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Sample records for students perform poorly

  1. Analysis of Poor Performance of Senior Secondary Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the poor performance of students in Chemistry. The widespread poor performance and the negative attitudes towards chemistry of secondary school students have been largely ascribed to teaching problems. A random sample of 109 students from St Pius X College Bodo City was used. The research ...

  2. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students' Poor Performance in Prescription Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Tayem, Yasin I; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  3. Entitlement Attitudes Predict Students' Poor Performance in Challenging Academic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Donna; Halberstadt, Jamin; Aitken, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Excessive entitlement--an exaggerated or unrealistic belief about what one deserves--has been associated with a variety of maladaptive behaviors, including a decline in motivation and effort. In the context of tertiary education, we reasoned that if students expend less effort to obtain positive outcomes to which they feel entitled, this should…

  4. [Excessive Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Quality Sleep, and Low Academic Performance in Medical Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique; Echeverri Chabur, Jorge Enrique; Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Quality of sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) affect cognitive ability and performance of medical students. This study attempts to determine the prevalence of EDS, sleep quality, and assess their association with poor academic performance in this population. A descriptive, observational study was conducted on a random sample of 217 medical students from the Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, who completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire and the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sociodemographic, clinic and academic variables were also measured. Multivariate analyses for poor academic performance were performed. The included students had a mean age of 21.7±3.3 years, of whom 59.4% were men. Almost half (49.8%) had EDS criteria, and 79.3% were poor sleepers (PSQI ≥ 5), while 43.3% had poor academic performance during the last semester. The bivariate analysis showed that having used tobacco or alcohol until intoxicated, fairly bad subjective sleep quality, sleep efficiency < 65%, and being a poor sleeper were associated with increased risk of low performance. Sleep efficiency < 65% was statistically associated with poor academic performance (P=.024; OR = 4.23; 95% CI, 1.12-15.42) in the multivariate analysis. A poor sleep quality determined by low efficiency was related to poor academic achievement at the end of semester in medical students. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  5. Poor academic performance: A perspective of final year diagnostic radiography students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gqweta, Ntokozo

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: A study was conducted on final year diagnostic radiography students at a University of Technology in Durban. The aim of the study was to investigate the final year diagnostic radiography students' opinions and views on academic performance in order to inform teaching and learning methods. The objectives were: •To explore the students' opinions regarding poor performance. •To identify strategies to improve academic performance. Method: A qualitative, interpretive approach was used to explain and understand the students' lived experiences of their academic performances. A short open ended questionnaire was administered to a cohort of final diagnostic radiography students following feedback on a written assessment. Questionnaire responses were then manually captured and analyzed. Results: Five (5) themes were identified that could possibly be associated with poor academic performance. These themes were, poor preparation, lack of independent study, difficulty in understanding learning content and misinterpretation of assessment questions, inefficient studying techniques as well as perceived improvement strategies. Conclusion: Students identified their inadequate preparation and the lack of dedicated independent studying as the main reasons for poor performance. Students preferred to be taught in an assessment oriented manner. However their identified improvement strategies were aligned with the learner centred approach.

  6. The association of students requiring remediation in the internal medicine clerkship with poor performance during internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemann, Brian A; Durning, Steven J; Kelly, William F; Dong, Ting; Pangaro, Louis N; Hemmer, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the Uniformed Services University (USU) system of workplace performance assessment for students in the internal medicine clerkship at the USU continues to be a sensitive predictor of subsequent poor performance during internship, when compared with assessments in other USU third year clerkships. Utilizing Program Director survey results from 2007 through 2011 and U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 3 examination results as the outcomes of interest, we compared performance during internship for students who had less than passing performance in the internal medicine clerkship and required remediation, against students whose performance in the internal medicine clerkship was successful. We further analyzed internship ratings for students who received less than passing grades during the same time period on other third year clerkships such as general surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, family medicine, and psychiatry to evaluate whether poor performance on other individual clerkships were associated with future poor performance at the internship level. Results for this recent cohort of graduates were compared with previously published findings. The overall survey response rate for this 5 year cohort was 81% (689/853). Students who received a less than passing grade in the internal medicine clerkship and required further remediation were 4.5 times more likely to be given poor ratings in the domain of medical expertise and 18.7 times more likely to demonstrate poor professionalism during internship. Further, students requiring internal medicine remediation were 8.5 times more likely to fail USMLE Step 3. No other individual clerkship showed any statistically significant associations with performance at the intern level. On the other hand, 40% of students who successfully remediated and did graduate were not identified during internship as having poor performance. Unsuccessful clinical performance which requires remediation in

  7. Getting off on the Wrong Foot: Longitudinal Effects of Hispanic Students' Stability Attributions Following Poor Initial Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Though studies have established that following poor performance, attributions to stable causes affect the performance of minority students, few studies have explored the impact of stability attributions over time. This study explored attributions following initial failure among a predominantly Hispanic student population. We measured students'…

  8. The association of snoring and risk of obstructive sleep apnea with poor academic performance among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khassawneh, Basheer Y; Alkhatib, Loiy L; Ibnian, Ali M; Khader, Yousef S

    2018-04-20

    Subjects with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have neurocognitive dysfunction. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of symptoms and risk of OSA among university students and the association with academic performance. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Jordan University of Science and Technology. Students from faculties of engineering, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and dentistry were asked to participate in this study. The Berlin Sleep Questionnaire was used to report symptoms and risk of OSA. Below average cumulative scores were considered poor academic performance. A total of 777 students (51% female; mean age, 20 years) completed the study questionnaire. According to the study definition, 42 students (5.4%) had high risk for OSA. Snoring was reported by 11% and daytime sleepiness and fatigue by 30%. Compared to female students, male students had more snoring (14.6 vs. 7.6%, p = 0.002) and higher risk for OSA (6.5 vs. 1.6%, p = 0.001). Both self-reported snoring and being at high risk for OSA were associated with poor academic performance (27.9 vs. 11.6% and 23.1 vs. 9.2%, respectively; p academic performance in students at high risk for OSA was 2.4 (CI 1.11-5.2, p = 0.027). Snoring and OSA were uncommon among university students. However, both were more common among male students and were associated with poor academic performance.

  9. Poor Physical Performance is Associated with Obesity Among University Students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tianhua; Zhu, Ergang; Jiao, Suhua

    2017-05-05

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between physical performance and BMI (body mass index) of university students in China. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study evaluating the physical performance and BMI of university students. BMI was calculated based on height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by the Working Group on Obesity references in China. RESULTS A total of 2313 participants (978 males and 1335 females) were recruited in our study. The mean value of the 50-meter dash and standing long jump in male students was higher than in female students (Pobesity) and obesity for male students were 17.9% and 4.2%, respectively, and 5.1% and 0.5%, respectively, for female university students. BMI was weakly positively associated with the 50-meter dash score, but was negatively associated with the score for standing long jump and pull-ups. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggested that overweight and obesity are associated with physical performance of university students, especially in male students. University students should exercise more to improve physical health.

  10. Poor Physical Performance is Associated with Obesity Among University Students in China

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Tianhua; Zhu, Ergang; Jiao, Suhua

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between physical performance and BMI (body mass index) of university students in China. Material/Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study evaluating the physical performance and BMI of university students. BMI was calculated based on height and weight. Overweight and obesity were defined by the Working Group on Obesity references in China. Results A total of 2313 participants (978 males and 1335 females) were recruited in ou...

  11. The association between higher body mass index and poor school performance in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, L; Fabbri, M; Filardi, M; Martoni, M; Natale, V

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between body mass index (BMI) and school performance in high school students by controlling for relevant mediators such as sleep quality, sleep duration and socioeconomic status. Thirty-seven high school students (mean age: 18.16 ± 0.44 years) attending the same school type, i.e. 'liceo scientifico' (science-based high school), were enrolled. Students' self-reported weight and height were used to calculate BMI. Participants wore an actigraph to objectively assess the quality and duration of sleep. School performance was assessed through the actual grade obtained at the final school-leaving exam, in which higher grades indicate higher performance. BMI, get-up time, mean motor activity, wake after sleep onset and number of awakenings were negatively correlated with the grade, while sleep efficiency was positively correlated. When performing a multiple regression analysis, BMI proved the only significant (negative) predictor of grade. When controlling for sleep quality, sleep duration and socioeconomic status, a higher BMI is associated with a poorer school performance in high school students. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; van den Brand, Tessa L; Hopman, Maria T E

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade age and examination preference on this score. Data were collected for 452 first-year medical and biomedical science students during three distinct course examinations: one examination with EMQ only, one with MCQ only and one mixed examination (including EMQ and MCQ). Logistic regression analysis revealed that MCQ examination was 3 times better in identifying poor students compared with EMQ (RR 3.0, CI 2.0-4.5), whereas EMQ better detected excellent students (average grade ≥8) (RR 1.93, CI 1.47-2.53). Mixed examination had comparable characteristics to MCQ. Sex and examination preference did not impact the score of the student. Students ≥20 years had a 4-fold higher risk ratio of obtaining a poor grade (<6) compared with students ≤18 years old (RR 4.1, CI 2.1-8.0). Given the strong discriminative capacity of MCQ examinations to identify poor students, we recommend the use of this type of examination during the propaedeutic phase of medicine and biomedical science study programmes, in the light of the binding study advice.

  13. Why Rural Community Day Secondary Schools Students' Performance in Physical Science Examinations Is Poor in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlangeni, Angstone Noel J. Thembachako; Chiotha, Sosten Staphael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate factors that affect students' poor performance in physical science examinations at Malawi School Certificate of Education and Junior Certificate of Education levels in Community day secondary schools (CDSS) in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi. Students' performance was collected from schools'…

  14. Perception of Students on Causes of Poor Performance in Chemistry in External Examinations in Umuahia North Local Government of Abia State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojukwu, M. O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of students on the causes of their poor performance in external chemistry examinations in Umuahia North Local Government Area of Abia State. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. Two hundred and forty (240) students were selected through simple random sampling for the study. A…

  15. Multiple choice questions are superior to extended matching questions to identify medicine and biomedical sciences students who perform poorly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Brand, T.L. van den; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, medical faculties at Dutch universities have implemented a legally binding study advice to students of medicine and biomedical sciences during their propaedeutic phase. Appropriate examination is essential to discriminate between poor (grade <6), moderate (grade 6-8) and excellent

  16. Eye-Movement Patterns and Reader Characteristics of Students with Good and Poor Performance When Reading Scientific Text with Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yu-Cin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive processes and reader characteristics of sixth graders who had good and poor performance when reading scientific text with diagrams. We first measured the reading ability and reading self-efficacy of sixth-grade participants, and then recorded their eye movements while they were reading an illustrated…

  17. Strategy Choice in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: Are There Differences between Students with Learning Disabilities, G-V Poor Performance, and Typical Achievement Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Espinel, Ana Isabel Garcia

    2002-01-01

    A study was designed to test whether there are differences between Spanish children (ages 7-9) with arithmetic learning disabilities (n=60), garden-variety (G-V) poor performance (n=44), and typical children (n=44) in strategy choice when solving arithmetic word problems. No significant differences were found between children with dyscalculia and…

  18. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  19. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%. The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%, treatment duration (69.4%, drug quantity (69.4% and drug formulation (68.2%. Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%. During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%, lack of interest (50.3%, reliance on peers for information (48.4% and optional attendance policies (47.1%. Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  20. Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Poor Performance Status Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubicek, Gregory J., E-mail: kubicek-gregory@cooperhealth.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Turtz, Alan [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Xue, Jinyu; Patel, Ashish; Richards, Gregory; LaCouture, Tamara [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Cappelli, Louis; Diestelkamp, Tim [Rowan Graduate School, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Saraiya, Piya [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Bexon, Anne [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Lerman, Nati [Department of Medical Oncology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Goldman, Howard Warren [Department of Neurological Surgery, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: Patients with poor performance status (PS), usually defined as a Karnofsky Performance Status of 60 or less, were not eligible for randomized stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) studies, and many guidelines suggest that whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the most appropriate treatment for poor PS patients. Methods and Materials: In this retrospective review of our SRS database, we identified 36 patients with PS of 60 or less treated with SRS for central nervous system (CNS) metastatic disease. PS, as defined by the Karnofsky Performance Status, was 60 (27 patients), 50 (8 patients), or 40 (1 patient). The median number of CNS lesions treated was 3. Results: Median overall survival (OS) was 7.2 months (range, 0.73-25.6 months). Fifteen patients (41%) were alive at 6 months, and 6 patients (16.6%) were alive at 1 year. There was no difference in OS in patients who underwent previous WBRT. There were no local failures or cases of radiation toxicity. Distant CNS failures were seen in 9 patients (25%). Conclusions: Our patients with poor PS had reasonable median OS and relatively low distant CNS failure rates. Patients in this patient population may be ideal candidates for SRS compared with WBRT given the low incidence of distant failure over their remaining lives and the favorable logistics of single-fraction treatment for these patients with debility and their caregivers.

  1. Poor Performance in Mathematics: Is There a Basis for a Self-Worth Explanation for Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2007-01-01

    The self-worth theory of achievement motivation holds that in situations in which poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, certain students (known as self-worth protective students) intentionally withdraw effort in order to avoid the negative implications of poor performance in terms of damage to self-worth. In this study, evidence of…

  2. Becoming a caregiver: attachment theory and poorly performing doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adshead, Gwen

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, I review a theoretical paradigm (attachment theory) which facilitates an understanding of how human care-giving and care-eliciting behaviours develop and are maintained over the lifespan. I argue that this paradigm has particular utility in: (i) the training of doctors; (ii) understanding why some doctors and medical students experience high levels of stress, and (iii) developing interventions to help those who struggle to manage high levels of work-related stress. I carried out a review of key texts and previously published studies of attachment styles in caregivers. Large-scale epidemiological studies, using valid and reliable measures, show that insecure attachment styles are found in a proportion of normal populations of both males and females. Insecure attachment is associated with impaired stress management and subtle deficits in care-giving sensitivity. It is reasonable to assume that a proportion of students entering medical training and doctors with performance problems may have insecure attachment styles which influence how they approach their training experience and how they manage occupational stress. Attachment theory is a useful paradigm for thinking about training as a professional caregiver. Insecure early attachment experiences may be a risk factor for poor stress management in some medical students and doctors who are exposed to increasing demands as carers. These findings lead to suggestions for possible research and support interventions.

  3. Poor Reading Culture: A Barrier to Students' Patronage of Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    show that computer and other media, harsh economic reality, societal demand for materialism, inadequate library materials among others are causes of poor reading culture of students in secondary schools. .... foundation of elementary education. ... play in the social, economic and technological development of any country.

  4. Poor Reading Culture: A Barrier to Students' Patronage of Libraries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined poor reading culture: A barrier to students' patronage of Selected Secondary School Libraries in Ado Ekiti Local Government Area of Ekiti State. The design for the study is descriptive survey which utilizes questionnaire to collect data. Oral interview was also conducted. Tables and simple percentages ...

  5. Health indicators associated with poor sleep quality among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo

    Full Text Available Objective To associate the sleep quality of Brazilian undergraduate students with health indicators. Method A cross-sectional study was developed with a random sample of 662 undergraduate students from Fortaleza, Brazil. The demographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and health data indicators (smoking, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, nutritional condition and serum cholesterol were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood was collected at a clinical laboratory. In order to estimate the size of the associations, a Poisson Regression was used. Results For students who are daily smokers, the occurrence of poor sleep was higher than in non-smokers (p<0.001. Prevalence rate values were nevertheless close to 1. Conclusion The likelihood of poor sleep is almost the same in smokers and in alcoholics.

  6. Factors associated with high school learners' poor performance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established learners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North.

  7. Aggregate packing characteristics of good and poor performing asphalt mixes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aggregate structure of the compacted mix is a determining factor for the performance of Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA). In this paper, the grading characteristics of good and poor performing HMA mixes are explored using the concepts of the Bailey method...

  8. Common Characteristics of Good and Poorly Performing AC Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    This report documents the analysis and findings of a study to identify the site conditions and design/construction features of : flexible pavements that lead to good performance and those that lead to poor performance. Data from the Long Term Pavemen...

  9. Common Characteristics of Good and Poorly Performing PCC Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the analysis and findings of a study to identify the site conditions and design/construction features of concrete pavements (JPCP, JRCP, CRCP) that lead to good performance and those that lead to poor performance. Data from Long...

  10. Poor physician performance in the Netherlands: characteristics, causes, and prevalence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, M.M.P.G. van den; Wagner, C.; Lombarts, K.M.J.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Poor physician performance has a profound impact on patient safety and society's trust in the health care system. The attention that this topic has received in the media suggests that it is a large-scale issue. However, research about physician performance is still scant; there is

  11. Residential Electrostatic Precipitator - Performance at efficient and poor combustion conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baefver, Linda; Yngvesson, Johan; Niklasson, Fredrik

    2012-07-01

    The performance of a pilot residential electrostatic precipitator R{sub E}SP (Applied Plasma Physics AS), was investigated at laboratory. Measurements of TSP (Total Suspended Particles), content of organic and elemental carbon, and mass size distribution of particles upstream and downstream of ESP were performed. Values for PM1 (particles < 1 {mu}m) were calculated from the particle size distributions. Concentrations and size distributions with respect to particle numbers were measured in separate tests. Gas concentrations, temperatures and boiler parameters were also measured. The TSP concentrations upstream of the R{sub E}SP were varied in range of 15-390 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}. Up to concentrations of about 300 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, the TSP-concentrations out from the ESP were less than 20 mg/m{sub N}{sup 3}, which is well below the German emission limit for wood stoves. The removal efficiencies with respect to mass were about 87% at efficient combustion and 93% at poor combustion. Corresponding values with respect to number concentrations were about 97% at efficient combustion and almost 99% at poor combustion. The better performance at poor combustion may be explained by lower flue gas temperature, leading to longer residence time in the ESP. High removal efficiencies were also found with respect to particulate organic and elemental carbon.

  12. Poor performance in physical education - a risk factor for bully victimization. A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejerot, Susanne; Edgar, Johan; Humble, Mats B

    2011-03-01

    Poor social skills are a risk factor for becoming bullied, which could explain why this frequently occurs to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Poor social skills tend to coexist with clumsiness. According to a pilot study, poor performance in physical education (PE) was correlated with bully victimization. Sixty-nine healthy university students reported performance in PE and bully victimization in childhood. In addition, the participants responded to questionnaires for ADHD and ASDs to assess personality traits related to increased risk for bully victimization. Below average performance in PE was a risk factor of being bullied in school with an odds ratio of 3.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.23-10.5; p = 0.017]. Strong correlations between poor performance in PE and long duration of victimization (p = 0.007) and poor performance in PE and high frequency of victimization (p = 0.008) were found. Autistic traits were related to performance below average in PE. Poor motor skills are a strong risk factor for becoming bullied. Prevention programmes that identify, protect and empower the clumsy children could be an important step to avoid bullying of the most vulnerable children. © 2010 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2010 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. Improving Student Performance through Parent Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steventon, Candace E.

    A personalized parenting program was implemented to address poor academic performance and low self-esteem of high school students. Student records, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Behavior Evaluation Scale, and teacher surveys were employed to identify and measure academic and/or self-perception growth. Parents participated in an 8-week…

  14. Diagnosis of a Poorly Performing Liquid Hydrogen Bulk Storage Sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Angela G.

    2011-01-01

    There are two 850,000 gallon Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A and the other at Launch Pad B. The LH2 Sphere at Pad B has had a high boiloff rate since being brought into service in the 1960's. The daily commodity loss was estimated to be approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the minimum required by the sphere's specification. Additionally, after being re-painted in the late 1990's a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere which resulted in a poor paint bond, and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of Space Shuttle program service which provided a unique opportunity to diagnose the sphere's poor performance. The sphere was drained and inerted, and then opened from the annular relief device on the top where a series of boroscoping operations were accomplished. Boroscoping revealed a large Perlite insulation void in the region of the sphere where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and off-loaded into the annular void region until the annulus was full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  15. Defining poor and optimum performance in an IVF programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Jose A; Hernandez, Juana; Cabello, Yolanda; Lafuente, Alejandro; Pajuelo, Nuria; Marqueta, Javier; Coroleu, Buenaventura

    2008-01-01

    At present there is considerable interest in healthcare administration, among professionals and among the general public concerning the quality of programmes of assisted reproduction. There exist various methods for comparing and analysing the results of clinical activity, with graphical methods being the most commonly used for this purpose. As yet, there is no general consensus as to how the poor performance (PP) or optimum performance (OP) of assisted reproductive technologies should be defined. Data from the IVF/ICSI register of the Spanish Fertility Society were used to compare and analyse different definitions of PP or OP. The primary variable best reflecting the quality of an IVF/ICSI programme was taken to be the percentage of singleton births per IVF/ICSI cycle initiated. Of the 75 infertility clinics that took part in the SEF-2003 survey, data on births were provided by 58. A total of 25 462 cycles were analysed. The following graphical classification methods were used: ranking of the proportion of singleton births per cycles started in each centre (league table), Shewhart control charts, funnel plots, best and worst-case scenarios and state of the art methods. The clinics classified as producing PP or OP varied considerably depending on the classification method used. Only three were rated as providing 'PP' or 'OP' by all methods, unanimously. Another four clinics were classified as 'poor' or 'optimum' by all the methods except one. On interpreting the results derived from IVF/ICSI centres, it is essential to take into account the characteristics of the method used for this purpose.

  16. Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In Colleges Of ... in Clothing and Textiles more than foods and Nutrition and Home Management. ... poor attitude of students towards clothing and Textiles, lack of enough time ...

  17. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant.

  18. Poor sleep quality and insufficient sleep of a collegiate student-athlete population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Cheri D; Kezirian, Eric J; Marcello, Brandon M; Dement, William C

    2018-06-01

    Poor and inadequate sleep negatively impact cognitive and physical functioning and may also affect sports performance. The study aim is to examine sleep quality, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness in collegiate student-athletes across a wide range of sports. Questionnaire. University setting. 628 athletes across 29 varsity teams at Stanford University. Athletes completed a questionnaire inquiring about sleep quality via a modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness via Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Sleep quality on campus and while traveling for competition was rated on a 10-point scale. Collegiate athletes were classified as poor sleepers (PSQI 5.38 ± 2.45), and 42.4% of athletes experience poor sleep quality (reporting PSQI global scores >5). Athletes reported lower sleep quality on campus than when traveling for competition (7.1 vs 7.6, Pquality, regularly obtain insufficient sleep, and commonly exhibit daytime sleepiness. Copyright © 2018 National Sleep Foundation. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying poor performance among doctors in NHS organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Rachel; Scallan, Samantha; Leach, Camilla; Rickenbach, Mark

    2013-10-01

    To account for the means by which poor performance among career doctors is identified by National Health Service organizations, whether the tools are considered effective and how these processes may be strengthened in the light of revalidation and the requirement for doctors to demonstrate their fitness to practice. This study sought to look beyond the 'doctor as individual'; as well as considering the typical approaches to managing the practice of an individual, the systems within which the doctor is working were reviewed, as these are also relevant to standards of performance. A qualitative review was undertaken consisting of a literature review of current practice, a policy review of current documentation from 15 trusts in one deanery locality, and 14 semi-structured interviews with respondents with an overview of processes in use. The framework for the analysis of the data considered tools at three levels: individual, team and organizational. Tools are, in the main, reactive--with an individual focus. They rely on colleagues and others to speak out, so their effectiveness is hindered by a reluctance to do so. Tools can lack an evidence base for their use, and there is limited linking of data across contexts and tools. There is more work to be done in evaluating current tools and developing stronger processes. Linkage between data sources needs to be improved and proactive tools at the organizational level need further development to help with the early identification of performance issues. This would also assist in balancing a wider systems approach with a current over emphasis on individual doctors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Finance for the Poor: An Assessment of the Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The introduction of microfinance in the Nigerian financial system is an attempt to provide the poor with access to micro-financial services. Micro-banks that are supposed to provide these services are faced with many challenges. Among these are: inability to reach a greater number of the poor; funding of commercial sectors ...

  1. Association of Stress, General Health, and Alcohol Use with Poor Sleep Quality among U.S. College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Teresa D.; Kim, Myoung Jin; Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor sleep among college students is a major, growing problem associated with lower academic performance, higher rates of health and emotional problems, and development of chronic sleep disorders. Purpose: Though previous studies have focused on individual colleges, our study purpose was to reveal the association of behaviors and…

  2. Poor academic performance among adolescents with epilepsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Adolescents with epilepsy experience significant academic difficulties. However, little is known about the effects of epilepsy on the academic performance of adolescents with the disorder in Northern Nigeria. Objective. To assess the academic performance of adolescents with epilepsy and factors associated ...

  3. Poor School Performance: Contributing Factors and Consequences, with Emphasis on the Nonwhite Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwinn, Diane G.

    Research on poor school performance--with emphasis on the nonwhite child--is discussed in terms of differences children bring to school, the school process, and consequences of poor school performance. Individual factors related to poor achievement are noted to include membership in a disadvantaged minority group, broken homes and absent fathers,…

  4. Teacher Reports of Student Health and Its Influence on Students' School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tara C.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Hollo, Alexandra; Robertson, Rachel E.; Maggin, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Physical health may be an important variable that influences students' behavioral and academic performance in school settings. Poor health status is hypothesized to negatively influence student performance even in the presence of evidence-based practices. In this study, teachers reported their perceptions of students' health status as well as…

  5. Poor academic performance among adolescents with epilepsy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    epilepsy is associated with impairment in academic performance,3-7 which may limit .... investigated children and adolescents with mental retardation and so could have ... direct brain damage with resultant cognitive deficits. In addition, an.

  6. Warning Signals for Poor Performance Improve Human-Robot Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brule, Rik; Bijlstra, Gijsbert; Dotsch, Ron; Haselager, Pim; Wigboldus, Daniel HJ

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed at investigating whether human-robot interaction (HRI) can be improved by a robot’s nonverbal warning signals. Ideally, when a robot signals that it cannot guarantee good performance, people could take preventive actions to ensure the successful completion of the

  7. Association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality: a study in a sample of undergraduate students in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniczak, Isabella; Cáceres-DelAguila, José Alonso; Palma-Ardiles, Gabriela; Arroyo, Karen J; Solís-Visscher, Rodrigo; Paredes-Yauri, Stephania; Mego-Aquije, Karina; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people's life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire, adapted to the Facebook case, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, were used. A global score of 6 or greater was defined as the cutoff to determine poor sleep quality. Generalized linear model were used to determine prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 418 students were analyzed; of them, 322 (77.0%) were women, with a mean age of 20.1 (SD: 2.5) years. Facebook dependence was found in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.9%-11.3%), whereas poor sleep quality was present in 55.0% (95% CI: 50.2%-59.8%). A significant association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality mainly explained by daytime dysfunction was found (PR = 1.31; IC95%: 1.04-1.67) after adjusting for age, sex and years in the faculty. There is a relationship between Facebook dependence and poor quality of sleep. More than half of students reported poor sleep quality. Strategies to moderate the use of this social network and to improve sleep quality in this population are needed.

  8. Daytime Sleepiness, Poor Sleep Quality, Eveningness Chronotype, and Common Mental Disorders among Chilean College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, Tessa; Barbosa, Clarita; Vélez, Juan Carlos; Pepper, Micah; Andrade, Asterio; Gelaye, Bizu; Yanez, David; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether daytime sleepiness, poor sleep quality, and morningness and eveningness preferences are associated with common mental disorders (CMDs) among college students. Methods: A total of 963 college students completed self-administered questionnaires that collected information about sociodemographic characteristics, sleep…

  9. Acculturative Stress, Poor Mental Health and Condom-Use Intention among International Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ningxi; Xu, Yayun; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Engaging in sexual risk behaviour can be a maladaptive strategy for international students to deal with stress. This study examined the role of poor mental health in mediating the relationship between acculturative stress and condom-use intention among international students in Beijing, China. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional…

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Inner Mongolia Medical University students: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Qin, Peng; Zhao, Yunshan; Duan, Shengyun; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Ying; Hu, Yueling; Sun, Juan

    2016-10-30

    Medical students face new challenges at the beginning of college life, such as being responsible for oneself, an unfamiliar environment, social obligations, and academic stress, all of which influence or even heavily change their sleep quality and life, leading to sleep-related problems to some degree. This study investigated the relationship between sleep quality and behavior among students at the Inner Mongolia Medical University in China. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyle habits. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was also used. A total of 6044 and 6085 students completed the questionnaires in 2011 and 2013. According to the index, 27.8% (1694) of students had poor sleep quality with major risk factors being poor academic performance and interpersonal relationships in 2013. Among others, regular exercise less than three times a week, skipping breakfast, and studying in higher grades were associated with poor sleep quality. These results will help university administrators understand the risk factors of poor sleep quality among students, which can be improved through individual efforts, and provide adequate counseling and systematic education to improve their behavior and lifestyle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Poor Stroop performances in 15-year-old dyslexic teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoula, Zoï; Lê, Thanh-Thuan; Bonnet, Audrey; Bourtoire, Pauline; Demule, Emilie; Fauvel, Caroline; Quilicci, Catherine; Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    The Stroop test enables interference between color naming and reading to be studied. Protopapas et al. (2007) reported more errors in an interference task and longer reaction times in 12.5-year-old dyslexics; also more Stroop interference with lower reading skills. The present study uses a version of the Stroop with four color cards and aims to test interference and flexibility in older dyslexic teenagers. The four cards are: color naming, reading, interference and flexibility. In the latter, subjects have to name the color of the word inhibiting reading except when the word is inside a box. This flexibility task enables the testing of the capacity for cognitive switching between tasks. Ten dyslexics (15.1 +/- 0.7 years old) and fourteen controls (14.3 +/- 1.6 years old) participated in the study. All performed the color naming, the reading, the interference and the flexibility tasks in the same order. Subsequently, they performed a sequence of 60 saccades left-right followed by the interference task. Generally, dyslexic teenagers behaved similarly to non-dyslexics as they showed fewer errors in reading and color than in the interference and flexibility tasks. However, they made more errors and needed more time to accomplish each task than non-dyslexics. The results suggest that the inhibitory and attention processes required by the Stroop test are dysfunctioning even in older dyslexics. In contrast, the study shows no evidence for particular difficulty in the flexibility task, which would constitute an argument against problems with mental switching. Following the execution of saccades, errors in the interference test were significantly reduced for dyslexics, while the time was reduced for both groups. The effects are attributed to visual attention training via saccades.

  12. Factors affecting the performance of undergraduate medical students: A perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mandal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Performance of medical students in developing nations like India is perceived to have largely declined. Aims: We attempted to assess the reasons behind such trends. Settings and Design: Students in their third year of medical study were given a predesigned, pretested structured and validated questionnaire that they filled in anonymously. The key areas assessed were concentration, interest and understanding of the subject and other perceived causes of poor performance. Tests for descriptive statistics were applied for evaluation. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and fifty students participated in the study. Fifty-five (36.66% students performed poorly. Male gender, inability to clear the previous professional examination at the first attempt, difficulty in understanding medium of instruction, self-assessed depression, sleep disorders and perceived parental and peer pressure and dissatisfaction with career choice were significantly linked with poor performance (P<0.05 for each factor. Socioeconomic status and regularity in class were not linked to academic performance.

  13. Medical student psychological distress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendle, Claire; Baulch, Julie; Pellicano, Rebecca; Hay, Margaret; Lichtwark, Irene; Ayoub, Sally; Clarke, David M; Morand, Eric F; Kumar, Arunaz; Leech, Michelle; Horne, Kylie

    2018-01-21

    The impact of medical student psychological distress on academic performance has not been systematically examined. This study provided an opportunity to closely examine the potential impacts of workplace and study related stress factors on student's psychological distress and their academic performance during their first clinical year. This one-year prospective cohort study was performed at a tertiary hospital based medical school in Melbourne, Australia. Students completed a questionnaire at three time points during the year. The questionnaire included the validated Kessler psychological distress scale (K10) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), as well as items about sources of workplace stress. Academic outcome scores were aggregated and correlated with questionnaire results. One hundred and twenty six students participated; 126 (94.7%), 102 (76.7%), and 99 (74.4%) at time points one, two, and three, respectively. 33.1% reported psychological distress at time point one, increasing to 47.4% at time point three. There was no correlation between the K10 scores and academic performance. There was weak negative correlation between the GHQ-28 at time point three and academic performance. Keeping up to date with knowledge, need to do well and fear of negative feedback were the most common workplace stress factors. Poor correlation was noted between psychological distress and academic performance.

  14. POOR PROGRESS STUDENTS IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS AS SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Tatochenko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to theoretical substantiation of modern methodical system of Mathematics teaching of poor progressing secondary school pupils. A systematic approach to the study of psycho-pedagogical determinants of poor progress of pupils in math was implemented. The dynamic of interfunctional relationship of structure of educational and informative sphere of poor progressing pupils in mathematics was disclosed and scientific understanding of this process was expanded. The introduction in the educational process of didactic methodical and psychologically balanced methodical control system and correction of poor progressing students’ in Maths improves quality indicators of their permanent knowledge and skills. It allows you to discover the fullness, depth and durability of learning at different stages and levels of education, it contributes to correction, management and partly self-management learning process of poor progressing students in Mathematics, excites them to an active mental activity promotes the development of a conscious attitude to their systematic academic work. The essence of “poor progress” phenomena is observed as well as “educational retardation” of school students during teaching mathematics. Target orientation, the resource potential of the real educational process of poor progressing pupils in Mathematics are determined. Contradictions are singled out and pedagogical conditions of results control of learning outcomes of comprehensive school pupils are proved. An attempt to consider the academic failure of schoolchildren in Mathematics in connection with the main categories of didactics – the content and the learning process was made. Certain shortcomings of teaching and learning activities of students in the study of Mathematics are highlighted as poor progressing elements and gaps. The process and content, enriched with the use of NIT, ensuring the formation of key competencies of lagging behind and

  15. Bullying as a risk for poor sleep quality among high school students in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhou

    Full Text Available To determine whether involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, or bully-victim was associated with a higher risk of poor sleep quality among high school students in China.A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 23,877 high school students were surveyed in six cities in Guangdong Province. All students were asked to complete the adolescent health status questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and bullying involvement. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sleep quality and the prevalence of school bullying. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between being victimized and bullying others with sleep quality.Among the 23,877 students, 6,127 (25.66% reported having poor sleep quality, and 10.89% reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 1,410 (5.91% were pure victims of bullying, 401 (1.68% were bullies and 784 (3.28% were bully-victims. Frequently being involved in bullying behaviors (being bullied or bullying others was related to increased risks of poor sleep quality compared with adolescents who were not involved in bullying behaviors. After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding factors, the students who were being bullied (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.81-2.32, bullied others (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.85-2.86 or both (OR=2.58, 95%CI=2.20-3.03 were at a higher risk for poor sleep quality.Poor sleep quality among high school students is highly prevalent, and school bullying is prevalent among adolescents in China. The present results suggested that being involved in school bullying might be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among adolescents.

  16. Bullying as a risk for poor sleep quality among high school students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Guo, Lan; Lu, Ci-yong; Deng, Jian-xiong; He, Yuan; Huang, Jing-hui; Huang, Guo-liang; Deng, Xue-qing; Gao, Xue

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether involvement in bullying as a bully, victim, or bully-victim was associated with a higher risk of poor sleep quality among high school students in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 23,877 high school students were surveyed in six cities in Guangdong Province. All students were asked to complete the adolescent health status questionnaire, which included the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and bullying involvement. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate sleep quality and the prevalence of school bullying. Multi-level logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between being victimized and bullying others with sleep quality. Among the 23,877 students, 6,127 (25.66%) reported having poor sleep quality, and 10.89% reported being involved in bullying behaviors. Of the respondents, 1,410 (5.91%) were pure victims of bullying, 401 (1.68%) were bullies and 784 (3.28%) were bully-victims. Frequently being involved in bullying behaviors (being bullied or bullying others) was related to increased risks of poor sleep quality compared with adolescents who were not involved in bullying behaviors. After adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding factors, the students who were being bullied (OR=2.05, 95%CI=1.81-2.32), bullied others (OR=2.30, 95%CI=1.85-2.86) or both (OR=2.58, 95%CI=2.20-3.03) were at a higher risk for poor sleep quality. Poor sleep quality among high school students is highly prevalent, and school bullying is prevalent among adolescents in China. The present results suggested that being involved in school bullying might be a risk factor for poor sleep quality among adolescents.

  17. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacerda Marcus VG

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4% of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54; p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P

  18. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitor-Silva, Sheila; Reyes-Lecca, Roberto C; Pinheiro, Tamam RA; Lacerda, Marcus VG

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4%) of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54); p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P. vivax is responsible for

  19. Relationship between weekend catch-up sleep and poor performance on attention tasks in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Yu Jin; Cho, Seong-Jin; Cho, In-Hee; Lim, Weonjeong; Lim, Wonshin

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between insufficient sleep and poor attention in Korean adolescents, adjusting for potential confounding factors of depressed mood and habitual snoring. School-based cross-sectional study. Eight high schools in 3 cities in the Republic of Korea. A sample of 2638 urban high school students (42.2% male and 57.8% female; mean [SD] age, 17.3 [0.6] years [age range, 14-19 years]) completed questionnaires and computerized attention tasks during the school term. Weekend catch-up sleep. Self-reported sleep schedules and habits, including sleep duration, bedtime, wake-up time, depressed mood, and habitual snoring. Also measured were numbers of omission and commission errors on computerized attention tasks. The mean (SD) sleep duration on weekdays was 5 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 0 minutes) per day and on weekends was 8 hours 24 minutes (1 hour 36 minutes) per day. The mean (SD) weekend catch-up sleep was 2 hours 42 minutes (1 hour 42 minutes) per day. After adjusting for age, sex, depressed mood (Beck Depression Inventory score, ≥10), habitual snoring, and weekday sleep duration, increased weekend catch-up sleep was significantly associated with more omission and commission errors on sustained attention tasks (P sleep as an indicator of insufficient weekday sleep is associated with poor performance on objective attention tasks. Assessment of catch-up sleep and sleep duration may be useful for physicians to evaluate sleep insufficiency and its adverse effects on attention in adolescents.

  20. Sleep Quality and Academic Performance Among Medical College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameer Kadhim Al-Humairi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Sleep plays a very important role in a human health. Poor sleep quality remains as a frequent feature of student life. Quantity and quality of sleep in addition to average sleep time are strongly linked with students’ learning abilities and academic performance. Subjects and method:The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted to assess sleep quality among medical college students – University of Babylon using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. This study was done during April 2016. Results:Mean age of students was (20.63 ± 0.65. Majority was female. According to PSQI(60.4% of students were poor sleeper. Significant association between quality of sleep and academic performance was found in our study, (72.9% of those fail in one or more subjects have poor sleep quality. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality was regarded as an important problem among medical college students. Majority of students (60.4% was poor sleepers. Our study shows significant relation between sleep quality and academic performance among students of Babylon University –College of Medicine.

  1. Using Predictive Modelling to Identify Students at Risk of Poor University Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Pengfei; Maloney, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Predictive modelling is used to identify students at risk of failing their first-year courses and not returning to university in the second year. Our aim is twofold. Firstly, we want to understand the factors that lead to poor first-year experiences at university. Secondly, we want to develop simple, low-cost tools that would allow universities to…

  2. Analysis of Poor Performance of Senior Secondary Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2012-10-27

    Oct 27, 2012 ... variables, textbook related variables and home related variables. Saage ..... to good teacher-pupils' relationship, effective classroom management and motivated teachers and pupils. ... References. Adesoko, A.O. (2000).

  3. Association between Facebook Dependence and Poor Sleep Quality: A Study in a Sample of Undergraduate Students in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniczak, Isabella; Cáceres-DelAguila, José Alonso; Palma-Ardiles, Gabriela; Arroyo, Karen J.; Solís-Visscher, Rodrigo; Paredes-Yauri, Stephania; Mego-Aquije, Karina; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people’s life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire, adapted to the Facebook case, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, were used. A global score of 6 or greater was defined as the cutoff to determine poor sleep quality. Generalized linear model were used to determine prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A total of 418 students were analyzed; of them, 322 (77.0%) were women, with a mean age of 20.1 (SD: 2.5) years. Facebook dependence was found in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.9%–11.3%), whereas poor sleep quality was present in 55.0% (95% CI: 50.2%–59.8%). A significant association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality mainly explained by daytime dysfunction was found (PR = 1.31; IC95%: 1.04–1.67) after adjusting for age, sex and years in the faculty. Conclusions There is a relationship between Facebook dependence and poor quality of sleep. More than half of students reported poor sleep quality. Strategies to moderate the use of this social network and to improve sleep quality in this population are needed. PMID:23554978

  4. Association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality: a study in a sample of undergraduate students in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Wolniczak

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Internet can accelerate information exchange. Social networks are the most accessed especially Facebook. This kind of networks might create dependency with several negative consequences in people's life. The aim of this study was to assess potential association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional study was performed enrolling undergraduate students of the Universidad Peruana de Ciencias Aplicadas, Lima, Peru. The Internet Addiction Questionnaire, adapted to the Facebook case, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, were used. A global score of 6 or greater was defined as the cutoff to determine poor sleep quality. Generalized linear model were used to determine prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A total of 418 students were analyzed; of them, 322 (77.0% were women, with a mean age of 20.1 (SD: 2.5 years. Facebook dependence was found in 8.6% (95% CI: 5.9%-11.3%, whereas poor sleep quality was present in 55.0% (95% CI: 50.2%-59.8%. A significant association between Facebook dependence and poor sleep quality mainly explained by daytime dysfunction was found (PR = 1.31; IC95%: 1.04-1.67 after adjusting for age, sex and years in the faculty. CONCLUSIONS: There is a relationship between Facebook dependence and poor quality of sleep. More than half of students reported poor sleep quality. Strategies to moderate the use of this social network and to improve sleep quality in this population are needed.

  5. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  6. Do university students know how they perform?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa VARSARI

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is to study the capacity for self-evaluation of University students undergoing tests involving mathematics, linguistic and formal reasoning. Subjects were asked to estimate the number of correct answers and subsequently to compare their performance with that of their peers. We divided the subjects into three groups on the basis of performance: poor, middle and top performers. The results demonstrate that all the subjects in all tests showed good awareness of their level of actual performance. Analyzing comparative assessments, the results reported in literature by Kruger and Dunning were confirmed: poor performers tend to significantly overestimate their own performance whilst top performers tend to underestimate it. This can be interpreted as a demonstration that the accuracy of comparative self-evaluations depends on a number of variables: cognitive and metacognitive factors and aspects associated with self-representation. Our conclusion is that cognitive and metacognitive processes work as “submerged” in highly subjective representations, allowing dynamics related to safeguarding the image one has of oneself to play a role.

  7. Poor Executive Functions among Children with Moderate-into-Severe Asthma: Evidence from WCST Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) measures of 27 asthmatic children, with general learning difficulties, were tested by using the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), and were compared to the performances of 30 non-asthmatic children with general learning difficulties. The results revealed that the asthmatic group has poor performance through all the WCST psychometric parameters and especially the perseverative errors one. The results were discussed in light of the postulation that poor EFs could be associated with the learning difficulties of asthmatic children. Neurophysiological framework has been suggested to explain the etiology of poor EFs among children with moderate into severe asthma.

  8. Association of tic disorders with poor academic performance in central Spain: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Trejo, José; Ausín, Vanesa; Sáez, Sara; Delgado, Vanesa; Macarrón, Jesus; Cordero, José; Louis, Elan D; Kompoliti, Katie; Benito-León, Julián

    2013-07-01

    To analyze the association between tic disorders and poor academic performance in school-aged children. This was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in a randomly selected sample of mainstream school-aged children (aged 6-16 years). The sampling frame included different types of schools and educational levels. Children with poor academic performance (eg, repeating a grade, special needs), and tic disorders (defined based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision criteria) were identified. Children with and without tics and children with and without poor academic performance were compared in terms of clinical features (ie, medical history and neurologic and psychiatric comorbidities), school, and environmental characteristics. Logistic regression analyses were performed using school performance (dependent variable) and tic disorders (independent variable), after adjusting for confounding variables. The study cohort comprised 1867 children (mean age, 10.9 + 2.9 years; 1007 males [53.9%]). Tics were present in 162 children (8.6%), and poor academic performance was noted in 223 (11.9%). Overall poor academic performance was associated with age (OR, 1.71; P family history of school dysfunction (OR, 2.43; P = .02) and was negatively associated with higher IQ score (OR, 0.90; P academic performance in our cohort. Early academic support and modification of environmental characteristics are needed for children at higher risk for school dysfunction, to enhance academic performance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Doctors' stress responses and poor communication performance in simulated bad-news consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rhonda; Dunn, Stewart; Byrnes, Karen; Morris, Richard; Heinrich, Paul; Shaw, Joanne

    2009-11-01

    No studies have previously evaluated factors associated with high stress levels and poor communication performance in breaking bad news (BBN) consultations. This study determined factors that were most strongly related to doctors' stress responses and poor communication performance during a simulated BBN task. In 2007, the authors recruited 24 doctors comprising 12 novices (i.e., interns/residents with 1-3 years' experience) and 12 experts (i.e., registrars, medical/radiation oncologists, or cancer surgeons, with more than 4 years' experience). Doctors participated in simulated BBN consultations and a number of control tasks. Five-minute-epoch heart rate (HR), HR variability, and communication performance were assessed in all participants. Subjects also completed a short questionnaire asking about their prior experience BBN, perceived stress, psychological distress (i.e., anxiety, depression), fatigue, and burnout. High stress responses were related to inexperience with BBN, fatigue, and giving bad versus good news. Poor communication performance in the consultation was related to high burnout and fatigue scores. These results suggest that BBN was a stressful experience for doctors even in a simulated encounter, especially for those who were inexperienced and/or fatigued. Poor communication performance was related to burnout and fatigue, but not inexperience with BBN. These results likely indicate that burnout and fatigue contributed to stress and poor work performance in some doctors during the simulated BBN task.

