WorldWideScience

Sample records for student loan debt

  1. Cumulative Student Loan Debt in Minnesota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Wyche, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    To better understand student debt in Minnesota, the Minnesota Office of Higher Education (the Office) gathers information on cumulative student loan debt from Minnesota degree-granting institutions. These data detail the number of students with loans by institution, the cumulative student loan debt incurred at that institution, and the percentage…

  2. Fewer Resources, More Debt: Loan Debt Burdens Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Katherine M.; Williams, Krystal L.; Smith, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Student loans have become an increasingly important way for students and their families to pay for college, but for students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), student loan debt is a substantial burden. Students who attend these institutions--many of whom are low-income and first-generation--must borrow at higher rates and,…

  3. Disparities in Debt: Parents' Socioeconomic Resources and Young Adult Student Loan Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising college costs and stagnant grant-based student aid, many young adults rely on their parents' resources and student loans to pay for their postsecondary education. In this study I ask how parents' income and education are linked to young adults' student loan debt. I develop and test two perspectives regarding the…

  4. Student Loan Debt and Economic Outcomes. Current Policy Perspective No. 14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Daniel; Wang, J. Christina

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief advances the growing literature on how student loan debt affects individuals' other economic decisions. Specifically, it examines the impact of student loan liabilities on individuals' homeownership status and wealth accumulation. The analysis employs a rich set of financial and demographic control variables that are not…

  5. Student Loan Debt: Trends Affecting the American Dream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Keith

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in college access and with it, a growing concern about the debt incurred by students. Analysts on all sides suggest a variety of causes and solutions to this very complex problem. This paper presents a collection of informational items that can be seen as both disparate and connected. We can see…

  6. Information Use and Attention Deferment in College Student Loan Decisions: Evidence from a Debt Letter Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev; Harper, Casandra

    2018-01-01

    A prominent concern is that college students are harming their long-term economic prospects by making student loan decisions without full information about the implications of their choices. We designed an experiment to examine students' responses to a debt letter, an increasingly popular strategy to provide easily accessible information about…

  7. The Smart Approach to Student Loans and Consumer Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri State Dept. of Higher Education, Jefferson City.

    This brochure contains information about student loans for college applicants and students in Missouri. It is a resource to assist borrowers in making smart repayment decisions and in understanding the options to avoid delinquency and default. Things to consider before one borrows, how to increase one's resources, and how to decrease one's…

  8. Racial and Ethnic Variation in the Relationship Between Student Loan Debt and the Transition to First Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Stella; Taylor, Miles G

    2018-02-01

    The present study employs discrete-time hazard regression models to investigate the relationship between student loan debt and the probability of transitioning to either marital or nonmarital first childbirth using the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). Accounting for nonrandom selection into student loans using propensity scores, our study reveals that the effect of student loan debt on the transition to motherhood differs among white, black, and Hispanic women. Hispanic women holding student loans experience significant declines in the probability of transitioning to both marital and nonmarital motherhood, whereas black women with student loans are significantly more likely to transition to any first childbirth. Indebted white women experience only a decrease in the probability of a marital first birth. The results from this study suggest that student loans will likely play a key role in shaping future demographic patterns and behaviors.

  9. Nursing Student Loan Debt: A Secondary Analysis of the National Student Nurses' Association Annual Survey of New Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeg, Veronica D; Mancino, Diane J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe nursing student loan debt and financial choices from a secondary analysis of the National Student Nurses Association Annual New Graduate Survey. The findings in the secondary analysis show loan debt incurred by nursing students comparable to loan debt reported recently for all new college graduates in general. However, comparing types of programs and types of schools yielded clear variations. More than one-third of new graduates who reported having loans to repay were unemployed; more than one-quarter of those who worked part-time and one-quarter of those who worked full-time to finance their education were unemployed; and almost one-third of students whose parents had paid for their education were unemployed. New graduates from for-profit schools were more likely to report they had accumulated high debt to pay for school than all new graduates combined. Nursing students enter the job market with substantial financial debt that may impact their future. Educators and policymakers need to address these growing concerns to sustain a healthy supply of nurses.

  10. A cross-disciplinary assessment of student loans debt, financial support for study and career preferences upon graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Craig S; Ling, Christopher; Barrow, Mark; Poole, Phillippa; Henning, Marcus

    2017-07-21

    To explore relationships between student loans debt, financial support and career preferences upon graduation for all healthcare disciplines offered at the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland. The Faculty Tracking Project is a longitudinal study which invites students to complete a questionnaire at the beginning and end of their educational programmes, including questions on debt, financial support and career preference. Our analysis comprised three phases: (1) a descriptive analysis of data related to debt and financial support; (2) a principal component analysis in order to find related categories of career choice; and (3) logistic regression models to determine how career preference categories could be explained by either levels of student loans debt or financial support. Data from 2,405 participating students were included. Students in health sciences, nursing and pharmacy typically accrue levels of student loans debt of around $15,000 to $29,999, while optometry students accrue debt around $15,000 higher. Medical students show debt distributed around modes of $0 and $90,000 or more. All students typically access three sources of financial support during study. Career preferences at graduation reduced to four categories for all health disciplines. We found five significant effects, involving students in health sciences, medicine and pharmacy, relating the number of sources of financial support to the four categories of career preference. No significant effects were found related to level of student loans debt. Our results suggest that financial support is a more strongly determining factor in career choices than the level of student loans debt. The four-category framework for student career preferences appears to be a useful model for further research.

  11. Association Between Student Loan Debt on Graduation, Demographic Characteristics and Initial Choice of Practice Setting of Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem A. Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: (1 To examine trends in level of student loan indebtedness for groups of pharmacists that were first licensed between 1980 and 2006; (2 To examine if demographic variables are associated with level of student loan indebtedness; (3 To examine the association between student loan debt and choice of practice setting while controlling for demographic variables. Methods: Data for this study were collected from a national random sample of 3,000 pharmacists using a self administered survey. Descriptive statistics were used to examine trends in level of indebtedness. The relationships between level of indebtedness, demographic variables and practice setting choice were examined using Chi-square statistics. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the independent association of student loan debt and choice of practice setting while controlling for demographic variables. Results: The proportion of licensed pharmacists reporting student loan debt after graduation, and the mean amount of debt incurred increased between 1980 and 2006. Non-white pharmacists incurred debt at a higher proportion compared to white, and they also incurred significantly higher levels of debt. A lower level of indebtedness was associated with choosing independent practice over chain practice. Conclusions: Student loan indebtedness has been increasing over time, especially for non-white pharmacy students. Future research should be done to examine other factors that might influence student debt load, work contributions and choice of practice settings. The affordability of pharmacy education for students of color and how salaries may or may not help off-set these costs also should be examined closely.   Type: Original Research

  12. Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehwan; Yusuf, Akeem A; Hadsall, Ronald S

    2015-05-25

    To examine pharmacy students' attitudes toward debt. Two hundred thirteen pharmacy students at the University of Minnesota were surveyed using items designed to assess attitudes toward debt. Factor analysis was performed to identify common themes. Subgroup analysis was performed to examine whether students' debt-tolerant attitudes varied according to their demographic characteristics, past loan experience, monthly income, and workload. Principal component extraction with varimax rotation identified 3 factor themes accounting for 49.0% of the total variance: tolerant attitudes toward debt (23.5%); contemplation and knowledge about loans (14.3%); and fear of debt (11.2%). Tolerant attitudes toward debt were higher if students were white or if they had had past loan experience. These 3 themes in students' attitudes toward debt were consistent with those identified in previous research. Pharmacy schools should consider providing a structured financial education to improve student management of debt.

  13. Beyond Financial Need: Predictors of Student Loans and Student Loan Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvilitis, Jill M.; Bat, Meghan J.

    2016-01-01

    Although public concern about student loan debt has been increasing, little research has examined predictors of debt beyond financial need or demographic factors. The present study explored the role of several psychological and attitudinal variables in student loan debt among 189 college students. Results indicate that loan initiative and loan…

  14. The Relationship of Student Loan and Credit Card Debt on Financial Satisfaction of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Oscar; Ferguson, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    The cost of higher education at both public and private institutions is increasing and adversely affecting college students (College Board, 2009; Idemudia & Ferguson, 2014a, 2014b, 2015a, 2015b). Utilizing an institutional dataset called Financial Survey of Students 2006 compiled at one of the largest public universities in the southwestern…

  15. Student Debt and the Class of 2015. 11th Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Debbie; Cheng, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Student Debt and the Class of 2015 is the eleventh annual report on the student loan debt of recent graduates from four-year colleges, documenting the rise in student loan debt and variation among states as well as colleges. This report includes policy recommendations to address rising student debt and reduce debt burdens, including collecting…

  16. Student Loan Debt in Kentucky: An Analysis of Debt Levels and Their Relationship to Earnings for Baccalaureate Degree Holders of Public Universities, 2010-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Student loans can be a good investment in an individual's future, providing financial access to higher education and improved chances of economic success after college. However, avoiding undue financial obligations and maximizing the return on investment require careful planning and prudent borrowing. Estimating whether the student loan debt…

  17. Student Loan Debt Levels and Their Implications for Borrowers, Society, and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Luke M.; Frank, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Upward mobility is a prized aspect of the American dream based upon the belief that those from humble origins can climb the socioeconomic ladder through education and hard work. Increasingly, postsecondary education is an essential component of that dream. However, many students, particularly those from low to moderate income families, find it…

  18. In Debt and in the Dark: It's Time for Better Information on Student Loan Defaults. Charts You Can Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Student college loan default rates have nearly doubled in recent years. The three-year default rate exceeds 13 percent nationally. Tracking and reporting default rates is a crucial means of monitoring how well higher education dollars are spent. Yet, the way default data is gathered, measured, and reported by the federal government clouds…

  19. Debt crisis ahead for Irish medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugh, C; Doyle, B; O'Flynn, S

    2014-06-01

    Internationally medical student debt is a cause of concern. A survey of medical students in UCC (response rate of 191 representing 35% of the EU student cohort) reveals that 34 (26%) of direct entry medicine (DEM) students and 36 (61%) graduate entrants (GEM) have a loan with an anticipated average debt of Euro17,300 and Euro80,000 on graduation respectively. Fifty-three (90%) graduate entrants and 75 (57%) direct entrants revealed that they often worry about their current financial situation. Fifty-three (28%) of students have a part-time job and many were concerned about the degree to which this conflicted with their academic workload. 118 (89%) of school leavers and 48 (81%) graduates received financial assistance from their families to fund their college expenses. Student responses recommended the introduction of a government supported low interest rate loan and other incentives to help service high levels of debt associated with medical education.

