Huhtinen, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into whether estimates of attenuation in the flat sidewalls of the tunnel for the MC main ring can be based on a simple point-source/line-of-sight model. Having seen the limitations of such a model, an alternative is proposed where the main radiation source is not the initial object struck by the beam but the plane source provided by the first interactions of secondaries from the target in the shield-wall. This is shown to have a closer relation to reality than the point-source/line-of-sight model. (author)

  20. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Kristian Uldall

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a......) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by tanh, (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b)....

  1. Blowup for flat slow manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, K. U.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present a way of extending the blowup method, in the formulation of Krupa and Szmolyan, to flat slow manifolds that lose hyperbolicity beyond any algebraic order. Although these manifolds have infinite co-dimensions, they do appear naturally in certain settings; for example, in (a) the regularization of piecewise smooth systems by \\tanh , (b) a particular aircraft landing dynamics model, and finally (c) in a model of earthquake faulting. We demonstrate the approach using a simple model system and the examples (a) and (b).

  2. Polyurethane adhesives in flat roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogárová Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to stabilize individual layers of flat roofs, mainly because of wind suction. Apart from anchoring and surcharge, these layers can be secured by bonding. At present gluing is an indispensable and widely used stabilization method. On our market we can found many types of adhesives, most widely used are based on polyurethane. This paper focuses on problematic about stabilization thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene to vapor barrier from bitumen. One of the main issues is to calculate the exact amount of adhesive, which is required to guarantee the resistance against wind suction. In this problematic we can not find help neither in technical data sheets provided by the manufactures. Some of these data sheets contain at least information about amount of adhesive depending on location in roof plane and building height, but they do not specify the strength of such connection. It was therefore resorted to select several representatives polyurethane adhesives and their subsequent testing on specimens simulating the flat roof segment. The paper described the test methodology and results for two types of polyurethane adhesives.

  3. Flat Coalgebraic Fixed Point Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Lutz; Venema, Yde

    Fixed point logics are widely used in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the μ-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the μ-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard μ-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded μ-calculus and the alternating-time μ-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches ExpTime upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic μ-calculus but avoids using automata.

  4. National construction, Denmark. Flat roofs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, C

    1995-04-01

    The Paris meeting of IEA Annex 24 (held in the spring of 1991) declared a set of typical building constructions, the Heat, Air and Moisture characteristics of which should be dealt with as part of the Annex work. Each type of construction was assigned to one or more countries as their National Construction, and it has been the responsibility of each country to prepare a report on what may be regarded as common knowledge in the country on the hygrothermal behaviour of their construction. This knowledge is in part due to experimental work carried out by research bodies in the countries, and due to experience form practice. This report has two main sections: Section 2 gives a general overview of the design of the most common variants of flat roofs and common knowledge reported for such roofs. Section 3 gives an account of research projects carried out in Denmark on flat roofs to analyze their hygrothermal performance. Whenever possible, an emphasis will be put on the hygrothermal consequences of thermally insulating such constructions. (EG) 19 refs.

  5. Closed Loop Recycling of Plastic Housing for Flat Screen TVs

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Jef; Vanegas, Paul; Devoldere, Tom; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of the rapidly increasing number of End-of-Life (EoL) Flat screen Televisions (FTVs) presents major challenges and opportunities. Closing loops in plastic housing material flows remains a particular technical challenge because of the presence of additives, such as Flame Retardants (FR) in recovered housings. In the framework of a collaborative project PRIME with TP Vision the TV development site for Philips TVs and a Van Gansewinkel first level recycling plant, series of experim...

  6. Is an inequality-neutral flat tax reform really neutral?

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Prieto Rodríguez; Juan Gabriel Rodríguez; Rafael Salas

    2004-01-01

    . Let us assume a revenue- and inequality-neutral flat tax reform shifting from a graduated-rate tax. Is this reform really neutral in terms of the income distribution? Traditionally, there has been a bias toward the inequality analysis, forgetting other relevant aspects of the income distribution. This kind of reforms implies a set of composite transfers, both progressive and regressive, even though inequality remains unchanged. This paper shows that polarization is a useful tool for charact...

  7. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  8. Effects of freshwater leaching on potential bioavailability of heavy metals in tidal flat soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Lu, Jun; Li, Qu-Sheng; He, Bao-Yan; Mei, Xiu-Qin; Yu, Dan-Ping; Xu, Zhi-Min; Guo, Shi-Hong; Chen, Hui-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Leaching experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of desalination levels and sediment depths on potential bioavailability of heavy metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in tidal flat soils. The data showed that both the desalination levels (p soil depths (p toxicity to benthic organisms than high desalination treatment. Since these reclaimed tidal flats with low desalinisation are suitable for saline water aquaculture, transforming the present land use of reclaimed tidal flats from fresh water aquaculture into saline water aquaculture may reduce health risk of heavy metals remained in sediments. These results will also contribute to our understanding of the dynamic behavior of heavy metals in the reclamation of tidal flats during leaching and the role of the ratio of SEM/AVS predictions on assessing the ecological risks of reclaimed tidal flats.

  9. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations

  10. Laser Doppler thermometry in flat flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maaren, van A.; Goey, de L.P.H.

    1994-01-01

    Laser Doppler Velocimetry measurements are performed in flat flames, stabilized on a newly developed flat-flame burner. It is shown that the velocity component perpendicular to the main flow direction, induced by expansion in the reaction zone and buoyancy in the burnt gas, is significant. A method

  11. Radiation monitor training program at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, L.C.; Kittinger, W.D.; Vogel, R.M.

    The Rocky Flats Radiation Monitor Training Program is tailored to train new health physics personnel in the field of radiation monitoring. The purpose of the prescribed materials and media is to be consistent in training in all areas of Rocky Flats radiation monitoring job involvement

  12. Design of flat pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirekoh, Jackson; Park, Yong-Lae

    2017-03-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) have gained wide use in the field of robotics due to their ability to generate linear forces and motions with a simple mechanism, while remaining lightweight and compact. However, PAMs are limited by their traditional cylindrical form factors, which must increase radially to improve contraction force generation. Additionally, this form factor results in overly complicated fabrication processes when embedded fibers and sensor elements are required to provide efficient actuation and control of the PAMs while minimizing the bulkiness of the overall robotic system. In order to overcome these limitations, a flat two-dimensional PAM capable of being fabricated using a simple layered manufacturing process was created. Furthermore, a theoretical model was developed using Von Karman’s formulation for large deformations and the energy methods. Experimental characterizations of two different types of PAMs, a single-cell unit and a multi-cell unit, were performed to measure the maximum contraction lengths and forces at input pressures ranging from 0 to 150 kPa. Experimental data were then used to verify the fidelity of the theoretical model.

  13. Flat flexible polymer heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Bright, Victor M; Lee, Y C

    2013-01-01

    Flat, flexible, lightweight, polymer heat pipes (FPHP) were fabricated. The overall geometry of the heat pipe was 130 mm × 70 mm × 1.31 mm. A commercially available low-cost film composed of laminated sheets of low-density polyethylene terephthalate, aluminum and polyethylene layers was used as the casing. A triple-layer sintered copper woven mesh served as a liquid wicking structure, and water was the working fluid. A coarse nylon woven mesh provided space for vapor transport and mechanical rigidity. Thermal power ranging from 5 to 30 W was supplied to the evaporator while the device was flexed at 0°, 45° and 90°. The thermal resistance of the FPHP ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 K W −1 depending on the operating conditions while the thermal resistance for a similar-sized solid copper reference was a constant at 4.6 K W −1 . With 25 W power input, the thermal resistance of the liquid–vapor core of the FPHP was 23% of a copper reference sample with identical laminated polymer material. This work shows a promising combination of technologies that has the potential to usher in a new generation of highly flexible, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance thermal management solutions. (paper)

  14. Implementing DOE guidance for hazards assessments at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Hazards Assessments are performed for a variety of activities and facilities at Rocky Flats Plant. Prior to 1991, there was no guidance for performing Hazards Assessments. Each organization that performed Hazards Assessments used its own methodology with no attempt at standardization. In 1991, DOE published guidelines for the performance of Hazards Assessments for Emergency Planning (DOE-EPG-5500.1, ''Guidance for a Hazards Assessment Methodology''). Subsequently, in 1992, DOE published a standard for the performance of Hazards Assessments (DOE-STD-1027-92, ''Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis, Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''). Although these documents are a step in the direction of standardization, there remains a great deal of interpretation and subjective implementation in the performance of Hazards Assessments. Rocky Flats Plant has initiated efforts to develop a uniform and standard process to be used for Hazards Assessments

  15. Long-range Rocky Flats utilization study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    The purpose of this Study was to provide information concerning the Rocky Flats Plant and its operations that will be useful to the Nation's decision-makers in determining the long-range future of the Plant. This Study was conducted under the premise that national defense policy must be supported and, accordingly, the capabilities at Rocky Flats must be maintained there or at some other location(s). The Study, therefore, makes no attempt to speculate on how possible future changes in national defense policy might affect decisions regarding the utilization of Rocky Flats. Factors pertinent to decisions regarding Rocky Flats, which are included in the Study, are: physical condition of the Plant and its vulnerabilities to natural phenomena; risks associated with plutonium to Plant workers and the public posed by postulated natural phenomena and operational accidents; identification of alternative actions regarding the future use of the Rocky Flats Plant with associated costs and time scales; local socioeconomic impacts if Rocky Flats operations were relocated; and potential for other uses if Rocky Flats facilities were vacated. The results of the tasks performed in support of this Study are summarized in the context of these five factors

  16. Chaotic inflation in models with flat directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, F.; Olive, K.

    1989-01-01

    We consider the chaotic inflationary scenario in models with flat directions. We find that unless the scalars along the flat directions have vacuum expectation values p or 10 14 M p 15 M p depending on the expectation values of the chaotic inflator, Ψ, one or two or more periods of inflation occur but with a resulting energy density perturbation δρ/ρ ≅ 10 -16 , far too small to be of any consequence for galaxy formation. Even with p only limited initial values of ≅ (3-200) M p result in inflation with reasonable density perturbations. Thus chaotic inflation in models with flat directions require rather special initial conditions. (orig.)

  17. Land claim and loss of tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Zhang, Min; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Yunxuan; Li, Bo; Ma, Zhijun

    2016-04-01

    Tidal flats play a critical role in supporting biodiversity and in providing ecosystem services but are rapidly disappearing because of human activities. The Yangtze Estuary is one of the world's largest alluvial estuaries and is adjacent to the most developed economic zone in China. Using the Yangtze Estuary as a study region, we developed an automatic algorithm to estimate tidal flat areas based on the Land Surface Water Index and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. The total area of tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary has decreased by 36% over the past three decades, including a 38% reduction in saltmarshes and a 31% reduction in barren mudflats. Meanwhile, land claim has accumulated to 1077 km(2), a value that exceeds the area of the remaining tidal flats. We divided the Yangtze Estuary into Shanghai and Jiangsu areas, which differ in riverine sediment supply and tidal flat management patterns. Although land claim has accelerated in both areas, the decline in tidal flat area has been much greater in Jiangsu than in Shanghai because of abundant supplies of sediment and artificial siltation in the latter area. The results highlight the need for better coastal planning and management based on tidal flat dynamics.

  18. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  19. Morphodynamic Modeling of Tidal Mud Flats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winterwerp, Johan C

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the current research proposal is to develop and test a numerical model to simulate and predict the seasonal morphodynamic evolution of intertidal mud flats in macrotidal environments...

  20. Mortality among plutonium and other workers at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, G.S.; Acquavella, J.F.; Reyes, M.; Tietjen, G.L.; Wiggs, L.d.; Voelz, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed study of mortality and radiation exposure for Rocky Flats workers was reported at the Sixteenth Mid-Year Topical Symposium of the Health Physics Society in January 1983. Significantly fewer deaths were found than were expected due to all causes, all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, and cancer of the digestive organs. No bone cancers were observed and cancers commonly associated with radiation exposure were not more frequent than expected. Significantly more deaths than expected were observed for two causes, cancer of the prostate and benign and unspecified neoplasms. Further investigation revealed that the deaths from benign and unspecified neoplasms all involved intracranial tumors. A case control study found no association between these brain tumors and exposure to radiation, including plutonium depositions or type of occupation. The excess deaths from intracranial tumors remain unexplained but do not appear to be associated with employment at Rocky Flats. Relative risks among Rocky Flats workers with cumulative plutonium depositions of 2 nCi or more did not indicate a significantly greater risk of death among workers exposed to plutonium than among unexposed workers. Similar results were found for workers with cumulative radiation exposure of at least 1 rem. 2 references, 3 tables

  1. Near-field flat focusing mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Chieh; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2018-03-01

    This article reviews recent progress towards the design of near-field flat focusing mirrors, focusing/imaging light patterns in reflection. An important feature of such flat focusing mirrors is their transverse invariance, as they do not possess any optical axis. We start with a review of the physical background to the different focusing mechanisms of near- and far-field focusing. These near-field focusing devices like flat lenses and the reviewed near-field focusing mirrors can implement planar focusing devices without any optical axis. In contrast, various types of far-field planar focusing devices, such as high-contrast gratings and metasurfaces, unavoidably break the transverse invariance due to their radially symmetrical structures. The particular realizations of near-field flat focusing mirrors including Bragg-like dielectric mirrors and dielectric subwavelength gratings are the main subjects of the review. The first flat focusing mirror was demonstrated with a chirped mirror and was shown to manage an angular dispersion for beam focusing, similar to the management of chromatic dispersion for pulse compression. Furthermore, the reviewed optimized chirped mirror demonstrated a long near-field focal length, hardly achieved by a flat lens or a planar hyperlens. Two more different configurations of dielectric subwavelength gratings that focus a light beam at normal or oblique incidence are also reviewed. We also summarize and compare focusing performance, limitations, and future perspectives between the reviewed flat focusing mirrors and other planar focusing devices including a flat lens with a negative-index material, a planar hyperlens, a high-contrast grating, and a metasurface.

  2. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  3. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  4. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  5. The Annuity Puzzle Remains a Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Werker, Bas; Nijman, Theo

    We examine incomplete annuity menus and background risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds irrespective of whether real or

  6. Flat H Frangible Joint Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelman, Thomas E.; Hinkel, Todd J.; Benjamin, Andrew; Rochon, Brian V.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Space vehicle staging and separation events require pyrotechnic devices. They are single-use mechanisms that cannot be tested, nor can failure-tolerant performance be demonstrated in actual flight articles prior to flight use. This necessitates the implementation of a robust design and test approach coupled with a fully redundant, failure-tolerant explosive mechanism to ensure that the system functions even in the event of a single failure. Historically, NASA has followed the single failure-tolerant (SFT) design philosophy for all human-rated spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle Program. Following the end of this program, aerospace companies proposed building the next generation human-rated vehicles with off-the-shelf, non-redundant, zero-failure-tolerant (ZFT) separation systems. Currently, spacecraft and launch vehicle providers for both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs (CCPs) plan to deviate from the heritage safety approach and NASA's SFT human rating requirements. Both programs' partners have base-lined ZFT frangible joints for vehicle staging and fairing separation. These joints are commercially available from pyrotechnic vendors. Non-human-rated missions have flown them numerous times. The joints are relatively easy to integrate structurally within the spacecraft. In addition, the separation event is debris free, and the resultant pyro shock is lower than that of other design solutions. It is, however, a serious deficiency to lack failure tolerance. When used for critical applications on human-rated vehicles, a single failure could potentially lead to loss of crew (LOC) or loss of mission (LOM)). The Engineering and Safety & Mission Assurance directorates within the NASA Johnson Space Center took action to address this safety issue by initiating a project to develop a fully redundant, SFT frangible joint design, known as the Flat H. Critical to the ability to retrofit on launch vehicles being developed, the SFT mechanisms must fit within the same

  7. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  8. Transport processes in intertidal sand flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christy

    2010-05-01

    Methane rich sulfate depleted seeps are observed along the low water line of the intertidal sand flat Janssand in the Wadden Sea. It is unclear where in the flat the methane is formed, and how it is transported to the edge of the sand flat where the sulfidic water seeps out. Methane and sulfate distributions in pore water were determined along transects from low water line toward the central area of the sand flat. The resulting profiles showed a zone of methane-rich and sulfate-depleted pore water below 2 m sediment depth. Methane production and sulfate reduction are monitored over time for surface sediments collected from the upper flat and seeping area. Both activities were at 22 C twice as high as at 15 C. The rates in sediments from the central area were higher than in sediments from the methane seeps. Methanogenesis occurred in the presence of sulfate, and was not significantly accelerated when sulfate was depleted. The observations show a rapid anaerobic degradation of organic matter in the Janssand. The methane rich pore water is obviously transported with a unidirectional flow from the central area of the intertidal sand flat toward the low water line. This pore water flow is driven by the pressure head caused by elevation of the pore water relative to the sea surface at low tide (Billerbeck et al. 2006a). The high methane concentration at the low water line accumulates due to a continuous outflow of pore water at the seepage site that prevents penetration of electron acceptors such as oxygen and sulfate to reoxidize the reduced products of anaerobic degradation (de Beer et al. 2006). It is, however, not clear why no methane accumulates or sulfate is depleted in the upper 2 m of the flats.

  9. Re-encoding Remains of Dehabitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stockholm

    2014-01-01

    will decrease proportional to the progression of the project. The three case studies will be evaluated individually as well as in a continuum. The aim of the case studies is to develop and test full-scale transformation prototypes in an au-thentic environment. Local media will be used to reinforce interaction...... of the transformations themselves as research based teaching. Second part is an evaluation hereof, which will be repre-sented as drawings, time-lapses, photos, and media responses as well as video interviews with lo-cals, municipality and students. It is envisioned to repeat this type of transformation after some time...

  10. Flat detectors and their clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahn, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Diagnostic and interventional flat detector X-ray systems are penetrating the market in all application segments. First introduced in radiography and mammography, they have conquered cardiac and general angiography and are getting increasing attention in fluoroscopy. Two flat detector technologies prevail. The dominating method is based on an indirect X-ray conversion process, using cesium iodide scintillators. It offers considerable advantages in radiography, angiography and fluoroscopy. The other method employs a direct converter such as selenium which is particularly suitable for mammography. Both flat detector technologies are based on amorphous silicon active pixel matrices. Flat detectors facilitate the clinical workflow in radiographic rooms, foster improved image quality and provide the potential to reduce dose. This added value is based on their large dynamic range, their high sensitivity to X-rays and the instant availability of the image. Advanced image processing is instrumental in these improvements and expand the range of conventional diagnostic methods. In angiography and fluoroscopy the transition from image intensifiers to flat detectors is facilitated by ample advantages they offer, such as distortion-free images, excellent coarse contrast, large dynamic range and high X-ray sensitivity. These characteristics and their compatibility with strong magnetic fields are the basis for improved diagnostic methods and innovative interventional applications. (orig.)

  11. Instability of flat space at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature

  12. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  13. Industry remains stuck in a transitional mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    The near future for industry remains foggy for several obvious reasons. The shake-up of the Soviet Union and how the pieces will reform remains unclear. How successful efforts are to privatize government oil company operations around the world has yet to be determined. A long sought peace in the Middle East seems to be inching closer, but will this continue? If it does continue, what impact will it have on world energy policy? Will American companies, which are now transferring their attention to foreign E and P, also maintain an interest in domestic activities? Is the U.S. economy really on the upswing? We are told that the worst of the recession is over, but try telling this to thousands of workers in the oil patch who are being released monthly by the big players in domestic operations. This paper reports that 1992 should be a better year than 1991, if measured in opportunity. There are more exploration and acquisition options available, both domestically and internationally, than there have been in years. Probably more opportunities exist than there are players-certainly more than can be funded with current financial resources

  14. Magnetized and Flat Beam Experiment at FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Fermilab; Hyun, J. [Sokendai, Tsukuba; Mihalcea, D. [NIU, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Sen, T. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, C. [Fermilab

    2017-05-22

    A photocathode, immersed in solenoidal magnetic field, can produce canonical-angular-momentum (CAM) dominated or “magnetized” electron beams. Such beams have an application in electron cooling of hadron beams and can also be uncoupled to yield asymmetric-emittance (“flat”) beams. In the present paper we explore the possibilities of the flat beam generation at Fermilab’s Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. We present optimization of the beam flatness and four-dimensional transverse emittance and investigate the mapping and its limitations of the produced eigen-emittances to conventional emittances using a skew-quadrupole channel. Possible application of flat beams at the FAST facility are also discussed.

  15. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  16. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  17. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  18. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  19. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  20. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  1. Issues evaluation process at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.C.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the issues evaluation process for Rocky Flats Plant as established in July 1990. The issues evaluation process was initiated February 27, 1990 with a Charter and Process Overview for short-term implementation. The purpose of the process was to determine the projects required for completion before the Phased Resumption of Plutonium Operations. To determine which projects were required, the issues evaluation process and emphasized risk mitigation, based on a ranking system. The purpose of this report is to document the early design of the issues evaluation process to record the methodologies used that continue as the basis for the ongoing Issues Management Program at Rocky Flats Plant

  2. Holography and Entanglement in Flat Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wei; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2011-01-01

    We propose a holographic correspondence of the flat spacetime based on the behavior of the entanglement entropy and the correlation functions. The holographic dual theory turns out to be highly nonlocal. We argue that after most part of the space is traced out, the reduced density matrix gives the maximal entropy and the correlation functions become trivial. We present a toy model for this holographic dual using a nonlocal scalar field theory that reproduces the same property of the entanglement entropy. Our conjecture is consistent with the entropy of Schwarzschild black holes in asymptotically flat spacetimes.

  3. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  4. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  5. Remotely sensed evidence of the rapid loss of tidal flats in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. J.; Phinn, S. R.; Clemens, R. S.; Possingham, H.; Fuller, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In East Asia's Yellow Sea, intertidal wetlands are the frontline ecosystem protecting a coastal population of more than 150 million people from storms and sea-level rise. Despite widespread coastal change and severe modification of the region's major river systems, the magnitude and distribution of coastal wetland loss remains unquantified. We developed a novel remote sensing method to solve the difficult problem of mapping intertidal wetlands over large areas and mapped the extent of tidal flats, the region's primary coastal ecosystem, over 4000kms of coastline at two time periods: the 1980s and late 2000s. We used a regionally validated tide model to identify Landsat images acquired at high and low tides, allowing the area between the high and low tide waterlines to be mapped by differencing classified land-water images between the two tidal stages. Our analysis of the change in areal extent of tidal flats in the Yellow Sea indicates that of the 545,000 ha present in the 1980s, only 389,000 ha remained three decades later, equating to a net loss of 28% at a mean rate of 1.2 % yr-1. ). Comparing the three countries in our analysis, China lost more tidal flat and at a faster rate (39.8%, 1.8% yr-1) than South Korea (32.2%, 1.6% yr-1), and in North Korea minor gains of tidal flat were recorded at (8.5%, 0.3 yr-1). For the same mapped area, historical maps suggest that tidal flats occupied up to 1.14 million ha in the mid-1950s, equating to a potential net loss of up to 65% over ~50 years. Coastal land reclamation for agriculture, aquaculture and urban development is a major driver of tidal flat loss, particularly in China and South Korea, although region-wide declines in sediment replenishment from rivers is also occurring. To conserve the ecosystem services provided by tidal flats and ensure protection of the region's coastal biodiversity, conservation actions should target protection of tidal flats and encourage collaborative and properly planned development

  6. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  7. Remediation of the Maxey Flats Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes issues associated with remedial action of Maxey Flats, a low-level radioactive waste disposal site from 1963-1977, located in Fleming County, Kentucky. Present remedial action alternatives being considered are discussed along with emergency plans, ground water monitoring plans, and budgets

  8. Status of flat electron beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Last year at LINAC2000 [1] the authors reported their initial verification of the round beam (comparable transverse emittances) to flat beam (high transverse emittance ratio) transformation described by Brinkmann, Derbenev, and Floettmann [2]. Further analysis of the data has confirmed that a transverse emittance ratio of approximately 50 was observed. Graphics representing observational detail are included here, and future plans outlined

  9. Flat deformation theorem and symmetries in spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    The flat deformation theorem states that given a semi-Riemannian analytic metric g on a manifold, locally there always exists a two-form F, a scalar function c, and an arbitrarily prescribed scalar constraint depending on the point x of the manifold and on F and c, say Ψ(c, F, x) = 0, such that the deformed metric η = cg - εF 2 is semi-Riemannian and flat. In this paper we first show that the above result implies that every (Lorentzian analytic) metric g may be written in the extended Kerr-Schild form, namely η ab := ag ab - 2bk (a l b) where η is flat and k a , l a are two null covectors such that k a l a = -1; next we show how the symmetries of g are connected to those of η, more precisely; we show that if the original metric g admits a conformal Killing vector (including Killing vectors and homotheties), then the deformation may be carried out in a way such that the flat deformed metric η 'inherits' that symmetry.

  10. Flat roofs, a grey area; Grauzone Flachdach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, Anja

    2012-11-01

    The boom of low-ballast assembly systems for flat roofs is going on. Solar assembly racks are set up directly on the sealing foil without fastening bolts. But what happens in case of water ingress? And what should be done to prevent damage to the roof cover? (orig.)

  11. Computational Design of Flat-Band Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kawashima, K.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum mechanics states that hopping integral between local orbitals makes the energy band dispersive. However, in some special cases, there are bands with no dispersion due to quantum interference. These bands are called as flat band. Many models having flat band have been proposed, and many interesting physical properties are predicted. However, no real compound having flat band has been found yet despite the 25 years of vigorous researches. We have found that some pyrochlore oxides have quasi-flat band just below the Fermi level by first principles calculation. Moreover, their valence bands are well described by a tight-binding model of pyrochlore lattice with isotropic nearest neighbor hopping integral. This model belongs to a class of Mielke model, whose ground state is known to be ferromagnetic with appropriate carrier doping and on-site repulsive Coulomb interaction. We have also performed a spin-polarized band calculation for the hole-doped system from first principles and found that the ground state is ferromagnetic for some doping region. Interestingly, these compounds do not include magnetic element, such as transition metal and rare-earth elements.

  12. Do intertidal flats ever reach equilibrium?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, D.C.; van Prooijen, B.C.; Wang, Z.B.; de Vriend, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Various studies have identified a strong relation between the hydrodynamic forces and the equilibrium profile for intertidal flats. A thorough understanding of the interplay between the hydrodynamic forces and the morphology, however, concerns more than the equilibrium state alone. We study the

  13. Nonflat equilibrium liquid shapes on flat surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starov, Victor M

    2004-01-15

    The hydrostatic pressure in thin liquid layers differs from the pressure in the ambient air. This difference is caused by the actions of surface forces and capillary pressure. The manifestation of the surface force action is the disjoining pressure, which has a very special S-shaped form in the case of partial wetting (aqueous thin films and thin films of aqueous electrolyte and surfactant solutions, both free films and films on solid substrates). In thin flat liquid films the disjoining pressure acts alone and determines their thickness. However, if the film surface is curved then both the disjoining and the capillary pressures act simultaneously. In the case of partial wetting their simultaneous action results in the existence of nonflat equilibrium liquid shapes. It is shown that in the case of S-shaped disjoining pressure isotherm microdrops, microdepressions, and equilibrium periodic films exist on flat solid substrates. Criteria are found for both the existence and the stability of these nonflat equilibrium liquid shapes. It is shown that a transition from thick films to thinner films can go via intermediate nonflat states, microdepressions and periodic films, which both can be more stable than flat films within some range of hydrostatic pressure. Experimental investigations of shapes of the predicted nonflat layers can open new possibilities of determination of disjoining pressure in the range of thickness in which flat films are unstable.

  14. 8. Asymptotically Flat and Regular Cauchy Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Sergio

    I describe the construction of a large class of asymptotically flat initial data with non-vanishing mass and angular momentum for which the metric and the extrinsic curvature have asymptotic expansions at space-like infinity in terms of powers of a radial coordinate. I emphasize the motivations and the main ideas behind the proofs.

  15. Design scenarios for flat panel photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel

  16. Completeness for flat modal fixpoint logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santocanale, L.; Venema, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper exhibits a general and uniform method to prove axiomatic completeness for certain modal fixpoint logics. Given a set Γ of modal formulas of the form γ(x,p1,…,pn), where x occurs only positively in γ, we obtain the flat modal fixpoint language L♯(Γ) by adding to the language of polymodal

  17. Hangingwall accomodation styles in flat ramp trust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulugeta, G.; Sokoutis, D.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the dynamic and rheologic control of hanging wall accommodation in ramp-flat thrust models. In particular we vary the dimensionless ratio of shear strength to gravity stress to model hanging wall accommodation styles in different materials. In all models we require that the

  18. Designing Flat-Plate Photovoltaic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Report presents overview of state of art in design techniques for flat-plate solar photovoltaic modules and arrays. Paper discusses design requirements, design analyses, and test methods identified and developed for this technology over past several years in effort to reduce cost and improve utility and reliability for broad spectrum of terrestrial applications.

  19. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  20. Exact Riemann solutions of the Ripa model for flat and non-flat bottom topographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Asad; Ali, Ishtiaq; Qamar, Shamsul

    2018-03-01

    This article is concerned with the derivation of exact Riemann solutions for Ripa model considering flat and non-flat bottom topographies. The Ripa model is a system of shallow water equations accounting for horizontal temperature gradients. In the case of non-flat bottom topography, the mass, momentum and energy conservation principles are utilized to relate the left and right states across the step-type bottom topography. The resulting system of algebraic equations is solved iteratively. Different numerical case studies of physical interest are considered. The solutions obtained from developed exact Riemann solvers are compared with the approximate solutions of central upwind scheme.

  1. Management of flat or inverted nipples with simple rubber bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Kamalendu; Basu, Subhra

    2011-08-01

    Occurrences of flat or inverted nipples are not uncommon problems, and although they should not preclude breastfeeding, they often seriously hamper initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Various therapies including nipple exercise, breast shells, inverted syringes, or surgical corrections have been reported with varying success rates. A new method has been devised by the authors that consisted of tying a rubber band around the base of the nipple, with the help of a syringe applicator, to make it prominent. Latex rubber bands cut from condom rims were used in this study. The band had to be worn only during feeding. This method was tested on 19 mothers with flat, inverted, or otherwise deformed nipples. The babies were born in hospitals and were between 9 and 38 days old, mostly fed by bottle feeding, at the time of presentation. The mothers had been counseled about the importance of good attachment during breastfeeding and shown the new method. They were instructed to use the method at home and attend follow-up on day 3, day 7, and day 28. Sixty-three percent of mothers could achieve latching at the breast with good attachment within 3 days, and all did by the end of the month, as nipples no longer remained a problem. The insufficiency of milk was gradually taken care of by frequent suckling with time. No complications like pain or slipping of the band were reported. This simple method may be a good bedside solution for flat/retracted nipples. The authors strongly believe that if the new method is applied immediately after birth under supervision, no mother with nipple problem will be required to feed nonhuman milk to her baby.

  2. General classification of a normally flat Ric- semi symmetric submanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzoyan, V.A.

    2012-01-01

    It has been proved that a normally flat submanifold M in Euclidean space En satisfies the condition R(X,Y)Ricci =0 if and only if it is the open part of one of the following submanifolds: (1) normally flat two-dimensional submanifold, (2) normally flat Einstein submanifold (in particular Ricci-flat or locally Euclidean), (3) normally flat semi- Einstein submanifold, (4) normally flat interlacing product of semi-Einstein submanifolds and locally Euclidean submanifold (may be of zero dimension), (5) direct product of the above enumerated classes of submanifolds

  3. A Flat World with Deep Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Constantinescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet manages to connect different parts of the world, defies geographical distances and gives the impression that our planet is flat, but the Internet is there only for the ones who have the possibility and the ability to use it. Our contemporary flat world has deep transversal fractures which, like in many geological structures, make a direct connection between layers with different characteristics. The elites are moving across information avenues with targets set in the future; at the same time, in many parts of our planet, there are people organizing their lives in pre-modern agrarian cycles. Diversity in ways of living and in social organization is a sign of human freedom, not a sign of error, so, having different alternatives to achieving prosperity and happiness should be good news. Holding dear to a society’s lifestyle should not push for the destruction of societies with different sets of values.