  10. Perception of Overweight Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in US Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florin, Todd A.; Shults, Justine; Stettler, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: To improve understanding of the mechanisms affecting the relationship between adolescent obesity and poor academic performance, we examined the association of overweight or perceived weight status with academic achievement. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 14-17-year-olds (N = 11,012) from the nationally representative…

  11. Poor Gait Performance and Prediction of Dementia: Results From a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Callisaya, Michele L; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Helbostad, Jorunn L; Kressig, Reto W; Srikanth, Velandai; Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Blumen, Helena M; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2016-06-01

    Poor gait performance predicts risk of developing dementia. No structured critical evaluation has been conducted to study this association yet. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the association of poor gait performance with incidence of dementia. An English and French Medline search was conducted in June 2015, with no limit of date, using the medical subject headings terms "Gait" OR "Gait Disorders, Neurologic" OR "Gait Apraxia" OR "Gait Ataxia" AND "Dementia" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia" OR "Dementia, Multi-Infarct" OR "Dementia, Vascular" OR "Alzheimer Disease" OR "Lewy Body Disease" OR "Frontotemporal Dementia With Motor Neuron Disease" (Supplementary Concept). Poor gait performance was defined by standardized tests of walking, and dementia was diagnosed according to international consensus criteria. Four etiologies of dementia were identified: any dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and non-AD (ie, pooling VaD, mixed dementias, and other dementias). Fixed effects meta-analyses were performed on the estimates in order to generate summary values. Of the 796 identified abstracts, 12 (1.5%) were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Poor gait performance predicted dementia [pooled hazard ratio (HR) combined with relative risk and odds ratio = 1.53 with P analysis provides evidence that poor gait performance predicts dementia. This association depends on the type of dementia; poor gait performance is a stronger predictor of non-AD dementias than AD. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evidence that communication impairment in schizophrenia is associated with generalized poor task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Anne M; Karcher, Nicole R; Cicero, David C; Becker, Theresa M; Docherty, Anna R; Kerns, John G

    2017-03-01

    People with schizophrenia exhibit wide-ranging cognitive deficits, including slower processing speed and decreased cognitive control. Disorganized speech symptoms, such as communication impairment, have been associated with poor cognitive control task performance (e.g., goal maintenance and working memory). Whether communication impairment is associated with poorer performance on a broader range of non-cognitive control measures is unclear. In the current study, people with schizophrenia (n =51) and non-psychiatric controls (n =26) completed speech interviews allowing for reliable quantitative assessment of communication impairment. Participants also completed multiple goal maintenance and working memory tasks. In addition, we also examined (a) simple measures of processing speed involving highly automatic prepotent responses and (b) a non-cognitive control measure of general task performance. Schizophrenia communication impairment was significantly associated with poor performance in all cognitive domains, with the largest association found with processing speed (r s =-0.52). Further, communication impairment was also associated with the non-cognitive control measure of poor general task performance (r s =-0.43). In contrast, alogia, a negative speech symptom, and positive symptoms were less if at all related to cognitive task performance. Overall, this study suggests that communication impairment in schizophrenia may be associated with relatively generalized poor cognitive task performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Does Taking One Step Back Get You Two Steps Forward? Grade Retention and School Performance in Poor Areas in Rural China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinxin; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rise in grade retention in poor areas in rural China recently, little work has been done to understand the impact of grade retention on the educational performance of students in these areas in rural China. This paper seeks to redress this shortcoming and examines the effect of grade retention on educational performance on 1649…

  14. [Attrition and poor performance in general practice training: age, competence and knowledge play a role].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Margit I; Kuyvenhoven, Marijke M; Zuithoff, N P A Peter; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Pieters, H M Ron

    2011-01-01

    To investigate which determinants are related to poor performance and forced attrition in the first year residency in general practice (GP). Observational retrospective cohort study. We collected data relating to personal characteristics such as age, sex and clinical experience from residents who started the GP training in Utrecht, the Netherlands, in the period March 2005-August 2007. We also collected competence scores from the domains 'medical expertise', 'doctor-patient communication' and 'professionalism', as well as scores on a national GP knowledge test. The outcome measures were 'poor performance' and 'forced attrition'. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse correlations between personal characteristics, competence scores on the 3 domains and knowledge scores in the first trimester on the one hand and poor performance or forced attrition on the other. 215 residents started the GP training. In the first trimester a quarter of the residents had an insufficient score in 1 or more of the domains. Competence scores were mutually correlated, but did not correlate with the knowledge score. 18 residents showed poor performance and 3 were forced to stop their training. Poor performance and forced attrition were correlated with age (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.1; 95% CI: 1.0-1.3), insufficient knowledge (adjusted OR: 8.9; 3.0-26.3) and medical expertise (adjusted OR: 2.1; 1.1-4.0) at the beginning of the training. Age, insufficient knowledge of general practice, and insufficient competence in the domain of 'medical expertise' at the beginning of the training are risk factors for poor performance by residents and attrition from their GP training.

  15. Poor understanding of marketing principles has led to poor marketing management performance: Consideration of four marketing myths.

    OpenAIRE

    Pickton, David W.; Wright, Sheila

    2000-01-01

    Marketing is accused of poor management practice. This paper argues that this is grounded in a confusion of marketing thinking and marketing action which results from widely held beliefs and myths that surround the marketing management process, making it difficult for marketing to develop as a coherent management discipline and profession. Barriers to its successful implementation are created at both strategic and tactical levels. The paper presents an exploration of four myths which are oft...

  16. School Shootings and Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Panu Poutvaara; Olli Ropponen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study how high school students reacted to the shocking news of a school shooting. The shooting coincided with national high-school matriculation exams. As there were exams both before and after the shooting, we can use a difference-in-differences analysis to uncover how the school shooting affected the test scores compared to previous years. We find that the average performance of young men declined due to the school shooting, whereas we do not observe a similar pattern for ...

  17. 20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... applied to local areas for poor performance? 666.420 Section 666.420 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? (a) If a local area fails to meet the levels of... achieving poor levels of performance; or (3) Requires other appropriate measures designed to improve the...

  18. Effect of exposure to good vs poor medical trainee performance on attending physician ratings of subsequent performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Peter; O'Neill, Paul; Mann, Karen; Eva, Kevin W

    2012-12-05

    Competency-based models of education require assessments to be based on individuals' capacity to perform, yet the nature of human judgment may fundamentally limit the extent to which such assessment is accurately possible. To determine whether recent observations of the Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX) performance of postgraduate year 1 physicians influence raters' scores of subsequent performances, consistent with either anchoring bias (scores biased similar to previous experience) or contrast bias (scores biased away from previous experience). Internet-based randomized, blinded experiment using videos of Mini-CEX assessments of postgraduate year 1 trainees interviewing new internal medicine patients. Participants were 41 attending physicians from England and Wales experienced with the Mini-CEX, with 20 watching and scoring 3 good trainee performances and 21 watching and scoring 3 poor performances. All then watched and scored the same 3 borderline video performances. The study was completed between July and November 2011. The primary outcome was scores assigned to the borderline videos, using a 6-point Likert scale (anchors included: 1, well below expectations; 3, borderline; 6, well above expectations). Associations were tested in a multivariable analysis that included participants' sex, years of practice, and the stringency index (within-group z score of initial 3 ratings). The mean rating scores assigned by physicians who viewed borderline video performances following exposure to good performances was 2.7 (95% CI, 2.4-3.0) vs 3.4 (95% CI, 3.1-3.7) following exposure to poor performances (difference of 0.67 [95% CI, 0.28-1.07]; P = .001). Borderline videos were categorized as consistent with failing scores in 33 of 60 assessments (55%) in those exposed to good performances and in 15 of 63 assessments (24%) in those exposed to poor performances (P performances compared with 25 of 63 assessments (39.5%) in those exposed to poor performances (P poor

  19. Experiences of Second-Class Citizenship Related to Continued Poor Academic Performance of Minority Xhosa Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Lorna M.; Singh, Suzanne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the subjective life experiences of racial minority Xhosa speakers and the factors that contribute to their continued poor academic performance in a previously Whites-only school in South Africa. Vygotskian sociocultural perspective in relation to creating a democratic educational system and Bronfenbrenner's biosystemic theory…

  20. Poorly Performing Physicians: Does the Script Concordance Test Detect Bad Clinical Reasoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Francois; Jacques, Andre; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard; Shabah, Abdo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of poorly performing physicians is a worldwide concern for licensing bodies. The College des Medecins du Quebec currently assesses the clinical competence of physicians previously identified with potential clinical competence difficulties through a day-long procedure called the Structured Oral Interview (SOI). Two peer…

  1. Effect of Wii-intervention on balance of children with poor motor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombarg, Remo; Jelsma, Dorothee; Hartman, Esther

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training with the Wii-balance board on balance and balance-related skills of children with poor motor performance. Twenty-nine children (23 boys, 6 girls; aged 7-12 years) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to an

  2. Effect of Wii-intervention on balance of children with poor motor performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mombarg, Remo; Jelsma, Dorothee; Hartman, Esther

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training with the Wii-balance board on balance and balance-related skills of children with poor motor performance. Twenty-nine children (23 boys, 6 girls; aged 7–12 years) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to an

  3. Predictors of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students: association between evening typology, lifestyle behaviors, and sleep habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A; Duffy, Jeanne F

    2014-01-01

    Adequate, good night sleep is fundamental to well-being and is known to be influenced by myriad biological and environmental factors. Given the unavailability of sleep data about Lebanon, the cultural shifts and socioeconomic pressures that have affected many aspects of society, particularly for students and working adults, as well as our understanding of sleep in university students in other countries, we conducted a national study to assess sleep quality and factors contributing to sleep and general health in a culture-specific context. A self-filled questionnaire, inquiring about sociodemographics, health-risk behaviors, personal health, and evaluating sleep quality and chronotype using standard scales was completed by 540 students at private and public universities in Lebanon. Overall, they reported sleeping 7.95±1.34 hours per night, although 12.3% reported sleeping Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Sleep timing differed markedly between weekdays and weekends, with bedtimes and wake-up times delayed by 1.51 and 2.43 hours, respectively, on weekends. While most scored in the "neither type" category on the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), 24.5% were evening types and 7.3% were morning types. MEQ score was significantly correlated with smoking behavior and daily study onset, as well as with PSQI score, with eveningness associated with greater number of cigarettes, later study times, and poor sleep. We conclude that the prevalence of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students is associated with reduced sleep duration and shifts in sleep timing between weekdays and weekends, especially among evening types. While chronotype and certain behavioral choices interact to affect sleep dimensions and quality, raising awareness about the importance of obtaining adequate nighttime sleep on daily performance and avoiding risky behaviors may help Lebanese students make better choices in school and work schedules.

  4. Analytical review based on statistics on good and poor financial performance of LPD in Bangli regency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, I. B. A.; Parnata, I. K.; Susilawati, N. L. N. A. S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to apply analytical review model to analyze the influence of GCG, accounting conservatism, financial distress models and company size on good and poor financial performance of LPD in Bangli Regency. Ordinal regression analysis is used to perform analytical review, so that obtained the influence and relationship between variables to be considered further audit. Respondents in this study were LPDs in Bangli Regency, which amounted to 159 LPDs of that number 100 LPDs were determined as randomly selected samples. The test results found GCG and company size have a significant effect on both the good and poor financial performance, while the conservatism and financial distress model has no significant effect. The influence of the four variables on the overall financial performance of 58.8%, while the remaining 41.2% influenced by other variables. Size, FDM and accounting conservatism are variables, which are further recommended to be audited.

  5. Perceived Stress and Coffee and Energy Drink Consumption Predict Poor Sleep Quality in Podiatric Medical Students A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawah, Mohomad Al; Ruffin, Naeemah; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Chusid, Eileen; Infortuna, Carmenrita; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2015-09-01

    A cross-sectional survey administered to first- and second-year podiatric medical students aimed to investigate the effect of coffee intake, energy drink consumption, and perceived stress on sleep quality in medical students during their preclinical studies. Ninety-eight of 183 students contacted (53.6%) completed a questionnaire comprising standard instruments measuring sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness scale), and perceived stress (ten-item Perceived Stress Scale). Furthermore, we investigated coffee and energy drink consumption. Logistic regression was conducted to identify factors associated with poor sleep quality and the relation between sleep quality and academic performance (grade point average). High prevalences of poor sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness, and perceived stress were reported. In addition, higher odds of developing poor sleep quality were associated with coffee and energy drink intake, perceived stress, and excessive daytime sleepiness. The total Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score was inversely correlated with grade point average. First- and second-year podiatric medical students have poor sleep quality. Further research is needed to identify effective strategies to reduce stress and decrease coffee and energy drink intake to minimize their negative effect on sleep quality and academic performance in podiatric medical students.

  6. Exercising upper respiratory videoendoscopic evaluation of 100 nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E J; Martin, B B; Boston, R C; Parente, E J

    2011-01-01

    Although well documented in racehorses, there is paucity in the literature regarding the prevalence of dynamic upper airway abnormalities in nonracing performance horses. To describe upper airway function of nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance via exercising upper airway videoendoscopy. Medical records of nonracing performance horses admitted for exercising evaluation with a chief complaint of abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance were reviewed. All horses had video recordings of resting and exercising upper airway endoscopy. Relationships between horse demographics, resting endoscopic findings, treadmill intensity and implementation of head and neck flexion during exercise with exercising endoscopic findings were examined. Dynamic upper airway obstructions were observed in 72% of examinations. Head and neck flexion was necessary to obtain a diagnosis in 21 horses. Pharyngeal wall collapse was the most prevalent upper airway abnormality, observed in 31% of the examinations. Complex abnormalities were noted in 27% of the examinations. Resting laryngeal dysfunction was significantly associated with dynamic arytenoid collapse and the odds of detecting intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) during exercise in horses with resting DDSP was only 7.7%. Exercising endoscopic observations were different from the resting observations in 54% of examinations. Dynamic upper airway obstructions were common in nonracing performance horses with respiratory noise and/or poor performance. Resting endoscopy was only helpful in determining exercising abnormalities with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. This study emphasises the importance of exercising endoscopic evaluation in nonracing performance horses with abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance for accurate assessment of dynamic upper airway function. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  7. The Association of Poor Academic Performance with Tic Disorders: A Longitudinal, Mainstream School-Based Population Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther; Gonzalez, Cristina; Ausin, Vanesa; Delgado, Vanesa; Saez, Sara; Calvo, Sara; Garcia Soto, Xose; Cordero, José; Kompoliti, Katie; Louis, Elan D; de la Fuente Anuncibay, Raquel

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the academic performance of students with tic disorders (TD). Our aim was to investigate the association of TD and poor academic performance over time. Longitudinal, observational study of mainstream schoolchildren comparing grade retention (GR) and learning disorders (LD) in students with vs. without TD between 2010 and 2014. Students with vs. without TD based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, or with vs. without GR and LD were compared in terms of comorbidities, school, and environmental characteristics. The association of TD with GR was analyzed using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, and with LD using logistic regression analysis [Odds ratio (OR)]. Two hundred fifty-eight students were included (mean age 14.0 ± 1.71 years, 143 [55.4%] males). The incident rate for TD and GR was 2.6 and 3.3 per 100 persons-year, respectively. LD found in 21 (9.9%) students was associated with TD (OR 11.62, 95% CI 2.21-60.90, p = 0.004), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; OR 6.63, 95% CI 1.55-28.37, p = 0.01). Low psychological support (HRs 12.79, 95% CI 3.39-48.17) and low sport participation (HRs 6.41, 95% CI 1.54-26.78) were risk factors for GR. TD was associated with academic difficulties, namely, LD in conjunction with ADHD but not GR. The diagnosis of TD and comorbidities, and the initiation of proper treatment could have a favorable impact on school performance, and consequently on social development. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Improving Student Performance Using Nudge Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feild, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Providing students with continuous and personalized feedback on their performance is an important part of encouraging self regulated learning. As part of our higher education platform, we built a set of data visualizations to provide feedback to students on their assignment performance. These visualizations give students information about how they…

  9. Improving Student Awareness and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale; Bateman, David N.

    1978-01-01

    Through the student activities of the Profession and Career Package (PAC), general principles taught in an introductory business course, "Principles of Management," are made relevant to students' future career plans. The development of the PAC approach, its objectives, and student reaction to this method are discussed. (JMD)

  10. Predictors of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students: association between evening typology, lifestyle behaviors, and sleep habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabrita CS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colette S Kabrita,1 Theresa A Hajjar-Muça,2 Jeanne F Duffy31Department of Sciences, 2Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Notre Dame University – Louaize, Zouk Mosbeh, Lebanon; 3Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Adequate, good night sleep is fundamental to well-being and is known to be influenced by myriad biological and environmental factors. Given the unavailability of sleep data about Lebanon, the cultural shifts and socioeconomic pressures that have affected many aspects of society, particularly for students and working adults, as well as our understanding of sleep in university students in other countries, we conducted a national study to assess sleep quality and factors contributing to sleep and general health in a culture-specific context. A self-filled questionnaire, inquiring about sociodemographics, health-risk behaviors, personal health, and evaluating sleep quality and chronotype using standard scales was completed by 540 students at private and public universities in Lebanon. Overall, they reported sleeping 7.95±1.34 hours per night, although 12.3% reported sleeping <6.5 hours and more than half scored in the poor-sleeper category on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Sleep timing differed markedly between weekdays and weekends, with bedtimes and wake-up times delayed by 1.51 and 2.43 hours, respectively, on weekends. While most scored in the "neither type" category on the Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ, 24.5% were evening types and 7.3% were morning types. MEQ score was significantly correlated with smoking behavior and daily study onset, as well as with PSQI score, with eveningness associated with greater number of cigarettes, later study times, and poor sleep. We conclude that the prevalence of poor sleep quality among Lebanese university students is associated

  11. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.408... constraints, a supervisor must— (1) Provide employees with the proper tools and technology to do the job; and...

  12. Does self-reported sleep quality predict poor cognitive performance among elderly living in elderly homes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Motassem S; Hamza, Sarah A; El Akkad, Rania M; Abdel Galeel, Yamen I I

    2013-01-01

    Sleep complaints are common among elderly, especially institutionalized elderly, as they experience poorer sleep quality and higher use of sedative hypnotics, when compared to community-dwelling elderly. Recent findings suggest that there may be a relationship between poor quality of sleep and cognitive deficits. This study aimed at studying the relation between sleep quality and cognitive performance in older adults living in elderly homes. 100 elderly living in an elderly home in El Mansoura, Egypt, were recruited in this study, 50 cases with subjective poor quality of sleep and 50 controls with subjective good quality of sleep as assessed by Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Each participant went through comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), including geriatric depression scale (GDS), assessment of cognitive function by mini mental state examination (MMSE). 52% of poor sleepers showed impaired MMSE, while only 24% of good sleepers had impaired MMSE. Both orientation and (attention and calculation) were more affected (P = 0.027 and 0.035, respectively). Linear correlation coefficient between PSQI and different variables revealed significant negative correlation with total MMSE score, attention and calculation. Poor quality of sleep is related to cognitive impairment among elderly living in elderly homes and this problem should be taken in consideration among this group of elders.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTS’ EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AND STUDY FACILITIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ALOKAN, FUNMILOLA BOSEDE; OSAKINLE, EUNICE OLUFUNMILAYO; ONIJINGIN, EMMANUEL OLUBU

    2013-01-01

    There has been an outcry against the poor performance of students in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Nigeria. This study investigated the difference between the academic performance of students from parents with high educational background and students from parents with low educational background. It also investigated the influence of having study facilities at home on academic performance. The population for this study comprised all public secondary school students in Ondo St...

  14. Poor Parenting, Attachment Style, and Dating Violence Perpetration Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussey, Brian Ermon; Tyler, Kimberly A; Simons, Leslie Gordon

    2018-02-01

    Although dating violence is prevalent among college students, little is known about how both attachment style and participation in risky behaviors contribute to this pattern of violence. To address this literature gap, we examine the role of poor parenting, child abuse, attachment style, and risky sexual and drug use behaviors on dating violence perpetration among 1,432 college students (51% female). Path analysis results revealed that females were more likely to report greater attachment anxiety but lower attachment avoidance compared with males. Correlates of attachment anxiety included child physical abuse, witnessing parental violence, and poorer maternal relationship quality whereas attachment avoidant behavior was linked to more physical abuse and poorer maternal relationship quality. Females were more likely to perpetrate dating violence as were those with greater attachment anxiety and lower attachment avoidance. Other correlates of dating violence perpetration included sexual and drug risk behaviors. Finally, distal factors (i.e., more child physical abuse and poorer maternal relationship quality) also were associated with dating violence perpetration. Study implications are also discussed.

  15. Student Performance in Undergraduate Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Kevin J.; Ohland, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Using undergraduate student records from six large public universities from 1990 to 2003, the authors analyze the characteristics and performance of students by major in two economics courses: Principles of Microeconomics and Intermediate Microeconomics. This article documents important differences across students by major in the principles course…

  16. QUALITY OF LIFE AND HEALTH SELF-PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN WITH POOR SCHOOL PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Bárbara Antunes; Lemos, Stela Maris Aguiar; Medeiros, Adriane Mesquita de

    2017-01-01

    To examine the association between quality of life and health self-perception of children with poor school performance, considering sociodemographic factors. An analytical, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted with 99 children aged 7 to 12 years receiving specialized educational assistance. Parents and legal guardians answered questions concerning the sociodemographic profile. For an assessment of the quality of life and proposed domains (autonomy, functioning, leisure, and family), the children completed the Autoquestionnarie Qualité de Vie Enfant Imagé (AUQEI) and answered a question concerning their self-perceived health. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, considering a 5% significance level. Among the evaluated children, 69 (69.7%) male participants with mean age of 8.7±1.5, 27% self-assessed their health status as poor/very poor, and 36.4% of the children reported having impaired quality of life. As for the domains assessed by AUQEI, there was statistical significance in the associations between family with age, autonomy with economic classification, and leisure and functioning with self-perceived health. The quality of life of children with academic underachievement is associated with their health self-perception and sociodemographic characteristics.

  17. The Stock Performance of C. Everett Koop Award Winners Compared With the Standard & Poor's 500 Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzel, Ron Z; Fabius, Raymond; Fabius, Dan; Roemer, Enid C; Thornton, Nicole; Kelly, Rebecca K; Pelletier, Kenneth R

    2016-01-01

    To explore the link between companies investing in the health and well-being programs of their employees and stock market performance. Stock performance of C. Everett Koop National Health Award winners (n = 26) was measured over time and compared with the average performance of companies comprising the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. The Koop Award portfolio outperformed the S&P 500 Index. In the 14-year period tracked (2000-2014), Koop Award winners' stock values appreciated by 325% compared with the market average appreciation of 105%. This study supports prior and ongoing research demonstrating a higher market valuation--an affirmation of business success by Wall Street investors--of socially responsible companies that invest in the health and well-being of their workers when compared with other publicly traded firms.

  18. The Stock Performance of C. Everett Koop Award Winners Compared With the Standard & Poor's 500 Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzel, Ron Z.; Fabius, Raymond; Fabius, Dan; Roemer, Enid C.; Thornton, Nicole; Kelly, Rebecca K.; Pelletier, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the link between companies investing in the health and well-being programs of their employees and stock market performance. Methods: Stock performance of C. Everett Koop National Health Award winners (n = 26) was measured over time and compared with the average performance of companies comprising the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. Results: The Koop Award portfolio outperformed the S&P 500 Index. In the 14-year period tracked (2000–2014), Koop Award winners’ stock values appreciated by 325% compared with the market average appreciation of 105%. Conclusions: This study supports prior and ongoing research demonstrating a higher market valuation—an affirmation of business success by Wall Street investors—of socially responsible companies that invest in the health and well-being of their workers when compared with other publicly traded firms. PMID:26716843

  19. Does School Choice Improve Student Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaja Høiseth Brugård

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between school choice and student performance for high school students in Norway. The analysis exploits both the fact that the degree of school choice formally differs between counties, and detailed information on travelling distances to high schools, which more closely reflects the students' actual school choice possibilities. Information on students' residence, high school location, and the degree of formal school choice is used to estimate the effect on ...

  20. Temporal diagnostic analysis of the SWAT model to detect dominant periods of poor model performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guse, Björn; Reusser, Dominik E.; Fohrer, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    four reoccurring patterns of typical model performance, which can be related to different phases of the hydrograph. Overall, the baseflow cluster has the lowest performance. By combining the periods with poor model performance with the dominant model components during these phases, the groundwater module was detected as the model part with the highest potential for model improvements. The detection of dominant processes in periods of poor model performance enhances the understanding of the SWAT model. Based on this, concepts how to improve the SWAT model structure for the application in German lowland catchment are derived.

  1. Determinants of Perceived Students' Academic Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities ... Performance in Vocational Education in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State. GO Ojo ... title Home- School Factors and Students' Academic Performance in Vocational Education ...

  2. College Student Performance and Credit Card Usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd Starr

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship between credit card usage, employment, and academic performance among a group of college students with credit cards. Results reveal that the students differed significantly in the level of anxiety felt from carrying debt, perceived need to work, and perceived impact of employment on academic performance. (Contains 57…

  3. Admission Math Level and Student Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the study performance data for three cohorts of students for the course in Economics at the Business Diploma (herafter HD) study program at Copenhagen Business School. Out main findings are 1) that students with the lowest level of math from high school are performing worse...

  4. Forming Student Online Teams for Maximum Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joel D.; Ringhand, Darlene G.; Kalinski, Ray C.; Ziegler, James G.

    2015-01-01

    What is the best way to assign graduate business students to online team-based projects? Team assignments are frequently made on the basis of alphabet, time zones or previous performance. This study reviews personality as an indicator of student online team performance. The personality assessment IDE (Insights Discovery Evaluator) was administered…

  5. Human performance breakdowns are rarely accidents: they are usually very poor choices with disastrous results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besco, Robert O.

    2004-01-01

    When human error is involved in the error chain of accidents in complex systems, the causes of the errors are very seldom the result of: - a random slip,; - one inadvertent oversight,; - a single unintended action,; - one mis-perceived event,; - simple mal-performance of a complex action, or; - a poor training program for the human operators. Invariably, the cause of the break down is in a very poor conscious choice by someone from the operator back through system designer, the supervision, management and leadership through the entire organization. Usually the operator bears the burden of the blame and is either rebuked, retrained or replaced. In systems such as commercial aviation, complex manufacturing systems, power plants, process control systems, information-processing systems and communications networks, the replacement or retraining of individuals or even classes of individuals usually does not result in any long-term improvement of the safety or effectiveness of the system. What is needed is a system that identifies the reasons why the operators made the errors. Further a system is needed that can recommend what can be done to improve the future performance within the system. The professional performance analysis system (PPAS) has been developed and applied to more than 50 major aircraft accidents in the past 30 years. The PPAS is a direct outgrowth of the human performance analysis system developed by Robert Mager over 45 years ago. The PPAS system is applied after a complete and unbiased definition and description of the events of the accident or incident has been developed by the teams of accident investigation and accident reconstruction professionals. The PPAS then uses a systematic protocol and algorithm to determine the reasons as to why the humans committed the errors or why they performed at subnormal performance levels. This process is based on quantitative behavioral science principles and findings that have been demonstrated valid for many

  6. THE LINK BETWEEN STUDENTS' SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY, OVERALL STUDENTS' SATISFACTION WITH STUDENT LIFE AND STUDENT PERFORMANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mihanović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction has long been recognized as a central concept of all business activities. Satisfaction can serve as an indicator of success of the company, both in the past and present, as well as an indicator of future performance. High quality service to students is a prerequisite of maintaining competitiveness in the market of higher education. A relationship that is created between the expectations of students and their satisfaction with the quality of service that provides educational institution plays an important role in shaping the reputation of academic institutions. Academic institutions are becoming aware of the importance of student satisfaction, because satisfaction positively influences their decision to continue their education at this institution, and the positive word of mouth that will attract prospective students. Satisfaction will affect student motivation, and therefore their performance. This paper provides insight into the marketing aspects of customer satisfaction, primarily insight into the satisfaction of students in the educational sector. The aim is to establish the influence of satisfaction various factors related to the university and higher education to the satisfaction of student life, and does student life satisfaction affect the overall happiness and student performance. The research was conducted on the student population of the University of Split, on a sample of 191 respondents. The research was conducted with the help of online survey questionnaire. The claim that student’s satisfactions with housing affect the satisfaction with the quality of student life is rejected. The results confirmed that the student’s satisfaction with university contents, university bodies and services, teaching, teaching methods and academic reputation affects the satisfaction of student life and student life satisfaction affect the student performance.

  7. Exercising videoendoscopic evaluation of 45 horses with respiratory noise and/or poor performance after laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Elizabeth J; Martin, Benson B; Rieger, Randall H; Parente, Eric J

    2010-12-01

    To (1) assess upper airway function by videoendoscopy in horses performing poorly after laryngoplasty and (2) establish whether dynamic collapse of the left arytenoid can be predicted by the degree of resting postsurgical abduction. Case series. Horses that had left laryngoplasty (n=45). Medical records (June 1993-December 2007) of horses evaluated for abnormal respiratory noise and/or poor performance after laryngoplasty were reviewed. Horses with video recordings of resting and exercising upper airway endoscopy were included and postsurgical abduction categorized. Horses with immediate postoperative endoscopy recordings were also evaluated and postsurgical abduction categorized. Relationships between resting postsurgical abduction and historical information with exercising endoscopic findings were examined. Dynamic collapse of the left arytenoid cartilage was probable in horses with no postsurgical abduction and could not be predicted in horses with grade 3 or 4 postsurgical abduction. Respiratory noise was associated with upper airway obstruction but was not specific for arytenoid collapse. Most horses with a left vocal fold had billowing of the fold during exercise. Other forms of dynamic collapse involved the right vocal fold, aryepiglottic folds, corniculate process of left arytenoid cartilage, dorsal displacement of soft palate, and pharyngeal collapse. Complex obstructions were observed in most examinations and in all horses with exercising collapse of the left arytenoid cartilage. There was no relationship between exercising collapse of the left arytenoid cartilage and grade 3 or 4 postsurgical abduction but was likely in horses with no abduction. © Copyright 2010 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Poor precompetitive sleep habits, nutrients' deficiencies, inappropriate body composition and athletic performance in elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M-R G; Paiva, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition. Most gymnasts (67.2%) suffered from mild daytime sleepiness, 77.6% presented poor sleep quality and 19.4% presented high levels of precompetitive anxiety. The majority of gymnasts reported low energy availability (EA) and low intakes of important vitamins including folate, vitamins D, E and K; and minerals, including calcium, iron, boron and magnesium (p performance was positively correlated with age (p = .001), sport practice (p = .024), number of daily training hours (p = .000), number of hours of training/week (p = .000), waist circumference (WC) (p = .008) and sleep duration (p = .005). However, it was negatively correlated with WC/hip circumference (p = .000), ESS (p = .000), PSQI (p = .042), SCAT-A (p = .002), protein g/kg (p = .028), EA (p = .002) and exercise energy expenditure (p = .000). High performance gymnasts presented poor sleep habits with consequences upon daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and low energy availability.

  9. Association of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea with poor academic performance: A school-based study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Abhishek; Pakhare, Abhijit P; Bhatt, Girish C; Choudhary, Bharat; Patil, Rajesh

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent but often neglected disorder. There is paucity of reports on the prevalence of pediatric OSA from India. This study was done to estimate the prevalence of OSA in school children aged 5-10 years and its association with academic performance. This school-based cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted from July 2015 to November 2015. A questionnaire seeking information on sociodemographic variables, school performance, sleeping pattern, and a validated 22-item pediatrics sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) scale was distributed to 1820 pupils in three primary schools. The prevalence of OSA (defined as SRBD score >33%) was reported as proportion and its 95% confidence interval (CI). We received 1520 questionnaires out of 1820 distributed and of which 1346 were complete and were analyzed. The prevalence of OSA among children in our study was 9.6% (95% CI: 8.1%-11.7%). On multivariate analysis, working mother (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2-2.7), sleep bruxism (adjusted OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.6), and sleep talking (adjusted OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9-4.7) were found to be independently associated with OSA. Students with positive SRBD were more prone to nocturnal enuresis (NE) (OR 3.48; 95% CI 2.27-5.26) and poor academic performance in all subjects. OSA is highly prevalent (9.6%) in Indian children. OSA is associated with NE and poor academic performance in all subjects. This study found association of maternal occupation and OSA which needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

  10. Association of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea with poor academic performance: A school-based study from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Goyal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a highly prevalent but often neglected disorder. There is paucity of reports on the prevalence of pediatric OSA from India. This study was done to estimate the prevalence of OSA in school children aged 5–10 years and its association with academic performance. Methodology: This school-based cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted from July 2015 to November 2015. A questionnaire seeking information on sociodemographic variables, school performance, sleeping pattern, and a validated 22-item pediatrics sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD scale was distributed to 1820 pupils in three primary schools. The prevalence of OSA (defined as SRBD score >33% was reported as proportion and its 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: We received 1520 questionnaires out of 1820 distributed and of which 1346 were complete and were analyzed. The prevalence of OSA among children in our study was 9.6% (95% CI: 8.1%–11.7%. On multivariate analysis, working mother (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2–2.7, sleep bruxism (adjusted OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, and sleep talking (adjusted OR: 3.0; 95% CI: 1.9–4.7 were found to be independently associated with OSA. Students with positive SRBD were more prone to nocturnal enuresis (NE (OR 3.48; 95% CI 2.27–5.26 and poor academic performance in all subjects. Conclusion: OSA is highly prevalent (9.6% in Indian children. OSA is associated with NE and poor academic performance in all subjects. This study found association of maternal occupation and OSA which needs to be confirmed in larger studies.

  11. Mau desempenho escolar: uma visão atual Poor school performance: an updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Machado Siqueira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivo uma revisão atualizada sobre o tema de mau desempenho escolar para profissionais da área de saúde e educação. Aborda aspectos atuais da educação, de aprendizagem e das principais condições envolvidas em mau desempenho escolar. Apresenta dados atualizados sobre os principais aspectos da neurobiologia, epidemiologia, etiologia, quadro clínico, comorbidades, diagnóstico, intervenção precoce e tratamento das principais patologias envolvidas. Trata-se de uma revisão abrangente, não sistemática da literatura sobre aprendizagem, desempenho escolar, transtorno de aprendizagem (dislexia, discalculia e disgrafia, transtorno de déficit de atenção/hiperatividade (TDA/H e transtorno de desenvolvimento de coordenação (TDC. O mau desempenho escolar é um sintoma frequente em nossas crianças com graves repercussões emocionais, sociais e econômicas. Uma visão atualizada do tema facilita o raciocínio clínico, o diagnóstico correto e o tratamento adequado.This study aims to develop a comprehensive review on the issue of poor school performance for professionals in both health and education areas. It discusses current aspects of education, learning and the main conditions involved in underachievement. It also presents updated data on key aspects of neurobiology, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, comorbidities and diagnosis, early intervention and treatment of the major pathologies comprised. It is a comprehensive, non-systematic literature review on learning, school performance, learning disorders (dyslexia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia, attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD. Poor school performance is a frequent problem faced by our children, causing serious emotional, social and economic issues. An updated view of the subject facilitates clinical reasoning, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  12. Effect of Wii-intervention on balance of children with poor motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mombarg, Remo; Jelsma, Dorothee; Hartman, Esther

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training with the Wii-balance board on balance and balance-related skills of children with poor motor performance. Twenty-nine children (23 boys, 6 girls; aged 7-12 years) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group. All children scored below the 16th percentile on a standardized test of motor ability and balance skills (Movement Assessment Battery for children (M-ABC-2)). Before and after a six-week Wii-intervention (M=8h, 22 min, SD=53 min), the balance skills of the experimental group and control group were measured with the M-ABC-2 and the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT-2). Both groups improved on all tests. The M-ABC-2 and the BOT-2 total balance-scores of the experimental group improved significantly from pre to post intervention, whereas those of the control group showed no significant progress. This resulted in significant interaction-effects, favoring the experimental children. No transfer-effects of the intervention on balance-related skills were demonstrated. Our findings showed that the Wii-balance board is an effective intervention for children with poor balance control. Further development and investigation of the intervention could be directed toward the implementation of the newly acquired balance-skills in daily life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medial olivocochlear function in children with poor speech-in-noise performance and language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Mamede Carvallo, Renata Mota; Schochat, Eliane

    2017-05-01

    Contralateral masking of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions is a phenomenon that suggests an inhibitory effect of the olivocochlear efferent auditory pathway. Many studies have been inconclusive in demonstrating a clear connection between this system and a behavioral speech-in-noise listening skill. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of a medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent in children with poor speech-in-noise (PSIN) performance and children with language impairment and PSIN (SLI + PSIN). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) with and without contralateral white noise were tested in 52 children (between 6 and 12 years). These children were arranged in three groups: typical development (TD) (n = 25), PSIN (n = 14) and SLI + PSI (n = 13). PSIN and SLI + PSI groups presented reduced otoacoustic emission suppression in comparison with the TD group. Our finding suggests differences in MOC function among children with typical development and children with poor SIN and language problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-Performing Students: Why They Fall Behind and How to Help Them Succeed. PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    There is no country or economy participating in PISA 2012 that can claim that all of its 15-year-old students have achieved a baseline level of proficiency in mathematics, reading and science. Poor performance at school has long-term consequences, both for the individual and for society as a whole. Reducing the number of low-performing students is…

  15. The Plumbing of Land Surface Models: Is Poor Performance a Result of Methodology or Data Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Ned; Abramowitz, Gab; Pitman, Andy J.; Or, Dani; Best, Martin J.; Johnson, Helen R.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Boone, Aaron; Cuntz, Matthais; Decharme, Bertrand; hide

    2016-01-01

    The PALS Land sUrface Model Benchmarking Evaluation pRoject (PLUMBER) illustrated the value of prescribing a priori performance targets in model intercomparisons. It showed that the performance of turbulent energy flux predictions from different land surface models, at a broad range of flux tower sites using common evaluation metrics, was on average worse than relatively simple empirical models. For sensible heat fluxes, all land surface models were outperformed by a linear regression against downward shortwave radiation. For latent heat flux, all land surface models were outperformed by a regression against downward shortwave, surface air temperature and relative humidity. These results are explored here in greater detail and possible causes are investigated. We examine whether particular metrics or sites unduly influence the collated results, whether results change according to time-scale aggregation and whether a lack of energy conservation in fluxtower data gives the empirical models an unfair advantage in the intercomparison. We demonstrate that energy conservation in the observational data is not responsible for these results. We also show that the partitioning between sensible and latent heat fluxes in LSMs, rather than the calculation of available energy, is the cause of the original findings. Finally, we present evidence suggesting that the nature of this partitioning problem is likely shared among all contributing LSMs. While we do not find a single candidate explanation forwhy land surface models perform poorly relative to empirical benchmarks in PLUMBER, we do exclude multiple possible explanations and provide guidance on where future research should focus.

  16. Low motor performance scores among overweight children: poor coordination or morphological constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Paola; Larkin, Dawne; Rose, Elizabeth; Beilin, Lawrence; Hands, Beth

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether lower motor performance scores can be full attributed to poor coordination, or whether weight related morphological constraints may also affect motor performance. Data for 666 children and adolescents from the longitudinal Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study were grouped into normal weight, overweight and obese categories based on the International Obesity Task Force cut points. Participants completed the 10-item McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development (MAND) at the 10 and 14 year follow-up. The prevalence of overweight and obese participants classified with mild or moderate motor difficulties was not different from the normal weight group at 10 years (χ2 = 5.8 p = .215), but higher at 14 years (χ2 = 11.3 p = .023). There were no significant differences in overall motor performance scores between weight status groups at 10 years, but at 14 years, the normal weight group achieved better scores than the obese group (pobese groups on the jump task at 10 (pmotor competence are appropriate for an increasingly overweight and obese population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Teachers' Competence and Students' Academic Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of teacher's competence on students; academic performance in senior secondary chemistry. A random sampling technique was used to select 6 secondary schools out of 10 secondary schools in Tai Local Government Area of Rivers State. 200 students, 20 teachers and 6 principals ...

  18. Students Performance And Perception Of Neurophysiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We also surveyed learning experience of a batch of graduating doctors in neurosciences (n=50) and surveyed the staff and students' perception of the teaching of neurophysiology. The students performances in neurophysiology was comparatively poorer than in cardiovascular and endocrinology aspects of the subject over ...

  19. Reliable quantification of BOLD fMRI cerebrovascular reactivity despite poor breath-hold performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Molly G; Murphy, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) can be mapped using BOLD fMRI to provide a clinical insight into vascular health that can be used to diagnose cerebrovascular disease. Breath-holds are a readily accessible method for producing the required arterial CO2 increases but their implementation into clinical studies is limited by concerns that patients will demonstrate highly variable performance of breath-hold challenges. This study assesses the repeatability of CVR measurements despite poor task performance, to determine if and how robust results could be achieved with breath-holds in patients. Twelve healthy volunteers were scanned at 3 T. Six functional scans were acquired, each consisting of 6 breath-hold challenges (10, 15, or 20 s duration) interleaved with periods of paced breathing. These scans simulated the varying breath-hold consistency and ability levels that may occur in patient data. Uniform ramps, time-scaled ramps, and end-tidal CO2 data were used as regressors in a general linear model in order to measure CVR at the grey matter, regional, and voxelwise level. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) quantified the repeatability of the CVR measurement for each breath-hold regressor type and scale of interest across the variable task performances. The ramp regressors did not fully account for variability in breath-hold performance and did not achieve acceptable repeatability (ICC0.4). Further analysis of intra-subject CVR variability across the brain (ICCspatial and voxelwise correlation) supported the use of end-tidal CO2 data to extract robust whole-brain CVR maps, despite variability in breath-hold performance. We conclude that the incorporation of end-tidal CO2 monitoring into scanning enables robust, repeatable measurement of CVR that makes breath-hold challenges suitable for routine clinical practice. © 2013.

  20. POOR PROGRESS STUDENTS IN LEARNING MATHEMATICS AS SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL-PEDAGOGICAL PROBLEM

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Tatochenko; Andrii Shypko

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to theoretical substantiation of modern methodical system of Mathematics teaching of poor progressing secondary school pupils. A systematic approach to the study of psycho-pedagogical determinants of poor progress of pupils in math was implemented. The dynamic of interfunctional relationship of structure of educational and informative sphere of poor progressing pupils in mathematics was disclosed and scientific understanding of this process was expanded. The introducti...

  1. Sleep difficulties and academic performance in Norwegian higher education students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayley, Amie C; Sivertsen, Børge; Hysing, Mari; Vedaa, Øystein; Øverland, Simon

    2017-12-01

    Sleep difficulties are common among university students and may detrimentally affect academic outcomes. Despite this, remarkably little information is currently available during this critical developmental period of early adulthood, and thus, the direct effect on measurable domains of academic ability and proficiency is equivocal. To evaluate the associations between difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS) and subjective and objective academic performance in a large sample of university students. A total of 12,915 students who participated in large student survey in Norway from 24 February 2014 to 27 March 2014. DIMS was assessed by the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-25), and academic outcomes included failed examinations, delayed study progress, and school-related self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale). Difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep was independently associated with increased odds for poor school performance for all academic outcomes. Reporting 'extreme' DIMS was associated with increased odds of reporting delayed study progress (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.57, p academic outcomes as well as poorer self-rated academic proficiency among higher education students. Amelioration of sleep difficulties may improve overall academic performance and health outcomes in affected students. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: the Sung Performance Battery (SPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowska, Magdalena; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB). The SPB starts from the assessment of participants' vocal range followed by five tasks: (1) single-pitch matching, (2) pitch-interval matching, (3) novel-melody matching, (4) singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable), and (5) singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable) at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing. PMID:24151475

  3. Early detection of poor adherers to statins: applying individualized surveillance to pay for performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Zimolzak

    Full Text Available Medication nonadherence costs $300 billion annually in the US. Medicare Advantage plans have a financial incentive to increase medication adherence among members because the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS now awards substantive bonus payments to such plans, based in part on population adherence to chronic medications. We sought to build an individualized surveillance model that detects early which beneficiaries will fall below the CMS adherence threshold.This was a retrospective study of over 210,000 beneficiaries initiating statins, in a database of private insurance claims, from 2008-2011. A logistic regression model was constructed to use statin adherence from initiation to day 90 to predict beneficiaries who would not meet the CMS measure of proportion of days covered 0.8 or above, from day 91 to 365. The model controlled for 15 additional characteristics. In a sensitivity analysis, we varied the number of days of adherence data used for prediction.Lower adherence in the first 90 days was the strongest predictor of one-year nonadherence, with an odds ratio of 25.0 (95% confidence interval 23.7-26.5 for poor adherence at one year. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80. Sensitivity analysis revealed that predictions of comparable accuracy could be made only 40 days after statin initiation. When members with 30-day supplies for their first statin fill had predictions made at 40 days, and members with 90-day supplies for their first fill had predictions made at 100 days, poor adherence could be predicted with 86% positive predictive value.To preserve their Medicare Star ratings, plan managers should identify or develop effective programs to improve adherence. An individualized surveillance approach can be used to target members who would most benefit, recognizing the tradeoff between improved model performance over time and the advantage of earlier detection.