  20. In Sickness and in Debt: Do Mounting Medical Bills Predict Payday Loan Debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickham, Trey; Lim, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    Cash-strapped families sometimes turn to small, short-term loans with exorbitant fees—payday loans—to cope with mounting medical bills. Given that about three-fourths of payday loan customers are repeat borrowers, consumer advocates and policymakers have increasingly raised voices of concern about the use of payday loans to finance various household expenses, including, among other things, medical bills. The present study hypothesized that increases in medical debt are associated with increases in payday loan debt among a sample of Chapter 7 bankruptcy filers. The results of a multivariate tobit regression analysis showed that medical debt was associated with increased payday loan debt, controlling for various types of debt and other socioeconomic variables. This article concludes with implications of the results for social work policy- and direct-practice.

  1. New England's Disadvantaged Populations Struggle the Most with Student Debt Repayment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saas, Darcy Rollins

    2016-01-01

    Regularly reported statistics about high and growing student-loan debt levels, combined with increased rates of delinquency and default, have prompted calls to address the student-debt "crisis." For New England, with its highly educated population and large higher education industry, student-loan debt is an important economic policy…

  2. Does student debt affect dental students' and dentists' stress levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyles, J D; Ahmed, B

    2017-10-27

    Introduction Many studies have shown financial worries and debt to induce stress in individuals, this combined with the existing stress of being a dentist raises the question of how student debt affects students' and dentists' stress levels.Objectives Determine whether student debt has had any noticeable effect on student stress levels; investigate whether student debt has any effect on dentists' career choice; investigate whether the increase in tuition fees has influenced the number of applicants to study dentistry at the University of Birmingham.Method Anonymous questionnaires were completed by 70 4th year and 38 5th year BDS and 22 Dental Core Trainees (DCTs). Participants circled the response which best fitted their situation regarding statements on their level of stress and future career path. Ethical approval granted. Application figures to study dentistry obtained from head of admissions.Results Forty-two percent of males and 63% of females strongly agreed with the statement that having no debt would reduce their stress levels. Of those with debt >£40,000, 11% strongly agreed and 42% agreed that their total amount of student debt causes them stress. Whereas, those whose debt is stress. Seventy-seven percent of participants who had parental or family financial support reported this reduced their stress levels. Student debt was found to deter females from undertaking further study more than it deters males (P stressed about their total student loan(s) (P stress (P stress; students reporting a higher level of debt also report more stress and concern about paying off their student debt. Having no student debt would reduce stress levels, although to what extent is undetermined. Applications to study dentistry have fallen since the increase in tuition fees.

  3. Federal Student Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For those needing a loan to attend college, think federal aid first. Federal student loans usually offer borrowers lower interest rates and have more flexible repayment terms and options than private student loans. This brief report answers the following questions about federal aid: (1) What is a federal student loan?; (2) What is a private…

  4. Student Loan Default and Repayment in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    As college costs continue to rise, student loan default and repayment are issues of increasing concern to students and families, colleges and universities, and state and federal governments. Helping students borrow responsibly and manage their debt are vitally important to maintaining college access and affordability and increasing the education…

  5. Why Student Loans Are Different: Findings from Six Focus Groups of Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason; Holt, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    For all the attention student loans have received in the media and from policymakers in recent years, there is still remarkably little information on why and how borrowers struggle to repay them. Rising college prices and debt levels explain some of the troubles borrowers have with their loans, as does a slow economic recovery that has caused…

  6. CERN debt to the Pension Fund (Bank loan)

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The Finance Committee is invited to recommend the Council and the Council is invited to approve the taking out of a loan with FORTIS BANK with the purpose of the repayment of the Organization's debt to the Pension Fund, in accordance with the conditions set out in the Annex 2, thereby authorising the CERN Management to sign the Agreement on 23 June 2006.

  7. Is student debt jeopardizing the short-term financial health of U.S. households?

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, William; Nam, IlSung

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors use the Survey of Consumer Finances to determine whether student loans are associated with household net worth. They find that median 2009 net worth ($117,700) for households with no outstanding student loan debt is nearly three times higher than for households with outstanding student loan debt ($42,800). Further, multivariate statistics indicate that households with outstanding student loan debt and a median 2007 net worth of $128,828 incur a loss of about 54 perc...

  8. An Investigation into Credit Card Debt among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dylan; Waterwall, Brian; Giardelli, Tiffany

    2008-01-01

    It is no surprise that the amount of credit card debt and outstanding loan balances of college students is increasing every year. College students are heavily targeted by credit companies through the use of e-mail, campus booths, and standard mail. The reason for these solicitations is because of the soaring expense levels of college students and…

  9. Understanding Loan Use and Debt Burden among Low-Income and Minority Students at a Large Urban Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Torres, Maria; McKinney, Lyle; Horn, Catherine; Jones, Sara

    2018-01-01

    This study examined a sample of community college students from a diverse, large urban community college system in Texas. To gain a deeper understanding about the effects of background characteristics on student borrowing behaviors and enrollment outcomes, the study employed descriptive statistics and regression techniques to examine two separate…

  10. Medical student debt at the Christchurch School of Medicine. The New Zealand Wellbeing, Intentions, Debt and Experiences (WIDE) survey of medical students pilot study. Results part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, D; Palmer, C; Mulder, R; Wilkinson, T

    2001-10-26

    To determine the level and sources of medical student debt at the Christchurch School of Medicine. A questionnaire, The New Zealand Wellbeing, Intentions, Debt, and Experiences (WIDE) Survey of Medical Students, was developed and administered to all 204 medical students at the Christchurch School of Medicine and Health Sciences. Included were questions on student demographics, sources and levels of debt, parental financial support, and student perceptions of their debt. The response rate was 88%. International students, whose debt was with an overseas government, and students with mortgages were excluded from the data analysis. The combined total debt for the remaining 165 students was $7775000 with $6290000 (81%) owed to the Government Students Loans scheme. One quarter of 6th year medical students had a debt over $83250, 50% had a debt over $70000, and 75% had a debt over $50000. Student allowances were inaccessible to 64% of 4th and 5th year students and part-time employment during term-time was common. Lack of funds was reported to impair full participation in the medical course. The majority of medical students at the Christchurch School of Medicine accumulate high levels of debt, mainly dtrough the Government Student Loans scheme, during their medical training.

  11. Maxed out: The Relationship between Credit Card Debt, Credit Card Distress and Grade Point Averages for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Temple Day

    2011-01-01

    Few students leave college with a plan for paying off their debt. Starting a career inundated with student loans and credit card debt burdens is a reality many college students face today. In the wake of graduation coming to terms with the consequences of credit card debt is stressful for many students. This dissertation observes the relationship…

  12. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  13. Messengers of Bad News or Bad Apples? Student Debt and College Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    Student loan debt and defaults have been steadily rising, igniting public worry about the associated public and private risks. This has led to controversial regulatory attempts to curb defaults by holding colleges, particularly those in the for-profit sector, increasingly accountable for the student loan repayment behavior of their students. Such…

  14. Balancing Passion and Practicality: The Role of Debt and Major on Students' Financial Outcomes. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    TG (Texas Guaranteed Student Loan Corporation), 2012

    2012-01-01

    As the importance of a college degree climbs and federal and state grant funding remains inadequate, millions of students in the U.S. continue to take out student loans each year to help pay for their rising education costs. In October 2011, the total amount of outstanding student loan debt in the U.S. exceeded $1 trillion (Chopra, 2012),…

  15. An Initial Econometric Consideration of Supply and Demand in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayus, Barry; Kendis, Kurt

    1982-01-01

    In this econometric model of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (GSLP), supply is related to banks' liquidity and yield curves, all lenders' economic costs and returns, and Student Loan Marketing Association activity. GSLP demand is based on loan costs, family debt position, and net student need for financial aid. (RW)

  16. Medical student debt and major life choices other than specialty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rohlfing

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Median indebtedness at graduation is now more than $170,000 for graduates of US Medical Schools. Debate still exists as to whether higher debt levels influence students to choose high paying non-primary care specialties. Notably, no previous research on the topic has taken into account cost of attendance when constructing a debt model, nor has any research examined the non-career major life decisions that medical students face. Methods: Medical students were surveyed using an anonymous electronic instrument developed for this study. The survey was delivered through a link included in a study email and students were recruited from school wide listservs and through snowball sampling (students were encouraged to share a link to the survey with other medical students. No incentives were offered for survey completion. Results: Responses were recorded from 102 US Allopathic medical schools (n=3,032, with 22 institutions (11 public, 11 private meeting inclusion criteria of 10% student body response proportion (n=1,846. Students with higher debt relative to their peers at their home institution reported higher frequencies of feeling callous towards others, were more likely to choose a specialty with a higher average annual income, were less likely to plan to practice in underserved locations, and were less likely to choose primary care specialties. Students with higher aggregate amounts of medical student loan debt were more likely to report high levels of stress from their educational debt, to delay getting married and to report disagreement that they would choose to become a physician again, if given the opportunity to revisit that choice. Increases in both aggregate and relative debt were associated with delaying having children, delaying buying a house, concerns about managing and paying back educational debt, and worrying that educational debt will influence one's specialty choice. Conclusions: Medical student debt and particularly debt

  17. Medical student debt and major life choices other than specialty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, James; Navarro, Ryan; Maniya, Omar Z; Hughes, Byron D; Rogalsky, Derek K