  4. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén, E-mail: rmohedano@lpi-europe.com; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Campus de Montegancedo, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-28

    The so-called CCS{sup 4}FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  5. Release fractions for Rocky Flats specific accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    As Rocky Flats and other DOE facilities begin the transition process towards decommissioning, the nature of the scenarios to be studied in safety analysis will change. Whereas the previous emphasis in safety accidents related to production, now the emphasis is shifting to accidents related tc decommissioning and waste management. Accident scenarios of concern at Rocky Flats now include situations of a different nature and different scale than are represented by most of the existing experimental accident data. This presentation will discuss approaches at sign to use for applying the existing body of release fraction data to this new emphasis. Mention will also be made of ongoing efforts to produce new data and improve the understanding of physical mechanisms involved

  6. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  7. History of Rocky Flats waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luckett, L.L.; Dickman, A.A.; Wells, C.R.; Vickery, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An analysis of the waste streams at Rocky Flats was done to provide information for the Waste Certification program. This program has involved studying the types and amounts of retrievable transuranic (TRU) waste from Rocky Flats that is stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The information can be used to estimate the types and amounts of waste that will need to be permanently stored in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The study covered mostly the eight-year period from June 1971 to June 1979. The types, amounts, and plutonium content of TRU waste and the areas or operations responsible for generating the waste are summarized in this waste stream history report. From the period studied, a total of 24,546,153 lbs of waste containing 211,148 g of plutonium currently occupies 709,497 cu ft of storage space at INEL

  8. Infiltration barrier demonstration at Maxey Flats, Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.; Razor, J.

    1983-01-01

    At the 1982 DOE LLWMP meeting, the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet presented a history of the Maxey Flats Waste Disposal Facility, its status, and current Commonwealth activities leading toward stabilization and decommissioning. Information was presented at that time on the purpose of the DOE Trench Moisture Barrier Demonstration Grant and the early phases of construction and implementation. In this paper, final construction and implementation of the trench moisture barrier demonstration are discussed. Data including trench water level measurements, lateral liquid flow in experimental sections, and soil moisture measurements are presented and discussed. The Paper is completed with a brief discussion of remediation activities currently being implemented at Maxey Flats. 9 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  9. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site

  10. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.; NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Batavia, IL)

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-de Sitter model of the universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the universe which posses a smooth component of energy density. The kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings is studied in detail. The observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models are also discussed. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations. 58 references

  11. Modelling Flat Spring performance using FEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatola, B O; Keogh, P; Hicks, B

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports how the stiffness of a Flat Spring can be predicted using nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The analysis of a Flat Spring is a nonlinear problem involving contact mechanics, geometric nonlinearity and material property nonlinearity. Research has been focused on improving the accuracy of the model by identifying and exploring the significant assumptions contributing to errors. This paper presents results from some of the models developed using FEA software. The validation process is shown to identify where improvements can be made to the model assumptions to increase the accuracy of prediction. The goal is to achieve an accuracy level of ±10 % as the intention is to replace practical testing with FEA modelling, thereby reducing the product development time and cost. Results from the FEA models are compared with experimental results to validate the accuracy.

  12. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF FLAT PLATE SOLAR COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TABET I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical and experimental studyof flat platesolar water collector with reflectors.A mathematical model based on energy balance equations saw the thermal behavior of the collector is investigated. The experimental test was made at the unit research applies in renewable energy (URAER located in southern Algeria.An increase of 23% for solar radiation incident on the collector surface with the addition of the planers reflectors in the day of May, this increase causes an improvement of the performance of the collector,the fluid temperature increases with an average of 5%. Thetests conducted on the flat plate solar water collector in open circuit enabled the determination of thermal performance of the collector by estimating the daily output The thermal efficiency of the collector ranges from 1% -63% during the day, a mean value of 36%obtained.

  13. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations

  14. Kinematic tests of exotic flat cosmological models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J.C.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-05-01

    Theoretical prejudice and inflationary models of the very early Universe strongly favor the flat, Einstein-deSitter model of the Universe. At present the observational data conflict with this prejudice. This conflict can be resolved by considering flat models of the Universe which possess a smooth component by energy density. We study in detail the kinematics of such models, where the smooth component is relativistic particles, a cosmological term, a network of light strings, or fast-moving, light strings. We also discuss the observational tests which can be used to discriminate between these models. These tests include the magnitude-redshift, lookback time-redshift, angular size-redshift, and comoving volume-redshift diagrams and the growth of density fluctuations.

  15. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi

    2015-09-01

    The so-called CCS4FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  16. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The so-called CCS 4 FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations

  17. Flat Foot in a Random Population and its Impact on Quality of Life and Functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Gonzalez-Martin, Cristina; Alonso-Tajes, Francisco; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; Pertega-Diaz, Sonia; Perez-Garcia, Sergio; Seijo-Bestilleiro, Rocio; Balboa-Barreiro, Vanesa

    2017-04-01

    Flat foot is a common deformity in adults. It is characterized by medial rotation and plantar flexion of the talus, eversion of the calcaneus, collapsed medial arch and abduction of the forefoot. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of flat foot and its impact on quality of life, dependence, foot pain, disability and functional limitation among random population of 40-year-old and above. A cross-sectional study in a random population sample from Cambre (A Coruña-Spain) (n=835) was performed (α =0.05; Precision=±3.4%). The diagnosis of flat foot was stablished by the study of the footprint obtained with a pedograph. Anthropometric variables were studied, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, function and state of foot (Foot Function Index (FFI), Foot Health Status Questionnaire (FHSQ)), quality of life (SF-36), and dependence for activities of daily living (Barthel and Lawton index). A logistic and linear multiple regression analysis was performed. The prevalence of flat foot was 26.62%. Patients with flat foot were significantly older (65.73±11.04 vs 61.03±11.45-year-old), showed a higher comorbidity index (0.92±1.49 vs 0.50±0.98), had a greater BMI (31.45±5.55 vs 28.40±4.17) and greater foot size (25.16±1.66 vs 24.82±1.65). The presence of flat foot diminishes the quality of life, as measured by the FHSQ, and foot function, measured by the FFI. The presence of flat foot does not alter the physical and mental dimension of the SF-36 or the degree of dependence. Flat foot was associated with age, Charlson's Comorbidity Index, BMI and foot size. The SF-36, Barthel and Lawton questionnaires remained unaltered by the presence of flat foot. The FHSQ and FFI questionnaires did prove to be sensitive to the presence of flat foot in a significant manner.

  18. The Electromagnetic Zero-Point Field and the Flat Polarizable Vacuum Representation

    CERN Document Server

    Desiato, J T

    2003-01-01

    There are several interpretations of the Polarizable Vacuum (PV). One is the variable speed of light (VSL) approach, that has been shown to be isomorphic to General Relativity (GR) within experimental limits. However, another interpretation is representative of flat geometry, in which intervals of time and distance are measured in local inertial reference frames where the speed of light remains constant. The Flat PV approach leads to variable impedance transformations, governed by the spectral energy content of the Quantum Vacuum’s Electromagnetic (EM) Zero-Point Field (ZPF). The EM ZPF consists of photons. An unlimited number of photons may occupy the same quantum state at an arbitrary set of coordinates. Therefore, the spectral energy of the ZPF may be varied smoothly, represented by a superposition of EM waves with a large number of photons per cubic wavelength. Utilizing the Flat PV representation, a family of frequency dependent solutions of Poisson’s equation are derived, that may be applied as tool...

  19. Basic TRUEX process for Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.A.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Dow, J.A.; Farley, S.E.; Nunez, L.; Regalbuto, M.C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-08-01

    The Generic TRUEX Model was used to develop a TRUEX process flowsheet for recovering the transuranics (Pu, Am) from a nitrate waste stream at Rocky Flats Plant. The process was designed so that it is relatively insensitive to changes in process feed concentrations and flow rates. Related issues are considered, including solvent losses, feed analysis requirements, safety, and interaction with an evaporator system for nitric acid recycle

  20. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology.

  1. Microwave solidification development for Rocky Flats waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Erle, R.; Eschen, V.

    1994-04-01

    The Microwave Engineering Team at the Rocky Flats Plant has developed a production-scale system for the treatment of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes using microwave energy. The system produces a vitreous final form which meets the acceptance criteria for shipment and disposal. The technology also has potential for application on various other waste streams from the public and private sectors. Technology transfer opportunities are being identified and pursued for commercialization of the microwave solidification technology

  2. Living place significance for Kaunas first year university student habits

    OpenAIRE

    Pajarskaitė, Dovilė

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study: Investigate students eating habits and availability for healthy nutrition. Objectives: Compare students nutritional habits by comparing their place of living; Find out students nutritional habits that are living in student flats. also eat nearby catering places; Evaluate students that live in Kaunas city of students flats possibility to prepare meals. Methods. Data from 2010 Kohortinis European students living habits was used for Nutritional habits comparison by livi...

  3. Optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimised intake stroke analysis for flat and dome head pistons. ... in understanding the performance characteristics optioned between flat head and dome head pistons in engine design. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  4. How flat is our Universe really?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okouma, P.M.; Fantaye, Y.; Bassett, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Distance measurement provides no constraints on curvature independent of assumptions about the dark energy, raising the question, how flat is our Universe if we make no such assumptions? Allowing for general evolution of the dark energy equation of state with 20 free parameters that are allowed to cross the phantom divide, w(z)=−1, we show that while it is indeed possible to match the first peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background with non-flat models and arbitrary Hubble constant, H 0 , the full WMAP7 and supernova data alone imply −0.12 k 0 prior, this tightens significantly to Ω k =0.002±0.009. These constitute the most conservative and model-independent constraints on curvature available today, and illustrate that the curvature-dynamics degeneracy is broken by current data, with a key role played by the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect rather than the distance to the surface of last scattering. If one imposes a quintessence prior on the dark energy (−1⩽w(z)⩽1) then just the WMAP7 and supernova data alone force the Universe to near flatness: Ω k =0.013±0.012. Finally, allowing for curvature, we find that all datasets are consistent with a Harrison–Zel'dovich spectral index, n s =1, at 2σ, illustrating the interplay between early and late Universe constraints

  5. Stationary solutions and asymptotic flatness I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiris, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In general relativity, a stationary isolated system is defined as an asymptotically flat (AF) stationary spacetime with compact material sources. Other definitions that are less restrictive on the type of asymptotic could in principle be possible. Between this article and its sequel, we show that under basic assumptions, asymptotic flatness indeed follows as a consequence of Einstein's theory. In particular, it is proved that any vacuum stationary spacetime-end whose (quotient) manifold is diffeomorphic to R 3 minus a ball and whose Killing field has its norm bounded away from zero, is necessarily AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. The ‘excised’ ball would contain (if any) the actual material body, but this information is unnecessary to reach the conclusion. In this first article, we work with weakly asymptotically flat (WAF) stationary ends, a notion that generalizes as much as possible that of the AF end, and prove that WAF ends are AF with Schwarzschildian fall off. Physical and mathematical implications are also discussed. (paper)

  6. Design scenarios for flat panel photobioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, G. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel photobioreactors using the interaction between light and algae growth for the algae species Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Thalassiosira pseudonana. The effect of location, variable sunlight and reactor layout on biomass production in single standing and parallel positioned flat panels was considered. Three latitudes were studied representing the Netherlands, France and Algeria. In single standing reactors the highest yearly biomass production is achieved in Algeria. During the year biomass production fluctuates the most in the Netherlands, while it is almost constant in Algeria. Several combinations of path lengths and biomass concentrations can result in the same optimal biomass production. The productivity in parallel place flat panels is strongly influenced by shading and diffuse light penetration between the panels. Panel orientation has a large effect on productivity and at higher latitudes the difference between north-south and east-west orientation may go up to 50%.

  7. ANALYSIS OF ANKLE ALIGNMENT ABNORMALITIES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PEDIATRIC FLEXIBLE FLAT FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ajai Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of paediatric flat feet are flexible and asymptomatic; less than 0.1% of all flat feet are rigid. If these can be diagnosed and managed early, then various complications can be prevented and they will remain asymptomatic. This study was conducted to analyse the ankle rotational mal-alignments in the natural course of flexible flat foot in children. Seventy-six patients of flexible flat foot and one hundred controls were included in this study. The height of foot arches was judged clinically by inspecting the height of the medial arch and by measuring the arch index on weight-bearing podograms. Tibial torsion and bimalleolar angle were assessed in all subjects. Tibial torsion was assessed in the first twenty subjects (ten cases and ten controls both by clinical methods (foot-thigh angle and CT. As no statistical difference in the two methods was observed, tibial torsion was measured by clinical methods only in the remaining subjects. Bimalleolar angle was measured on weight-bearing podograms in all subjects. For a minimum of two years, cases were followed up regularly with a standard conservative protocol and the height of the arches observed. Majority of cases of flexible flat foot were found to have increased tibial torsion and increased foot-bimalleolar angle (high talar spin. The severity of collapse of the medial arch and the response to conservative treatment was found to correlate with these rotational mal-alignments of the ankle. Ankle rotational mal-alignments were seen to make these flexible flat foot deformities more complex and less responsive to conservative treatment.

  8. CMB spectra and bispectra calculations: making the flat-sky approximation rigorous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardeau, Francis; Pitrou, Cyril; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This article constructs flat-sky approximations in a controlled way in the context of the cosmic microwave background observations for the computation of both spectra and bispectra. For angular spectra, it is explicitly shown that there exists a whole family of flat-sky approximations of similar accuracy for which the expression and amplitude of next to leading order terms can be explicitly computed. It is noted that in this context two limiting cases can be encountered for which the expressions can be further simplified. They correspond to cases where either the sources are localized in a narrow region (thin-shell approximation) or are slowly varying over a large distance (which leads to the so-called Limber approximation). Applying this to the calculation of the spectra it is shown that, as long as the late integrated Sachs-Wolfe contribution is neglected, the flat-sky approximation at leading order is accurate at 1% level for any multipole. Generalization of this construction scheme to the bispectra led to the introduction of an alternative description of the bispectra for which the flat-sky approximation is well controlled. This is not the case for the usual description of the bispectrum in terms of reduced bispectrum for which a flat-sky approximation is proposed but the next-to-leading order terms of which remain obscure

  9. Youth ministry as an agency of youth development for the vulnerable youth of the Cape Flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Religiosity has a profound role and influence on youth development within a community. Religiosity promotes risk reduction and positive moral characteristics and thus remains an avenue of opportunity for transformation in considering the lived experiences of vulnerable young people living on the Cape Flats in the Western Cape, South Africa. The Cape Flats is an area that is overwhelmed with unemployment, poverty, gang violence, chemical substance abuse and a general societal abandonment of young people. It is out of dire hopelessness that a meaningful relationship with God can be experienced by youth. The Cape Flats is, therefore, a fertile space for an intervention of religiosity. This article will research how the agency of youth ministry as a positive youth development can assist in youth development within a community in tension like that of the Cape Flats. While youth development is a broad category for consideration and research, this article will primarily focus on identity formation of young people, in particular, the vulnerable youth living on the Cape Flats.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The agency of youth ministry, in an evangelical epistemology, should seek to address the influencers on adolescent identity formation, as one�s identity has a direct bearing on faith formation. The potential outcome of the article would allow the youth ministry to take serious the impact of the lived realities of youth and adjust their programmatic designs and outcomes, in relation to youth faith formation.

  10. How flat is our Universe really?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okouma, P.M., E-mail: okouma@saao.ac.za [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); Fantaye, Y. [Astrophysics Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315, Oslo (Norway); Bassett, B.A. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-02-12

    Distance measurement provides no constraints on curvature independent of assumptions about the dark energy, raising the question, how flat is our Universe if we make no such assumptions? Allowing for general evolution of the dark energy equation of state with 20 free parameters that are allowed to cross the phantom divide, w(z)=−1, we show that while it is indeed possible to match the first peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background with non-flat models and arbitrary Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, the full WMAP7 and supernova data alone imply −0.12<Ω{sub k}<0.01 (2σ). If we add an H{sub 0} prior, this tightens significantly to Ω{sub k}=0.002±0.009. These constitute the most conservative and model-independent constraints on curvature available today, and illustrate that the curvature-dynamics degeneracy is broken by current data, with a key role played by the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect rather than the distance to the surface of last scattering. If one imposes a quintessence prior on the dark energy (−1⩽w(z)⩽1) then just the WMAP7 and supernova data alone force the Universe to near flatness: Ω{sub k}=0.013±0.012. Finally, allowing for curvature, we find that all datasets are consistent with a Harrison–Zel'dovich spectral index, n{sub s}=1, at 2σ, illustrating the interplay between early and late Universe constraints.

  11. Rigidity of generalized Bach-flat vacuum static spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gabjin; Hwang, Seungsu

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we study the structure of generalized Bach-flat vacuum static spaces. Generalized Bach-flat metrics are considered as extensions of both Einstein and Bach-flat metrics. First, we prove that a compact Riemannian n-manifold with n ≥ 4 which is a generalized Bach-flat vacuum static space is Einstein. A generalized Bach-flat vacuum static space with the potential function f having compact level sets is either Ricci-flat or a warped product with zero scalar curvature when n ≥ 5, and when n = 4, it is Einstein if f has its minimum. Secondly, we consider critical metrics for another quadratic curvature functional involving the Ricci tensor, and prove similar results. Lastly, by applying the technique developed above, we prove Besse conjecture when the manifold is generalized Bach-flat.

  12. Incorporation of flat glass in red ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, T.C.C.; Morais, A.S.C.; Pereira, P.S.; Monteiro, S.N.; Vieira, C.M.F.

    2011-01-01

    This work have as objective evaluate the effect of incorporation of up to 10% by weight of powdered flat glass , from civil industry, in red ceramic. The bodies were obtained by uniaxial pressing at 20 MPa and fired at temperatures of 850 ° C and 1050 ° C. The parameters studied were linear firing shrinkage, apparent density, water absorption and flexural rupture stress for the evaluation of the mechanical physical properties. The microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy and phase identification was performed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the waste changes the microstructure and properties of red ceramics. (author)

  13. Relative stiffness of flat conductor cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    The measurement of the bending moment required to obtain a given deflection in short lengths of flat conductor cable (FCC) is presented in this report. Experimental data were taken on 10 different samples of FCC and normalized to express all bending moments (relative stiffness factor) in terms of a cable 5.1 cm (2.0 in.) in width. Data are presented in tabular and graphical form for the covenience of designers who may be interested in finding torques exerted on critical components by short lengths of FCC.

  14. Q-balls in flat potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, Edmund J.; Tsumagari, Mitsuo I.

    2009-01-01

    We study the classical and absolute stability of Q-balls in scalar field theories with flat potentials arising in both gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated models. We show that the associated Q-matter formed in gravity-mediated potentials can be stable against decay into their own free particles as long as the coupling constant of the nonrenormalizable term is small, and that all of the possible three-dimensional Q-ball configurations are classically stable against linear fluctuations. Three-dimensional gauge-mediated Q-balls can be absolutely stable in the thin-wall limit, but are completely unstable in the thick-wall limit.

  15. A one-dimensional biomorphodynamic model of tidal flats: Sediment sorting, marsh distribution, and carbon accumulation under sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zeng; Ye, Qinghua; Coco, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    We develop a biomorphodynamic model to investigate sediment and vegetation dynamics on a schematic intertidal flat characterized by an initially well-mixed sand-mud mixture. Major interactions between tides, wind waves, salt marshes, sediment transport and sea level rise (SLR) are taken into account. For a bare flat under only tidal action, the model predicts a convex cross-shore profile with the surficial distribution of mud and sand on the upper and lower part of the intertidal flat, respectively. When wind waves are strong, the intertidal flat is highly eroded resulting in a concave profile near the high water mark. This behavior is pronouncedly altered when the intertidal flat is vegetated with the presence of salt marshes. Numerical results suggest that a considerable amount of mud can still remain in the vegetated region even when wave action is strong. A steeper transition zone forms at the boundary between salt marshes and bare flats because of the differential sediment deposition in the two neighboring regions. The inclusion of wind waves is found to considerably enhance the size of the marsh-edge transition zone. For the numerical experiments designed in this study, the profile shape and sediment sorting behavior of tidal flats are not significantly modified by a gradual rising sea level. However, the impacts of SLR on vegetated tidal flats are still manifold: (a) driving the landward migration of intertidal zone and salt marshes; (b) enhancing sediment erosion on intertidal flats; and (c) drowning salt marshes under limited sediment supply with the constrain of seawalls. Finally, model results suggest that organic carbon accumulation on marshlands may be enhanced with an increasing SLR rate provided that salt marshes are not drowned.

  16. Disposal of Rocky Flats residues as waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dustin, D.F.; Sendelweck, V.S.

    1993-01-01

    Work is underway at the Rocky Flats Plant to evaluate alternatives for the removal of a large inventory of plutonium-contaminated residues from the plant. One alternative under consideration is to package the residues as transuranic wastes for ultimate shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Current waste acceptance criteria and transportation regulations require that approximately 1000 cubic yards of residues be repackaged to produce over 20,000 cubic yards of WIPP certified waste. The major regulatory drivers leading to this increase in waste volume are the fissile gram equivalent, surface radiation dose rate, and thermal power limits. In the interest of waste minimization, analyses have been conducted to determine, for each residue type, the controlling criterion leading to the volume increase, the impact of relaxing that criterion on subsequent waste volume, and the means by which rules changes may be implemented. The results of this study have identified the most appropriate changes to be proposed in regulatory requirements in order to minimize the costs of disposing of Rocky Flats residues as transuranic wastes

  17. Risk, media, and stigma at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, J.; Peters, E.; Mertz, C.K.; Slovic, P.

    1998-01-01

    Public responses to nuclear technologies are often strongly negative. Events, such as accidents or evidence of unsafe conditions at nuclear facilities, receive extensive and dramatic coverage by the news media. These news stories affect public perceptions of nuclear risks and the geographic areas near nuclear facilities. One result of these perceptions, avoidance behavior, is a form of technological stigma that leads to losses in property values near nuclear facilities. The social amplification of risk is a conceptual framework that attempts to explain how stigma is created through media transmission of information about hazardous places and public perceptions and decisions. This paper examines stigma associated with the US Department of energy's Rocky Flats facility, a major production plant in the nation's nuclear weapons complex, located near Denver, Colorado. This study, based upon newspaper analyses and a survey of Denver area residents, finds that the social amplification theory provides a reasonable framework for understanding the events and public responses that took place in regard to Rocky Flats during a 6-year period, beginning with an FBI raid of the facility in 1989

  18. Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric flat directions

    CERN Document Server

    Riva, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Giudice, Gian

    In this work we analyze various implications of the presence of large field vacum expectation values (VEVs) along supersymmetric flat direct ions during the early universe. First, we discuss supersymmetric leptogenesis and the grav itino bound. Supersym- metric thermal leptogenesis with a hierarchical right-han ded neutrino mass spectrum normally requires the mass of the lightest right-handed neu trino to be heavier than about 10 9 GeV. This is in conflict with the upper bound on the reheating t empera- ture which is found by imposing that the gravitinos generate d during the reheating stage after inflation do not jeopardize successful nucleosy nthesis. We show that a solution to this tension is actually already incorporated i n the framework, because of the presence of flat directions in the supersymmetric scalar potential. Massive right- handed neutrinos are efficiently produced non-thermally and the observed baryon asymmetry can be explained even for a reheating temperature respecting the grav- itino bound...

  19. Development of electromagnetic welding facility of flat plates for nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sahoo, Subhanarayan; Sarkar, Biswanath; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse welding (EMPW) process, one of high speed welding process uses electromagnetic force from discharged current through working coil, which develops a repulsive force between the induced current flowing parallel and in opposite direction. For achieving the successful weldment using this process the design of working coil is the most important factor due to high magnetic field on surface of work piece. In case of high quality flat plate welding factors such as impact velocity, angle of impact standoff distance, thickness of flyer and overlap length have to be chosen carefully. All the parameters should be optimized because above or below the optimized value, it is impossible to get high quality welding of flat components. Electromagnetic pulse welding of flat components has been studied in detail by many researches due to its advantages of increased formability and reduced spring back than other welding methods. The feasibility of electromagnetic welding of sheets has been established, but the effect of process parameters on the weld quality has not been justified properly. The present study investigates the effect of parameters on welding quality of flat sheets, which has wide applications in nuclear industry, automotive industry, aerospace, electrical industries. However formability and weld ability still remain major issues. The EMPW process for flat sheets and axi-symmetric components has been studied in details by many researchers. Due to ease in controlling the magnetic field enveloped inside tubes, the EMPW has been widely used for tube welding. In case of flat components control of magnetic field is difficult. Hence the application of EMPW gets restricted. The present work attempts to make a novel contribution by investigating the effect of process parameters on welding quality. The work emphasizes the approaches and engineering calculations required to effectively use of actuator in EMPW. (author)

  20. Flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia: carcinoma underestimation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingegnoli, Anna; d'Aloia, Cecilia; Frattaruolo, Antonia; Pallavera, Lara; Martella, Eugenia; Crisi, Girolamo; Zompatori, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the underestimation rate of carcinoma upon surgical biopsy after a diagnosis of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia and 11-gauge vacuum-assisted breast biopsy. A retrospective review was conducted of 476 vacuum-assisted breast biopsy performed from May 2005 to January 2007 and a total of 70 cases of atypia were identified. Fifty cases (71%) were categorized as pure atypical ductal hyperplasia, 18 (26%) as pure flat epithelial atypia and two (3%) as concomitant flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Each group were compared with the subsequent open surgical specimens. Surgical biopsy was performed in 44 patients with atypical ductal hyperplasia, 15 patients with flat epithelial atypia, and two patients with flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia. Five cases of atypical ductal hyperplasia were upgraded to ductal carcinoma in situ, three cases of flat epithelial atypia yielded one ductal carcinoma in situ and two cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, and one case of flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia had invasive ductal carcinoma. The overall rate of malignancy was 16% for atypical ductal hyperplasia (including flat epithelial atypia/atypical ductal hyperplasia patients) and 20% for flat epithelial atypia. The presence of flat epithelial atypia and atypical ductal hyperplasia at biopsy requires careful consideration, and surgical excision should be suggested.

  1. PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION OF THERMOSIPHON SOLAR FLAT PLATE WATER HEATER DUE TO SCALING

    OpenAIRE

    arunachala umesh chandavar

    2011-01-01

    The performance of Flat plate Solar Water Heater deteriorates within five to twelve years of their installation due to factors related to manufacturing, operating conditions, lack of maintenance etc. Especially, problem due to scaling is significant as it is based on quality of water used. The remaining factors are system dependent and could be overcome by quality production. Software is developed by incorporating Hottel Whillier Bliss (H-W-B) equation to ascertain the effect of scaling o...

  2. Treatment Effects of Maxillary Flat Occlusal Splints for Painful Clicking of the Temporomandibular Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Wen Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing therapies for symptoms related to painful clicking of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ have rarely met with complete success and predicting prognosis remains difficult. Few studies have reported the efficacy of maxillary flat occlusal splints (MFOSs for the treatment of painful clicking of the TMJ, and few studies have evaluated the predisposing factors that influence the clinical outcomes of MFOSs. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment efficacy of MFOSs for painful clicking of the TMJ, and to determine the factors influencing TMJ therapy with MFOSs. We conducted a retrospective study of 109 patients suffering from unilateral clicking concurrent with preauricular area pain for at least 2 months between 2004 and 2008. Seventy-five patients were treated with an MFOS, while 34 patients did not receive MFOS therapy. Clicking score, pain-free maximal mouth opening, pain score, duration of the clicking sounds, age and bruxism were recorded during treatment and involved into the reviews. The degree of joint clicking was determined by a stethoscope placed in the anterolateral area of the external auditory canal and was divided into four grades. Data were analyzed using a Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t test. Results showed statistically significant differences in treatment outcomes between the MFOS-treated and control groups in clicking index, maximal mouth opening, pain and complete remission rates of symptoms within 1 year. Furthermore, for patients treated with MFOS, there were statistically significant differences in the clinical outcomes between those with a high clicking index and those with a low index before treatment. Factors significantly correlated with successful outcomes of MFOS included nocturnal bruxism, patient age and duration of clicking. MFOSs can be used to treat patients with painful clicking of the TMJ and related symptoms. The severity of clicking, bruxism, age and duration of

  3. Majorana flat bands in anisotropic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendler, Daniel; Kotetes, Panagiotis; Schoen, Gerd [Institut fuer theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    It has been recently proposed that topologically protected Majorana flat bands (MFBs) emerge in superconductors with nodal energy spectrum. In this work we introduce a new class of gapful superconductors, in which MFBs can occur due to strong anisotropy. The prototype system exhibiting this kind of behavior is the nematic p{sub x}+p{sub y} spinless superconductor, which supports an edge MFB with controllable bandwidth. Our proposal can be for instance experimentally implemented in topological superconductors engineered from i. semiconductors with tunable spin-orbit coupling or ii. topological insulator surfaces with intrinsic magnetic order in proximity to a conventional SC. By investigating the topological properties of both setups, we show that their unique features render them feasible platforms for manipulating the Majorana fermion bandstructure and realizing MFBs.

  4. The bifurcations of nearly flat origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Christian

    Self-folding origami structures provide one means of fabricating complex, three-dimensional structures from a flat, two-dimensional sheet. Self-folding origami structures have been fabricated on scales ranging from macroscopic to microscopic and can have quite complicated structures with hundreds of folds arranged in complex patterns. I will describe our efforts to understand the mechanics and energetics of self-folding origami structures. Though the dimension of the configuration space of an origami structure scales with the size of the boundary and not with the number of vertices in the interior of the structure, a typical origami structure is also floppy in the sense that there are many possible ways to assign fold angles consistently. I will discuss our theoretical progress in understanding the geometry of the configuration space of origami. For random origami, the number of possible bifurcations grows surprisingly quickly even when the dimension of the configuration space is small. EFRI ODISSEI-1240441, DMR-0846582.

  5. Ultra flat ideal concentrators of high concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio [IST, Physics Dept., Lisboa (Portugal); INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal); Collares-Pereira, Manuel [INETI-DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    A new method for the design of nonimaging devices is presented. Its application to the design of ultra flat compact concentrators is analysed. These new concentrators are based on a combination of two stages: the first one is composed of a large number of small structures placed side by side and the second one is a very compact single device concentrating the radiation to the limit. These devices are ideal for 2D. These compact designs are much more compact than the traditional ones like lens-mirror combinations or parabolic primaries with nonimaging secondaries. Besides, they can be designed for any acceptance angle, while the traditional ones are limited to small acceptance angles. (Author)

  6. Theory of Fermi Liquid with Flat Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodel, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    A self-consistent theory of Fermi systems hosting flat bands is developed. Compared with an original model of fermion condensation, its key point consists in proper accounting for mixing between condensate and non-condensate degrees of freedom that leads to formation of a non-BCS gap Υ (p) in the single-particle spectrum. The results obtained explain: (1) the two-gap structure of spectra of single-particle excitations of electron systems of copper oxides, revealed in ARPES studies, (2) the role of violation of the topological stability of the Landau state in the arrangement of the T-x phase diagram of this family of high-T_c superconductors, (3) the topological nature of a metal-insulator transition, discovered in homogeneous two-dimensional low-density electron liquid of MOSFETs more than 20 years ago.

  7. NEPA/CERCLA integration at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schassburger, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Integration of two laws, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was mandated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with issuance of DOE Order 5400.4 in October 6, 1989. NEPA documentation is required for all federal actions to thereby consider the impacts of such actions prior to the action taking place. On the other hand, CERCLA actions taken by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at non-federal and federal sites do not normally take NEPA into consideration, although it is not exempted at federal sites. EPA claims that CERCLA is functionally equivalent to N-EPA and therefore NEPA is not required. Although EPA maintains the functional equivalency of the two laws and formerly resisted to recognize NEPA even in Inter-Agency Agreements (IAGs), Rocky Flats has been integrating the two laws within documents to avoid duplication of information and effort

  8. Transparent Solar Concentrator for Flat Panel Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hung; Chang, Fuh-Yu; Young, Hong-Tsu; Hsieh, Tsung-Yen; Chang, Chia-Hsiung

    2012-06-01

    A new concept of the transparent solar concentrator for flat panel display is experimentally demonstrated without adversely affecting the visual effects. The solar concentrator is based on a solar light-guide plate with micro prisms, not only increasing the absorption area of solar energy but also enhancing the conversion efficiency. The incident light is guided by the designed solar light-guide plate according to the total internal reflection (TIR), and converted into electrical power by photovoltaic solar cells. The designed transparent solar concentrator was made and measured with high transparency, namely 94.8%. The developed solar energy system for display can store energy and supply the bias voltage to light on two light-emitting diodes (LEDs) successfully.

  9. TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).

  10. Development of Partial Tubular Flat Knitting Fabric Composite Preform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After building some structures of partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform, the influencing factor on tubular section was analyzed and the fabric was knitted selectively. The partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform were Knitted by changing different yarn, row number and two-sided partial tubular flat knitting fabric. Multilayer sheet would be got after hot pressing and it has big market prospects and good application value.

  11. Flat connection, conformal field theory and quantum group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mitsuhiro.

    1989-07-01

    General framework of linear first order differential equation for four-point conformal block is studied by using flat connection. Integrability and SL 2 invariance restrict possible form of flat connection. Under a special ansatz classical Yang-Baxter equation appears as an integrability condition and the WZW model turns to be unique conformal field theory in that case. Monodromy property of conformal block can be easily determined by the flat connection. 11 refs

  12. Quantitative Analysis of the Waterline Method for Topographical Mapping of Tidal Flats: A Case Study in the Dongsha Sandbank, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxue Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the topography of tidal flats is important for understanding their evolution, the spatial and temporal sampling frequency of such data remains limited. The waterline method has the potential to retrieve past tidal flat topography by utilizing large archives of satellite images. This study performs a quantitative analysis of the relationship between the accuracy of tidal flat digital elevation models (DEMs that are based on the waterline method and the factors that influence the DEMs. The three major conclusions of the study are as follows: (1 the coverage rate of the waterline points and the number of satellite images used to create the DEM are highly linearly correlated with the error of the resultant DEMs, and the former is more significant in indicating the accuracy of the resultant DEMs than the latter; (2 both the area and the slope of the tidal flats are linearly correlated with the error of the resultant DEMs; and (3 the availability analysis of the archived satellite images indicates that the waterline method can retrieve tidal flat terrains from the past forty years. The upper limit of the temporal resolution of the tidal flat DEM can be refined to within one year since 1993, to half a year since 2004 and to three months since 2009.

  13. Selective adsorption of a supramolecular structure on flat and stepped gold surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peköz, Rengin; Donadio, Davide

    2018-04-01

    Halogenated aromatic molecules assemble on surfaces forming both hydrogen and halogen bonds. Even though these systems have been intensively studied on flat metal surfaces, high-index vicinal surfaces remain challenging, as they may induce complex adsorbate structures. The adsorption of 2,6-dibromoanthraquinone (2,6-DBAQ) on flat and stepped gold surfaces is studied by means of van der Waals corrected density functional theory. Equilibrium geometries and corresponding adsorption energies are systematically investigated for various different adsorption configurations. It is shown that bridge sites and step edges are the preferred adsorption sites for single molecules on flat and stepped surfaces, respectively. The role of van der Waals interactions, halogen bonds and hydrogen bonds are explored for a monolayer coverage of 2,6-DBAQ molecules, revealing that molecular flexibility and intermolecular interactions stabilize two-dimensional networks on both flat and stepped surfaces. Our results provide a rationale for experimental observation of molecular carpeting on high-index vicinal surfaces of transition metals.