  4. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: The Sung Performance Battery (SPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eBerkowska

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies. Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers, thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB. The SPB starts from the assessment of participants’ vocal range followed by five tasks: 1 single-pitch matching, 2 pitch-interval matching, 3 novel-melody matching, 4 singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable, and 5 singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing.

  5. How Respiratory Pathogens Contribute to Lamb Mortality in a Poorly Performing Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Mary E; Fox, Karen A; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Killion, Halcyon J; Amundson, Sierra; Miller, Michael W; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) ewes and their lambs in captivity to examine the sources and roles of respiratory pathogens causing lamb mortality in a poorly performing herd. After seven consecutive years of observed December recruitments of sheep from the remnant Gribbles Park herd in Colorado, US were captured and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center in Wyoming in March 2013. Ewes were sampled repeatedly over 16 mo. In April 2014, ewes were separated into individual pens prior to lambing. Upon death, lambs were necropsied and tested for respiratory pathogens. Six lambs developed clinical respiratory disease and one lamb was abandoned. Pathology from an additional six lambs born in 2013 was also evaluated. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , leukotoxigenic Mannheimia spp., leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Pasteurella multocida all contributed to lamb pneumonia. Histopathology suggested a continuum of disease, with lesions typical of pasteurellosis predominating in younger lambs and lesions typical of mycoplasmosis predominating in older lambs. Mixed pathology was observed in lambs dying between these timeframes. We suspected that all the ewes in our study were persistently infected and chronically shedding the bacteria that contributed to summer lamb mortality.

  6. Medical students' clinical performance of dealing with patients in the context of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyun-Hee; Im, Sunju; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Do-Kyong; Roh, HyeRin

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to inquire about the clinical performance and determine the performance pattern of medical students in standardized patient (SP) based examinations of domestic violence (DV). The clinical performance sores in DV station with SP of third-year (n=111, in 2014) and 4th-year (n=143, in 2016) medical students of five universities in the Busan-Gyeongnam Clinical Skills Examination Consortium were subjected in this study. The scenarios and checklists of DV cases were developed by the case development committee of the consortium. The students' performance was compared with other stations encountered in SP. The items of the checklists were categorized to determine the performance pattern of students investigating DV into six domains: disclosure strategy (D), DV related history taking (H), checking the perpetrator's psychosocial state (P), checking the victim's condition (V), negotiating and persuading the interviewee (N), and providing information about DV (I). Medical students showed poorer performance in DV stations than in the other stations with SP in the same examination. Most students did confirm the perpetrator and commented on confidentiality but ignored the perpetrator's state and patient's physical and psychological condition. The students performed well in the domains of D, H, and I but performed poorly in domains P, V, and N. Medical students showed poor clinical performance in the DV station. They performed an 'event oriented interview' rather than 'patient centered' communication. An integrated educational program of DV should be set to improve students' clinical performance.

  7. THE LINK BETWEEN STUDENTS' SATISFACTION WITH FACULTY, OVERALL STUDENTS' SATISFACTION WITH STUDENT LIFE AND STUDENT PERFORMANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Mihanović, Zoran; Batinić, Ana Barbara; Pavičić, Jurica

    2016-01-01

    Customer satisfaction has long been recognized as a central concept of all business activities. Satisfaction can serve as an indicator of success of the company, both in the past and present, as well as an indicator of future performance. High quality service to students is a prerequisite of maintaining competitiveness in the market of higher education. A relationship that is created between the expectations of students and their satisfaction with the quality of service that provides educatio...

  8. Predictors of Academic Performance among Indian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Sohinee; Kulkarni, Mrinmoyi; Gupta, Meenakshi

    2017-01-01

    There are two dominant strains in the literature on academic performance, the attribution studies and the self-efficacy studies. The present study attempted to incorporate these two strains while examining the academic performance of engineering undergraduate students in India. Time management and perceived stress were included in the model to…

  9. Pharmacy student absenteeism and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Levita; Vansal, Sandeep; Kim, Esther; Sullivan, Maureen; Salbu, Rebecca

    2012-02-10

    To assess the association of pharmacy students' personal characteristics with absenteeism and academic performance. A survey instrument was distributed to first- (P1) and second-year (P2) pharmacy students to gather characteristics including employment status, travel time to school, and primary source of educational funding. In addition, absences from specific courses and reasons for not attending classes were assessed. Participants were divided into "high" and "low" performers based on grade point average. One hundred sixty survey instruments were completed and 135 (84.3%) were included in the study analysis. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to have missed more than 8 hours in therapeutics courses. Low performers were significantly more likely than high performers to miss class when the class was held before or after an examination and low performers were significantly more likely to believe that participating in class did not benefit them. There was a negative association between the number of hours students' missed and their performance in specific courses. These findings provide further insight into the reasons for students' absenteeism in a college or school of pharmacy setting.

  10. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  11. Exploring whether student nurses report poor practice they have witnessed on placements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellefontaine, Nerys

    While literature suggests that nurses report incidents or potentially unsafe care delivery, there is little evidence on student nurses' practice in this area. To explore the factors that influence student in reporting concerns about practice. A qualitative study was carried out using a phenomenological approach, based on semi-structured interviews with six student nurses. Student nurses said they do not always report potentially unsafe practice they have witnessed. Four main themes were identified: the student-mentor relationship in clinical placement; actual or potential support provided by both the practice area and university; students' own personal confidence and professional knowledge base; and fear of failing clinical placements. The nursing profession needs to take stock of current organisational culture and practice, and address issues around reporting in practice. Recommendations are made to improve mentorship, nurse training and for further research.

  12. Early Detection of At-Risk Undergraduate Students through Academic Performance Predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowtho, Vikash

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate student dropout is gradually becoming a global problem and the 39 Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are no exception to this trend. The purpose of this research was to develop a method that can be used for early detection of students who are at-risk of performing poorly in their undergraduate studies. A sample of 279 students…

  13. Performance comparison of sand and fine sawdust vermifilters in treating concentrated grey water for urban poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Amare T; Andrianisa, Harinaivo A; Konate, Yacouba; Ndiaye, Awa; Maiga, Amadou H

    2015-01-01

    A comparative investigation was conducted for 10 months with sand and fine sawdust vermifilters and a control unit to treat concentrated grey water generated from a poor urban household in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Each of the filters was made up of cylindrical DN200-PVC pipes and filled with 10 cm of gravel at the bottom. On top of the gravel layer, filter 1 (fully sand, F1) was completed with 40 cm of sand and 10 cm of fine sawdust, filter 2 (partially sand, F2) with 20 cm of sand and 30 cm of fine sawdust, respectively, and filter 3 (fully sawdust, F3) and 4 (control, F4) with 50 cm of fine sawdust only. Two hundred Eudrilus eugeniae earthworms were inoculated in each of the vermifilters. The vermifiltration system was supplied with grey water four times per day at a hydraulic loading rate of 64 L/m(2)/day on a batch basis. The removal efficiencies of biological oxygen demand, total chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (dCOD) by the vermifilters were 25-30% higher than the control, but little differences were observed in terms of total suspended solids and coliform removal efficiencies. Though there was no significant difference in the performance of the three vermifilters (p > 0.05), except for dCOD removal efficiency, the lifespan of F2 and F3 was longer than that of F1. Therefore, fine sawdust can substitute sand as a filter medium in vermifilters.

  14. The prevalences of and association between nonmedical prescription opioid use and poor sleep among Chinese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Daiting; Li, Pengsheng; Guo, Lan; Xu, Yan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Wu, Hong; Yue, Yue; Lu, Ciyong

    2016-07-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalences of and association between nonmedical prescription opioid use (NMPOU) and sleep quality among Chinese high school students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chongqing high school students in 2012, and questionnaires from 18,686 students were completed and eligible for this study. Demographic and NMPOU information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. The Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality index (CPSQI) was used to assess the occurrence of poor sleep. Among the total sample, 18.0% were classified as poor sleepers (27.4% of the subjects with past-month NMPOU), and the prevalences of lifetime, past-year and past-month NMPOU were 14.6, 4.6 and 2.8% across the entire sample, respectively. The most commonly used medicine was licorice tablets with morphine (9.1, 2.5 and 1.5% for lifetime, past-year and past-month, respectively), followed by cough syrup with codeine, Percocet, diphenoxylate and tramadol. After adjustment for potential confounders, the association between past-month NMPOU and poor sleep remained significant (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.85). Programs aimed at decreasing NMPOU should also pay attention to sleep quality among adolescents.

  15. Communicating Learning Outcomes and Student Performance through the Student Transcript

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, George; Barnes, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    The university accreditation process now puts more emphasis on self assessment. This change requires universities to identify program objectives, performance indicators, and areas for improvement. Many accrediting institutions are requiring that institutions communicate clearly to constituents: 1) what learning outcomes were achieved by students,…

  16. Visuospatial training improves elementary students' mathematics performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Logan, Tracy; Ramful, Ajay

    2017-06-01

    Although spatial ability and mathematics performance are highly correlated, there is scant research on the extent to which spatial ability training can improve mathematics performance. This study evaluated the efficacy of a visuospatial intervention programme within classrooms to determine the effect on students' (1) spatial reasoning and (2) mathematics performance as a result of the intervention. The study involved grade six students (ages 10-12) in eight classes. There were five intervention classes (n = 120) and three non-intervention control classes (n = 66). A specifically designed 10-week spatial reasoning programme was developed collaboratively with the participating teachers, with the intervention replacing the standard mathematics curriculum. The five classroom teachers in the intervention programme presented 20 hr of activities aimed at enhancing students' spatial visualization, mental rotation, and spatial orientation skills. The spatial reasoning programme led to improvements in both spatial ability and mathematics performance relative to the control group who received standard mathematics instruction. Our study is the first to show that a classroom-based spatial reasoning intervention improves elementary school students' mathematics performance. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Should schools expect poor physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes in students with disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Cordier, Reinie; Falkmer, Marita; Ciccarelli, Marina; Parsons, Richard; McAuliffe, Tomomi; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2015-01-01

    The literature on whether students with disabilities have worse physical and mental health, social adjustment, and participation outcomes when compared to their peers without disabilities is largely inconclusive. While the majority of case control studies showed significantly worse outcomes for students with disabilities; the proportion of variance accounted for is rarely reported. The current study used a population cross-sectional approach to determine the classification ability of commonly used screening and outcome measures in determining the disability status. Furthermore, the study aimed to identify the variables, if any, that best predicted the presence of disability. Results of univariate discriminant function analyses suggest that across the board, the sensitivity of the outcome/screening tools to correctly identify students with a disability was 31.9% higher than the related Positive Predictive Value (PPV). The lower PPV and Positive Likelihood Ratio (LR+) scores suggest that the included measures had limited discriminant ability (17.6% to 40.3%) in accurately identifying students at-risk for further assessment. Results of multivariate analyses suggested that poor health and hyperactivity increased the odds of having a disability about two to three times, while poor close perceived friendship and academic competences predicted disability with roughly the same magnitude. Overall, the findings of the current study highlight the need for researchers and clinicians to familiarize themselves with the psychometric properties of measures, and be cautious in matching the function of the measures with their research and clinical needs.

  18. Screening applicants for risk of poor academic performance: a novel scoring system using preadmission grade point averages and graduate record examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, David

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective screening tool for identifying physician assistant (PA) program applicants at highest risk for poor academic performance. Prior to reviewing applications for the class of 2009, a retrospective analysis of preadmission data took place for the classes of 2006, 2007, and 2008. A single composite score was calculated for each student who matriculated (number of subjects, N=228) incorporating the total undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), the science GPA (SGPA), and the three component Graduate Record Examination (GRE) scores: verbal (GRE-V), quantitative (GRE-Q), analytical (GRE-A). Individual applicant scores for each of the five parameters were ranked in descending quintiles. Each applicant's five quintile scores were then added, yielding a total quintile score ranging from 25, which indicated an excellent performance, to 5, which indicated poorer performance. Thirteen of the 228 students had academic difficulty (dismissal, suspension, or one-quarter on academic warning or probation). Twelve of the 13 students having academic difficulty had a preadmission total quintile score 12 (range, 6-14). In response to this descriptive analysis, when selecting applicants for the class of 2009, the admissions committee used the total quintile score for screening applicants for interviews. Analysis of correlations in preadmission, graduate, and postgraduate performance data for the classes of 2009-2013 will continue and may help identify those applicants at risk for academic difficulty. Establishing a threshold total quintile score of applicant GPA and GRE scores may significantly decrease the number of entering PA students at risk for poor academic performance.

  19. Challenges of student selection: Predicting academic performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finding accurate predictors of tertiary academic performance, specifically for disadvantaged students, is essential because of budget constraints and the need of the labour market to address employment equity. Increased retention, throughput and decreased dropout rates are vital. When making admission decisions, the

  20. Obesity and Student Performance at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Potts-Datema, William

    2005-01-01

    To review the state of research on the association between obesity among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating obesity, school performance, and rates of student absenteeism. A table with brief descriptions of each study's research methodology and outcomes is included. Research demonstrates…

  1. Teaching effectiveness and students' performance in conventional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There has been a proliferation of coaching centres in Lagos State. These run side-by-side conventional schools offering general education. Stakeholders in the education industry have raised questions on the relevance of these coaching centres particularly in terms of students' academic performance, teaching ...

  2. Effectiveness of a poverty simulation in Second Life®: changing nursing student attitudes toward poor people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Nancy; Willson, Laura Helen; Doolen, Jessica

    2014-03-11

    Social justice is a fundamental value of the nursing profession, challenging educators to instill this professional value when caring for the poor. This randomized controlled trial examined whether an interactive virtual poverty simulation created in Second Life® would improve nursing students' empathy with and attributions for people living in poverty, compared to a self-study module. We created a multi-user virtual environment populated with families and individual avatars that represented the demographics contributing to poverty and vulnerability. Participants (N = 51 baccalaureate nursing students) were randomly assigned to either Intervention or Control groups and completed the modified Attitudes toward Poverty Scale pre- and post-intervention. The 2.5-hour simulation was delivered three times over a 1-year period to students in successive community health nursing classes. The investigators conducted post-simulation debriefings following a script. While participants in the virtual poverty simulation developed significantly more favorable attitudes on five questions than the Control group, the total scores did not differ significantly. Whereas students readily learned how to navigate inside Second Life®, faculty facilitators required periodic coaching and guidance to be competent. While poverty simulations, whether virtual or face-to-face, have some ability to transform nursing student attitudes, faculty must incorporate social justice concepts throughout the curriculum to produce lasting change.

  3. Association between Self-Reported Academic Performance and Risky Sexual Behavior among Ugandan University Students- A Cross Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; ?stergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gende...

  4. Influence of residual catalyst on the properties of conjugated polyphenylenevinylene materials: Palladium nanoparticles and poor electrical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, Frederik C; Nyberg, R.B.; Jørgensen, M.

    2004-01-01

    polymer material prepared by two different routes: the palladium route and the condensation route. The performance in a device application of the two polymer materials was, however, very different, and the palladium route was demonstrated to give poor films with low breakdown voltages and short circuits....

  5. Learning Contracts in Undergraduate Courses: Impacts on Student Behaviors and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Timothy; Scharf, Lauren F. V

    2013-01-01

    This project studied the effect of individualized, voluntary learning contracts for 18 students who performed poorly in the first part of the semester. Contracts were hypothesized to increase commitment and motivation, and lead to changes in behaviors and course performance. Self-reported prioritization and learning-related behaviors (completion…

  6. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in university students

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick, Yusuf; Lee, Alice; Raha, Oishik; Pillai, Kavya; Gupta, Shubham; Sethi, Sonika; Mukeshimana, Felicite; Gerard, Lothaire; Moghal, Mohammad U.; Saleh, Sohag N.; Smith, Susan F.; Morrell, Mary J.; Moss, James

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is common among university students, and has been associated with poor academic performance and physical dysfunction. However, current literature has a narrow focus in regard to domains tested, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a night of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in students. A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 64 participants [58% male (n?=?37); 22???4 years old (mean???SD)]. Participants were randomized i...

  7. Student Performance in Principles of Macroeconomics: the Importance of Gender and Personality Type

    OpenAIRE

    Leiv Opstad; Lars Fallan

    2010-01-01

    Several studies indicate that females perform more poorly in economic courses than their male counterparts. Other studies reveal that students' personality types affect their performance in economic courses, as well. The present study explores this issue by testing a number of interactions between gender and the Kersey-Bates temperament types in an ordered probit model explaining students' grades in Principles of Macroeconomics. The results confirm that the interaction of gender and temperame...

  8. Using Machine Learning to Predict Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pojon, Murat

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the application of machine learning algorithms to predict whether a student will be successful or not. The specific focus of the thesis is the comparison of machine learning methods and feature engineering techniques in terms of how much they improve the prediction performance. Three different machine learning methods were used in this thesis. They are linear regression, decision trees, and naïve Bayes classification. Feature engineering, the process of modification ...

  9. Is alcohol consumption associated with poor academic achievement in university students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Alcohol consumption showed negative associations with motivation for and subjectively achieved academic performance. University alcohol prevention activities might have positive impact on students′ academic success.

  10. Sleep disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness are associated with poor academic performance in teenagers. A study using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Chada, Daniel; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Videla, Alejandro J; Cardinali, Daniel; Bergna, Miguel A; Fernández-Acquier, Mariano; Larrateguy, Luis; Zabert, Gustavo E; Drake, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    Inadequate sleep and sleep disordered breathing (SDB) can impair learning skills. Questionnaires used to evaluate sleepiness in adults are usually inadequate for adolescents. We conducted a study to evaluate the performance of a Spanish version of the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS) and to assess the impact of sleepiness and SDB on academic performance. A cross-sectional survey of students from 7 schools in 4 cities of Argentina. A questionnaire with a Spanish version of the PDSS was used. Questions on the occurrence of snoring and witnessed apneas were answered by the parents. Mathematics and language grades were used as indicators of academic performance. The sample included 2,884 students (50% males; age: 13.3 +/- 1.5 years) Response rate was 85%; 678 cases were excluded due to missing data. Half the students slept sleep habits. Insufficient hours of sleep were prevalent in this population. The Spanish version of the PDSS was a reliable tool in middle-school-aged children. Reports of snoring or witnessed apneas and daytime sleepiness as measured by PDSS were independent predictors of poor academic performance.

  11. Violence exposure, sleep disturbance, and poor academic performance in middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy

    2013-11-01

    Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth.

  12. Students academic performance based on behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida, Juwita Dien; Kariyam

    2017-12-01

    Utilization of data in an information system that can be used for decision making that utilizes existing data warehouse to help dig useful information to make decisions correctly and accurately. Experience API (xAPI) is one of the enabling technologies for collecting data, so xAPI can be used as a data warehouse that can be used for various needs. One software application whose data is collected in xAPI is LMS. LMS is a software used in an electronic learning process that can handle all aspects of learning, by using LMS can also be known how the learning process and the aspects that can affect learning achievement. One of the aspects that can affect the learning achievement is the background of each student, which is not necessarily the student with a good background is an outstanding student or vice versa. Therefore, an action is needed to anticipate this problem. Prediction of student academic performance using Naive Bayes algorithm obtained accuracy of 67.7983% and error 32.2917%.

  13. 198Au grain implantation for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yoshiharu; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy using 198 Au grains is minimally invasive and the only curative treatment for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status available in our institution. From March 1993 to February 2008, 198 Au grains were used to treat a group of 96 Stage I–II tongue cancer patients who could not undergo surgery or brachytherapy using 192 Ir pins because of an advanced age (≥75 years) or poor performance status (≥2). The patients were followed for 3.9 ± 3.3 years, and the cause-specific survival and local control rates were determined. Survival analyses were performed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. The results were compared with those for a group of 193 early tongue-cancer patients who underwent treatment using iridium pins. The 5-year cause-specific survival and local control rates of the 198 Au grains group were 71% and 68%, respectively, both of which were 16% lower than the corresponding rates for the 192 Ir pins group. Our study demonstrated that as the last curative treatment available, 198 Au grain implantation could be used to achieve moderate treatment results for early tongue cancer in patients of advanced age or poor performance status

  14. Students' performance on the Ghanaian junior high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofi.mereku

    Mathematics education is considered as the basic right that all students have to .... Descriptive Statistics on the Total Score of Students. ( ). Minimum. Score .... where Ghanaian students' worst performances were recorded in applying. Also, the ...

  15. Impact of Facilities on Academic Performance of Students with Special Needs in Mainstreamed Public Schools in Southwestern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareo, Dorcas Oluremi; Ojo, Olakunbi Olubukola

    2013-01-01

    Facilities have a great impact on academic performances of students, and inadequate facilities translate to poor performance. The study examined the availability and convenience of the facilities that were provided to students with special educational needs in mainstreamed schools. It ascertained the qualifications of teachers teaching in…

  16. Music Performance Anxiety among Students of the Academy in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliaukiene, Vilma; Kazlauskas, Evaldas; Eimontas, Jonas; Skeryte-Kazlauskiene, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA) affects amateurs, students and professional musicians. We aimed to analyse MPA among students of music performance in a higher education academy in Lithuania. A sample of 258 music performance arts students of the Lithuanian Music and Theatre Academy participated in this study. The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety…

  17. Determining the Drivers of Student Performance in Online Business Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelami, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    An emerging question in business education is whether all students would benefit from distance learning and if student performance can be predicted prior to enrollment in an online course based on student characteristics. In this paper, the role of student characteristics on academic performance is examined in the context two different online…

  18. Morningness/eveningness chronotype, poor sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness in relation to common mental disorders among Peruvian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Deborah; Gelaye, Bizu; Sanchez, Sixto; Castañeda, Benjamín; Sanchez, Elena; Yanez, N David; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    The study was designed to investigate the association between sleep disturbances and common mental disorders (CMDs) among Peruvian college students. A total of 2538 undergraduate students completed a self-administered questionnaire to gather information about sleep characteristics, sociodemographic, and lifestyle data. Evening chronotype, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness were assessed using the Horne and Ostberg morningness-eveningness questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale, respectivelty. Presence of CMDs was evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire. Logistic regression procedures were used to examine the associations of sleep disturbances with CMDs while accounting for possible confounding factors. Overall, 32.9% of the participants had prevalent CMDs (39.3% among females and 24.4% among males). In multivariable-adjusted logistic models, those with evening chronotype (odds ratios (OR) = 1.43; 95% CI 1.00-2.05), poor sleep quality (OR = 4.50; 95% CI 3.69-5.49), and excessive daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.41-2.01) were at a relative increased odds of CMDs compared with those without sleep disturbances. In conclusion, we found strong associations between sleep disturbances and CMDs among Peruvian college students. Early education and preventative interventions designed to improve sleep habits may effectively alter the possibility of developing CMDs among young adults.

  19. Tower of London test performance in children with poor arithmetic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, M Darryn; Haley, Pat; Edwards, Jay; Butler, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    The Tower of London (TOL) has been used to assess executive functions in both children and adults with documented brain dysfunction. Like many other measures of executive function, it has not been widely used in the assessment of learning disabilities in children. However, if performance on the TOL discriminated among groups of children with different academic strengths and weaknesses, then it may be useful in identifying learning disability subtypes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether performance on the TOL would differ among 3 groups of children: those with arithmetic difficulties, those with reading difficulties, and those with no academic difficulties. The group with arithmetic difficulties exhibited significantly greater impairment on the TOL than either the group with reading difficulties or the group with no difficulties. The latter 2 groups performed similarly. The clinical utility of the TOL, as well as the relation between arithmetic deficits and executive functions, are discussed.

  20. Matching Faces to Photographs: Poor Performance in Eyewitness Memory (without the Memory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megreya, Ahmed M.; Burton, A. Mike

    2008-01-01

    Eyewitness memory is known to be fallible. We describe 3 experiments that aim to establish baseline performance for recognition of unfamiliar faces. In Experiment 1, viewers were shown live actors or photos (targets), and then immediately presented with arrays of 10 faces (test items). Asked whether the target was present among the test items, and…

  1. Poor Performance on Serial Visual Tasks in Persons with Reading Disabilities: Impaired Working Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram-Tsur, Ronit; Faust, Miriam; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the performance of persons with reading disabilities (PRD) on a variety of sequential visual-comparison tasks that have different working-memory requirements. In addition, mediating relationships between the sequential comparison process and attention and memory skills were looked for. Our findings suggest that PRD…

  2. Managing poorly performing clinicians: health care providers' willingness to pay for independent help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Verity; Sussex, Jon; Ryan, Mandy; Tetteh, Ebenezer

    2012-03-01

    To determine the willingness to pay (WTP) of senior managers in the UK National Health Service (NHS) for services to help manage performance concerns with doctors, dentists and pharmacists. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was used to elicit senior managers' preferences for a support service to help manage clinical performance concerns. The DCE was based on: a literature review; interviews with support service providers and clinical professional bodies; and discussion groups with managers. From the DCE responses, we estimate marginal WTP for aspects of support services. 451 NHS managers completed the DCE questionnaire. NHS managers are willing to pay for: advice, 'facilitation', and behavioural, health, clinical and organisational assessments. Telephone advice with written confirmation was valued most highly. NHS managers were willing to pay £161.56 (CI: £160.81-£162.32) per year per whole time equivalent doctor, dentist or pharmacist, for support to help manage clinical performance concerns. Marginal WTP varied across respondent subgroups but was always positive. Health care managers valued help in managing the clinicians' performance, and were willing to pay for it from their organisations' limited funds. Their WTP exceeds the current cost of a UK body providing similar support. Establishing a central body to provide such services across a health care system, with the associated economies of scale including cumulative experience, is an option that policy makers should consider seriously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. High burden and frailty: association with poor cognitive performance in older caregivers living in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Gustavo Brigola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Older caregivers living in rural areas may be exposed to three vulnerable conditions, i.e., those related to care, their own aging, and their residence context. Objective: To analyze the association of burden and frailty with cognition performance in older caregivers in rural communities. Method: In this cross-sectional survey, 85 older caregivers who cared for dependent elders were included in this study. Global cognition (Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination – Revised; Mini Mental State Examination, burden (Zarit Burden Interview and frailty (Fried's frailty phenotype were assessed. All ethical principles were observed. Results: Older caregivers were mostly women (76.7%; mean age was 69 years. Cognitive impairment was present in 15.3%, severe burden in 8.2%, frailty in 9.4%, and pre-frailty in 52.9% of the older caregivers. More severely burdened or frail caregivers had worse cognitive performance than those who were not, respectively (ANOVA test. Caregivers presenting a high burden level and some frailty degree (pre-frail or frail simultaneously were more likely to have a reduced global cognition performance. Conclusion: A significant number of older caregivers had low cognitive performance. Actions and resources to decrease burden and physical frailty may provide better cognition and well-being, leading to an improved quality of life and quality of the care provided by the caregivers.

  4. Effect of exposure to good vs poor medical trainee performance on attending physician ratings of subsequent performances

    OpenAIRE

    Yeates, Peter; O'Neill, Paul; Mann, Karen; Eva, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Competency-based models of education require assessments to be based on individuals' capacity to perform, yet the nature of human judgment may fundamentally limit the extent to which such assessment is accurately possible. Objective: To determine whether recent observations of the Mini Clinical Evaluation Exercise (Mini-CEX) performance of postgraduate year 1 physicians influence raters' scores of subsequent performances, consistent with either anchoring bias (scores biased similar t...

  5. Effect of handedness on auditory attentional performance in ADHD students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt SL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sergio L Schmidt,1,2 Ana Lucia Novais Carvaho,3 Eunice N Simoes2 1Department of Neurophysiology, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 2Neurology Department, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 3Department of Psychology, Fluminense Federal University, Niteroi, Brazil Abstract: The relationship between handedness and attentional performance is poorly understood. Continuous performance tests (CPTs using visual stimuli are commonly used to assess subjects suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, auditory CPTs are considered more useful than visual ones to evaluate classroom attentional problems. A previous study reported that there was a significant effect of handedness on students’ performance on a visual CPT. Here, we examined whether handedness would also affect CPT performance using only auditory stimuli. From an initial sample of 337 students, 11 matched pairs were selected. Repeated ANOVAs showed a significant effect of handedness on attentional performance that was exhibited even in the control group. Left-handers made more commission errors than right-handers. The results were interpreted considering that the association between ADHD and handedness reflects that consistent left-handers are less lateralized and have decreased interhemispheric connections. Auditory attentional data suggest that left-handers have problems in the impulsive/hyperactivity domain. In ADHD, clinical therapeutics and rehabilitation must take handedness into account because consistent sinistrals are more impulsive than dextrals. Keywords: attention, ADHD, consistent left-handers, auditory attention, continuous performance test

  6. A Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in Australian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anett Nyaradi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a ‘Healthy’ and a ‘Western’ dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA results from grade nine (age 14 were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the ‘Western’ dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = −13.14; 95% CI: −24.57; −1.76; p = 0.024 and reading (β = −19.16; 95% CI: −29.85; −8.47; p ≤ 0.001 were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = −17.28; 95% CI: −35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066. ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the ‘Western’ dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence.

  7. Academic Performance of Students without Disabilities in the Inclusive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruth, Jason D.; Woods, Melanie N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of inclusion on secondary students by focusing on the performance of students without disabilities in the inclusive environment compared to their performance in a segregated environment. Many studies exist demonstrating the positive impact of the inclusive environment on the performance of students with disabilities.…

  8. Satisfaction of Students and Academic Performance in Benadir University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaqane, Mahad Khalif; Afrah, Nor Abdulle

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of satisfaction on students' academic performance and investigates the relationship between satisfaction of students and academic performance and explores other factors that contribute academic performance. A correlation research was used. The study population was the third and the last year students of Benadir…

  9. WEATHE- RELATED VARIABILITY OF CALORIMETERY PERFORMANCE IN A POORLY-CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMERON, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Four Antech airbath calorimeters at the Hanford site were studied for three summers and two winters in a location not well-shielded from outside temperature changes. All calorimeters showed significant increases in variability of standard measurements during hot weather. The increased variability is postulated to be due to a low setting of the Peltier cold face temperature, which doesn't allow the instrument to drain heat fast enough in a hot environment. A higher setting of the Peltier cold face might lead to better performance in environments subjected to a broad range of temperatures

  10. Assessing the impact of blended learning on student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Do Won Kwak; Flavio Menezes; Carl Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses quantitatively the impact on student performance of a blended learning experiment within a large undergraduate first year course in statistics for business and economics students. We employ a differences- in-difference econometric approach, which controls for differences in student characteristics and course delivery method, to evaluate the impact of blended learning on student performance. Although students in the course manifest a preference for live lectures over online...

  11. Causes of poor sealant performance in soil-gas-resistant foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.

    1994-01-01

    Sealants for radon-resistant foundation construction must seal the gap between concrete sections. Modern sealants have such low permeability that seal performance depends only on the permeability of the material that contacts the sealant. The surface permeability of concrete walls and floors was measured by a specially designed permeameter, which measures the airflow induced by a pressure difference across a temporary test seal applied to the surface. The permeability of bulk concrete is about 10 -15 m 2 . Areas free of surface defects had surface permeability ranging from 10 -14 to 10 -16 m 2 . However, surface defects are common on concrete wall surfaces, which increase the permeability to >10 -12 m 2 , too high for standard seal designs to be adequate as the only method of soil gas and radon exclusion. Radon-resistant seals require either extended contact widths or mechanical removal of the surface layer and defects. (au) (4 refs.)

  12. Pushover, Response Spectrum and Time History Analyses of Safe Rooms in a Poor Performance Masonry Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloom, M.

    2008-01-01

    The idea of safe room has been developed for decreasing the earthquake casualties in masonry buildings. The information obtained from the previous ground motions occurring in seismic zones expresses the lack of enough safety of these buildings against earthquakes. For this reason, an attempt has been made to create some safe areas inside the existing masonry buildings, which are called safe rooms. The practical method for making these safe areas is to install some prefabricated steel frames in some parts of the existing structure. These frames do not carry any service loads before an earthquake. However, if a devastating earthquake happens and the load bearing walls of the building are destroyed, some parts of the floors, which are in the safe areas, will fall on the roof of the installed frames and the occupants who have sheltered there will survive. This paper presents the performance of these frames located in a destroying three storey masonry building with favorable conclusions. In fact, the experimental pushover diagram of the safe room located at the ground-floor level of this building is compared with the analytical results and it is concluded that pushover analysis is a good method for seismic performance evaluation of safe rooms. For time history analysis the 1940 El Centro, the 2003 Bam, and the 1990 Manjil earthquake records with the maximum peak accelerations of 0.35g were utilized. Also the design spectrum of Iranian Standard No. 2800-05 for the ground kind 2 is used for response spectrum analysis. The results of time history, response spectrum and pushover analyses show that the strength and displacement capacity of the steel frames are adequate to accommodate the distortions generated by seismic loads and aftershocks properly

  13. Presence of neuropathic pain may explain poor performances on olfactory testing in diabetes mellitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Shauna; Lalli, Paul; Midha, Nisha; Chan, Ayechen; Garven, Alexandra; Chan, Cynthia; Toth, Cory

    2013-07-01

    Olfactory dysfunction in neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's syndrome and Alzheimer's disease can hallmark disease onset. We hypothesized that patients with diabetes mellitus, a condition featuring peripheral and central neurodegeneration, would have decreased olfaction abilities. We examined participants with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, participants with diabetes without diabetic peripheral neuropathy, and control participants in blinded fashion using standardized Sniffin' Sticks. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy severity was quantified using the Utah Early Neuropathy Scale. Further subcategorization of diabetic peripheral neuropathy based on presence of neuropathic pain was performed with Douleur Neuropathique 4 Questionnaires. Participants with diabetes had decreased olfactory sensitivity, impaired olfactory discrimination abilities, and reduced odor identification skills when compared with controls. However, loss of olfaction ability was, at least partially, attributed to presence of neuropathic pain on subcategory assessment, although pain severity was not associated with dysfunction. Those participants with diabetes without diabetic peripheral neuropathy and those with diabetic peripheral neuropathy without neuropathic pain had similar olfactory function as controls in general. The presence of neuropathic pain, associated with limited attention and concentration, may explain at least a portion of the olfactory dysfunction witnessed in the diabetic patient population.

  14. The Poor Altmetric Performance of Publications Authored by Researchers in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s scientific output has risen precipitously over the past decade; it is now the world’s second-largest producer of scientific papers, behind only the United States. The quality of China’s research is also on the rise (Van Noorden, 2016. The online visibility and impact of China’s research are also important issues worth exploring. In this study, we investigate the altmetric performance of publications in the field of Biotechnology and Applied Microbiology and published by authors from Chinese affiliations. We find that papers published by those authors from Chinese affiliations have much lower visibility on the social web than articles from other countries, when there is no significant difference for the citations. Fewer of China’s publications get tweeted, and those tweeted publications attract less social attention. A geographical analysis of tweeters shows that scholarly articles get most of their social attention from the authors’ home countries, a finding that is also confirmed by correlation and regression analysis. This situation, which is unfavorable for researchers from Chinese affiliations, is caused, in part, by the inaccessibility of mainstream social networking platforms in mainland China.

  15. Effects of Motivation: Rewarding Hackers for Undetected Attacks Cause Analysts to Perform Poorly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Zahid; Makhijani, Nidhi; Pammi, V S Chandrasekhar; Dutt, Varun

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how monetary motivations influence decision making of humans performing as security analysts and hackers in a cybersecurity game. Cyberattacks are increasing at an alarming rate. As cyberattacks often cause damage to existing cyber infrastructures, it is important to understand how monetary rewards may influence decision making of hackers and analysts in the cyber world. Currently, only limited attention has been given to this area. In an experiment, participants were randomly assigned to three between-subjects conditions ( n = 26 for each condition): equal payoff, where the magnitude of monetary rewards for hackers and defenders was the same; rewarding hacker, where the magnitude of monetary reward for hacker's successful attack was 10 times the reward for analyst's successful defense; and rewarding analyst, where the magnitude of monetary reward for analyst's successful defense was 10 times the reward for hacker's successful attack. In all conditions, half of the participants were human hackers playing against Nash analysts and half were human analysts playing against Nash hackers. Results revealed that monetary rewards for human hackers and analysts caused a decrease in attack and defend actions compared with the baseline. Furthermore, rewarding human hackers for undetected attacks made analysts deviate significantly from their optimal behavior. If hackers are rewarded for their undetected attack actions, then this causes analysts to deviate from optimal defend proportions. Thus, analysts need to be trained not become overenthusiastic in defending networks. Applications of our results are to networks where the influence of monetary rewards may cause information theft and system damage.

  16. Poor Performance on a Preoperative Cognitive Screening Test Predicts Postoperative Complications in Older Orthopedic Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culley, Deborah J; Flaherty, Devon; Fahey, Margaret C; Rudolph, James L; Javedan, Houman; Huang, Chuan-Chin; Wright, John; Bader, Angela M; Hyman, Bradley T; Blacker, Deborah; Crosby, Gregory

    2017-11-01

    The American College of Surgeons and the American Geriatrics Society have suggested that preoperative cognitive screening should be performed in older surgical patients. We hypothesized that unrecognized cognitive impairment in patients without a history of dementia is a risk factor for development of postoperative complications. We enrolled 211 patients 65 yr of age or older without a diagnosis of dementia who were scheduled for an elective hip or knee replacement. Patients were cognitively screened preoperatively using the Mini-Cog and demographic, medical, functional, and emotional/social data were gathered using standard instruments or review of the medical record. Outcomes included discharge to place other than home (primary outcome), delirium, in-hospital medical complications, hospital length-of-stay, 30-day emergency room visits, and mortality. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Fifty of 211 (24%) patients screened positive for probable cognitive impairment (Mini-Cog less than or equal to 2). On age-adjusted multivariate analysis, patients with a Mini-Cog score less than or equal to 2 were more likely to be discharged to a place other than home (67% vs. 34%; odds ratio = 3.88, 95% CI = 1.58 to 9.55), develop postoperative delirium (21% vs. 7%; odds ratio = 4.52, 95% CI = 1.30 to 15.68), and have a longer hospital length of stay (hazard ratio = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.42 to 0.95) compared to those with a Mini-Cog score greater than 2. Many older elective orthopedic surgical patients have probable cognitive impairment preoperatively. Such impairment is associated with development of delirium postoperatively, a longer hospital stay, and lower likelihood of going home upon hospital discharge.

  17. Factors affecting dance exercise performance in students at a special needs school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukiko; Hiramoto, Izumi; Kodama, Hideya

    2017-09-01

    In Japan, dance exercise has been introduced as a compulsory element of health and physical education, but there is a considerable discrepancy in the levels of performance among students with intellectual disability (ID) at special needs schools. The aim of this study was therefore to identify the factors affecting the performance of dance exercise in students with ID. A 4 month dance exercise program was implemented for junior high school students at a special needs school, and the performance of 32 students at 22 sessions was assessed quantitatively according to calorie use during exercise and performance proficiency score. The measures were compared according to gender, age, body mass index, diagnosis, and development quotient (DQ) score. Performance in many students improved with repetition and reached the highest attainment level at around the third month. Male gender and older age had a significant positive impact on calorie use, whereas diagnosis of Down syndrome and higher DQ score had a significant positive impact on proficiency score. Four students with poor performance were all female students with autism. This study provides some possible explanations for differences in the levels of dance performance among students with ID. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Upper urinary tract stone disease in patients with poor performance status: active stone removal or conservative management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shimpei; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Hirabayashi, Yasuo; Iguchi, Takashi; Iba, Akinori; Higuchi, Masatoshi; Koike, Hiroyuki; Wakamiya, Takahito; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Hara, Isao

    2017-11-16

    It remains controversial as to whether active stone removal should be performed in patients with poor performance status because of their short life expectancy and perioperative risks. Our objectives were to evaluate treatment outcomes of active stone removal in patients with poor performance status and to compare life prognosis with those managed conservatively. We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 3 or 4 treated for upper urinary tract calculi at our four hospitals between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were classified into either surgical treatment group or conservative management group based on the presence of active stone removal. Stone-free rate and perioperative complications in surgical treatment group were reviewed. In addition, we compared overall survival and stone-specific survival between the two groups. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to investigate predictors of overall survival and stone-specific survival. Fifty-two patients (70.3%) underwent active stone removal (surgical treatment group) by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (n = 6), ureteroscopy (n = 39), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (n = 6) or nephrectomy (n = 1). The overall stone-free rate was 78.8% and perioperative complication was observed in nine patients (17.3%). Conservative treatment was undergone by 22 patients (29.7%) (conservative management group). Two-year overall survival rates in surgical treatment and conservative management groups were 88.0% and 38.4%, respectively (p performance status could be performed safely and effectively. Compared to conservative management, surgical stone treatment achieved longer overall survival and stone-specific survival.

  19. What effects do student jobs have on the study performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research examines the effects student jobs have on the study performance, and the competency and career development of hospitality management students. A 13-item survey was administered to a sample of 82 hospitality management students to see how they think about their student job. Qualitative data was ...

  20. Self-Esteem & Academic Performance among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Muhammad; Zaidi, Syed Muhammad Imran Haider; Mahmood, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    The current study was conducted to assess the self-esteem and academic performance among university students after arising of several behavioral and educational problems. A total number of 80 students, 40 male students and 40 female students were selected through purposive sampling from G. C. University Faisalabad. The participants were…

  1. Perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students predicts academic performance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Wagner, Josefin; Brüheim, Linda; Voltmer, Edgar

    2017-12-16

    Medical students are exposed to high amounts of stress. Stress and poor academic performance can become part of a vicious circle. In order to counteract this circularity, it seems important to better understand the relationship between stress and performance during medical education. The most widespread stress questionnaire designed for use in Medical School is the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" (PMSS). It addresses a wide range of stressors, including workload, competition, social isolation and financial worries. Our aim was to examine the relation between the perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students and academic performance. We measured Medical School stress using the PMSS at two different time points (at the end of freshman year and at the end of sophomore year) and matched stress scores together with age and gender to the first medical examination (M1) grade of the students (n = 456). PMSS scores from 2 and 14 months before M1 proved to be significant predictors for medical students' M1 grade. Age and gender also predict academic performance, making older female students with high stress scores a potential risk group for entering the vicious circle of stress and poor academic performance. PMSS sum scores 2 and 14 months before the M1 exam seem to have an independent predictive validity for medical students' M1 grade. More research is needed to identify potential confounders.

  2. Impact of E-Learning Strategy on Students' Academic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the impact of e-learning strategies on students' academic performance at Strathmore University. The purpose of the study was to investigate the methodology, ideologies, output and ecology of ICT strategies and their impact on students' performance. This was done through comparing students' mean ...

  3. Learning Styles and Student Performance in Introductory Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Data from nine introductory microeconomics classes was used to test the effect of student learning style on academic performance. The Kolb Learning Style Inventory was used to assess individual student learning styles. The results indicate that student learning style has no significant effect on performance, undermining the claims of those who…

  4. Impact of Metacognitive Awareness on Performance of Students in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Fazal ur; Jumani, Nabi Bux; Chaudry, Muhammad Ajmal; Chisti, Saeed ul Hasan; Abbasi, Fahim

    2010-01-01

    The impact of metacognitive awareness on students' performance has been examined in the present study. 900 students of grade X participated in the study. Metacognitive awareness was measured using inventory, while performance of students was measured with the help of researcher made test in the subject of chemistry. Results indicated that…

  5. Factors Affecting Performance of Undergraduate Students in Construction Related Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Samuel Olusola; Aghimien, Douglas Omoregie; Oke, Ayodeji Emmanuel; Olushola, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Academic performance of students in Nigerian institutions has been of much concern to all and sundry hence the need to assess the factors affecting performance of undergraduate students in construction related discipline in Nigeria. A survey design was employed with questionnaires administered on students in the department of Quantity Surveying,…

  6. Effect of Family Type on Secondary School Students\\' Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of family type on Secondary School students\\' performance in physics in Ilorin metropolis. The sample comprised one hundred Senior Secondary II students from four schools in Ilorin metropolis. The instrument for the study titled \\"Effect of Family type on Students\\' Performance in Physics ...

  7. Focusing on Student Performance Through Accountability. Challenge to Lead Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alicia; Lord, Joan

    2005-01-01

    This report, Focusing on Student Performance Through Accountability, shows that more students, in all groups, are meeting state standards. And parents, communities and education leaders are better informed about student performance than ever before. It shows that large gaps remain in every state. If the state is to reach the No Child Left Behind…

  8. senior secondary students' performance in selectd aspects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Temechegn

    not being able to recall information from memory, use of wrong units, ... Handy and Johnstone [19] working with white children examined students' ..... mathematical algorithms that make demands on the memory capacity of the students.

  9. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  10. Academic Entitlement and Academic Performance in Graduating Pharmacy Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffres, Meghan N.; Barclay, Sean M.; Stolte, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To determine a measurable definition of academic entitlement, measure academic entitlement in graduating doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students, and compare the academic performance between students identified as more or less academically entitled.

  11. Engagement as predictors of performance in a single cohort of undergraduate chiropractic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Jacqueline; Dewhurst, Philip; Cooke, Caroline; Newell, David

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the potential association of novel academic and nonacademic factors with chiropractic student academic performance. Students enrolled into year 1 of a chiropractic master's degree (MChiro) at our college were selected for this study. Data collected included demographics, attendance, virtual learning environment use, additional learning needs, previous degree qualifications, and summative marks. Differences between students who had to take an examination more than once (resit) and nonresit students were explored using t test and χ 2 analysis. Relationships between attendance and end-of-year marks were explored using regression analysis. Male students outperformed female students in four of the six units and as the total year average. Students who attended risk [ RR] = 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-4.9). Students who performed poorly (<70%) in the semester 1 unit of a course on human structure and failed the semester 1 practical assessment of a course on clinical management were significantly more likely to have one or more resit assessments in semester 2 units ( RR = 3.5 [95% CI, 2.2-5.7]; RR = 3.2 [95% CI, 2.0-4.9]). Attendance and unit 105 were independent predictors of one or more resits at the end-of-year ( R 2 = 0.86, p < .001). Attendance and first semester summative marks were associated with end-of-year performance. As such, these markers of performance may be used to flag struggling students in the program.