    2014-01-01

    Median indebtedness at graduation is now more than $170,000 for graduates of US Medical Schools. Debate still exists as to whether higher debt levels influence students to choose high paying non-primary care specialties. Notably, no previous research on the topic has taken into account cost of attendance when constructing a debt model, nor has any research examined the non-career major life decisions that medical students face. Medical students were surveyed using an anonymous electronic instrument developed for this study. The survey was delivered through a link included in a study email and students were recruited from school wide listservs and through snowball sampling (students were encouraged to share a link to the survey with other medical students). No incentives were offered for survey completion. Responses were recorded from 102 US Allopathic medical schools (n=3,032), with 22 institutions (11 public, 11 private) meeting inclusion criteria of 10% student body response proportion (n=1,846). Students with higher debt relative to their peers at their home institution reported higher frequencies of feeling callous towards others, were more likely to choose a specialty with a higher average annual income, were less likely to plan to practice in underserved locations, and were less likely to choose primary care specialties. Students with higher aggregate amounts of medical student loan debt were more likely to report high levels of stress from their educational debt, to delay getting married and to report disagreement that they would choose to become a physician again, if given the opportunity to revisit that choice. Increases in both aggregate and relative debt were associated with delaying having children, delaying buying a house, concerns about managing and paying back educational debt, and worrying that educational debt will influence one's specialty choice. Medical student debt and particularly debt relative to peers at the same institution appears to

  18. Educational Debt in the Context of Career Planning: A Qualitative Exploration of Medical Student Perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie P; Wilbanks, Deana M; Salinas, Diana F; Doberneck, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenon: Medical students in the United States face increasing educational debt because medical education costs have risen while public investment in higher education has declined. Contemporary students borrow more money and accumulate debt far surpassing that of previous generations of physicians, and both interest rates and terms of loan repayment have changed significantly in the last decade. As a result, the experiences of medical students differ from the experiences of physician educators. Little is known about how contemporary medical students view their debt in the context of career planning. Understanding contemporary U.S. medical students' lived experiences of educational debt is important, because high debt levels may affect medical students' well-being and professional development. The study's purpose was to explore contemporary students' views of their debt in the context of career planning. In 2012, 2nd-year medical students enrolled in a health policy course at one medical school were invited to write an essay about how debt influences their career choices. The authors analyzed 132 essays using immersion and crystallization and iterative, team-based coding. Code-recode strategies, member checking, and reflexivity ensured validity and rigor. Three themes emerged about the meaning of debt: debt symbolizes lack of social investment, debt reinforces a sense of entitlement, and debt is a collective experience. Four approaches to debt management emerged: anticipation, avoidance, acceptance, and disempowerment. Insights: Medical students' views of debt are more complex than previously reported. Medical educators should recognize that many students experience debt as a stressor, acknowledge students' emotions about debt, and invite discussion about the culture of entitlement in medical education and how this culture affects students' professionalism. At the same time, educators should emphasize that students have many repayment options and that regardless

  19. Student Loan Default: Do Characteristics of Four-Year Institutions Contribute to the Puzzle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Karen L.; Rogers, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    College student debt and loan default are growing concerns in the United States. For each U.S. institution, the federal government is now reporting a cohort default rate, which is the percent of students who defaulted on their loan, averaged over a three-year period. Previous studies have amply shown that student characteristics are strongly…

  20. Federal Student Loan Interest Rates: History, Subsidies, and Cost. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Occupy Wall Street protests brought countless media reports about unemployed college graduates struggling to repay their student loans and headlines sounding alarms that outstanding student loan debt will soon reach $1 trillion. Even though evidence is mixed on whether today's college graduates leave school with significantly more debt…

  1. Student Debt, Problem-Solving, and Decision-Making of Adult Learners: A Basic Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William J.

    2013-01-01

    A basic qualitative research study was conducted to develop insights into how adult learners employ problem-solving and decision-making (PSDM), when considering college financing, student loans, and student debt. Using the social media Website Facebook, eight qualified participants were recruited. Participants were interviewed via telephone, and…

  2. Are Millennials with Student Loans Upwardly Mobile?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Students have been amassing ever growing levels of debt to attend college. The situation has raised concerns about whether the debt is high enough that the benefits of borrowing—in terms of students’ future socioeconomic outcomes—are compromised. This Commentary investigates relationships between student debt, mobility, and upward social mobility. The findings suggest that student debts have not become so burdensome that they undo the advantages of higher skills. However, the advantages enjoy...

  3. 7 CFR 4290.845 - Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.845 Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities. The...

  4. Yes, No, Maybe So: College Students' Attitudes Regarding Debt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerquera, Desiree D.; McGowan, Brian L.; Ferguson, Tomika L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined college student attitudes regarding debt. Based on focus group interviews with 31 students from 4 different institutions within a Midwestern university system, data analysis yielded a continuum that captures students' debt approaches while enrolled in college. Findings indicate that students avoided debt completely, made intentional…

  5. 77 FR 31993 - Loan Workouts and Nonaccrual Policy, and Regulatory Reporting of Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ...) instructions for reporting past due status on TDRs, many FICUs maintain separate, manual delinquency... loan delinquency based on restructured contract terms rather than the original loan terms. To that end... loan on nonaccrual status has no impact on the borrower's contractual obligation to the FICU. c...

  6. Discriminant Analysis of Student Loan Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyl, Edward A.; McGann, Anthony F.

    1977-01-01

    The use of discriminant analysis in identifying potentially "good" versus potentially "bad" student loans is explained. The technique is applied to a sample of 200 student loan applications at the University of Wyoming. (LBH)

  7. Balancing Passion and Practicality: The Role of Debt and Major on Students' Financial Outcomes. A Report to the 83rd Regular Session of the Texas Legislature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Micki; Fletcher, Carla; Shook, Melissa; Webster, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    As the cost and importance of education continue to rise, more college students across the U.S. begin their postsecondary education by signing a contract to repay an ever-increasing amount of student loan debt. Conventional wisdom maintains that borrowing for college is an investment in the future that should be deemed "good debt". Data…

  8. Student Loan Default Rates in Minnesota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Tricia

    2010-01-01

    While Minnesota undergraduates are more likely to take out student loans, they are substantially less likely than their peers nationally to default on federal student loans. Fifty-four percent of Minnesota undergraduates took out student loans in 2007-2008, compared to 39 percent of undergraduates across the U.S. Minnesota undergraduates were also…

  9. Debt Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Pearl

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports point to soaring student loan debt and high rates of default as impediments to financial security for millions of Americans. A number of colleges and universities have addressed the issue with initiatives ranging from financial fixes to bold new models of higher education. The Institute for College Access and Success (TICAS)…

  10. On rising medical student debt: in for a penny, in for a pound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassebaum, D G; Szenas, P L; Schuchert, M K

    1996-10-01

    Using national databases of the Association of American Medical Colleges, the authors have examined reasons for the rising indebtedness of U.S. medical students, looking across the past decade at the influence of tuition and fees (tuition-fees) alone and the total costs of attending school, the effects of the changing demographics of medical school enrollments and lengthened graduation times, the relationship between the availability of school-funded scholarships and the amount of student loan disbursements, the pattern of student financial aid, and the reliance on borrowing to cover the costs of medical education. In constant dollars, the average indebtedness of students graduating from public schools increased 59.2% between 1985 and 1995, and that for graduates of private schools increased 64.2%. The fraction of graduates bringing debt with them when they entered medical school declined from 42.1% in 1985 to 33.6% in 1995. Premedical debt as a fraction of total debt declined at public schools from 9% in 1985 to 7% in 1995, and at private schools from 7.8% in 1985 to 5.9% in 1995. For public schools, tuition-fees increased 60.1% between 1985 and 1995, and average medical school debt increased 60.9%; for private schools, tuition-fees increased 30.1% over that period, while average medical school debt increased 66.2%. On average, public school graduates accrued debt greater than their four-year tuition-fee payments, while the average debt accrued by private school graduates was less than tuition-fee amounts. In 1995, graduates of public schools had debt accumulations representing 62% of the average total cost of attendance (tuition, fees, books, supplies, equipment, and living expenses), and the indebtedness of private school graduates was 55% of the average total cost, findings suggesting that total costs were the stronger driver of the amounts borrowed. On a national scale, the influences on medical school debt of longer graduation times, the growing number of

  11. A retrospective analysis of the relationship between medical student debt and primary care practice in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie P; Petterson, Stephen M; Bazemore, Andrew W; Phillips, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    We undertook a study to reexamine the relationship between educational debt and primary care practice, accounting for the potentially confounding effect of medical student socioeconomic status. We performed retrospective multivariate analyses of data from 136,232 physicians who graduated from allopathic US medical schools between 1988 and 2000, obtained from the American Association of Medical Colleges Graduate Questionnaire, the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile, and other sources. Need-based loans were used as markers for socioeconomic status of physicians' families of origin. We examined 2 outcomes: primary care practice and family medicine practice in 2010. Physicians who graduated from public schools were most likely to practice primary care and family medicine at graduating educational debt levels of $50,000 to $100,000 (2010 dollars; P practice persisted when physicians from different socioeconomic status groups, as approximated by loan type, were examined separately. At higher debt, graduates' odds of practicing primary care or family medicine declined. In contrast, private school graduates were not less likely to practice primary care or family medicine as debt levels increased. High educational debt deters graduates of public medical schools from choosing primary care, but does not appear to influence private school graduates in the same way. Students from relatively lower income families are more strongly influenced by debt. Reducing debt of selected medical students may be effective in promoting a larger primary care physician workforce. © 2014 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  12. Student Loans Driving You Crazy? A Borrower's Guide to Direct Consolidation Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This booklet describes the Direct Consolidation Loan program students can use to combine one or more student loans into a new loan. Things to consider before seeking a consolidation loan are outlined. Direct consolidation loans offer a number of advantages; they are free, result in one lender and one monthly payment, and offer flexible repayment…

  13. Anticipated debt and financial stress in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Dante J; Regehr, Glenn; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2008-01-01

    While medical student debt is increasing, the effect of debt on student well-being and performance remains unclear. As a part of a larger study examining medical student views of their future profession, data were collected to examine the role that current and anticipated debt has in predicting stress among medical students. A survey was administered to medical students in all four years at the University of Toronto. Of the 804 potential respondents across the four years of training, 549 surveys had sufficient data for inclusion in this analysis, for a response rate of 68%. Through multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the correlation between current and anticipated debt and financial stress. Although perceived financial stress correlates with both current and anticipated debt levels, anticipated debt was able to account for an additional 11.5% of variance in reported stress when compared to current debt levels alone. This study demonstrates a relationship between perceived financial stress and debt levels, and suggests that anticipated debt levels might be a more robust metric to capture financial burden, as it standardizes for year of training and captures future financial liabilities (future tuition and other future expenses).