  14. Development of electromagnetic welding facility of flat plates for nuclear industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Sahoo, Subhanarayan; Sarkar, Biswanath; Shyam, Anurag

    2017-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse welding (EMPW) process, one of high speed welding process uses electromagnetic force from discharged current through working coil, which develops a repulsive force between the induced current flowing parallel and in opposite direction. For achieving the successful weldment using this process the design of working coil is the most important factor due to high magnetic field on surface of work piece. In case of high quality flat plate welding factors such as impact velocity, angle of impact standoff distance, thickness of flyer and overlap length have to be chosen carefully. EMPW has wide applications in nuclear industry, automotive industry, aerospace, electrical industries. However formability and weldability still remain major issues. Due to ease in controlling the magnetic field enveloped inside tubes, the EMPW has been widely used for tube welding. In case of flat components control of magnetic field is difficult. Hence the application of EMPW gets restricted. The present work attempts to make a novel contribution by investigating the effect of process parameters on welding quality of flat plates. The work emphasizes the approaches and engineering calculations required to effectively use of actuator in EMPW of flat components.

  15. Criteria impacting shipments of Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clawson, R.L.; Eide, J.H.

    1992-05-01

    Westinghouse Hanford Company, Transportation and Packaging Division, under contract for the Los Alamos Technology Office-Rocky Flats Plant, has developed this synopsis report to be used as a reference in the development of the Rocky Flats Plant Comprehensive Treatment and Management Plan and the Rocky Flats Plant Residue Elimination Plan. This report represents the criteria for packaging, shipping, and transporting Rocky Flats Plant radioactive mixed wastes. It is a compilation of state and federal regulations, US Department of Energy orders, and acceptance criteria specific to US Department of Energy radioactive mixed waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities

  16. 3D flat holography: entropy and logarithmic corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Basu, Rudranil

    2014-01-01

    We compute the leading corrections to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the Flat Space Cosmological (FSC) solutions in 3D flat spacetimes, which are the flat analogues of the BTZ black holes in AdS 3 . The analysis is done by a computation of density of states in the dual 2D Galilean Conformal Field Theory and the answer obtained by this matches with the limiting value of the expected result for the BTZ inner horizon entropy as well as what is expected for a generic thermodynamic system. Along the way, we also develop other aspects of holography of 3D flat spacetimes

  17. An epidemiologic study of flat foot in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamy B

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Among 880 studied feet of 7-14 years old children 6.9% suffered mild and severe flat foot. 53.8% of the affected children were symptomatic. As 40.1% of the general population experiences symptoms, in a small proportion of affected persons, symptoms are due to flat foot. The prevalence of symptoms rises with increasing severity of the disorder. In this article, reviewing general aspects of flat food, prevalence and other epidemiological aspects of flat foot for the first time in Iran have been presented

  18. Flat synchronizations in spherically symmetric space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, Alicia; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the Schwarzschild space-time admits a spacelike slicing by flat instants and that the metric is regular at the horizon in the associated adapted coordinates (Painleve-Gullstrand metric form). We consider this type of flat slicings in an arbitrary spherically symmetric space-time. The condition ensuring its existence is analyzed, and then, we prove that, for any spherically symmetric flat slicing, the densities of the Weinberg momenta vanish. Finally, we deduce the Schwarzschild solution in the extended Painleve-Gullstrand-LemaItre metric form by considering the coordinate decomposition of the vacuum Einstein equations with respect to a flat spacelike slicing.

  19. Evaluation of Flat Surface Temperature Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beges, G.; Rudman, M.; Drnovsek, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is elaboration of elements related to metrological analysis in the field of surface temperature measurement. Surface temperature measurements are applicable in many fields. As examples, safety testing of electrical appliances and a pharmaceutical production line represent case studies for surface temperature measurements. In both cases correctness of the result of the surface temperature has an influence on final product safety and quality and thus conformity with specifications. This paper deals with the differences of flat surface temperature probes in measuring the surface temperature. For the purpose of safety testing of electrical appliances, surface temperature measurements are very important for safety of the user. General requirements are presented in European standards, which support requirements in European directives, e.g., European Low Voltage Directive 2006/95/EC and pharmaceutical requirements, which are introduced in official state legislation. This paper introduces a comparison of temperature measurements of an attached thermocouple on the measured surface and measurement with flat surface temperature probes. As a heat generator, a so called temperature artifact is used. It consists of an aluminum plate with an incorporated electrical heating element with very good temperature stability in the central part. The probes and thermocouple were applied with different forces to the surface in horizontal and vertical positions. The reference temperature was measured by a J-type fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple. Two probes were homemade according to requirements in the European standard EN 60335-2-9/A12, one with a fine-wire (0.2 mm) thermocouple and one with 0.5mm of thermocouple wire diameter. Additional commercially available probes were compared. Differences between probes due to thermal conditions caused by application of the probe were found. Therefore, it can happen that measurements are performed with improper equipment or

  20. Design and analysis of all-dielectric subwavelength focusing flat lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turduev, M.; Bor, E.; Kurt, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, we numerically designed and experimentally demonstrated a compact photonic structure for the subwavelength focusing of light using all-dielectric absorption-free and nonmagnetic scattering objects distributed in an air medium. In order to design the subwavelength focusing flat lens, an evolutionary algorithm is combined with the finite-difference time-domain method for determining the locations of cylindrical scatterers. During the multi-objective optimization process, a specific objective function is defined to reduce the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and diminish side lobe level (SLL) values of light at the focal point. The time-domain response of the optimized flat lens exhibits subwavelength light focusing with an FWHM value of 0.19λ and an SLL value of 0.23, where λ denotes the operating wavelength of light. Experimental analysis of the proposed flat lens is conducted in a microwave regime and findings exactly verify the numerical results with an FWHM of 0.192λ and an SLL value of 0.311 at the operating frequency of 5.42 GHz. Moreover, the designed flat lens provides a broadband subwavelength focusing effect with a 9% bandwidth covering frequency range of 5.10 GHz-5.58 GHz, where corresponding FWHM values remain under 0.21λ. Also, it is important to note that the designed flat lens structure performs a line focusing effect. Possible applications of the designed structure in telecom wavelengths are speculated upon for future perspectives. Namely, the designed structure can perform well in photonic integrated circuits for different fields of applications such as high efficiency light coupling, imaging and optical microscopy, with its compact size and ability for strong focusing.

  1. Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ... Data file File name: jsnp_flat_files File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archiv...his Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Programming the shape-shifting of flat soft matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, T.; Janbaz, S.; Zadpoor, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    Shape-shifting of flat materials into the desired 3D configuration is an alternative design route for fabrication of complex 3D shapes, which provides many benefits such as access to the flat material surface and the ability to produce well-described motions. The advanced production techniques

  3. Flat oysters in the Eierlandse Gat, Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Have, van der T.M.; Kamermans, P.; Zee, van der E.M.

    2018-01-01

    This report presents the results of a short survey of flat oysters (Ostrea edulis) in the Western Wadden Sea. Ten sites were visited and flat oysters were found on nine locations in the Eijerlandse gat. Empty cockleshells and live and dead Pacific oysters provided the main settlement substrate. The

  4. Converting nested algebra expressions into flat algebra expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredaens, J.; Van Gucht, D.

    1992-01-01

    Nested relations generalize ordinary flat relations by allowing tuple values to be either atomic or set valued. The nested algebra is a generalization of the flat relational algebra to manipulate nested relations. In this paper we study the expressive power of the nested algebra relative to its

  5. Detecting areal changes in tidal flats after sea dike construction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The main objective of this study was to estimate changes in the area of tidal flats that occurred after sea dike construction on the western coast of South Korea using Landsat-TM images. Applying the ISODATA method of unsupervised classification for Landsat-TM images, the tidal flats were identified, and the resulting areas ...

  6. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... applicable only to automation flats, for all commercial flat-size mail except saturation and high-density...[supreg] pricing. If automation prices are denied, pieces that are prepared to be part of full-service IMb... compliance, but at additional cost; and quarter-folding would not work well with any inserts. Also, there was...

  7. Temporal bed level variations in the Yangtze tidal flats (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, H.; Van Prooijen, B.C.

    2013-01-01

    The Yangtze River is one of the largest rivers in the world and the longest one in Asia. Its estuary forms an important entrance for shipping, but is also a key ecological system. Especially the inter-tidal flats are valuable habitats. The health and integrity of the estuarine tidal flat are however

  8. Generation of shape-invariant flat-top laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ait-Ameur, K

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A great number of laser applications need in place of the usual Gaussian beam a flat-top intensity profile in the focal plane of a focusing lens. In general the transformation of the laser beam from the Gaussian to the flat-top shape is made by a...

  9. Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT): rapid assessment for land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Ciecko; David Kimmett; Jesse Saunders; Rachael Katz; Kathleen L. Wolf; Oliver Bazinet; Jeffrey Richardson; Weston Brinkley; Dale J. Blahna

    2016-01-01

    The Forest Landscape Assessment Tool (FLAT) is a set of procedures and tools used to rapidly determine forest ecological conditions and potential threats. FLAT enables planners and managers to understand baseline conditions, determine and prioritize restoration needs across a landscape system, and conduct ongoing monitoring to achieve land management goals. The rapid...

  10. 75 FR 29582 - Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge, Fairbanks, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... from climate change. Fourth, infrastructure associated with access corridors from the proposed exchange... statement (EIS) for a Proposed Land Exchange in the Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge (NWR, Refuge). We... this notice, we finalize the EIS process for a Proposed Land Exchange in the Yukon Flats NWR. In...

  11. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-01-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches

  12. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  13. Spatiotemporal Structure of Aeolian Particle Transport on Flat Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiya, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Kouichi

    2017-05-01

    We conduct numerical simulations based on a model of blowing snow to reveal the long-term properties and equilibrium state of aeolian particle transport from 10-5 to 10 m above the flat surface. The numerical results are as follows. (i) Time-series data of particle transport are divided into development, relaxation, and equilibrium phases, which are formed by rapid wind response below 10 cm and gradual wind response above 10 cm. (ii) The particle transport rate at equilibrium is expressed as a power function of friction velocity, and the index of 2.35 implies that most particles are transported by saltation. (iii) The friction velocity below 100 µm remains roughly constant and lower than the fluid threshold at equilibrium. (iv) The mean particle speed above 300 µm is less than the wind speed, whereas that below 300 µm exceeds the wind speed because of descending particles. (v) The particle diameter increases with height in the saltation layer, and the relationship is expressed as a power function. Through comparisons with the previously reported random-flight model, we find a crucial problem that empirical splash functions cannot reproduce particle dynamics at a relatively high wind speed.

  14. Simulation of DIII-D Flat q Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Garofalo, A.; Terpstra, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Tokamak plasma configuration has significant potential for the economical production of fusion power. Research on various tokamak experiments are pursuing these plasmas to establish high β, high bootstrap current fraction, 100% noninductive current, and good energy confinement, in a quasi-stationary state. One candidate is the flat q discharge produced in DIII-D, where the safety factor varies from 2.0 on axis, to slightly below 2.0 at the minimum, and then rises to about 3.5 at the 95% surface. This plasma is prototypical of those studied for power plants in the ARIES tokamak studies. The plasma is produced by ramping up the plasma current and ramping down the toroidal field throughout the discharge. The plasma current reaches 1.65 MA, and the toroidal field goes from 2.25 to 1.6 T. The q min remains high and at large radius, ρ ∼ 0.6. The plasma establishes an internal transport barrier in the ion channel, and transitions to H-mode. The free-boundary Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) is being used to model the discharge and project the impact of changes in the plasma current, toroidal field, and injected power programming

  15. Circulation shedding in viscous starting flow past a flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsche, Monika; Xu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of viscous flow past a flat plate moving in the direction normal to itself reveal details of the vortical structure of the flow. At early times, most of the vorticity is attached to the plate. This paper introduces a definition of the shed circulation at all times and shows that it indeed represents vorticity that separates and remains separated from the plate. During a large initial time period, the shed circulation satisfies the scaling laws predicted for self-similar inviscid separation. Various contributions to the circulation shedding rate are presented. The results show that during this initial time period, viscous diffusion of vorticity out of the vortex is significant but appears to be independent of the value of the Reynolds number. At later times, the departure of the shed circulation from its large Reynolds number behaviour is significantly affected by diffusive loss of vorticity through the symmetry axis. A timescale is proposed that describes when the viscous loss through the axis becomes relevant. The simulations provide benchmark results to evaluate simpler separation models such as point vortex and vortex sheet models. A comparison with vortex sheet results is included. (paper)

  16. Workpiece Temperature Variations During Flat Peripheral Grinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Vitalii A.; Repko, Aleksandr V.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents the results of researches of temperature variations during flat peripheral grinding. It is shown that the temperature variations of the workpiece can reach 25...30% of the average values, which can lead to some thermal defects. A nonlinear two-dimensional thermophysical grinding model is suggested. It takes into account local changes in the cutting conditions: the fluctuation of the cut layer and the cutting force, the thermal impact of the cutting grains, and the presence of surface cavities in the intermittent wheel. For the numerical solution of the problem, the method of finite differences is adapted. Researches of the method stability and convergence are made, taking into account the specific nature of the problem. A high accuracy of the approximation of the boundary conditions and the nonlinear heat equation is provided. An experimental verification of the proposed thermophysical model was carried out with the use of installation for simultaneous measurement of the grinding force and temperature. It is shown that the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental values of the grinding temperature does not exceed 5%. The proposed thermophysical model makes it possible to predict with high accuracy the temperature variations during grinding by the wheel periphery.

  17. Rocky Flats Plant fluidized-bed incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meile, L.J.; Meyer, F.G.; Johnson, A.J.; Ziegler, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-scale testing of a fluidized-bed incineration process for radioactive wastes led to the installation of an 82-kg/hr demonstration unit at Rocky Flats Plant in 1978. Design philosophy and criteria were formulated to fulfill the needs and objectives of an improved radwaste-incineration system. Unique process concepts include low-temperature (550 0 C), flameless, fluidized-bed combustion and catalytic afterburning; in-situ neutralization of acid gases; and dry off-gas cleanup. Detailed descriptions of the process and equipment are presented along with a summary of the equipment and process performance during a 2-1/2 year operational-testing period. Equipment modifications made during the test period are described. Operating personnel requirements for solid-waste burning are shown to be greater than those required for liquid-waste incineration; differences are discussed. Process-utility and raw-materials consumption rates for full-capacity operation are presented and explained. Improvements in equipment and operating procedures are recommended for any future installations. Process flow diagrams, an area floor plan, a process-control-system schematic, and equipment sketches are included

  18. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  19. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  20. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.

  1. Commercial Decommissioning at DOE's Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiboth, C.; Sandlin, N.; Schubert, A.; Hansen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Due in large part to the number of nuclear facilities that make up the DOE complex, DOE-EM work has historically been paperwork intensive and driven by extensive regulations. Requirements for non-nuclear facilities are often grouped with those of nuclear facilities, driving up costs. Kaiser-Hill was interested in applying a commercial model to demolition of these facilities and wanted to apply necessary and sufficient standards to the work activities, but avoid applying unnecessary requirements. Faced with demolishing hundreds of uncontaminated or non-radiologically contaminated facilities, Kaiser-Hill has developed a subcontracting strategy to drastically reduce the cost of demolishing these facilities at Rocky Flats. Aiming to tailor the demolition approach of such facilities to more closely follow commercial practices, Kaiser-Hill recently released a Request for Proposals (RFP) for the demolition of the site's former central administration facility. The RFP significantly reduced requirements for compliance with specific DOE directives. Instead, the RFP required subcontractors to comply with health and safety requirements commonly found in the demolition of similar facilities in a commercial setting. This resulted in a number of bids from companies who have normally not bid on DOE work previously and at a reduced cost over previous approaches. This paper will discuss the details of this subcontracting strategy

  2. Flat vs. Expressive Storytelling: Young Children's Learning and Retention of a Social Robot's Narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory Westlund, Jacqueline M; Jeong, Sooyeon; Park, Hae W; Ronfard, Samuel; Adhikari, Aradhana; Harris, Paul L; DeSteno, David; Breazeal, Cynthia L

    2017-01-01

    Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children's vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot's active reading was expressive; the robot's voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion ( Expressive ). For the remaining children, the robot read and conversed with a flat voice, which sounded similar to a classic text-to-speech engine and had little dynamic range ( Flat ). The robot's movements were kept constant across conditions. We performed a verification study using Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) to confirm that the Expressive robot was viewed as significantly more expressive, more emotional, and less passive than the Flat robot. We invited 45 preschoolers with an average age of 5 years who were either English Language Learners (ELL), bilingual, or native English speakers to engage in the reading task with the robot. The robot narrated a story from a picture book, using active reading techniques and including a set of target vocabulary words in the narration. Children were post-tested on the vocabulary words and were also asked to retell the story to a puppet. A subset of 34 children performed a second story retelling 4-6 weeks later. Children reported liking and learning from the robot a similar amount in the Expressive and Flat conditions. However, as compared to children in the Flat condition, children in the Expressive condition were more concentrated and engaged as indexed by their facial expressions; they emulated the robot's story more in their story retells; and they told longer stories during their delayed retelling. Furthermore, children who

  3. Boundary dynamics of asymptotically flat 3D gravity coupled to higher spin fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, Hernán A.; Pino, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We construct a two-dimensional action principle invariant under a spin-three extension of BMS_3 group. Such a theory is obtained through a reduction of Chern-Simons action with a boundary. This procedure is carried out by imposing a set of boundary conditions obtained from asymptotically flat spacetimes in three dimensions. When implementing part of this set, we obtain an analog of chiral WZW model based on a contraction of sl(3,ℝ)×sl(3,ℝ). The remaining part of the boundary conditions imposes constraints on the conserved currents of the model, which allows to further reduce the action principle. It is shown that a sector of this latter theory is related to a flat limit of Toda theory

  4. Excavations and chronology at the Redcliffs Flat site, Canterbury, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomb, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Redcliffs Flat site is one of a number of early Maori archaeological sites that cluster near the mouth of the estuary of the Avon and Heathcote rivers. Although several have been the subject of archaeological investigations, the chronology and extent of the Redcliffs Flat site remain poorly understood. Recent excavations associated with the redevelopment of a suburban section allow some progress to be made on both fronts. A small excavation here yielded a surprising amount of faunal, lithic and stratigraphic information. The site is shown to have extended to close to the edge of the estuary at the time of occupation and a radiocarbon date on a fragment of moa eggshell confirms the fourteenth to early fifteenth century status of the site. The radiocarbon chronology of the sites of the wider Redcliffs area is reviewed in light of this result. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Boundary dynamics of asymptotically flat 3D gravity coupled to higher spin fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Hernán A. [Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université Libre de Bruxelles & International Solvay Institutes,Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Pino, Miguel [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile,Av. Ecuador 3493, Estación Central, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-05-27

    We construct a two-dimensional action principle invariant under a spin-three extension of BMS{sub 3} group. Such a theory is obtained through a reduction of Chern-Simons action with a boundary. This procedure is carried out by imposing a set of boundary conditions obtained from asymptotically flat spacetimes in three dimensions. When implementing part of this set, we obtain an analog of chiral WZW model based on a contraction of sl(3,ℝ)×sl(3,ℝ). The remaining part of the boundary conditions imposes constraints on the conserved currents of the model, which allows to further reduce the action principle. It is shown that a sector of this latter theory is related to a flat limit of Toda theory.

  6. Photonic crystal based polarization insensitive flat lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turduev, M; Bor, E; Kurt, H

    2017-01-01

    The paper proposes a new design of an inhomogeneous artificially created photonic crystal lens structure consisting of annular dielectric rods to efficiently focus both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations of light into the same focal point. The locations of each individual cell that contains the annular dielectric rods are determined according to a nonlinear distribution function. The inner and outer radii of the annular photonic dielectric rods are optimized with respect to the polarization insensitive frequency response of the transmission spectrum of the lens structure. The physical background of the polarization insensitive focusing mechanism is investigated in both spatial and frequency domains. Moreover, polarization independent wavefront transformation/focusing has been explored in detail by investigating the dispersion relation of the structure. Corresponding phase index distribution of the lens is attained for polarization insensitive normalized frequency range of a / λ   =  0.280 and a / λ   =  0.300, where a denotes the lattice constant of the designed structure and λ denotes the wavelength of the incident light. We show the wave transformation performance and focal point movement dynamics for both polarizations of the lens structure by specially adjusting the length of the structure. The 3D finite-difference time domain numerical analysis is also performed to verifiy that the proposed design is able to focus the wave regardless of polarization into approximately the same focal point (difference between focal distances of both polarizations stays below 0.25 λ ) with an operating bandwidth of 4.30% between 1476 nm and 1541 nm at telecom wavelengths. The main superiorities of the proposed lens structure are being all dielectric and compact, and having flat front and back surfaces, rendering the proposed lens design more practical in the photonic integration process in various applications such as optical switch

  7. A quantum kinematics for asymptotically flat gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campiglia, Miguel; Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2015-07-01

    We construct a quantum kinematics for asymptotically flat gravity based on the Koslowski-Sahlmann (KS) representation. The KS representation is a generalization of the representation underlying loop quantum gravity (LQG) which supports, in addition to the usual LQG operators, the action of ‘background exponential operators’, which are connection dependent operators labelled by ‘background’ su(2) electric fields. KS states have, in addition to the LQG state label corresponding to one dimensional excitations of the triad, a label corresponding to a ‘background’ electric field that describes three dimensional excitations of the triad. Asymptotic behaviour in quantum theory is controlled through asymptotic conditions on the background electric fields that label the states and the background electric fields that label the operators. Asymptotic conditions on the triad are imposed as conditions on the background electric field state label while confining the LQG spin net graph labels to compact sets. We show that KS states can be realised as wave functions on a quantum configuration space of generalized connections and that the asymptotic behaviour of each such generalized connection is determined by that of the background electric fields which label the background exponential operators. Similar to the spatially compact case, the Gauss law and diffeomorphism constraints are then imposed through group averaging techniques to obtain a large sector of gauge invariant states. It is shown that this sector supports a unitary action of the group of asymptotic rotations and translations and that, as anticipated by Friedman and Sorkin, for appropriate spatial topology, this sector contains states that display fermionic behaviour under 2π rotations.

  8. Flat norm decomposition of integral currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Currents represent generalized surfaces studied in geometric measure theory. They range from relatively tame integral currents representing oriented compact manifolds with boundary and integer multiplicities, to arbitrary elements of the dual space of differential forms. The flat norm provides a natural distance in the space of currents, and works by decomposing a $d$-dimensional current into $d$- and (the boundary of $(d+1$-dimensional pieces in an optimal way.Given an integral current, can we expect its at norm decomposition to be integral as well? This is not known in general, except in the case of $d$-currents that are boundaries of $(d+1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$ (following results from a corresponding problem on the $L^1$ total variation ($L^1$TV of functionals. On the other hand, for a discretized at norm on a finite simplicial complex, the analogous statement holds even when the inputs are not boundaries. This simplicial version relies on the total unimodularity of the boundary matrix of the simplicial complex; a result distinct from the $L^1$TV approach.We develop an analysis framework that extends the result in the simplicial setting to one for $d$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^{d+1}$, provided a suitable triangulation result holds. In $\\mathbb{R}^2$, we use a triangulation result of Shewchuk (bounding both the size and location of small angles, and apply the framework to show that the discrete result implies the continuous result for $1$-currents in $\\mathbb{R}^2$ .

  9. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Usamentiaga

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain.

  10. On-Line Flatness Measurement in the Steelmaking Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleda, Julio; Usamentiaga, Rubén; Garcίa, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Shape is a key characteristic to determine the quality of outgoing flat-rolled products in the steel industry. It is greatly influenced by flatness, a feature to describe how the surface of a rolled product approaches a plane. Flatness is of the utmost importance in steelmaking, since it is used by most downstream processes and customers for the acceptance or rejection of rolled products. Flatness sensors compute flatness measurements based on comparing the length of several longitudinal fibers of the surface of the product under inspection. Two main different approaches are commonly used. On the one hand, most mechanical sensors measure the tensile stress across the width of the rolled product, while manufacturing and estimating the fiber lengths from this stress. On the other hand, optical sensors measure the length of the fibers by means of light patterns projected onto the product surface. In this paper, we review the techniques and the main sensors used in the steelmaking industry to measure and quantify flatness defects in steel plates, sheets and strips. Most of these techniques and sensors can be used in other industries involving rolling mills or continuous production lines, such as aluminum, copper and paper, to name a few. Encompassed in the special issue, State-of-the-Art Sensors Technology in Spain 2013, this paper also reviews the most important flatness sensors designed and developed for the steelmaking industry in Spain. PMID:23939583

  11. A New Triangular Flat Shell Element With Drilling Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2008-01-01

    A new flat triangular shell element has been developed based on a newly developed triangular plate bending element by the author and a new triangular membrane element with drilling degrees of freedom. The advantage of the drilling degree of freedom is that no special precautions have to be made...... in connecting with assembly of elements. Due to the drilling rotations all nodal degrees of freedom have stiffness, and therefore no artificial suppression of degrees of freedom are needed for flat or almost flat parts of the shell structure....

  12. Flat directions in left-right symmetric string derived models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaver, Gerald B.; Clements, David J.; Faraggi, Alon E.

    2002-01-01

    The only string models known to reproduce the minimal supersymmetric standard model in the low energy effective field theory are those constructed in the free fermionic formulation. We demonstrate the existence of quasirealistic free fermionic heterotic string models in which supersymmetric singlet flat directions do not exist. This raises the possibility that supersymmetry is broken perturbatively in such models by the one-loop Fayet-Iliopoulos term. We show, however, that supersymmetric flat directions that utilize vacuum expectation values of some non-Abelian fields in the massless string spectrum do exist in the model. We argue that hidden sector condensates lift the flat directions and break supersymmetry hierarchically

  13. On maximal surfaces in asymptotically flat space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, R.; Chrusciel, P.T.; O Murchadha, N.

    1990-01-01

    Existence of maximal and 'almost maximal' hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat space-times is established under boundary conditions weaker than those considered previously. We show in particular that every vacuum evolution of asymptotically flat data for Einstein equations can be foliated by slices maximal outside a spatially compact set and that every (strictly) stationary asymptotically flat space-time can be foliated by maximal hypersurfaces. Amongst other uniqueness results, we show that maximal hypersurface can be used to 'partially fix' an asymptotic Poincare group. (orig.)

  14. Loop quantum gravity in asymptotically flat spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnsdorf, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes applications and extensions of the loop variable approach to non-perturbative quantum gravity. The common theme of the work presented, is the need to generalise loop quantum gravity to be applicable in cases where space is asymptotically flat, and no longer compact as is usually assumed. This is important for the study of isolated gravitational systems. It also presents a natural context in which to search for the semi-classical limit, one of the main outstanding problems in loop quantum gravity. In the first part of the thesis we study how isolated gravitational systems can be attributed particle-like properties. In particular, we show how spinorial states can arise in pure loop quantum gravity if spatial topology is non-trivial, thus confirming an old conjecture of Friedman and Sorkin. Heuristically, this corresponds to the idea that we can rotate isolated regions of spatial topology relative to the environment at infinity, and that only a 4π-rotation will take us back to the original configuration. To do this we extend the standard loop quantum gravity formalism by introducing a compactification of our non-compact spatial manifold, and study the knotting of embedded graphs. The second part of the thesis takes a more systematic approach to the study of loop quantum gravity on non-compact spaces. We look for new representations of the loop algebra, which give rise to quantum theories that are inequivalent to the standard one. These theories naturally describe excitations of a fiducial background state, which is specified via the choice of its vacuum expectation values. In particular, we can choose background states that describe the geometries of non-compact manifolds. We also discuss how suitable background states can be constructed that can approximate classical phase space data, in our case holonomies along embedded paths and geometrical quantities related to areas and volumes. These states extend the notion of the weave and provide a

  15. Software Simulates Sight: Flat Panel Mura Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    In the increasingly sophisticated world of high-definition flat screen monitors and television screens, image clarity and the elimination of distortion are paramount concerns. As the devices that reproduce images become more and more sophisticated, so do the technologies that verify their accuracy. By simulating the manner in which a human eye perceives and interprets a visual stimulus, NASA scientists have found ways to automatically and accurately test new monitors and displays. The Spatial Standard Observer (SSO) software metric, developed by Dr. Andrew B. Watson at Ames Research Center, measures visibility and defects in screens, displays, and interfaces. In the design of such a software tool, a central challenge is determining which aspects of visual function to include while accuracy and generality are important, relative simplicity of the software module is also a key virtue. Based on data collected in ModelFest, a large cooperative multi-lab project hosted by the Optical Society of America, the SSO simulates a simplified model of human spatial vision, operating on a pair of images that are viewed at a specific viewing distance with pixels having a known relation to luminance. The SSO measures the visibility of foveal spatial patterns, or the discriminability of two patterns, by incorporating only a few essential components of vision. These components include local contrast transformation, a contrast sensitivity function, local masking, and local pooling. By this construction, the SSO provides output in units of "just noticeable differences" (JND) a unit of measure based on the assumed smallest difference of sensory input detectable by a human being. Herein is the truly amazing ability of the SSO, while conventional methods can manipulate images, the SSO models human perception. This set of equations actually defines a mathematical way of working with an image that accurately reflects the way in which the human eye and mind behold a stimulus. The SSO is

  16. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes how stakeholder involvement processes led to the successful resolution of a dispute over radionuclide soil action levels at the Rocky Flats Site near Denver, Colorado. During the Cold War Era, Rocky Flats, a plutonium fabrication plant, was part of the American government's multi-site nuclear weapons production facilities. Although the Rocky Flats plant had significant positive effects on the local economy, it became a target of public protest due to concerns over both public safety in the area surrounding the site and global nuclear proliferation. In the late 1980's, local safety concerns led to investigations by state and federal agencies. In 1992, with the Cold War ended, the Department of Energy decided to decommission the Rocky Flats site and to begin the long process of decontamination. (author)

  17. Unitarity in three-dimensional flat space higher spin theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grumiller, D.; Riegler, M.; Rosseel, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate generic flat-space higher spin theories in three dimensions and find a no-go result, given certain assumptions that we spell out. Namely, it is only possible to have at most two out of the following three properties: unitarity, flat space, non-trivial higher spin states. Interestingly, unitarity provides an (algebra-dependent) upper bound on the central charge, like c=42 for the Galilean W_4"("2"−"1"−"1") algebra. We extend this no-go result to rule out unitary “multi-graviton” theories in flat space. We also provide an example circumventing the no-go result: Vasiliev-type flat space higher spin theory based on hs(1) can be unitary and simultaneously allow for non-trivial higher-spin states in the dual field theory.

  18. Northern Mariana Islands Marine Monitoring Team Reef Flat Surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands' (CNMI) interagency marine monitoring team conducts surveys on reef flat areas on the islands of Saipan, Tinian and...

  19. CFD simulation of estimating critical shear stress for cleaning flat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumit Kawale

    2017-11-22

    Nov 22, 2017 ... Jet impingement; wall shear stress; cleaning of flat plate; turbulence model; critical shear stress; ... On comparing the theoretical predictions with wall shear ... distance and Reynolds number on peak value of local shear stress ...

  20. Measuring and modeling exposure from environmental radiation on tidal flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, T.J.; Hess, C.T.

    2005-01-01

    To examine the shielding effects of the tide cycle, a high pressure ion chamber was used to measure the exposure rate from environmental radiation on tidal flats. A theoretical model is derived to predict the behavior of exposure rate as a function of time for a detector placed one meter above ground on a tidal flat. The numerical integration involved in this derivation results in an empirical formula which implies exposure rate ∝tan-1(sint). We propose that calculating the total exposure incurred on a tidal flat requires measurements of only the slope of the tidal flat and the exposure rate when no shielding occurs. Experimental results are consistent with the model

  1. Theoretical study of a flat eddy current probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, A.; Dumont-Fillon, J.; Labbe, G.

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model for the computation of the impedance of an eddy current probe has been determined in the case of flat product testing. Various applications are discussed with particular emphasis on ferromagnetic materials [fr

  2. Select PC/windows flat to develop data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jin

    1993-01-01

    Through needing analysis, and also, considering user's ability of payment, the characteristic of China computer market, the computer developing tending, and the system's compatibility and up grade capability, PC/Windows flat are selected to develop a data acquisition system

  3. Array elements for a DBS flat-plate antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddocks, M. C. D.

    1988-07-01

    The introduction of a direct broadcast by satellite (DBS) television service requires suitable receiving antennas to be available. An alternative to the parabolic dish antenna is a flat-plate antenna. The overall design of a circularly-polarized flat-plate antenna which can be mounted flat on the wall of a building has been considered in a companion Report. In this Report various types of elements are investigated and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. The most suitable element for use in a flat-plate array is identified as a linearly-polarized folded-dipole element; its performance is reported here. Linearly-polarized elements are found to perform better than circularly-polarized elements and could be used with a polarization converter to receive the circularly-polarized radiation that would be transmitted by DBS.