  12. The impact of taking a college pre-calculus course on students' college calculus performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2014-11-01

    Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and four-year colleges continues to grow, and these courses are well-populated with students who already took pre-calculus in high school. We examine student performance in college calculus, using regression discontinuity to estimate the effects of taking college pre-calculus or not, in a national US sample of 5507 students at 132 institutions. We find that students who take college pre-calculus do not earn higher calculus grades.

  13. Demand Creation for Polio Vaccine in Persistently Poor-Performing Communities of Northern Nigeria: 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammed, Ado; Etsano, Andrew; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaya B; Gerlong, George; Banda, Richard; Yehualashet, Yared G; Vaz, Rui G

    2016-05-01

    Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved communities. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs). We assessed the impact of various polio-related interventions, to measure the contribution of demand creation activities in 77 LGAs at very high risk for polio, located across 10 states in northern Nigeria. Interventions included provision of commodities along with the polio vaccine. There was an increasing trend in the number of children reached by different demand creation interventions. A total of 4 819 847 children were vaccinated at health camps alone. There was a reduction in the number of wards in which >10% of children were missed by supplementary immunization activities due to noncompliance with vaccination recommendations, a rise in the proportion of children who received ≥4 OPV doses, and a decrease in the proportion of children who were underimmunized or unimmunized. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk communities in northern Nigeria during September 2013-November 2014. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  14. A preliminary study on the association between ventilation rates in classrooms and student performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, R J; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, U; Nevalainen, A; Moschandreas, D

    2006-12-01

    Poor conditions leading to substandard indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms have been frequently cited in the literature over the past two decades. However, there is limited data linking poor IAQ in the classrooms to student performance. Whereas, it is assumed that poor IAQ results in reduced attendance and learning potential, and subsequent poor student performance, validating this hypothesis presents a challenge in today's school environment. This study explores the association between student performance on standardized aptitude tests that are administered to students on a yearly basis, to classroom carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, which provide a surrogate of ventilation being provided to each room. Data on classroom CO2 concentrations (over a 4-5 h time span within a typical school day) were recorded in fifth grade classrooms in 54 elementary schools within a school district in the USA. Results from this preliminary study yield a significant (P classroom-level ventilation rate and test results in math. They also indicate that non-linear effects may need to be considered for better representation of the association. A larger sample size is required in order to draw more definitive conclusions. Practical Implications Future studies could focus on (1) gathering more evidence on the possible association between classroom ventilation rates and students' academic performance; (2) the linear/non-linear nature of the association; and (3) whether it is possible to detect 'no observed adverse effect level' for adequate ventilation with respect to academic performance in schools. All of this information could be used to improve guidance and take regulatory actions to ensure adequate ventilation in schools. The high prevalence of low ventilation rates, combined with the growing evidence of the positive impact that sufficient ventilation has on human performance, suggests an opportunity for improving design and management of school facilities.

  15. Accounting Student's Learning Approaches And Impact On Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Suhaiza

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is threefold. Firstly, the study explores the learning approaches adopted by students in completing their Business Finance. Secondly, it examines the impact that learning approaches has on the student's academic performance. Finally, the study considers gender differences in the learning approaches adopted by students and in the relationship between learning approaches and academic performance. The Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) was used...

  16. Older medical students' performances at McGill University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feil, D; Kristian, M; Mitchell, N

    1998-01-01

    To compare admission data and academic performances of medical students younger and older than 25, and to qualify older students' experiences and perceptions in medical school. The authors reviewed 1988-1991 data for applications to the McGill University Faculty of Medicine. Data included GPAs and MCAT scores, as well as ratings for reference letters, autobiographical statements, and interviews. For those same years, the authors measured students' academic performances in the preclinical and clinical years. The authors compared the data by students' age: "younger" students, aged 17 to 24; and "older" students, aged 25 and above. All enrolled students took the Derogatis Stress Profile, and the older students participated in focus groups. The older applicants had lower GPAs and MCAT scores, but higher interview and reference letter ratings. For older accepted students, basic science course scores were lower than those of younger students, but clinical scores did not differ significantly between the groups. The two groups had similar stress levels, although older students tested lower in driven behavior, relaxation potential, attitude posture, and hostility. In focus groups, the older students spoke of learning style differences, loss of social support, and loss of professional identity. Different scores in admission criteria suggest that McGill uses different standards to select older medical students. Older students admitted under different criteria, however, do just as well as do younger students by their clinical years. A broad-based study of admission criteria and outcomes for the older student population is warranted.

  17. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile.

  18. Age-related Changes in Lateral Entorhinal and CA3 Neuron Allocation Predict Poor Performance on Object Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P. Maurer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related memory deficits correlate with dysfunction in the CA3 subregion of the hippocampus, which includes both hyperactivity and overly rigid activity patterns. While changes in intrinsic membrane currents and interneuron alterations are involved in this process, it is not known whether alterations in afferent input to CA3 also contribute. Neurons in layer II of the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC project directly to CA3 through the perforant path, but no data are available regarding the effects of advanced age on LEC activity and whether these activity patterns update in response to environmental change. Furthermore, it is not known the extent to which age-related deficits in sensory discrimination relate to the inability of aged CA3 neurons to update in response to new environments. Young and aged rats were pre-characterized on a LEGO© object discrimination task, comparable to behavioral tests in humans in which CA3 hyperactivity has been linked to impairments. The cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the immediate-early gene Arc was then used to identify the principal cell populations that were active during two distinct epochs of random foraging in different environments. This approach enabled the extent to which rats could discriminate two similar objects to be related to the ability of CA3 neurons to update across different environments. In both young and aged rats, there were animals that performed poorly on the LEGO object discrimination task. In the aged rats only, however, the poor performers had a higher percent of CA3 neurons that were active during random foraging in a novel environment, but this is not related to the ability of CA3 neurons to remap when the environment changed. Afferent neurons to CA3 in LEC, as identified with the retrograde tracer choleratoxin B (CTB, also showed a higher percentage of cells that were positive for Arc mRNA in aged poor performing rats

  19. Sleep quality among dental students and its association with academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elagra, Marwa I; Rayyan, Mohammad R; Alnemer, Omaima A; Alshehri, Maram S; Alsaffar, Noor S; Al-Habib, Rabab S; Almosajen, Zainab A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the sleep patterns of dental students from different academic levels and to determine the effect of sleep patterns on the academic performance of students. A self-reported questionnaire was designed and distributed among 1160 students from clinical and non-clinical levels to measure the sleep-related variables and academic performance. The questionnaire included questions on demographics, sleep habits, sleep quality index (PSQI), and grade point averages (GPAs). Data were analyzed with standard statistical software (SPSS, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 22, Chicago, IL, USA). The response rate was 62%. Sixty five percent of the students described their sleep as good or very good, whereas 35% described their sleep as bad or very bad. The mean number of hours of sleep per night for all students was 5.85 ± 1.853 hours. The GPA had a significant negative correlation with PSQI scores. The clinical group showed a stronger negative correlation (P = -0.351) than the nonclinical group (P = -0.134). It can be concluded that dental students tend to have poor sleep quality, which is unknown to them. Poor sleep quality was associated with lower academic performance, especially in clinical years.

  20. Goal Setting to Increase Student Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years, the teachers and students in Carter County, Kentucky have been utilizing goal setting. As a result, the district has shown tremendous growth on not only state assessments, but also on local assessments. Additionally, the number of students meeting benchmarks for college and career readiness has increased significantly. The…

  1. Profiling exiting postgraduate students\\' performance and experiences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transitions in an era of globalisation and universal change impact on postgraduate training of students at higher education institutions. This study aimed to determine completion rates for postgraduate programmes in Education at one higher education institution, to identify the students\\' needs and to investigate their ...

  2. Student Learning Motivation as a Mediator of the Relationship between Service Quality and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hamdi H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Students look for evidence of service quality when selecting a university to attend. Student dissatisfaction with the quality of service may reduce student motivation in online higher-education settings, and low levels of motivation may lead to inferior student performance and a persistently high dropout rate. The purpose of this quantitative,…

  3. A study of self perception and academic performance of students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the influence of types of exceptionality on the self perception of students with special needs. It examined the influence of sex of students with special needs on their self perception. It also compared the academic performance of male and female students with special needs. One instrument named Self ...

  4. After-School Tutoring and the Distribution of Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    As more primary and secondary students worldwide seek after-school tutoring in academic subjects, concerns are being raised about whether after-school tutoring can raise average test scores without widening the variability in student performance, and whether students of certain ability levels may benefit more than others from after-school…

  5. Factors Affecting Students' Performance and Practice on Map ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentage is used to show that the level of the performance and achievement of the students. The findings suggest that possible intervention to help the students score high academic achievement should focus on teachers' training, enabling students to work hard persevere to succeed, identifying effective study ...

  6. The Influence of Social Networks on High School Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shanab, Emad; Al-Tarawneh, Heyam

    2015-01-01

    Social networks are becoming an integral part of people's lives. Students are spending much time on social media and are considered the largest category that uses such application. This study tries to explore the influence of social media use, and especially Facebook, on high school students' performance. The study used the GPA of students in four…

  7. Stress level and academic performance of university students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the relationship between level of stress and students' academic performance in Universities in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Proportional stratified random sampling was used to select 300 students for the study. A “Students' Stress Level Questionnaire ...

  8. Students' Metacomprehension Knowledge: Components That Predict Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabrucky, Karen M.; Moore, DeWayne; Agler, Lin-Miao Lin; Cummings, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed students' metacomprehension knowledge and examined the components of knowledge most related to comprehension of expository texts. We used the Revised Metacomprehension Scale (RMCS) to investigate the relations between students' metacomprehension knowledge and comprehension performance. Students who evaluated and…

  9. Factors affecting academic performance of Pharmacy students in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... performance of undergraduate Pharmacy students of the University of Jos, Nigeria ... was conducted using self-completed questionnaires among Pharmacy students of ... Pharmacy students; Test Competence, Time Management; Test Anxiety ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  10. The Use of Lecture Capture and Student Performance in Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadgu, Rim Mekonnen; Huynh, Sophia; Gopalan, Chaya

    2016-01-01

    Lecture capture technology is fairly new and has gained interest among higher institutions, faculty and students alike. Live-lecture (LL) is captured in real-time and this recording, LC, is made available for students to access for later use, whether it be for review purpose or to replace a missed class. Student performance was compared between…

  11. Perfectionism, Depression, Anxiety, and Academic Performance in Premedical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Sevlever

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in perfectionism, depression, anxiety, and academic performance between premedical (N = 104 and non-premedical (N = 76 undergraduate students. Results indicated that premedical students did not differ significantly from non-premedical students in perfectionistic self-criticism, personal standards perfectionism, depression, or anxiety. Perfectionistic high standards were not correlated with depression or anxiety for either group. Self-critical perfectionism was positively correlated with depression and anxiety, with comparable effect sizes, for both groups of students. Premedical students and non-premedical students drastically differed in their reported academic performance (GPA. For premedical students, PS perfectionism was related to higher GPA, however PS perfectionism in non-premedical students had a negligible effect in increasing GPA. The implications of these results for interventions and future research are discussed.

  12. Factors influencing students' performance in a Brazilian dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erica Tatiane da; Nunes, Maria de Fátima; Queiroz, Maria Goretti; Leles, Cláudio R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive assessment of students' academic performance plays an important role in educational planning. The aim of this study was to investigate variables that influence student's performance in a retrospective sample including all undergraduate students who entered in a Brazilian dental school, in a 20-year period between 1984 and 2003 (n=1182). Demographic and educational variables were used to predict performance in the overall curriculum and course groups. Cluster analysis (K-means algorithm) categorized students into groups of higher, moderate or lower performance. Clusters of overall performance showed external validity, demonstrated by Chi-square test and ANOVA. Lower performance groups had the smallest number of students in overall performance and course groups clusters, ranging from 11.8% (clinical courses) to 19.2% (basic courses). Students' performance was more satisfactory in dental and clinical courses, rather than basic and non-clinical courses (pstudent's performance was predicted by lower time elapsed between completion of high school and dental school admission, female gender, better rank in admission test, class attendance rate and student workload hours in teaching, research and extension (R(2)=0.491). Findings give evidence about predictors of undergraduate students' performance and reinforce the need for curricular reformulation focused on with improvement of integration among courses.

  13. teachers' competence and students' academic performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of teacher's competence on students; academic ... Recommendations were made on how to promote further development of science teachers in Nigeria. ... physical sciences like chemistry, engineering and.

  14. laboratory activities and students practical performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unesco

    as necessary and important, very little justification was given for their .... Chemistry laboratory activities refer to the practical activities which students ..... equations, formulae, definitions, terminology, physical properties, hazards or disposal.

  15. Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school performance. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours on both weekdays and weekends exhibited poorer performance, while those who made up this sleep loss on weekends did not. The total number of poor sleep factors in an individual also correlated with poor school performance. Earlier school start times were associated with a perception of poor sleep quality, shorter sleep duration and more sleep health problems. We conclude that sleep inadequacies and sleep health problems were prevalent in this population, especially in those who started school earlier in the morning, and that these poor sleep factors were associated with school performance.

  16. Impact of hybrid delivery of education on student academic performance and the student experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, Heather Brennan; Nutter, Douglas A; Charneski, Lisa; Butko, Peter

    2009-11-12

    To compare student academic performance and the student experience in the first-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) program between the main and newly opened satellite campuses of the University of Maryland. Student performance indicators including graded assessments, course averages, cumulative first-year grade point average (GPA), and introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) evaluations were analyzed retrospectively. Student experience indicators were obtained via an online survey instrument and included involvement in student organizations; time-budgeting practices; and stress levels and their perceived effect on performance. Graded assessments, course averages, GPA, and IPPE evaluations were indistinguishable between campuses. Students' time allocation was not different between campuses, except for time spent attending class and watching lecture videos. There was no difference between students' stress levels at each campus. The implementation of a satellite campus to expand pharmacy education yielded academic performance and student engagement comparable to those from traditional delivery methods.

  17. Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Students' Academic Performance: Academic Effort Is an Intervening Variable ... This study was designed to seek explanations for differences in academic performance among junior ...

  18. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  19. STUDENT ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE PREDICTION USING SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. Oloruntoba1 ,J.L.Akinode2

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between students' preadmission academic profile and final academic performance. Data Sample of students in one of the Federal Polytechnic in south West part of Nigeria was used. The preadmission academic profile used for this study is the 'O' level grades(terminal high school results).The academic performance is defined using student's Grade Point Average(GPA). This research focused on using data mining technique to develop a model for predicting stude...

  20. Attendance and Student Performance in Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubartseva, Ganna; Mallik, Uma Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies suggest that attendance may be one of the key factors which influence student performance. Although there have been many studies in introductory science courses, there have been virtually no studies which analyze and compare students' performance from different types of institutions as well as different level of classes. Our study…

  1. The Influence of Virtual Learning Environments in Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Paulo; Miranda, Luísa; Morais, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the relation between the use of a virtual learning environment (VLE) and students' performance. Therefore, virtual learning environments are characterised and a study is presented emphasising the frequency of access to a VLE and its relation with the students' performance from a public higher education institution…

  2. Parent Involvement and Student Performance: The Influence of School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Ralph B., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers focusing on parent involvement continue to concentrate their efforts on the relationship between involvement and student performance in isolation of the school context in which involvement occurs. This research outlines an ecology of involvement and how this social context affects parent involvement and student performance. Relying on…

  3. Academic Performance, School Desertion and Emotional Paradigm in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Emma Rosa Cruz; Barrientos, Laura Gática; Castro, Patricia Eugenia García; García, Jesús Hernández

    2010-01-01

    The present work aims to describe academic performance, school desertion and the emotional paradigm of the university students of the accounting school of the Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (FCPBUAP). We have found that low academic performance is related to students' economic deficiency, which affects their concentration on their…

  4. Student Learning Styles and Performance in an Introductory Finance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiver, Daniel Alan; Haddad, Kamal; Do, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Many academic disciplines have examined the role that variation in Jungian personality types plays in the academic performance of college students. Different personality types tend to have different learning styles, which in turn influence student performance in a variety of college courses. To measure the impact of learning styles on student…

  5. Association between Self-Reported Academic Performance and Risky Sexual Behavior among Ugandan University Students- A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Östergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors. PMID:24999121

  6. Association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students- a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette

    2014-04-16

    Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors.

  7. Academic performance of students who underwent psychiatric treatment at the students' mental health service of a Brazilian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Cláudia Ribeiro Franulovic; Oliveira, Maria Lilian Coelho; Mello, Tânia Maron Vichi Freire de; Dantas, Clarissa de Rosalmeida

    2017-01-01

    University students are generally at the typical age of onset of mental disorders that may affect their academic performance. We aimed to characterize the university students attended by psychiatrists at the students' mental health service (SAPPE) and to compare their academic performance with that of non-patient students. Cross-sectional study based on review of medical files and survey of academic data at a Brazilian public university. Files of 1,237 students attended by psychiatrists at SAPPE from 2004 to 2011 were reviewed. Their academic performance coefficient (APC) and status as of July 2015 were compared to those of a control group of 2,579 non-patient students matched by gender, course and year of enrolment. 37% of the patients had had psychiatric treatment and 4.5% had made suicide attempts before being attended at SAPPE. Depression (39.1%) and anxiety disorders/phobias (33.2%) were the most frequent diagnoses. Severe mental disorders such as psychotic disorders (3.7%) and bipolar disorder (1.9%) were less frequent. Compared with non-patients, the mean APC among the undergraduate patients was slightly lower (0.63; standard deviation, SD: 0.26; versus 0.64; SD: 0.28; P = 0.025), but their course completion rates were higher and course abandonment rates were lower. Regarding postgraduate students, patients and non-patients had similar completion rates, but patients had greater incidence of discharge for poor performance and lower dropout rates. Despite the inclusion of socially vulnerable people with severe mental disorders, the group of patients had similar academic performance, and in some aspects better, than, that of non-patients.

  8. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  9. Personality types and student performance in an introductory physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Justason, Michael; Meyertholen, Andrew; Wilson, Brian

    2017-12-01

    We measured the personality type of the students in a large introductory physics course of mostly life science students using the True Colors instrument. We found large correlations of personality type with performance on the precourse Force Concept Inventory (FCI), both term tests, the postcourse FCI, and the final examination. We also saw correlations with the normalized gain on the FCI. The personality profile of the students in this course is very different from the profile of the physics faculty and graduate students, and also very different from the profile of students taking the introductory physics course intended for physics majors and specialists.

  10. Preclinical medical students' performance in and reflections

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    therefore a useful strategy to enhance learning and reasoning.[1]. At the University of Limpopo (Medunsa campus) in Ga-Rankuwa,. 25 km north-west of Pretoria, South Africa, students are introduced at the beginning of their medical degree programme to procedural and clinical communication skills as separate skills.

  11. DETERMINANTS OF STUDENTS ACADEMIC PERFORM- ANCE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 1,129 final year stu- dents (614 boys and ... Respondents were requested to provide information on their own characteristics, father ... stocked libraries and also experienced and ... relation student lives with, number of siblings, ..... Service, 2007) and it is very likely that they.

  12. Stressors, academic performance, and learned resourcefulness in baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    High stress levels in nursing students may affect memory, concentration, and problem-solving ability, and may lead to decreased learning, coping, academic performance, and retention. College students with higher levels of learned resourcefulness develop greater self-confidence, motivation, and academic persistence, and are less likely to become anxious, depressed, and frustrated, but no studies specifically involve nursing students. This explanatory correlational study used Gadzella's Student-life Stress Inventory (SSI) and Rosenbaum's Self Control Scale (SCS) to explore learned resourcefulness, stressors, and academic performance in 53 baccalaureate nursing students. High levels of personal and academic stressors were evident, but not significant predictors of academic performance (p = .90). Age was a significant predictor of academic performance (p = learned resourcefulness scores than females and Caucasians. Studies in larger, more diverse samples are necessary to validate these findings.

  13. Funnel plot control limits to identify poorly performing healthcare providers when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Evans, T Alun

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing use of statistical methods, such as funnel plots, to identify poorly performing healthcare providers. Funnel plots comprise the construction of control limits around a benchmark and providers with outcomes falling outside the limits are investigated as potential outliers. The benchmark is usually estimated from observed data but uncertainty in this estimate is usually ignored when constructing control limits. In this paper, the use of funnel plots in the presence of uncertainty in the value of the benchmark is reviewed for outcomes from a Binomial distribution. Two methods to derive the control limits are shown: (i) prediction intervals; (ii) tolerance intervals Tolerance intervals formally include the uncertainty in the value of the benchmark while prediction intervals do not. The probability properties of 95% control limits derived using each method were investigated through hypothesised scenarios. Neither prediction intervals nor tolerance intervals produce funnel plot control limits that satisfy the nominal probability characteristics when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark. This is not necessarily to say that funnel plots have no role to play in healthcare, but that without the development of intervals satisfying the nominal probability characteristics they must be interpreted with care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. [Quality of sleep and academic performance in high school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugueño, Maithe; Curihual, Carolina; Olivares, Paulina; Wallace, Josefa; López-AlegrÍa, Fanny; Rivera-López, Gonzalo; Oyanedel, Juan Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Sleeping and studying are the day-to-day activities of a teenager attending school. To determine the quality of sleep and its relationship to the academic performance among students attending morning and afternoon shifts in a public high school. Students of the first and second year of high school answered an interview about socio-demographic background, academic performance, student activities and subjective sleep quality; they were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The interview was answered by 322 first year students aged 15 ± 5 years attending the morning shift and 364 second year students, aged 16 ± 0.5 years, attending the afternoon shift. The components: sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbance, drug use and daytime dysfunction were similar and classified as good in both school shifts. The components subjective sleep quality and duration of sleep had higher scores among students of the morning shift. The mean grades during the first semester of the students attending morning and afternoon shifts were 5.9 and 5.8, respectively (of a scale from 1 to 7). Among students of both shifts, the PSQI scale was associated inversely and significantly with academic performance. A bad sleep quality influences academic performance in these students.

  15. The Surprising Impact of Seat Location on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Katherine K.; Wieman, Carl E.

    2005-01-01

    Every physics instructor knows that the most engaged and successful students tend to sit at the front of the class and the weakest students tend to sit at the back. However, it is normally assumed that this is merely an indication of the respective seat location preferences of weaker and stronger students. Here we present evidence suggesting that in fact this may be mixing up the cause and effect. It may be that the seat selection itself contributes to whether the student does well or poorly, rather than the other way around. While a number of studies have looked at the effect of seat location on students, the results are often inconclusive, and few, if any, have studied the effects in college classrooms with randomly assigned seats. In this paper, we report on our observations of a large introductory physics course in which we randomly assigned students to particular seat locations at the beginning of the semester. Seat location during the first half of the semester had a noticeable impact on student success in the course, particularly in the top and bottom parts of the grade distribution. Students sitting in the back of the room for the first half of the term were nearly six times as likely to receive an F as students who started in the front of the room. A corresponding but less dramatic reversal was evident in the fractions of students receiving As. These effects were in spite of many unusual efforts to engage students at the back of the class and a front-to-back reversal of seat location halfway through the term. These results suggest there may be inherent detrimental effects of large physics lecture halls that need to be further explored.

  16. Increased needle nitrogen contents did not improve shoot photosynthetic performance of mature nitrogen-poor Scots pine trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Tarvainen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modelling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar P deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute towards lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises

  17. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  18. Students' Understanding of Cloud and Rainbow Formation and Teachers' Awareness of Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleus, Elina; Kikas, Eve; Kruus, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    This study describes primary school students' knowledge about rainfall, clouds and rainbow formation together with teachers' predictions about students' performance. In our study, primary school students' (N = 177) knowledge about rainfall and rainbow formation was examined using structured interviews with open-ended questions. Primary school…

  19. The interplay between academic performance and quality of life among preclinical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A; Al-Khateeb, Abdulrahman A; Abudan, Zainab; Alkhani, Mohammed A; Zebian, Sanderlla I; Qannita, Ahmed S; Tabrizi, Mariam J

    2015-10-31

    The high academic performance of medical students greatly influences their professional competence in long term career. Meanwhile, medical students greatly demand procuring a good quality of life that can help them sustain their medical career. This study examines validity and reliability of the tool among preclinical students and testifies the influence of their scholastic performance along with gender and academic year on their quality of life. A cross sectional study was conducted by distributing World Health Organization Quality of Life, WHOQOL-BREF, survey among medical students of year one to three at Alfaisal University. For validity, item discriminate validity(IDV) and confirmatory factor analysis were measured and for reliability, Cronbach's α test and internal item consistency(IIC) were examined. The association of GPA, gender and academic year with all major domains was drawn using Pearson's correlation, independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA, respectively. A total of 335 preclinical students have responded to this questionnaire. The construct has demonstrated an adequate validity and good reliability. The high academic performance of students positively correlated with physical (r = 0.23, p student scored higher than female peers in physical and psychological health. This study has identified a direct relationship between the academic performance of preclinical students and their quality of life. The WHOQOL-BREF is a valid and reliable tool among preclinical students and the positive direction of high academic performance with greater QOL suggests that academic achievers procure higher satisfaction and poor achievers need a special attention for the improvement of their quality of life.

  20. Factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kajal; Naidoo, Kovin; Bilotto, Luigi; Loughman, James

    2015-06-01

    The Mozambique Eyecare Project is a higher education partnership for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a model of optometry training at UniLúrio in Mozambique. There are many composite elements to the development of sustainable eye health structures, and appropriate education for eye health workers remains a key determinant of successful eye care development. However, from the first intake of 16 students, only 9 students graduated from the program, whereas only 6 graduated from the second intake of 24 students. This low graduation rate is attributable to a combination of substandard academic performance and student dropout. The aim of this article was to identify factors affecting the academic performance of optometry students in Mozambique. Nine lecturers (the entire faculty) and 15 students (9 from the first intake and 6 from the second) were recruited to the study. Clinical competency assessments were carried out on the students, semistructured individual interviews were conducted with the course lecturers, and a course evaluation questionnaire was completed by students. The results were combined to understand the complexities surrounding the optometry student training and performance. One student out of nine from the first intake and three students out of six from the second were graded as competent in all the elements of the refraction clinical competency examination. Analysis of data from the interviews and questionnaire yielded four dominant themes that were viewed as important determinants of student refraction competencies: student learning context, teaching context, clinic conditions and assessment, and the existing operating health care context. The evaluations have helped the university and course partners to better structure the teaching and adapt the learning environments by recommending a preparatory year and a review of the curriculum and clinic structure, implementing more transparent entry requirements, increasing awareness of

  1. How do high and low levels of social trust affect the long-run performance of poor economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundlach, Erich; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2018-01-01

    Poor countries with high levels of social trust are shown to experience a hump-shaped pattern of long-run growth. With social trust modeled as a human capital externality, a calibrated two-sector model (Lucas 2009) replicates the observed hump-shaped growth path. The simulation results imply...... that a hypothetical poor economy with a high level of social trust, when beginning at a relative income level of 10%, may need about 150 years to reach 50% of the income level of the leading countries. However, the process of catching up may only begin after 150 years of relative stagnation for a hypothetical poor...

  2. IMPACT OF SELF ESTEEM & SUPPORT ON STUDENT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal SHAHZAD

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Education is life blood for development of country. This paper explores the impact of various factors on student performance. Data was collected from ten (10 Govt. & Private schools in Rawalpindi. Out of 1100 hundred responded 600 hundred responses inducted in this study. Simple regression employed in this study to test the hypothesis. The result concluded that both factor have significant negative relationship with student performance. In future, the difference of performance level among male and female may be explored in term of pick & drop facility, university distance from home and other responsibility due on male student as they grow.

  3. Calibration between Undergraduate Students' Prediction of and Actual Performance: The Role of Gender and Performance Attributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Antonio P.; Price, Addison F.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated changes in male and female students' prediction and postdiction calibration accuracy and bias scores, and the predictive effects of explanatory styles on these variables beyond gender. Seventy undergraduate students rated their confidence in performance before and after a 40-item exam. There was an improvement in students'…

  4. Student Engagement and Academic Performance in the Colombian University Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda-Báez, Clelia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase in Latin America of Higher Education coverage, grave dropout problems persist that question the role of educational experiences to foster students’ academic engagement. This study was carried out in Colombia and sought to establish the relationship between the five benchmarks that compose academic engagement and the academic performance of a group of Colombian university students. The transversal and correlational study used the Spanish version of the National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE that measures students’ level of participation in five dimensions: Academic challenge, active and collaborative learning, student-faculty interaction, enriching educational experiences, and supportive campus environment and its relationship to academic performance. The findings of 1906 students from 7 universities indicate that there are statistically significant, but weak correlations between the items that compose the benchmarks and students’ academic performance, which lead to reflect upon key aspects to strengthen the education experiences offered to university students.

  5. Family and academic performance: identifying high school student profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Aleli Chaparro Caso López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify profiles of high school students, based on variables related to academic performance, socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family organization. A total of 21,724 high school students, from the five municipalities of the state of Baja California, took part. A K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify the profiles. The analyses identified two clearly-defined clusters: Cluster 1 grouped together students with high academic performance and who achieved higher scores for socioeconomic status, cultural capital and family involvement, whereas Cluster 2 brought together students with low academic achievement, and who also obtained lower scores for socioeconomic status and cultural capital, and had less family involvement. It is concluded that the family variables analyzed form student profiles that can be related to academic achievement.

  6. [How medical students perform academically by admission types?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hoon; Lee, Keumho; Hur, Yera; Kim, Ji-Ha

    2013-09-01

    Despite the importance of selecting students whom are capable for medical education and to become a good doctor, not enough studies have been done in the category. This study focused on analysing the medical students' academic performance (grade point average, GPA) differences, flunk and dropout rates by admission types. From 2004 to 2010, we gathered 369 Konyang University College of Medicine's students admission data and analyzed the differences between admission method and academic achievement, differences in failure and dropout rates. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), ordinary least square, and logistic regression were used. The rolling students showed higher academic achievement from year 1 to 3 than regular students (p dropout rate by admission types, regular admission type students showed higher drop out rate than the rolling ones which demonstrates admission types gives significant effect on flunk or dropout rates in medical students (p students tend to show lower flunk rate and dropout rates and perform better academically. This implies selecting students primarily by Korean College Scholastic Ability Test does not guarantee their academic success in medical education. Thus we suggest a more in-depth comprehensive method of selecting students that are appropriate to individual medical school's educational goal.

  7. Performance of International Medical Students In psychosocial medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D; Lauter, J; Roesch Ely, D; Koch, E; Möltner, A; Herzog, W; Resch, F; Herpertz, S C; Nikendei, C

    2017-07-10

    Particularly at the beginning of their studies, international medical students face a number of language-related, social and intercultural challenges. Thus, they perform poorer than their local counterparts in written and oral examinations as well as in Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in the fields of internal medicine and surgery. It is still unknown how international students perform in an OSCE in the field of psychosocial medicine compared to their local fellow students. All students (N = 1033) taking the OSCE in the field of psychosocial medicine and an accompanying written examination in their eighth or ninth semester between 2012 and 2015 were included in the analysis. The OSCE consisted of four different stations, in which students had to perform and manage a patient encounter with simulated patients suffering from 1) post-traumatic stress disorder, 2) schizophrenia, 3) borderline personality disorder and 4) either suicidal tendency or dementia. Students were evaluated by trained lecturers using global checklists assessing specific professional domains, namely building a relationship with the patient, conversational skills, anamnesis, as well as psychopathological findings and decision-making. International medical students scored significantly poorer than their local peers (p International students showed poorer results in clinical-practical exams in the field of psychosocial medicine, with conversational skills yielding the poorest scores. However, regarding factual and practical knowledge examined via a multiple-choice test, no differences emerged between international and local students. These findings have decisive implications for relationship building in the doctor-patient relationship.

  8. Determinants of Students Academic Performance in Senior High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A binary logit model is used to investigate the determinants of students' performance in the final high school examination. Questionnaires were administered to a sample of 1,129 final year students (614 boys and 515 girls) in ten senior high schools (SHSs) during the 2008/2009 academic year. Respondents were requested ...

  9. 314 A Study of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Students' Academic Performance in English Language and Mathematics ... passed at credit level by secondary schools students in public examinations. A credit level ..... ls O n lin e: www.a jo l.in fo. T ab le 1. : P ercen tage of p asses and failu.

  10. The Relationship between Religiosity and Academic Performance amongst Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubairu, Umaru Mustapha; Sakariyau, Olalekan Busra

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the association between religiosity and academic performance among accounting students enrolled at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is explored, as recent research demonstrates a positive association between religiosity and academic success. Students' religiosity was measured using proxies from an Islamic…

  11. The effect of student learning strategies on performance and carrier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the learning strategies of 500 undergraduate students in higher education in the Wa Campus of the University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana and the effect on their performance and carrier aspirations. Twenty lecturers and managers of three development organisations that receive students ...

  12. Factors influencing academic performance of real estate students in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayodele, Timothy Oluwafemi; Oladokun, Timothy Tunde; Gbadegesin, J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting academic performance of real estate students in a developing country like Nigeria. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the study were collected with the aid of questionnaire served on 152 final year real estate students of

  13. The Effect of School Design on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, Mohsen Ghasemi; Mirdad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring the influence of school design on student performance. The participants consisted of 150 students who studied at two Iranian public school and private school in Mashhad City. School Design and Planning Laboratory (SDPL) model of Georgia University (and Tanner (2009)) was used as an appraisal indicator of school…

  14. Free Improvisation and Performance Anxiety among Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the levels of anxiety that students experienced according to whether their public performance consisted of a free improvisation or a repertory piece. The researcher had two objectives: (1) examine the relationship of students' levels of anxiety to free improvisation and repertory pieces during a…

  15. Academic Performance of Less Endowed High School Students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper investigates the academic performance of students from less endowed senior high schools in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Questionnaires were administered to 152 (123 males and 29 females) fourth year students who enrolled for various programmes at KNUST in 2007 ...

  16. The Effect of Accounting Question Response Formats on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonick, Christine; Schneider, Jennifer; Boylan, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to examine the effect of different response formats on student performance on introductory accounting exam questions. The study analyzes 1104 accounting students' responses to quantitative questions presented in two formats: multiple-choice and fill-in. Findings indicate that response format impacts student…

  17. Motivating students to perform an experiment in technological design contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logman, P.S.W.M.; Kaper, W.H.; Ellermeijer, A.L.; Lindell, A.; Kähkönen, A.-L.; Viiri, J.

    2012-01-01

    In a teaching-learning sequence on the subject of energy we have tried technological design contexts to motivate students by using only context-based reasons to perform experiments on the subject of energy. We use these experiments to have the students reinvent practical laws of energy conservation

  18. How Concept-Mapping Perception Navigates Student Knowledge Transfer Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Chi-Cheng; Lou, Shi-Jer; Tan, Yue; Chiu, Chien-Jung

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate students' perception of concept maps as a learning tool where knowledge transfer is the goal. This article includes an evaluation of the learning performance of 42 undergraduate students enrolled in a nanotech course at a university in Taiwan. Canonical correlation and MANOVA analyses were employed to…

  19. Undergraduate Student Happiness and Academic Performance: A Correlation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between undergraduate student happiness and academic performance (GPA), controlling for age, gender, and race/ethnicity for third and fourth year business students at University of Phoenix, Little Rock Campus. The eight-item Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ) was used to measure the…

  20. Predicting students' intention to use stimulants for academic performance enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnet, Koen; Wouters, Edwin; Walrave, Michel; Heirman, Wannes; Van Hal, Guido

    2015-02-01

    The non-medical use of stimulants for academic performance enhancement is becoming a more common practice among college and university students. The objective of this study is to gain a better understanding of students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of enhancing their academic performance. Based on an extended model of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, psychological distress, procrastination, substance use, and alcohol use on students' intention to use stimulants to improve their academic performance. The sample consisted of 3,589 Flemish university and college students (mean age: 21.59, SD: 4.09), who participated anonymously in an online survey conducted in March and April 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that subjective norm is the strongest predictor of students' intention to use stimulant medication, followed by attitude and perceived behavioral control. To a lesser extent, procrastinating tendencies, psychological distress, and substance abuse contribute to students' intention. Conclusions/ Importance: Based on these findings, we provide several recommendations on how to curtail students' intention to use stimulant medication for the purpose of improving their academic performance. In addition, we urge researchers to identify other psychological variables that might be related to students' intention.

  1. Evaluating Technology Resistance and Technology Satisfaction on Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norzaidi, Mohd Daud; Salwani, Mohamed Intan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Using the extended task-technology fit (TTF) model, this paper aims to examine technology resistance, technology satisfaction and internet usage on students' performance. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted at Universiti Teknologi MARA, Johor, Malaysia and questionnaires were distributed to 354 undergraduate students.…

  2. Science Learning Motivation as Correlate of Students' Academic Performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libao, Nhorvien Jay P.; Sagun, Jessie John B.; Tamangan, Elvira A.; Pattalitan, Agaton P., Jr.; Dupa, Maria Elena D.; Bautista, Romiro G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze the relationship of students' learning motivation and their academic performances in science. The study made use of 21 junior and senior Biological Science students to conclude on the formulated research problems. The respondents had a good to very good motivation in learning science. In general, the extent of…

  3. The contribution of gender to students' academic performances | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work used the ex post facto to design and deepen our understanding of the relationship between gender and students academic performances in social studies. The sample comprised 330 JSS III students (130 male and 200 female) drawn from 50 out of 73 schools in Calabar Educational Zone. Two instruments were ...

  4. An Empirical Investigation of MPA Student Performance and Admissions Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragothaman, Srinivasan; Carpenter, Jon; Davies, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The quality of a Master of Professional Accountancy (MPA) program, similar to other undergraduate and graduate programs in business and other disciplines, is typically directly related to the quality of its students. While there is a considerable published scholarly work on MBA student performance, there is very little research to predict student…

  5. Relationships between Minority Students Online Learning Experiences and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Alex Kumi; Smith, Patriann

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between minority students' use of technology, social media, the number of online courses, program of study, satisfaction, and academic performance. Participants in the study were a diverse student body regarding age, gender, and educational level, and functioned at both undergraduate and graduate levels.…

  6. An Agency Theory Perspective on Student Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Zsidisin, George A.; Adams, Laural L.

    2005-01-01

    The emphasis in recent research on the responsibility of college and university business instructors to prepare students for future employment underscores a need to refine the evaluation of student performance. In this article, an agency theory framework is used to understand the trade-offs that may be involved in the selection of various…

  7. Creating Masterpieces: How Course Structures and Routines Enable Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kathy Lund; Fornaciari, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Over a five-year period, we made a persistent observation: Course structures and routines, such as assignment parameters, student group process rules, and grading schemes were being consistently ignored. As a result, we got distracted by correcting these structural issues and were spending less time on student assignment performance. In this…

  8. Providing Specialty Care for the Poor and Underserved at Student-Run Free Clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Max Bolun; Xiong, Grace; Boggiano, Victoria Lynn; Ye, Patrick Peiyong; Lin, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the model of specialty clinics implemented at Stanford University's two student-run free clinics, Arbor Free Clinic and Pacific Free Clinic, in the San Francisco Bay Area. We describe our patient demographic characteristics and the specialty services provided. We discuss challenges in implementing specialty care at student-run free clinics.

  9. One-trial conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea: good and poor performers in long-term memory acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugai, Rio; Azami, Sachiyo; Shiga, Hatsuki; Watanabe, Takayuki; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Suguru; Hatakeyama, Dai; Fujito, Yutaka; Lukowiak, Ken; Ito, Etsuro

    2007-04-01

    In the majority of studies designed to elucidate the causal mechanisms of memory formation, certain members of the experimental cohort, even though subjected to exactly the same conditioning procedures, remember significantly better than others, whereas others show little or no long-term memory (LTM) formation. To begin to address the question of why this phenomenon occurs and thereby help clarify the causal mechanism of LTM formation, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure on individuals of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis and analyzed their subsequent behavior. Using sucrose as an appetitive stimulus and KCl as an aversive stimulus, we obtained a constant ratio of ;poor' to ;good' performers for CTA-LTM. We found that approximately 40% of trained snails possessed LTM following a one-trial conditioning procedure. When we examined the time-window necessary for the memory consolidation, we found that if we cooled snails to 4 degrees C for 30 min within 10 min after the one-trial conditioning, LTM was blocked. However, with delayed cooling (i.e. longer than 10 min), LTM was present. We could further interfere with LTM formation by inducing inhibitory learning (i.e. backward conditioning) after the one-trial conditioning. Finally, we examined whether we could motivate snails to acquire LTM by depriving them of food for 5 days before the one-trial conditioning. Food-deprived snails, however, failed to exhibit LTM following the one-trial conditioning. These results will help us begin to clarify why some individuals are better at learning and forming memory for specific tasks at the neuronal level.

  10. Cross-National Variations in Student Employment and Academic Performance: The Roles of National Context and International Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-Yong; Henck, Adrienne; Post, David

    Most existing research indicates that working students perform more poorly than do full-time students on standardized achievement tests. However, we know there are wide international variations in this gap. This article shows that national and international contexts help to explain the gap in the academic performance between working and non-working middle-school students. We combined data from the 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) eighth-grade assessment with the country specific information on socioeconomic and educational conditions, as well as the timing of each country's ratification of an international treaty regulating child labor. Our multilevel analyses show that, while student employment was generally negatively associated with academic performance, this negative association is smaller in countries that by 1995 had ratified the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 138 on child labor. These findings highlight the role of national and international policy in structuring the consequences of student employment for academic performance.

  11. Cross-National Variations in Student Employment and Academic Performance: The Roles of National Context and International Law*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Henck, Adrienne; Post, David

    2014-01-01

    Most existing research indicates that working students perform more poorly than do full-time students on standardized achievement tests. However, we know there are wide international variations in this gap. This article shows that national and international contexts help to explain the gap in the academic performance between working and non-working middle-school students. We combined data from the 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) eighth-grade assessment with the country specific information on socioeconomic and educational conditions, as well as the timing of each country's ratification of an international treaty regulating child labor. Our multilevel analyses show that, while student employment was generally negatively associated with academic performance, this negative association is smaller in countries that by 1995 had ratified the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 138 on child labor. These findings highlight the role of national and international policy in structuring the consequences of student employment for academic performance. PMID:25632163

  12. Influence of course characteristics, student characteristics, and behavior in learning management systems on student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Conijn, Rianne; Kleingeld, Ad; Matzat, Uwe; Snijders, Chris; van Zaanen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    The use of learning management systems (LMS) in education make it possible to track students’ online behavior. This data can be used for educational data mining and learning analytics, for example, by predicting student performance. Although LMS data might contain useful predictors, course characteristics and student characteristics have shown to influence student performance as well. However, these different sets of features are rarely combined or compared. Therefore, in the current study we...

  13. Precision Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Poor Performing Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westover, Kenneth D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Gerber, David E. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Iyengar, Puneeth; Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Diehn, Maximilian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Hughes, Randy; Schiller, Joan; Dowell, Jonathan [Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Wardak, Zabi [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Sher, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin [Department of Clinical Science, Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Corona, Irma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Sharma, Akanksha [School of Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Wadsworth, Margaret E. [Radiation Oncology of Mississippi, Jackson, Mississippi (United States); Timmerman, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Timmerman@utsouthwestern.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: Treatment regimens for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) give suboptimal clinical outcomes. Technological advancements such as radiation therapy, the backbone of most treatment regimens, may enable more potent and effective therapies. The objective of this study was to escalate radiation therapy to a tumoricidal hypofractionated dose without exceeding the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage II to IV or recurrent NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or greater and not candidates for surgical resection, stereotactic radiation, or concurrent chemoradiation were eligible. Highly conformal radiation therapy was given to treat intrathoracic disease in 15 fractions to a total of 50, 55, or 60 Gy. Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled: 15 at the 50-Gy, 21 at the 55-Gy, and 19 at the 60-Gy dose levels. A 90-day follow-up was completed in each group without exceeding the MTD. With a median follow-up of 12.5 months, there were 93 grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), including 39 deaths, although most AEs were considered related to factors other than radiation therapy. One patient from the 55- and 60-Gy dose groups developed grade ≥3 esophagitis, and 5, 4, and 4 patients in the respective dose groups experienced grade ≥3 dyspnea, but only 2 of these AEs were considered likely related to therapy. There was no association between fraction size and toxicity (P=.24). The median overall survival was 6 months with no significant differences between dose levels (P=.59). Conclusions: Precision hypofractionated radiation therapy consisting of 60 Gy in 15 fractions for locally advanced NSCLC is generally well tolerated. This treatment regimen could provide patients with poor performance status a potent alternative to chemoradiation. This study has implications for the cost effectiveness of lung cancer therapy. Additional studies of long

  14. Comparison and Prediction of Preclinical Students' Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    The data support the hypothesis that students who performed well in one discipline were likely to .... predict success in the clinical curriculum (Baciewicz,. 1990). Similarly ... the International Association of Medical Science. Educators. 17-20.

  15. academic performance of less endowed high school students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    girls) who obtained the basic requirements for courses that they ... Academic performance of students from less endowed senior high ... 106 ... only pay academic facility user fees. The second ..... certificate education, Pro is senior executive.

  16. Effects of Team Teaching on Students Performance in Introductory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Students taught. Introductory Technology through team teaching approach performed ... Vocational education differs in both concept and status in different nations of ... completion of the course, can carry out simple daily maintenance of motor.