  14. A history of medical student debt: observations and implications for the future of medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greysen, S Ryan; Chen, Candice; Mullan, Fitzhugh

    2011-07-01

    Over the last 50 years, medical student debt has become a problem of national importance, and obtaining medical education in the United States has become a loan-dependent, individual investment. Although this phenomenon must be understood in the general context of U.S. higher education as well as economic and social trends in late-20th-century America, the historical problem of medical student debt requires specific attention for several reasons. First, current mechanisms for students' educational financing may not withstand debt levels above a certain ceiling which is rapidly approaching. Second, there are no standards for costs of medical school attendance, and these can vary dramatically between different schools even within a single city. Third, there is no consensus on the true cost of educating a medical student, which limits accountability to students and society for these costs. Fourth, policy efforts to improve physician workforce diversity and mitigate shortages in the primary care workforce are inhibited by rising levels of medical student indebtedness. Fortunately, the current effort to expand the U.S. physician workforce presents a unique opportunity to confront the unsustainable growth of medical student debt and explore new approaches to the financing of medical students' education.

  15. Lowering Student Loan Default Rates: What One Consortium of Historically Black Institutions Did to Succeed. Education Sector Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Erin; Smiles, Robin V.

    2010-01-01

    Colleges across the nation are struggling to confront a growing problem in higher education: student debt. As more students borrow more money than ever before, and recent graduates enter the worst job market in a generation, students are increasingly unable to pay back their loans. This report discusses the growing problem of students defaulting…

  16. A Class to Prepare Students to Manage Educational Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popik, Roberta S.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A counseling program prepared for Georgetown University School of Dentistry is described. It trains students in concepts associated with short- and long-term financial planning, banking relationships, credit, business planning and structuring debt into an individual student's lifestyle. (MLW)

  17. Does the Student-Loan Burden Weigh into the Decision to Start a Family?

    OpenAIRE

    Gicheva, Dora

    2011-01-01

    I examine the relationship between student debt and the timing of marriage. The life-cycle consumption smoothing model implies that student loans should have a very small effect on consumption at any given point in time and should not affect the timing of family formation. I use the Survey of Consumer Finances to show that the amount of student borrowing is negatively related to the probability of marriage, but the strength of this relationship diminishes with age. I use exogenous variations ...

  18. A Trillion-Dollar Question: What Predicts Student Loan Delinquencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, Alvaro; Sommer, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    The recent significant increase in student loan delinquencies has generated interest in understanding the key factors predicting the non-performance of these loans. However, despite the large size of the student loan market, existing analyses have been limited by lack of data. This paper studies predictors of student loan delinquencies using a…

  19. 78 FR 45617 - Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-29

    ..., et al. Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL...

  20. Evaluating the Student Loan Fund of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkitvanich, Somkiat; Manasboonphempool, Areeya

    2010-01-01

    The Thai higher education sector has expanded quickly during the past decade, making a transition from an elitist to a mass institution. A driving force behind the expansion was believed to be the Student Loan Fund (SLF), introduced in 1996. During the first 10 years of its operation, the SLF has lent to more than 2.6 million students, with the…

  1. Exit Counseling Guide for Federal Student Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Student loans, unlike grants and work-study, are borrowed money that must be repaid, with interest, just like car loans and home mortgages. You cannot have these loans canceled because you didn't like the education you received, didn't get a job in your field of study or because you're having financial difficulty. Loans are legal obligations that…

  2. Como reembolsar sus prestamos para estudiantes (Repaying Your Student Loans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This guide, written in Spanish, discusses how to repay student loans. Following a general introduction, the guide discusses the grace period before repayment and repayment requirements. Repayment plans are described for Perkins Loans, Direct Loans, and Federal Family Education Loans. Repayment options are discussed, including consolidation,…

  3. Mortgaged Minds: Faculty-in-Debt and Redlining Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Scheper

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While undergraduate student loan debt continues to be “hard to register,” there are other conditions and effects of the student loan debt spiral that remain relatively invisible, unexamined, and certainly receive less attention in news headlines or on the op-ed pages about the fiscal cliff of education debt. These are the effects of this debt spiral on graduate education, faculty composition, and knowledge production itself. This article highlights how the debt load of faculty is part of the current student loan debt spiral, yet its effects on the working conditions of faculty, the learning conditions of students, and, importantly, the production of knowledge in the university remain underexamined.

  4. Addressing Student Debt: A New Post Secondary Learning Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Access and affordability are bountiful concepts and key words used by policy makers in defining the role of post-secondary education and training in Canada. However, these words have not translated into action for many learners due to student debt. Incurred from high tuition fees, costly and complex payback schemes and under-funding, chronic…

  5. College Student Credit Card Usage and Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybka, Kathryn M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the concerns related to credit card usage by college students. Offers information student affairs professionals can use to help college students make responsible choices. (Contains 26 references.) (GCP)

  6. Relationships between College Students' Credit Card Debt, Undesirable Academic Behaviors and Cognitions, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Eileen A.; Bryant, Sarah K.; Overymyer-Day, Leslie E.

    2013-01-01

    The acquisition of credit card debt by college students has long been a topic of concern. This study explores relationships among debt, undesirable academic behaviors and cognitions, and academic performance, through surveys of 338 students in a public university, replicating two past measures of credit card debt and creating new measures of…

  7. Student Credit Card Debt in the 21st Century: Options for Financial Aid Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Provides multiple workable solutions financial aid offices can offer students throughout their college experience to deal with debt: preventive solutions for avoiding problems with credit card debt, holistic solutions for other related problems, and remedial solutions for existing problems. (EV)

  8. Can't afford a baby? Debt and young Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Michael; Dwyer, Rachel E; Hodson, Randy

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the role of personal debt in the transition to parenthood. We analyze data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth-1997 cohort and find that for the generation coming of age in the 2000s, student loans delay fertility for women, particularly at very high levels of debt. Home mortgages and credit card debt, in contrast, appear to be precursors to parenthood. These results indicate that different forms of debt have different implications for early adulthood transitions: whereas consumer loans or home mortgages immediately increase access to consumption goods, there is often a significant delay between the accrual and realization of benefits for student loans. The double-edged nature of debt as both barrier and facilitator to life transitions highlights the importance of looking at debt both as a monetary issue and also as a carrier of social meanings.

  9. Sleep debt and depression in female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regestein, Quentin; Natarajan, Viji; Pavlova, Milena; Kawasaki, Susan; Gleason, Ray; Koff, Elissa

    2010-03-30

    The objective of the study was to evaluate relationships between sleep habits and depressive symptoms. Pilot study data were collected about sleep schedules, related factors and depression in female college students to find whether their sleep schedules correlate with affective symptoms. In the subsequent main study, similar information was collected under more controlled conditions. Depression was measured using the CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and HAM-D-3 (modified Hamilton Depression Rating Scale). Response rates were 31.3% of eligible students for the pilot survey and 71.6% for the main study. Both studies showed that about 20% of students reported weekday sleep debts of greater than 2 h and about 28% reported significantly greater sleep debt and had significantly higher depression scores (Pstudents. Melancholic symptoms indicated by high CES-D scores (>24), were observed in 24% of students. Sleep problems explained 13% of the variance for both the CESD scale and the HAM-D-3 scale. Among female college students, those who report a sleep debt of at least 2 h or significant daytime sleepiness have a higher risk of reporting melancholic symptoms than others. Copyright 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Student loan burden and its impact on career decisions in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jannett; Song, Eingun; Liu, Michael A; Lee, Patrick K; Truong, Sam

    2017-12-01

    Dermatology departments in the United States face difficulties in recruiting dermatologists to academic positions, raising concerns for the future of dermatology education and research. This preliminary study aimed to explore the impact of student loan burden on career plans in dermatology and to determine if the Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) program can be used as a recruitment tool for academic positions in dermatology. Results from this electronic survey, which was distributed to dermatology residents and attending physicians, revealed that debt burden may influence career decisions in dermatology. Dermatologists may not be fully educated on loan repayment options. With increased awareness, the PSLF can potentially be used as a recruitment tool for academic positions in dermatology.

  11. Federal Student Loan Amounts and Terms for Loans Issued in 2016-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project on Student Debt, 2016

    2016-01-01

    U.S. citizens or permanent residents, enrolled at least half time in a qualified program at a participating school, not in default on a prior federal student loan, and not previously convicted of a drug offense while receiving federal financial aid are eligible to apply for a student loan. The chart presented in this report summarizes the interest…

  12. 76 FR 9213 - Small Business Jobs Act: 504 Loan Program Debt Refinancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... history instead of only one year. The Jobs Act also provides that this refinancing program is not... year period was either deferred or more than 30 days past due. Any delinquency in payment of the loan...

  13. Are Student Loan Default Rates Linked to Institutional Capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Terry T.; McKitrick, Sean A.