  4. Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat / Robert Layton

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Layton, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Svendsen Symphony No. 2 in B flat, Op. 15... Stavanger Symphony Orchestra / Grant Llewellyn. Chatsworth CD FCM 1002; Symphony No. 2 - selected comparisons: Gothenburg SO, Järvi (11/87)(BIS) CD 347

  5. Options for the disposition of current inventory of Rocky Flats Plant residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Lychin.

    1994-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, much concern has been directed towards the accumulation of special nuclear material resulting from the dismantlement of a large number of nuclear weapons. This concern has opened up a debate over the final disposition of the large inventory of weapons-capable plutonium. Technologies for the conversion of plutonium into acceptable forms will need to be assessed and evaluated. Candidate strategies for interim and final disposition include a variety of immobilization techniques (vitrification in glass, ceramic, or metal), conversion to reactor fuel, or direct discard as waste. The selected disposition strategy will be chosen based upon a range of decision metric such as expected conversion costs, equipment requirements, and waste generation. To this end, a systems analysis approach is necessary for the evaluation and comparison of the different disposition strategies. Current data on inventory of plutonium, such as that at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), may be useful for the evaluation and selection of candidate disposition technologies. A preliminary analysis of the residues of scrap at Rocky Flats was performed to establish a foundation for comparison of candidate strategies. About 3 metric tons of plutonium and 270 metric tons of other wastes remain in the inventory at Rocky Flats. Estimates on the equipment, facility, manpower, and cost requirements to process this inventory over a proposed 10-year cleanup campaign will provide a benchmark for comparison and assessment of proposed disposition technologies

  6. CT colonography: computer-aided detection of morphologically flat T1 colonic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Stuart A.; Iinuma, Gen; Saito, Yutaka; Zhang, Jie; Halligan, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate the ability of computer-aided detection (CAD) software to detect morphologically flat early colonic carcinoma using CT colonography (CTC). Twenty-four stage T1 colonic carcinomas endoscopically classified as flat (width over twice height) were accrued from patients undergoing staging CTC. Tumor location was annotated by three experienced radiologists in consensus aided by the endosocpic report. CAD software was then applied at three settings of sphericity (0, 0.75, and 1). Computer prompts were categorized as either true positive (overlapping tumour boundary) or false positive. True positives were subclassified as focal or non focal. The 24 cancers were endoscopically classified as type IIa (n=11) and type IIa+IIc (n=13). Mean size (range) was 27 mm (7-70 mm). CAD detected 20 (83.3%), 17 (70.8%), and 13 (54.1%) of the 24 cancers at filter settings of 0, 0.75, and 1, respectively with 3, 4, and 8 missed cancers of type IIa, respectively. The mean total number of false-positive CAD marks per patient at each filter setting was 36.5, 21.1, and 9.5, respectively, excluding polyps. At all settings, >96.1% of CAD true positives were classified as focal. CAD may be effective for the detection of morphologically flat cancer, although minimally raised laterally spreading tumors remain problematic. (orig.)

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF FLAT GLASS EXPORTS FOR ROMANIA USING THE GRAVITY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draghescu Florin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The intense international competition and reduced rates of economics growth force the companies at dynamic and appropriate strategies to address internal and external market. The manufacturing industry from Romania has competitive advantages defined by tradition, qualified labour force, indigenous raw materials, and its products serve various industries – construction, automotive, food – that is expected to experience a future sustained development. With approximately 2,500 employees, the glassware sector from Romania is part of the manufacturing industry which has constantly decreased in the last 25 years. Romania has a long tradition in the glassware sector and remains a strategic player in the region being integrated in the global flows from the industry. Geographical orientation of Romanian trade of flat glass for export is analyzed using the gravity model. The purpose of this article is to determine the essential factors of flat glass export level from Romania to states with which has commercial partnerships using both a gravity static model, but also a gravity dynamic model – a common model in the literature, used to analyze the trade flows between world countries or polarization strength of cities and commercial centres. The empirical results of both models have shown that the gravity attraction of local and destination economies, transport costs – measured by the distances between capitals and lack of common border –, language interconnectivity, and also belonging to the BSEC (Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation are the most important factors affecting the Romanian exports of the flat glass.

  8. Environment, safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Environment, Safety and Health (ES ampersand H) Progress Assessment of the DOE Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The assessment, which was conducted during the period of May 17 through May 28, 1993, included a selective review of the ES ampersand H management systems and programs of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices (Defense Programs (DP) and Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM)), the DOE Rocky Flats Office (RFO), and the site contractor, EG ampersand G Rocky Flats, Inc. (EG ampersand G). Despite the near constant state of flux under which RFP has been required to operate, the Progress Assessment Team has concluded that significant progress has been made in correcting the deficiencies identified in the 1989 Assessment and in responding responsibly to regulations, and DOE directives and guidance that have been issued since that time. The Team concluded that the improvements have been concentrated in the activities associated with plutonium facilities and in regulatory driven programs. Much remains to be done with respect to implementing on a sitewide basis those management systems that anchor an organization's pursuit of continuous ES ampersand H improvement. Furthermore the Team concluded that the pace of improvement has been constrained by a combination of factors that have limited the site's ability to manage change in the pursuit of sitewide ES ampersand H excellence

  9. Evaluation of a flat panel digital radiographic system for low-dose portable imaging of neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Hill, Jeanne G.; Frey, G. Donald; Southgate, W. Michael; Mah, Eugene; Delong, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of an investigational flat-panel digital radiography system for low-dose portable neonatal imaging. Thirty image-pairs from neonatal intensive care unit patients were acquired with a commercial Computed Radiography system (Agfa, ADC 70), and with the investigational system (Varian, Paxscan 2520) at one-quarter of the exposure. The images were evaluated for conspicuity and localization of the endings of ancillary catheters and tubes in two observer performance experiments with three pediatric radiologists and three neonatologists serving as observers. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in diagnostic quality between the images from the investigational system and from CR. Given the investigational system's superior resolution and noise characteristics, observer results suggest that the high detective quantum efficiency of flat-panel digital radiography systems can be utilized to decrease the radiation dose/exposure to neonatal patients, although post-processing of the images remains to be optimized. The rapid availability of flat-panel images in portable imaging was found to be an added advantage for timely clinical decision-making

  10. Options for the disposition of current inventory of Rocky Flats Plant residues. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.

    1994-01-01

    With the end of the Cold War, much concern has been directed towards the accumulation of special nuclear material resulting from the dismantlement of a large number of nuclear weapons. This concern has opened up a debate over the final disposition of the large inventory of weapons-capable plutonium. Technologies for the conversion of plutonium into acceptable forms will need to be assessed and evaluated. Candidate strategies for interim and final disposition include a variety of immobilization techniques (vitrification in glass, ceramic, or metal), conversion to reactor fuel, or direct discard as waste. The selected disposition strategy will be chosen based upon a range of decision metrics such as expected conversion costs, equipment requirements, and waste generation. To this end, a systems analysis approach is necessary for the evaluation and comparison of the different disposition strategies. Current data on inventory of plutonium, such as that at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), may be useful for the evaluation and selection of candidate disposition technologies. A preliminary analysis of the residues of scrap at Rocky Flats was performed to establish a foundation for comparison of candidate strategies. About 3 metric tons of plutonium and 270 metric tons of other wastes remain in the inventory at Rocky Flats. Estimates on the equipment, facility, manpower, and cost requirements to process this inventory over a proposed 10-year cleanup campaign will provide a benchmark for comparison and assessment of proposed disposition technologies

  11. Benthic microalgae community response to flooding in a tropical salt flat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. M. Masuda

    Full Text Available Abstract This research evaluated the effect of flooding on the microphytobenthos community structure in a microbial mat from a tropical salt flat. Field samples were collected during four consecutive days: on the first three days the salt flat was dry, on the fourth day it was flooded by rain. In order to evaluate the community maintained in flood conditions, samples from this area were collected and kept in the laboratory for 10 days with sea water. The results of total abundance of microphytobenthos varied from 4.2 × 108 to 2.9 × 109 organisms L–1, total density increased one order of magnitude under the effect of water for both situations of precipitation in the salt flat and in experimental conditions, an increase due to the high abundance of Microcoleus spp. Shannon index (H’ was higher during the desiccation period. Our data suggest that changes in the abundance of organisms were due to the effect of water. The dominance of the most abundant taxa remained the same under conditions of desiccation and influence of water, and there is probably a consortium of microorganisms in the microbial mat that helps to maintain these dominances.

  12. Benchmarking and performance improvement at Rocky Flats Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, C.; Doyle, G.; Featherman, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes

  13. A flat spectral Faraday filter for sodium lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Cheng, Xuewu; Li, Faquan; Hu, Xiong; Lin, Xin; Gong, Shunsheng

    2011-04-01

    We report a flat spectral Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FS-FADOF) for sodium lidar. The physical and technical considerations for obtaining a FS-FADOF with a 3.5 GHz flat spectral transmission function are presented. It was found that the effective transmission of this filter was much higher (>94%) and more uniform than that of the ultranarrowband FADOF, and therefore were less sensitive to laser-frequency drift. Thus, the FS-FADOF can improve lidar efficiency and precision.

  14. Flat beams in a 50 TeV hadron collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Harrison, M.; Pilat, F.; Syphers, M.

    1997-01-01

    The basic beam dynamics of a next generation 50 x 50 TeV hadron collider based on a high field magnet approach have been outlined over the past several years. Radiation damping not only produces small emittances, but also flat beams, just as in electron machines. Based on open-quotes Snowmass 96close quotes parameters, we investigate the issues associated with flat beams in very high energy hadron colliders

  15. Flat clathrin lattices: stable features of the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Joe; Metcalf, Daniel J; Knight, Alex E; Wavre-Shapton, Silène T; Sun, Tony; Protonotarios, Emmanouil D; Griffin, Lewis D; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Marsh, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a fundamental property of eukaryotic cells. Classical CME proceeds via the formation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) at the plasma membrane, which invaginate to form clathrin-coated vesicles, a process that is well understood. However, clathrin also assembles into flat clathrin lattices (FCLs); these structures remain poorly described, and their contribution to cell biology is unclear. We used quantitative imaging to provide the first comprehensive description of FCLs and explore their influence on plasma membrane organization. Ultrastructural analysis by electron and superresolution microscopy revealed two discrete populations of clathrin structures. CCPs were typified by their sphericity, small size, and homogeneity. FCLs were planar, large, and heterogeneous and present on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of cells. Live microscopy demonstrated that CCPs are short lived and culminate in a peak of dynamin recruitment, consistent with classical CME. In contrast, FCLs were long lived, with sustained association with dynamin. We investigated the biological relevance of FCLs using the chemokine receptor CCR5 as a model system. Agonist activation leads to sustained recruitment of CCR5 to FCLs. Quantitative molecular imaging indicated that FCLs partitioned receptors at the cell surface. Our observations suggest that FCLs provide stable platforms for the recruitment of endocytic cargo. © 2014 Grove et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. The Rocky Flats Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.M.; Mathis, B.W.; Stevens, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    At the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), the D and D task is enormous. Tons of plutonium has been processed over the years in approximately 1,000 gloveboxes, This represents nearly half of the gloveboxes in the DOE complex. In addition, more than a thousand tanks of various designs, with miles of associated piping, supported the processes. A wide variety of operations were performed at RFETS, including aqueous processing, pyrophoric processing, hydriding and dehydriding, metal casting, and machining of plutonium. Various materials have been handled at the facility, including plutonium, uranium, americium, tantalum, beryllium, chloride salts, and various acids and solvents. Significant amounts of plutonium residues remain in inaccessible equipment in the facilities, which create criticality safety issues. Some of the plutonium has been at RFETS for many years, and there is significant in-growth of americium, a decay product that emits gamma radiation, which potentially increases exposure to the workers. The size reduction portion of the D and D will be difficult and costly. The gloveboxes and tanks are constructed of stainless steel, frequently with lead shielding or double walls that hold water for neutron shielding. Window mountings, glove port rings, site gages, bolted flanges, and various penetrations reinforce the walls. Tanks may be filled with berated glass rings for criticality control, or double walled to hold the process fluid in the space between walls. The gloveboxes and tanks are generally tall enough to require workers to stand on scaffolding or platforms to perform D and D. Gloveboxes and tanks were individually constructed over a span of many years with evolving design specifications; therefore, most gloveboxes are unique and few tank designs are duplicated in more than pairs. This paper describes the cultural transition and technical approaches taken for D and D at RFETS to achieve 2006 closure. Specific emphasis is placed on

  17. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of double flat core HCLWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun; Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Murao, Yoshio

    1989-02-01

    A thermal-hydraulic characteristics of double flat core high conversion light water reactor (HCLWR) is described. The concept of flat core proposed by Ishiguro et al. is to achieve negative void reactivity coefficient in tight lattice core, and at the same time, high conversion ratio and high burnup can be obtainable. The proposed double flat core HCLWR, based on these physical advantages and the consideration of safety assurance, aims at efficient use of the pressure vessel space to produce comparable thermal output as current 3-loop PWRs. The present work revealed the following items concerning the thermalhydraulic feasibility of the double flat core HCLWR: (1) Main thermal-hydraulic parameters of the plant can be almost the same as current PWRs, showing the use of PWR standard components without major modifications except in core region. (2) Heat removal from the fuel rod in a steady operational condition has enough margin to the critical heat flux (CHF) limit, which is evaluated with the existing CHF correlations. (3) The calculation by REFLA code shows that the maximum cladding temperature in LOCA-reflood is estimated to be far lower than the licensing criteria. It is therefore considered that the proposed double flat core HCLWR is feasible from the point of thermal-hydraulics. Since the available data base has certain applicational limit to the very short core as the present double flat core HCLWR, further detailed assessment is required. (author)

  18. Flat-panel detectors in x-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spahn, M.; Heer, V.; Freytag, R.

    2003-01-01

    For all application segments X-ray systems with flat-panel detectors increasingly enter the market. In digital radiography, mammography and cardiologic angiography flat-panel detectors are already well established while they are made ready for market introduction in general angiography and fluoroscopy. Two flat-panel detector technologies are available. One technology is based on an indirect conversion process of X-rays while the other one uses a direct conversion method.For radiography and dynamic applications the indirect method provides substantial advantages, while the direct method has some benefits for mammography. In radiography and mammography flat-panel detectors lead to clear improvements with respect to workflow, image quality and dose reduction potentials. These improvements are fostered by the immediate availability of the image, the large dynamic range and the high sensitivity to X-rays. New applications and the use of complex image processing algorithms have the potential to enlarge the present diagnostic range of applications.Up to now, image intensifiers are still the well-established technology for angiography and fluoroscopy. Nevertheless flat-panel detectors begin to enter this field, especially in cardiologic angiography.Characteristics of flat-panel detectors such as the availability of distortion-free images, the excellent contrast resolution, the large dynamic range, the high sensitivity to X-rays and the usability in magnetic fields provide the basis for improved and new diagnostic and interventional methods. (orig.) [de

  19. New edge-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhong, Hua; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yanpeng; Belić, Milivoj R.

    2017-07-01

    We report a new class of edge-centered photonic square lattices with multiple flat bands, and consider in detail two examples: the Lieb-5 and Lieb-7 lattices. In these lattices, there are 5 and 7 sites in the unit cell and in general, the number is restricted to odd integers. The number of flat bands m in the new Lieb lattices is related to the number of sites N in the unit cell by a simple formula m =(N - 1) / 2. The flat bands reported here are independent of the pseudomagnetic field. The properties of lattices with even and odd number of flat bands are different. We consider the localization of light in such Lieb lattices. If the input beam excites the flat-band mode, it will not diffract during propagation, owing to the strong mode localization. In the Lieb-7 lattice, the beam will also oscillate during propagation and still not diffract. The period of oscillation is determined by the energy difference between the two flat bands. This study provides a new platform for investigating light trapping, photonic topological insulators, and pseudospin-mediated vortex generation.

  20. THE FLAT TAX - A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EXISTING MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiau (Macavei Laura - Liana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the two last decades the flat tax systems have spread all around the globe from East and Central Europe to Asia and Central America. Many specialists consider this phenomenon a real fiscal revolution, but others see it as a mistake as long as the new systems are just a feint of the true flat tax designed by the famous Stanford University professors Robert Hall and Alvin Rabushka. In this context this paper tries to determine which of the existing flat tax systems resemble the true flat tax model by comparing and contrasting their main characteristics with the features of the model proposed by Hall and Rabushka. The research also underlines the common features and the differences between the existing models. The idea of this kind of study is not really new, others have done it but the comparison was limited to one country. For example Emil Kalchev from New Bulgarian University has asses the Bulgarian income system, by comparing it with the flat tax and concluding that taxation in Bulgaria is not simple, neutral and non-distortive. Our research is based on several case studies and on compare and contrast qualitative and quantitative methods. The study starts form the fiscal design drawn by the two American professors in the book The Flat Tax. Four main characteristics of the flat tax system were chosen in order to build the comparison: fiscal design, simplicity, avoidance of double taxation and uniformity of the tax rates. The jurisdictions chosen for the case study are countries all around the globe with fiscal systems which are considered flat tax systems. The results obtained show that the fiscal design of Hong Kong is the only flat tax model which is built following an economic logic and not a legal sense, being in the same time a simple and transparent system. Others countries as Slovakia, Albania, Macedonia in Central and Eastern Europe fulfill the requirement regarding the uniformity of taxation. Other jurisdictions avoid the double

  1. Predicting invertebrate assemblage composition from harvesting pressure and environmental characteristics on tropical reef flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, H.; Dumas, P.; Ponton, D.; Ferraris, J.

    2012-03-01

    Invertebrates represent an essential component of coral reef ecosystems; they are ecologically important and a major resource, but their assemblages remain largely unknown, particularly on Pacific islands. Understanding their distribution and building predictive models of community composition as a function of environmental variables therefore constitutes a key issue for resource management. The goal of this study was to define and classify the main environmental factors influencing tropical invertebrate distributions in New Caledonian reef flats and to test the resulting predictive model. Invertebrate assemblages were sampled by visual counting during 2 years and 2 seasons, then coupled to different environmental conditions (habitat composition, hydrodynamics and sediment characteristics) and harvesting status (MPA vs. non-MPA and islets vs. coastal flats). Environmental conditions were described by a principal component analysis (PCA), and contributing variables were selected. Permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) was used to test the effects of different factors (status, flat, year and season) on the invertebrate assemblage composition. Multivariate regression trees (MRT) were then used to hierarchically classify the effects of environmental and harvesting variables. MRT model explained at least 60% of the variation in structure of invertebrate communities. Results highlighted the influence of status (MPA vs. non-MPA) and location (islet vs. coastal flat), followed by habitat composition, organic matter content, hydrodynamics and sampling year. Predicted assemblages defined by indicator families were very different for each environment-exploitation scenario and correctly matched a calibration data matrix. Predictions from MRT including both environmental variables and harvesting pressure can be useful for management of invertebrates in coral reef environments.

  2. Usefulness of multi detector row computed tomography for detection of flat and depressed colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumiya, Takashi; Hirata, Ichiro; Hamamoto, Norihiro; Matsuki, Mitsuru; Narabayashi, Isamu; Nishiguchi, Kanji; Okuda, Junji; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko; Katsu, Ken-ichi

    2005-01-01

    Recently, the clinical usefulness of colorectal cancer screening by CT colonography has been reported in Europe and the USA. However, in Japan, the diagnosis of flat or depressed colorectal cancer lesions has been emphasized, and the question of whether CT colonography facilitates visualization of these lesions remains to be answered. In the present study, we compared the visualization of flat and depressed colorectal cancer lesions by CT colonography with that of protruding lesions. We investigated 33 Dukes A colorectal cancer lesions that had been examined by 3D-CT, colonoscopy, and barium enema prior to surgery. In all patients, CT colonography was performed immediately after colonoscopy. Volume rendering was used for 3-D rearrangement, and imaging findings were examined with respect to morphology, tumor diameter, and tumor height. All (14/14) of the protruding-type lesions were visualized by CT colonography, whereas 78.9% (15/19) of the flat and depressed-type lesions were visualized. There was no significant difference in tumor diameter between protruding-type lesions and flat and depressed-type lesions. With respect to tumor height, 100% of the lesions measuring 2 mm or more in height were visualized, whereas only 42.9% of those measuring less than 2 mm in height were visualized; the difference was significant (P<0.001). These results suggest that the visualization capacity of CT colonography is associated with tumor height, but not with tumor diameter. Currently, lesions measuring 2 mm or more in height can be visualized reliably by CT colonography. (authors)

  3. Elevated Radiation Exposure Associated With Above Surface Flat Detector Mini C-Arm Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Dennis P; Chapman, Talia; Williamson, Christopher; Tinsley, Brian; Ilyas, Asif M; Wang, Mark L

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that: (1) radiation exposure is increased with the intended use of Flat Surface Image Intensifier (FSII) units above the operative surface compared with the traditional below-table configuration; (2) this differential increases in a dose-dependent manner; and (3) radiation exposure varies with body part and proximity to the radiation source. A surgeon mannequin was seated at a radiolucent hand table, positioned for volar distal radius plating. Thermoluminescent dosimeters measured exposure to the eyes, thyroid, chest, hand, and groin, for 1- and 15-minute trials from a mini C-arm FSII unit positioned above and below the operating surface. Background radiation was measured by control dosimeters placed within the operating theater. At 1-minute of exposure, hand and eye dosages were significantly greater with the flat detector positioned above the table. At 15-minutes of exposure, hand radiation dosage exceeded that of all other anatomic sites with the FSII in both positions. Hand exposure was increased in a dose-dependent manner with the flat detector in either position, whereas groin exposure saw a dose-dependent only with the flat detector beneath the operating table. These findings suggest that the surgeon's hands and eyes may incur greater radiation exposure compared with other body parts, during routine mini C-arm FSII utilization in its intended position above the operating table. The clinical impact of these findings remains unclear, and future long-term radiation safety investigation is warranted. Surgeons should take precautions to protect critical body parts, particularly when using FSII technology above the operating with prolonged exposure time.

  4. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  5. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  6. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a remaining lifetime management system for NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.C.; Regano, M.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The interest evinced by Spain nuclear power plants in providing a tool to support remaining lifetime management led to UNESA's application to OCIDE in 1992, and the latter's approval, for financing the project to develop a Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System for LWR nuclear power plants. This project is currently being developed under UNESA leadership, and the collaboration of three Spanish engineering companies and a research centre. The paper will describe its objectives, activities, current status and prospects. The project is defined in two phases, the first consisting of the identification and analysis of the main ageing phenomena and their significant parameters and specification of the Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System (RLES), and the second implementation of a pilot application of the RLES to verify its effectiveness. (Author)

  8. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  9. Dynamics of intertidal flats in the Loire estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervella, Stephane; Sottolichio, Aldo; Bertier, Christine

    2014-05-01

    Tidal flats form at the edges of many tidal estuaries, and are found in broad climatic regions. Their evolution plays a fundamental role in maintaining the morphodynamic equilibrium of an estuary. The Loire estuary is one of the largest macrotidal systems of the french atlantic coast. Since 200 years, its geometry has been drastically modified through channeling, deepening, embanking, infilling of secondary channels, etc. These works altered many intertidal areas. In the recent years, efforts for the rectification of the morphology have been made in order to restore the ecology of the estuary. In this context, it is crucial to better understand the dynamics of intertidal flats, still poorly understood in this estuary. The aim of this work is to analyse a series of original observations conducted for the first time in two intertidal flats of the central Lore estuary between 2008 and 2010. The tidal flats are situated in the northern bank, at 12 and 17 km upstream from the mouth respectively. Six Altus altimeters were deployed at two cross shore transects, measuring continuously and at a high-frequency bed altimetry and water level, providing information on tide and waves. At the semi-diurnal tidal scale, the surficial sediment of intertidal flats is permanently mobilized. Altimetry variations are low, and their amplitude varies as a function of tides and river flow. At the scale of several months, the sedimentation is controlled by the position of the turbidity maximum (and therefore by the river flow) and also by the tidal amplitude. During low river flow periods, altimetry variations are only due to tidal cycles. During decaying tides, suspended sediment settle mainly on the lower part of the tidal flats, forming fluid mud layers of several cm thick, which can consolidate rapidly; under rising tides, the increasing of tidal currents promotes erosion. During periods of high river flow, the turbidity maximum shifts to the lower estuary. The higher suspended sediment

  10. Relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León Samper, M C; Herrera Ortiz, G; Castellanos Mendoza, C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possible relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia in children between six and 15 years of age. Cross-sectional study including 65 patients that had undergone surgery due to residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation and compared against 75 healthy patients. Flexible flat foot prevalence was measured in each group, with the results showing that 61% of the group with residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation had this condition, vs. 12% in the healthy group. The statistical analysis shows that the chances of suffering from flexible flat foot, are five times greater in the hip dysplasia or hip dislocation group, than in the healthy group. There is no evidence in the literature showing a relationship between these two conditions, even though they have a common etiology. This study shows a potential measurable relation between this two conditions. Patients with hip dysplasia or dislocation may have a higher chance of presenting flexible flat foot during late childhood, adolescence and adulthood, a fact that suggests a relationship between these two pathologies. Also, patients who seek assistance for the first time because of a flexible flat foot condition without having been evaluated during the first year of life for hip dysplasia, would be better off if evaluated for residual hip dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. ACS/WFC Sky Flats from Frontier Fields Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J.; Lucas, R. A.; Grogin, N. A.; Bohlin, R. C.; Koekemoer, A. M.

    2018-04-01

    Parallel imaging data from the HST Frontier Fields campaign (Lotz et al. 2017) have been used to compute sky flats for the ACS/WFC detector in order to verify the accuracy of the current set of flat field reference files. By masking sources and then co-adding many deep frames, the F606W and F814W filters have enough combined background signal that from Poisson statistics are efficiency tracks the thickness of the two WFC chips. Observations of blue and red calibration standards measured at various positions on the detector (Bohlin et al. 2017) confirm the fidelity of the F814W flat, with aperture photometry consistent to 1% across the FOV, regardless of spectral type. At bluer wavelengths, the total sky background is substantially lower, and the F435W sky flat shows a combination of both flat errors and detector artifacts. Aperture photometry of the red standard star shows a maximum deviation of 1.4% across the array in this filter. Larger residuals up to 2.5% are found for the blue standard, suggesting that the spatial sensitivity in F435W depends on spectral type.

  12. Experimental and theoretical investigation of column - flat slab joint ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskhakov, I.; Ribakov, Y.; Shah, A.

    2009-01-01

    Most modern seismic codes use ductility as one of the basic design parameters. Actually, ductility defines the ability of a structure or its elements to absorb energy by plastic deformations. Until the end of the previous century ductility was defined qualitatively. Most research works related to ductility are focused on structural elements' sections. This study was aimed at complex experimental and theoretical investigation of flat slab-column joints ductility. It is one of the first attempts to obtain quantitative values of joint's ductility for the case of high strength concrete columns and normal strength concrete slabs. It was shown that the flat slab-column joint is a three-dimension (3D) element and its ductility in horizontal and vertical directions are different. This is the main difference between ductility of elements and joint ductility. In case of flat slab-column joints, essential contribution to joint's ductility can be obtained due to the slab's confining effect. Based on experimental data, the authors demonstrate that flat slab-column joint's ductility depends on the joint's confining effect in two horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, the influence of slab load intensity and slab reinforcement ratio on the joint's ductility is performed in this study. It is also demonstrated that the effect of the ratio between the slab thickness and the column's section dimension on the ductility parameter is significant. Equations for obtaining a quantitative value of a flat slab-column joint's ductility parameter were developed.

  13. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-05-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches over the vast sediment flats during low tide. However, the abundance and function of the diatom film is not homogenously distributed. Recently, we have realized the importance of bivalve reefs for structuring intertidal ecosystems; by creating structures on the intertidal flats they provide habitat, reduce hydrodynamic stress and modify the surrounding sediment conditions, which promote the abundance of associated organisms. Accordingly, field studies show that high chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment co-vary with the presence of mussel beds. Here we present conclusive evidence by a manipulative experiment that mussels increase the local biomass of benthic microalgae; and relate this to increasing biomass of microalgae as well as productivity of the biofilm across a nearby mussel bed. Our results show that the ecosystem engineering properties of mussel beds transform them into hot spots for primary production on tidal flats, highlighting the importance of biological control of sedimentary systems.

  14. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  15. Evaluation of the deformation value of an optical flat under gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yohan; Bitou, Youichi

    2014-01-01

    The flatness of an optical surface can be evaluated using a Fizeau interferometer. There is strong demand for ensuring that the measurement uncertainty of flatness is of nanometer order over a measurement range of 300 mm or more; however, the measurement range and measurement uncertainty of flatness at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) are 300 mm and 10 nm, respectively. In a Fizeau flatness interferometer, the gap distance between the reference flat and the specimen is measured. To obtain the absolute profile of the specimen, the absolute profile of the reference flat should be measured in advance. The three-flat test is one of the methods used to measure the absolute profile of a reference flat. The reference flat, however, deforms under the force of gravity, and its absolute deformation value cannot be determined by the three-flat test. The deformation value of the reference flat can be corrected by the finite element method (FEM) analysis; however, it is difficult to ensure the validity of the analysis and there is a large uncertainty component of the Fizeau flatness interferometer. To verify the FEM analysis, we developed a scanning deflectometric profiler (SDP) that does not require a reference flat and can directly measure a profile. We calibrated an optical flat using a Fizeau flatness interferometer and the SDP. Finally, the deformation value of the reference flat under the force of gravity was evaluated by comparing the measurement results. (paper)

  16. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  17. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  18. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  19. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  20. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  1. Palmar, Patellar, and Pedal Human Remains from Pavlov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trinkaus, E.; Wojtal, P.; Wilczyński, J.; Sázelová, Sandra; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, June (2017), s. 73-101 ISSN 1545-0031 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Gravettian * human remains * isolated bones * anatomically modern humans * Upper Paleolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://paleoanthro.org/media/journal/content/PA20170073.pdf

  2. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  3. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  4. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  5. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  6. Environmentally associated spatial changes of a macrozoobenthic community in the Saemangeum tidal flat, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jongseong; Khim, Jong Seong; Choi, Jin-Woo; Shin, Hyun Chool; An, Soonmo; Park, Jinsoon; Kang, Daeseok; Lee, Chang-Hee; Koh, Chul-Hwan

    2011-05-01

    Estuarine tidal flats are both ecologically and economically important, hence developing methods to reliably measure ecosystem health is essential. Because benthic fauna play a central role in the food web of tidal flats, in this study we set out to quantitatively describe the intertidal zonation of macro-invertebrates and their associations with specific environmental parameters along three transects in the Saemangeum tidal flat, Korea. The abundance and biomass of intertidal fauna with respect to five environmental parameters (i.e., shore level, mud content, coarse sand content, water content, and organic content) were measured, to identify environmental factors that influence macrofaunal distribution in intertidal soft bottom habitats. A total of 75 species were identified, with dominant species showing distinct zones of distribution along all transects. The number of species recorded in each transect was found to be dependent on sediment characteristics and salinity. Cluster analysis classified the entire study area into three faunal assemblages (i.e., location groups), which were delineated by characteristic species, including (A) ' Periserrula-Macrophthalmus', (B) ' Umbonium-Meretrix', and (C) ' Prionospio-Potamocorbula'. Four environmental variables (i.e., shore level, water content, mud content, and organic content) appeared to determine factors that distinguished the three faunal assemblages, based on the discriminant analysis. The faunal assemblage types of the sampled locations were accurately predicted from environmental variables in two discriminant functions, with a prediction accuracy of 98%. It should be noted that the zonation of benthos in the lower section (C) of Sandong had been affected by the construction of a nearby dike, while this parameter had remained essentially unchanged at the other two location groups (A-B). Overall, the zonation of benthos from the Saemangeum tidal flat was explained adequately by the measured environmental variables

  7. Higher-spin flat space cosmologies with soft hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin [Theoretisch-Physikalisches Institut, Friedrich-Schiller University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Grumiller, Daniel [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); CMCC-Universidade Federal do ABC,Santo André, S.P. (Brazil); Prohazka, Stefan [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Riegler, Max [Université libre de Bruxelles, Boulevard du Triomphe, Campus de la Plaine,1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Wutte, Raphaela [Institute for Theoretical Physics, TU Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/136, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2017-05-08

    We present and discuss near horizon boundary conditions for flat space higher-spin gravity in three dimensions. As in related work our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the solutions independently of the charges. The asymptotic symmetry algebra is given by a set of û(1) current algebras. The associated charges generate higher-spin soft hair. We derive the entropy for solutions that are continuously connected to flat space cosmologies and find the same result as in the spin-2 case: the entropy is linear in the spin-2 zero-mode charges and independent from the spin-3 charges. Using twisted Sugawara-like constructions of higher-spin currents we show that our simple result for entropy of higher-spin flat space cosmologies coincides precisely with the complicated earlier results expressed in terms of higher-spin zero mode charges.

  8. Disruption effects from the collision of quasi-flat beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pisin.

    1993-04-01

    The disruption effects from the collision of round beams and flat beams in linear colliders have been studied in the past, and has by now been well understood. In practice, however, in the current SLC running condition and in several designs of the next generation linear colliders, the quasi-flat beam geometries are expected. Namely, the beam aspect ratio R ≡ σ x /σ y > 1, but not infinitely large. In this regime the disruption effects in both x and y dimensions should be carefully included in order to properly describe the beam-beam interaction phenomena. In this paper we investigate two major disruption effects for the quasi-flat beam regime: The luminosity enhancement factor and the effective beamstrahlung. Computer simulations are employed and simple scaling laws are deduced

  9. Projective flatness in the quantisation of bosons and fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Siye

    2015-07-01

    We compare the quantisation of linear systems of bosons and fermions. We recall the appearance of projectively flat connection and results on parallel transport in the quantisation of bosons. We then discuss pre-quantisation and quantisation of fermions using the calculus of fermionic variables. We define a natural connection on the bundle of Hilbert spaces and show that it is projectively flat. This identifies, up to a phase, equivalent spinor representations constructed by various polarisations. We introduce the concept of metaplectic correction for fermions and show that the bundle of corrected Hilbert spaces is naturally flat. We then show that the parallel transport in the bundle of Hilbert spaces along a geodesic is a rescaled projection provided that the geodesic lies within the complement of a cut locus. Finally, we study the bundle of Hilbert spaces when there is a symmetry.