  17. Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors Influencing Student Nurses' Performance in the Final Practical Examination ... Staff development courses can be held to coordinate the work of the school ... to authentic individual nursing care of patients so that they use the individual ...

  18. LOGICAL REASONING ABILITY AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN GENERAL CHEMISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lillian

    2010-03-01

    Logical reasoning skills of students enrolled in General Chemistry at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras were measured using the Group Assessment of Logical Thinking (GALT) test. The results were used to determine the students' cognitive level (concrete, transitional, formal) as well as their level of performance by logical reasoning mode (mass/volume conservation, proportional reasoning, correlational reasoning, experimental variable control, probabilistic reasoning and combinatorial reasoning). This information was used to identify particular deficiencies and gender effects, and to determine which logical reasoning modes were the best predictors of student performance in the general chemistry course. Statistical tests to analyze the relation between (a) operational level and final grade in both semesters of the course; (b) GALT test results and performance in the ACS General Chemistry Examination; and (c) operational level and student approach (algorithmic or conceptual) towards a test question that may be answered correctly using either strategy, were also performed.

  19. Encouraging Students to Enhance Their Listening Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Ocampo Sonia Patricia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Spanish-speaking students constantly complain about the difficulty they have comprehending spoken English. It seems teachers do not often provide them with strategies to alleviate that. This article reports on a pedagogical experience carried out at a Colombian university to help pre-service teachers at an intermediate level of English to improve their aural comprehension. The students were given the task of designing listening activities to be worked on as micro-teaching sessions and were asked to describe their experience by answering a survey. The results showed that students developed the ability to think critically since they needed to make the best decisions regarding the audio level and the design of the activities. They also appeared to have become more autonomous as they realized they could be responsible for their improvement in listening. Additionally, there were evident changes in the teachers’ roles.Es común que los hablantes de español se quejen de su comprensión oral en inglés. Parece que los profesores no siempre dan a sus estudiantes estrategias para mejorar al respecto. En este artículo se describe la experiencia pedagógica desarrollada en una universidad colombiana con el propósito de ayudar a los estudiantes de inglés intermedio de una licenciatura a mejorar su comprensión auditiva. Se pidió a los estudiantes desarrollar actividades de escucha para ser trabajadas en sesiones de microenseñanza y describir su experiencia, contestando una encuesta. Los resultados evidenciaron que los estudiantes desarrollaron su pensamiento crítico en la medida que necesitaban tomar decisiones con respecto al nivel de dificultad del audio y al diseño de las actividades mismas. También se mostraron más autónomos por cuanto se hicieron conscientes de su responsabilidad en el mejoramiento de su comprensión oral. Adicionalmente, se dieron cambios en los papeles del profesor.

  20. Talented Students' Satisfaction with the Performance of the Gifted Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Mamoud Al–Zoubi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to identify talented students' levels of satisfaction with the performance of the gifted centers. The sample of the study consisted of (142 gifted and talented students enrolled in the Najran Centers for Gifted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to the sample of the study. The results revealed that talented students were highly satisfied with the administration and teachers, whereas they were only moderately satisfied with enrichment activities, teaching methods, student relationships and facilities and equipment. Moreover, results also showed that there were no significant differences could be attributed to gender or to the level of schooling.

  1. Predicting Students' Performance in the Senior Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    correlation design. ... the JSC examinations were a good predictor of performance at SSC ..... Table 12: Effects of the Independent Variables (JSCE 2000) on the .... JAMB Brochure, Abuja: Joint Admissions and Matriculation Examinations, 2-3.

  2. Nutritional quality of diet and academic performance in Chilean students

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16?years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. Methods We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8???0.5?years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point avera...

  3. Accounting for Non-Accounting Students: What Affects Their Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Suhaiza Ismail; Nurkamariah Kasim

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine the factors affecting the examination performance of non-accounting students in completing an accounting course, that is, Management Accounting. A questionnaire survey was administered to a total of 147 non-accounting students who enrolled in a Management Accounting course for a semester. The factors considered are gender, prior academic performance, year of study and learning approaches adopted which include deep, surface and strategic approaches. Using multiple re...

  4. Association between overweight and obesity with school performance in secondary students in Merida, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Rendón, Juan Carlos; Méndez, Nina; Azcorra, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    Some studies have found a negative relationship between obesity and school performance in scholars. However, this topic has not been studied in depth in Mexico. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between overweight and obesity with school performance in secondary school students from Merida. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated in a sample of 566 secondary students in Merida. Nutritional status was classified in normal weight (-2- + 2 SD) according to the World Health Organization criteria. The scores in language, mathematics and sciences were used as indicators of school performance. Good performance was considered when the scores were ≥8 points, and poor performance when scores were <8 points. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the association between the variables. The 44% of the sample met the criteria for overweight and obesity. After adjusting for school grade, type of school, number of absences, and Mayan surnames, we found that girls classified as obese had a significant risk of a poor performance in mathematics (odds ratio [OR]: 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-6.80) and language (OR: 2.55; 95% CI: 1.14-5.71) compared with those with healthy weight. Our results suggest that obesity represents a risk of having a lower school performance in girls but not in boys. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  5. Common mental disorder and its association with academic performance among Debre Berhan University students, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Yohannes Gebreegziabhere; Alemu, Sisay Mulugeta; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie

    2017-01-01

    Common mental disorder (CMD) is prevalent in industrialized and non-industrialized countries. The prevalence of CMD among university students was 28.8-44.7% and attributed to several risk factors, such as schooling. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors of CMD. In addition, the association between CMD and academic performance was tested. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted with 422 students at Debre Berhan university from March to April 2015. CMD was the primary outcome variable whereas academic performance was the secondary outcome variable. Kessler psychological distress (K10) scale was used to assess CMD. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed for modeling the primary outcome variable; independent samples T test and linear regression analysis were carried out for modeling the secondary outcome variable. The strength of association was interpreted using odds ratio and regression coefficient (β) and decision on statistical significance was made at a p value of 0.05. Data were entered using EPI-data version 3.1 software and analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.01 software. The prevalence of CMD was 63.1%. Field of study (p = 0.008, OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.04-0.61), worshiping (p = 0.04, OR = 1.8, 95% CI 1.02-3.35), insomnia (p academic performance between students. At least three out of five students fulfilled CMD diagnostic criteria. The statistically significant risk factors were field of study, worshiping, insomnia, alcohol drinking, and headache. Moreover, there was no statistically significant association between CMD and academic performance. Undertaking integrated evidence-based intervention focusing on students with poor sleep quality, poor physical health, and who drink alcohol is essential if the present finding confirmed by a longitudinal study.

  6. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years. Relationship with stress and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaggaf, Mohammed A; Wali, Siraj O; Merdad, Roah A; Merdad, Leena A

    2016-02-01

    To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320) were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep.

  7. Sleep quantity, quality, and insomnia symptoms of medical students during clinical years. Relationship with stress and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Alsaggaf

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine sleep habits and sleep quality in medical students during their clinical years using validated measures; and to investigate associations with academic performance and psychological stress. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, medical students (n=320 were randomly selected from a list of all enrolled clinical-year students in a Saudi medical school from 2011-2012. Students filled a questionnaire including demographic and lifestyle factors, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and Perceived Stress Scale. Results: Students acquired on average, 5.8 hours of sleep each night, with an average bedtime at 01:53. Approximately 8% reported acquiring sleep during the day, and not during nighttime. Poor sleep quality was present in 30%, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS in 40%, and insomnia symptoms in 33% of students. Multivariable regression models revealed significant associations between stress, poor sleep quality, and EDS. Poorer academic performance and stress were associated with symptoms of insomnia. Conclusion: Sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, and EDS are common among clinical years medical students. High levels of stress and the pressure of maintaining grade point averages may be influencing their quality of sleep.

  8. The Impact of Taking a College Pre-Calculus Course on Students' College Calculus Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.

    2014-01-01

    Poor performance on placement exams keeps many US students who pursue a STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) career from enrolling directly in college calculus. Instead, they must take a pre-calculus course that aims to better prepare them for later calculus coursework. In the USA, enrollment in pre-calculus courses in two- and…

  9. An Assessment of Students' Performance in Communication Skills: A Case Study of the University of Education Winneba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemanyi, Abena Abokoma

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to find out the factors that account for the poor performances of students and to find out ways of improving the teaching and learning of the Communication Skills course at the University of Education, Winneba. The research also had an aim of bringing to light suggestions and recommendations on how to improve the teaching and…

  10. IM-Chem: The Use of Instant Messaging to Improve Student Performance and Personalize Large Lecture General Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmke, Derek A.; Atwood, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked poor student performance with the depersonalized feeling of large lecture courses. Various forms of enhanced communication have been tried that appear to enhance personalization in large courses. For general chemistry classes taught in a 365-seat lecture hall at the University of Georgia, we have attempted to enhance…

  11. Sleep and Student Performance at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Potts-Datema, William

    2005-01-01

    To review the state of research on the association between sleep among school-aged children and academic outcomes, the authors reviewed published studies investigating sleep, school performance, and cognitive and achievement tests. Tables with brief descriptions of each study's research methods and outcomes are included. Research reveals a high…

  12. Nutrition and student performance at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard

    2005-08-01

    This article reviews research from published studies on the association between nutrition among school-aged children and their performance in school and on tests of cognitive functioning. Each reviewed article is accompanied by a brief description of its research methodology and outcomes. Articles are separated into 4 categories: food insufficiency, iron deficiency and supplementation, deficiency and supplementation of micronutrients, and the importance of breakfast. Research shows that children with iron deficiencies sufficient to cause anemia are at a disadvantage academically. Their cognitive performance seems to improve with iron therapy. A similar association and improvement with therapy is not found with either zinc or iodine deficiency, according to the reviewed articles. There is no evidence that population-wide vitamin and mineral supplementation will lead to improved academic performance. Food insufficiency is a serious problem affecting children's ability to learn, but its relevance to US populations needs to be better understood. Research indicates that school breakfast programs seem to improve attendance rates and decrease tardiness. Among severely undernourished populations, school breakfast programs seem to improve academic performance and cognitive functioning.

  13. Noncognitive Predictors of Student Athletes' Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Herbert D.; Van Rheenen, Derek

    2000-01-01

    Examines the role of four noncognitive variables in predicting academic performance in 200 Division I athletes. Studies the noncognitive variables of athletic-academic commitment, feelings of being exploited, academic self-worth, self-handicapping excuses as well as several background and academic preparation variables. Finds all four noncognitive…

  14. Liberal versus neo-developmental convention to growth: why has Brazil shown a poor performance since the 1980s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Nassif

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of our paper is to provide analytical arguments to explain why Brazil has not been able to restore its long-term capacity for economic growth, especially compared with its economy in the 1950-1979 period (7.3 per cent per year on average or even with a select number of emerging economies in the 1980-2010 period(6.7 per cent per year on average, against 2.3 per cent per year on average in Brazil in the same period. We build our idea of convention to growth based on the Keynesian concept of convention. For our purposes, this concept could be briefly summarized as the way in which the set of public and private economic decisions related to different objectives, such as how much to produce and invest, how much to charge for products and services, how to finance public and private debt, how to finance research and development, and so on, are indefinitely - or at least until there is no change- carried out by the political, economic and social institutions. This analytical reference can be connected to the Neo-Schumpeterian National Innovation System (NIS concept, which emphasizes not only institutions associated with science and technology per se, but also the complex interaction among them and other institutions. In this paper we identify two conventions to long-term growth in the last three decades in Brazil: the liberal and the neo-developmental. We show that the poor performance in the Brazilian economy in terms of real GDP growth from the 1980s on can be explained by a weak coordination between short-term macroeconomic policies and long-term industrial and technological policies. This weak coordination, in turn, can be associated with the prevalence of the liberal convention from the 1990s on, which has emphasized price stabilization to the detriment of a neo-developmental strategy whose primary goal is to sustain higher rates of growth and full employment in Brazil.

  15. Poor mental health, peer drinking norms, and alcohol risk in a social network of first-year college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; DiGuiseppi, Graham T; Meisel, Matthew K; Balestrieri, Sara G; Barnett, Nancy P

    2018-04-16

    College students with anxiety and depressive symptomatology face escalated risk for alcohol-related negative consequences. While it is well-established that normative perceptions of proximal peers' drinking behaviors influence students' own drinking behaviors, it is not clear how mental health status impacts this association. In the current study, we examined cross-sectional relationships between anxiety and depressed mood, perceived drinking behaviors and attitudes of important peers, and past month alcohol consumption and related problems in a first-semester college student social network. Participants (N = 1254, 55% female, 47% non-Hispanic White) were first-year students residing on campus at a single university who completed a web-based survey assessing alcohol use, mental health, and social connections among first-year student peers. Network autocorrelation models were used to examine the independent and interactive associations between mental health and perceptions of close peers' drinking on drinking outcomes, controlling for important variables. Mental health interacted with perceptions to predict past-month drinking outcomes, such that higher anxiety and higher perceptions that peers drink heavily was associated with more drinks consumed and consequences, and higher depression and perceptions was associated with more drinks consumed, heavy drinking frequency, and consequences. Attitudes that peers approve of heavy drinking were associated with more drinks consumed and heavy drinking frequency among students with lower (vs. higher) depressed mood. This study provides strong evidence that perceiving that close peers drink heavily is particularly risk-enhancing for anxious and depressed college students, and offers implications about alcohol intervention targeted at these subgroups. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Low physical activity and high screen time can increase the risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality among Chinese college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    Full Text Available To test the independent and interactive associations of physical activity (PA and screen time (ST with self-reported mental health and sleep quality among Chinese college students.Data were collected in October, 2013. The gender, age, residential background, body mass index (BMI, perceived family economy and perceived study burden were obtained from a total of 4747 college students (41.6% males and 58.4% females. The outcomes were self-reported PA status, ST, anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and sleep quality. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models.Overall, 16.3%, 15.9% and 17.3% of the students had psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression and psychopathological symptoms, respectively. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 9.8%. High ST was significantly positively associated with anxiety (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.15-1.65, depression (OR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.47-2.09, psychopathological symptoms (OR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.43-2.01 and poor sleep quality (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.06-1.65. High PA was insignificantly negatively associated with anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and poor sleep. Low PA and high ST were independently and interactively associated with increased risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality (p<0.05 for all.Interventions are needed to reduce ST and increase PA in the lifestyles of young people. Future research should develop and measure the impacts of interventions and their potential consequences on sleep, health, and well being.

  17. Increased body weight affects academic performance in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela S. Anderson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For K-12 students, obesity has been linked to student educational achievements. The study objective was to determine whether academic performance in university students is correlated with BMI. Students from two consecutive academic years (Jan–May 2013 and Jan–May 2014 were given an optional class survey in May, as extra credit. Of the 452 students that completed the survey, 204 females and 75 males (N = 279; 73% female and 27% male consented to participate in the study. The number of correct answers to problem-solving questions (PSQs and the overall final grade for the class were compared to the calculated BMI using linear regression with a Pearson's R correlation and unpaired t-tests. BMI was significantly negatively correlated with student's final grades (P = 0.001 Pearson's r = −0.190 and PSQs were positively correlated with final grades (P < 0.001; Pearson's r = 0.357. Our findings show a correlation between healthy body weight and improved academic performance. Further, the data suggest that future research in the area of body weight, diet, and exercise and any correlations of these with academic performance in college students are warranted.

  18. Performance of first-year health sciences students in a large, diverse, multidisciplinary, first-semester, physiology service module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins-Opitz, Susan B; Tufts, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Health Science students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal perform better in their professional modules compared with their physiology modules. The pass rates of physiology service modules have steadily declined over the years. While a system is in place to identify "at-risk" students, it is only activated after the first semester. As a result, it is only from the second semester of their first year studies onward that at-risk students can be formally assisted. The challenge is thus to devise an appropriate strategy to identify struggling students earlier in the semester. Using questionnaires, students were asked about attendance, financing of their studies, and relevance of physiology. After the first class test, failing students were invited to complete a second questionnaire. In addition, demographic data were also collected and analyzed. Correlation analyses were undertaken of performance indicators based on the demographical data collected. The 2011 class comprised mainly sport science students (57%). The pass rate of sport science students was lower than the pass rates of other students (42% vs. 70%, P physiology and recognized its relevance. Key issues identified were problems understanding concepts and terminology, poor study environment and skills, and lack of matriculation biology. The results of the first class test and final module marks correlated well. It is clear from this study that student performance in the first class test is a valuable tool to identify struggling students and that appropriate testing should be held as early as possible. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  19. Performance of Senior Tourism Students in Using Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Dexter R. Buted

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study generally intended to reckon the previous and present condition of senior tourism students with regards on their foreign language class. Specifically, it described the profile of the professors teaching foreign language; determined the senior tourism student’s performances on their foreign language class; assessed the teaching strategies used by the professors; tested the significant relationship between the performances of the students to the teaching strategies used; and lastly, proposed an action plan to help tourism students in the study of foreign language. The researchers used the descriptive method of research, with one hundred seventy-eight (178 respondents composed of all senior tourism students who are enrolled in foreign language class. The result of the study revealed that the professors who are teaching foreign language are 61 years old and above, masters degree holder, 10 years and above, with a unit of 21 and can speak Spanish. Also, the students are able to speak and comprehend Mandarin, French and Spanish. The teaching techniques used by the professors in teaching the language was giving and evaluating student’s performance more often. Moreover, the performances of the students in foreign language are affected by the teaching strategies used by the professors. And a proposed plan was formulated to improve foreign language subject of the study

  20. Sleep disorder among medical students: relationship to their academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza M; Alrowais, Norah A; Bin-Saad, Norah S; Al-Subaie, Nourah M; Haji, Alhan M A; Alhaqwi, Ali I

    2012-01-01

    Medical students are exposed to a significant level of pressure due to academic demands. Their sleep pattern is characterized by insufficient sleep duration, delayed sleep onset, and occurrence of napping episodes during the day. To examine the prevalence of sleep disorder among medical students and investigate any relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance. This is a cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire-based study. The participants were medical students of the first, second, and third academic years. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was also included to identify sleep disorder and grade point average was recorded for academic performance. There were 491 responses with a response rate of 55%. The ESS score demonstrated that 36.6% of participants were considered to have abnormal sleep habits, with a statistically significant increase in female students (p = 0.000). Sleeping between 6-10 h per day was associated with normal ESS scores (p = 0.019) as well as the academic grades ≥ 3.75. Abnormal ESS scores were associated with lower academic achievement (p = 0.002). A high prevalence of sleep disorder was found in this group of students, specifically female students. Analysis of the relationship between sleep disorder and academic performance indicates a significant relationship between abnormal ESS scores, total sleeping hours, and academic performance.

  1. Video Game Playing and Academic Performance in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Stephen R.; Stermer, Steven Paul; Burgess, Melinda C. R.

    2012-01-01

    The relations between media consumption, especially TV viewing, and school performance have been extensively examined. However, even though video game playing may have replaced TV viewing as the most frequent form of media usage, relatively little research has examined its relations to school performance, especially in older students. We surveyed…

  2. Predicting Academic Performance Based on Students' Blog and Microblog Posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Popescu, Elvira; Becheru, Alexandru; Crossley, Scott; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which textual complexity indices applied on students’ online contributions, corroborated with a longitudinal analysis performed on their weekly posts, predict academic performance. The source of student writing consists of blog and microblog posts, created in

  3. Breakup Effects on University Students' Perceived Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    The Problem: Problems that might be expected to affect perceived academic performance were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: Breakup Distress Scale scores, less time since the breakup and no new relationship contributed to 16% of the variance on perceived academic performance. Variables that were related to academic…

  4. Cognitive Linguistic Performances of Multilingual University Students Suspected of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…

  5. Dynamic Open Inquiry Performances of High-School Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit

    2010-01-01

    In examining open inquiry projects among high-school biology students, we found dynamic inquiry performances expressed in two criteria: "changes occurring during inquiry" and "procedural understanding". Characterizing performances in a dynamic open inquiry project can shed light on both the procedural and epistemological…

  6. A yoga intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Judith R S; Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2012-09-01

    Music performance anxiety can adversely affect musicians. There is a need for additional treatment strategies, especially those that might be more acceptable to musicians than existing therapies. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a 9-week yoga practice on reducing music performance anxiety in undergraduate and graduate music conservatory students, including both vocalists and instrumentalists. The intervention consisted of fourteen 60-minute yoga classes approximately twice a week and a brief daily home practice. Of the 24 students enrolled in the study, 17 attended the post-intervention assessment. Participants who completed the measures at both pre- and post-intervention assessments showed large decreases in music performance anxiety as well as in trait anxiety. Improvements were sustained at 7- to 14-month follow-up. Participants generally provided positive comments about the program and its benefits. This study suggests that yoga is a promising intervention for music performance anxiety in conservatory students and therefore warrants further research.

  7. Assessing implicit gender bias in Medical Student Performance Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelson, Rick D; Solow, Catherine M; Ferguson, Kristi J; Cohen, Michael B

    2010-09-01

    For medical schools, the increasing presence of women makes it especially important that potential sources of gender bias be identified and removed from student evaluation methods. Our study looked for patterns of gender bias in adjective data used to inform our Medical Student Performance Evaluations (MSPEs). Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to model the latent structure of the adjectives attributed to students (n = 657) and to test for systematic scoring errors by gender. Gender bias was evident in two areas: (a) women were more likely than comparable men to be described as ''compassionate,'' ''sensitive,'' and ''enthusiastic'' and (b) men were more likely than comparable women to be seen as ''quick learners.'' The gender gap in ''quick learner'' attribution grows with increasing student proficiency; men's rate of increase is over twice that of women's. Technical and nontechnical approaches for ameliorating the impact of gender bias on student recommendations are suggested.

  8. Portuguese state university performance according to students: an efficiency analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Wagner Mainardes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research project is to evaluate the performance of Portuguese state universities in accordance with the expectations and satisfactions of their students and through recourse to the DEA methodology and thus representing one of the very few studies analysing university performance based upon student perceptions. According to an output oriented Variable Returns to Scale model, handling the responses returned by 1,669 students, the results demonstrate that faculties generally attain a good relationship between student expectations and their levels of satisfaction. We furthermore conclude that university scale does not guarantee efficiency. Hence, irrespective of size, universities are able to ensure the satisfaction of their students. Finally, the results show that satisfying only certain expectations related to specific aspects does not prove sufficient to guaranteeing overall student satisfaction. The analysis also correspondingly finds that while some decision making units prove efficient in satisfying expectations on specific aspects, they fail to attain such efficiency in the overall perspective of students.

  9. Student performance in a flipped classroom dental anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinan, S; Riedy, C A; Park, S E

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess dental student learning in a dental anatomy module between traditional lecture and flipped classroom cohorts. Two cohorts of predoctoral dental students (N = 70 within each cohort) participated in a dental anatomy module within an Introduction to the Dental Patient (IDP) course ([traditional/lecture cohort: academic year (AY) 2012, 2013] and [flipped classroom cohort: AY 2014, 2015]). For the dental anatomy module, both cohorts were evaluated on pre-clinical tooth waxing exercises immediately after each of five lectures and tooth identification after all lectures were given. Additionally, the cohorts' performance on the overall IDP course examination was compared. The flipped classroom cohort had statistically significant higher waxing scores (dental anatomy module) than students in the traditional classroom. There was no statistically significant difference for tooth identification scores and the overall IDP course examination between the traditional vs flipped approach cohorts. This is due to the latter two assessments conducted at the end of the course gave all students enough time to review the lecture content prior to the assessment resulting in similar scores for both cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort promoted students' individual learning and resulted in improved students' performance on immediate evaluation but not on the end of the course evaluation. Redesign of courses to include a new pedagogical approach should be carefully implemented and evaluated for student's educational success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Nursing Students' Intrinsic Motivation and Performance on the Licensure Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Michele G

    Unsuccessful attempts at licensure adversely affect graduates, prelicensure nursing education programs, health care agencies, and ultimately, patient safety. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to investigate the relationship between nursing students' intrinsic motivation and performance on the licensure examination. Nursing students responded to 12 questions related to reasons for learning as indicators of motivation type. Results indicated no statistically significant correlations between variables.

  11. The effects of policies concerning teachers' wages on students' performance

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Júlia

    2017-01-01

    Using country panel data of student achievement from PISA, 2003-2012 combined with national-level teacher salary data from the OECD; this study investigates if relatively short term -5-years - changes in the level and structure of statutory teacher salaries affect student performance in the European countries. Our results show that there are marked differences between subjects and by the experience of teachers. Higher statutory teacher salaries and larger growth of teacher salaries at the fir...

  12. Do foreclosures affect Boston public school student academic performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Katharine L.; Burke, Mary A.; Triest, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    Foreclosures have well-documented adverse consequences for families living in or owning properties undergoing foreclosure and on surrounding neighborhoods, but they may also have other costs. This policy brief summarizes our research on the impact of mortgage foreclosures on academic performance among Boston public school students. The data show that students who live at an address that experiences a foreclosure tend to score substantially lower on standardized tests (math and English) and al...

  13. Measuring Longitudinal Student Performance on Student Learning Outcomes in Sustainability Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Meghann E.; Formisano, Paul; Nordyke, Shane; Sayre, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the student learning outcomes (SLOs) for a sustainability major, evaluate faculty incorporation of the SLOs into the courses in the sustainability major curriculum and measure student performance on the SLOs from entry into the major to the senior capstone course. Design/methodology/approach:…

  14. The Relation of Student Engagement and Other Admission Metrics to Master of Accounting Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckless, Frank; Krawczyk, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines whether the use of student engagement (SE) information as part of the admissions process can help us to predict student academic success in Master of Accounting (MAC) programs. The association of SE, undergraduate grade point average (UGPA), and Graduate Management Admissions Test (GMAT) score to academic performance was tested…

  15. Partially specified physics problems: university students' attitudes and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusic, M; Erceg, N; Slisko, J

    2011-01-01

    In this research we asked the fourth year students (N = 50) of a technical faculty of the University of Split (Republic of Croatia) to solve a partially specified physics problem related to gravitational force. The task for the students was to decide whether the situation described in the problem is feasible or not. Nevertheless, the formulation of the problem is such that it does not give students any explicit advice regarding what to calculate or how to judge the feasibility of the given situation in the real world. The research was carried out using a structured written exam method. The worksheet was structured in order to assess explicitly a few elements of the students' problem-solving performance. Based on their results, the examinees were classified into four categories, depending on what they could or could not accomplish during problem solving. A majority of students were not able to solve the given physical problem completely. A selection of students' and professors' observations is also included. Our results show that traditionally formulated numerical exercises, which are mostly used in physics teaching, do not develop students' abilities in higher-order thinking (i.e. planning, decision making or result evaluation) to a desirable extent. We suggest that partially specified problems should be given to students, both in problem-solving sessions and exams, in order to prepare them for dealing with ill-structured tasks in real life.

  16. ASSESSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE ON INTERPRETING THROUGH PEER-ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Ismailia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of translation interpreting is translating spoken discourse orally. It needs some requirements like ability to speak clearly, clarity, fluency, eye contact, and self-confidence. It also needs linguistic proficiency, analytical skill, listening and recall, interpersonal skills, ethical behaviour, speaking skills, cultural knowledge, and subject knowledge. Evaluating students performance on interpreting can be done through peer assessment. Peer- assessment is one of alternative assessment to grade the peers in group or individuals by commenting on and judging other students work. To do this process there is a join work between listening and speaking, and two students. The first student as a speaker and the second student as an interpreter. Both of them should do the same quality on speak clearly as a speaker and as an interpreter should able to listen and translating the spoken discourse orally. Evaluation can use analytical grade that allows teacher to set clear criteria for correction like fluency, grammar, terminology, general content, and mechanics. Students and teacher can give comment on every criteria based on their own competency. During the process on making criteria, students and teacher can discuss and give reasonable suggestion to make the assessment suitable to the students competency. At the end, a rubric of assessment with the score from 0 to 100 and criteria and also the comment included in the paper of assessment.

  17. Perceptions, Attitudes and Institutional Factors That Influence Academic Performance of Visual Arts Students in Ghana's Senior High School Core Curriculum Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Essel, Harry Barton

    2015-01-01

    Senior High School (SHS) students in Ghana are required to pass all core and elective curricula subjects in the West Africa Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) to qualify for higher education. Unfortunately, many Visual Arts students perform poorly or fail in English, Mathematics, Integrated Science and Social Studies, which constitute…

  18. PERFORMANCE MEASURES OF STUDENTS IN EXAMINATIONS: A STOCHASTIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Goutam Saha; GOUTAM SAHA

    2013-01-01

    Data on Secondary and Higher Secondary examination (science stream) results from Tripura (North-East India) schools are analyzed to measure the performance of students based on tests and also the performance measures of schools based on final results and continuous assessment processes are obtained. The result variation in terms of grade points in the Secondary and Higher Secondary examinations are analysed using different sets of performance measures. The transition probabilities from one g...

  19. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety : An investigation of pathways in the social anxiety-social rejection relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, Marisol J.; Dijk, Corine; de Jong, Peter J.; Roelofs, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor

  20. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: an investigation of pathways in the social anxiety - social rejection relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voncken, M.J.; Dijk, C.; de Jong, P.J.; Roelofs, J.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor

  1. Do emotional intelligence and previous caring experience influence student nurse performance? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny; Carver, Fiona; Carver, Hannah; Brown, Norrie

    2016-08-01

    Reports of poor nursing care have focused attention on values based selection of candidates onto nursing programmes. Values based selection lacks clarity and valid measures. Previous caring experience might lead to better care. Emotional intelligence (EI) might be associated with performance, is conceptualised and measurable. To examine the impact of 1) previous caring experience, 2) emotional intelligence 3) social connection scores on performance and retention in a cohort of first year nursing and midwifery students in Scotland. A longitudinal, quasi experimental design. Adult and mental health nursing, and midwifery programmes in a Scottish University. Adult, mental health and midwifery students (n=598) completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short form and Schutte's Emotional Intelligence Scale on entry to their programmes at a Scottish University, alongside demographic and previous caring experience data. Social connection was calculated from a subset of questions identified within the TEIQue-SF in a prior factor and Rasch analysis. Student performance was calculated as the mean mark across the year. Withdrawal data were gathered. 598 students completed baseline measures. 315 students declared previous caring experience, 277 not. An independent-samples t-test identified that those without previous caring experience scored higher on performance (57.33±11.38) than those with previous caring experience (54.87±11.19), a statistically significant difference of 2.47 (95% CI, 0.54 to 4.38), t(533)=2.52, p=.012. Emotional intelligence scores were not associated with performance. Social connection scores for those withdrawing (mean rank=249) and those remaining (mean rank=304.75) were statistically significantly different, U=15,300, z=-2.61, p$_amp_$lt;0.009. Previous caring experience led to worse performance in this cohort. Emotional intelligence was not a useful indicator of performance. Lower scores on the social connection factor were associated

  2. Do indoor environments in schools influence student performance? A review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J.; Heath, Garvin A.

    2004-11-24

    Limited research is available on potential adverse effects of school environments on academic performance, despite strong public concern. We examine the scientific evidence relevant to this relationship by reviewing available research relating schools and other indoor environments to human performance or attendance. As a primary focus, we critically review evidence for direct relationships between indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings and performance or attendance. As a secondary focus, we summarize, without critique, evidence on potential connections indirectly linking IEQ to performance or attendance: relationships between IEQ and health, between health and performance or attendance, and between attendance and performance. The most persuasive direct evidence showed increases in indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and outdoor concentrations of several specific pollutants to be related to reduced school attendance. The most persuasive indirect evidence showed indoor dampness and microbiologic pollutants to be related to asthma and respiratory infections, which have in turn been related to reduced performance and attendance. Furthermore, a substantial scientific literature links poor IEQ (e.g., low ventilation rate, excess moisture or formaldehyde) with respiratory and other health effects in children and adults. Overall, evidence suggests that poor IEQ in schools can influence the performance and attendance of students, primarily through health effects from indoor pollutants. Also, inadequate IEQ in schools seems sufficiently common to merit strong public concern. Evidence is available to justify (1) immediate actions to protect IEQ in schools and (2) focused research on exposures, prevention, and causation, to better guide policies and actions on IEQ in schools.

  3. Factors associated with academic performance in psychology students of UNMSM

    OpenAIRE

    García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana Manrique, Oswaldo; Canales Quevedo, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    In the present job is studied the factors related to the academic performance in to university group of students of the Faculty of Psychology of the UN MSM, among the factors has been considered the motivation, the strategies of learning and the self-esteem and in it pertaining to the academic performance the average of notices there is been considered obtained by the students in the three first cycles of study. The sample studied was constituted by the ingresantes in the year 1,999 to the Fa...

  4. Social support and performance anxiety of college music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris

    2011-09-01

    This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.

  5. Emotional variables, dropout and academic performance in Spanish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Bas, Fátima; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; García-Buades, Esther

    2016-02-01

    The dropout of university studies is a main concern in many countries, also for Health Sciences degrees. The reviews on dropout in all university degrees as well as nursing generally show multidimensional causes with factors related both to institutional and students' characteristics. Regarding the personal variables of students, researchers have focused on financial, family and personality features. Far less attention has been devoted to emotional variables. This study aims to explore whether individual variables of the emotional domain such as perceived emotional intelligence, dispositional optimism/pessimism and depressive rumination are related and/or can predict students' intention to dropout and academic performance. Using a cross-correlational approach, data were obtained from a sample of 144 nursing students. Students with a pessimistic disposition revealed a greater tendency to drop out. The remaining variables correlated significantly with pessimism but had no predictive value on dropout. Our results suggest that students with low levels of emotional clarity and repair and high depressive rumination have pessimistic expectations, so they are more likely to leave studies. No significant results were found in relation to academic performance. We conclude with an identification of strategies to increase retention and academic success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Association between Eating Behavior and Academic Performance in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Macarena; Durán, Elizabeth; Matheus, Alexis; Durán-Agüero, Samuel; Obregón, Ana María; Ramírez-Tagle, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between academic performance and eating behavior in university students in Chile. A total of 680 college students, 409 (60%) women and 271 (40%) men, were randomly recruited and the mean age of the entire sample was 26. The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), which evaluates 3 dimensions of eating behavior-cognitive restriction (limiting own intake), uncontrolled eating (inclination to eat), and emotional eating (control of food intake in the context of negative emotions)-was used. Academic performance was measured by the grade point average (GPA) and was associated with eating behavior. Women had significantly higher scores in the "emotional eating" dimension than men (p = 0.002). The eating behavior analysis showed that female students with higher GPAs (above 5.5) had statistically significantly lower uncontrolled eating scores (p = 0.03) and higher cognitive restriction scores (p = 0.05) than women with lower academic performance (below 5.5). There were no significant associations between eating behavior and academic performance in men. A positive association between eating behavior and academic performance was observed in female university students in Chile. Further studies are needed to explore the causes of this association and determine how to improve the nutritional habits of this population.

  7. Poor hand hygiene by college students linked to more occurrences of infectious diseases, medical visits, and absence from classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Kayla J; Fortuna, Crystal A; McGill, Janis L; Brandeberry, Macey S; Stone, Abigail R; Lu, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Proper hand hygiene has been linked to lower susceptibility to infectious diseases in many types of communities, but it has not been well established on college campuses. This study investigated the hand hygiene statuses of college students and their occurrences in relation to infectious diseases, medical visits, and absence from classes or work. It also examined the effects of education on handwashing technique to improve hand hygiene. College students enrolled at a university in Northwestern Ohio were recruited as study subjects. Microbial samples were collected 3 times from each of the 220 valid volunteers before washing their hands, after washing with their own procedures, and after washing with a procedure recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Each volunteer also answered a survey including questions on their health conditions, medical visits, and absence from classes or work. Hands of 57.7% volunteers were colonized by an uncountable number of microbial colonies, which were significantly linked to more occurrences to infectious diseases (P hygiene. It is critical to promote education on proper handwashing in colleges, in grade schools, and at home to improve health and learning outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Performance evaluation of nursing students following competency-based education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun-Yu; Wang, Yu Hsin; Chao, Li Fen; Jane, Sui-Whi; Hsu, Li-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Competency-based education is known to improve the match between educational performance and employment opportunities. This study examined the effects of competency-based education on the learning outcomes of undergraduate nursing students. The study used a quasi-experimental design. A convenience sample of 312 second-year undergraduate nursing students from northern and southern Taiwan participated in the study. The experimental group (n=163) received competency-based education and the control group received traditional instruction (n=149) in a medical-surgical nursing course. Outcome measures included students' scores on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination, Self-Evaluated Core Competencies Scale, Metacognitive Inventory for Nursing Students questionnaire, and academic performance. Students who received competency-based education had significantly higher academic performance in the medical-surgical nursing course and practicum than did the control group. Required core competencies and metacognitive abilities improved significantly in the competency-based education group as compared to the control group after adjusting for covariates. Competency-based education is worth implementing and may close the gap between education and the ever-changing work environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Student Performance in Peer Led Undergraduate Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Linda M.

    Foundations of Chemistry courses at the University of Kansas have traditionally accommodated nearly 1,000 individual students every year with a single course in a large lecture hall. To develop a more student-centered learning atmosphere, Peer Led Undergraduate Supplements (PLUS) were introduced to assist students, starting in the spring of 2010. PLUS was derived from the more well-known Peer-Led Team Learning with modifications to meet the specific needs of the university and the students. The yearlong investigation of PLUS Chemistry began in the fall of 2012 to allow for adequate development of materials and training of peer leaders. We examined the impact of academic achievement for students who attended PLUS sessions while controlling for high school GPA, math ACT scores, credit hours earned in high school, completion of calculus, gender, and those aspiring to be pharmacists (i.e., pre-pharmacy students). In a least linear squares multiple regression, PLUS participants performed on average one percent higher on exam scores for Chemistry 184 and four tenths of a percent on Chemistry 188 for each PLUS session attended. Pre-pharmacy students moderated the effect of PLUS attendance on chemistry achievement, ultimately negating any relative gain associated by attending PLUS sessions. Evidence of gender difference was demonstrated in the Chemistry 188 model, indicating females experience a greater benefit from PLUS sessions. Additionally, an item analysis studied the relationship between PLUS material to individual items on exams. The research discovered that students who attended PLUS session, answered the items correctly 10 to 20 percent more than their comparison group for PLUS interrelated items and no difference to 10 percent for non-PLUS related items. In summary, PLUS has a positive effect on exam performance in introductory chemistry courses at the University of Kansas.

  10. Factors influencing medical students' self-assessment of examination performance accuracy: A United Arab Emirates study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Sami; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Elzubeir, Khalifa; Elango, Sambandam; El-Zubeir, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of one's academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination. 1 st and 2 nd year medical students (n = 235) self-assessed pre and post-examination performance were compared with objectively measured scores (actual examination performance). Associations between accuracy of score prediction (pre and post assessment), and students' gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined. Expected mark correlated significantly with objectively assessed marks (r = 0.407; P self-assessment accuracy. Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities.

  11. Effects of online games on student performance in undergraduate physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadiq, Irfan

    The present state of physics teaching and learning is a reflection of the difficulty of the subject matter which has resulted in students' low motivation toward physics as well as lack of meaningful and deeper learning experiences. In light of an overall decline in interest in physics, an investigation of alternate teaching and learning methods and tools was appropriate. The research posed the following question: To what extent do online games about kinematics and two-dimensional motion impact student performance in undergraduate general physics as measured by a unit posttest? Two intact classes of 20 students each were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. Only the experimental group received the treatment of using online games. The duration of topics covered in the game content was identical to the lecture on kinematics and two-dimensional motion. Instructors for the experimental group incorporated online games in their regular classroom teaching, whereas those in the control group continued with their previously used curriculum without games. This study was conducted in three weekly sessions. Although students were not selected using random sampling, existing classes were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or the control group. There were 20 students in the experimental group and 20 students in the control group. The independent samples t test was conducted to compare the means of two independently sampled experimental and control groups. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine if the two groups were significantly different with regard to their general physics performance on the posttest while controlling for the pretest scores. Analysis of posttest and pretest scores revealed that game-based learning did not significantly impact student performance.

  12. Student Cyberloafing In and Out of the Classroom in China and the Relationship with Student Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinnan; Mei, Wenjuan; Ugrin, Joseph C

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the in-class and out-of-class cyberloafing activities of students in China, and tests the relationship between those activities and academic performance. A sample of 1,050 undergraduate students at a large University in China reported their in-class (N = 548) and out-of-class (N = 502) cyberloafing activities, which were tested against the students' academic performance. The test results show a negative relationship between in-class cyberloafing and academic performance, but an inverted U-shaped relationship between out-of-class cyberloafing and academic performance. The results support our propositions that cyberloafing is a harmful distraction in the classroom, but can have positive effects when performed in moderation outside the classroom as a means of effort recovery.

  13. Social, emotional, and behavioral functioning of secondary school students with low academic and language performance: perspectives from students, teachers, and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Victoria L; Black, Emma

    2012-10-01

    Adolescence is a time of transition when young people with language difficulties are at increased risk of experiencing social, emotional, and behavioral difficulties (SEBD). Most studies of social, emotional, and behavioral functioning (SEBF) in individuals with language difficulties focus on children with a clinical diagnosis of language impairment. This study explores SEBF in a nonclinical group of 12-year-old students with low educational and language performance from their own perspectives and those of their parents and teachers. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ( Goodman, 1997) was given to 352 mainstream secondary school students who were underperforming academically and had poor language performance. Two hundred and twenty-five of their parents and 230 of their teachers also completed the questionnaire. Students with low educational attainment and poor language showed significantly greater SEBD than a normative sample as reported by themselves, their parents, and their teachers. Significant differences were found across informants, with students identifying more overall difficulties than parents or teachers. Secondary school students with low academic and language performance are more vulnerable to experiencing SEBD compared to typically developing peers. The extent of their difficulties varied depending on the informant, emphasizing the importance of gaining views from multiple perspectives.

  14. Approaches for University Students and their Relationship to Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Fernández-Castillo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The way students perceive learning is influenced by multiple factors. The present study aimed at establishing relationships between the learning approaches, academic performance, and the academic year in a sample of students from different courses of Universidad Central  “Marta Abreu”, Las Villas. For this ex post facto study, a probabilistic sample was used based on a simple random sampling of 524 university students who participated in the Study Process Questionnaire.  The analysis of variance (MANOVA and ANOVA and the analysis of clusters reported associations between a deep approach to learning and a better academic performance.  These analyses showed differences in the learning approach in the different courses, predominantly a soft approach.

  15. Association between attempted suicide and academic performance indicators among middle and high school students in Mexico: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Ricardo; Benjet, Corina; Borges, Guilherme; Moneta Arce, María Fátima; Fregoso Ito, Diana; Fleiz, Clara; Villatoro, Jorge Ameth

    2018-01-01

    Students' mental health is associated to academic performance. In high income countries, higher students' grades are related to lower odds of suicidal behaviors, but studies on other indicators of academic performance are more limited, specially in middle income countries. Data from 28,519 middle and high school students selected with multistage clustered sampling in the Mexican National Survey of Student's Drug Use. Using a self-administered questionnaire, lifetime suicidal attempt and four indicators of academic performance were assessed: age inconsistency with grade level, not being a student in the last year, perceived academic performance and number of failed courses. Multiple logistic regression models were used to control for sociodemographic and school characteristics. The lifetime prevalence of attempted suicide was 3.0% for middle school students and 4.2% for high school students. Among middle school students, statistically adjusted significant associations of suicide attempt with academic performance indicators were: not being a student the year before, worse self-perceived performance and a higher number of failed courses; among high school students, predictors were failed courses and self-perceived academic performance, with ORs of 1.65 and 1.96 for the categories of good and fair/poor respectively, compared to those who reported very good performance. Self-perceived academic performance was the main indicator for suicide in both school levels. Suicide prevention efforts in Mexico's schools should include asking students about the perception they have about their own academic performance.

  16. Parent involvement and student academic performance: a multiple mediational analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, David R; Keane, Susan P; Shelton, Terri L; Calkins, Susan D

    2010-01-01

    Parent involvement in a child's education is consistently found to be positively associated with a child's academic performance. However, there has been little investigation of the mechanisms that explain this association. The present study examines two potential mechanisms of this association: the child's perception of cognitive competence and the quality of the student-teacher relationship. This study used a sample of 158 seven-year-old participants, their mothers, and their teachers. Results indicated a statistically significant association between parent involvement and a child's academic performance, over and above the impact of the child's intelligence. A multiple mediation model indicated that the child's perception of cognitive competence fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and the child's performance on a standardized achievement test. The quality of the student-teacher relationship fully mediated the relation between parent involvement and teacher ratings of the child's classroom academic performance. Limitations, future research directions, and implications for public policy initiatives are discussed.

  17. Healthy Behaviours in Music and Non-Music Performance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsborg, Jane; Kreutz, Gunter; Thomas, Mike; Williamon, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the self-reported health-promoting behaviours of music and non-music performance students in higher education. It also seeks to determine the extent to which perceived health and self-reported symptoms are associated with lifestyle, emotional affect state, self-regulation and self-efficacy.…

  18. Causal Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State: A basis for counselling and programme planning. The study adopted the descriptive survey method. It made use of two research questions and ...

  19. Personality Profile of Teachers and their Students' Performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the effect of teachers' personality profile on students' academic performance in senior secondary modern physics in selected schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The survey research design was adopted. Two resercher-made instruments namely: Teachers' personality ...