    2016-01-01

    As more undergraduates have taken out loans to attend college, the number of borrowers who fail to repay their student loans has increased. While previous research has focused on students' likelihood to default, this study employed institutional cohort default rates (CDRs) as an outcome variable. Using Integrated Postsecondary Education Data…

  14. Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

    2010-01-01

    Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

  15. Sick of our loans: Student borrowing and the mental health of young adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Gee, Gilbert C; Gentile, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Student loans are increasingly important and commonplace, especially among recent cohorts of young adults in the United States. These loans facilitate the acquisition of human capital in the form of education, but may also lead to stress and worries related to repayment. This study investigated two questions: 1) what is the association between the cumulative amount of student loans borrowed over the course of schooling and psychological functioning when individuals are 25-31 years old; and 2) what is the association between annual student loan borrowing and psychological functioning among currently enrolled college students? We also examined whether these relationships varied by parental wealth, college enrollment history (e.g. 2-year versus 4-year college), and educational attainment (for cumulative student loans only). We analyzed data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationally representative sample of young adults in the United States. Analyses employed multivariate linear regression and within-person fixed-effects models. Student loans were associated with poorer psychological functioning, adjusting for covariates, in both the multivariate linear regression and the within-person fixed effects models. This association varied by level of parental wealth in the multivariate linear regression models only, and did not vary by college enrollment history or educational attainment. The present findings raise novel questions for further research regarding student loan debt and the possible spillover effects on other life circumstances, such as occupational trajectories and health inequities. The study of student loans is even more timely and significant given the ongoing rise in the costs of higher education. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Student Debt and Access to Higher Education in Chile [ENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses whether the fear of indebtedness resulting from going on to post-secondary education affects potential students? decisions to apply for, and enter into, Higher Education; whether there is any relationship between the fear of indebtedness and the socio-economic level of the families of potential students; and whether there is an association between the fear of indebtedness and student performance. This study shows that the fear of indebtedness for post-secondary studies is not a limiting factor for young people from lower-income sectors to go on to tertiary education. The study also shows that availability of loans facilitates access to Higher Education. These fi ndings contradict the conclusions of studies by Claire Callender and Jonathan Jackson, who previously analysed the British case with the same aims.

  17. Debt on graduation, expected place of practice, and career aspirations of Auckland Medical School students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, G; Fitzjohn, J

    2001-10-26

    To determine the debt level that current Auckland medical students expect to graduate with, and evaluate this debt in the context of their career aspirations and intended place of practice. Simple check-box and fill-in-the-blank surveys were distributed to Auckland University medical students in Years 1 through to 5 during their second week of scheduled lectures in March 2000. Students were asked to provide demographic details, then complete sections on debt and career aspirations. 70% of Auckland medical students participated. Average expected debt was between $60000 to $70000. Predicted size of graduation debt was significantly related with plans to practice medicine overseas, and this trend was especially strong among females. In addition, Maori and Polynesian students bear a disproportionate level of the student debt burden compared to Pakeha and Asian groups. 77% of students indicated a preference for working in private or hospital specialty work. Student debt will have major effects on the composition of the New Zealand medical workforce over coming years. More attention must be paid to the national picture of medical student indebtedness if adequate workforce planning is to be possible.

  18. Student Debt Spans Generations: Characteristics of Parents Who Borrow to Pay for Their Children's College Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-10-01

    Discussions of student debt often overlook the debt parents take on to pay for their children's education. We identify characteristics of parents with child-related educational debt among the late baby boom cohort. Data come from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of individuals born between 1957 and 1964. We restrict our sample to parents who had any children aged ≥17 and answered questions on educational debt during midlife (n = 6,562). Craggit models estimated (a) having any child-related educational debt and (b) the amount of debt owed among debtors. Black parents and parents with more education, higher income, and higher net worth were more likely to report child-related educational debt than White parents and parents with no degree, low-income, or negative net worth. Among debtors, high-income parents had more debt than low-income parents. Our findings suggest concerns about the student debt crisis should extend to aging parents. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. International Corporate Debt Market

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Geranio; Issam Hallak

    2012-01-01

    Research on international debt markets has chiefly investigated sovereign debt markets. We suggest a review of the different types of borrowers and the differences in the instruments. In particular we show that syndicated loans are an essential tool of international debt markets to monitor international markets borrowers. We also show by looking at the details of these instruments the mechanisms behind such tools.

  20. College on Credit: A Multilevel Analysis of Student Loan Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2014-01-01

    This study updates and expands the literature on student loan default. By applying multilevel regression to the Beginning Postsecondary Students survey, four key findings emerge. First, attending proprietary institutions is strongly associated with default, even after accounting for students' socioeconomic and academic backgrounds. Second,…

  1. Strategies to Test for Private Student Loan Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about private student loan discrimination, in contrast to the relatively developed research on discrimination in other credit markets such as mortgages and credit cards. The private student lending market can play a key role in responding to changes in the policy or economic environment, and many students and their families turn to…

  2. Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…

  3. effect of the subsidized students' loan on university enrolment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    maintained for all Ghanaian students but they were to pay for room, meals, ... was replaced by the Students Loan Trust Fund ... given amount of investment in human capital is identical for all .... of order one i.e. the first difference must be stationary ..... the Analysis of Long Run Relation- ships. Discussion Paper no. 46, Edin-.

  4. Student Loan Forbearance and Its Relationship to Default. Synopsis: Higher Education Research Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Derek V.

    As the number and volume of student loans increase nationally, lenders and policymakers look more closely at the use of loan forbearance. This paper examines whether forbearance really cuts the risk of loan default by reporting on a study of more than 9,800 Stafford loans in forbearance in December 1996. That research shows that the default rate…

  5. Options to Change Interest Rates and Other Terms on Student Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congressional Budget Office, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Direct Student Loan Program offers loans to students and their parents to help pay for postsecondary education. Under current law, about $1.4 trillion in new direct loans will be made to students between 2013 and 2023, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) projects. Analysts and policymakers have raised concerns about various features…

  6. 42 CFR 57.311 - Cancellation of nursing student loans for disability or death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation of nursing student loans for disability or death. 57.311 Section 57.311 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans §...

  7. Changes to the Student Loan Experience: Psychological Predictors and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on the work of scholars who have explored psychological perceptions of the student loan experience. Survey analysis ("N" = 175) revealed a multidimensional model was developed through factor analysis and testing, which revealed four latent variables: "Duress," "Mandatory," "Financial," and…

  8. Development and Validation of Discriminant Analysis Models for Student Loan Defaultees and Non-Defaultees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Greeley; Siera, Steven

    1980-01-01

    Default on guaranteed student loans has been increasing. The use of discriminant analysis as a technique to identify "good" v "bad" student loans based on information available from the loan application is discussed. Research to test the ability of models to such predictions is reported. (Author/MLW)

  9. Parental Discussion about Personal Finances: Does it Make a Difference in the Amount of Debt Incurred?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy C. Deringer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Higher education costs have increased substantially over the past two decades and, therefore, student loan debt has increased as well. Studies have shown that one earns more money over one’s lifetime if he/she has a four-year college degree. In fact, it is often substantially more depending upon one’s profession. However, for some individuals, the costs of funding higher education may be confusing and often times overwhelming. A study was completed at a university in the pacific northwest (n=778 which asked college students about their financial behaviors, credit card debt, student loan debt, discussions with parents, and in what topics or workshops they would like more information. Based on this data, faculty and graduate students from the school of family and consumer sciences and staff from the student financial aid office are creating workshops and curriculum to assist students in managing their debt and finances.

  10. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and...

  11. Survey and Thought on Graduates’ Repayment Awareness of Student Loan in Agricultural Universities and Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    To find out graduates’ repayment awareness of student loan,we conducted a questionnaire survey for those graduates who applied for student loan in Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering.The survey has following results.First,the national student loan plays an important role in assisting poor students in finishing their study.Second,graduates value social function of personal credit.Third,trustworthiness education activities carried out by colleges and universities are effective.Fourth,economic income is a major factor of graduates repaying capital with interest.Fifth,bank’s student loan management system is not perfect.Sixth,the national student loan system remains to be improved.In line with these results,we put forward five countermeasures and suggestions:strengthen the trustworthiness education of students;standardize the credit investigation management of students’ personal credit;establish student information management mechanism;standardize banks’ payment reminder administration behavior;and perfect national student loan system.

  12. The Challenge of Financing Higher Education and the Role of Student Loans Scheme: An Analysis of the Student Loan Trust Fund (SLTF) in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuahene, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Student loans program is one of the most controversial phenomena in financing higher education in Ghana, but its importance as a cost sharing mechanism is incontestable. This paper describes the challenge of financing higher education in Ghana. It provides a critique of the Social Security and National Insurance Trust (SSNIT) Student Loans Scheme,…

  13. Effective Counseling, Empowered Borrowers: An Evidence-Based Policy Agenda for Informed Student Loan Borrowing and Repayment. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2016-01-01

    To manage their loans effectively, U.S. postsecondary student loan borrowers must make a variety of important decisions that require significant knowledge and financial skills and entail considerable risk. Federal law requires colleges to provide student loan counseling to their federal student loan borrowers, but there is significant room for…

  14. 7 CFR 1951.213 - Debt settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.213 Section 1951.213 Agriculture... and Grants § 1951.213 Debt settlement. Subpart C of part 1956 of this chapter prescribes policies and procedures for debt settlement actions for loans covered under this subpart when it is determined that a debt...

  15. Credit card debt, stress and key health risk behaviors among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Melissa C; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2008-01-01

    To examine cross-sectional associations between credit card debt, stress, and health risk behaviors among college students, focusing particularly on weight-related behaviors. Random-sample, mailed survey. Undergraduate and graduate students (n = 3206) attending a large public university. Self-reported health indicators (e.g., weight, height, physical activity, diet, weight control, stress, credit card debt). More than 23% of students reported credit card debt > or = $1000. Using Poisson regression to predict relative risks (RR) of health behaviors, debt of at least $1000 was associated with nearly every risk indicator tested, including overweight/obesity, insufficient physical activity, excess television viewing, infrequent breakfast consumption, fast food consumption, unhealthy weight control, body dissatisfaction, binge drinking, substance use, and violence. For example, adjusted RR [ARR] ranged from 1.09 (95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.17) for insufficient vigorous activity to 2.17 (CI: 0.68-2.82) for using drugs other than marijuana in the past 30 days. Poor stress management was also a robust indicator of health risk. University student lifestyles may be characterized by a variety of coexisting risk factors. These findings indicate that both debt and stress were associated with wide-ranging adverse health indicators. Intervention strategies targeting at-risk student populations need to be tailored to work within the context of the many challenges of college life, which may serve as barriers to healthy lifestyles. Increased health promotion efforts targeting stress, financial management, and weight-related health behaviors may be needed to enhance wellness among young adults.

  16. 78 FR 13327 - Request for Information Regarding an Initiative To Promote Student Loan Affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... loan balances, with even more in delinquency. Federal student loans frequently provide for income-based... the levels of delinquency and default. \\4\\ Department of the Treasury, Office of Financial Research..., including lenders and loan servicers; Nationally recognized statistical rating organizations (NRSROs...