  10. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy as a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, the post-Cold War era, and the transition between the two. This provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified. (author)

  11. Rigidity of complete noncompact bach-flat n-manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yawei; Feng, Pinghua

    2012-11-01

    Let (Mn,g) be a complete noncompact Bach-flat n-manifold with the positive Yamabe constant and constant scalar curvature. Assume that the L2-norm of the trace-free Riemannian curvature tensor R∘m is finite. In this paper, we prove that (Mn,g) is a constant curvature space if the L-norm of R∘m is sufficiently small. Moreover, we get a gap theorem for (Mn,g) with positive scalar curvature. This can be viewed as a generalization of our earlier results of 4-dimensional Bach-flat manifolds with constant scalar curvature R≥0 [Y.W. Chu, A rigidity theorem for complete noncompact Bach-flat manifolds, J. Geom. Phys. 61 (2011) 516-521]. Furthermore, when n>9, we derive a rigidity result for R<0.

  12. Weyl-Euler-Lagrange Equations of Motion on Flat Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Kasap

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Weyl-Euler-Lagrange equations of motion on flat manifold. It is well known that a Riemannian manifold is said to be flat if its curvature is everywhere zero. Furthermore, a flat manifold is one Euclidean space in terms of distances. Weyl introduced a metric with a conformal transformation for unified theory in 1918. Classical mechanics is one of the major subfields of mechanics. Also, one way of solving problems in classical mechanics occurs with the help of the Euler-Lagrange equations. In this study, partial differential equations have been obtained for movement of objects in space and solutions of these equations have been generated by using the symbolic Algebra software. Additionally, the improvements, obtained in this study, will be presented.

  13. On beam quality and flatness of radiotherapy megavoltage photon beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, Murshed; Rhoades, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Ratio of percentage depth dose (PDD) at two depths, PDD at a depth of 10 cm (PDD 10 ), and beam flatness are monitored regularly for radiotherapy beams for quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to understand the effects of changes in one of these parameters on the other. Is it possible to monitor only the beam flatness and not PDD? The investigation has two components. Naturally occurring i.e., unintended changes in PDD ratio and in-plane flatness for 6 and 10 MV photon beams for one particular Siemens Artiste Linac are monitored for a period of about 4 years. Secondly, deliberate changes in the beam parameters are induced by changing the bending magnet current (BMI). Relationships between various beam parameters for unintended changes as well as deliberate changes are characterized. Long term unintentional changes of PDD ratio are found to have no systematic trend. The flatness in the in plane direction for 6 and 10 MV beams show slow increase of 0.43 and 0.75 % respectively in about 4 years while the changes in the PDD ratio show no such trend. Over 10 % changes in BMI are required to induce changes in the beam quality indices at 2 % level. PDD ratio for the 10 MV beam is found to be less sensitive, while the depth of maximum dose, d max , is more sensitive to the changes in BMI compared to the 6 MV beam. Tolerances are more stringent for PDD 10 than PDD ratio for the 10 MV beam. PDD ratio, PDD 10 , and flatness must be monitored independently. Furthermore, off axis ratio alone cannot be used to monitor flatness. The effect of beam quality change in the absolute dose is clinically insignificant.

  14. Movement Features Which Describe the Flat Bench Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Król Henryk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In sport technique studies, motion features can be useful as they have a certain defined measure [1]. In this work, we examined the following three features: the structure of the movement (all the characteristics of the movement, the fluency of the movement, and the rhythm of the movement. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of the selected movement features in the evaluation of the flat bench press. The protocol of the study included a flat bench press with free weights and a “touch-and-go” technique. Material and methods. The study involved twenty healthy men; however, only two were selected for analysis. The first subject was a 25-year-old powerlifter (body mass = 95 kg; body height = 182 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 145 kg. The second one was a 25-year-old bodybuilder (body mass = 77 kg; body height = 175 cm; 1-RM in flat bench press = 100 kg. The subjects performed consecutive sets of a single repetition of flat bench pressing with an increasing load (70, 80, 90, and 100% 1-RM, with the anticipated maximum weight, until the completion of one repetition maximum. Multidimensional movement analysis was made with the measuring system Smart-E (BTS, Italy, which consisted of six infrared cameras (120 Hz and a wireless module to measure muscle bioelectric activity (Pocket EMG. Results. It was demonstrated that the internal structure of the bench press performed by the bodybuilder and the powerlifter was different. As the time-history of barbell kinematics (the acceleration-time curve showed, with increased loading of the barbell, the rhythm of the flat bench press changed, and the fluidity of the movement worsened.

  15. Investigation on synthesis of Bi-based thin films on flat sputter-deposited Ag film by melting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yanjing; Satoh, Yoshimasa; Arisawa, Shunichi; Awane, Toru; Fukuyo, Akihiro; Takano, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Akira; Hatano, Takeshi; Togano, Kazumasa

    2003-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of ribbon-like thin films on flat sputter-deposited Ag films whose surface smoothness remained within the order of tens of nm. It was found that the addition of Pb to the starting material improves the wettability of molten phase and facilitates the growth of Bi-2212 ribbon-like thin films on a flat Ag substrate, and that the increase of Ca and Cu in starting material suppresses the intergrowth of the Bi-2201 phase in ribbon-like thin films. By using (Bi,Pb)-2246 powders, with nominal composition of Bi 1.6 Pb 0.4 Sr 1.6 Ca 3.2 Cu 4.8 O y , as the starting material, the superconducting Bi-2212 ribbon-like thin films with an onset T c at 74 K on a very flat Ag substrate were successfully synthesized. Additionally, the growth mechanism of ribbon-like thin films on flat Ag substrate was investigated by in situ high temperature microscope observation

  16. Blackbody radiation from light cone in flat space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, U.H.

    1983-01-01

    Blackbody radiation in flat space-time is not necessarily associated with the flat event horizon of a single accelerated observer. The author considers a spherical bubble which expands in a uniformly accelerating fashion. Its history traces out a time-like hyperboloid. Suppose the bubble membrane has a spatially isotropic and homogeneous (surface) stress energy tensor i.e. the membrane is made out of the stiffest possible material permitted by causality considerations. It follows that this bubble membrane is in equilibrium even though it is expanding. Such an expanding bubble membrane may serve as a detector of electromagnetic radiation if the membrane can interact with the electromagnetic field. (Auth.)

  17. The removal of plutonium contaminants from Rocky Flats Plant soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, N.R.

    1987-01-01

    This research was undertaken to determine if the TRUclean process could effectively remove radioactive elements from soils other than derived coral. This is an interim report prior to the project report and discusses the outcome of the tests of the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) soil. The soil tested contained plutonium particulates in the micron and submicron range. Volume reduction and activity removal were accomplished with an overall efficiency of greater than 90%. The TRUclean process is a very practical and economical solution to soil contamination problems at the Rocky Flats Plant

  18. Development of Surfaces Optically Suitable for Flat Solar Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, D.; Jason, A.

    1978-01-01

    Three areas of research in the development of flat solar panels are described. (1) A reflectometer which can separately evaluate the spectral and diffuse reflectivities of surfaces was developed. The reflectometer has a phase locked detection system. (2) A coating composed of strongly bound copper oxide that is formed by an etching process performed on an aluminum alloy with high copper content was also developed. Because of this one step fabrication process, fabrication costs are expected to be small. (3) A literature search was conducted and conclusions on the required optical properties of flat plate solar collectors are presented.

  19. "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber for the ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1983-01-01

    The "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber was a very special one for the ISR beam intersection I-4, inside the Split-Field Magnet. Technical descriptions are given with pictures 7802042 and 7712182. There were several generations of this chamber. This picture was taken during the last year of ISR operation. See also 7510230X, 7511123X, 7802039, 7802041. A flat-fish type vacuum chamber was also used at I-8, inside the Open Axial Field Magnet (OAFM, experiment 807 on large transverse momentum collision products), see 7901358.

  20. Feedforward Tracking Control of Flat Recurrent Fuzzy Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, Stefan; Adamy, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Flatness based feedforward control has proven to be a feasible solution for the problem of tracking control, which may be applied to a broad class of nonlinear systems. If a flat output of the system is known, the control is often based on a feedforward controller generating a nominal input in combination with a linear controller stabilizing the linearized error dynamics around the trajectory. We show in this paper that the very same idea may be incorporated for tracking control of MIMO recurrent fuzzy systems. Their dynamics is given by means of linguistic differential equations but may be converted into a hybrid system representation, which then serves as the basis for controller synthesis

  1. Flat rotation curves using scalar-tensor theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L [Depto de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 D.F. (Mexico); RodrIguez-Meza, M A [Depto de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 D.F. (Mexico); Nunez, Dario [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We computed flat rotation curves from scalar-tensor theories in their weak field limit. Our model, by construction, fits a flat rotation profile for velocities of stars. As a result, the form of the scalar field potential and DM distribution in a galaxy are determined. By taking into account the constraints for the fundamental parameters of the theory ({lambda}, {alpha}), it is possible to obtain analytical results for the density profiles. For positive and negative values of {alpha}, the DM matter profile is as cuspy as NFW's.

  2. A flat triangular shell element with Loof nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Noe; Damkilde, Lars

    1996-01-01

    In the formulation of flat shell elements it is difficult to achieve inter-element compatibility between membrane and transverse displacements for non-coplanar elements. Many elements lack proper nodal degrees of freedom to model intersections making the assembly of elements troublesome. A flat...... triangular shell element is established by a combination of a new plate bending element DKTL and the well-known linear membrane strain element LST, and for this element the above-mentioned deficiences are avoided. The plate bending element DKTL is based on Discrete Kirchhoff Theory and Loof nodes. The nodal...

  3. Interacting agegraphic dark energy models in non-flat universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheykhi, Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    A so-called 'agegraphic dark energy' was recently proposed to explain the dark energy-dominated universe. In this Letter, we generalize the agegraphic dark energy models to the universe with spatial curvature in the presence of interaction between dark matter and dark energy. We show that these models can accommodate w D =-1 crossing for the equation of state of dark energy. In the limiting case of a flat universe, i.e. k=0, all previous results of agegraphic dark energy in flat universe are restored.

  4. Color quality management in advanced flat panel display engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebowsky, Fritz; Neugebauer, Charles F.; Marnatti, David M.

    2003-01-01

    During recent years color reproduction systems for consumer needs have experienced various difficulties. In particular, flat panels and printers could not reach a satisfactory color match. The RGB image stored on an Internet server of a retailer did not show the desired colors on a consumer display device or printer device. STMicroelectronics addresses this important color reproduction issue inside their advanced display engines using novel algorithms targeted for low cost consumer flat panels. Using a new and genuine RGB color space transformation, which combines a gamma correction Look-Up-Table, tetrahedrization, and linear interpolation, we satisfy market demands.

  5. Study of conformally flat polytropes with tilted congruence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Sadiq, Sobia

    This paper is aimed to study the modeling of spherically symmetric spacetime in the presence of anisotropic dissipative fluid configuration. This is accomplished for an observer moving relative to matter content using two cases of polytropic equation-of-state under conformally flat condition. We formulate the corresponding generalized Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation, mass equation, as well as energy conditions for both cases. The conformally flat condition is imposed to find an expression for anisotropy which helps to study spherically symmetric polytropes. Finally, Tolman mass is used to analyze stability of the resulting models.

  6. Two theorems on flat space-time gravitational theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnino, M.; Chimento, L.

    1980-01-01

    The first theorem states that all flat space-time gravitational theories must have a Lagrangian with a first term that is an homogeneous (degree-1) function of the 4-velocity usup(i), plus a functional of nsub(ij)usup(i)usup(j). The second theorem states that all gravitational theories that satisfy the strong equivalence principle have a Lagrangian with a first term gsub(ij)(x)usup(i)usup(j) plus an irrelevant term. In both cases the theories must issue from a unique variational principle. Therefore, under this condition it is impossible to find a flat space-time theory that satisfies the strong equivalence principle. (author)

  7. Prescribed curvature tensor in locally conformally flat manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Romildo; Pieterzack, Mauricio

    2018-01-01

    A global existence theorem for the prescribed curvature tensor problem in locally conformally flat manifolds is proved for a special class of tensors R. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a metric g ¯ , conformal to Euclidean g, are determined such that R ¯ = R, where R ¯ is the Riemannian curvature tensor of the metric g ¯ . The solution to this problem is given explicitly for special cases of the tensor R, including the case where the metric g ¯ is complete on Rn. Similar problems are considered for locally conformally flat manifolds.

  8. Vacuum energy in asymptotically flat 2 + 1 gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miskovic, Olivera, E-mail: olivera.miskovic@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Olea, Rodrigo, E-mail: rodrigo.olea@unab.cl [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Sazié 2212, Piso 7, Santiago (Chile); Roy, Debraj, E-mail: roy.debraj@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2017-04-10

    We compute the vacuum energy of three-dimensional asymptotically flat space based on a Chern–Simons formulation for the Poincaré group. The equivalent action is nothing but the Einstein–Hilbert term in the bulk plus half of the Gibbons–Hawking term at the boundary. The derivation is based on the evaluation of the Noether charges in the vacuum. We obtain that the vacuum energy of this space has the same value as the one of the asymptotically flat limit of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  9. Vacuum energy in asymptotically flat 2 + 1 gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo; Roy, Debraj

    2017-01-01

    We compute the vacuum energy of three-dimensional asymptotically flat space based on a Chern–Simons formulation for the Poincaré group. The equivalent action is nothing but the Einstein–Hilbert term in the bulk plus half of the Gibbons–Hawking term at the boundary. The derivation is based on the evaluation of the Noether charges in the vacuum. We obtain that the vacuum energy of this space has the same value as the one of the asymptotically flat limit of three-dimensional anti-de Sitter space.

  10. Stability of generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirabi, Z. [Eastern Mediterranean Univ., Gazimagusa (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2017-07-15

    Some important spacetimes are conformally flat; examples are the Robertson-Walker cosmological metric, the Einstein-de Sitter spacetime, and the Levi-Civita-Bertotti-Robinson and Mannheim metrics. In this paper we construct generic thin shells in conformally flat spacetime supported by a perfect fluid with a linear equation of state, i.e., p = ωσ. It is shown that, for the physical domain of ω, i.e., 0 < ω ≤ 1, such thin shells are not dynamically stable. The stability of the timelike thin shells with the Mannheim spacetime as the outer region is also investigated. (orig.)

  11. Feedforward Tracking Control of Flat Recurrent Fuzzy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gering, Stefan; Adamy, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Flatness based feedforward control has proven to be a feasible solution for the problem of tracking control, which may be applied to a broad class of nonlinear systems. If a flat output of the system is known, the control is often based on a feedforward controller generating a nominal input in combination with a linear controller stabilizing the linearized error dynamics around the trajectory. We show in this paper that the very same idea may be incorporated for tracking control of MIMO recurrent fuzzy systems. Their dynamics is given by means of linguistic differential equations but may be converted into a hybrid system representation, which then serves as the basis for controller synthesis.

  12. Holographic interferometry for early diagnosisof children flat foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Petrovich Bolshakov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first experience ofthe use of holographic interferometr y for earlydiagnosis of the flat foot in 4-5 years old children.13 patients were examined. The results of the clinicalexamination, plantography, and of the graphicalreconstruction of the form of the foot arch basedon the interferogramms of the prints on Pedilen areanalyzed. We revealed typical differences betweenthe form of the foot arches in children with flat foot and children with normal status. The use of the proposed method for early detection of congenital pes valgus and of the signs of “flexible flat” foot is being suggested.

  13. Stationary closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igata, Takahisa; Ishihara, Hideki; Nishiwaki, Keisuke

    2012-11-01

    We investigate stationary rotating closed Nambu-Goto strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. The stationary string is defined as a world sheet that is tangent to a timelike Killing vector. The Nambu-Goto equation of motion for the stationary string is reduced to the geodesic equation on the orbit space of the isometry group action generated by the Killing vector. We take a linear combination of a time-translation vector and space-rotation vectors as the Killing vector, and explicitly construct general solutions of stationary rotating closed strings in five-dimensional flat spacetime. We show a variety of their configurations and properties.

  14. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, C. [Kaiser-Hill Co., LLC, Golden, CO (United States)], Doyle, D. [USDOE Rocky Flats Office, Golden, CO (United States)], Featherman, W.D. [Project Performance Corp., Sterline, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  15. Lemonade from lemons: the taphonomic effect of lawn mowers on skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D C; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Roberts, Lindsey G

    2013-09-01

    This study provides a descriptive analysis of the taphonomic changes produced by passing over skeletonized remains (n = 4, Sus scrofa) with three common lawn mowers. Two skeletons were mowed over with a riding lawn mower set at multiple blade heights (10.16, 7.62, 5.08 cm) and one each with a rotary mower (9.53, 6.35 cm) and a mulching mower (6.35 cm). Results show that different types of common lawn mowers will produce different patterns of bone dispersal and fragmentation rates. Overall, skeletal elements projecting upward from the surface frequently exhibited a sheared morphology characterized by a smooth, flat, cut surface (7.0-7.6% of elements). The push mowers yielded a higher frequency of undamaged bone than the riding mower (54.8-61.2% vs. 17.7%), and the riding mower created more catastrophic damage to skeletal elements. Additionally, each mower produced a distinct dispersal pattern of skeletal fragments. The dispersal patterns have been identified as "bull's-eye" (riding), circular (mulching), and discontinuous rectangle (rotary). © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  17. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Sen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, which is unparallel in the history of ancient and mediaeval forts and fortifications in India. Several other structures like the Jay-Chandi Temple Complex, a huge well, numerous tanks and remains of an ancient bridge add to the uniqueness of the Fort in the entire eastern region.

  18. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  19. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; GROVE, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed

  20. Study on remain actinides recovery in pyro reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharto, Bambang

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing by dry process called pyro reprocessing have been studied. Most of U, Pu and MA (minor actinides) from the spent fuel will be recovered and be fed back to the reactor as new fuel. Accumulation of remain actinides will be separated by extraction process with liquid cadmium solvent. The research was conducted by computer simulation to calculate the stage number required. The calculation's results showed on the 20 stages extractor more than 99% actinides can be separated. (author)

  1. US GAAP vs. IFRS – A COMPARISON OF REMAINING DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Mihelčić, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the on-going harmonization process, there are still some differences between US GAAP and IFRS. Currently, companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, which are reporting according to IFRS, must still prepare the reconciliation to US GAAP, to show the financial statements compliant with US GAAP as well. This article presents an overview of the remaining major differences between US GAAP and IFRS, descriptive as well as table-wise. First, the standards compared are shortly intr...

  2. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bratati

    2013-01-01

    The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, w...

  3. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Calibration of C-14 dates: some remaining uncertainties and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleigh, R.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the interpretation of radiocarbon dates in terms of calendar years. An outline is given of the factors that make such correlations necessary and of the work that has so far been done to make them possible. The calibration of the C-14 timescale very largely depends at present on the bristlecone pine chronology, but it is clear that many detailed uncertainties still remain. These are discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  6. Remaining useful life estimation based on discriminating shapelet extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Simon; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    In the Prognostics and Health Management domain, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of critical machinery is a challenging task. Various research topics including data acquisition, fusion, diagnostics and prognostics are involved in this domain. This paper presents an approach, based on shapelet extraction, to estimate the RUL of equipment. This approach extracts, in an offline step, discriminative rul-shapelets from an history of run-to-failure data. These rul-shapelets are patterns that are selected for their correlation with the remaining useful life of the equipment. In other words, every selected rul-shapelet conveys its own information about the RUL of the equipment. In an online step, these rul-shapelets are compared to testing units and the ones that match these units are used to estimate their RULs. Therefore, RUL estimation is based on patterns that have been selected for their high correlation with the RUL. This approach is different from classical similarity-based approaches that attempt to match complete testing units (or only late instants of testing units) with training ones to estimate the RUL. The performance of our approach is evaluated on a case study on the remaining useful life estimation of turbofan engines and performance is compared with other similarity-based approaches. - Highlights: • A data-driven RUL estimation technique based on pattern extraction is proposed. • Patterns are extracted for their correlation with the RUL. • The proposed method shows good performance compared to other techniques

  7. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  8. Remaining life diagnosis method and device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron flux measuring means is inserted from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel during reactor operation to forecast neutron-degradation of materials of incore structural components in the vicinity of portions to be measured based on the measured values, and the remaining life of the reactor is diagnosed by the forecast degraded state. In this case, the neutron fluxes to be measured are desirably fast and/or medium neutron fluxes. As the positions where the measuring means is to be inserted, for example, the vicinity of the structural components at the periphery of the fuel assembly is selected. Aging degradation characteristics of the structural components are determined by using the aging degradation data for the structural materials. The remaining life is analyzed based on obtained aging degradation characteristics and stress evaluation data of the incore structural components at portions to be measured. Neutron irradiation amount of structural components at predetermined positions can be recognized accurately, and appropriate countermeasures can be taken depending on the forecast remaining life thereby enabling to improve the reliability of the reactor. (N.H.)

  9. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  10. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Andreas; Cord, Anna; Hearn, Andrew J; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J W; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-03-17

    The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for the flat-headed cat should focus on the identified remaining key

  11. Modelling the species distribution of flat-headed cats (Prionailurus planiceps, an endangered South-East Asian small felid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Wilting

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim, altitude (SRTM and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World. Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation. In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo, information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations, and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation

  12. EMG analysis and modelling of flat bench press using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of particular muscle groups during the Flat Bench Press (FBP) with different external loads. Additionally, the authors attempted to determine whether regression models or Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) can predict FBP results more precisely and whether they can ...

  13. Cosmic microwave background anisotropies in multiconnected flat spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riazuelo, Alain; Weeks, Jeffrey; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Lehoucq, Roland; Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This article investigates the signature of the seventeen multiconnected flat spaces in cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps. For each such space it recalls a fundamental domain and a set of generating matrices, and then goes on to find an orthonormal basis for the set of eigenmodes of the Laplace operator on that space. The basis eigenmodes are expressed as linear combinations of eigenmodes of the simply connected Euclidean space. A preceding work, which provides a general method for implementing multiconnected topologies in standard CMB codes, is then applied to simulate CMB maps and angular power spectra for each space. Unlike in the 3-torus, the results in most multiconnected flat spaces depend on the location of the observer. This effect is discussed in detail. In particular, it is shown that the correlated circles on a CMB map are generically not back to back, so that negative search of back-to-back circles in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data does not exclude a vast majority of flat or nearly flat topologies

  14. UPPER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS OF FLAT SERVE IN TENNIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brian McAllister

    kinematics on the ball velocity at the impact phase of a tennis flat serve. 15 elite male tennis players were recruited to participate in this study (mean age 18.4±3.3 .... For field calibration, a Direct Linear Transformation technique, developed by ...

  15. Intertidal deposits: river mouths, tidal flats, and coastal lagoons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisma, D.; Boer, de P.L.; Cadee, G.C.; Dijkema, K.; Ridderinkhof, H.; Phillippart, C.

    1998-01-01

    Intertidal Deposits: River Mouths, Tidal Flats, and Coastal Lagoons combines the authors personal and professional experience with the mass of available literature to present a cohesive overview of intertidal deposits and the widely diverse conditions of their formation worldwide. This includes the

  16. 19 CFR 148.102 - Flat rate of duty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS Noncommercial Importations of Limited Value § 148.102 Flat... fair retail value in the country of acquisition. (b) American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands..., effective January 1, 2001, and 1.5 percent, effective January 1, 2002, of the fair retail value in the...

  17. Public involvement in cleanup - the Rocky Flats experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paukert, J.; Pennock, S.; Schassburger, R.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant recently completed and implemented the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plan for public involvement in environmental restoration of the site. The plan was developed in cooperation with the plant's regulators, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Colorado Department of Health. In addition, citizens near the plant played a significant role in shaping the document through extensive community interviews and public comment. The result of these cooperative efforts is a plan that meets and exceeds the applicable federal and state community relations requirements for a cleanup program. In fact, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has used the Rocky Flats Plant Community Relations Plants a model for similar plans at other federal facilities. Plan development, however, is only the starting point for an effective community relations effort. The Rocky Flats Plant and the public will face many challenges together as we implement the plan and build a partnership for addressing environmental cleanup issues. (author)

  18. Inevitable ambiguity in perturbation around flat space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, S.; Kaminaga, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Perturbation of general-relativistic predictions around flat geometry, in general, introduces inevitable ambiguity. The ambiguity reflects the geometrical nature of general relativity and is never a difficulty of it. We explain it by taking a concrete example of the radar-echo experiment

  19. Flat-screen detector systems in skeletal radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grampp, S.; Czerny, C.; Krestan, C.; Henk, C.; Heiner, L.; Imhof, H.

    2003-01-01

    Implementation of flat-panel detectors and digital integration of the technique instead of the use of conventional radiographs leads to a shortening of the work process. With flat-panel technology the image production process is shortened by more than 30%. Major advantages in the implementation of integrated RIS, PACS and flat-panel detector system are increases in quality because most mistakes in picture labeling can be avoided, easier handling without the need for cassettes, and the possibility of image post-processing. The diagnostic quality of the images in the field of musculoskeletal radiology is, in comparison to conventional radiographs, at least adequate and in most cases markedly improved with a marked reduction in radiation exposure of around 30-50%. With respect to the numerous advantages of the digital techniques and especially flat-panel technology there is a very high likelihood that conventional radiographs will be substituted in the coming years, even though the cost of the new technology is currently significantly higher compared to conventional systems. (orig.) [de

  20. Asymptotics and Numerics for Laminar Flow over Finite Flat Plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, D.; Kuerten, J.G.M.; Kaper, Hans G.; Garbey, Mare; Pieper, Gail W.

    1992-01-01

    A compilation of theoretical results from the literature on the finite flat-plate flow at zero incidence is presented. This includes the Blasius solution, the Triple Deck at the trailing edge, asymptotics in the wake, and properties near the edges of the plate. In addition, new formulas for skin

  1. Higher-spin algebras, holography and flat space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleight, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Taronna, M. [Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-20

    In this article we study the higher-spin algebra behind the type-A cubic couplings recently extracted from the free O(N) model in generic dimensions, demonstrating that they coincide with the known structure constants for the unique higher-spin algebra in generic dimensions. This provides an explicit check of the holographic reconstruction and of the duality between higher-spin theories and the free O(N) model in generic dimensions, generalising the result of Giombi and Yin in AdS{sub 4}. For completeness, we also address the same problem in the flat space for the cubic couplings derived by Metsaev in 1991, which are recovered from the flat limit of the AdS type-A cubic couplings. We observe that both flat and AdS{sub 4} higher-spin Lorentz subalgebras coincide, hinting towards the existence of a full higher-spin symmetry behind the flat-space cubic couplings of Metsaev.

  2. Evaluation of two styles of slotted, flat-head screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, C.A. Jr.; Johnson, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A series of torque tests were performed to evaluate the relative merits of two different flat-head screws fabricated from a uranium--6% niobium alloy. The screws tested were machined with both normal, straight-through slots in the head and with slots having radiused bottoms. Test results indicate that both designs easily surpass the required 20-inch-pound-proof torque

  3. Engineering flat electronic bands in quasiperiodic and fractal loop geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandy, Atanu, E-mail: atanunandy1989@gmail.com; Chakrabarti, Arunava, E-mail: arunava_chakrabarti@yahoo.co.in

    2015-11-06

    Exact construction of one electron eigenstates with flat, non-dispersive bands, and localized over clusters of various sizes is reported for a class of quasi-one-dimensional looped networks. Quasiperiodic Fibonacci and Berker fractal geometries are embedded in the arms of the loop threaded by a uniform magnetic flux. We work out an analytical scheme to unravel the localized single particle states pinned at various atomic sites or over clusters of them. The magnetic field is varied to control, in a subtle way, the extent of localization and the location of the flat band states in energy space. In addition to this we show that an appropriate tuning of the field can lead to a re-entrant behavior of the effective mass of the electron in a band, with a periodic flip in its sign. - Highlights: • Exact construction of eigenstates with flat and dispersive bands is reported. • Competition between translational order and growth of aperiodicity is discussed. • The effect of magnetic field on the location of flat band states is shown. • Flux tunable re-entrant behavior of the effective mass of electron is studied.

  4. Diffractive flat panel solar concentrators of a novel design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.M.; de Boer, D.K.G.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel design for a flat panel solar concentrator is presented which is based on a light guide with a grating applied on top that diffracts light into total internal reflection. By combining geometrical and diffractive optics the geometrical concentration ratio is optimized according to the

  5. Possibilities of Obtaining Flat Static Characteristic of DC Ferromagnetic Actuator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Dvořák, P.; Mach, M.; Ulrych, B.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 220, č. 1 (2005), s. 29-39 ISSN 0032-6216 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00B084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : flat static characteristic * DC ferromagnetic actuator Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  6. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu; Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Yuehong; Tian, Zhen; Gu, Jianqiang; Yue, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuang; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  7. Adsorption study for uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laul, J.C.; Rupert, M.C.; Harris, M.J.; Duran, A.

    1995-01-01

    Six adsorbents were studied to determine their effectiveness in removing uranium in Rocky Flats groundwater. The bench column and batch (Kd) tests showed that uranium can be removed (>99.9%) by four adsorbents. Bone Charcoal (R1O22); F-1 Alumina (granular activated alumina); BIOFIX (immobilized biological agent); SOPBPLUS (mixed metal oxide); Filtrasorb 300 (granular activated carbon); and Zeolite (clinoptilolite)

  8. Design study of flat belt CVT for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    A continuously variable transmission (CVT) was studied, using a novel flat belt pulley arrangement which couples the high speed output shaft of an energy storage flywheel to the drive train of an electric vehicle. A specific CVT arrangement was recommended and its components were selected and sized, based on the design requirements of a 1700 KG vehicle. A design layout was prepared and engineering calculations made of component efficiencies and operating life. The transmission efficiency was calculated to be significantly over 90% with the expected vehicle operation. A design consistent with automotive practice for low future production costs was considered, together with maintainability. The technology advancements required to develop the flat belt CVT were identified and an estimate was made of how the size of the flat belt CVT scales to larger and smaller design output torques. The suitability of the flat belt CVT for alternate application to an electric vehicle powered by an electric motor without flywheel and to a hybrid electric vehicle powered by an electric motor with an internal combustion engine was studied.

  9. Atomically flat platinum films grown on synthetic mica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Masateru

    2018-04-01

    Atomically flat platinum thin films were heteroepitaxially grown on synthetic fluorophlogopite mica [KMg3(AlSi3O10)F2] by van der Waals epitaxy. Platinum films deposited on a fluorophlogopite mica substrate by inductively coupled plasma-assisted sputtering with oxygen introduction on a synthetic mica substrate resulted in the growth of twin single-crystalline epitaxial Pt(111) films.

  10. A survey on conformal flatness and quasiumbilicity of submanifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafindratafa, G.K.

    1989-06-01

    Presently, some confusions are made on the way of understanding the relation and the difference between the conformal flatness and the quasiumbilicity of submanifolds. The purpose of this paper is to make a clarification on these two topics: We review all the up-to-date known main results and the open related problems. (author). 18 refs

  11. Fire-induced reradiation underneath photovoltaic arrays on flat roofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jens Steemann; Merci, Bart; Jomaas, Grunde

    2018-01-01

    The impact of the reflection of fire-induced heat from a gas burner was studied experimentally to gain knowledge on the interaction between photovoltaic (PV) panels and a fire on flat roofs. The heat flux was measured in a total of eight points at the same level as the top of the gas burner. The ...

  12. Present and future of flat panel detectors in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    Present status of development of flat panel detectors and their clinical application in the world have been surveyed, and future trends are also explored especially in the field of material researches and methods of manufacturing. Also the importance of role of medical physicists on user side is described because characteristic physics measurement of a detector assembly is unavoidable and essential in quality assurance in clinical routine and acceptance test in hospitals. Even though physics measurements and clinical evaluations on flat panel detectors have shown remarkable progress and advances in these several years, future problems of cost down in manufacturing and quality assurance to prevent individual differences between detector assemblies must be resolved. Results of evaluation in mammography, chest radiography, fluoroscopy for cardiovascular examination, bone tumor examination and radiotherapy application indicate that flat panel detectors are future promising materials. Their systematic operation is contributing to heighten accuracy of image examinations and preciseness of radiation therapy. Encouragement to medical physicists relevant to flat panel detectors is also raised in this paper. (author)

  13. An Irrotational Flow Field That Approximates Flat Plate Boundary Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ruffa, Anthony A.

    2004-01-01

    An irrotational solution is derived for the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations that approximately satisfies the boundary conditions for flow over a finite flat plate. The nature of the flow differs substantially from boundary layer flow, with severe numerical difficulties in some regions.

  14. The Scale Invariant Synchrotron Jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... In this paper, the scale invariance of the synchrotron jet of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars has been studied using a sample of combined sources from FKM04 and from SDSS DR3 catalogue. Since the research of scale invariance has been focused on sub-Eddington cases that can be fitted onto the ...

  15. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu

    2015-02-12

    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  16. Dynamic Modeling of Natural Convection Solar Energy Flat Plate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analytical solutions to the dynamic model of an air-heating flat plate solar energy thermal collector were validated by direct measurement from a physical model constructed for that purpose, of the temperatures of the cover and absorber plates, the inlet and outlet fluids, and the ambient air from morning to evening for ...