  20. Analysing Student Performance Using Sparse Data of Core Bachelor Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Mirka; Karkkainen, Tommi

    2015-01-01

    Curricula for Computer Science (CS) degrees are characterized by the strong occupational orientation of the discipline. In the BSc degree structure, with clearly separate CS core studies, the learning skills for these and other required courses may vary a lot, which is shown in students' overall performance. To analyze this situation, we apply…

  1. Academic Performance and Perceived Stress among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Nadeem; Zia-ur-Rehman, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of factor such as perceived stress on the academic performance of the students. A sample of 199 university graduates and undergraduates in Rawalpindi and Islamabad was selected as a statistical frame. Instrumentation used for this study is previously validated construct in order to evaluate the effect of…

  2. Work Performance Differences between College Students with and without ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifrin, Joshua G.; Proctor, Briley E.; Prevatt, Frances F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the difference between college students with and without Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in regard to their work performance. Method: A series of ANOVAs analyzed group differences in symptoms experienced at work. The independent variable was group (i.e., ADHD, Controls). The dependent variables…

  3. Timed Online Tests: Do Students Perform Better with More Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portolese, Laura; Krause, Jackie; Bonner, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on timed tests and specifically on whether increased time enhances test performance. Three courses during the Winter 2015 term (quizzes n = 573) and three courses over the Spring 2015 term (quizzes n = 600) comprised this sample. Students were given the same tests, but the experimental group (Spring 2015) was given 50% more…

  4. Comparison of Outcome of Students' Performance Using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the outcome of students' performance using the standard setting method with the equivalent outcome they would have obtained using the absolute grading method. It involved the comparison of fail, pass, honors and distinction grades in Digestive System, Endocrine System, Cardiovascular System and ...

  5. The Effects of Job Sharing on Student Performance Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Dorothy

    The River Forest (Illinois) District 90 wished to examine the educational literature on the effects of job sharing by teachers on student performance. This document presents a review of the literature and summarizes and synthesizes this information. Only limited information was found on this subject. However, anecdotal reports of the impact of job…

  6. Student Academic Performance in Undergraduate Managerial-Accounting Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Twaijry, Abdulrahman Ali

    2010-01-01

    The author's purpose was to identify potential factors possibly affecting student performance in three sequential management-accounting courses: Managerial Accounting (MA), Cost Accounting (CA), and Advanced Managerial Accounting (AMA) within the Saudi Arabian context. The sample, which was used to test the developed hypotheses, included 312…

  7. Starring Students: Gender Performance at a Women's College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jeni; Lester, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to better understand how gender is constructed at a women's college. Specifically, the researchers use Judith Butler's (1990) work on performativity to frame how members of the campus community perceive transgender students are integrated into the college. Through semi-structured interviews with faculty,…

  8. Factors that affect medical students' performance in Anatomy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Much attention has been drawn to the area of medical education in contemporary times with the aim of developing effective teaching strategies in our medical schools. Objectives: To identify the problems encountered by students in the study of Anatomy and suggest ways of enhancing their performance in the ...

  9. Performance of Secondary School Students in Maiduguri, Nigeria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance of Secondary School Students in Maiduguri, Nigeria in the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia. ... Impairment was operationally defined by at least one score two standard deviations below the normative mean for a given test or two or more test scores at least one standard deviation below the mean.

  10. Systematic mapping review on student's performance analysis using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper classify the various existing predicting models that are used for monitoring and improving students' performance at schools and higher learning institutions. It analyses all the areas within the educational data mining methodology. Two databases were chosen for this study and a systematic mapping study was ...

  11. Know Your Role: Black College Students, Racial Identity, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus

    2015-01-01

    This article is a report of a critical constructivist study of racial identity and performance among 13 Black, traditional-age students enrolled at three different colleges, two historically Black and one predominantly White. The study's approach understood identity to be socially constructed and reliant upon community affirmation and validation.…

  12. State Aid and Student Performance: A Supply-Demand Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnucan, Henry W.; Zheng, Yuqing; Brehmer, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Using a supply-demand framework, a six-equation model is specified to generate hypotheses about the relationship between state aid and student performance. Theory predicts that an increase in state or federal aid provides an incentive to decrease local funding, but that the disincentive associated with increased state aid is moderated when federal…

  13. A Study of Secondary School Students' Academic Performance at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed and investigated the academic performance of secondary school students in two principal subjects (English Language and. Mathematics) at the Senior School Certificate Examinations (SSCE) in ten secondary schools typical of urban and rural locations in five randomised. Local Government Areas of ...

  14. Impact of English Proficiency on Academic Performance of International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Nara M.; Hwang, Eunjin; Wanjohi, Reubenson

    2015-01-01

    Using an ex-post facto, non-experimental approach, this research examined the impact of English language proficiency and multilingualism on the academic performance of international students enrolled in a four-year university located in north central Louisiana in the United States. Data were collected through a self-reported questionnaire from 59…

  15. Impact of the internet on academic performance of students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work investigates the impact of the internet on the academic performance of students in some selected tertiary institutions in Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted in conducting this research. Questionnaire was the instrument employed for data collection. Frequency count and simple percentage was ...

  16. Data on Student Performance Under Different Forms of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell

    1976-01-01

    Recognition of various abilities and skills in university degree work, and the development of an appropriate range of assessment modes to test these abilities, presupposes that students will perform differently under the various forms of assessment. The limited data available to test this supposition are reviewed and analysis of one geography…

  17. Active Learning Improves Student Performance in a Respiratory Physiology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Alex M.; Liachovitzky, Carlos; Abdullahi, Abass S.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of the introduction of active learning exercises into the anatomy and physiology curriculum in a community college setting. Specifically, the incorporation of a spirometry-based respiratory physiology lab resulted in improved student performance in two concepts (respiratory volumes and the hallmarks of…

  18. The Effects of Motivation on Student Performance on Science Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Tina Heard

    Academic achievement of public school students in the United States has significantly fallen behind other countries. Students' lack of knowledge of, or interest in, basic science and math has led to fewer graduates of science, technology, engineering, and math-related fields (STEM), a factor that may affect their career success and will certainly affect the numbers in the workforce who are prepared for some STEM jobs. Drawing from self-determination theory and achievement theory, the purpose of this correlational study was to determine whether there were significant relationships between high school academic performance in science classes, motivations (self-efficacy, self-regulation, and intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation), and academic performance in an introductory online college biology class. Data were obtained at 2 points in time from a convenience multiethnic sample of adult male ( n =16) and female (n = 49) community college students in the southeast United States. Correlational analyses indicated no statistically significant relationships for intrinsic or extrinsic goal orientation, self-efficacy, or self-regulation with high school science mean-GPA nor college biology final course grade. However, high school academic performance in science classes significantly predicted college performance in an entry-level online biology class. The implications of positive social change include knowledge useful for educational institutions to explore additional factors that may motivate students to enroll in science courses, potentially leading to an increase in scientific knowledge and STEM careers.

  19. Medical Students Circadian Sleep Rhythms and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Pérez-Olmos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate, with a preliminarystudy, the distribution of circadian rhythms, sleepschedule patterns and their relationship withacademic performance on medical students.Methodology: in this descriptive study, a 10 itemoriginal questionnaire about sleep rhythms andacademic performance was applied to medicalstudents from different semesters. Week (classtime and weekend schedules, preferences,daytime somnolence and academic performancewere asked. Three chronotypes (morningness,intermediate and eveningness were definedamong waking-sleeping preference, difficulty tosleep early, exam preparation preference hour and real sleep schedule. The sleep hour deficit perweek night was also calculated. Results: Of the318 medical students that answered the questionnaire,62.6% corresponded to intermediatechronotypes, 8.8% to evening-type and 28.7%to morning-type. Significant difference wasfound among the two chronotype tails (p=0.000,Chi-square 31.13. No correlation was foundbetween academic performance and age, sex,chronotype, week sleep deficit and sleep hours inweek and weekends. A 71.1% of the students slept6 or fewer hours during class time and 78% hada sleep deficit (more frequent in the eveningchronotype. Conclusions: No relation was foundbetween sleep chronotype and academic performance.Students tend to morningness. Fewstudies have been made on equatorial zones orwithout seasons.

  20. Cognitive performance after mild traumatic brain injury: the impact of poor effort on test results and its relation to distress, personality and litigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulemeijer, Maja; Andriessen, Teuntje M J C; Brauer, Jolanda M P; Vos, Pieter E; Van Der Werf, Sieberen

    2007-03-01

    To compare consecutive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI) patients with and without adequate effort on cognitive performance, litigation status, fatigue, distress and personality. (Neuro)psychological assessment was done 6 months post-injury in 110 patients from a cohort of 618 consecutive MTBI patients aged 18-60, who attended the emergency department of our level I trauma centre. Effort was tested with the Amsterdam Short Term Memory test. Thirty patients (27%) failed the effort test. Poor effort was associated with significantly poorer scores on seven out of eleven measures, covering all tested domains. Poor effort was associated with lower educational level and changes in work status, but not litigation. Furthermore, poor effort was related to high levels of distress, Type-D personality and fatigue. Even in a sample of non-referred MTBI patients, poor effort was common and was strongly associated with inferior test performance. These findings imply that effort testing should be part of all cognitive assessments, also outside mediolegal settings. Behavioural factors like distress and personality should be considered as potential threats to the validity of neuropsychological testing after MTBI.

  1. Sleep Duration and Academic Performance Among Student Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeek, Megan L; Savoie, Matthew J; Song, Matthew; Kennemur, Leanna M; Qian, Jingjing; Jungnickel, Paul W; Westrick, Salisa C

    2015-06-25

    To identify sleep patterns and frequency of daytime sleepiness and to assess the association between sleep duration and academic performance among student pharmacists. A cross-sectional design was used. An anonymous self-administered paper questionnaire was administered to first-year through third-year students at a pharmacy school. Questionnaires were completed by 364 student pharmacists (79.4% response rate and 93.8% cooperation rate). More than half of student pharmacists obtained less than 7 hours of sleep at night during a typical school week (54.7%) and a large majority on the night prior to an examination (81.7%). Almost half (47.8%) felt daytime sleepiness almost every day. Longer sleep duration the night prior to an examination was associated with higher course grades and semester grade point averages (GPAs). A majority of student pharmacists had suboptimal durations of sleep, defined as fewer than 7 hours. Adequate sleep the night prior to an examination was positively associated with student course grades and semester GPAs.

  2. Provider performance in treating poor patients--factors influencing prescribing practices in lao PDR: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syhakhang, Lamphone; Soukaloun, Douangdao; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Wahlström, Rolf

    2011-01-06

    Out-of-pocket payments make up about 80% of medical care spending at hospitals in Laos, thereby putting poor households at risk of catastrophic health expenditure. Social security schemes in the form of community-based health insurance and health equity funds have been introduced in some parts of the country. Drug and Therapeutics Committees (DTCs) have been established to ensure rational use of drugs and improve quality of care. The objective was to assess the appropriateness and expenditure for treatment for poor patients by health care providers at hospitals in three selected provinces of Laos and to explore associated factors. Cross-sectional study using four tracer conditions. Structured interviews with 828 in-patients at twelve provincial and district hospitals on the subject of insurance protection, income and expenditures for treatment, including informal payment. Evaluation of each patient's medical record for appropriateness of drug use using a checklist of treatment guidelines (maximum score=10). No significant difference in appropriateness of care for patients at different income levels, but higher expenditures for patients with the highest income level. The score for appropriate drug use in insured patients was significantly higher than uninsured patients (5.9 vs. 4.9), and the length of stay in days significantly shorter (2.7 vs. 3.7). Insured patients paid significantly less than uninsured patients, both for medicines (USD 14.8 vs. 43.9) and diagnostic tests (USD 5.9 vs. 9.2). On the contrary the score for appropriateness of drug use in patients making informal payments was significantly lower than patients not making informal payments (3.5 vs. 5.1), and the length of stay significantly longer (6.8 vs. 3.2), while expenditures were significantly higher both for medicines (USD 124.5 vs. 28.8) and diagnostic tests (USD 14.1 vs. 7.7). The lower expenditure for insured patients can help reduce the number of households experiencing catastrophic health

  3. Provider performance in treating poor patients - factors influencing prescribing practices in lao PDR: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petzold Max

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Out-of-pocket payments make up about 80% of medical care spending at hospitals in Laos, thereby putting poor households at risk of catastrophic health expenditure. Social security schemes in the form of community-based health insurance and health equity funds have been introduced in some parts of the country. Drug and Therapeutics Committees (DTCs have been established to ensure rational use of drugs and improve quality of care. The objective was to assess the appropriateness and expenditure for treatment for poor patients by health care providers at hospitals in three selected provinces of Laos and to explore associated factors. Methods Cross-sectional study using four tracer conditions. Structured interviews with 828 in-patients at twelve provincial and district hospitals on the subject of insurance protection, income and expenditures for treatment, including informal payment. Evaluation of each patient's medical record for appropriateness of drug use using a checklist of treatment guidelines (maximum score = 10. Results No significant difference in appropriateness of care for patients at different income levels, but higher expenditures for patients with the highest income level. The score for appropriate drug use in insured patients was significantly higher than uninsured patients (5.9 vs. 4.9, and the length of stay in days significantly shorter (2.7 vs. 3.7. Insured patients paid significantly less than uninsured patients, both for medicines (USD 14.8 vs. 43.9 and diagnostic tests (USD 5.9 vs. 9.2. On the contrary the score for appropriateness of drug use in patients making informal payments was significantly lower than patients not making informal payments (3.5 vs. 5.1, and the length of stay significantly longer (6.8 vs. 3.2, while expenditures were significantly higher both for medicines (USD 124.5 vs. 28.8 and diagnostic tests (USD 14.1 vs. 7.7. Conclusions The lower expenditure for insured patients can help reduce

  4. Attitude towards statistics and performance among post-graduate students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Mira Khalisa; Maat, Siti Mistima

    2017-05-01

    For student to master Statistics is a necessity, especially for those post-graduates that are involved in the research field. The purpose of this research was to identify the attitude towards Statistics among the post-graduates and to determine the relationship between the attitude towards Statistics and post-graduates' of Faculty of Education, UKM, Bangi performance. 173 post-graduate students were chosen randomly to participate in the study. These students registered in Research Methodology II course that was introduced by faculty. A survey of attitude toward Statistics using 5-points Likert scale was used for data collection purposes. The instrument consists of four components such as affective, cognitive competency, value and difficulty. The data was analyzed using the SPSS version 22 in producing the descriptive and inferential Statistics output. The result of this research showed that there is a medium and positive relation between attitude towards statistics and students' performance. As a conclusion, educators need to access students' attitude towards the course to accomplish the learning outcomes.

  5. Executive Functioning: Relationship with High School Student Role Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna P. Mann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Student role performance for academic success in secondary education is under represented in the occupational therapy literature, despite the persistently high dropout rate in the United States (Stillwell & Sable, 2013. Executive dysfunction is one of many possible contributors to difficulties in the classroom (Dirette & Kolak, 2004 and is a better indicator of school performance than IQ (Diamond, 2012. This research examined executive functioning of both alternative and traditional high school students to determine if there is a relationship between executive function and academic success as measured by cumulative grade point average. METHOD. 132 high school students from three different school settings were given the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self Report (BRIEF-SR. The Global Executive Composite (GEC and individual subscale scores were compared to GPA. RESULTS. No significant difference in GEC scores was found among settings. Subscale scores for “inhibition” and “task completion” were significantly different in the alternative school setting. A weak negative correlation was seen between the GEC and GPA. However, academically unsuccessful students scored statistically lower on the GEC. CONCLUSION. Global executive dysfunction was not predicted by setting but was seen in academically unsuccessful students.

  6. Suggestibility and signal detection performance in hallucination-prone students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alganami, Fatimah; Varese, Filippo; Wagstaff, Graham F; Bentall, Richard P

    2017-03-01

    Auditory hallucinations are associated with signal detection biases. We examine the extent to which suggestions influence performance on a signal detection task (SDT) in highly hallucination-prone and low hallucination-prone students. We also explore the relationship between trait suggestibility, dissociation and hallucination proneness. In two experiments, students completed on-line measures of hallucination proneness (the revised Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale; LSHS-R), trait suggestibility (Inventory of Suggestibility) and dissociation (Dissociative Experiences Scale-II). Students in the upper and lower tertiles of the LSHS-R performed an auditory SDT. Prior to the task, suggestions were made pertaining to the number of expected targets (Experiment 1, N = 60: high vs. low suggestions; Experiment 2, N = 62, no suggestion vs. high suggestion vs. no voice suggestion). Correlational and regression analyses indicated that trait suggestibility and dissociation predicted hallucination proneness. Highly hallucination-prone students showed a higher SDT bias in both studies. In Experiment 1, both bias scores were significantly affected by suggestions to the same degree. In Experiment 2, highly hallucination-prone students were more reactive to the high suggestion condition than the controls. Suggestions may affect source-monitoring judgments, and this effect may be greater in those who have a predisposition towards hallucinatory experiences.

  7. The impact of poor working memory skills on a Grade 2 learner’s written and oral literacy performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Linnegar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research examines the effects of poor working memory skills on a Grade 2 learner. Mediated learning is the theoretical framework that underpins this research project as the focus is on developing cognitive functions, particularly focusing on the working memory of a learner. An independent case study was conducted on one learner, using a qualitative research approach. Interviews and observations were conducted and inductively analysed. The learner followed a six-week intervention programme which was dynamically informed by recent literature as well as observations, interviews and a psychologist’s report. The findings indicated that the learner’s working memory, with particular reference to processing and storage, was challenged. The large demands of the classroom environment led to memory failure and he was prone to making errors. He experienced slow progress in his reading abilities, was unable to retain words and his reading was inconsistent. To alleviate some of his working memory demands, activities and instructions were broken down into smaller components to minimise his memory load, thus avoiding working memory related failures.

  8. Iron-Coupled Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane Performed by a Mixed Bacterial-Archaeal Community Based on Poorly Reactive Minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Itay; Elvert, Marcus; Eckert, Werner; Kushmaro, Ariel; Vigderovich, Hanni; Zhu, Qingzeng; Ben-Dov, Eitan; Sivan, Orit

    2017-11-07

    Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was shown to reduce methane emissions by over 50% in freshwater systems, its main natural contributor to the atmosphere. In these environments iron oxides can become main agents for AOM, but the underlying mechanism for this process has remained enigmatic. By conducting anoxic slurry incubations with lake sediments amended with 13 C-labeled methane and naturally abundant iron oxides the process was evidenced by significant 13 C-enrichment of the dissolved inorganic carbon pool and most pronounced when poorly reactive iron minerals such as magnetite and hematite were applied. Methane incorporation into biomass was apparent by strong uptake of 13 C into fatty acids indicative of methanotrophic bacteria, associated with increasing copy numbers of the functional methane monooxygenase pmoA gene. Archaea were not directly involved in full methane oxidation, but their crucial participation, likely being mediators in electron transfer, was indicated by specific inhibition of their activity that fully stopped iron-coupled AOM. By contrast, inhibition of sulfur cycling increased 13 C-methane turnover, pointing to sulfur species involvement in a competing process. Our findings suggest that the mechanism of iron-coupled AOM is accomplished by a complex microbe-mineral reaction network, being likely representative of many similar but hidden interactions sustaining life under highly reducing low energy conditions.

  9. Does student performance on preclinical OSCEs relate to clerkship grades?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot Chima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs have been used to assess the clinical competence and interpersonal skills of healthcare professional students for decades. However, the relationship between preclinical (second year or M2 OSCE grades and clerkship performance had never been evaluated, until it was explored to provide information to educators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC. In addition, the relationship between M2 OSCE communication scores (which is a portion of the total score and third-year (M3 Internal Medicine (IM clerkship OSCE scores was also explored. Lastly, conflicting evidence exists about the relationship between the amount of previous clinical experience and OSCE performance. Therefore, the relationship between M3 IM clerkship OSCE scores and the timing of the clerkship in the academic year was explored. Methods: Data from UNMC M2 OSCEs and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs were obtained for graduates of the 2013 and 2014 classes. Specifically, the following data points were collected: M2 fall OSCE total, M2 fall OSCE communication; M2 spring OSCE total, M2 spring OSCE communication; and M3 IM clerkship OSCE total percentages. Data were organized by class, M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance, and timing of the clerkship. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data organization and analysis. Results: Of the 245 records, 229 (93.5% had data points for all metrics of interest. Significant differences between the classes of 2013 and 2014 existed for average M2 spring total, M2 spring communication, and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs. Retrospectively, there were no differences in M2 OSCE performances based on how students scored on the M3 IM clerkship OSCE. M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance improved for those students who completed the clerkship last in the academic year. Conclusions: There were inconsistencies in OSCE performances between the classes of 2013 and 2014, but more information is needed to determine if

  10. Does student performance on preclinical OSCEs relate to clerkship grades?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chima, Margot; Dallaghan, Gary Beck

    2016-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) have been used to assess the clinical competence and interpersonal skills of healthcare professional students for decades. However, the relationship between preclinical (second year or M2) OSCE grades and clerkship performance had never been evaluated, until it was explored to provide information to educators at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC). In addition, the relationship between M2 OSCE communication scores (which is a portion of the total score) and third-year (M3) Internal Medicine (IM) clerkship OSCE scores was also explored. Lastly, conflicting evidence exists about the relationship between the amount of previous clinical experience and OSCE performance. Therefore, the relationship between M3 IM clerkship OSCE scores and the timing of the clerkship in the academic year was explored. Data from UNMC M2 OSCEs and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs were obtained for graduates of the 2013 and 2014 classes. Specifically, the following data points were collected: M2 fall OSCE total, M2 fall OSCE communication; M2 spring OSCE total, M2 spring OSCE communication; and M3 IM clerkship OSCE total percentages. Data were organized by class, M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance, and timing of the clerkship. Microsoft Excel and SPSS were used for data organization and analysis. Of the 245 records, 229 (93.5%) had data points for all metrics of interest. Significant differences between the classes of 2013 and 2014 existed for average M2 spring total, M2 spring communication, and M3 IM clerkship OSCEs. Retrospectively, there were no differences in M2 OSCE performances based on how students scored on the M3 IM clerkship OSCE. M3 IM clerkship OSCE performance improved for those students who completed the clerkship last in the academic year. There were inconsistencies in OSCE performances between the classes of 2013 and 2014, but more information is needed to determine if this is because of testing variability or heterogeneity

  11. Student performance in a newly developed MSc programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richelsen, Ann Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) offers, as a consequence of the Bologna Declaration, international Master of Science in Engineering (MSc) programmes. Thereby, one of the challenges for DTU is to evaluate international applicants with an educational engineering background and traditions...... other than DTUs and allow qualified students to enter the MSc programmes. The focus of the present work is a comparison of how international and Danish students perform within specific modules of the MSc curriculum in Engineering Design and Applied Mechanics at Technical University of Denmark...

  12. Verbal Processing Reaction Times in "Normal" and "Poor" Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Jack; And Others

    After it had been determined that reaction time (RT) was a sensitive measure of hemispheric dominance in a verbal task performed by normal adult readers, the reaction times of three groups of subjects (20 normal reading college students, 12 normal reading third graders and 11 poor reading grade school students) were compared. Ss were exposed to…

  13. Does private tutoring increase students' academic performance? Evidence from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoğlu, Giray; Tansel, Aysit

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of private tutoring in Turkey. The authors introduce their study by providing some background information on the two major national examinations and three different kinds of tutoring. They then describe how they aimed to analyse whether attending private tutoring centres (PTCs) enhances Turkish students' academic performance. By way of multiple linear regression analysis, their study sought to evaluate whether the impact of private tutoring varies in different subject areas, taking into account several student-related characteristics such as family and academic backgrounds as well as interest in and perception of academic success. In terms of subject areas, the results indicate that while private tutoring does have a positive impact on academic performance in mathematics and Turkish language, this is not the case in natural sciences. However, as evidenced by the effect sizes, these impacts are rather small compared to the impacts of other variables such as interest in and perception of academic success, high school graduation fields of study, high school cumulative grade point average (CGPA), parental education and students' sociocultural background. While the authors point out that more research on the impact of further important variables needs to be done, their view is that school seems to be an important factor for determining students' academic performance.

  14. Alcohol consumption, sleep, and academic performance among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Royce A; Wolfson, Amy R

    2009-05-01

    Three independent lines of inquiry have found associations between alcohol use and academic performance, sleep and academic performance, and alcohol use and sleep. The present study bridges this research by examining the links among alcohol use, sleep, and academic performance in college students. Personal interview surveys were conducted with a random sample of 236 students (124 women) at a liberal arts college. The interviews measured alcohol consumption, gender, academic class, weekday and weekend bedtimes and rise times, and daytime sleepiness; 95% of the sample granted permission to obtain grade-point average (GPA) and Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores from official college records. Ordinary least squares regressions showed that alcohol consumption was a significant predictor of four sleep patterns: the duration of sleep, the timing of sleep, the difference between weekday and weekend nighttime sleep hours (oversleep), and the difference between weekday and weekend bedtimes (bedtime delay). Women and students with late sleep schedules were more apt to report daytime sleepiness. SAT score was the strongest predictor of GPA. However, gender, alcohol consumption, sleep duration, and daytime sleepiness also were significant predictors when other variables were controlled. In addition to alcohol's direct relationship with GPA, mediational analysis indicated that alcohol had indirect effects on sleepiness and GPA, primarily through its effect on sleep schedule. The findings show how alcohol use among college students is related to sleep-wake patterns and further support the connection between alcohol use and grades.

  15. Mumps vaccine performance among university students during a mumps outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortese, Margaret M; Jordan, Hannah T; Curns, Aaron T; Quinlan, Patricia A; Ens, Kim A; Denning, Patricia M; Dayan, Gustavo H

    2008-04-15

    The largest reported mumps outbreak at a US college in 19 years occurred in 2006 at a Kansas university with a 2-dose measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination policy. We assessed vaccine performance and mumps risk factors, including the possibility of waning vaccine protection. Case students were compared with a cohort of the university's approximately 19,000 undergraduates. The secondary attack rate for clinical mumps was determined among roommates exposed to case students. Time from receipt of the second dose of MMR vaccine was compared between case students and roommates without mumps. Coverage with > or =2 dose of MMR vaccine was > or =95% among 140 undergraduate case students and 444 cohort students. The secondary attack rate for clinical mumps among roommates who had received 2 doses of vaccine ranged from 2.2% to 7.7%, depending on the case definition. Compared with roommates without mumps, case students were more likely (odds ratio, 2.46; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-4.82) to have received their second dose of MMR vaccine > or =10 years earlier. The odds of being a case student increased with each 1-year increase in time from receipt of the second dose of MMR vaccine (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.68) among case students and roommates aged 18-19 years but not among those aged > or =20 years. Students aged 18-19 years had a higher risk of mumps (risk ratio, 3.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.60-6.16), compared with students aged > or =22 years; women living in dormitories had increased risk of mumps (risk ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-3.76), compared with men not living in dormitories. High 2-dose MMR coverage protected many students from developing mumps but was not sufficient to prevent the mumps outbreak. Vaccine-induced protection may wane. Similar US settings where large numbers of young adults from wild-type naive cohorts live closely together may be at particular risk for mumps outbreaks.

  16. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills. Advances in Health Science Education, 15(4), 517-532.

  17. Smelling Anxiety Chemosignals Impairs Clinical Performance of Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Bano; Young, Alix; Lind, Synnøve; Leegaard, Marie Cathinka; Capuozzo, Alessandra; Parma, Valentina

    2018-05-15

    Despite the fact that human body odors can transfer anxiety-related signals, the impact of such signals in real-life situations is scant. In this study, the effects of anxiety chemosignals on the performance of dental students operating on simulation units, wearing t-shirts imbued with human sweat and masked with eugenol were tested. Twenty-four 4th year dental students (17F) donated their body odors in two sessions (Anxiety and Rest). Twenty-four normosmic, sex- and age-matched test subjects who were3rd year dental students performed three dental procedures while smelling masked anxiety body odors, masked rest body odors or masker alone. The intensity and pleasantness ratings showed that the test subjects could not report perceptual differences between the odor conditions. When exposed to masked anxiety body odors the test subject's dental performance was significantly worse than when they were exposed to masked rest body odors and masker alone, indicating that their performance was modulated by exposure to the emotional tone of the odor. These findings call for a careful evaluation of the anxiety-inducing effects of body odors in performance-related tasks and provide the first ecological evaluation of human anxiety chemosignal communication.

  18. Motives Attitudes And Performance Of Teacher Education Students In Southern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukidnon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the motives attitude and performance of teacher education students of Central Mindanao University. It aimed to determine the respondents profile their motives underlying the choice of teaching profession their level of attitude towards teaching as a profession and toward the role of a teacher their level of performance in general education professional education and major courses and identify the predictors of their performance. A structured questionnaire was used to gather the necessary data from the randomly selected two hundred ten 210 respondents form second to fourth year level. Data showed that students CMUCAT rating ranges from 81-100 which indicates high performance in the entrance test. Moreover revealed that majority of the students were children of families with low income but were intrinsically motivated in pursuing teacher education degree and have positive attitude towards teaching as a profession and as their future career. Step regression analysis showed that independent variables like CMUCAT rating towards teaching as a profession and motive involving taking up education as their second choice is difficult to pass profession has a greater influence on academic performance as reflected by its high beta weight. The remaining 56.7 of students academic performance can be explained by other factors not included in this study. These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for IJSTR JOURNALS. Use this document as a template if you are using Microsoft Word 6.0 or later. Otherwise use this document as an instruction set. The electronic file of your paper will be formatted further at IJSTR. Define all symbols used in the abstract. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column. Dont use all caps for research paper title.

  19. Formation of homophily in academic performance: Students change their friends rather than performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Smirnov

    Full Text Available Homophily, the tendency of individuals to associate with others who share similar traits, has been identified as a major driving force in the formation and evolution of social ties. In many cases, it is not clear if homophily is the result of a socialization process, where individuals change their traits according to the dominance of that trait in their local social networks, or if it results from a selection process, in which individuals reshape their social networks so that their traits match those in the new environment. Here we demonstrate the detailed temporal formation of strong homophily in academic achievements of high school and university students. We analyze a unique dataset that contains information about the detailed time evolution of a friendship network of 6,000 students across 42 months. Combining the evolving social network data with the time series of the academic performance (GPA of individual students, we show that academic homophily is a result of selection: students prefer to gradually reorganize their social networks according to their performance levels, rather than adapting their performance to the level of their local group. We find no signs for a pull effect, where a social environment of good performers motivates bad students to improve their performance. We are able to understand the underlying dynamics of grades and networks with a simple model. The lack of a social pull effect in classical educational settings could have important implications for the understanding of the observed persistence of segregation, inequality and social immobility in societies.

  20. Assessment of Student Performance for Course Examination Using Rasch Measurement Model: A Case Study of Information Technology Fundamentals Course

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    Amir Mohamed Talib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a measurement model that is used to measure the student performance in the final examination of Information Technology (IT Fundamentals (IT280 course in the Information Technology (IT Department, College of Computer & Information Sciences (CCIS, Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU. The assessment model is developed based on students’ mark entries of final exam results for the second year IT students, which are compiled and tabulated for evaluation using Rasch Measurement Model, and it can be used to measure the students’ performance towards the final examination of the course. A study on 150 second year students (male = 52; female = 98 was conducted to measure students’ knowledge and understanding for IT280 course according to the three level of Bloom’s Taxonomy. The results concluded that students can be categorized as poor (10%, moderate (42%, good (18%, and successful (24% to achieve Level 3 of Bloom’s Taxonomy. This study shows that the students’ performance for the set of IT280 final exam questions was comparatively good. The result generated from this study can be used to guide us to determine the appropriate improvement of teaching method and the quality of question prepared.

  1. Nutritional quality of diet and academic performance in Chilean students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Burrows, Raquel; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-03-01

    To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point average (GPA) and tests for college admission in language and mathematics. Academic results on or above the 75th percentile in our sample were considered good academic performance. We tested associations between nutritional quality of diet and good academic performance using logistic regression models. We considered sociodemographic, educational and body-mass index (BMI) factors as potential confounders. After controlling for potential confounding factors, an unhealthy diet at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. Compared to participants with healthy diets, those with unhealthy diets were significantly less likely to perform well based on language tests (odds ratio, OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18-0.98) mathematics tests (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.82) or GPA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09-0.56). In our sample, excessive consumption of energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat foods at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance.

  2. Test anxiety and academic performance in chiropractic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Niu; Henderson, Charles N R

    2014-01-01

    Objective : We assessed the level of students' test anxiety, and the relationship between test anxiety and academic performance. Methods : We recruited 166 third-quarter students. The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI) was administered to all participants. Total scores from written examinations and objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) were used as response variables. Results : Multiple regression analysis shows that there was a modest, but statistically significant negative correlation between TAI scores and written exam scores, but not OSCE scores. Worry and emotionality were the best predictive models for written exam scores. Mean total anxiety and emotionality scores for females were significantly higher than those for males, but not worry scores. Conclusion : Moderate-to-high test anxiety was observed in 85% of the chiropractic students examined. However, total test anxiety, as measured by the TAI score, was a very weak predictive model for written exam performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that replacing total anxiety (TAI) with worry and emotionality (TAI subscales) produces a much more effective predictive model of written exam performance. Sex, age, highest current academic degree, and ethnicity contributed little additional predictive power in either regression model. Moreover, TAI scores were not found to be statistically significant predictors of physical exam skill performance, as measured by OSCEs.

  3. Student performance on conceptual questions: Does instruction matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the tutorial component of introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington, students take weekly pretests that consist of conceptual questions. Pretests are so named because they precede each tutorial, but they are frequently administered after lecture instruction. Many variables associated with class composition and prior instruction (if any) could, in principle, affect student performance on these questions. Nonetheless, the results are often found to be "essentially the same" in all classes. With data available from a large number of classes, it is possible to characterize the typical variation quantitatively. In this paper three questions for which we have accumulated thousands of responses, from dozens of classes representing different conditions with respect to the textbook in use, the amount of prior instruction, etc., serve as examples. For each question, we examine the variation in student performance across all classes. We also compare subsets categorized according to the amount of relevant prior instruction each class had received. A preliminary analysis suggests that the variation in performance is essentially random. No statistically significant difference is observed between results obtained before relevant instruction begins and after it has been completed. The results provide evidence that exposure to concepts in lecture and textbook is not sufficient to ensure an improvement in performance on questions that require qualitative reasoning.

  4. Hypogammaglobulinemia and Poor Performance Status are Predisposing Factors for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Colonization in Patients with Hematological Malignancies

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    Elif Gülsüm Ümit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE are common pathogens of hospital-acquired infection. Long hospitalization periods, use of broadspectrum antibiotics, and immunosuppression are major risks for VRE colonization. We aimed to evaluate patients’ characteristics and factors that may contribute to VRE colonization. Materials and Methods: Data of 66 patients with colonization and 112 patients without colonization who were hospitalized in the hematology clinic were collected. Hematological malignancies, preexisting gastrointestinal complaints, the presence of hypogammaglobulinemia at the time of diagnosis, complications like neutropenic enterocolitis (NEC, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG and Karnofsky performance statuses were recorded. Results: Ages of the patients ranged between 19 and 95 years (mean: 55.99. Karnofsky and ECOG scores were statistically related to VRE colonization (p7 days may also be accepted as a risk factor, independent of diagnosis or antibiotic use. Performance status is also an important factor for colonization, which may be related to poorer hygiene and increased external help.

  5. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea with poor academic performance: A school-based study from India

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Goyal; Abhijit P Pakhare; Girish C Bhatt; Bharat Choudhary; Rajesh Patil

    2018-01-01

    Background: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent but often neglected disorder. There is paucity of reports on the prevalence of pediatric OSA from India. This study was done to estimate the prevalence of OSA in school children aged 5–10 years and its association with academic performance. Methodology: This school-based cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted from July 2015 to November 2015. A questionnaire seeking information on sociodemographic variables,...

  7. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  8. Assessment of academic/non-academic factors and extracurricular activities influencing performance of medical students of faculty of medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mainul Haque; Nor Azlina A Rahman; Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder; Nor Iza A Rahman; Seraj Zohurul Haque; Zainal Zulkifli; Halyna Lugova; Rabiu Muazu Musa; Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi

    2018-01-01

    Background: Physical and mental comfort is known to have a crucial influence on health and performance amongst medical students. Very often, medical students suffer from poor quality of life (QOL) related to the work-life balance due to the lack of sleep, nutritional and dietary disorders and low physical activity, resulting in a negative impact on their academic performance. This study aims to determine the potential academic/non-academic factors and extra-curricular activities influencing t...

  9. Comparison of Student Performance, Student Perception, and Teacher Satisfaction with Traditional versus Flipped Classroom Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Unal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available As new technologies become available, they are often embraced in educational innovation to enhance traditional instruction. The flipped teaching model is one of the most recent and popular technology-infused teaching models in which learning new concepts takes place at home while practice is conducted in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to investigate how using the flipped teaching model affects student performance, perceptions, and teacher satisfaction in comparison to the traditional model. Sixteen teachers implemented the flipped teaching model in their classrooms and reported the results of the flipped teaching model for the first time. Pretests and posttests were used to measure and compare student performance while student and teacher surveys facilitated data collection on student perception and teacher satisfaction. The results of the study showed that, in most cases, the flipped classroom model demonstrated higher student learning gains, more positive student perception, and higher teacher satisfaction compared to the traditional model. This study adds evidence to the current literature that, if the conditions are properly set, the flipped classroom should have the potential to be an extremely effective learning style.

  10. Contextualized teaching on the problem solving performance of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando V. Obiedo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of contextualized teaching on students’ problem solving skills in physics through a quasi-experimental approach. Problem solving performance of students was described quantitatively through their mean problem solving scores and problem solving skills level. A unit plan patterned from the cognitive apprenticeship approach and contextualized using maritime context of ship stability was implemented on the experimental group while the control group had the conventional lecture method. Pre and post assessment, which is a researcher-developed word problem assessment, was administered to both groups. Results indicated increased problem solving mean scores (p < 0.001, problem solving skill level (p < 0.001 of the experimental group while the control group increased only their problem solving skill level (p = 0.008. Thus, contextualized teaching can improve the problem solving performance of students. This study recommends using contextualization using other physics topics where other contexts can be applied.

  11. Performance on Functional Strength Measurement and Muscle Power Sprint Test confirm poor anaerobic capacity in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, Wendy F M; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-12-01

    There is little and conflicting information about anaerobic performance and functional strength in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). To investigate anaerobic capacity and functional strength in children with a clinical diagnosis of DCD (clin-DCD) and if differences were larger in older (age 7-10 years) compared to younger children (age 4-6 years). Furthermore to determine the percentage of children with clin-DCD that scored Strength Measurement. A clin-DCD group (36 boys, 11 girls, mean age: 7y 1mo, SD=2y 1mo) and a typically developing group (TD) (57 boys, 53 girls, mean age: 7y 5mo, SD=1y 10mo) were compared on Muscle Power Sprint Test (MPST) and Functional Strength Measurement (FSM). Children with clin-DCD performed poorer on the MPST and FSM, especially on the muscle endurance items of the FSM. The differences were larger in the older children compared to the younger on the cluster muscle endurance and the FSM total score. Over 50% of clin-DCD group scored tested on items requiring fast repetitive movements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Poor correlation between handgrip strength and isokinetic performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles in community-dwelling elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicio, Diogo Carvalho; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Assumpção, Alexandra Miranda; de Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna Resende; de Queiroz, Barbara Zille; da Silva, Juscelio Pereira; de Brito Rosa, Naysa Maciel; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between handgrip strength and performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles determined using an isokinetic dynamometer in community-dwelling elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Sample selection for the study was made by convenience, and 221 (71.07 ± 4.93 years) community-dwelling elderly women were included. Knee flexor and extensor muscle performance was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro. The isokinetic variables chosen for analysis were peak torque, peak torque/bodyweight, total work/bodyweight, total work, average power, and agonist/antagonist ratio at the angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. Assessment of handgrip strength was carried out using the Jamar dynamometer. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to identify intervariable correlations. Only knee flexor peak torque (60°/s) and average power (60°/s), and knee extensor peak torque (180°/s) and total work (180°/s) were significantly (P women. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Stunting, selenium deficiency and anemia are associated with poor cognitive performance in preschool children from rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashu, Dawd; Stoecker, Barbara J; Bougma, Karim; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Marquis, Grace S

    2016-04-12

    Anthropometric characteristics and iron status affect cognitive performance in children. In addition, selenium can influence cognitive outcomes; protection of the brain from oxidative stress and its role in thyroid hormone metabolism are putative mechanisms. To investigate their association with cognitive performance, anthropometric indicators, iron biomarkers, and serum selenium of children (n = 541) of 54-60mo of age from rural Ethiopia were assessed. Cognitive assessment was conducted with the administration of two reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the school readiness test. Stunting was found in 41.4 % of children, 28.7 % were underweight, and 6.3 % were wasted. The mean score of stunted children was lower than that of non-stunted children on non-verbal reasoning (7.0 ± 3.2vs7.9 ± 3.1; p = 0.01) and the school readiness tests (4.3 ± 2.2 vs 3.3 ± 2.1; p 0.05). Selenium deficient children had lower scores on all cognitive tests than normal children (p malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency and address cognitive development in children.

  14. Moderation of Nicotine Effects on Covert Orienting of Attention Tasks by Poor Placebo Performance and Cue Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David G.; Rzetelny, Adam; Rabinovich, Norka E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Rationale Given baseline-dependent effects of nicotine on other forms of attention, there is reason to believe that inconsistent findings for the effects of nicotine on attentional orienting may be partly due to individual differences in baseline (abstinence state) functioning. Individuals with low baseline attention may benefit more from nicotine replacement. Method The effects of nicotine as a function of baseline performance (bottom, middle, and top third of mean reaction times during placebo) were assessed in 52 habitual abstinent smokers (26 females/26 males) utilizing an arrow-cued covert orienting of attention task. Results Compared to a placebo patch, a 14 mg nicotine patch produced faster overall reaction times (RTs). In addition, individuals with slower RTs during the placebo condition benefitted more from nicotine on cued trials than did those who had shorter (faster) RTs during placebo. Nicotine also enhanced the validity effect (shorter RTs to validly vs. invalidly cued targets), but this nicotine benefit did not differ as a function of overall placebo-baseline performance. Conclusions These findings support the view that nicotine enhances cued spatial attentional orienting in individuals who have slower RTs during placebo (nicotine-free) conditions; however, baseline-dependent effects may not generalize to all aspects of spatial attention. These findings are consistent with findings indicating that nicotine’s effects vary as a function of task parameters rather than simple RT speeding or cognitive enhancement. PMID:27461547

  15. SYSTEM OF PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FOR THE STUDENT CENTRED EDUCATION

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    Roșca Remus Dorel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The higher education system in Romania is facing a number of challenges coming from its external and internal environment, challenges which threaten even its very own survival. The significant decrease in the number of high school graduates, the increasing disengagement of the new generations towards the idea of study, the marketing myopia that has characterised the university management act are just a few of the challenges that compel the responsible policymakers to adopt a new management philosophy, a philosophy which has as central point the student centred education paradigm (SCE. For operationalizing this philosophy in the current practice of Romanian universities, it is necessary to develop and use a system of performance indicators for the student-centred education (SPISCE. This system would have the purpose: to monitor the performances obtained in time by the higher education institution (HEI, allowing their comparison with those of other competing institutions; to allow the identification of areas where a significant improvement in SCE is needed; to facilitate the establishment of a client oriented marketing strategy within the institution; to create a favourable framework for promoting an organizational culture specific to SCE among teaching staff members and to redesign their rewards system, taking into account their performances in practicing the SCE. We will conceive the SPISCE starting from the process model, resulting three major categories: input-specific performance indicators, process-specific performance indicators and output-specific performance indicators. The academic year pass rate, the retention rate, the number of graduates who continue with master studies, lifetime value are just a few examples of such indicators. Measuring them will help the management team of a university to understand the supremacy of relational marketing compared to the transactional one, the importance of holding on to students and not just

  16. Association between Urine Phthalate Levels and Poor Attentional Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Evidence of Dopamine Gene-Phthalate Interaction

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    Subin Park

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child’s urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine are associated with poor neuropsychological performance in children with ADHD, and whether such association is affected by genotype-phthalate interaction. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the continuous performance test (CPT were performed in 179 Korean children with ADHD recruited from department of psychiatry of university hospital. Correlations between urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the CPT scores were investigated, and the interaction of phthalate metabolite levels with the selected polymorphisms at major candidate genes for ADHD, namely dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4, dopamine transporter, α-2A-adrenergic receptor, and norepinephrine transporter genes. For the subjects with the DRD4 4/4 genotype, there were significant associations of the urine phthalate metabolite concentrations with the number of omission errors, the number of commission errors, and the response time variability scores on the CPT. However, for the subjects without the DRD4 4/4 genotype, no significant associations were found. The results of this study suggest a possible association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances of ADHD as well as a genetic influence on this association. Further prospective and epigenetic studies are needed to investigate causality and pathophysiological mechanisms.

  17. Association between urine phthalate levels and poor attentional performance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with evidence of dopamine gene-phthalate interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Yeni; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Ju-Young; Hong, Soon-Beom; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Im, Hosub; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Han, Doug Hyun

    2014-06-27

    Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child's urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine are associated with poor neuropsychological performance in children with ADHD, and whether such association is affected by genotype-phthalate interaction. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the continuous performance test (CPT) were performed in 179 Korean children with ADHD recruited from department of psychiatry of university hospital. Correlations between urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the CPT scores were investigated, and the interaction of phthalate metabolite levels with the selected polymorphisms at major candidate genes for ADHD, namely dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), dopamine transporter, α-2A-adrenergic receptor, and norepinephrine transporter genes. For the subjects with the DRD4 4/4 genotype, there were significant associations of the urine phthalate metabolite concentrations with the number of omission errors, the number of commission errors, and the response time variability scores on the CPT. However, for the subjects without the DRD4 4/4 genotype, no significant associations were found. The results of this study suggest a possible association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances of ADHD as well as a genetic influence on this association. Further prospective and epigenetic studies are needed to investigate causality and pathophysiological mechanisms.