  17. More than a Question of Debt: A Qualitative Study of How Seminarians Think about Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    As the funding environment for higher education and theological education changes, an increasing number of graduate theological students hold student loan debt that will follow them well into their postgraduation working lives (Delisle, 2014). This study reports the attitudes about money voiced by master of divinity students at one mainline…

  18. 26 CFR 1.593-7 - Establishment and treatment of reserves for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....593-10. (2) Bad debt losses. Any bad debt in respect of a nonqualifying loan shall be charged against the reserve for losses on nonqualifying loans, and any bad debt in respect of a qualifying real... option of the taxpayer, however, any bad debt in respect of either class of loans may be charged in whole...

  19. Working up a Debt: Students as Vulnerable Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Julie; Farquhar, Jillian Dawes; Hindle, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Students are recognized as vulnerable consumers where financial matters are concerned, particularly with reference to indebtedness. This study examines student indebtedness in order to initiate wider debate about student vulnerability. We consider vulnerability as dynamic and temporal, linked to an event that renders the consumer susceptible to…

  20. Lending booms, reserves, and the sustainability of short-term debt - inferences from the pricing of syndicated bank loans

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry; Mody, Ashoka

    1999-01-01

    Academics pay little attention to international bank lending, focusing instead on rapidly growing market segments such as the international bond market and derivative credit instruments. The authors argue for paying more attention to international bank lending. Why? Three reasons. First, the syndicated bank loan is one of the workhorses of international capital markets. Second, international bank lending is especially important for private-sector borrowers, whose participation in internationa...

  1. Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised Credit ... bank as regard to loan supervision was scored low as a result of low rate of loan recovery, ... strategy to recover outstanding debts and reduce interest charge on loans.

  2. A Systematic Review of Financial Debt in Adolescents and Young Adults: Prevalence, Correlates and Associations with Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J. M.; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J.

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems. PMID:25136797

  3. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeve, Machteld; Stams, Geert Jan J M; van der Zouwen, Marion; Vergeer, Margaretha; Jurrius, Kitty; Asscher, Jessica J

    2014-01-01

    Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23), correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16), and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8). Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents), lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult) debt or financial problems.

  4. A systematic review of financial debt in adolescents and young adults: prevalence, correlates and associations with crime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machteld Hoeve

    Full Text Available Financial debt in young people has increased in recent years. Because debt may have severe consequences, and it may enhance criminal behavior, insight into the prevalence and determinants of debt and its association with crime is important. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 36 manuscripts to examine the prevalence of financial debt (k = 23, correlates and risk factors of debt (k = 16, and associations between debt and criminal behavior in adolescents and young adults (k = 8. Findings revealed that the prevalence of debt is substantial among young people; on average, 49% reported to have at least some debt, 22% had financial problems. Older participants and ethnic minorities were found to have higher levels of debt than younger and indigenous counterparts. Females had more financial problems and higher student loans. Low self-esteem, a pro-debt attitude (of young people and their parents, lack of perceived control towards financial management, poor social functioning, financial stress and external locus of control were found to have the strongest associations with debt. Studies reported strong associations between debt and crime. Particularly, strong associations were found between serious and persistent crime in young people and later (young adult debt or financial problems.

  5. What Are the Alternatives to Student Loans in Higher Education Funding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Anthony; Wright, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    In a period of student loan scandals and U.S. financial market instability impacting on the cost and availability of student loans, this paper looks at alternative models of higher education funding. In this context, it also considers the level of financial support that the government should provide to higher education.

  6. Do Community Characteristics Relate to Young Adult College Students' Credit Card Debt? The Hypothesized Role of Collective Institutional Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Terri; West, Stacia; Rosell, Nehemiah; Serido, Joyce; Shim, Soyeon

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the extent of emergent, outstanding credit card debt among young adult college students and investigates whether any associations existed between this credit card debt and the characteristics of the communities in which these students grew up or lived. Using data (N = 748) from a longitudinal survey and merging community characteristics measured at the zip code level, we confirmed that a community's unemployment rate, average total debt, average credit score, and number of bank branch offices were associated with a young adult college student's acquisition and accumulation of credit card debt. For example, a community's higher unemployment rate and lower number of bank branches were associated with a young adult college student's greater accumulated debt. Community characteristics had the strongest associations with credit card debt, especially after controlling for individual characteristics (i.e., a young adult college student's race and financial independence) and familial characteristics (i.e., their parents' income and parents' discussions of financial matters while growing up at home). The findings may help to understand the unique roles that communities play in shaping children and young adults' financial capability, and how communities can be better capacitated to support the financial goals of their residents. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  7. 78 FR 59011 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the... Aid announces the interest rates for loans made under the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct...(b)), provides formulas for determining the interest rates charged to borrowers for loans made under...

  8. 77 FR 29988 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford... borrowers in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) and Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL... of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program Deferment Request Forms. OMB Control...

  9. Informed or Overwhelmed? A Legislative History of Student Loan Counseling with a Literature Review on the Efficacy of Loan Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepfer, Kasey

    2015-01-01

    This report (the first in a series of five) explores congressional efforts to mitigate that risk and encourage informed borrowing by enacting statutes related to student loan counseling. After introducing the relevant contemporary policy context, it examines how federal rules governing student loan counseling evolved over time to embrace online…

  10. Student Loans, Student Financial Aid and Post-Secondary Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, Ross

    2002-01-01

    Briefly describes Canada's student loan system, including the typical costs of a year of postsecondary schooling and the levels of financial support available. Reports the results of an empirical analysis showing that borrowing remains at reasonable levels and repayment difficulties are still relatively uncommon. Suggests various reforms,…

  11. 7 CFR 1951.894 - Debt settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.894 Section 1951.894 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing § 1951.894 Debt settlement. Debt settlement of all claims will be handled in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection...

  12. Managing Student Loan Default Risk: Evidence from a Privately Guaranteed Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteverde, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    Application of the statistical techniques of survival analysis and credit scoring to private education loans extended to law students found a pronounced seasoning effect for such loans and the robust predictive power of credit bureau scoring of borrowers. Other predictors of default included school-of-attendance, school's geographic location, and…

  13. Performance of the Higher Education Students Loans Board in Human Capital Investment from 2005-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memba, Albert Zephaniah; Feng, Zhao Zun

    2016-01-01

    Many studies conducted on the Higher Education Students Loans Board (HESLB) have mostly concentrated on its success, sustainability and effectiveness on loans issuance and repayment. None had focused on its performance towards human capital investment. This study sought to explain and analyze HESLB's performance in human capital investment, which…

  14. 78 FR 53433 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education Loan Program... Federal Student Aid announces the interest rates for the period July 1, 2013, through June 30, 2014, for..., 2010. The Chief Operating Officer takes this action to give notice of FFEL Program loan interest rates...

  15. 78 FR 53431 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan... Operating Officer for Federal Student Aid announces the interest rates for the period July 1, 2013, through...(b)), provides formulas for determining the interest rates charged to borrowers for loans made under...

  16. Considering Students' Cost of a Dental Education: Return on Investment and Debt to Income Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formicola, Allan J

    2017-08-01

    The cost for students of a dental education has become an issue of concern. This article explores the return on investment and the debt to income ratio of studying dentistry. These two measures are monitored to gain perspective on whether the cost of education pays off in earnings. The factors underlying these measures and a discussion of them are included. The purpose of this article is to focus attention on one of the current issues facing dental schools in the United States. This article was written as part of the project "Advancing Dental Education in the 21 st Century."

  17. Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rising public debt profile in Nigeria: risks and sustainablity issues. ... and state governments has echoed new concerns for policy stakeholders in Nigeria. ... the share of concessional loan in external debt stock and develop Public-Private ...

  18. Debt management and financial planning support for primary care students and residents at Boston University School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, C; Hindle, D

    1999-01-01

    Boston University Medical Center created the Office of Residency Planning and Practice Management as part of The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Generalist Physician Initiative. Since 1995, the office has improved the medical center's ability to promote and support the generalist career decisions of its students and residents by removing indebtedness as a disincentive. After a brief review of the relationship between indebtedness and specialty selection, the authors delineate the nature and volume of debt-management assistance provided by the office to students and residents through individual counseling sessions, workshops, and other means between April 1995 and March 1998. A case study shows the progression of these services throughout residency training. The medical center also coordinates its debt-management assistance with counseling from physician-oriented financial planning groups. In conclusion, the authors discuss several characteristics of a successful debt-management program for residents.

  19. Guaranteed Student Loan Amendments of 1976. Ninety-fourth Congress, Second Session. Report No. 94-1232.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    A report on the Guaranteed Student Loan Amendments (H.R. 14070) to Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 considers the problems behind and implications of the loan program. Chief among the problems are the default rate, access to loans, the schools as lenders, and the role of the states in administering the program. Changes recommended…

  20. 78 FR 5433 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the... announces the interest rates for the period July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013, for certain loans made... give notice of FFEL Program loan interest rates to the public. DATES: This notice is effective January...

  1. 77 FR 58819 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; William D. Ford... William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program will use this form to request forbearance on their loans when... of Collection: William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program General Forbearance Request. OMB Control...

  2. Denying Loan Access: The Student-Level Consequences When Community Colleges Opt out of the Stafford Loan Program. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederspan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The degree to which students are able to make adequate repayments on their student loans and avoid default is of special concern for colleges. If too many former students go into default, the college will face sanctions by the federal government and lose eligibility to provide currently enrolled students federal financial aid, such as the Pell…

  3. Health-related quality of life of medical students in a Brazilian student loan programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Menezes, Marta Silva; Porto-Silva, Larissa; Damasceno, Hannah

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the health-related quality of life of medical students participating in a large Brazilian government loan programme for undergraduate students in private schools.A cross-sectional study in a stratified sample of students from a private medical school in Salvador, Brazil, evaluated their health-related quality of life by using a Brazilian Portuguese version of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire (SF-36).Students supported by the loan programme consistently presented lower mean scores in all SF-36 domains and in the physical and mental component summary scores than those who were not in the programme. Students supported by the loan programme presented systematically lower physical and mental component mean scores, after stratification by age, gender, school year, physical activity, sleepiness, headache, having a car, having a housemaid, living with family, and living in a rented house.The loan programme has enabled less wealthy undergraduate students to attend private medical schools in Brazil. However, this support is insufficient to improve students' health-related quality of life during medical school, as compared with students who do not participate in the programme. Because of a poorer health-related quality of life, students supported by the loan programme deserve special attention from private medical schools.