  17. Virological studies of water from the Cape Flats reclamation plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4500 m3 of water per day, was constructed at the Cape Flats sewage works and studied over a period of ... In brief, gels were fIxed with methanol 50%, acetic acid 10% for 1 hour, followed by ethanol 10%, acetic acid 0,5% for 1 hour and then ...

  18. Flat microwave photonic filter based on hybrid of two filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Chunhui; Pei, Li; Ning, Tigang; Li, Jing; Gao, Song

    2010-01-01

    A new microwave photonic filter (MPF) hybrid of two filters that can realize both multiple taps and a flat bandpass or bandstop response is presented. Based on the phase character of a Mach–Zehnder modulator (MZM), a two taps finite impulse response (FIR) filter is obtained as the first part. The second part is obtained by taking full advantage of the wavelength selectivity of the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the gain of a erbium-doped fiber (EDF). Combining the two filters, the flat bandpass or bandstop response is realized by changing the coupler's factor k, the reflectivity of FBG1 R 1 or the gain of the EDF g. Optimizing the system parameters, a flat bandpass response with amplitude depth of more than 45 dB is obtained at k = 0.5, R 1 = 0.33, g = 10, and a flat bandstop response is also obtained at k = 0.4, R 1 = 0.5, g = 2. In addition, the free-spectral range (FSR) can be controlled by changing the length of the EDF and the length difference between two MZMs. The method is proved feasible by some experiments. Such a method offers realistic solutions to support future radio-frequency (RF) optical communication systems

  19. Natural phenomena risk assessment at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foppe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A realistic approach is currently being used at the Rocky Flats Plant to assess the risks of natural phenomena events. The methodology addresses frequency of occurrence estimates, damage stress on the facility and vital equipment, material-at-risk, release fractions and source terms, leakpath, dispersion and dosimetric models, risk curves, and an uncertainty analysis. 28 references, 1 figure

  20. Target aligned heliostat field layout for non-flat terrrain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Buck, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The layout for a solar tower test facility for CSIR, Pretoria, is described. The solar tower system is designed for 400kWth receiver outlet power. The heliostat field layout takes into account both the real (non-flat) topography of the terrain...

  1. Holographic reconstruction and renormalization in asymptotically Ricci-flat spacetimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldeira Costa, R.N.

    2012-01-01

    In this work we elaborate on an extension of the AdS/CFT framework to a sub-class of gravitational theories with vanishing cosmological constant. By building on earlier ideas, we construct a correspondence between Ricci-flat spacetimes admitting asymptotically hyperbolic hypersurfaces and a family

  2. Seismic evaluation of large flat-bottomed tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Kassawara, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for conservatively evaluating the seismic capacity of flat-bottom fluid storage tanks. The authors know of no case of tank failures at capacity levels less than those predicted by this procedure. Thus, the predicted capacity represents a High Confidence Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity consistent with earthquake experience. (orig.)

  3. Conformally flat tilted Bianchi Type-V cosmological models in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the complete determination of these quantities, we assume two extra conditions. First we assume that the space-time is conformally flat which leads to. 1008 .... Discussions. The model starts expanding with a big-bang at М = 0 and the expansion in the model stops at М = ∞ and = -2(Т + 2)¬. The model in general represents.

  4. Flat tori in three-dimensional space and convex integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Vincent; Jabrane, Saïd; Lazarus, Francis; Thibert, Boris

    2012-05-08

    It is well-known that the curvature tensor is an isometric invariant of C(2) Riemannian manifolds. This invariant is at the origin of the rigidity observed in Riemannian geometry. In the mid 1950s, Nash amazed the world mathematical community by showing that this rigidity breaks down in regularity C(1). This unexpected flexibility has many paradoxical consequences, one of them is the existence of C(1) isometric embeddings of flat tori into Euclidean three-dimensional space. In the 1970s and 1980s, M. Gromov, revisiting Nash's results introduced convex integration theory offering a general framework to solve this type of geometric problems. In this research, we convert convex integration theory into an algorithm that produces isometric maps of flat tori. We provide an implementation of a convex integration process leading to images of an embedding of a flat torus. The resulting surface reveals a C(1) fractal structure: Although the tangent plane is defined everywhere, the normal vector exhibits a fractal behavior. Isometric embeddings of flat tori may thus appear as a geometric occurrence of a structure that is simultaneously C(1) and fractal. Beyond these results, our implementation demonstrates that convex integration, a theory still confined to specialists, can produce computationally tractable solutions of partial differential relations.

  5. Strategic flat rolling of Ag/BSCCO-2223 tapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Storgård; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Eriksen, Morten

    2002-01-01

    In the process of single-step flat rolling of multifilament Ag/BSCCO-2223 wire to tape previous work has shown the optimum strategy giving maximum critical current density to be it balance between the length and width strain, so they are of equal size i.e. so, that the logarithmic strain ratio, L...

  6. Computer Security: When a person leaves - access rights remain!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2014-01-01

    We have been contacted recently by an embarrassed project manager who just figured out that a student who left at the end of 2013 still had access rights to read the whole project folder in February 2014: “How can that be?! In any other company, access rights would be purged at the same time as an employment contract terminates." Not so at CERN.   CERN has always been an open site with an open community. Physical access to the site is lightweight and you just need to have your CERN access card at hand. Further restrictions have only been put in place where safety or security really require them, and CERN does not require you to keep your access card on display. The same holds for the digital world. Once registered at CERN - either by contract, via your experiment or through the Users' office - you own a computing account that provides you with access to a wide variety of computing services. For example, last year 9,730 students/technicians/engineers/researchers/sta...

  7. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  8. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  9. The Artificial Leaf: Recent Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Symes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of a device that uses solar energy to split water into H2 and O2 is highly attractive in terms of producing hydrogen as a carbon-neutral fuel. In this mini review, key research milestones that have been reached in this field over the last two decades will be discussed, with special focus on devices that use earth-abundant materials. Finally, the remaining challenges in the development of such “artificial leaves” will be highlighted.

  10. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  11. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  12. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  13. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  14. Nonconformally flat initial data for binary compact objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uryu, Koji; Limousin, Francois; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Friedman, John L.; Shibata, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    A new method is described for constructing initial data for a binary neutron-star system in quasiequilibrium circular orbit. Two formulations for nonconformally flat data, waveless and near-zone helically symmetric, are introduced; in each formulation, the Einstein-Euler system, written in 3+1 form on an asymptotically flat spacelike hypersurface, is exactly solved for all metric components, including the spatially nonconformally flat potentials, and for irrotational flow. A numerical method applicable to both formulations is explained with an emphasis on the imposition of a spatial gauge condition. Results are shown for solution sequences of irrotational binary neutron-stars with matter approximated by parametrized equations of state that use a few segments of polytropic equations of state. The binding energy and total angular momentum of solution sequences computed within the conformally flat--Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews--formulation are closer to those of the third post-Newtonian (3PN) two point particles up to the closest orbits, for the more compact stars, whereas sequences resulting from the waveless/near-zone helically symmetric formulations deviate from the 3PN curve even more for the sequences with larger compactness. We think it likely that this correction reflects an overestimation in the Isenberg-Wilson-Mathews formulation as well as in the 3PN formula, by ∼1 cycle in the gravitational-wave phase during the last several orbits. The work suggests that imposing spatial conformal flatness results in an underestimate of the quadrupole deformation of the components of binary neutron-star systems in the last few orbits prior to merger.

  15. Modelling of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service: A stepwise approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Hazlin; Wahid, Sharifah Norhuda Syed; Jais, Mohammad; Ridzuan, Arifi

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain the most significant model of volunteer satisfaction and intention to remain in community service by using a stepwise approach. Currently, Malaysians, young and old are showing more interests in involving themselves in community service projects, either locally or internationally. This positive movement of serving the needy is somehow being halted by the lack of human and financial resources. Therefore, the trend today sees organizers of such projects depend heavily on voluntary supports as they enable project managers to add and to expand the quantity and diversity of services offered without exhausting the minimal budget available. Volunteers are considered a valuable commodity as the available pool of volunteers may be declining due to various reasons which include the volunteer satisfaction. In tandem with the existing situation, a selected sample of 215 diploma students from one of the public universities in Malaysia, who have been involved in at least one community service project, agreed that everybody should have a volunteering intention in helping others. The findings revealed that the most significant model obtained contains two factors that contributed towards intention to remain in community service; work assignment and organizational support, with work assignment becoming the most significant factor. Further research on the differences of intention to remain in community service between students' stream and gender would be conducted to contribute to the body of knowledge.

  16. Fossil human remains from Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Quam, Rolf; Carretero, José Miguel; Barciela González, Virginia; Blasco, Ruth; Cuartero, Felipe; Sañudo, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Systematic excavations carried out since 1989 at Bolomor Cave have led to the recovery of four Pleistocene human fossil remains, consisting of a fibular fragment, two isolated teeth, and a nearly complete adult parietal bone. All of these specimens date to the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene (MIS 7-5e). The fibular fragment shows thick cortical bone, an archaic feature found in non-modern (i.e. non-Homo sapiens) members of the genus Homo. Among the dental remains, the lack of a midtrigonid crest in the M(1) represents a departure from the morphology reported for the majority of Neandertal specimens, while the large dimensions and pronounced shoveling of the marginal ridges in the C(1) are similar to other European Middle and late Pleistocene fossils. The parietal bone is very thick, with dimensions that generally fall above Neandertal fossils and resemble more closely the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca (SH) adult specimens. Based on the presence of archaic features, all the fossils from Bolomor are attributed to the Neandertal evolutionary lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  18. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  19. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  20. FREQUENCY DEFORMITY SCOLIOSIS AND FLAT FEET IN PUPILS III, V.VII GRADE SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejаn Gojković

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scoliosis is a lateral deviation of the spine or the angular deviation of the normal position of one or more segmenata.Funkcional curve can be fully corrected until the internal structural scoliosis are bone disorders, muscle nerve elements that support the spine, and complete correction is impossible. Static role is reflected in the foot taking kisses body weight through the bones pop and transmission and distribution of weight on the main point of support of the foot and therefore subject to various changes in the normal foot status.Dinamic role is reflected in walking, running and jumping in different forms. Because of this, the percentage of foot disorders is particularly large in the form of lowering the testing we arche.Perform o.š.Pale Pale deformities in scoliosis and flat feet in students III, V, VII grade. Our aim was to verify the extent to which physical education classes take appropriate measures in the detection and removal of poor posture and physical deformities. For testing we used: clinical method for scoliosis, a method for flat feet -Thomson method.

  1. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A fine modelling of the material' behaviour can be necessary to study the mechanical strength of nuclear power plant' components under cyclic loads. Ratchetting is one of the last phenomena for which numerical models have to be improved. We discuss in this paper on use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening to improve the description of ratchetting in biaxial loading tests. It's well known that Chaboche elastoplastic model with two non linear kinematic hardening variables initially proposed by Armstrong and Frederick, usually over-predicts accumulation of ratchetting strain. Burlet and Cailletaud proposed in 1987 a non linear kinematic rule with a radial evanescence remain term. The two models lead to identical formulation for proportional loadings. In the case of a biaxial loading test (primary+secondary loading), Burlet and Cailletaud model leads to accommodation, when Chaboche one's leads to ratchetting with a constant increment of strain. So we can have an under-estimate with the first model and an over-estimate with the second. An easy method to improve the description of ratchetting is to combine the two kinematic rules. Such an idea is already used by Delobelle in his model. With analytical results in the case of tension-torsion tests, we show in a first part of the paper, the interest of radial evanescence remain term in the non linear kinematic rule to describe ratchetting: we give the conditions to get adaptation, accommodation or ratchetting and the value of the strain increment in the last case. In the second part of the paper, we propose to modify the elastoplastic Chaboche model by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters which can be identified independently on biaxial loading tests. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. We use the experimental results on the austenitic steel 316L at room

  2. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  3. Flat vs. Expressive Storytelling: Young Children’s Learning and Retention of a Social Robot’s Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory Westlund, Jacqueline M.; Jeong, Sooyeon; Park, Hae W.; Ronfard, Samuel; Adhikari, Aradhana; Harris, Paul L.; DeSteno, David; Breazeal, Cynthia L.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children’s vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot’s active reading was expressive; the robot’s voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive). For the remaining children, the robot read and conversed with a flat voice, which sounded similar to a classic text-to-speech engine and had little dynamic range (Flat). The robot’s movements were kept constant across conditions. We performed a verification study using Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT) to confirm that the Expressive robot was viewed as significantly more expressive, more emotional, and less passive than the Flat robot. We invited 45 preschoolers with an average age of 5 years who were either English Language Learners (ELL), bilingual, or native English speakers to engage in the reading task with the robot. The robot narrated a story from a picture book, using active reading techniques and including a set of target vocabulary words in the narration. Children were post-tested on the vocabulary words and were also asked to retell the story to a puppet. A subset of 34 children performed a second story retelling 4–6 weeks later. Children reported liking and learning from the robot a similar amount in the Expressive and Flat conditions. However, as compared to children in the Flat condition, children in the Expressive condition were more concentrated and engaged as indexed by their facial expressions; they emulated the robot’s story more in their story retells; and they told longer stories during their delayed retelling. Furthermore

  4. Flat vs. Expressive Storytelling: Young Children’s Learning and Retention of a Social Robot’s Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M. Kory Westlund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior research with preschool children has established that dialogic or active book reading is an effective method for expanding young children’s vocabulary. In this exploratory study, we asked whether similar benefits are observed when a robot engages in dialogic reading with preschoolers. Given the established effectiveness of active reading, we also asked whether this effectiveness was critically dependent on the expressive characteristics of the robot. For approximately half the children, the robot’s active reading was expressive; the robot’s voice included a wide range of intonation and emotion (Expressive. For the remaining children, the robot read and conversed with a flat voice, which sounded similar to a classic text-to-speech engine and had little dynamic range (Flat. The robot’s movements were kept constant across conditions. We performed a verification study using Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT to confirm that the Expressive robot was viewed as significantly more expressive, more emotional, and less passive than the Flat robot. We invited 45 preschoolers with an average age of 5 years who were either English Language Learners (ELL, bilingual, or native English speakers to engage in the reading task with the robot. The robot narrated a story from a picture book, using active reading techniques and including a set of target vocabulary words in the narration. Children were post-tested on the vocabulary words and were also asked to retell the story to a puppet. A subset of 34 children performed a second story retelling 4–6 weeks later. Children reported liking and learning from the robot a similar amount in the Expressive and Flat conditions. However, as compared to children in the Flat condition, children in the Expressive condition were more concentrated and engaged as indexed by their facial expressions; they emulated the robot’s story more in their story retells; and they told longer stories during their delayed retelling

  5. TMI in perspective: reactor containment stands up, difficult decisions remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Co. is increasing its commitment to nuclear energy after reviewing the performance of the Three Mile Island reactor containment systems. Both the reactor vessel and the secondary containment remained intact and no radiation was reported in the soil or water. The public discussion of energy options which followed the accident will benefit both the public and technical community even if there is a temporary slowdown in nuclear power development. The realities of energy supplies have become evident; i.e., that nuclear and coal are the only available options for the short-term. The discussion should also lead to better personnel training, regulatory reforms, risk-sharing insurance, and international standards. The public hysteria triggered by the accident stemmed partly from the combination of unfortunate incidents and the media coverage, which led to hasty conclusions

  6. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  7. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  8. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  9. [Alcohol and work: remaining sober and return to work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadini, G; Bandirali, M

    2007-01-01

    One of the most complex alcohol-driven problems is the job loss and the subsequent attempts to return to a professional activity. In order to better understand the issue, an epidemiologic investigation was carried out on a group of 162 alcoholics whilst hospitalised in a specialised clinic. The outcome shows the importance of remaining sober to keep or to be returned to one's own job. Unfortunately, local resources at hand, first of all joining an auto-mutual-help group, re still too little known and thus clearly underemployed. Therefore, an informative action within companies is highly desirable. Those alcoholics suffering from serious illnesses, especially mental ones represent a different issue. For these people a higher involvement of public authorities is desirable in creating protected job openings.

  10. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This work reviews the hazards and risks of practicing forensic anthropology in North America, with a focus on pathogens encountered through contact with unpreserved human remains. Since the publication of Galloway and Snodgrass' seminal paper concerning the hazards of forensic anthropology, research has provided new information about known pathogen hazards, and regulating authorities have updated recommendations for the recognition and treatment of several infections. Additionally, forensic anthropology has gained popularity, exposing an increased number of students and practitioners to these hazards. Current data suggest many occupational exposures to blood or body fluids go unreported, especially among students, highlighting the need for this discussion. For each pathogen and associated disease, this work addresses important history, reviews routes of exposure, provides an overview of symptoms and treatments, lists decontamination procedures, and presents data on postmortem viability. Personal protection and laboratory guidelines should be established and enforced in conjunction with the consideration of these data. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  12. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  13. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  14. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  15. Inertia, Friendships or Effective Relationship Marketing? Remaining at the Same University for a Taught Master’s Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Gardener, John; Richardson, Mark; Evans, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the influencing factors of individual students who remain at the same University for their postgraduate study. By interviewing students on an MSc Management course, we found some interesting motivations about where to continue studying a taught postgraduate course. These factors included such issues as the importance of developing and maintaining personal effective relationships, peer group influence and a sense of belonging.

  16. Hydrology of a nuclear-processing plant site, Rocky Flats, Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurr, R. Theodore

    1976-01-01

    Accidental releases of contaminants resulting from the operation of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's nuclear-processing and recovery plant located on Rocky Flats will move at different rates through -different parts of the hydrologic system. Rates of movement are dependent upon the magnitude of the accidental release and the hydrologic conditions at the time of the release. For example, during wet periods, a contaminant resulting from a 5,000-gallon (19,000-1itre) release on the land surface would enter the ground-water system in about 2 to 12 hours. Ground-water flow in the Rocky Flats Alluvium might move the contaminant eastward at a rate of about 3 to 11 feet (0.9 to 3.4 metres) per day, if it remains dissolved. Maximum time to a point of discharge would be about 3 years; minimum time could be a few days. A contaminant entering a stream would then move at a rate of about 60 feet (18 metres) per minute under pool-and-riffle conditions. The rate of movement might be about 420 feet (128 metres) per minute under open-channel-flow conditions following intense thunderstorms.

  17. Remediation of muddy tidal flat sediments using hot air-dried crushed oyster shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tamiji; Kondo, Shunsuke; Kim, Kyung-Hoi; Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tokuoka, Makoto; Hibino, Tadashi

    2012-11-01

    In order to prove that hot air-dried crushed oyster shells (HACOS) are effective in reducing hydrogen sulfide in muddy tidal flat sediments and increasing the biomass, field experiments were carried out. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide in the interstitial water, which was 16 mg SL(-1) before the application of HACOS, decreased sharply and maintained almost zero in the experimental sites (HACOS application sites) for one year, whereas it was remained at ca. 5 mg SL(-1) in the control sites. The number of macrobenthos individuals increased to 2-4.5 times higher than that in the control site. Using a simple numerical model, the effective periods for suppression of hydrogen sulfide were estimated to be 3.2-7.6 and 6.4-15.2 years for the experimental sites with 4 and 8 tons per 10 × 10 × 0.2m area, respectively. From these results, it is concluded that HACOS is an effective material to remediate muddy tidal flats. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Model-supported phototrophic growth studies with Scenedesmus obtusiusculus in a flat-plate photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Anja Pia; Löwe, Hannes; Schmid, Verena; Mundt, Sabine; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Light-dependent growth of microalgae can vary remarkably depending on the cultivation system and microalgal strain. Cell size and the pigmentation of each strain, as well as reactor geometry have a great impact on absorption and scattering behavior within a photobioreactor. In this study, the light-dependent, cell-specific growth kinetics of a novel green algae isolate, Scenedesmus obtusiusculus, was studied in a LED-illuminated flat-plate photobioreactor on a lab-scale (1.8 L, 0.09 m 2 ). First, pH-controlled batch processes were performed with S. obtusiusculus at different constant incident photon flux densities. The best performance was achieved by illuminating S. obtusiusculus with 1400 μmol photons m -2  s -1 at the surface of the flat-plate photobioreactor, resulting in the highest biomass concentration (4.95 ± 0.16 g CDW  L -1 within 3.5 d) and the highest specific growth rate (0.22 h -1 ). The experimental data were used to identify the kinetic parameters of different growth models considering light inhibition for S. obtusiusculus. Light attenuation within the flat-plate photobioreactor was considered by varying light transfer models. Based on the identified kinetic growth model of S. obtusiusculus, an optimum growth rate of 0.22 h -1 was estimated at a mean integral photon flux density of 1072 μmol photons m -2  s -1 with the Beer-Lambert law and 1590 μmol photons m -2  s -1 with Schuster's light transfer model in the flat-plate photobioreactor. LED illumination was, thus, increased to keep the identified optimum mean integral photon flux density constant in the batch process assuming Schuster's light transfer model. Compared to the same constant incident photon flux density (1590 μmol photons m -2  s -1 ), biomass concentration was up to 24% higher using the lighting profile until a dry cell mass concentration of 14.4 ± 1.4 g CDW  L -1 was reached. Afterward, the biomass concentration remained constant

  19. Investigating wake patterns and propulsive frequencies of a flat plate under pitching motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moubogha Moubogha, Joseph; Astolfi, Jacques Andre

    Fundamental mechanisms of swimming are explored using a simple geometry device - flat plate - in pure-pitching motion in a hydrodynamic tunnel. The experiments are carried out at different Reynolds numbers based on the plate length c. Pitching motion is generated for reduced frequencies k between 0 and 2 and for an angular amplitude of 10 deg. Velocity fields are obtained in the wake of the plate using Particle Image Velocimetry and measurements of drag coefficients are estimated from mean velocity profiles. This study confirms the occurrence of a threshold oscillation frequency beyond which the plate enters a propulsive regime and the wake features organized structures. In this case an inversion of the typical Karman vortex street is observed. The evolution of mean transverse velocity profiles in the wake of the plate shows that the usual wake profile with velocity deficit - plate with drag - can be transformed into a jet - plate with thrust - above a certain reduced frequency. Phd Student Mechanical Engineering Departement.

  20. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  1. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  2. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  3. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  4. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  5. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  7. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. Using contractors to decommission while remaining as licensee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, A.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last few years the role of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has changed from one involved in research and development in the field of nuclear power and associated technology, to one of managing the liabilities left over from its previous mission. This period has also seen two significant portions of the organization move to the private sector with sale of the Facilities Services Division to PROCORD and the privatization of AEA Technology. The new UKAEA is therefore a focused liabilities management organization, making the best use of expertise in the private sector in carrying out its mission, but retaining adequate internal resource and expertise to fulful its role and responsibilities as the licensee. UKAEA continues to be committed to giving the highest priority to meeting high standards of safety and environmental protection required of the holder of the Nuclear Site Licence under the Nuclear Installations Act. This paper describes the safety management system within the UKAEA which ensures that UKAEA remains the proper and effective licensee and gives some examples of how this has worked in practice. (author)

  9. Broadband unidirectional cloaks based on flat metasurface focusing lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2015-01-01

    Bandwidth extension and thickness reduction are now the two key issues of cloaks. In this paper, we propose to achieve broadband, thin uni-directional electromagnetic (EM) cloaks using metasurfaces. To this end, a wideband flat focusing lens is firstly devised based on high-efficiency transmissive metasurfaces. Due to the nearly dispersionless parabolic phase profile along the metasurface in the operating band, incident plane waves can be focused efficiently after passing through the metasurface. Broadband unidirectional EM cloaks were then designed by combining two identical flat lenses. Upon illumination, the incident plane waves are firstly focused by one lens and then are restored by the other lens, avoiding the cloaked region. Both simulation and experiment results verify the broadband unidirectional cloak. The broad bandwidth and small thickness of such cloaks have potential applications in achieving invisibility for electrically large objects. (paper)

  10. Broadband unidirectional cloaks based on flat metasurface focusing lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Wang, Jiafu; Pang, Yongqiang; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2015-08-01

    Bandwidth extension and thickness reduction are now the two key issues of cloaks. In this paper, we propose to achieve broadband, thin uni-directional electromagnetic (EM) cloaks using metasurfaces. To this end, a wideband flat focusing lens is firstly devised based on high-efficiency transmissive metasurfaces. Due to the nearly dispersionless parabolic phase profile along the metasurface in the operating band, incident plane waves can be focused efficiently after passing through the metasurface. Broadband unidirectional EM cloaks were then designed by combining two identical flat lenses. Upon illumination, the incident plane waves are firstly focused by one lens and then are restored by the other lens, avoiding the cloaked region. Both simulation and experiment results verify the broadband unidirectional cloak. The broad bandwidth and small thickness of such cloaks have potential applications in achieving invisibility for electrically large objects.

  11. Polymer solidification of mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucette, A.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Lucerna, J.J.; Yudnich, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant is pursuing polymer solidification as a viable treatment option for several mixed waste streams that are subject to land disposal restrictions within the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act provisions. Tests completed to date using both surrogate and actual wastes indicate that polyethylene microencapsulation is a viable treatment option for several mixed wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant, including nitrate salts, sludges, and secondary wastes such as ash. Treatability studies conducted on actual salt waste demonstrated that the process is capable of producing waste forms that comply with all applicable regulatory criteria, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Tests have also been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of macroencapsulating certain debris wastes in polymers. Several methods and plastics have been tested for macroencapsulation, including post-consumer recycle and regrind polyethylene

  12. Optical identifications of flat-spectrum radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, J.J.; Condon, M.A.; Broderick, J.J.; Davis, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    A complete sample of radio sources with S> or =0.3 Jy at 1400 MHz, +24 0 0 , and low-frequency spectral indices α(408, 1400) or =+0.5 are usually in empty fields. The lower limits that can be assigned to the radio-optical spectral indices α/sub RO/ of these sources are significantly higher than the median α/sub RO/ of the sources with flat high-frequency spectra, so the optical characteristics of the two classes of radio source are intrinsically different. The radio and optical fluxes of flat-spectrum QSO's appear to be correlated, at least when averaged over 10 2 --10 3 yr

  13. Actinide solution processing at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1039, for radioactive solution removal and processing at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for solution removal and processing is in response to independent safety assessments and an agreement with the State of Colorado to remove mixed residues at Rocky Flats and reduce the risk of future accidents. Monthly public meetings were held during the scoping and preparation of the EA. The scope of the EA included evaluations of alternative methods and locations of solution processing. A comment period from February 20, 1995 through March 21, 1995 was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to offer written comment on the EA. Comments were received from the State of Colorado and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A response to the agency comments is included in the Final EA

  14. Scalar hairy black holes and solitons in asymptotically flat spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucamendi, Ulises; Salgado, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    A numerical analysis shows that the Einstein field equations allow static and spherically symmetric black hole solutions with scalar-field hair in asymptotically flat spacetimes. When regularity at the origin is imposed (i.e., in the absence of a horizon) globally regular scalar solitons are found. The asymptotically flat solutions are obtained provided that the scalar potential V(φ) of the theory is not positive semidefinite and such that its local minimum is also a zero of the potential, the scalar field settling asymptotically at that minimum. The configurations, although unstable under spherically symmetric linear perturbations, are regular and thus can serve as counterexamples to the no-scalar-hair conjecture

  15. Digital radiography with large-area flat-panel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, E.; Langer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Large-area flat-panel detectors with active readout mechanisms have been on the market for the past 2 years. This article describes different detector technologies. An important distinction is made between detectors with direct and those with indirect conversion of X-rays into electrical charges. Detectors with indirect conversion are built with unstructured or structured scintillators, the latter resulting in less lateral diffusion of emitted light. Some important qualities of flat-panel detectors are discussed. The first phantom and clinical studies published report an image quality at least comparable to that of screen-film systems and a potential for dose reduction. The available studies are summarised in this article. (orig.)

  16. Pair Formation of Hard Core Bosons in Flat Band Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    Hard core bosons in a large class of one or two dimensional flat band systems have an upper critical density, below which the ground states can be described completely. At the critical density, the ground states are Wigner crystals. If one adds a particle to the system at the critical density, the ground state and the low lying multi particle states of the system can be described as a Wigner crystal with an additional pair of particles. The energy band for the pair is separated from the rest of the multi-particle spectrum. The proofs use a Gerschgorin type of argument for block diagonally dominant matrices. In certain one-dimensional or tree-like structures one can show that the pair is localised, for example in the chequerboard chain. For this one-dimensional system with periodic boundary condition the energy band for the pair is flat, the pair is localised.

  17. Turbulent thermal boundary layer on a permeable flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigdorovich, I. I.

    2007-01-01

    Scaling laws are established for the profiles of temperature, turbulent heat flux, rms temperature fluctuation, and wall heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with transpiration. In the case of blowing, the temperature distribution represented in scaling variables outside the viscous sublayer has a universal form known from experimental data for flows over impermeable flat plates. In the case of suction, the temperature distribution is described by a one-parameter family of curves. A universal law of heat transfer having the form of a generalized Reynolds analogy provides a basis for representation of the heat flux distributions corresponding to different Reynolds numbers and transpiration velocities in terms of a function of one variable. The results are obtained without invoking any special closure hypotheses

  18. A preparation of thin flat target for RD lifetime measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Badry, A M; Abdel Samie, Sh; Ahmed, A A [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El Minia University, Minia (Egypt); Kuroyanagi, T; Morinobu, S [Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kyushu University, (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    An extreme flatness for a target surface is the most necessary in recoil distance method (RDM). A suitable technique was used for preparing a La target. The {sup 139} La target of thickness 0.22 mg/cm{sup 2} was evaporated onto a very flat soft Au foil of thickness 2 mg/cm{sup 2}. This target was successively used for lifetime measurements of the excited nuclear states in {sup 145} Sm nucleus through the nuclear reaction {sup 139} La ({sup 10} B, 4 n) {sup 145} Sm. Background {gamma} rays produced by the {sup 10} B irradiation for the Au backing and the Pb stopper without the La target were measured. Besides that, the {gamma} rays from residual activities were also measured. 3 figs.

  19. Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative's Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products

  20. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-10-01

    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  1. A new method of constructing scalar-flat Kaehler surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jongsu; Pontecorvo, M.

    1993-10-01

    Building on the work of Donaldson-Friedman we present a geometric way of constructing anti-self-dual hermitian metrics on compact complex surfaces which is based on the relative complex deformations of singular 3-folds with divisors. Some of the consequences are that under a mild condition, fully described by LeBrun-Singer, any blow up of a scalar-flat Kaehler surface admits scalar-flat Kaehler metrics; this is used to prove that such extremal Kaehler metrics exists on an open dense subset of the moduli space of non-minimal ruled surfaces of genus g ≥ 2. Related results have been obtained by LeBrun-Singer. (author). 25 refs

  2. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leigh, J.D.

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees

  3. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant`s environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report.

  4. Properties of vitrified rocky flats TRUW with different waste loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Miley, D.V.; Erickson, A.W.; Farnsworth, R.N.; Larsen, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Leach rates, phase structures, and mechanical properties of simulated Rocky Flats Plant 1st and 2nd slate sludge vitrified in an arc melter are described as a function of waste to soil fraction and method of devitrification to produce the glass-ceramic waste form. Volatile, hazardous, and transuranic (TRU) surrogate metals were added to assess dissolution effects. Zirconia and titania were also added to confirm their ability as transuranic-surrogate getters

  5. Detecting topology in a nearly flat spherical universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, Jeffrey; Lehoucq, Roland; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2003-01-01

    When the density parameter is close to unity, the universe has a large curvature radius independent of its being hyperbolic or spherical, or in the limiting case of an infinite curvature radius, flat. Whatever the curvature, the universe may have either a simply connected or a multiply connected topology. In the flat case, the topology scale is arbitrary, and there is no a priori reason for this scale to be of the same order as the size of the observable universe. In the hyperbolic case, any nontrivial topology would almost surely be on a length scale too large to detect. In the spherical case, in contrast, the topology could easily occur on a detectable scale. The present paper shows how, in the spherical case, the assumption of a nearly flat universe simplifies the algorithms for detecting a multiply connected topology, but also reduces the amount of topology that can be seen. This is of primary importance for the upcoming cosmic microwave background data analysis. This paper shows that for spherical spaces one may restrict the search to diametrically opposite pairs of circles in the circles-in-the-sky method and still detect the cyclic factor in the standard factorization of the holonomy group. This vastly decreases the algorithm's run time. If the search is widened to include pairs of candidate circles whose centres are almost opposite and whose relative twist varies slightly, then the cyclic factor along with a cyclic subgroup of the general factor may also be detected. Unfortunately, the full holonomy group is, in general, unobservable in a nearly flat spherical universe, and so a full six-parameter search is unnecessary. Crystallographic methods could also potentially detect the cyclic factor and a cyclic subgroup of the general factor, but nothing else

  6. Detecting topology in a nearly flat hyperbolic universe

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Jeffrey R.

    2002-01-01

    Cosmic microwave background data shows the observable universe to be nearly flat, but leaves open the question of whether it is simply or multiply connected. Several authors have investigated whether the topology of a multiply connect hyperbolic universe would be detectable when 0.9 < Omega < 1. However, the possibility of detecting a given topology varies depending on the location of the observer within the space. Recent studies have assumed the observer sits at a favorable location. The pre...