  18. Association between Urine Phthalate Levels and Poor Attentional Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Evidence of Dopamine Gene-Phthalate Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Yeni; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Ju-Young; Hong, Soon-Beom; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Im, Hosub; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Han, Doug Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child’s urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine are associated with poor neuropsychological performance in children with ADHD, and whether such association is affected by genotype-phthalate interaction. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the continuous performance test (CPT) were performed in 179 Korean children with ADHD recruited from department of psychiatry of university hospital. Correlations between urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the CPT scores were investigated, and the interaction of phthalate metabolite levels with the selected polymorphisms at major candidate genes for ADHD, namely dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), dopamine transporter, α-2A-adrenergic receptor, and norepinephrine transporter genes. For the subjects with the DRD4 4/4 genotype, there were significant associations of the urine phthalate metabolite concentrations with the number of omission errors, the number of commission errors, and the response time variability scores on the CPT. However, for the subjects without the DRD4 4/4 genotype, no significant associations were found. The results of this study suggest a possible association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances of ADHD as well as a genetic influence on this association. Further prospective and epigenetic studies are needed to investigate causality and pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:24978879

  19. Excessive Video Game Use, Sleep Deprivation, and Poor Work Performance Among U.S. Marines Treated in a Military Mental Health Clinic: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, Erin; Yung, Kathryn; Davis, Diane L; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Excessive use of video games may be associated with sleep deprivation, resulting in poor job performance and atypical mood disorders. Three active duty service members in the U.S. Marine Corps were offered mental health evaluation for sleep disturbance and symptoms of blunted affect, low mood, poor concentration, inability to focus, irritability, and drowsiness. All three patients reported insomnia as their primary complaint. When asked about online video games and sleep hygiene practices, all three patients reported playing video games from 30 hours to more than 60 hours per week in addition to maintaining a 40-hour or more workweek. Our patients endorsed sacrificing sleep to maintain their video gaming schedules without insight into the subsequent sleep deprivation. During the initial interviews, they exhibited blunted affects and depressed moods, but appeared to be activated with enthusiasm and joy when discussing their video gaming with the clinical provider. Our article illustrates the importance of asking about online video gaming in patients presenting with sleep disturbances, poor work performance, and depressive symptoms. Because excessive video gaming is becoming more prevalent worldwide, military mental health providers should ask about video gaming when patients report problems with sleep. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Influence of sleep disturbance, fatigue, vitality on oral health and academic performance in indian dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Kailash; Sen, Nandini; Bhat, Nagesh; Tak, Mridula; Sultane, Pratibha; Mandal, Aritra

    2017-01-01

    Oral health and academic performance are important contributing factors for a student's professional life. Countless factors affect both, among which sleep, vitality and fatigue are less explored areas that also have a strong impact. The objective of the study was to assess the association of sleep disturbances, fatigue and vitality with self reported oral health status, oral hygiene habits and academic performance of dental students of Udaipur. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among undergraduate and postgraduate dental students of Udaipur. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to assess the psychological factors, vitality, sleep quality, fatigue, self reported oral health status, habits and academic performance. Analysis of variance and stepwise multiple linear regression were utilized for statistical analysis with 95% confidence level and 5% level of significance. Of the 230 participants, 180 (78.3%) were undergraduates and 50 (21.7%) were postgraduates. Among them, females showed higher scores in disturbed sleep index (2.69±2.14) as compared to males (2.45±1.91). Respondents who had "Poor" dental health, scored more in disturbed sleep index (3.15±1.64) and fatigue scale (20.00±4.88). Subjects who flossed "everyday", were found to have good sleep and more energy (p=0.01) and those who assessed themselves as excellent students scored more in the Vitality Scale (p=0.01) and less in the Sleep index (p=0.01). The present study confirms that disturbed sleep, aliveness and fatigue, all are interlinked with each other and are imperative factors having the potential to alter the oral health status, habits and academics of dental students.

  1. Emotional intelligence and clinical performance/retention of nursing students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvos, Chelsea; Hale, Frankie B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was undertaken to explore the relationship between clinical performance and anticipated retention in nursing students. Methods: After approval by the university's Human Subjects Committee, a sample of 104 nursing students were recruited for this study, which involved testing with a valid and reliable emotional intelligence (EI) instrument and a self-report survey of clinical competencies. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that although the group average for total EI score and the 6 score subsets were in the average range, approximately 30% of the individual total EI scores and 30% of two branch scores, identifying emotions correctly and understanding emotions, fell in the less than average range. This data, as well as the analysis of correlation with clinical self-report scores, suggest recommendations applicable to educators of clinical nursing students. Conclusions: Registered nurses make-up the largest segment of the ever-growing healthcare workforce. Yet, retention of new graduates has historically been a challenge for the profession. Given the projected employment growth in nursing, it is important to identify factors which correlate with high levels of performance and job retention among nurses. There is preliminary evidence that EI a nontraditional intelligence measure relates positively not only with retention of clinical staff nurses, but with overall clinical performance as well. PMID:27981096

  2. Emotional intelligence and clinical performance/retention of nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Marvos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory, quantitative, descriptive study was undertaken to explore the relationship between clinical performance and anticipated retention in nursing students. Methods: After approval by the university′s Human Subjects Committee, a sample of 104 nursing students were recruited for this study, which involved testing with a valid and reliable emotional intelligence (EI instrument and a self-report survey of clinical competencies. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that although the group average for total EI score and the 6 score subsets were in the average range, approximately 30% of the individual total EI scores and 30% of two branch scores, identifying emotions correctly and understanding emotions, fell in the less than average range. This data, as well as the analysis of correlation with clinical self-report scores, suggest recommendations applicable to educators of clinical nursing students. Conclusions: Registered nurses make-up the largest segment of the ever-growing healthcare workforce. Yet, retention of new graduates has historically been a challenge for the profession. Given the projected employment growth in nursing, it is important to identify factors which correlate with high levels of performance and job retention among nurses. There is preliminary evidence that EI "a nontraditional intelligence measure" relates positively not only with retention of clinical staff nurses, but with overall clinical performance as well.

  3. Neurotological symptoms and academic performance of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marcia Mattos; Ganança, Mauricio Malavasi; Marques, Carolina Mattos; Ganança, Fernando Freitas; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2010-02-01

    To compare the academic performance of university students with or without neurotological symptoms. 100 students enrolled in the Biomedical Sciences Graduate School - Medical Modality of UNIFESP-EPM in 2007 and answered a neurotological screening questionnaire. The symptoms presented once, sometimes, many times or always, in a decreasing order of prevalence, were headache (74.0%), difficulty with concentration (57.0%), lack of memory (45.0%), physical indisposition, nausea /dizziness when in moving vehicle (37.0%), fainting (27.0%), nausea (26.0%), sensation of fullness in the ear (26.0%), hypersensitivity to sounds (26.0%), tinnitus (22.0%), vertigo and other kinds of dizziness (21.0%), imbalance when walking (21.0%), difficulty in hearing (21.0%), imminent sensation of fainting (11.0%) and vomiting (8.0%), alone or in different associations; convulsion was not mentioned. The final academic performance score ranged from 5.1 to 10.0. University students with or without neurotological symptoms have manifested similar academic performance.

  4. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Poor Memory Performance in Aged Cynomolgus Monkeys with Hippocampal Atrophy, Depletion of Amyloid Beta 1-42 and Accumulation of Tau Proteins in Cerebrospinal Fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, Huda S; Pandelaki, Jacub; Mulyadi, Rahmad

    2014-01-01

    , aged cynomolgus monkeys were divided into two groups to compare high-performing (n=6) and low-performing (n=6) subjects. Both groups were tested for biomarkers related to Alzheimer's disease and their brains were scanned using structural magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: The subjects with poor DRT......BACKGROUND: Due to their similarities in behavior and disease pathology to humans, non-human primate models are desirable to complement small animals as models for the study of age-related dementia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on their performance on delayed response task (DRT) tests of memory...... performance had evidence of atrophy in the hippocampus and cortical areas, significantly lower cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid beta amino acid 1-42 (pperforming well on the DRT tests. CONCLUSION: Old, memory...

  6. Older adults with poor self-rated memory have less depressive symptoms and better memory performance when perceived self-efficacy is high.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Deirdre M; Dotson, Vonetta M; Fieo, Robert A; Tsapanou, Angeliki; Zahodne, Laura; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether self-efficacy moderates the association between self-rated memory and depressive symptoms in a large sample of older adults. The influence of self-efficacy and depressive symptoms on memory performance was also examined in a subsample of individuals who reported poor memory. Non-demented participants (n = 3766) were selected from the 2012 wave of the Health and Retirement Study. Depressive symptomatology was assessed with the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A modified version of the Midlife Developmental Inventory Questionnaire was used as the measure of self-efficacy. Participants were asked to rate their memory presently on a five-point scale from Excellent (1) to Poor (5). Immediate memory and delayed memory (after a 5-min interval) were measured by the number of correct words recalled from a 10-item word list. Multiple regression analyses revealed that negative ratings of memory were significantly associated with greater levels of depressive symptoms, with this effect being greatest in those with low levels of self-efficacy. Additionally, greater self-efficacy was associated with optimal objective memory performances but only when depressive symptoms were low in individuals who reported poor memory function (n = 1196). Self-efficacy moderates the relationship between self-rated memory function and depressive symptoms. Higher self-efficacy may buffer against the impact of subjective memory difficulty on one's mood and thereby mitigating the effect of depressive symptoms on memory. Interventions should focus on increasing perceived self-efficacy in older adults reporting poor memory function to potentially minimize memory impairment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Self-perception of knowledge and confidence in performing basic life support among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Yonathan; Duchateau, François-Xavier; Baker, Elinor C; Goulet, Hélène; Carreira, Serge; Schmidt, Matthieu; Riou, Bruno; Rouby, Jean-Jacques; Duguet, Alexandre

    2013-06-01

    Before implementing new workshops and teaching in our faculty for performing basic life support (BLS), we aimed to determine the level of self-confidence of medical students with regard to the management of cardiac arrest (CA). We conducted a preinterventional study. A questionnaire was sent to third-year to sixth-year medical students. We recorded sex, year of training, and personal witnessing of CA. We asked them about their theoretical knowledge on 10 main items of BLS and their self-perception of qualification to conduct a CA situation. We tested the respective influence of sex, year of training, and personal witnessing of CA. In total, 592 (37%) students completed the questionnaire, 42% of them were men. Less than a third of the students (30%) thought of themselves as being sufficiently qualified to conduct BLS. After the third year, the level of study did not influence their theoretical knowledge or their self-perception of qualification. Male sex and the number of CAs witnessed were the only factors positively associated with better self-confidence regarding qualification. Self-perception of qualification in BLS is poor in our faculty. In our study, personal witnessing of CA greatly influenced confidence, whereas level of study did not.

  8. Relationships between academic performance of medical students and their workplace performance as junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sandra E; Celenza, Antonio; Puddey, Ian B; Lake, Fiona

    2014-07-30

    Little recent published evidence explores the relationship between academic performance in medical school and performance as a junior doctor. Although many forms of assessment are used to demonstrate a medical student's knowledge or competence, these measures may not reliably predict performance in clinical practice following graduation. This descriptive cohort study explores the relationship between academic performance of medical students and workplace performance as junior doctors, including the influence of age, gender, ethnicity, clinical attachment, assessment type and summary score measures (grade point average) on performance in the workplace as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. There were two hundred participants. There were significant correlations between performance as a Junior Doctor (combined overall score) and the grade point average (r = 0.229, P = 0.002), the score from the Year 6 Emergency Medicine attachment (r = 0.361, P gender or ethnicity on the overall combined score of performance of the junior doctor. Performance on integrated assessments from medical school is correlated to performance as a practicing physician as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. These findings support the value of combining undergraduate assessment scores to assess competence and predict future performance.

  9. Influence of course characteristics, student characteristics, and behavior in learning management systems on student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, Rianne; Kleingeld, Ad; Matzat, Uwe; Snijders, Chris; van Zaanen, Menno

    2016-01-01

    The use of learning management systems (LMS) in education make it possible to track students’ online behavior. This data can be used for educational data mining and learning analytics, for example, by predicting student performance. Although LMS data might contain useful predictors, course

  10. Bajo desempeño escolar relacionado con la persistencia del tabaquismo en una cohorte de estudiantes en México Poor school perfomance associated with tobacco persistence among Mexican students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anaya-Ocampo

    2006-01-01

    el combate a las adicciones.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the independent effect of poor school performance and tobacco persistence using a prospective population study of students who remained on school grounds during the follow-up period. Two measurements were taken over a period of three years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort study conducted within school confines was developed over the period 1998 to 1999 and 2000 to 2001, with 2 568 students, including both tobacco persistent students and non-consumers. Multiple logistic regression models were designed and structured according to educational performance using two standards: students who maintained and/or improved performance and those with poor performance, based on the first and second measurements. RESULTS: In the reference cohort, 5.2% of the students reported to have persisted with tobacco consumption during the study period, while 64.2% remained unexposed. Poor school performance was associated with tobacco persistence for the total population (OR 2.27, 95%CI 1.4-3.6, as well as for females (OR 3.0 95%CI 1.4-6.7 and males (OR 2.2 95%CI 1.1-4.1. Poor school performance has an excess risk of tobacco persistence, independently of other co-variables. The greatest difference in prevalence, using poor school performance as a reference, was observed in those subjects having depressive symptomolgy, with an excessive tobacco persistence of 21.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that foster healthy lifestyles within school environments should be adopted in a comprehensive manner. In addition, students who perform poorly should be considered vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyles. It will therefore be necessary to identify them as high risk subjects and implement interventions among this population, particularly with regard to combatting addictions.

  11. Visual Motor and Perceptual Task Performance in Astigmatic Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine if spectacle corrected and uncorrected astigmats show reduced performance on visual motor and perceptual tasks. Methods. Third through 8th grade students were assigned to the low refractive error control group (astigmatism < 1.00 D, myopia < 0.75 D, hyperopia < 2.50 D, and anisometropia < 1.50 D or bilateral astigmatism group (right and left eye ≥ 1.00 D based on cycloplegic refraction. Students completed the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual Motor Integration (VMI and Visual Perception (VMIp. Astigmats were randomly assigned to testing with/without correction and control group was tested uncorrected. Analyses compared VMI and VMIp scores for corrected and uncorrected astigmats to the control group. Results. The sample included 333 students (control group 170, astigmats tested with correction 75, and astigmats tested uncorrected 88. Mean VMI score in corrected astigmats did not differ from the control group (p=0.829. Uncorrected astigmats had lower VMI scores than the control group (p=0.038 and corrected astigmats (p=0.007. Mean VMIp scores for uncorrected (p=0.209 and corrected astigmats (p=0.124 did not differ from the control group. Uncorrected astigmats had lower mean scores than the corrected astigmats (p=0.003. Conclusions. Uncorrected astigmatism influences visual motor and perceptual task performance. Previously spectacle treated astigmats do not show developmental deficits on visual motor or perceptual tasks when tested with correction.

  12. Sleep Quality and Academic Performance in University Students: A Wake-Up Call for College Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Steven P.; Weaver, Cameron C.

    2010-01-01

    Both sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality are prominent in American society, especially in college student populations. Sleep problems are often a primary disorder rather than secondary to depression. The purpose of the present study was to determine if sleep deprivation and/or poor sleep quality in a sample of nondepressed university students…

  13. Academic Performance, Sleep Disorders and Their Association in Middle School Students in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Reisi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although sleep disorders are common problems among families and they affect the learning, memory processes and academic performance of children, there is no evaluation of these disorders in Iran. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders and its association with academic performance of school age children.Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,100 middle school students of Isfahan city of Iran during 2012-2013. Multi-stage random cluster sampling method was performed and five girl’s schools and five boy’s schools were selected. The data gathered with a validated questionnaire to evaluate the academic performance and sleep disorders.Results: The mean duration of nocturnal sleep was 8.38±1.17 which was significantly higher in the group with excellent academic performance (8.86±1.18 hours, than the other two groups (8.14±1.17 hours for average academic performance and 7.90±1.15 hours for poor academic performance. Academic performance was significantly associated with age, gender, parental occupation, nocturnal sleep time, sleep latency and sleep disorders (P

  14. The Effects of Nutrition Awareness and Knowledge on Health Habits and Performance Among Pharmacy Students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ahmady, Sherweit; El-Wakeel, Lamia

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of pharmacy students to assess the relation between nutritional knowledge and awareness of university students and their nutrition habits and health related performance and indicators. The students were subjected to a questionnaire designed to approach four health related topics including nutrition literacy, health awareness, nutritional habits and health related performance. Answers on each topic were collected and statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism 5 software including a measure of gender differences and correlative studies. No significant difference between genders in the overall responses but discrepancies in certain questions were observed. Female students showed higher awareness of nutrition concepts and practices but poor implementation from their side was observed. The study revealed that a positive and significant correlation existed between health related performance and nutrition literacy (r = 0.32). Healthier eating habits and lifestyle were associated more with nutrition conscious students (r = 0.73) than knowledgeable students (r = 0.56). It was concluded that knowledge alone is not enough to stimulate individuals to practice healthy habits. Other implementations are required to raise awareness of the issues at hand.

  15. Diagnostic Performance of CT for Diagnosis of Fat-Poor Angiomyolipoma in Patients With Renal Masses: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sungmin; Suh, Chong Hyun; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Kim, Sang Youn; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of the diagnostic performance of CT for diagnosis of fat-poor angiomyolipoma (AML) in patients with renal masses. MEDLINE and EMBASE were systematically searched up to February 2, 2017. We included diagnostic accuracy studies that used CT for diagnosis of fat-poor AML in patients with renal masses, using pathologic examination as the reference standard. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodologic quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Sensitivity and specificity of included studies were calculated and were pooled and plotted in a hierarchic summary ROC plot. Sensitivity analyses using several clinically relevant covariates were performed to explore heterogeneity. Fifteen studies (2258 patients) were included. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.67 (95% CI, 0.48-0.81) and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.89-0.99), respectively. Substantial and considerable heterogeneity was present with regard to sensitivity and specificity (I 2 = 91.21% and 78.53%, respectively). At sensitivity analyses, the specificity estimates were comparable and consistently high across all subgroups (0.93-1.00), but sensitivity estimates showed significant variation (0.14-0.82). Studies using pixel distribution analysis (n = 3) showed substantially lower sensitivity estimates (0.14; 95% CI, 0.04-0.40) compared with the remaining 12 studies (0.81; 95% CI, 0.76-0.85). CT shows moderate sensitivity and excellent specificity for diagnosis of fat-poor AML in patients with renal masses. When methods other than pixel distribution analysis are used, better sensitivity can be achieved.

  16. Nutritional quality of diet and academic performance in Chilean students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Blanco, Estela; Reyes, Marcela; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore associations between the nutritional quality of diet at age 16 years and academic performance in students from Santiago, Chile. Methods We assessed the nutritional quality of diet, using a validated food frequency questionnaire, in 395 students aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years. Depending on the amount of saturated fat, fibre, sugar and salt in the foods, diet was categorized as unhealthy, fair or healthy. Academic performance was assessed using high school grade-point average (GPA) and tests for college admission in language and mathematics. Academic results on or above the 75th percentile in our sample were considered good academic performance. We tested associations between nutritional quality of diet and good academic performance using logistic regression models. We considered sociodemographic, educational and body-mass index (BMI) factors as potential confounders. Findings After controlling for potential confounding factors, an unhealthy diet at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. Compared to participants with healthy diets, those with unhealthy diets were significantly less likely to perform well based on language tests (odds ratio, OR: 0.42; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.18–0.98) mathematics tests (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15–0.82) or GPA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.09–0.56). Conclusion In our sample, excessive consumption of energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat foods at age 16 years was associated with reduced academic performance. PMID:26966329

  17. Reduced ovulation rate, failure to be mated and fertilization failure/embryo loss are the underlying causes of poor reproductive performance in juvenile ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sara J; Smaill, Bronwyn; O'Connell, Anne R; Johnstone, Peter D; Stevens, David R; Quirke, Laurel D; Farquhar, Philip A; Juengel, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    A ewe that is mated as a juvenile (producing a lamb at 1 year of age) will produce an average of only 0.6 lambs to weaning, compared to an average of 1.2 lambs in adult ewes. Understanding the underlying causes of this low reproductive efficiency and designing methods to improve or mitigate these effects could potentially increase adoption of mating juvenile ewes. In Experiment 1, 2 Cohorts of ewes, born a year apart, were mated in order to lamb at 1 and 2 years of age and the performance of the ewes at each age was compared. Onset of puberty, mating by the fertile ram, ovulation rate, early pregnancy (day 30-35) litter size, number of lambs born and number of lambs weaned were measured. In juvenile ewes, by day 35 of pregnancy, 43% of ova had failed to become a viable embryo and this early loss was the largest contributor to the poor reproductive performance observed. Compared with young adult ewes, ovulation rate was lower (pewes with a greater ovulation rate (pewes, failure to mate with the ram, lower ovulation rate and increased fertilisation failure/embryo loss underlie their poor reproductive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of dyad training on medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Candice; Huang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Shing-Jong; Chen, Jaw-Wen

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the effects of dyadic training on medical students' resuscitation performance during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training.We provided students with a 2-hour training session on CPR for simulated cardiac arrest. Student teams were split into double groups (Dyad training groups: Groups A and B) or Single Groups. All groups received 2 CPR simulation rounds. CPR simulation training began with peer demonstration for Group A, and peer observation for Group B. Then the 2 groups switched roles. Single Groups completed CPR simulation without peer observation or demonstration. Teams were then evaluated based on leadership, teamwork, and team member skills.Group B had the highest first simulation round scores overall (P = 0.004) and in teamwork (P = 0.001) and team member skills (P = 0.031). Group B also had the highest second simulation round scores overall (P training groups with those of Single Groups in overall scores, leadership scores, teamwork scores, and team member scores. In the second simulation, Dyad training groups scored higher in overall scores (P = 0.002), leadership scores (P = 0.044), teamwork scores (P = 0.005), and team member scores (P = 0.008). Dyad training groups also displayed higher improvement in overall scores (P = 0.010) and team member scores (P = 0.022).Dyad training was effective for CPR training. Both peer observation and demonstration for peers in dyad training can improve student resuscitation performance.

  19. Implementing the Flipped Classroom: An Exploration of Study Behaviour and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boevé, Anja J.; Meijer, Rob R.; Bosker, Roel J.; Vugteveen, Jorien; Hoekstra, Rink; Albers, Casper J.

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom is becoming more popular as a means to support student learning in higher education by requiring students to prepare before lectures and actively engaging students during lectures. While some research has been conducted into student performance in the flipped classroom, students' study behaviour throughout a flipped course…

  20. Quality Lies in the Eyes of the Beholder: A Mismatch between Student Evaluation and Peer Observation of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Salochana; Wium, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    The study described in this article was prompted by the poor performance of students in an "at risk subject" in a science faculty at a university in South Africa. Teacher performance could contribute to poor performance among students, therefore the performance of one of the science teachers whose students were performing poorly was…

  1. Emotional intelligence and academic performance in first and final year medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Boon How; Zain, Azhar Md; Hassan, Faezah

    2013-03-27

    Research on emotional intelligence (EI) suggests that it is associated with more pro-social behavior, better academic performance and improved empathy towards patients. In medical education and clinical practice, EI has been related to higher academic achievement and improved doctor-patient relationships. This study examined the effect of EI on academic performance in first- and final-year medical students in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study using an objectively-scored measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). Academic performance of medical school students was measured using continuous assessment (CA) and final examination (FE) results. The first- and final-year students were invited to participate during their second semester. Students answered a paper-based demographic questionnaire and completed the online MSCEIT on their own. Relationships between the total MSCEIT score to academic performance were examined using multivariate analyses. A total of 163 (84 year one and 79 year five) medical students participated (response rate of 66.0%). The gender and ethnic distribution were representative of the student population. The total EI score was a predictor of good overall CA (OR 1.01), a negative predictor of poor result in overall CA (OR 0.97), a predictor of the good overall FE result (OR 1.07) and was significantly related to the final-year FE marks (adjusted R(2) = 0.43). Medical students who were more emotionally intelligent performed better in both the continuous assessments and the final professional examination. Therefore, it is possible that emotional skill development may enhance medical students' academic performance.

  2. Performance of Distance Learning Students in a Small Business Management Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotey, Bernice; Anderson, Phil

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to compare the performance of distance-learning students in a Small Business Management (SBM) course with that of internal (on-campus) students, and to examine students' demographics and information processing systems for their moderating effects on performance of each student group.…

  3. The Prediction of College Student Academic Performance and Retention: Application of Expectancy and Goal Setting Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.

    2010-01-01

    Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…

  4. Fit to Perform: An Investigation of Higher Education Music Students' Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behaviors toward Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Liliana S; Wasley, David; Perkins, Rosie; Atkins, Louise; Redding, Emma; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Making music at the highest international standards can be rewarding, but it is also challenging, with research highlighting pernicious ways in which practicing and performing can affect performers' health and wellbeing. Several studies indicate that music students' perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward health and healthy living are less than optimal, especially considering the multiple physical and psychological demands of their day-to-day work. This article presents the results of a comprehensive screening protocol that investigated lifestyle and health-related attitudes and behaviors among 483 undergraduate and postgraduate students (mean age = 21.29 years ± 3.64; 59% women) from ten conservatoires. The protocol included questionnaires measuring wellbeing, general health, health-promoting behaviors, perfectionism, coping, sleep quality, and fatigue. On each measure, the data were compared with existing published data from similar age groups. The results indicate that music students have higher levels of wellbeing and lower fatigue than comparable samples outside of music. However, they also reveal potentially harmful perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors toward health. Specifically, engagement in health responsibility and stress management was low, which along with high perfectionistic strivings, limited use of coping strategies, poor sleep quality, and low self-rated health, paints a troubling picture both for the music students and for those who support their training. The findings point to the need for more (and more effective) health education and promotion initiatives within music education; in particular, musicians should be better equipped with mental skills to cope with constant pressure to excel and high stress levels. In part, this calls for musicians themselves to engage in healthier lifestyles, take greater responsibility for their own health, and be aware of and act upon health information in order to achieve and sustain successful practice

  5. Poor performances of EuroSCORE and CARE score for prediction of perioperative mortality in octogenarians undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhor, Vibol; Merceron, Sybille; Ricome, Sylvie; Baron, Gabriel; Daoud, Omar; Dilly, Marie-Pierre; Aubier, Benjamin; Provenchere, Sophie; Philip, Ivan

    2010-08-01

    Although results of cardiac surgery are improving, octogenarians have a higher procedure-related mortality and more complications with increased length of stay in ICU. Consequently, careful evaluation of perioperative risk seems necessary. The aims of our study were to assess and compare the performances of EuroSCORE and CARE score in the prediction of perioperative mortality among octogenarians undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis and to compare these predictive performances with those obtained in younger patients. This retrospective study included all consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in our institution between November 2005 and December 2007. For each patient, risk assessment for mortality was performed using logistic EuroSCORE, additive EuroSCORE and CARE score. The main outcome measure was early postoperative mortality. Predictive performances of these scores were assessed by calibration and discrimination using goodness-of-fit test and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, respectively. During this 2-year period, we studied 2117 patients, among whom 134/211 octogenarians and 335/1906 nonoctogenarians underwent an aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. When considering patients with aortic stenosis, discrimination was poor in octogenarians and the difference from nonoctogenarians was significant for each score (0.58, 0.59 and 0.56 vs. 0.82, 0.81 and 0.77 for additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE and CARE score in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians, respectively, P performances of these scores are poor in octogenarians undergoing cardiac surgery, especially aortic valve replacement. Risk assessment and therapeutic decisions in octogenarians should not be made with these scoring systems alone.

  6. Effect of lecture instruction on student performance on qualitative questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Paula R. L.

    2015-06-01

    The impact of lecture instruction on student conceptual understanding in physics has been the subject of research for several decades. Most studies have reported disappointingly small improvements in student performance on conceptual questions despite direct instruction on the relevant topics. These results have spurred a number of attempts to improve learning in physics courses through new curricula and instructional techniques. This paper contributes to the research base through a retrospective analysis of 20 randomly selected qualitative questions on topics in kinematics, dynamics, electrostatics, waves, and physical optics that have been given in introductory calculus-based physics at the University of Washington over a period of 15 years. In some classes, questions were administered after relevant lecture instruction had been completed; in others, it had yet to begin. Simple statistical tests indicate that the average performance of the "after lecture" classes was significantly better than that of the "before lecture" classes for 11 questions, significantly worse for two questions, and indistinguishable for the remaining seven. However, the classes had not been randomly assigned to be tested before or after lecture instruction. Multiple linear regression was therefore conducted with variables (such as class size) that could plausibly lead to systematic differences in performance and thus obscure (or artificially enhance) the effect of lecture instruction. The regression models support the results of the simple tests for all but four questions. In those cases, the effect of lecture instruction was reduced to a nonsignificant level, or increased to a significant, negative level when other variables were considered. Thus the results provide robust evidence that instruction in lecture can increase student ability to give correct answers to conceptual questions but does not necessarily do so; in some cases it can even lead to a decrease.

  7. A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene......Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....

  8. Academic performance and student engagement in level 1 physics undergraduates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, M M; McVitie, S

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.

  9. Academic performance and student engagement in level 1 physics undergraduates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, M M; McVitie, S [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.casey@physics.gla.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    At the beginning of academic year 2007-08, staff in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow started to implement a number of substantial changes to the administration of the level 1 physics undergraduate class. The main aims were to improve the academic performance and progression statistics. With this in mind, a comprehensive system of learning support was introduced, the main remit being the provision of an improved personal contact and academic monitoring and support strategy for all students at level 1. The effects of low engagement with compulsory continuous assessment components had already been observed to have a significant effect on students sitting in the middle of the grade curve. Analysis of data from the 2007-08 class showed that even some nominally high-achieving students achieved lowered grades due to the effects of low engagement. Nonetheless, academic and other support measures put in place during 2007-08 played a part in raising the passrate for the level 1 physics class by approximately 8% as well as raising the progression rate by approximately 10%.

  10. Active learning and student-centered pedagogy improve student attitudes and performance in introductory biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Peter; Patel, Maya; Johnson, Erika; Weiss, Martha

    2009-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of an instructional design that focused on bringing multiple forms of active learning and student-centered pedagogies to a one-semester, undergraduate introductory biology course for both majors and nonmajors. Our course redesign consisted of three major elements: 1) reordering the presentation of the course content in an attempt to teach specific content within the context of broad conceptual themes, 2) incorporating active and problem-based learning into every lecture, and 3) adopting strategies to create a more student-centered learning environment. Assessment of our instructional design consisted of a student survey and comparison of final exam performance across 3 years-1 year before our course redesign was implemented (2006) and during two successive years of implementation (2007 and 2008). The course restructuring led to significant improvement of self-reported student engagement and satisfaction and increased academic performance. We discuss the successes and ongoing challenges of our course restructuring and consider issues relevant to institutional change.

  11. Teacher Expectancy Related to Student Performance in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Samuel M.; Pandya, Himanshu S.

    1980-01-01

    This experiment explored the effect of teacher expectations on vocational students' cognitive and psychomotor skills and on attitudes. Although teachers' expectations changed student attitudes toward teachers and subjects, neither expectations nor attitude change had an effect on student achievement. (SK)

  12. Does Poor Quality Schooling and/or Teacher Quality Hurt Black South African Students Enrolling for a Degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Murray

    Full Text Available Wealthy schools appoint better qualified teachers, less wealthy schools under qualified teachers. Added to this mix is a powerful teacher's union whose policies attempt to entrench the job security of teachers in the less wealthy schools irrespective of whether they can teach their subjects or not. Can one isolate these effects from that of other socio-demographic factors that may also be affecting the performance of students when they enrol for a degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN? An outcome variable that subtracts the number of courses that have been failed from the number of courses that have been passed, dividing this by the total number of years that they have spent studying for a particular degree will be used as a response variable for this paper.The system of secondary education in South Africa is highly polarized. On the one hand, we have a group of mainly Black African students, forming about 80% of the total student population, that come from a vastly under-resourced rural or township based community. On the other hand, we have a group of predominantly White and Indian students who are able to attend a far better resourced set of private schools. Added to this mix, we have 240,000 of South Africa's total number of 390,000 primary and secondary school teachers who belong to a powerful teacher's union which enjoys a strong political alliance with the ruling party in South Africa. With most of their union members teaching in the less wealthy schools in South Africa, `school background' now includes a politically motivated component that focuses on teacher self-interest rather than the education of the child. What sort of effect does school background have on the performance of students when they enter an institution of higher learning? More importantly, can one isolate the effect of school background from that of other possibly confounding factors such as gender, financial aid and the receipt of some form of residence based

  13. Does Poor Quality Schooling and/or Teacher Quality Hurt Black South African Students Enrolling for a Degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Wealthy schools appoint better qualified teachers, less wealthy schools under qualified teachers. Added to this mix is a powerful teacher's union whose policies attempt to entrench the job security of teachers in the less wealthy schools irrespective of whether they can teach their subjects or not. Can one isolate these effects from that of other socio-demographic factors that may also be affecting the performance of students when they enrol for a degree at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN)? An outcome variable that subtracts the number of courses that have been failed from the number of courses that have been passed, dividing this by the total number of years that they have spent studying for a particular degree will be used as a response variable for this paper. The system of secondary education in South Africa is highly polarized. On the one hand, we have a group of mainly Black African students, forming about 80% of the total student population, that come from a vastly under-resourced rural or township based community. On the other hand, we have a group of predominantly White and Indian students who are able to attend a far better resourced set of private schools. Added to this mix, we have 240,000 of South Africa's total number of 390,000 primary and secondary school teachers who belong to a powerful teacher's union which enjoys a strong political alliance with the ruling party in South Africa. With most of their union members teaching in the less wealthy schools in South Africa, `school background' now includes a politically motivated component that focuses on teacher self-interest rather than the education of the child. What sort of effect does school background have on the performance of students when they enter an institution of higher learning? More importantly, can one isolate the effect of school background from that of other possibly confounding factors such as gender, financial aid and the receipt of some form of residence based accommodation

  14. Elementary Students' Metacognitive Processes and Post-Performance Calibration on Mathematical Problem-Solving Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Trinidad; Rodríguez, Celestino; González-Castro, Paloma; González-Pienda, Julio Antonio; Torrance, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Calibration, or the correspondence between perceived performance and actual performance, is linked to students' metacognitive and self-regulatory skills. Making students more aware of the quality of their performance is important in elementary school settings, and more so when math problems are involved. However, many students seem to be poorly…

  15. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Yusuf; Lee, Alice; Raha, Oishik; Pillai, Kavya; Gupta, Shubham; Sethi, Sonika; Mukeshimana, Felicite; Gerard, Lothaire; Moghal, Mohammad U; Saleh, Sohag N; Smith, Susan F; Morrell, Mary J; Moss, James

    2017-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is common among university students, and has been associated with poor academic performance and physical dysfunction. However, current literature has a narrow focus in regard to domains tested, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a night of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in students. A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 64 participants [58% male ( n  = 37); 22 ± 4 years old (mean ± SD)]. Participants were randomized into two conditions: normal sleep or one night sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was monitored using an online time-stamped questionnaire at 45 min intervals, completed in the participants' homes. The outcomes were cognitive: working memory (Simon game© derivative), executive function (Stroop test); and physical: reaction time (ruler drop testing), lung function (spirometry), rate of perceived exertion, heart rate, and blood pressure during submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Data were analysed using paired two-tailed T tests and MANOVA. Reaction time and systolic blood pressure post-exercise were significantly increased following sleep deprivation (mean ± SD change: reaction time: 0.15 ± 0.04 s, p  = 0.003; systolic BP: 6 ± 17 mmHg, p  = 0.012). No significant differences were found in other variables. Reaction time and vascular response to exercise were significantly affected by sleep deprivation in university students, whilst other cognitive and cardiopulmonary measures showed no significant changes. These findings indicate that acute sleep deprivation can have an impact on physical but not cognitive ability in young healthy university students. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms of change and the impact of longer term sleep deprivation in this population.

  16. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D; Kirk, Sara F L; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-11-20

    Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children's long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Our population-based study included students in grades 4-6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.

  17. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie-Lee D. McIsaac

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA. Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students.

  18. The Association between Health Behaviours and Academic Performance in Canadian Elementary School Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Jessie-Lee D.; Kirk, Sara F. L.; Kuhle, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Establishing early healthy eating and physical activity behaviours is critical in supporting children’s long-term health and well-being. The objective of the current paper was to examine the association between health behaviours and academic performance in elementary school students in a school board in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods: Our population-based study included students in grades 4–6 across 18 schools in a rural school board. Diet and physical activity were assessed through validated instruments. Academic performance measures were obtained from the school board for Mathematics and English Language Arts (ELA). Associations between health behaviours and academic performance were assessed using multilevel logistic regression. Results: Students with unhealthy lifestyle behaviours were more likely to have poor academic performance for both ELA and Mathematics compared to students with healthy lifestyle behaviours; associations were statistically significant for diet quality, physical activity, sugar-sweetened beverage consumption for ELA; and breakfast skipping, not being physically active at morning recess, and not being physically active after school for Mathematics. The effects of diet and physical activity were independent of each other and there was no interaction between the two exposures. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that support for healthy behaviours may help to improve academic outcomes of students. PMID:26610537

  19. Students' Perception of Daylight Illumination in the School Workshop as a Determinant for Effective Students' Task Performance in Workshop Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amasuomo, Japo Oweikeye Morto; Alio, Abigail Ngozi

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated daylight illumination in the school workshop as a determinant for effective students' task performance in workshop practice. 183 NCE Technical students in 300 Level which comprised of 73 and 112 students from Federal Colleges of Education (Technical), Asaba and Omoku, Nigeria respectively during the 2008/2009 academic…

  20. [Rhinitis and asthma as a cause of absenteeism and poor work/school performance in a population from Latin-American tropic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Estarita, Javier; Salemi, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and rhinitis are the most frequent chronic respiratory diseases. Their high impact is associated with the loss of working days, as well as a decrease in academic performance. To assess and compare the impact of rhinitis and asthma as causes of absenteeism and low work performance in a population of children and adults. A cross sectional study was performed in 10 schools of two cities in Colombia. The student population between 6 to 17 years, as well as the faculty staff over 18 were invited to participate. All of the participants filled a questionnaire assessing parameters related to clinical background, and a review of scores in Math and Spanish, curriculum vitae and number of missed day during the last academic period completed was performed. A total of 1,413 participants were enrolled. The frequency of asthma and/or rhinitis was 36%, there was a greater frequency of absenteeism in the population of children with respiratory symptoms (2.8 vs 1.2 days/year/patient, pperformance (0.43 vs 0.27, pabsenteeism and an improved performance. Both rhinitis and asthma are associated with lower performance in children and adults and absenteeism in the school; however, adequate treatment may improve clinical control and reduce backlash against job performance.

  1. Cetuximab plus FOLFOX for Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer with Poor Performance Status and/or Severe Tumor-Related Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Kohei; Yokota, Tomoya; Takahari, Daisuke; Shibata, Takashi; Sato, Yozo; Tajika, Masahiro; Ura, Takashi; Muro, Kei

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Cetuximab-based chemotherapy showed a statistically significantly higher response rate compared with chemotherapy such as FOLFOX. Therefore, FOLFOX plus cetuximab is suspected to be the best regimen to alleviate tumor-related symptoms with a high response rate. Case Report Here we present the results of 8 consecutive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with poor performance status and/or severe complications who were treated with first-line FOLFOX with cetuximab. Six of 8 patients achieved an apparent clinical benefit, including radiological response and symptoms improvement. Two patients with BRAF mutation could achieve neither clinical benefit nor radiological response. Conclusion Although an optimal line of therapy with cetuximab is unclear yet with bevacizumab in mind, we propose that patients who need a tumor response to alleviate their symptoms due to advanced disease might be candidates for first-line cetuximab-based therapy as shown in our cases. Additionally, patients with BRAF mutant tumors might be important candidates for novel targeted therapy in the future to improve their poor prognosis. PMID:21347194

  2. Cetuximab plus FOLFOX for Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer with Poor Performance Status and/or Severe Tumor-Related Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Shitara

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cetuximab-based chemotherapy showed a statistically significantly higher response rate compared with chemotherapy such as FOLFOX. Therefore, FOLFOX plus cetuximab is suspected to be the best regimen to alleviate tumor-related symptoms with a high response rate. Case Report: Here we present the results of 8 consecutive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with poor performance status and/or severe complications who were treated with first-line FOLFOX with cetuximab. Six of 8 patients achieved an apparent clinical benefit, including radiological response and symptoms improvement. Two patients with BRAF mutation could achieve neither clinical benefit nor radiological response. Conclusion: Although an optimal line of therapy with cetuximab is unclear yet with bevacizumab in mind, we propose that patients who need a tumor response to alleviate their symptoms due to advanced disease might be candidates for first-line cetuximab-based therapy as shown in our cases. Additionally, patients with BRAF mutant tumors might be important candidates for novel targeted therapy in the future to improve their poor prognosis.

  3. Optimizing Performance in Psychology Students - Neurofeedback as a performance enhancing tool

    OpenAIRE

    Elvebredd, Pernille Malene Sandberg

    2014-01-01

    Neurofeedback has been shown to be successful in treating epilepsy and ADHD and in enhancing performance in musicians and dancers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of a neurofeedback beta1/theta protocol as a tool for optimizing performance in healthy psychology students. To achieve this, 19-channel EEG was recorded during a visual Go/NoGo task at two time points, both prior to and following either ten sessions of neurofeedback training (10 individuals) or ten sess...

  4. Original Research By Young Twinkle Students (ORBYTS): when can students start performing original research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; McKemmish, Laura K.; Chubb, Katy L.; Gorman, Maire N.; Baker, Jack S.; Barton, Emma J.; Rivlin, Tom; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Involving students in state-of-the-art research from an early age eliminates the idea that science is only for the scientists and empowers young people to explore STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) subjects. It is also a great opportunity to dispel harmful stereotypes about who is suitable for STEM careers, while leaving students feeling engaged in modern science and the scientific method. As part of the Twinkle Space Mission’s educational programme, EduTwinkle, students between the ages of 15 and 18 have been performing original research associated with the exploration of space since January 2016. The student groups have each been led by junior researchers—PhD and post-doctoral scientists—who themselves benefit substantially from the opportunity to supervise and manage a research project. This research aims to meet a standard for publication in peer-reviewed journals. At present the research of two ORBYTS teams have been published, one in the Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series and another in JQSRT; we expect more papers to follow. Here we outline the necessary steps for a productive scientific collaboration with school children, generalising from the successes and downfalls of the pilot ORBYTS projects.

  5. Motivational needs on team performance of Korean nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Y J; Park, K H

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an individual's motivational needs on team performance, centering on the needs for affiliation, power and achievement, following the McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory. Most previous studies related to McClelland's Achievement Motivation Theory have focused on achievement motivation as a predictor of team performance. In contrast, affiliation and power motivations were relatively little known in connection with team performance. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study using data from 181 junior nursing students in Korea. Data were collected from a questionnaire when the subjects' teamwork task was completed in November 2013. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the influence of motivational needs on team performance. Each group having high levels of the need for affiliation, or the need for power and/or the need for achievement showed a significantly high level of teamwork skills and team effectiveness. The factors influencing teamwork skills were the need for affiliation and the need for achievement. Additionally, the factors influencing team effectiveness were also the need for affiliation and the need for achievement. The study reconfirmed the positive influence of the need for achievement, which was the focus of most previous research, in regard to personal and organizational growth. Furthermore, it identified that the need for affiliation, another type of internal motive, positively affected team performance as well. Nursing schools and nursing organizations should pay attention to their members' affiliation and achievement needs to enhance organizational efficiencies. Through efforts such as developing diverse continuing education programmes for need training, they could enhance their members' needs for affiliation or achievement and consequently increase nursing team performance. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  6. The Australian Medical Schools Assessment Collaboration: benchmarking the preclinical performance of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Deborah A; Canny, Ben J; Rothnie, Imogene P; Wilson, Ian G; Barnard, John; Davies, Llewelyn

    2015-02-02

    To report the level of participation of medical schools in the Australian Medical Schools Assessment Collaboration (AMSAC); and to measure differences in student performance related to medical school characteristics and implementation methods. Retrospective analysis of data using the Rasch statistical model to correct for missing data and variability in item difficulty. Linear model analysis of variance was used to assess differences in student performance. 6401 preclinical students from 13 medical schools that participated in AMSAC from 2011 to 2013. Rasch estimates of preclinical basic and clinical science knowledge. Representation of Australian medical schools and students in AMSAC more than doubled between 2009 and 2013. In 2013 it included 12 of 19 medical schools and 68% of medical students. Graduate-entry students scored higher than students entering straight from school. Students at large schools scored higher than students at small schools. Although the significance level was high (P performance. The effect on performance of multiple assessments compared with the test items as part of a single end-of-year examination was negligible. The variables investigated explain only 12% of the total variation in student performance. An increasing number of medical schools are participating in AMSAC to monitor student performance in preclinical sciences against an external benchmark. Medical school characteristics account for only a small part of overall variation in student performance. Student performance was not affected by the different methods of administering test items.