  4. 42 CFR 57.206 - Eligibility and selection of health professions student loan applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS....) applicants, and determine the amount of student loans by considering: (1) The financial resources available... other resources available to the student through the school. For purposes of establishing priority for...

  5. SE debt restructuring plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) plans to restructure one's own debts in 2003-2005. Debt restructuring plan is following: 2003: Collection of pre-payment on electricity - 60 million Euro (2.5 billion Slovak crowns), consumer unknown. Own promissory notes in total value of 100 million US$ (3.5 billion Slovak crowns) - in process. Sale of claims worth 2.4 billion Slovak crowns (57.21 million Euro) - negotiations in process. 2003/2004: Restructuring of loans payable IV. quarter 2003 and at the beginning of 2004 in value of 200 million Euro (8.3 billion Slovak crowns). Aim of SE is a new credit payable within 7 years, with instalments payable in the last two to three without any state subsidies. 2005: Loans worth 460 million Euro (189 billion Slovak crowns) will still remain. SE want to negotiate them with banks without state support

  6. 7 CFR 771.15 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan servicing. 771.15 Section 771.15 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.15 Loan servicing. (a) Advances. FSA may make... advances. (b) Payments. Payments will be made to FSA as set forth in loan agreements and debt instruments...

  7. Government-Leading Student Loan Schemes A Comparative Study of Hong Kong and Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Jiewei Lu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Having a careful examination of government-leading student loan schemes in China and Hong Kong, we can find a lot of differences and learn something from these two counterparts which are very typical country or area faced by challenges in financing higher education in the context of transition from elitism to mass higher education. This research attempts to make a comparison of government-leading student loan schemes between Hong Kong and China in the new century. Then emphasis is put on the principles or core values namely efficiency, equity and adequacy, and determining their implications presented in student loan schemes in these two counterparts. Finally, the paper arrives at some recommendations for improvements in them.

  8. A Time to Every Purpose: Understanding and Improving the Borrower Experience with Online Student Loan Entrance Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Legally mandated student loan entrance counseling attempts to prepare first-time borrowers of federal student loans for this challenge; yet, researchers hypothesized that the online modules most borrowers use for this purpose have significant shortcomings. This report (the third in a series of five from TG Research) describes a study in which…

  9. From Passive to Proactive: Understanding and Improving the Borrower Experience with Online Student Loan Exit Counseling. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Legally mandated student loan exit counseling attempts to prepare borrowers of federal student loans for the repayment process; yet, researchers hypothesized that the online modules most borrowers use for this purpose have significant shortcomings. This report (the second in a series of five from TG Research) describes a study in which researchers…

  10. 75 FR 36426 - Legislative Changes to Nursing Student Loan Program Authorized Under Title VIII of the Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Changes to Nursing Student Loan Program Authorized Under Title VIII of the Public Health Service Act....) 111-148. Section 5202 of the ACA changes the Nursing Student Loan (NSL) program by: (1) Increasing the... degree in nursing. Below are details on how the ACA changes Sections 836(a), 836(b)(1), and 836(b)(3) of...

  11. About the debt to the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2006-01-01

    At the Finance Committee meeting on 15 March 2006, the Management tabled a document for the Delegations' attention concerning CERN's debt to the Pension Fund. In view of the interest rates currently on the market, the Management proposes to reimburse this debt by taking out a bank loan.

  12. 76 FR 68126 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ...: Paper, disk or CD-ROM submissions should be submitted to VMLRP, Policy and Oversight Division, National... a veterinarian's student loan debt per year if the veterinarian commits to at least three years to... passed into law adding section 1415A to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching...

  13. 42 CFR 57.310 - Repayment and collection of nursing student loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exercise of due diligence, a school must follow procedures which are at least as extensive and effective as... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment and collection of nursing student loans. 57.310 Section 57.310 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  14. BUDGET AND PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of public budgeting is an important issue for public policy of the state, for the simple reason that no money from the state budget can not promote public policy. Budgetary policy is official government Doctrine vision mirror and also represents a starting point for other public policies, which in turn are financed by the public budget. Fiscal policy instruments at its disposal handles the public sector in its structure, and the private sector. Tools such as grant, budgetary allocation, tax, welfare under various forms, direct investments and not least the state aid is used by the state through their budgetary policies to directly and indirectly infuence sector, and the private. Fiscal policies can be grouped according to the structure of the public sector in these components, namely fiscal policy, budgeting and resource allocation policies for financing the budget deficit. An important issue is the financing of the budget deficit budgetary policies. There are two funding possibilities, namely, the higher taxes or more axles site and enter the second call to public loans. Both options involve extra effort from taxpayers in the current fiscal year when they pay higher taxes or a future period when public loans will be repaid. We know that by virtue of "fiscal pact" structural deficits of the member countries of the EU are limited by the European Commission, according to the macro structural stability and budget of each Member State. This problem tempers to some extent the governments of the Member States budgetary appetite, but does not solve the problem of chronic budget deficits. Another issue addressed in this paper is related to the public debt, the absolute amount of its relative level of public datoriri, about the size of GDP, public debt financing and its repayment sources. Sources of public debt issuance and monetary impact on the budget and monetary stability are variables that must underpin the justification of budgetary

  15. The Looming Student Loan Default Crisis Is Worse than We Thought. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 2, #34

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2018-01-01

    This report analyzes new data on student debt and repayment, released by the U.S. Department of Education in October 2017. Previously available data have been limited to borrowers only, follow students for a relatively short period (3-5 years) after entering repayment, and had only limited information on student characteristics and experiences.…

  16. 13 CFR 120.922 - Pre-existing debt on the Project Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pre-existing debt on the Project Property. 120.922 Section 120.922 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.922 Pre-existing debt on the...

  17. Did Securitization Affect the Cost of Corporate Debt?

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor D. Nadauld; Michael S. Weisbach

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the securitization of corporate bank loans had an impact on the price of corporate debt. Our results suggest that loan facilities that are subsequently securitized are associated with a 15 basis point lower spread than that of loans that are not subsequently securitized. To identify the particular role of securitization in loan pricing, we employ a difference in differences approach and consider loan characteristics that are associated with the likelihood of se...

  18. Greek Loans in English and the Teaching of Modern Greek to English Speaking Students (within a Communicative Language Teaching Framework).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzipanayiotidou, A.; And Others

    In constructing a syllabus for the teaching of Modern Greek as a foreign language to English-speaking students, it is suggested that some lexical items be taught from the corpus of Greek loan words in English. These words fall into the following categories: direct loans; words that, in joining English, have acquired a different meaning, which was…

  19. Student Loans and Foreign Schools: Assessing Risks Could Help Education Reduce Program Vulnerability. Report to Congressional Addressees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    Recent events have increased concerns about the potential for fraud in student loan programs related to loans for U.S. residents attending foreign schools. In 2002 the Office of Special Investigations of the General Accounting Office (GAO) created a fictitious foreign school that the Department of Education subsequently certified as eligible to…

  20. Institutional sponsorship, student debt, and specialty choice in physician assistant education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, James F; Jones, P Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Physician assistant (PA) educational programs emerged in the mid 1960s in response to health workforce shortages and decreasing access to care and, specifically, the decline of generalist physicians. There is wide diversity in the institutional sponsorship of PA programs, and sponsorship has trended of late to private institutions. We analyzed trends in sponsorship of PA educational programs and found that, in the past 15 years, there were 25 publicly sponsored and 96 privately sponsored programs that gained accreditation, a 3.84:1 private-to-public ratio. Of the 96 privately sponsored programs, only seven (7.3%) were located within institutions reporting membership in the Association of Academic Health Centers, compared to eight of the 25 publicly sponsored programs (32%). In 1978, a large majority (estimated 43 of the 48 then-existing PA programs) received their start-up or continuing funding through the US Public Health Service, Section 747 Title VII program, whereas in 2012 there were far fewer (39 of 173). The finding of a preponderance of private institutions may correlate with the trend of PAs selecting specialty practice (65%) over primary care. Specialty choice of graduating PA students may or may not be related to the disproportionate debt burden associated with attending privately sponsored programs, where the public-to-private tuition difference is significant. Moreover, the waning number of programs participating in the Title VII grant process may also have contributed to the overall rise in tuition rates among PA educational programs due to the loss of supplemental funding.

  1. Debts of Cyprus Households: Lessons from the First Cyprus Survey of Consumer Finances

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Haliassos; Christis Hassapis; Alex Karagrigoriou; George Kyriacou; Michalis C. Michael; George Syrichas

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes participation of Cyprus households in various debts using data from the first (1999) Cyprus Survey of Consumer Finances. It complements our previous paper that described household participation in various types of assets (Haliassos et al., 2001). Debts considered encompass personal unsecured loans, including credit card debt, and loans secured by housing collateral, mainly mortgage debt. Findings are of policy interest, as they show the extent of household participation i...

  2. Colleges with High Default Rates on Guaranteed Loans Given 3 Years to Cut Them or Risk Losing Student Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stacy E.; Wilson, Robin

    1987-01-01

    Colleges and universities will be held directly responsible for loan repayments by their former students. Most postsecondary institutions with default rates of more than 20% are for-profit trade schools, community colleges, or historically Black colleges. (MLW)

  3. Are College Costs Worth It? How Individual Ability, Major Choice, and Debt Affect Optimal Schooling Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, Douglas A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the financial value over the course of a lifetime of pursuing a college degree under a variety of different settings (e.g. major, student loan debt, individual ability). Using a lifecycle simulation approach, I account for ability/selection bias and the substantial probability that entering college freshmen will not eventually graduate, two critically important factors when evaluating the value of pursuing a college degree. I find that financial proposition of attending co...