  7. Detecting topology in a nearly flat spherical universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, Jeffrey [15 Farmer St, Canton NY 13617-1120 (United States); Lehoucq, Roland [CE-Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, GReCO, CNRS-FRE 2435, 98 bis, Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2003-04-21

    When the density parameter is close to unity, the universe has a large curvature radius independent of its being hyperbolic or spherical, or in the limiting case of an infinite curvature radius, flat. Whatever the curvature, the universe may have either a simply connected or a multiply connected topology. In the flat case, the topology scale is arbitrary, and there is no a priori reason for this scale to be of the same order as the size of the observable universe. In the hyperbolic case, any nontrivial topology would almost surely be on a length scale too large to detect. In the spherical case, in contrast, the topology could easily occur on a detectable scale. The present paper shows how, in the spherical case, the assumption of a nearly flat universe simplifies the algorithms for detecting a multiply connected topology, but also reduces the amount of topology that can be seen. This is of primary importance for the upcoming cosmic microwave background data analysis. This paper shows that for spherical spaces one may restrict the search to diametrically opposite pairs of circles in the circles-in-the-sky method and still detect the cyclic factor in the standard factorization of the holonomy group. This vastly decreases the algorithm's run time. If the search is widened to include pairs of candidate circles whose centres are almost opposite and whose relative twist varies slightly, then the cyclic factor along with a cyclic subgroup of the general factor may also be detected. Unfortunately, the full holonomy group is, in general, unobservable in a nearly flat spherical universe, and so a full six-parameter search is unnecessary. Crystallographic methods could also potentially detect the cyclic factor and a cyclic subgroup of the general factor, but nothing else.

  8. Wind flow simulation over flat terrain using CFD based software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, Peter; Terziev, Angel; Genovski, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Velocity distribution recognition over definite place (terrain) is very important because due to that the zones with high energy potential could be defined (the fields with high velocities). This is a precondition for optimal wind turbine generators micro-sitting. In current work a simulation of the open flow over the flat terrain using the CFD based software is reviewed. The simulations are made of a real fluid flow in order to be defined the velocity fields over the terrain

  9. Flat panel planar optic display. Revision 4/95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-05-01

    A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic glass sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  10. Quantitative respirator man-testing at Rocky Flats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, J. D.

    1978-01-01

    The dioctyl phthalate quantitative respirator man-testing method used at Rocky Flats is outlined. Using this method, 93 persons trained to use self contained breathing equipment were tested with eight respiratory protective devices. Test results obtained with the seven devices using high efficiency particulate filters are compared to the results obtained with the self contained breathing equipment. Also comparison is made for these results to test results for 1667 other employees.

  11. Transmission of electrons with flat passbands in finite superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barajas-Aguilar, A H; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K A; Martínez-Orozco, J C; Enciso-Muñoz, A; Contreras-Solorio, D A

    2013-01-01

    Using the transfer matrix method and the Ben Daniel-Duke equation for variable mass electrons propagation, we calculate the transmittance for symmetric finite superlattices where the width and the height of the potential barriers follow a linear dependence. The width and height of the barriers decreases from the center to the ends of the superlattice. The transmittance presents intervals of stopbands and quite flat passbands.

  12. Maximally flat radiation patterns of a circular aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1989-08-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problems of maximizing the area utilization coefficient and of obtaining the best approximation (on the average) of a sectorial Pi-shaped radiation pattern of an antenna with a circular aperture when Butterworth conditions are imposed on the approximating pattern with the aim of flattening it. Constraints on the choice of admissible minimum and maximum antenna dimensions are determined which make possible the synthesis of maximally flat patterns with small sidelobes.

  13. Design of optimal linear antennas with maximally flat radiation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkovich, B. M.; Mints, M. Ia.

    1990-02-01

    The paper presents an explicit solution to the problem of maximizing the aperture area utilization coefficient and obtaining the best approximation in the mean of the sectorial U-shaped radiation pattern of a linear antenna, when Butterworth flattening constraints are imposed on the approximating pattern. Constraints are established on the choice of the smallest and large antenna dimensions that make it possible to obtain maximally flat patterns, having a low sidelobe level and free from pulsations within the main lobe.

  14. Diffractive flat panel solar concentrators of a novel design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Ties M; de Boer, Dick K G; Bastiaansen, Cees W M

    2016-07-11

    A novel design for a flat panel solar concentrator is presented which is based on a light guide with a grating applied on top that diffracts light into total internal reflection. By combining geometrical and diffractive optics the geometrical concentration ratio is optimized according to the principles of nonimaging optics, while the thickness of the device is minimized due to the use of total internal reflection.

  15. SUSY Flat Directions - to get a VEV or not?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basboell, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the potential of SUSY flat directions (FDs). Large FD vacuum expectation values (VEVs) can delay thermalisation and solve the gravitino problem--if FDs decay perturbatively. This depends on how many and which directions get the VEVs. Recently the decay of the FDs have been studied with the VEVs as input. Here we look at how the VEVs come about--statistically and analytically.

  16. Flatness of the universe - Reconciling theoretical prejudices with observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. S.; Steigman, G.; Krauss, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical prejudices argue strongly for a flat universe; however, observations do not support this view. It is pointed out that this apparent conflict could be resolved if the mass density of the universe today were dominated by (1) relativistic particles produced by the recent decay of massive, relic particle species, or by (2) a relic cosmological constant. Scenario (1) has several advantages in the context of galaxy formation, but must confront the problem of a young universe.

  17. Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report: 1993 Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant Site Environmental Report provides summary information on the plant's environmental monitoring programs and the results recorded during 1993. The report contains a compliance summary, results of environmental monitoring and other related programs, a review of environmental remediation activities, information on external gamma radiation dose monitoring, and radiation dose estimates for the surrounding population. This section provides an overview of these topics and summarizes more comprehensive discussions found in the main text of this annual report

  18. The sharp peak-flat trough pattern and critical speculation

    OpenAIRE

    Roehner, B. M.; Sornette, D.

    1998-01-01

    We find empirically a characteristic sharp peak-flat trough pattern in a large set of commodity prices. We argue that the sharp peak structure reflects an endogenous inter-market organization, and that peaks may be seen as local ``singularities'' resulting from imitation and herding. These findings impose a novel stringent constraint on the construction of models. Intermittent amplification is not sufficient and nonlinear effects seem necessary to account for the observations.

  19. DOE awards first economic conversion project at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobsenz, G.

    1993-01-01

    In the first economic conversion project at an Energy Department weapons facility, a Colorado company this week was given permission to refurbish four buildings at DOE's Rocky Flats plant to recycle slightly radioactive scrap metal. DOE, acting in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency and Colorado authorities, announced Tuesday it had given the go-ahead to Manufacturing Sciences Corp. of Golden, Colorado, to proceed with planning for the project

  20. The BTZ black hole as a Lorentz-flat geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rodríguez, Eduardo, E-mail: eduarodriguezsal@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Matemática y Física Aplicadas, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción (Chile); Salgado-Rebolledo, Patricio, E-mail: pasalgado@udec.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes, Campus Plaine C.P. 231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-11-10

    It is shown that 2+1 dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetimes are Lorentz-flat. This means, in particular, that any simply-connected patch of the BTZ black hole solution can be endowed with a Lorentz connection that is locally pure gauge. The result can be naturally extended to a wider class of black hole geometries and point particles in three-dimensional spacetime.

  1. Treatment of pond sludge at the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wienand, J.; Tyler, R.; Baldwin, C.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of low-level radioactive/hazardous materials sludges from five inactive solar evaporation settling ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant is discussed. The paper presents information on the following topics: history of the ponds; previous pond cleanout activities; current approach to the problem with respect to water management, sludge management, regulatory actions, and disposal; and future processing technology needs in the areas of polymer solidification, microwave solidification, joule-heated glass melters, and advanced technology incineration

  2. Reflection from a flat dielectric film with negative refractive index

    OpenAIRE

    Hillion, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the reflection of a TM electromagnetic field first on a flat dielectric film and second on a Veselago film with negative refractive index, both films being deposited on a metallic substrat acting as a mirror. An incident harmonic plane wave generates inside a conventional dielectric film a refracted propagating wave and an evanescent wave that does not contribute to reflection on the metallic substrat so that part of the information conveyed by the incident field is lost. At the op...

  3. Testing flat plate photovoltaic modules for terrestrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Arnett, J. C.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    New qualification tests have been developed for flat plate photovoltaic modules. Temperature cycling, cyclic pressure load, and humidity exposure are especially useful for detecting design and fabrication deficiencies. There is positive correlation between many of the observed field effects, such as power loss, and qualification test induced degradation. The status of research efforts for the development of test methodology for field-related problems is reviewed.

  4. Qualification testing of flat-plate photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, A. R.; Griffith, J. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The placement of photovoltaic modules in various applications, in climates and locations throughout the world, results in different degrees and combinations of environmental and electrical stress. Early detection of module reliability deficiencies via laboratory testing is necessary for achieving long, satisfactory field service. This overview paper describes qualification testing techniques being used in the US Department of Energy's flat-plate terrestrial photovoltaic development program in terms of their significance, rationale for specified levels and durations, and test results.

  5. Streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated by triangular leading edge pattern in flat plate boundary layer

    KAUST Repository

    Hasheminejad, S. M.; Mitsudharmadi, Hatsari; Winoto, S. H.; Lua, K. B.; Low, H. T.

    2016-01-01

    A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out

  6. The rocky flats controversy on radionuclide soil action levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    An account of the Rocky Flats radionuclide soil action level controversy is presented as: a case study for the purpose of understanding the nature and value of stakeholder involvement in the management of radiological hazards. The report consists of three main sections. The first section outlines the Rocky Flats story, including the Cold War era, which was characterised by secrecy and distrust, the post-Cold War era, in which trust and co-operation between risk managers and the public began to develop. This contrast between these two historical periods provides the context necessary to understand the radionuclide soil action level controversy, the main events of which are described in the second section. In the final section, the Rocky Flats case is briefly discussed within the framework of a general model of stakeholder involvement and the lessons learned from the case are identified: (1) without a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement in the management of radiological hazards is not possible; (2) given a basis in shared values, collaborative public involvement can lead to improved solutions to the management of radiological hazards; and (3) risk managers should therefore seek to understand the values of public stakeholders and to identify ways, through stakeholder involvement, that those values can be incorporated in management practice. (author)

  7. Glenohumeral contact force during flat and topspin tennis forehand drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Yoann; Creveaux, Thomas; Dumas, Raphaël; Chèze, Laurence; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives. The results showed no differences in magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces between the flat and topspin forehand drives. The estimated maximal GH contact force during the forward swing phase was 3573 ± 1383 N, which was on average 1.25 times greater than during the follow-through phase, and 5.8 times greater than during the backswing phase. Regardless the phase of the forehand drive, GH contact forces pointed towards the anterior-superior part of the glenoid therefore standing for shearing forces. Knowledge of GH contact forces during real sport tasks performed at high velocity may improve the understanding of various sport-specific adaptations and causative factors for shoulder problems.

  8. The Atomic Views of Flat Supply Chains in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekhar Chattopadhyay

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available China's domestic supply chain networks are getting flat and unbalanced despite its spectacular growth and rise to the enviable position in the global supply chain arena in recent times. The aftermath of continued investment explosion, especially in the coastal areas of the mainland, calls for an interwoven relationship of Chinese companies with the rest of the global supply chains. However, with new information and communication technologies, the real-time problems arising from this flattened supply chains are much more complex, multifaceted and multidimensional. China needs to re-think and re-focus on better alignment to the western values and cultures while managing its global business activities. This paper discusses four recently developed enterprise models in the light of several case studies conducted recently in Australia, China and India to characterise these new flat supply chains: People-Centric, Molecular Organization, Globally Dispersed and Disaggregated Value Chain. These, apparently different but inherently similar models have a vibrant architecture and system behaviour in their core and propose an alternative approach to address challenges of unbalanced domestic flat supply chains in China and helps the Chinese manufacturers to explore an approach to embrace Western values and cultures by enlarging their sphere of influence.

  9. The digital flat-panel X-Ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risticj, S. Goran

    2013-01-01

    In a digital imaging system, the incident x-ray image must be sampled both in the spatial and intensity dimensions. In the spatial dimensions, samples are obtained as averages of the intensity over picture elements or pixels. In the intensity dimension, the signal is digitalized into one of a finite number of levels or bits. Two main types of digital flat-panel detectors are based on the direct conversion, which contains the photoconductor, and on indirect conversion, which contains phosphor. The basics of these detectors are given. Coupling traditional x-ray detection material such as photoconductors and phosphors with a large-area active-matrix readout structure forms the basis of flat panel x-ray images. Active matrix technology provides a new, highly efficient, real time method for electronically storing and measuring the product of the x-ray interaction stage whether the product is visible wavelength photons or electrical charges. The direct and indirect detectors, made as the active-matrix flat-panel detectors containing sensing/storage elements, switching elements (diodes or thin film transistors (TFTS)) and image processing module, are described. Strengths and limitations of stimulable phosphors are discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of mentioned x-ray detectors are also analyzed. (Author)

  10. Flat-detector computed tomography in diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, T.; Doerfler, A.

    2009-01-01

    Originally aimed at improving standard radiography by providing higher absorption efficiency and a wider dynamic range than available with film-screen and phosphor luminescence, radiography flat detector technology is now widely accepted for neuroangiographic imaging. Especially flat-detector computed tomography (FD-CT), which uses rotational C-arm mounted flat-panel detector technology, is capable of volumetric imaging with a high spatial resolution. As ''angiographic CT'' FD-CT may be helpful in many diagnostic and neurointerventional procedures, e.g. intracranial stenting for cerebrovascular stenoses, stent-assisted coil embolization of wide-necked cerebral aneurysms and embolization of arteriovenous malformations. By providing morphologic, CT-like images of the brain within the angiography suite FD-CT allows rapid visualization of periprocedural hemorrhaging and may thus improve rapid complication management without the need of patient transfer. In addition, myelography and postmyelographic FD-CT imaging can be carried out using a single modality. Spinal interventions, such as kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty might also benefit from FD-CT. Imaging of the temporal bone may also develop into an important field of FD-CT. This paper briefly reviews the technical principles of FD technology and the potential applications in diagnostic and interventional neuroradiology. (orig.) [de

  11. Avoidance of a Landau pole by flat contributions in QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaczynski, Lutz, E-mail: lutz.klaczynski@gmx.de [Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kreimer, Dirk, E-mail: kreimer@mathematik.hu-berlin.de [Alexander von Humboldt Chair in Mathematical Physics, Humboldt University, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    We consider massless Quantum Electrodynamics in the momentum scheme and carry forward an approach based on Dyson–Schwinger equations to approximate both the β-function and the renormalized photon self-energy (Yeats, 2011). Starting from the Callan–Symanzik equation, we derive a renormalization group (RG) recursion identity which implies a non-linear ODE for the anomalous dimension and extract a sufficient but not necessary criterion for the existence of a Landau pole. This criterion implies a necessary condition for QED to have no such pole. Solving the differential equation exactly for a toy model case, we integrate the corresponding RG equation for the running coupling and find that even though the β-function entails a Landau pole it exhibits a flat contribution capable of decreasing its growth, in other cases possibly to the extent that such a pole is avoided altogether. Finally, by applying the recursion identity, we compute the photon propagator and investigate the effect of flat contributions on both spacelike and timelike photons. -- Highlights: •We present an approach to approximate both the β-function and the photon self-energy. •We find a sufficient criterion for the self-energy to entail the existence of a Landau pole. •We study non-perturbative ‘flat’ contributions that emerge within the context of our approach. •We discuss a toy model and how it is affected by flat contributions.

  12. Titanium based flat heat pipes for computer chip cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Gaurav; Ding, Changsong; Sigurdson, Marin; Bozorgi, Payam; Piorek, Brian; MacDonald, Noel; Meinhart, Carl

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a highly conductive flat heat pipe (called Thermal Ground Plane or TGP) for cooling computer chips. Conventional heat pipes have circular cross sections and thus can't make good contact with chip surface. The flatness of our TGP will enable conformal contact with the chip surface and thus enhance cooling efficiency. Another limiting factor in conventional heat pipes is the capillary flow of the working fluid through a wick structure. In order to overcome this limitation we have created a highly porous wick structure on a flat titanium substrate by using micro fabrication technology. We first etch titanium to create very tall micro pillars with a diameter of 5 μm, a height of 40 μm and a pitch of 10 μm. We then grow a very fine nano structured titania (NST) hairs on all surfaces of the pillars by oxidation in H202. In this way we achieve a wick structure which utilizes multiple length scales to yield high performance wicking of water. It's capable of wicking water at an average velocity of 1 cm/s over a distance of several cm. A titanium cavity is laser-welded onto the wicking substrate and a small quantity of water is hermetically sealed inside the cavity to achieve a TGP. The thermal conductivity of our preliminary TGP was measured to be 350 W/m-K, but has the potential to be several orders of magnitude higher.

  13. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Laura [Des Moines Area Community College, Ankeny, Iowa (United States); Mazur, Robert E. [Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa (United States); Edelson, Martin [Ames Laboratory-USDOE (Retired), Ames, Iowa (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  14. Rocky flats closure project - lessons learned in worker stakeholder engagement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, Laura; Mazur, Robert E.; Edelson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (EPA Superfund site near Denver, Colorado) produced plutonium components for nuclear weapons for the U.S. defense program. The facility shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992. To ensure safe remediation of inactive nuclear sites, site owners have begun to consult stakeholders more widely in recent years. The closure of Rocky Flats aimed to set the standard for stakeholder involvement in doing the work safely, complying with regulations/standards, in a cost-effective manner. We have studied, using ethnographic methods, the extent to which workers at Rocky Flats were involved in communication and decision making strategies. Our results point out that workers can have perceptions of the site remediation process that differ from management and even other workers and that a significant number of workers questioned the commitment by management to engage the worker as stakeholder. The most effective remediation efforts should involve careful consideration of the insights and observations of all workers, particularly those who face immediate and high-level health and safety risks. (authors)

  15. Map of mixed prairie grassland vegetation, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, S J.V.; Webber, P J; Komarkova, V; Weber, W A

    1980-01-01

    A color vegetation map at the scale of 1:12,000 of the area surrounding the Rocky Flats, Rockwell International Plant near Boulder, Colorado, provides a permanent record of baseline data which can be used to monitor changes in both vegetation and environment and thus to contribute to future land management and land-use policies. Sixteen mapping units based on species composition were identified, and characterized by two 10-m/sup 2/ vegetation stands each. These were grouped into prairie, pasture, and valley side on the basis of their species composition. Both the mapping units and these major groups were later confirmed by agglomerative clustering analysis of the 32 vegetation stands on the basis of species composition. A modified Bray and Curtis ordination was used to determine the environmental factor complexes controlling the distribution of vegetation at Rocky flats. Recommendations are made for future policies of environmental management and predictions of the response to environmental change of the present vegetation at the Rocky Flats site.

  16. Flat spectrum T Tauri stars: The case for infall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Nuria; Hartmann, Lee; Kenyon, S. J.; Whitney, B. A.

    1994-01-01

    We show that the mid- to far-infrared fluxes of 'flat spectrum' T Tauri stars can be explained by radiative equilibrium emission from infalling dusty envelopes. Infall eliminates the need for accretion disks with non-standard temperature distributions. The simplicity and power of this explanantion indicates that models employing 'active' disks, in which the temperature distribution is a parameterized power law, should be invoked with caution. Infall also naturally explains the scattered light nebulae detected around many flat spectrum sources. To match the observed spectra, material must fall onto a disk rather than the central star, as expected for collapse of a rotating molecular cloud. It may be necessary to invoke cavities in the envelopes to explain the strength of optical and near-infrared emission; these cavities could be produced by the powerful bipolar outflows commonly observed from young stars. If viewed along the cavity, a source may be lightly extincted at visual wavelengths, while still accreting substantial amounts of material from the envelope. Infall may also be needed to explain the infrared-bright companions of many optical T Tauri stars. This picture suggests that many of the flat spectrum sources are 'protostars'-young stellar objects surrounded by dust infalling envelopes of substantial mass.

  17. Flat-response x-ray-diode-detector development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirsell, G.

    1982-10-01

    In this report we discuss the design of an improved sub-nanosecond flat response x-ray diode detector needed for ICF diagnostics. This device consists of a high Z cathode and a complex filter tailored to flatten the response so that the total x-ray energy below 1.5 keV can be measured using a single detector. Three major problems have become evident as a result of our work with the original LLNL design including deviation from flatness due to a peak in the response below 200 eV, saturation at relatively low x-ray fluences, and long term gold cathode instability. We are investigating grazing incidence reflection to reduce the response below 200 eV, new high Z cathode materials for long term stability, and a new complex filter for improved flatness. Better saturation performance will require a modified XRD detector under development with reduced anode to cathode spacing and increased anode bias voltage

  18. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  19. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  20. Clarifying some remaining questions in the anomaly puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xing; Parker, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    We discuss several points that may help to clarify some questions that remain about the anomaly puzzle in supersymmetric theories. In particular, we consider a general N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The anomaly puzzle concerns the question of whether there is a consistent way in the quantized theory to put the R-current and the stress tensor in a single supermultiplet called the supercurrent, even though in the classical theory they are in the same supermultiplet. It was proposed that the classically conserved supercurrent bifurcates into two supercurrents having different anomalies in the quantum regime. The most interesting result we obtain is an explicit expression for the lowest component of one of the two supercurrents in 4-dimensional spacetime, namely the supercurrent that has the energy-momentum tensor as one of its components. This expression for the lowest component is an energy-dependent linear combination of two chiral currents, which itself does not correspond to a classically conserved chiral current. The lowest component of the other supercurrent, namely, the R-current, satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The lowest component of the first supercurrent has an anomaly, which we show is consistent with the anomaly of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Therefore, we conclude that there is no consistent way to construct a single supercurrent multiplet that contains the R-current and the stress tensor in the straightforward way originally proposed. We also discuss and try to clarify some technical points in the derivations of the two supercurrents in the literature. These latter points concern the significance of infrared contributions to the NSVZ β-function and the role of the equations of motion in deriving the two supercurrents. (orig.)

  1. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  2. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  3. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-06-29

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73-100] "broad spectrum revolution" (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the transition to farming in southwest Asia entailed a period during which foragers broadened their resource base to encompass a wide array of foods that were previously ignored in an attempt to overcome food shortages. Although these resources undoubtedly included plants, nearly all BSR hypothesis-inspired research has focused on animals because of a dearth of Upper Paleolithic archaeobotanical assemblages. Now, however, a collection of >90,000 plant remains, recently recovered from the Stone Age site Ohalo II (23,000 B.P.), Israel, offers insights into the plant foods of the late Upper Paleolithic. The staple foods of this assemblage were wild grasses, pushing back the dietary shift to grains some 10,000 years earlier than previously recognized. Besides the cereals (wild wheat and barley), small-grained grasses made up a large component of the assemblage, indicating that the BSR in the Levant was even broader than originally conceived, encompassing what would have been low-ranked plant foods. Over the next 15,000 years small-grained grasses were gradually replaced by the cereals and ultimately disappeared from the Levantine diet.

  4. Dewatering and RCRA partial closure action on solar evaporation ponds, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-0487) on its proposal to partially close five solar evaporation ponds at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) pursuant to the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This proposal would be known as a RCRA partial closure and would be accomplished by dewatering the ponds, where necessary, and converting any remaining sludge or evaporator concentrate to a solid wasteform (pondcrete and saltcrete). The pond sites would be stabilized to prevent erosion or other disturbance to the soil and to prevent infiltration of rain or snowmelt. The solid wasteform would be transported offsite for disposal. The five solar ponds (designated 207-A, 207-B (north, center, and south), and 207-C), are the only solar evaporation ponds that exist at the RFP. A finding of no significant impact is included

  5. Flat-Passband 3 × 3 Interleaving Filter Designed With Optical Directional Couplers in Lattice Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi Jie; Zhang, Ying; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a novel lattice optical delay-line circuit using 3 × 3 directional couplers to implement three-port optical interleaving filters. It is shown that the proposed circuit can deliver three channels of 2pi/3 phase-shifted interleaving transmission spectra if the coupling ratios of the last two directional couplers are selected appropriately. The other performance requirements of an optical interleaver can be achieved by designing the remaining part of the lattice circuit. A recursive synthesis design algorithm is developed to calculate the design parameters of the lattice circuit that will yield the desired filter response. As illustrative examples, interleavers with maximally flat-top passband transmission and with given transmission performance on passband ripples and passband bandwidth, respectively, are designed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed design scheme.

  6. Role of tidal flat in material cycling in the coastal sea

    OpenAIRE

    Yara, Yumiko; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Montani, Shigeru; Kuninao, Tada

    2007-01-01

    A simple tidal flat model with pelagic and benthic ecosystems was developed in order to analyze the nitrogen cycling in an inter-tidal flat of the Seto Inland Sea, Japan. After the verification of calculation results with the observed results in water quality and benthic biomasses, the role of this tidal flat in nitrogen cycling was evaluated from the viewpoint of water quality purification capability. When there is no suspension feeder in the tidal flat, the water quality purification capab...

  7. Three gradients and the perception of flat and curved surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, J E; Millard, R T

    1984-06-01

    Researchers of visual perception have long been interested in the perceived slant of a surface and in the gradients that purportedly specify it. Slant is the angle between the line of sight and the tangent to the planar surface at any point, also called the surface normal. Gradients are the sources of information that grade, or change, with visual angle as one looks from one's feet upward to the horizon. The present article explores three gradients--perspective, compression, and density--and the phenomenal impression of flat and curved surfaces. The perspective gradient is measured at right angles to the axis of tilt at any point in the optic array; that is, when looking down a hallway at the tiles of a floor receding in the distance, perspective is measured by the x-axis width of each tile projected on the image plane orthogonal to the line of sight. The compression gradient is the ratio of y/x axis measures on the projected plane. The density gradient is measured by the number of tiles per unit solid visual angle. For flat surfaces and many others, perspective and compression gradients decrease with distance, and the density gradient increases. We discuss the manner in which these gradients change for various types of surfaces. Each gradient is founded on a different assumption about textures on the surfaces around us. In Experiment 1, viewers assessed the three-dimensional character of projections of flat and curved surfaces receding in the distance. They made pairwise judgments of preference and of dissimilarity among eight stimuli in each of four sets. The presence of each gradient was manipulated orthogonally such that each stimulus had zero, one, two, or three gradients appropriate for either a flat surface or a curved surface. Judgments were made were made for surfaces with both regularly shaped and irregularly shaped textures scattered on them. All viewer assessment were then scaled in one dimension. Multiple correlation and regression on the scale values

  8. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  9. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  10. Homological properties of modules with finite weak injective and weak flat dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tiwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we define a class of relative derived functors in terms of left or right weak flat resolutions to compute the weak flat dimension of modules. Moreover, we investigate two classes of modules larger than that of weak injective and weak flat modules, study the existence of covers and preenvelopes, and give some applications.

  11. Remediation of saline-sodic soil with flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a reclaimed tidal flat of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yumei; Li, Xiaping; Dick, Warren A; Chen, Liming

    2016-07-01

    Salinization and sodicity are obstacles for vegetation reconstruction of coastal tidal flat soils. A study was conducted with flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum applied at rates of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60Mg/ha to remediate tidal flat soils of the Yangtze River estuary. Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), exchangeable sodium (ExNa), pH, soluble salt concentration, and composition of soluble salts were measured in 10cm increments from the surface to 30cm depth after 6 and 18months. The results indicated that the effect of FGD-gypsum is greatest in the 0-10cm mixing soil layer and 60Mg/ha was the optimal rate that can reduce the ESP to below 6% and decrease soil pH to neutral (7.0). The improvement effect was reached after 6months, and remained after 18months. The composition of soluble salts was transformed from sodic salt ions mainly containing Na(+), HCO3(-)+CO3(2-) and Cl(-) to neutral salt ions mainly containing Ca(2+) and SO4(2-). Non-halophyte plants were survived at 90%. The study demonstrates that the use of FGD-gypsum for remediating tidal flat soils is promising. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains and associated funerary... the human remains was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...

  13. Uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces admitted by spherically symmetric static spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.

    2007-11-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.

  14. On the reduction of symmetry for static flat space-time in some general cylindrical-like coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, A.H.; Bokhari, N.A.

    1987-09-01

    Flat static metric in terms of general cylindrical-like coordinates is considered and symmetry is reduced step by step. It turns out that the maximal and the minimal symmetry remains the same as that of the Minkowski or the Schwarzschild type. As soon as the dimensions of the metric are reduced, the symmetry turns out to be 6 or 3 in terms of independent Killing vector fields, respectively, not yet filling all the gaps between 10 to 8 to 4 or from 10 to 8 to 6 to 4 to 3 to 1. (author). 8 refs

  15. Examination of C/C flat tile mock-ups with hypervapotron cooling after high heat flux testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schedler, B.; Friedrich, T.; Traxler, H.; Eidenberger, E.; Scheu, C.; Clemens, H.; Pippan, R.; Escourbiac, F.

    2007-01-01

    Two C/C flat tile mock-ups with a hypervapotron cooling concept, have been successfully tested beyond ITER specification (3000 cycles at 15 MW/m 2 , 300 cycles at 20 MW/m 2 and 800-1000 cycles at 25 MW/m 2 ) in two electron beam testing facilities [F. Escourbiac, et al., Experimental simulation of cascade failure effect on tungsten and CFC flat tile armoured HHF components, Fusion Eng. Des., submitted for publication; F. Escourbiac, et al., A mature industrial solution for ITER divertor plasma facing components: hypervapotron cooling concept adapted to Tore Supra flat tile technology, Fusion Eng. Des. 75-79 (2005) 387-390]. Both mock-ups provide a SNECMA SEPCARB NS31 armour, which has been joined onto the CuCrZr heat sink by active metal casting (AMC) and electron beam welding (EBW). No tile detachment or sudden loss of single tiles has been observed; a cascade-like failure of flat tile armours was impossible to generate. At the maximum cyclic heat flux load of 25 MW/m 2 all tested tiles performed well except one, which revealed already a clear indication in the thermographic examination at the end of the manufacture. Visual examination and analysis of metallographic cuts of the remaining tiles demonstrated that the interface has not been altered. In addition, the shear strength of the C/C to copper joints measured after the high heat flux (HHF) test has been found to be still above the interlamellar shear strength of the used C/C material. The high resistance of the interface is explained by a modification of the C/C to copper joint interface due to silicon originating from the used C/C material

  16. Examination of C/C flat tile mock-ups with hypervapotron cooling after high heat flux testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schedler, B. [Technology Centre of PLANSEE SE, A-6600 Reutte (Austria)], E-mail: bertram.schedler@plansee.com; Friedrich, T.; Traxler, H. [Technology Centre of PLANSEE SE, A-6600 Reutte (Austria); Eidenberger, E.; Scheu, C.; Clemens, H. [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, University of Leoben, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Pippan, R. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Erich-Schmid-Institute of Material Science, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Escourbiac, F. [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2007-04-15

    Two C/C flat tile mock-ups with a hypervapotron cooling concept, have been successfully tested beyond ITER specification (3000 cycles at 15 MW/m{sup 2}, 300 cycles at 20 MW/m{sup 2} and 800-1000 cycles at 25 MW/m{sup 2}) in two electron beam testing facilities [F. Escourbiac, et al., Experimental simulation of cascade failure effect on tungsten and CFC flat tile armoured HHF components, Fusion Eng. Des., submitted for publication; F. Escourbiac, et al., A mature industrial solution for ITER divertor plasma facing components: hypervapotron cooling concept adapted to Tore Supra flat tile technology, Fusion Eng. Des. 75-79 (2005) 387-390]. Both mock-ups provide a SNECMA SEPCARB NS31 armour, which has been joined onto the CuCrZr heat sink by active metal casting (AMC) and electron beam welding (EBW). No tile detachment or sudden loss of single tiles has been observed; a cascade-like failure of flat tile armours was impossible to generate. At the maximum cyclic heat flux load of 25 MW/m{sup 2} all tested tiles performed well except one, which revealed already a clear indication in the thermographic examination at the end of the manufacture. Visual examination and analysis of metallographic cuts of the remaining tiles demonstrated that the interface has not been altered. In addition, the shear strength of the C/C to copper joints measured after the high heat flux (HHF) test has been found to be still above the interlamellar shear strength of the used C/C material. The high resistance of the interface is explained by a modification of the C/C to copper joint interface due to silicon originating from the used C/C material.

  17. Flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control of chaotic finance dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, G.; Siano, P.; Loia, V.; Tommasetti, A.; Troisi, O.

    2017-11-01

    A flatness-based adaptive fuzzy control is applied to the problem of stabilization of the dynamics of a chaotic finance system, describing interaction between the interest rate, the investment demand and the price exponent. By proving that the system is differentially flat and by applying differential flatness diffeomorphisms, its transformation to the linear canonical (Brunovsky) is performed. For the latter description of the system, the design of a stabilizing state feedback controller becomes possible. A first problem in the design of such a controller is that the dynamic model of the finance system is unknown and thus it has to be identified with the use neurofuzzy approximators. The estimated dynamics provided by the approximators is used in the computation of the control input, thus establishing an indirect adaptive control scheme. The learning rate of the approximators is chosen from the requirement the system's Lyapunov function to have always a negative first-order derivative. Another problem that has to be dealt with is that the control loop is implemented only with the use of output feedback. To estimate the non-measurable state vector elements of the finance system, a state observer is implemented in the control loop. The computation of the feedback control signal requires the solution of two algebraic Riccati equations at each iteration of the control algorithm. Lyapunov stability analysis demonstrates first that an H-infinity tracking performance criterion is satisfied. This signifies elevated robustness against modelling errors and external perturbations. Moreover, the global asymptotic stability is proven for the control loop.