  7. A Valid and Reliable Tool to Assess Nursing Students` Clinical Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrnoosh Pazargadi; Tahereh Ashktorab; Sharareh Khosravi; Hamid Alavi majd

    2013-01-01

    Background: The necessity of a valid and reliable assessment tool is one of the most repeated issues in nursing students` clinical evaluation. But it is believed that present tools are not mostly valid and can not assess students` performance properly.Objectives: This study was conducted to design a valid and reliable assessment tool for evaluating nursing students` performance in clinical education.Methods: In this methodological study considering nursing students` performance definition; th...

  8. Randomized phase II study of gefitinib compared with placebo in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and poor performance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Glenwood; Ferry, David; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Laurie, Scott A; Thompson, Joyce; Biesma, Bonne; Hirsch, Fred R; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Duffield, Emma; Ataman, Ozlem U; Zarenda, Marc; Armour, Alison A

    2009-05-01

    To compare gefitinib with placebo in chemotherapy naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and poor performance status. NSCLC patients (chemotherapy naïve, WHO performance status 2 or 3; unfit for chemotherapy; stage IIIB/IV) were randomly assigned to gefitinib (250 mg/d) plus best supportive care (BSC; n = 100) or placebo plus BSC (n = 101). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), quality of life (QOL), pulmonary symptom improvement (PSI), and safety. Correlation of gefitinib efficacy with EGFR gene copy number (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]) was explored. Hazard ratios (HRs; gefitinib:placebo) were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.60 to 1.12; P = .217) for PFS and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.15; P = .272) for OS. As expected for this patient population, OS for both arms was poor, at about 3 months. ORRs were 6.0% (gefitinib) and 1.0% (placebo). QOL and PSI rates were 21.1% and 28.3% (gefitinib) and 20.0% and 28.3% (placebo), respectively. In EGFR FISH-positive patients (n = 32), HRs were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.73) for PFS and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.12) for OS. No unexpected adverse events occurred. There was no statistically significant difference in PFS, OS, and ORRs after treatment with gefitinib or placebo, in the overall population; improvements in QOL and symptoms were similar in both groups. Tolerability profile of gefitinib was consistent with previous studies. PFS was statistically significantly improved for gefitinib-treated patients with EGFR FISH-positive tumors.

  9. Randomized Phase II Study of Gefitinib Compared With Placebo in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients With Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Poor Performance Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Glenwood; Ferry, David; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Laurie, Scott A.; Thompson, Joyce; Biesma, Bonne; Hirsch, Fred R.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Duffield, Emma; Ataman, Ozlem U.; Zarenda, Marc; Armour, Alison A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare gefitinib with placebo in chemotherapy naïve patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and poor performance status. Patients and Methods NSCLC patients (chemotherapy naïve, WHO performance status 2 or 3; unfit for chemotherapy; stage IIIB/IV) were randomly assigned to gefitinib (250 mg/d) plus best supportive care (BSC; n = 100) or placebo plus BSC (n = 101). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), quality of life (QOL), pulmonary symptom improvement (PSI), and safety. Correlation of gefitinib efficacy with EGFR gene copy number (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]) was explored. Results Hazard ratios (HRs; gefitinib:placebo) were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.60 to 1.12; P = .217) for PFS and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.15; P = .272) for OS. As expected for this patient population, OS for both arms was poor, at about 3 months. ORRs were 6.0% (gefitinib) and 1.0% (placebo). QOL and PSI rates were 21.1% and 28.3% (gefitinib) and 20.0% and 28.3% (placebo), respectively. In EGFR FISH-positive patients (n = 32), HRs were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.73) for PFS and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.12) for OS. No unexpected adverse events occurred. Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in PFS, OS, and ORRs after treatment with gefitinib or placebo, in the overall population; improvements in QOL and symptoms were similar in both groups. Tolerability profile of gefitinib was consistent with previous studies. PFS was statistically significantly improved for gefitinib-treated patients with EGFR FISH-positive tumors. PMID:19289623

  10. A framework for streamflow prediction in the world's most severely data-limited regions: Test of applicability and performance in a poorly-gauged region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, M. H.; Kibler, Kelly M.

    2018-02-01

    A framework methodology is proposed for streamflow prediction in poorly-gauged rivers located within large-scale regions of sparse hydrometeorologic observation. A multi-criteria model evaluation is developed to select models that balance runoff efficiency with selection of accurate parameter values. Sparse observed data are supplemented by uncertain or low-resolution information, incorporated as 'soft' data, to estimate parameter values a priori. Model performance is tested in two catchments within a data-poor region of southwestern China, and results are compared to models selected using alternative calibration methods. While all models perform consistently with respect to runoff efficiency (NSE range of 0.67-0.78), models selected using the proposed multi-objective method may incorporate more representative parameter values than those selected by traditional calibration. Notably, parameter values estimated by the proposed method resonate with direct estimates of catchment subsurface storage capacity (parameter residuals of 20 and 61 mm for maximum soil moisture capacity (Cmax), and 0.91 and 0.48 for soil moisture distribution shape factor (B); where a parameter residual is equal to the centroid of a soft parameter value minus the calibrated parameter value). A model more traditionally calibrated to observed data only (single-objective model) estimates a much lower soil moisture capacity (residuals of Cmax = 475 and 518 mm and B = 1.24 and 0.7). A constrained single-objective model also underestimates maximum soil moisture capacity relative to a priori estimates (residuals of Cmax = 246 and 289 mm). The proposed method may allow managers to more confidently transfer calibrated models to ungauged catchments for streamflow predictions, even in the world's most data-limited regions.

  11. Student Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Microeconomics: Evidence from Adult Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medcalfe, Simon

    2009-01-01

    There have been few studies comparing student performance in online and face-to-face economics courses. Those studies that have been undertaken have concentrated on traditional students (18- to 22-year-olds). This paper examines student outcomes in an undergraduate course in microeconomics taught to non-traditional students (average age is 33…

  12. Textbook Readability and Student Performance in Online Introductory Corporate Finance Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chien-Chih

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether the choice of a more readable textbook can improve student performance in online introductory corporate finance classes. The ordinary least squares regression model is employed to analyze a sample of 206 students during the period from 2008 to 2012. The results of this study show that the student's age, student's major,…

  13. Major Difference: An Examination of Student Writing Performance by Major and Its Implications for Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmar, Lucia S.; Hynes, Geraldine E.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the writing performance levels of 352 students to determine the extent to which business students are achieving written communication competency and whether differences exist among the business majors. Although most students met or exceeded expectations in format and content on a common writing task, students were weakest in…

  14. Implementing the Flipped Classroom : An exploration of study behaviour and student performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boevé, Anna J.; Meijer, Rob R.; Bosker, Roel J.; Vugteveen, Jorien; Hoekstra, Rink; Albers, Casper J.

    2017-01-01

    The flipped classroom is becoming more popular as a means to support student learning in higher education by requiring students to prepare before lectures and actively engaging students during lectures. While some research has been conducted into student performance in the flipped classroom,

  15. The Role of Online Reader Experience in Explaining Students' Performance in Digital Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Flores, Javier; Torres-Gordillo, Juan-Jesus; Perera-Rodriguez, Victor-Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between students' extracurricular experiences online and their performance on the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), focusing specifically on students' competence in digital reading. The study uses a descriptive, correlational, ex post facto design. The data are taken from Spanish students'…

  16. Students' performance in accounting: differential effect of field dependence-independence as a learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the differential moderating effects associated with field dependence-independence and perceptions of stress on students' performance after controlling for SAT Mathematics and Verbal scores as well as students' actual effort on homework. The average performance of 178 third-year accounting majors over three examinations was used to evaluate their understanding of financial accounting. The students also took the Group Embedded Figures Test. While the data indicate that the most significant variables were students' effort, SAT Verbal scores, and their perceptions of stress, these variables were differentially associated with students' performance depending upon whether the student was classified as a field-independent or field-dependent learner.

  17. A multi-step pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence, reduced attention, and poor academic performance: an exploratory cross-sectional study in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Videla, Alejandro J; Richaudeau, Alba; Vigo, Daniel; Rossi, Malco; Cardinali, Daniel P; Perez-Chada, Daniel

    2013-05-15

    A multi-step causality pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence and sleepiness leading to reduced attention and poor academic performance as the final result can be envisaged. However this hypothesis has never been explored. To explore consecutive correlations between sleep duration, daytime somnolence, attention levels, and academic performance in a sample of school-aged teenagers. We carried out a survey assessing sleep duration and daytime somnolence using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS). Sleep duration variables included week-days' total sleep time, usual bedtimes, and absolute weekday to-weekend sleep time difference. Attention was assessed by d2 test and by the coding subtest from the WISC-IV scale. Academic performance was obtained from literature and math grades. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the independent relationships between these variables, while controlling for confounding effects of other variables, in one single model. Standardized regression weights (SWR) for relationships between these variables are reported. Study sample included 1,194 teenagers (mean age: 15 years; range: 13-17 y). Sleep duration was inversely associated with daytime somnolence (SWR = -0.36, p academic results (SWR = 0.18, p academic achievements (SWR = -0.16, p sleep duration influenced attention through daytime somnolence (p academic achievements through reduced attention (p academic achievements correlated with reduced attention, which in turn was related to daytime somnolence. Somnolence correlated with short sleep duration.

  18. The Role of Culture, Competitiveness and Economic Performance in Explaining Academic Performance: A Global Market Analysis for International Student Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Chris; Hamin

    2011-01-01

    A nation's culture, competitiveness and economic performance explain academic performance. Partial Least Squares (PLS) testing of 2252 students shows culture affects competitiveness and academic performance. Culture and economic performance each explain 32%; competitiveness 36%. The model predicts academic performance when culture, competitiveness…

  19. Modeling Students' Problem Solving Performance in the Computer-Based Mathematics Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students in the computer-based mathematics learning environment. Design/methodology/approach: Regularized logistic regression was used to create a quantitative model of problem solving performance of students that predicts whether students can…

  20. Factors Influencing Academic Performance of Students Enrolled in a Lower Division Cell Biology Core Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Julio G.; Anand, Sulekha

    2009-01-01

    Students' performance in two semesters of our Cell Biology course was examined for this study. Teaching strategies, behaviors, and pre-course variables were analyzed with respect to students' performance. Pre-semester and post-semester surveys were administered to ascertain students' perceptions about class difficulty, amount of study and effort…

  1. Using Technology-Enhanced, Cooperative, Group-Project Learning for Student Comprehension and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlhoaele, Malefyane; Suhre, Cor; Hofman, Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative learning may improve students' motivation, understanding of course concepts, and academic performance. This study therefore enhanced a cooperative, group-project learning technique with technology resources to determine whether doing so improved students' deep learning and performance. A sample of 118 engineering students, randomly…

  2. Investigating General Chemistry Students' Metacognitive Monitoring of Their Exam Performance by Measuring Postdiction Accuracies over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawker, Morgan J.; Dysleski, Lisa; Rickey, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Metacognitive monitoring of one's own understanding plays a key role in learning. An aspect of metacognitive monitoring can be measured by comparing a student's prediction or postdiction of performance (a judgment made before or after completing the relevant task) with the student's actual performance. In this study, we investigated students'…

  3. Monitoring student attendance, participation, and performance improvement: an instrument and forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    When students receive consistent and fair feedback about their behavior, program liability decreases. To help students to have a clearer understanding of minimum program standards and the consequences of substandard performance, the author developed attendance and participation monitoring and performance improvement instruments. The author discusses the tools that address absenteeism, tardiness, unprofessional, and unsafe clinical behaviors among students.

  4. The Effects of the Classroom Performance System on Student Participation, Attendance, and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termos, Mohamad Hani

    2013-01-01

    The Classroom Performance System (CPS) is an instructional technology that increases student performance and promotes active learning. This study assessed the effect of the CPS on student participation, attendance, and achievement in multicultural college-level anatomy and physiology classes, where students' first spoken language is not English.…

  5. What effects do student jobs have on the study performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hospitality management students when they have a student job in the .... and strategies which stimulate professional and academic ... professional concepts, liberal studies and general business ..... A review of case analysis and simulation for.

  6. Hyperventilation complaints in music performance anxiety among classical music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Regina; Danuser, Brigitta; Hildebrandt, Horst; Arial, Marc; Gomez, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of respiration and hyperventilation in anxiety disorders, research on breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation is rare in the field of music performance anxiety (MPA, also known as stage fright). The only comparable study in this area reported a positive correlation between negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints during performance. The goals of this study were (a) to extend these previous findings to the period before performance, (b) to test whether a positive correlation also exists between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem, (c) to investigate instrument-specific symptom reporting, and (d) to confirm gender differences in negative feelings of MPA and hyperventilation complaints reported in other studies. We assessed 169 university students of classical music with a questionnaire comprising: the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for negative feelings of MPA, the Nijmegen Questionnaire for hyperventilation complaints, and a single item for the experience of stage fright as a problem. We found a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA before performance and a significant positive correlation between hyperventilation complaints and the experience of stage fright as a problem. Wind musicians/singers reported a significantly higher frequency of respiratory symptoms than other musicians. Furthermore, women scored significantly higher on hyperventilation complaints and negative feelings of MPA. These results further the findings of previous reports by suggesting that breathing disturbances associated with hyperventilation may play a role in MPA prior to going on stage. Experimental studies are needed to confirm whether hyperventilation complaints associated with negative feelings of MPA manifest themselves at the physiological level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Conducting Instruction on the Musical Performance of Beginning Band Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven N.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the effects of conducting instruction on beginning band students' individual rhythmic performance, group rhythmic performance, group performance of legato and staccato, and group performance of phrasing and dynamics. The students represented diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Concludes the conducting instruction is a useful tool…

  8. A synthesis of mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize the findings from 23 articles that compared the mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities (LD) to (a) students with LD in mathematics and reading, (b) age- or grade-matched students with no LD, and (c) mathematical-ability-matched younger students with no LD. Overall results revealed that students with mathematics LD exhibited higher word problem-solving abilities and no significant group differences on working memory, long-term memory, and metacognition measures compared to students with LD in mathematics and reading. Findings also revealed students with mathematics LD demonstrated significantly lower performance compared to age- or grade-matched students with no LD on both mathematical and cognitive measures. Comparison between students with mathematics LD and younger students with no LD revealed mixed outcomes on mathematical measures and generally no significant group differences on cognitive measures. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  9. Next-Term Student Performance Prediction: A Recommender Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Mack; Rangwala, Huzefa; Lester, Jaime; Johri, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    An enduring issue in higher education is student retention to successful graduation. National statistics indicate that most higher education institutions have four-year degree completion rates around 50%, or just half of their student populations. While there are prediction models which illuminate what factors assist with college student success,…

  10. A Gamification Experience to Improve Engineering Students' Performance through Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carmona, Adrián; Robles, Sergi; Pons, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The students' lack of motivation is a usual problem. The students value more the obtention of the degree than the developing of competences and skills. In order to fight this, we developed a gamification's experience based on merits and leaderboards. The merits are linked to the attainment of skills and competences that students usually do not…

  11. Metabolic syndrome correlates poorly with cognitive performance in stroke-free community-dwelling older adults: a population-based, cross-sectional study in rural Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Mera, Robertino M; Zambrano, Mauricio

    2016-04-01

    Studies investigating a possible correlation between metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline have been inconsistent. To determine whether metabolic syndrome or each of its components correlate with cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults in rural Ecuador. Stroke-free Atahualpa residents aged ≥60 years were identified during a door-to-door survey. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Cognition was evaluated by the use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multivariate logistic regression models estimated the association between metabolic syndrome and each of its components with cognitive performance. A total of 212 persons (mean age: 69.2 ± 7.2 years, 64 % women) were enrolled. Of these, 120 (57 %) had metabolic syndrome. Mean scores in the MoCA were 18.2 ± 4.6 for persons with and 19 ± 4.7 for those without metabolic syndrome. In fully adjusted logistic models, MoCA scores were not associated with metabolic syndrome (p = 0.101). After testing individual components of metabolic syndrome with the MoCA score, we found that only hypertriglyceridemia was independently associated with the MoCA score (p = 0.009). This population-based study showed a poor correlation of metabolic syndrome with cognitive performance after adjusting for relevant confounders. Of the individual components of metabolic syndrome, only hypertriglyceridemia correlated with worse cognitive performance.

  12. Alkyl polyglucoside vs. ethoxylated surfactant-based microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble drugs: physicochemical characterization and in vivo skin performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Nataša Z. Bubić

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of biocompatible surfactants were evaluated for their capability to formulate skin-friendly/non-irritant microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble model drugs differing in properties and concentrations: alkyl polyglucosides (decyl glucoside and caprylyl/capryl glucoside and ethoxylated surfactants (glycereth-7-caprylate/ caprate and polysorbate 80. Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value. Performed characterization (polarized light microscopy, pH, electrical conductivity, rheological, FTIR and DSC measurements indicated a formulation containing glycereth- 7-caprylate/caprate as suitable for incorporation of both drugs, whereas alkyl polyglucoside-based systems did not exhibit satisfying solubilization capacity for sertaconazole nitrate. Further, monitored parameters were strongly affected by sertaconazole nitrate incorporation, while they remained almost unchanged in adapalene-loaded vehicles. In addition, results of the in vivo skin performance study supported acceptable tolerability for all investigated formulations, suggesting selected microemulsions as promising carriers worth exploring further for effective skin delivery of model drugs.

  13. Non-canonical regulation of glutathione and trehalose biosynthesis characterizes non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts with poor performance in active dry yeast production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Gamero-Sandemetrio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Several yeast species, belonging to Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces genera, play fundamental roles during spontaneous must grape fermentation, and recent studies have shown that mixed fermentations, co-inoculated with S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains, can improve wine organoleptic properties. During active dry yeast (ADY production, antioxidant systems play an essential role in yeast survival and vitality as both biomass propagation and dehydration cause cellular oxidative stress and negatively affect technological performance. Mechanisms for adaptation and resistance to desiccation have been described for S. cerevisiae, but no data are available on the physiology and oxidative stress response of non-Saccharomyces wine yeasts and their potential impact on ADY production. In this study we analyzed the oxidative stress response in several non-Saccharomyces yeast species by measuring the activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging enzymes, e.g., catalase and glutathione reductase, accumulation of protective metabolites, e.g., trehalose and reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid and protein oxidation levels. Our data suggest that non-canonical regulation of glutathione and trehalose biosynthesis could cause poor fermentative performance after ADY production, as it corroborates the corrective effect of antioxidant treatments, during biomass propagation, with both pure chemicals and food-grade argan oil.

  14. Short-course radiotherapy, with elective delay prior to surgery, in patients with unresectable rectal cancer who have poor performance status or significant co-morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, Paul; Hingorani, Mohan; Radhakrishna, Ganesh; Cooper, Rachel; Melcher, Alan; Crellin, Adrian; Kwok-Williams, Michelle; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Standard treatment for rectal cancer which threatens the expected plane of resection on MRI imaging is long-course, pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (1.8-2 Gy, 25-28 fractions). Not all patients are suitable for this because of age, poor performance status or co-morbidities. We describe our experience of short-course (5 x 5 Gy) pre-operative radiotherapy with planned, delayed surgery (SCPRT-delay) in this patient group. Materials and methods: Between April 2001 and October 2007, 43 patients were selected for SCPRT-delay. The clinical records were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 82 (range 58-87). Forty-one patients had radiotherapy of which 26 (61%) were subsequently able to have surgery. Of these, R0, R1 and R2 resections were performed in 22, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, although two patients required hospital admission for management of diarrhoea and one developed significant late small bowel toxicity, attributable to radiotherapy. In those undergoing R0 or R1 resection there have been no local recurrences (median follow-up 18 months). Median survival for the whole group was 23 months, although this was 44 months in those undergoing surgery. Conclusions: SCPRT-delay appears to be a useful alternative to long-course pre-operative chemoradiotherapy in this high-risk group of patients.

  15. Alkyl polyglucoside vs. ethoxylated surfactant-based microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble drugs: physicochemical characterization and in vivo skin performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajić, Nataša Z Bubić; Todosijević, Marija N; Vuleta, Gordana M; Cekić, Nebojša D; Dobričić, Vladimir D; Vučen, Sonja R; Čalija, Bojan R; Lukić, Milica Ž; Ilić, Tanja M; Savić, Snežana D

    2017-12-20

    Two types of biocompatible surfactants were evaluated for their capability to formulate skin-friendly/non-irritant microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble model drugs differing in properties and concentrations: alkyl polyglucosides (decyl glucoside and caprylyl/capryl glucoside) and ethoxylated surfactants (glycereth-7-caprylate/ caprate and polysorbate 80). Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value. Performed characterization (polarized light microscopy, pH, electrical conductivity, rheological, FTIR and DSC measurements) indicated a formulation containing glycereth- 7-caprylate/caprate as suitable for incorporation of both drugs, whereas alkyl polyglucoside-based systems did not exhibit satisfying solubilization capacity for sertaconazole nitrate. Further, monitored parameters were strongly affected by sertaconazole nitrate incorporation, while they remained almost unchanged in adapalene-loaded vehicles. In addition, results of the in vivo skin performance study supported acceptable tolerability for all investigated formulations, suggesting selected microemulsions as promising carriers worth exploring further for effective skin delivery of model drugs.

  16. PISA mathematics and reading performance differences of mainstream European and Turkish immigrant students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikan, Serkan; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Yagmur, Kutlay

    Lower reading and mathematics performance of Turkish immigrant students as compared to mainstream European students could reflect differential learning outcomes, differential socioeconomic backgrounds of the groups, differential mainstream language proficiency, and/or test bias. Using PISA reading

  17. Academic performance of students who underwent psychiatric treatment at the students’ mental health service of a Brazilian university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro Franulovic Campos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: University students are generally at the typical age of onset of mental disorders that may affect their academic performance. We aimed to characterize the university students attended by psychiatrists at the students’ mental health service (SAPPE and to compare their academic performance with that of non-patient students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study based on review of medical files and survey of academic data at a Brazilian public university. METHODS: Files of 1,237 students attended by psychiatrists at SAPPE from 2004 to 2011 were reviewed. Their academic performance coefficient (APC and status as of July 2015 were compared to those of a control group of 2,579 non-patient students matched by gender, course and year of enrolment. RESULTS: 37% of the patients had had psychiatric treatment and 4.5% had made suicide attempts before being attended at SAPPE. Depression (39.1% and anxiety disorders/phobias (33.2% were the most frequent diagnoses. Severe mental disorders such as psychotic disorders (3.7% and bipolar disorder (1.9% were less frequent. Compared with non-patients, the mean APC among the undergraduate patients was slightly lower (0.63; standard deviation, SD: 0.26; versus 0.64; SD: 0.28; P = 0.025, but their course completion rates were higher and course abandonment rates were lower. Regarding postgraduate students, patients and non-patients had similar completion rates, but patients had greater incidence of discharge for poor performance and lower dropout rates. CONCLUSION: Despite the inclusion of socially vulnerable people with severe mental disorders, the group of patients had similar academic performance, and in some aspects better, than, that of non-patients.

  18. DEVELOPING an ENGLISH PERFORMANCE TEST for INCOMING INDONESIAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Glenny Wullur

    2011-07-01

    that the two tests are highly correlated at .964 using gamma test.  (4 The construct validation was conducted in two ways: item analysis for objective section of the test, and Rasch Analysis for subjective section.  The item analysis found that only three items are “fair”, while the remaining are either “good” or “very good”.  Rasch Analysis found that the raters could interpret the rating system and that the test is well fit and accurate.  In general, the proposed performance test is valid. The reliability of the test was established using the internal consistency index.  The findings revealed that all sections of the test are highly consistent at Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance of .927.  The correlation between sections to overall scores was also calculated, and found that each section is highly correlated at.942 (Formal Letter, .934 (Application Form, .917 (Making Appointment and .862 (Oral Presentation using Kendall’s tau-b test. The practicality of the test was established by analyzing the percentage distribution of score of the pilot tests and field test.  The findings showed that the scores are well distributed in all four levels, and a pattern of distribution exists at Spearman’s ρ .85 correlation coefficient.  Therefore, the rating system is found practical and predictive. The output of the study is a resultant and valid English Performance Test for Incoming Indonesian College Students.  The test is named:  Academic English Performance Test or ACCEPT.

  19. A study on the effect of varying sequence of lab performance skills on lab performance of high school physics students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bournia-Petrou, Ethel A.

    The main goal of this investigation was to study how student rank in class, student gender and skill sequence affect high school students' performance on the lab skills involved in a laboratory-based inquiry task in physics. The focus of the investigation was the effect of skill sequence as determined by the particular task. The skills considered were: Hypothesis, Procedure, Planning, Data, Graph, Calculations and Conclusion. Three physics lab tasks based on the simple pendulum concept were administered to 282 Regents physics high school students. The reliability of the designed tasks was high. Student performance was evaluated on individual student written responses and a scoring rubric. The tasks had high discrimination power and were of moderate difficulty (65%). It was found that, student performance was weak on Conclusion (42%), Hypothesis (48%), and Procedure (51%), where the numbers in parentheses represent the mean as a percentage of the maximum possible score. Student performance was strong on Calculations (91%), Data (82%), Graph (74%) and Plan (68%). Out of all seven skills, Procedure had the strongest correlation (.73) with the overall task performance. Correlation analysis revealed some strong relationships among the seven skills which were grouped in two distinct clusters: Hypothesis, Procedure and Plan belong to one, and Data, Graph, Calculations, and Conclusion belong to the other. This distinction may indicate different mental processes at play within each skill cluster. The effect of student rank was not statistically significant according to the MANOVA results due to the large variation of rank levels among the participating schools. The effect of gender was significant on the entire test because of performance differences on Calculations and Graph, where male students performed better than female students. Skill sequence had a significant effect on the skills of Procedure, Plan, Data and Conclusion. Students are rather weak in proposing a

  20. Enhancing student performance: Linking the geography curriculum, instruction, and assessment in the English-speaking Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collymore, Jennifer C.

    In a 21st century knowledge society individuals are expected to use their knowledge and skills to think critically, problem solve, make decisions, comprehend new ideas, communicate, and collaborate effectively with others. Helping students achieve this level of performance is no easy task and it brings into focus the fact that the effectiveness of any education system rests on the systemic coordination or alignment of three crucial components: curriculum, instruction and assessment (referred to as the CIA). These components must work in concert to facilitate and enhance student performance. However, educational reform typically targets these components in isolation, often treating only one component, rather than the system as a whole. The misalignment of these components can adversely affect student performance in any discipline. When the CIA components are out of alignment, it is difficult to evaluate student and system performance and achieve improvement in an educational system. Therefore, using geography education in Trinidad & Tobago as a case study, this study examined the nature of the alignment among the CIA components in the advanced geography system in the English- Speaking Caribbean and the extent to which the alignment may be affecting student performance. The study sought to determine the possible sources and causes of misalignment, the challenges to achieving alignment, and ways of achieving greater coordination among the CIA components of the system. The methodology employed in the study involved the use of classroom observations, interviews, and the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum Alignment Model which uses content analyses and surveys. The results showed that there were varying degrees of alignment among the components. There was acceptable alignment (Alignment Index ≥ 0.25) between the curriculum and assessment. However, the alignment between curriculum and instruction or assessment and instruction was poor (Alignment Index ≤ 0.12). The baseline

  1. Longitudinal effects of medical students' communication skills on future performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; LaRochelle, Jeffrey S; Durning, Steven J; Saguil, Aaron; Swygert, Kimberly; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    The Essential Elements of Communication (EEC) were developed from the Kalamazoo consensus statement on physician-patient communication. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USU) has adopted a longitudinal curriculum to use the EEC both as a learning tool during standardized patient encounters and as an evaluation tool culminating with the end of preclerkship objective-structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Medical educators have recently emphasized the importance of teaching communication skills, as evidenced by the United States Medical Licensing Examination testing both the integrated clinical encounter (ICE) and communication and interpersonal skills (CIS) within the Step 2 Clinical Skills exam (CS). To determine the associations between students' EEC OSCE performance at the end of the preclerkship period with later communication skills assessment and evaluation outcomes in the context of a longitudinal curriculum spanning both undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. Retrospective data from preclerkship (overall OSCE scores and EEC OSCE scores) and clerkship outcomes (internal medicine [IM] clinical points and average clerkship National Board of Medical Examiners [NBME] scores) were collected from 167 USU medical students from the class of 2011 and compared to individual scores on the CIS and ICE components of Step 2 CS, as well as to the communication skills component of the program directors' evaluation of trainees during their postgraduate year 1 (PGY-1) residency. In addition to bivariate Pearson correlation analysis, we conducted multiple linear regression analysis to examine the predictive power of the EEC score beyond the IM clerkship clinical points and the average NBME Subject Exams score on the outcome measures. The EEC score was a significant predictor of the CIS score and the PGY-1 communication skills score. Beyond the average NBME Subject Exams score and the IM clerkship clinical points, the EEC score

  2. Motivated strategies for learning and their association with academic performance of a diverse group of 1styear medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaista Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Most instruments, including the well-known Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, have been designed in western homogeneous settings. Use of the MSLQ in health professions education is limited. Objective. To assess the MSLQ and its association with the academic performance of a heterogeneous group of 1st-year medical students. Methods. Eighty-three percent of 1st-year medical students consented to participate in this quantitative study. The MSLQ consisted of a motivation strategies component with six subscales, while the learning strategies component had nine subscales. Demographic and academic achievement information of the students was also collected. Stata version 13 (StataCorp LP, USA was used for the statistical analyses of all data. Results. Female students displayed significantly higher motivational scores. Students with prior educational experience and those who attended peer mentoring sessions had significantly higher learning strategy scores. Significant but moderate relationships were found between academic performance and the motivation strategies subsumed within the categories ‘task value’ and ‘self-efficacy for learning performance’. In terms of the ‘learning strategy component’, ‘critical thinking’, and ‘time and study environment’, the composite score was significantly but poorly correlated to academic performance. Conclusion. Overall, limited correlations were found between the MSLQ scores and academic performance. Further investigation of the use of the MSLQ and its association with academic achievement is recommended, with greater focus on specific learning events than on course outcomes. This study highlights the importance of evaluating an instrument in a specific context before accepting the findings of others with regard to the use of the instrument and its correlation with academic performance.

  3. Performance Comparison of Student-Athletes and General College Students on the Functional Movement Screen and the Y Balance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engquist, Katherine D; Smith, Craig A; Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2015-08-01

    Although various studies have assessed performance of athletes on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and the Y Balance Test (YBT), no study to date has directly evaluated a comparison of performance between athletes and members of the general population. Thus, to better understand the application of the FMS and the YBT to general college students, this study examined whether or not general college students performed similarly to student-athletes on the FMS (composite and movement pattern scores) and the YBT (composite and reach directions). This study evaluated 167 Division I student-athletes and 103 general college students from the same university on the FMS and the YBT. No difference was found in FMS composite scores between student-athletes and general college students. For FMS movement patterns, female student-athletes scored higher than general college students in the deep squat. No difference was found for men in any FMS movement pattern. Female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in YBT composite scores; no difference was found for men in YBT composite scores. In analysis of YBT reach directions, female student-athletes scored higher than female general college students in all reach directions, whereas no difference was found in men. Existing research on the FMS composite score in athletic populations may apply to a general college population for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc. Existing research on the YBT in male athletic populations is expected to apply equally to general college males for the purposes of preparticipation screening, injury prediction, etc.

  4. Risk assessment of student performance in the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Science Examination by the use of statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Michael C; Eley, Diann S; Schafer, Jennifer; Davies, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA) for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Science Examination (CSE). A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence. Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53) and international status (B: -37.40; 95% CI: -57.85 to -16.96) from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82) and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78) were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence.

  5. A gross anatomy flipped classroom effects performance, retention, and higher-level thinking in lower performing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Leslie J

    2018-01-22

    A flipped classroom is a growing pedagogy in higher education. Many research studies on the flipped classroom have focused on student outcomes, with the results being positive or inconclusive. A few studies have analyzed confounding variables, such as student's previous achievement, or the impact of a flipped classroom on long-term retention and knowledge transfer. In the present study, students in a Doctor of Physical Therapy program in a traditional style lecture of gross anatomy (n = 105) were compared to similar students in a flipped classroom (n = 112). Overall, students in the flipped anatomy classroom had an increase in semester average grades (P = 0.01) and performance on higher-level analytical questions (P flipped anatomy classroom performing at a higher level in kinesiology (P flipped anatomy class, outperformed their traditional anatomy class counterparts in anatomy semester grades (P flipped classroom may benefit lower performing student's knowledge acquisition and transfer to a greater degree than higher performing students. Future studies should explore the underlying reasons for improvement in lower performing students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Seating Arrangement, Group Composition and Competition-driven Interaction: Effects on Students' Performance in Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxas, R. M.; Monterola, C.; Carreon-Monterola, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    We probe the effect of seating arrangement, group composition and group-based competition on students' performance in Physics using a teaching technique adopted from Mazur's peer instruction method. Ninety eight lectures, involving 2339 students, were conducted across nine learning institutions from February 2006 to June 2009. All the lectures were interspersed with student interaction opportunities (SIO), in which students work in groups to discuss and answer concept tests. Two individual assessments were administered before and after the SIO. The ratio of the post-assessment score to the pre-assessment score and the Hake factor were calculated to establish the improvement in student performance. Using actual assessment results and neural network (NN) modeling, an optimal seating arrangement for a class was determined based on student seating location. The NN model also provided a quantifiable method for sectioning students. Lastly, the study revealed that competition-driven interactions increase within-group cooperation and lead to higher improvement on the students' performance.

  7. IMPROVING STUDENT PERFORMANCE AND FACULTY EVALUATION: A TRANSACTIONAL RELATIONSHIP STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    As in any relationship between buyer and seller, the educational transaction between learner and teacher requires that a level of receptivity be created so that features, advantages and benefits of the transaction can be examined. Student responses to instructor efforts to create a vested covenant in the classroom were evaluated. Teaching methods were altered in two of four course sessions taught by the instructor. When efforts were made to gain student ownership of the class, both student gr...

  8. Development of a performance anxiety scale for music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çirakoğlu, Okan Cem; Şentürk, Gülce Çoskun

    2013-12-01

    In the present research, the Performance Anxiety Scale for Music Students (PASMS) was developed in three successive studies. In Study 1, the factor structure of PASMS was explored and three components were found: fear of stage (FES), avoidance (AVD) and symptoms (SMP). The internal consistency of the subscales of PASMS, which consisted of 27 items, varied between 0.89 and 0.91. The internal consistency for the whole scale was found to be 0.95. The correlations among PASMS and other anxiety-related measures were significant and in the expected direction, indicating that the scale has convergent validity. The construct validity of the scale was assessed in Study 2 by confirmatory factor analysis. After several revisions, the final tested model achieved acceptable fits. In Study 3, the 14-day test-retest reliability of the final 24-item version of PASMS was tested and found to be extremely high (0.95). In all three studies, the whole scale and subscale scores of females were significantly higher than for males.

  9. Impaired performance on advanced Theory of Mind tasks in children with epilepsy is related to poor communication and increased attention problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Judith; Lewis, Charlie; Sherlock, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    Children with epilepsy (CWE) have social difficulties that can persist into adulthood, and this could be related to problems with understanding others' thoughts, feelings, and intentions. This study assessed children's ability to interpret and reason on mental and emotional states (Theory of Mind) and examined the relationships between task scores and reports of communication and behavior. Performance of 56 CWE (8-16years of age) with below average IQ (n=17) or an average IQ (n=39) was compared with that of 62 healthy controls with an average IQ (6-16years of age) on cognition, language, and two advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that required children to attribute mental or emotional states to eye regions and to reason on internal mental states in order to explain behavior. The CWE-below average group were significantly poorer in both ToM tasks compared with controls. The CWE - average group showed a significantly poorer ability to reason on mental states in order to explain behavior, a difference that remained after accounting for lower IQ and language deficits. Poor ToM skills were related to increased communication and attention problems in both CWE groups. There is a risk for atypical social understanding in CWE, even for children with average cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship Between Academic Performance and Student Self-Assessment of Clinical Performance in the College of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoho, Robert M; Vardaxis, Vassilios; Millonig, Kelsey

    2016-05-01

    Student self-assessment is viewed as an important tool in medical education. We sought to identify the relationship between student academic performance and third-year clinical performance self-assessment. No such study exists in podiatric medical education. Third-year podiatric medical students from the classes of 2012 through 2014 completed a self-assessment of their performance for each of five broad clinical podiatric medical domains (Professionalism, Medicine, Radiology, Surgery, and Biomechanics/Orthopedics). The assessment was completed after students finished the first 12 weeks of their third-year clinical rotations (PRE) and a second time at the conclusion of the third year (POST). The mean self-assessment score for PRE and POST surveys for all combined domains was determined for each student. This mean was compared with the student's 3-year cumulative grade point average (GPA). Students' clinical experiences for the year were essentially identical. No statistically significant correlation was identified between cumulative GPA and the PRE and POST clinical self-assessments or with the change between PRE and POST assessments based on the Pearson correlation test for each class separately or on the pooled data. Published studies in allopathic medical education have shown that students with lower GPAs tend to rate their clinical performance higher in initial clinical performance self-assessment. Our results show that student academic performance was not correlated with clinical performance self-assessment. These findings may be due to the explicit description of successful clinical competency completion, the orientation students receive before the start of clinical training, and the continuous feedback received from clinical preceptors.

  11. Sex-specific sleep patterns among university students in Lebanon: impact on depression and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabrita, Colette S; Hajjar-Muça, Theresa A

    2016-01-01

    Good sleep quality and quantity are fundamental to the maintenance of normal physiological processes. Changes in sleep patterns are commonly observed among young adults and are shown to impact neurocognitive, academic, and psychological well-being. Given the scarcity of sleep information about Lebanon and acknowledging the sex differences in various sleep dimensions, we conducted a study that aimed at assessing sex differences in sleep habits among university students in Lebanon in relation to psychoacademic status. A total of 540 students (50.6% females) completed a questionnaire that inquired about sociodemographics and evaluated sleep quality and depression using the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), respectively. The mean PSQI global score (6.57±3.49) indicated poor sleep, with no significant differences between men and women. The sleep/wake rhythm was delayed on weekends for both sexes. Females exhibited earlier bedtimes and rise times and longer sleep durations on both weekdays and weekends. However, unlike males females showed a greater phase delay in wake times than bedtimes on weekends (149 minutes vs 74 minutes, respectively). In all, 70.9% of females suffered from depressive symptoms, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with 58.5% of males (Pacademic performance of females was significantly better than that of males (2.8±0.61 vs 2.65±0.61, Psleep duration (r=-0.221, Psleep timing, such as bedtime/rise time and nocturnal sleep duration, rather than sleep quality exist among Lebanese university students. Sex-specific sleep patterns have differential impact on psychological and academic well-being.

  12. Does Missing Classes Decelerate Student Exam Performance Progress? Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    A total of 389 business students in undergraduate introductory microeconomics classes in spring 2007, 2009, and 2011, and fall 2012 participated in an exam performance progress study. Empirical evidence suggested that missing classes decelerates and hampers high-performing students' exam performance progress. Nevertheless, the evidence does…

  13. Improving Test-Taking Performance of Secondary At-Risk Youth and Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Tachelle; Eaton, India

    2014-01-01

    Preparing at-risk youth and students with mild disabilities for state and district tests is important for improving their test performance, and basic instruction in test preparation can significantly improve student test performance. The article defines noncognitive variables that adversely affect test-taker performance. The article also describes…

  14. An Exploratory Study of Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivators and Student Performance in an Auditing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Songtao

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the association of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators and student performance. This study performs an exploratory analysis and presents evidence to demonstrate that intrinsic motivators affect the connection between external motivators and student performance. The empirical tests follow the framework…

  15. The use of the standard exercise test to establish the clinical significance of mild echocardiographic changes in a Thoroughbred poor performer : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Meyer

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A 4-year-old Thoroughbred gelding racehorse was referred to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital (OVAH with a history of post-race distress and collapse. In the absence of any obvious abnormalities in the preceding diagnostic work-up, a standard exercise test was performed to determine an underlying cause for the post-race distress reported. In this particular case oxygen desaturation became evident at speeds as slow as 6 m/s, where PO2 was measured at 82.3 mm Hg. Similarly at a blood pH of 7.28, PCO2 had dropped to 30.0mm Hg indicating a combined metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. The cause of the distress was attributed to a severe hypoxia, with an associated hypocapnoea, confirmed on blood gas analyses, where PO2 levels obtained were as low as 56.6 mm Hg with a mean PCO2 level of 25.4 mm Hg during strenuous exercise. Arterial oxygenation returned to normal immediately after cessation of exercise to 106.44 mm Hg, while the hypocapnoeic alkalosis, PCO2 25.67 mm Hg, persisted until the animal's breathing normalized. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise. The combination of an aortic stenosis and a mitral valve insufficiency may have resulted in a condition similar to that described as high-altitude pulmonary oedema, with respiratory changes and compensation as for acute altitude disease. The results obtained were indicative of a dynamic cardiac insufficiency present during exercise and substantiate the fact that an extensive diagnostic regime may be required to establish a cause for poor performance and that the standard exercise test remains an integral part of this work-up.

  16. SLEEP PATTERN AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF MEDICAL STUDENTS OF A GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE IN KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Rajendran; Karthika M; Prathibha M. T; Vinod P. B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance of students is well accepted. The studies relating the sleep pattern of medical students and academic performance is limited. This study was conducted to identify sleep pattern of medical students and find out any relationship between sleep pattern and academic performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS A questionnaire-based study was carried out to assess sociodemographic parameters, sleep/wake timing, sle...

  17. Comparing the performance and preference of students experiencing a Reading Aloud Accommodation to those who do not on a virtual science assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Angela

    Many United States secondary students perform poorly on standardized summative science assessments. Situated Assessments using Virtual Environments (SAVE) Science is an innovative assessment project that seeks to capture students' science knowledge and understanding by contextualizing problems in a game-based virtual environment called Scientopolis. Within Scientopolis, students use an "avatar" to interact with non-player characters (NPCs), artifacts, embedded clues and "sci-tools" in order to help solve the problems of the townspeople. In an attempt to increase students' success on assessments, SAVE science places students in an environment where they can use their inquiry skills to solve problems instead of reading long passages which attempt to contextualize questions but ultimately cause construct-irrelevant variance. However, within these assessments reading is still required to access the test questions and character interactions. This dissertation explores how students' in-world performances differ when exposed to a Reading Aloud Accommodation (RAA) treatment in comparison to a control group. Student perceptions of the treatment are also evaluated. While a RAA is typically available for students with learning disabilities or English language learners, within this study, all students were randomly assigned to either the treatment or control, regardless of any demographic factors or learning barriers. The theories of Universal design for learning and brain-based learning advocate for multiple ways for students to engage, comprehend, and illustrate their content knowledge. Further, through providing more ways for students to interact with content, all students should benefit, not just those with learning disabilities. Students in the experimental group listened to the NPCs speak the dialogue that provides them with the problem, clues, and assessment questions, instead of relying on reading skills to gather the information. Overall, students in the treatment

  18. Reforming High School Science for Low-Performing Students Using Inquiry Methods and Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Marsha Gail

    Some schools fall short of the high demand to increase science scores on state exams because low-performing students enter high school unprepared for high school science. Low-performing students are not successful in high school for many reasons. However, using inquiry methods have improved students' understanding of science concepts. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate the teachers' lived experiences with using inquiry methods to motivate low-performing high school science students in an inquiry-based program called Xtreem Science. Fifteen teachers were selected from the Xtreem Science program, a program designed to assist teachers in motivating struggling science students. The research questions involved understanding (a) teachers' experiences in using inquiry methods, (b) challenges teachers face in using inquiry methods, and (c) how teachers describe student's response to inquiry methods. Strategy of data collection and analysis included capturing and understanding the teachers' feelings, perceptions, and attitudes in their lived experience of teaching using inquiry method and their experience in motivating struggling students. Analysis of interview responses revealed teachers had some good experiences with inquiry and expressed that inquiry impacted their teaching style and approach to topics, and students felt that using inquiry methods impacted student learning for the better. Inquiry gave low-performing students opportunities to catch up and learn information that moved them to the next level of science courses. Implications for positive social change include providing teachers and school district leaders with information to help improve performance of the low performing science students.

  19. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  20. Association Between Undergraduate Performance Predictors and Academic and Clinical Performance of Osteopathic Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agahi, Farshad; Speicher, Mark R; Cisek, Grace

    2018-02-01

    Medical schools use a variety of preadmission indices to select potential students. These indices generally include undergraduate grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) scores, and preadmission interviews. To investigate whether the admission indices used by Midwestern University Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine are associated with the academic and clinical performance of their students. Associations between the prematriculation variables of undergraduate science GPA, undergraduate total GPA, MCAT component scores, and interview scores and the academic and clinical variables of the first- and second-year medical school GPA, Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination-USA (COMLEX-USA) Level 1 and Level 2-Cognitive Evaluation (CE) total and discipline scores, scores in clinical rotations for osteopathic competencies, COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation passage, and match status were evaluated. Two-tailed Pearson product-moment correlations with a Bonferroni adjustment were used to examine these relationships. The traditional predictors of science and total undergraduate GPA as well as total and component MCAT scores had small to moderate associations with first- and second-year GPA, as well as COMLEX-USA Level 1 and Level 2-CE total scores. Of all predictors, only the MCAT biological sciences score had a statistically significant correlation with failure of the COMLEX-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation examination (P=.009). Average interview scores were associated only with the osteopathic competency of medical knowledge (r=0.233; n=209; P=.001), as assessed by clerkship preceptors. No predictors were associated with scores in objective structured clinical encounters or with failing to match to a residency position. The data indicate that traditional predictors of academic performance (undergraduate GPA, undergraduate science GPA, and MCAT scores) have small to moderate association with medical school grades and