  18. Relationship between Nutritional Status and Flat Foot in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Phua Pau Fung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatric flatfoot has been reported as the highest clinical complains for foot problems in pediatric department. Nutritional status has showed great influence on the occurrence of flat foot. There are many debates regarding whether underweight or overweight children are more prone to flatfoot. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between nutritional status and flatfoot in children. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from July to October 2015 in 3 primary schools in Kecamatan Jatinangor. There were 259 children of grade 4 to 5 included in this study. Flatfoot screening was based on measurement of footprint and calculation using Chippaux-smirak index (CSI. The height and weight of children were measured to obtain their Body Mass Index (BMI. Nutritional status was classified based on CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. Analysis was done using chi-square test. Results: There was significant association between nutritional status and flatfoot with p value<0.001.The prevalence of flatfoot in children grade 4to5is40%. When compared to the normal weight children, the overweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.97(95% CI:1.47 to 2.64 while the underweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.34 (95% CI:1.78 to 2.25.This stated that the risk of developing flat foot was higher in overweight children. Conclusions: There is significant association between nutritional status with children grade4 to 5. Overweight children are more prone to flat foot.

  19. Rocky Flats Neutron Detector Testing at Valduc, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.S.; Dulik, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent program requirements of the US Department of Energy/NNSA have led to a need for a criticality accident alarm system to be installed at a newly activated facility. The Criticality Safety Group of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was able to recover and store for possible future use approximately 200 neutron criticality detectors and 20 master alarm panels from the former Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado when the plant was closed. The Criticality Safety Group participated in a facility analysis and evaluation, the engineering design and review process, as well as the refurbishment, testing, and recalibration of the Rocky Flats criticality alarm system equipment to be used in the new facility. In order to demonstrate the functionality and survivability of the neutron detectors to the effects of an actual criticality accident, neutron detector testing was performed at the French CEA Valduc SILENE reactor from October 7 to October 19, 2010. The neutron detectors were exposed to three criticality events or pulses generated by the SILENE reactor. The first excursion was performed with a bare or unshielded reactor, and the second excursion was made with a lead shielded/reflected reactor, and the third excursion with a polyethylene reflected core. These tests of the Rocky Flats neutron detectors were performed as a part of the 2010 Criticality Accident Alarm System Benchmark Measurements at the SILENE Reactor. The principal investigators for this series of experiments were Thomas M. Miller and John C. Wagner of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Nicolas Authier and Nathalie Baclet of CEA Valduc. Several other organizations were also represented, including the Y-12 National Security Complex, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, CEA Saclay, and Babcock International Group.

  20. Efficiencies of flat plate solar collectors at different flow rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt

    2012-01-01

    Two flat plate solar collectors for solar heating plants from Arcon Solvarme A/S are tested in a laboratory test facility for solar collectors at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The collectors are designed in the same way. However, one collector is equipped with an ETFE foil between...... the absorber and the cover glass and the other is without ETFE foil. The efficiencies for the collectors are tested at different flow rates. On the basis of the measured efficiencies, the efficiencies for the collectors as functions of flow rate are obtained. The calculated efficiencies are in good agreement...

  1. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  2. Phase Transitions for Flat Anti - de Sitter Black Holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surya, Sumati; Schleich, Kristin; Witt, Donald M.

    2001-01-01

    We reexamine the thermodynamics of anti - de Sitter (adS) black holes with Ricci flat horizons using the adS soliton as the thermal background. We find that there is a phase transition which is dependent not only on the temperature but also on the black hole area, which is an independent parameter. As in the spherical adS black hole, this phase transition is related via the adS/conformal-field-theory correspondence to a confinement-deconfinement transition in the large-N gauge theory on the conformal boundary at infinity

  3. Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle. 461. = a. ∫. M u2(1+q)+ 2 a f 2 − 2. ∫. M u2q+1f 〈∇f, ∇u〉. − (2q + 1). ∫. M u2qf 2|∇u|2, which gives a .... that depends on n, ϵ and q. We now try to transform (2.15) the right hand side only involved u in the power two. For that, we use Young's inequality: ab ≤ βsas.

  4. Detecting and Applying Thermal Signals in a Tidal Flats Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    Guarini et al., 1997]. In addition, the biology can affect the heat content, as in the ventilation of mud flats by manicure crabs [Kim et al., 2009...the values of lf and cf resulting from changes in salinity are negligible. Values of ls = 8.6 W m −1 K−1 and cs = 0.8 kJ kg−1 K−1, based on the...intertidal mudflats of the forth estuary , Scotland, J. Climatol., 5, 472–485. Jackson, D. R., and M. D. Richardson (2002), Seasonal temperature gradi- ents

  5. Quadratic Forms and Semiclassical Eigenfunction Hypothesis for Flat Tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Sardari, Naser

    2018-03-01

    Let Q( X) be any integral primitive positive definite quadratic form in k variables, where {k≥4}, and discriminant D. For any integer n, we give an upper bound on the number of integral solutions of Q( X) = n in terms of n, k, and D. As a corollary, we prove a conjecture of Lester and Rudnick on the small scale equidistribution of almost all functions belonging to any orthonormal basis of a given eigenspace of the Laplacian on the flat torus {T^d} for {d≥ 5}. This conjecture is motivated by the work of Berry [2,3] on the semiclassical eigenfunction hypothesis.

  6. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site beryllium characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, D.M.; Miller, J.R.; Allen, D.F.

    1999-01-01

    A site beryllium characterization project was completed at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in 1997. Information from historical reviews, previous sampling surveys, and a new sampling survey were used to establish a more comprehensive understanding of the locations and levels of beryllium contamination in 35 buildings. A feature of the sampling strategy was to test if process knowledge was a good predictor of where beryllium contamination could be found. Results revealed that this technique was effective at identifying where surface contamination levels might exceed the RFETS smear control level but that it was not effective in identifying where low concentrations of beryllium might be found

  7. Thermodynamics of flat FLRW universe in Rastall theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradpour, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, after referring to the Rastall theory, we address some of its cosmological consequences. Moreover, bearing the Clausius relation in mind, using Friedman equations in Rastall theory and the Cai–Kim temperature, we obtain a relation for the apparent horizon entropy of a flat FLRW universe. In addition, we impose the entropy positivity condition on the obtained relation for the horizon entropy, to find some constraints on the Rastall parameters. Moreover, we investigate the second and generalized second laws of thermodynamics. The results of considering a dominated prefect fluid of constant state parameter are also addressed helping us familiarize with the Rastall theory.

  8. Thermodynamics of flat FLRW universe in Rastall theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradpour, H., E-mail: h.moradpour@riaam.ac.ir

    2016-06-10

    In this paper, after referring to the Rastall theory, we address some of its cosmological consequences. Moreover, bearing the Clausius relation in mind, using Friedman equations in Rastall theory and the Cai–Kim temperature, we obtain a relation for the apparent horizon entropy of a flat FLRW universe. In addition, we impose the entropy positivity condition on the obtained relation for the horizon entropy, to find some constraints on the Rastall parameters. Moreover, we investigate the second and generalized second laws of thermodynamics. The results of considering a dominated prefect fluid of constant state parameter are also addressed helping us familiarize with the Rastall theory.

  9. Analysis of flat rolling of superconducting silver/ceramic composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Nielsen, Morten Storgård; Eriksen, Morten

    2001-01-01

    The flat rolling process from wire to tape is presumably the most crucial link in the chain of mechanical processes leading from loose powder and silver tubes to the final superconducting Ag/BSCCO tape. In order to improve the critical current density of the superconducting filaments, one must...... process these to the highest possible density without at the same time introducing failures as large cracks and macroscopic shear bands. In order to analyse and optimise the process, the interaction between the involved materials and their very different mechanical properties must be taken into account...

  10. Environmental testing of flat plate solar cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.; Dumas, L.; Hoffman, A.

    1978-01-01

    Commercially available flat-plate solar cell modules have been subjected to a variety of environmental tests designed to simulate service conditions. Among the tests are those simulating heat and rain, wind-driven rains, humidity and freezing, humidity and heat, humidity with a voltage bias, salt fog, hail impact, and fungus infestation. Tests for optical surface soiling and the combined effects of temperature, humidity and UV irradiation are under development. A correlation has been demonstrated between degradation caused by the qualification tests and such observed field effects as power loss.

  11. High Performance Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collector Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbaugh, Caleb [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lovullo, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lisell, Lars [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barker, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hanckock, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Norton, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report was prepared for the General Services Administration by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The Honeycomb Solar Thermal Collector (HSTC) is a flat plate solar thermal collector that shows promising high efficiencies over a wide range of climate zones. The technical objectives of this study are to: 1) verify collector performance, 2) compare that performance to other market-available collectors, 3) verify overheat protection, and 4) analyze the economic performance of the HSTC both at the demonstration sites and across a matrix of climate zones and utility markets.

  12. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    Incineration of combustible materials highly contaminated with plutonium produces a residue of incinerator ash. Recovery of plutonium from incinerator ash residues at Rocky Flats is accomplished by a continuous leaching operation with nitric acid containing fluoride ion. Special equipment used in the leaching operation consists of a screw feeder, air-lift dissolvers, filters, solids dryer, and vapor collection system. Each equipment item is described in detail. The average dissolution efficiency of plutonium experienced with the process was 68% on the first pass, 74% on the second pass, and 64% on each subsequent pass. Total-solids dissolution efficiencies averaged 47% on the first pass and about 25% on each subsequent pass

  13. Spontaneous compactification and Ricci-flat manifolds with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, B.

    1985-06-01

    The Freund-Rubin mechanism is based on the equation Rsub(ik)=lambdagsub(ik) (where lambda>0), which, via Myers' Theorem, implies ''spontaneous'' compactification. The difficulties connected with the cosmological constant in this approach can be resolved if torsion is introduced and lambda set equal to zero, but then compactification ''by hand'' is necessary, since the equation Rsub(ik)=0 can be satisfied both on compact and on non-compact manifolds. In this paper we discuss the global geometry of Ricci-flat manifolds with torsion, and suggest ways of restoring the ''spontaneity'' of the compactification. (author)

  14. Spectral functions for the flat plasma sheet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirozhenko, I G

    2006-01-01

    The present work is based on Bordag M et al 2005 (J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 11027) where the spectral analysis of the electromagnetic field on the background of an infinitely thin flat plasma layer is carried out. The solutions to Maxwell equations with the appropriate matching conditions at the plasma layer are derived and the spectrum of electromagnetic oscillations is determined. The spectral zeta function and the integrated heat kernel are constructed for different branches of the spectrum in an explicit form. The asymptotic expansion of the integrated heat kernel at small values of the evolution parameter is derived. The local heat kernels are considered also

  15. Levitation of a magnet over a flat type II superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, F.; Gyorgy, E.M.; Johnson, D.W. Jr.; O'Bryan, H.M.; Sherwood, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Levitation of a magnet over a type II superconductor where the field at the superconductor exceeds H/sub c/ 1 is described and shown. The penetration and pinning of the flux lines in the superconductor cause the position of the magnet to be stable over a flat disk; a complete Meissner effect would make this position unstable. Furthermore, the observed dependence of the height of levitation on such variables as the thickness of the superconducting disk and the size of the magnet are consistent with a model described in this paper based on the energy cost of flux penetration through vortices and inconsistent with a Meissner effect model

  16. Three Dimensional Numerical Code for the Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung W. Min

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The current distribution of galaxies may contain clues to the condition of the universe when the galaxies condensed and to the nature of the subsequent expansion of the universe. The development of this large scale structure can be studied by employing N-body computer simulations. The present paper describes the code developed for this purpose. The computer code calculates the motion of collisionless matter action under the force of gravity in an expanding flat universe. The test run of the code shows the error less than 0.5% in 100 iterations.

  17. Scalar field collapse in a conformally flat spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, Soumya; Banerjee, Narayan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India)

    2017-03-15

    The collapse scenario of a scalar field along with a perfect fluid distribution was investigated for a conformally flat spacetime. The theorem for the integrability of an anharmonic oscillator has been utilized. For a pure power-law potential of the form φ{sup n+1}, it was found that a central singularity is formed which is covered by an apparent horizon for n > 0 and n < -3. Some numerical results have also been presented for a combination of two different powers of φ in the potential. (orig.)

  18. Cost estimates for flat plate and concentrator collector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, K.

    1982-01-01

    The current module and installation costs for the U.S. National Photovoltaic Program's grid-connected systems are significantly higher than required for economic viability of this alternative. Attention is accordingly given to the prospects for installed module cost reductions in flat plate, linear focus Fresnel concentrator, and point focus Fresnel concentrator candidate systems. Cost projections indicate that all three systems would meet near-term and midterm goals, provided that module costs of $2.80/W(p) and $0.70/W(p), respectively, are met. The point focus Fresnel system emerges as the most viable for the near term.

  19. THE STANDARD MILLING TIME OF FLAT SURFACES WITHOUT OUTLINE RESTRICTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Skoczylas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowing the standard operating times of technological operations is essential element in the business operations of every production enterprise. It is the basis for establishing the production capacity, planning the production schedule, or even calculating costs. The article presents a variety of methods used in the calculation of standard worktime of technological operations. An especially important distinction was made between calculating the total machining time and the actual cutting time. Through the examination of various machined flat surfaces, the results of worktime calculations from CATIA and the authored mathematical model are presented.

  20. Flat dielectric metasurface lens array for three dimensional integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianlei; Wang, Xiaorui; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Ying; Wu, Xiongxiong

    2018-05-01

    In conventional integral imaging, the singlet refractive lens array limits the imaging performance due to its prominent aberrations. Different from the refractive lens array relying on phase modulation via phase change accumulated along the optical paths, metasurfaces composed of nano-scatters can produce phase abrupt over the scale of wavelength. In this letter, we propose a novel lens array consisting of two neighboring flat dielectric metasurfaces for integral imaging system. The aspherical phase profiles of the metasurfaces are optimized to improve imaging performance. The simulation results show that our designed 5 × 5 metasurface-based lens array exhibits high image quality at designed wavelength 865 nm.

  1. Null geodesic deviation II. Conformally flat space--times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, P.C.

    1975-01-01

    The equation of geodesic deviation is solved in conformally flat space--time in a covariant manner. The solution is given as an integral equation for general geodesics. The solution is then used to evaluate second derivatives of the world function and derivatives of the parallel propagator, which need to be known in order to find the Green's function for wave equations in curved space--time. A method of null geodesic limits of two-point functions is discussed, and used to find the scalar Green's function as an iterative series

  2. Two-media boundary layer on a flat plate

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Ilyich Klyuev; Asgat Gatyatovich Gimadiev; Yuriy Alekseevich Kryukov

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides a solution to the problem of a flow over a flat semi-infinite plate set at an angle to the horizon, and having a thin liquid film on its surface by external airflow. The film is formed by extrusion of liquid from the porous wall. The paper proposes a mathematical model of a two-media boundary layer flow. The main characteristics of the flow to a zero and a first approximation are determined. A drop of frictional stress is obtained.

  3. Nonlocality and Multipartite Entanglement in Asymptotically Flat Space-Times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, Shahpoor; Amiri, Firouz

    2016-01-01

    We study the Bell's inequality and multipartite entanglement generation for initially maximally entangled states of free Dirac field in a non inertial frame and asymptotically flat Robertson–Walker space-time. For two qubit case, we show that the Bell's inequality always is violated as measured by the accelerated observers which are in the causally connected regions. On the other hand, for those observers in the causally disconnected regions inequality is not violated for any values of acceleration. The generated three qubit state from two qubit state due to acceleration of one parties has a zero 3-tangle. For a three qubit state, the inequality violated for measurements done by both causally connected and disconnected observers. Initially GHZ state with non zero 3-tangle, in accelerated frame, transformed to a four qubit state with vanishing 4-tangle value. On the other hand, for a W-state with zero 3-tangle, in non inertial frame, transformed to a four qubit state with a non-zero 4-tangle acceleration dependent. In an expanding space-time with asymptotically flat regions, for an initially maximally entangled state, the maximum value of violation of Bell's inequality in the far past decreased in the far future due to cosmological particle creation. For some initially maximally entangled states, the generated four qubit state due to expansion of space-time, has non vanishing 4-tangle. (paper)

  4. Evaluation of flat panel PMT for gamma ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pani, R.; Cinti, M.N.; Pellegrini, R.; Trotta, C.; Trotta, G.; Montani, L.; Ridolfi, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Scafe, R.; Belcari, N.; Del Guerra, A.

    2003-01-01

    The first position sensitive PMT, Hamamatsu R2486, developed in 1985, represented a strong technological advance for gamma-ray imaging. Hamamatsu H8500 Flat Panel PMT is the last generation position sensitive PMT: extremely compact with 2 in. active area. Its main features are: minimum peripheral dead zone (1 mm) and height of 12 mm. It was designed to be assembled in array to cover large detection area. It can represent a technical revolution for many applications in the field of gamma-ray imaging as for example nuclear medicine. This tube is based on metal channel dynode for charge multiplication and 8x8 anodes for charge collection and position calculation. In this paper we present a preliminary evaluation of the imaging performances addressed to nuclear medicine application. To this aim we have taken into account two different electronic readouts: resistive chain with Anger Camera principle and multianode readout. Flat panel PMT was coupled to CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) scintillation arrays. The results were also compared with the first generation PSPMT

  5. Hybrid heat recovery - flat plate Stirling engine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanizh, A.M.; Budin, R.; Sutlovizh, I.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the possibility of process condensate heat recovery for boiler water preheating as well as for combined heat and power production for chosen process in textile industry has been investigated. The garment industry requires low pressure process steam or hot water for which production expensive fossil fuel should be used. Fuel usage can be reduced by various energy conservation methods. During the process a great quantity of hot condensate or waste hot water is rejected in the sewage system. To reduce heat wastes and improve technological process this condensate could be returned to the boiler for feed water preheating. When 60% condensate is returned to the steam generator about 8 % natural gas is saved. The rest of the condensate should be used for driving low temperature flat plate Stirling motor the advantage of the flat plate Stirling engine is ability to work at low temperatures. This engine produces electrical energy which can put in motion an electrogenerator in the same plant. While Stirling engine can be used electrical power and economical effect could be much greater using such a hybrid system the process waste heat is not only converted into useful work but at the same time thermal pollution is greatly diminished. (Author)

  6. EPRL/FK asymptotics and the flatness problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, José Ricardo

    2018-05-01

    Spin foam models are an approach to quantum gravity based on the concept of sum over states, which aims to describe quantum spacetime dynamics in a way that its parent framework, loop quantum gravity, has not as of yet succeeded. Since these models’ relation to classical Einstein gravity is not explicit, an important test of their viabilitiy is the study of asymptotics—the classical theory should be obtained in a limit where quantum effects are negligible, taken to be the limit of large triangle areas in a triangulated manifold with boundary. In this paper we will briefly introduce the EPRL/FK spin foam model and known results about its asymptotics, proceeding then to describe a practical computation of spin foam and semiclassical geometric data for a simple triangulation with only one interior triangle. The results are used to comment on the ‘flatness problem’—a hypothesis raised by Bonzom (2009 Phys. Rev. D 80 064028) suggesting that EPRL/FK’s classical limit only describes flat geometries in vacuum.

  7. Modelling of drawing and rolling of high carbon flat wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobadilla, C.; Persem, N.; Foissey, S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to meet customer requirements, it is necessary to develop new flat wires with a high tensile strength and a high width/thickness ratio. These products are manufactured from wire rod. The first step is to draw the wire until we have the required mechanical properties and required surface area of the section. After this, the wire is rolled from a round to a rectangular section. During the flat rolling process it can be reduced by more than 50%. Then the wire is exposed to a high level of stress during this process. Modelling allows us to predetermine this stress level, taking into account the final dimensions and the mechanical properties, thus optimising both rolling and drawing process. Forge2005 was used in order to simulate these processes. The aim of this study is to determine the value of residual stresses after drawing and so to optimise rolling. Indeed, the highest stress values are reached at this step of the process by changing the section of the wire from a round to a rectangular one. In order to evaluate the stress value accuracy for high strain levels, a behaviour law has been identified. This is a result of tensile tests carried out at each step of the drawing process. Finally, a multi-axial damage criterion was implemented using Forge2005. The optimisation of the rolling is directly linked to the minimisation of this criterion

  8. An experimental study of an explosively driven flat plate launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Philip; Haroz, Erik; Armstrong, Chris; Perry, Lee; M Division Team

    2017-06-01

    For some upcoming experiments it is desired to impact a large explosive assembly with one or more moderate diameter flat metal plates traveling at high velocity (2-3 km s-1). The time of arrival of these plates will need to carefully controlled and delayed (i.e. the time(s) of arrival known to approximately a microsecond). For this reason, producing a flyer plate from more traditional gun assemblies is not possible. Previous researchers have demonstrated the ability to throw reasonably flat metal flyers from the so-called Forest flyer geometry. The defining characteristics of this design are a carefully controlled reduction in explosive area from a larger explosive plane-wave-lens and booster pad to a smaller flyer plate to improve the planarity of the drive available and an air gap between the explosive booster and the plate to reduce the peak tensile stresses generated in the plate to suppress spalling. This experimental series comprised a number of different design variants and plate and explosive drive materials. The aim was to calibrate a predictive computational modeling capability on this kind of system in preparation for later more radical design ideas best tested in a computer before undertaking the expensive business of construction.

  9. Buckling of Flat Thin Plates under Combined Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DIMA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a quick methodology to determine the critical values of the forces applied to the central plane of a flat isotropic plate at which a change to the stable configuration of equilibrium occurs. Considering the variety of shapes, boundary conditions and loading combinations, the article does not intend to make an exhaustive presentation of the plate buckling. As an alternative, there will be presented only the most used configurations such as: rectangular flat thin plates, boundary conditions with simply supported (hinged or clamped (fixed edges, combined loadings with single compression or single shear or combination between them, compression and shear, with or without transverse loading, encountered at wings and control surfaces shell of fin and rudder or stabilizer and elevator. The reserve factor and the critical stresses will be calculated using comparatively two methods, namely the methodology proposed by the present article and ASSIST 6.6.2.0 – AIRBUS France software, a dedicated software to local calculations, for a simply supported plate under combined loading, compression on the both sides and shear.

  10. Flat holography: aspects of the dual field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagchi, Arjun [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,Kalyanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Basu, Rudranil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics,Block AF, Sector 1, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700068 (India); Kakkar, Ashish [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India); Mehra, Aditya [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur,Kalyanpur, Kanpur 208016 (India); Indian Institute of Science Education and Research,Dr Homi Bhabha Road, Pashan, Pune 411008 (India)

    2016-12-29

    Assuming the existence of a field theory in D dimensions dual to (D+1)-dimensional flat space, governed by the asymptotic symmetries of flat space, we make some preliminary remarks about the properties of this field theory. We review briefly some successes of the 3d bulk – 2d boundary case and then focus on the 4d bulk – 3d boundary example, where the symmetry in question is the infinite dimensional BMS{sub 4} algebra. We look at the constraints imposed by this symmetry on a 3d field theory by constructing highest weight representations of this algebra. We construct two and three point functions of BMS primary fields and surprisingly find that symmetries constrain these correlators to be identical to those of a 2d relativistic conformal field theory. We then go one dimension higher and construct prototypical examples of 4d field theories which are putative duals of 5d Minkowski spacetimes. These field theories are ultra-relativistic limits of electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theories which exhibit invariance under the conformal Carroll group in D=4. We explore the different sectors within these Carrollian gauge theories and investigate the symmetries of the equations of motion to find that an infinite ultra-relativistic conformal structure arises in each case.

  11. The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) at Rock Flats plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) established at Rocky Flats in 1983 is a culmination of efforts by Rockwell and DOE in developing an interactive accountability system to serve the entire plant. The system uses the basic accountability concepts: The material balance areas (MBA), inventory periods, measurement adjustments, and item and weight verifications. In addition it allows individual MBA's to enter next month's transactions while other MBA's are still closing out last months business. The DOE components of inventory differences (ID) are implemented throughout the system when weight variances (of any type) require assignment to an individual component. The hardware includes two Harris H800 superminis--one production machine and another for development and backup. The data are entered through CRT's placed strategically throughout the plant site. The data base software supporting this system is TOTAL and the application software consists of 450+ structured programs developed by Rockwell at Rocky Flats. The data base is on 1.875 giga bytes of disc storage with backup on both disc packs and tape

  12. New progressive technology of flat gears processing development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михайло Володимирович Маргуліс

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Relevant scientific and technical problems in relation to mechanical engineering is development of new technological processes that make it possible to achieve high accuracy and durability of machine parts that meet the requirements imposed on them. So it is important to develop a new method to make a flat gear teeth by plastic deformation of the ingot. The article deals with the actual problem of improving productivity and quality of plane wheels teeth that are widely used in advanced wave, planetary and other transmissions. A progressive method to produce flat gear teeth gear by plastic deformation of the ingot with two knurl rollers alternately moving reciprocally in the direction not intersecting the axis of the ingot mounting surface has been described in the article. The working surface of the rollers corresponds to the resulting shape of the teeth. The schemes of the teeth installing and knurling have been shown. The necessary material and the heat treatment of the knurling tools have been described. Its use will significantly increase the wear resistance of the working surfaces of the teeth and their durability as well as to increase productivity and its manufacturing costs. The material of the rollers is BC15steel. The surface layer of the knurling tools was subjected to nitration, surface hardness being up to 65 HRC. Knurling is made in the5236P shaper suited for this purpose

  13. Rigorous vector wave propagation for arbitrary flat media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Steven P.; Haffert, Sebastiaan Y.; Keller, Christoph U.

    2017-08-01

    Precise modelling of the (off-axis) point spread function (PSF) to identify geometrical and polarization aberrations is important for many optical systems. In order to characterise the PSF of the system in all Stokes parameters, an end-to-end simulation of the system has to be performed in which Maxwell's equations are rigorously solved. We present the first results of a python code that we are developing to perform multiscale end-to-end wave propagation simulations that include all relevant physics. Currently we can handle plane-parallel near- and far-field vector diffraction effects of propagating waves in homogeneous isotropic and anisotropic materials, refraction and reflection of flat parallel surfaces, interference effects in thin films and unpolarized light. We show that the code has a numerical precision on the order of 10-16 for non-absorbing isotropic and anisotropic materials. For absorbing materials the precision is on the order of 10-8. The capabilities of the code are demonstrated by simulating a converging beam reflecting from a flat aluminium mirror at normal incidence.

  14. Novel Commercial Aquaporin Flat-Sheet Membrane for Forward Osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Lingling; Andersen, Mads Friis; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporin proteins are of great interest to the membrane science community because of their unique characteristics of high water permeability and perfect molecular selectivity. Although these characteristics make aquaporins particularly valuable for desalination applications, none of these aquapo...... was found to exhibit water and reverse solute flux performances similar to those of other commercially available varieties, although this membrane represents one of the few TFC membranes that is available to the academic community for FO testing at the time of this writing.......Aquaporin proteins are of great interest to the membrane science community because of their unique characteristics of high water permeability and perfect molecular selectivity. Although these characteristics make aquaporins particularly valuable for desalination applications, none...... of these aquaporin-based membrane designs has been produced at a large scale. In this work, we report on the recently designed and commercially available Aquaporin Inside flat-sheet membrane designed for forward osmosis (FO) by Aquaporin A/S, Lyngby, Denmark. The Aquaporin Inside flat-sheet membrane is the first...

  15. Visual acuity outcomes in eyes with flat corneas after PRK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varssano, David; Waisbourd, Michael; Minkev, Liza; Sela, Tzahi; Neudorfer, Meira; Binder, Perry S

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of corneal curvatures less than 35 diopters (D) after photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on visual acuity outcomes. Visual acuity outcomes of 5,410 eyes that underwent PRK from January 2006 to November 2010 were retrospectively analyzed for the impact of postoperative corneal curvatures on visual outcomes. All procedures were performed on a single platform (Allegretto 200Hz excimer laser; Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Irvine, CA). Main outcome measures were postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and loss of CDVA. Corneas with a measured or a calculated postoperative flat meridian less than 35 D and those with a measured postoperative steep meridian less than 35 D had worse postoperative CDVA than corneas with meridians of either 35 D or more (P ≤ .021). However, the preoperative CDVA was worse in the flatter curvatures in all comparisons performed (P ≤ .024). Consequently, the measured or calculated meridian curvature had no effect on CDVA loss (P ≥ .074). Postoperative corneal keratometry values (flat and steep meridians) less than 35 D did not have a predictive effect on the risk of losing visual acuity following myopic PRK performed on the Allegretto 200Hz excimer laser. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Frost Growth and Densification in Laminar Flow Over Flat Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional frost growth and densification in laminar flow over flat surfaces has been theoretically investigated. Improved representations of frost density and effective thermal conductivity applicable to a wide range of frost circumstances have been incorporated. The validity of the proposed model considering heat and mass diffusion in the frost layer is tested by a comparison of the predictions with data from various investigators for frost parameters including frost thickness, frost surface temperature, frost density and heat flux. The test conditions cover a range of wall temperature, air humidity ratio, air velocity, and air temperature, and the effect of these variables on the frost parameters has been exemplified. Satisfactory agreement is achieved between the model predictions and the various test data considered. The prevailing uncertainties concerning the role air velocity and air temperature on frost development have been elucidated. It is concluded that that for flat surfaces increases in air velocity have no appreciable effect on frost thickness but contribute to significant frost densification, while increase in air temperatures results in a slight increase the frost thickness and appreciable frost densification.

  17. Flat-beam Rf photocathode sources for linear collider applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    Laser driven rf photocathodes represent a recent advance in high-brightness electron beam sources. The authors investigate here a variation on these devices, that obtained by using a ribbon laser pulse to illuminate the cathode, yielding a flat beam (σ x much-gt σ y ) which has asymmetric emittances at the cathode proportional to the beam size each transverse dimension. The flat-beam geometry mitigates space charge forces which lead to intensity dependent transverse and longitudinal emittance growth, thus limiting the beam brightness. The fundamental limit on achievable emittance and brightness is set by the transverse momentum distribution and peak current density of the photoelectrons (photon energy and cathode material dependent effects) and appears to allow, taking into account space charge and rf effects, normalized emittances ε x -5 m-rad and ε -6 m-rad, with Q = 5 nC and σ z = 1 mm. These source emittances are adequate for superconducting linear collider applications, and could preclude the use of a damping ring for the electrons in these schemes

  18. A transient, flat spectrum radio pulsar near the Galactic Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, J.; Degenaar, N.; Kerr, M.; Deller, A.; Deneva, J.; Lazarus, P.; Kramer, M.; Champion, D.; Karuppusamy, R.

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have shown possible connections between highly magnetized neutron stars ('magnetars'), whose X-ray emission is too bright to be powered by rotational energy, and ordinary radio pulsars. In addition to the magnetar SGR J1745-2900, one of the radio pulsars in the Galactic Centre (GC) region, PSR J1746-2850, had timing properties implying a large magnetic field strength and young age, as well as a flat spectrum. All characteristics are similar to those of rare, transient, radio-loud magnetars. Using several deep non-detections from the literature and two new detections, we show that this pulsar is also transient in the radio. Both the flat spectrum and large amplitude variability are inconsistent with the light curves and spectral indices of three radio pulsars with high magnetic field strengths. We further use frequent, deep archival imaging observations of the GC in the past 15 yr to rule out a possible X-ray outburst with a luminosity exceeding the rotational spin-down rate. This source, either a transient magnetar without any detected X-ray counterpart or a young, strongly magnetized radio pulsar producing magnetar-like radio emission, further blurs the line between the two categories. We discuss the implications of this object for the radio emission mechanism in magnetars and for star and compact object formation in the GC.

  19. Float glass innovation in the flat glass industry

    CERN Document Server

    Uusitalo, Olavi

    2014-01-01

    A thorough industry analysis is of utmost importance for a study on the impact of technological changes on industry structure. This book evaluates the consequences of a vaguely chosen level of an industry analysis. Too broad a definition of the industry may disaggregate sub-industries, processing industries and international aspects. This is illustrated by revisiting an industry study upon which the dominant design model was based. Readers will see and understand the consequences of too broadly defined industries together with quantitative research approach can have. The book argues that the nature of the industry should define the level of the analysis. This is done by revisiting the flat glass industry study, on which Anderson and Tushman’s (1990) dominant design model is partly based. In their study Anderson and Tushman defined the flat glass industry based on four-digit SIC codes. It is argued that this definition was too broad and it disaggregated important sub-industries, processing industries and int...

  20. Stabilization of mixed waste - Rocky Flats solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner, T.A.; Mathew, S.A.; Henderson, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Among the wastes that require disposal as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Environmental Restoration Program are large amounts of contaminated sludge and inorganic wastes. Halliburton NUS Corporation was awarded a contract by EG ampersand G Rocky Flats in March 1991 to stabilize mixed waste sludge contained in five solar evaporator ponds and to reprocess billets of solidified waste called Pondcrete and Saltcrete at DOE's Rocky Flats Plant. The scope of the project consists of waste characterization and treatability studies for process development, followed by design, construction and operation of various process trains to remediate different waste forms ranging from solid Pondcrete/Saltcrete blocks to aqueous brine solutions. One of the significant advances made was the development of a durable and certifiable stabilization formulation capable of treating concentrated nitrate solution wastes. The project uses high-volume grout mixing and pumping technologies with process control techniques that accommodate the heterogeneity of the wastes. To comply with all relevant environmental regulations and to provide a safe working atmosphere for plant personnel, Halliburton NUS designed process trains such that all emissions were eliminated during the remediation process. Personnel protection equipment requirements have been downgraded due to safeguards incorporated in the design. The technical and regulatory issues that were encountered would be typical of stabilization efforts underway at other DOE sites. Thus the lessons learned and concepts developed can be expected to have widespread application