  4. What Are Student Loan Borrowers Thinking? Insights from Focus Groups on College Selection and Student Loan Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carrie L.; O'Neill, Barbara; Worthy, Sheri Lokken; Lown, Jean M.; Bowen, Cathy F.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from online focus groups collected from November 2014 to April 2015 to understand college students' decision-making processes when borrowing money to finance their education. Data were collected using an online course management system. Results suggest that (a) students relied heavily on advice from parents, guidance…

  5. 78 FR 65767 - Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and... Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, and... Vol. 78 Friday, No. 212 November 1, 2013 Part II Department of Education 34 CFR Parts 668, 674...

  6. Does PLUS Push? A Multilevel Analysis of the Relationship between PLUS Loans and Persistence for Low-Income Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Tracae M.

    2017-01-01

    Given the growth of the PLUS loan program and its increasing importance in facilitating college access for many students, makes it critical to better understand the relationship between this form of federal financial aid and student outcomes. Using data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS: 12), conducted by the U.S. Department…

  7. 77 FR 45592 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Federal Perkins Loan Program Master...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... loans for eligible students to pay the costs of a student's attendance at an eligible institution of... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Federal Student Aid; Federal Perkins... technology. Please note that written comments received in response to this notice will be considered public...

  8. 7 CFR 1738.30 - Rural broadband access loans and loan guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... interest at a rate set by the lender consistent with the current applicable market rate for a loan of... Derivative or any Guaranteed-Amount Debt Derivative; or (B) Any holder of the Guaranteed Loan Note or any Guaranteed Loan Portion Note or any Derivative, as the case may be, having a claim to payments on the...

  9. Guaranteed Student Loans: Analysis of Insurance Premiums Charged by Guaranty Agencies. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The insurance premium rates that guaranty agencies charge student borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan program were analyzed by the U.S. General Accounting Office. The Higher Education Amendments of 1986 established a maximum rate (3% of the principal loan amount) that all agencies could charge student borrowers. Comparisons were made of…

  10. Federal Student Loans: Oversight of Defaulted Loan Rehabilitation Needs Strengthening. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training, Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives. GAO-14-426T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrey-Arras, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    As of September 2013 about $94 billion--over 11 percent of federal student loan volume in repayment--was in default. Loan rehabilitation allows borrowers who make nine on-time monthly payments within 10 months to have the default removed from their credit reports. Department of Education (Education) contracts with collection agencies to assist…

  11. Engaging Student Borrowers: Results of a Survey of Financial Aid Professionals. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jeff; Fernandez, Chris; Fletcher, Carla; Klepfer, Kasey

    2017-01-01

    The rising cost of attending college creates a financial challenge for most students, many of whom must take out student loans to pursue their education goals. Whether or not they earn a degree, these students will leave school with the burden of managing student debt. How well they manage this complex process may shape their personal finances for…

  12. Student Loan Programs. As Federal Costs of Loan Consolidation Rise, Other Options Should be Examined. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In this report GAO recommends that the Secretary of Education assess the advantages of consolidation loans for borrowers and the government in light of program costs and identify options for reducing federal costs. Options could include targeting the program to borrowers at risk of default and extending existing consolidation alternatives to more…

  13. 24 CFR 570.705 - Loan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxation as provided in section 108(j) of the Act. (f) Loan repayment period. The term of debt obligations..., shall preclude or limit HUD's exercise of: (1) The power to contract with respect to public offerings...

  14. More money, better performance? The effects of student loans and need-based grants in China's higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Fan; Liao, Xiaowei; Hu, Pingping

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the effect of student loans and need-based grants on financially disadvantaged student academic performance in China's higher education. We used a large sampled data from 101 universities to conduct our study. By employing different matching methods, we found

  15. 78 FR 5431 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the William D. Ford Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the... amended, the Chief Operating Officer for Federal Student Aid announces the interest rates for the period... interest rates to the public. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ian Foss, U.S. Department of Education, 830...

  16. 26 CFR 1.166-4 - Reserve for bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the bad debts reserves of certain mutual savings banks, domestic building and loan associations, and... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reserve for bad debts. 1.166-4 Section 1.166-4...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-4 Reserve for bad...

  17. 7 CFR 1710.126 - Federal debt delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal debt delinquency. 1710.126 Section 1710.126... and Basic Policies § 1710.126 Federal debt delinquency. (a) Prior to approval of a loan or advance of... reasons for the delinquency must be explained, and RUS will take such explanation into consideration in...

  18. Keeping Score: Direct Student Lending. An Evaluation Prepared for the Iowa College Student Aid Commission and the Iowa Student Loan Liquidity Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, William

    This paper provides recommendations for the development, implementation, and evaluation of a demonstration program designed to assess direct lending as a replacement for the current federal student loan program. It offers a list of principles which the demonstration project should address. Recommendations include: (1) maintenance of student…

  19. Can Student Loans Improve Accessibility to Higher Education and Student Performance? An Impact Study of the Case of SOFES, Mexico. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3425

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Erik; Blom, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Financial aid to students in tertiary education can contribute to human capital accumulation through two channels: increased enrollment and improved student performance. We analyze the quantitative importance of both channels in the context of a student loan program "Sociedad de Fomento a la Educacion, Superior" (SOFES) implemented at…

  20. 26 CFR 1.271-1 - Debts owed by political parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... has been active in the party no bad debt deduction will be allowed with respect to the loan. (b...), no deduction shall be allowed under section 166 (relating to bad debts) or section 165(g) (relating... appears that the bad debt was incurred to or purchased by, or the worthless security was acquired by, the...

  1. Credit reporting, relationship banking, and loan repayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Shirzad Kebria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on loan repayment in one of Iranian banks named Sepah Bank over the period 2012-2013. The study selects a sample of 290 bank’s customers who received loans and, using logistic regression technique, tries to find whether or not qualitative as well as quantitative characteristics of loan receivers influence on repayment of loans. The results indicate that history of outstanding debt as well as customers’ past experiences with banks had meaningful relationships with having bad credit and non-payment of loans. In our survey, having a bad credit in the past had positive relationship with non-payment of loans but long-term customers had negative relationship with non-payment of loans. In addition, working capital turnover ratio, cash ratio, total liabilities, current assets and loan value had significant impact on non-repayment of the loan facilities.

  2. Logit Analysis for Profit Maximizing Loan Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Mortensen, Timothy L.; Leistritz, F. Larry

    1988-01-01

    Lending criteria and loan classification methods are developed. Rating system breaking points are analyzed to present a method to maximize loan revenues. Financial characteristics of farmers are used as determinants of delinquency in a multivariate logistic model. Results indicate that debt-to-asset and operating ration are most indicative of default.

  3. Student Racial Differences in Credit Card Debt and Financial Behaviors and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grable, John E.; Joo, So-Hyun

    2006-01-01

    This study expands upon the work of Henry, Weber, and Yarbrough (2001) in examining the money management behaviors and financial outcomes of college students. The analysis was conducted using data from a sample that included an equal mix of African-American and non-Hispanic White students. It was found that African-American students held more…

  4. 78 FR 17647 - Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the Federal Family Education...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Annual Notice of Interest Rates of Federal Student Loans Made Under the.... Department of Education published in the Federal Register (78 FR 5433) a notice announcing the interest rates... bill rate Margin Total rate First disbursed on or after disbursed interest rate (percent) (percent...

  5. Student Loans in Developing Countries: An Evaluation of the Colombian Performance. Bank Staff Working Paper No. 182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre

    The student loan program run by the Instituto Colombiano de Credito Educativo y Estudios Tecnicos en el Exterior (ICETEX) has three main objectives: to increase the country's supply of highly skilled manpower, to achieve more equality of educational opportunity, and to provide a meaningful source of finance for higher education. An analysis of…

  6. Consolidated Student Loans. Borrowers Benefit but Costs to Them and the Government Grow. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    In response to the requirements of the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, this report addresses the impact of the two-year-old Student Loan Consolidation Program. Principle findings of the investigation concern the higher interst costs to the borrower that are brought about by longer payment plans and the fact that the government's subsidy costs…

  7. Study of the Insurance Premium Charged to Borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan Program. Report No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touche Ross and Co., Washington, DC.

    Insurance premiums being charged to borrowers under the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) program were studied to determine if the rate exceeded the rate necessary to protect the reserves of the insurer. Attention was directed to whether historical changes in the GSL program have affected insurance premiums. Guaranty agency's sources and uses of funds…

  8. 7 CFR 1776.17 - Revolving loan fund maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., justifies different amounts, a reserve for bad debts of 6 percent of outstanding loans must be accumulated... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revolving loan fund maintenance. 1776.17 Section 1776..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Loans § 1776.17...

  9. Research on Multiprincipals Selecting Effective Agency Mode in the Student Loan System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libo Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An effective agency mode is the key to solve incentive problems in Chinese student loan system. Principal-agent frameworks are considered in which two principals share one common agent that is performing one single task but each prefers the different aspect of the task. Three models are built and decision mechanisms are given. The studies show that the three modes have different effects. Exclusive dealing mode is not good for long-term effect because sometimes it guides agent ignoring repayment. If effort proportionality coefficient and observability are both unchanged, principals all prefer common agency, but independent contracting mode may be more efficient in reality because not only the total outputs under that mode are larger than those under cooperation one, but also preferring independent contracting mode can stimulate the bank participating in the game.

  10. The Dividing Line between Haves and Have-Nots in Home Ownership: Education, Not Student Debt. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Many worry that student loans are a drag on the economy, particularly the housing market. Analyses from the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, cited by leading economists, do not provide compelling evidence for this hypothesis. The New York Fed data contain no information about education. As a result, their analyses contrast the home ownership rate…

  11. Credit Card Usage and Debt among College and University Students. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Tamara

    Since the late 1990s, lawmakers, college officials, consumer advocacy groups, and higher education practitioners have become increasingly concerned about the rising use of credit cards among college students. Some recent studies have provided information about credit card use among college students. These studies include: (1) a study conducted by…

  12. Understanding Loan Aversion in Education: Evidence from High School Seniors, Community College Students, and Adults. CEPA Working Paper No. 16-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boatman, Angela; Evans, Brent; Soliz, Adela

    2016-01-01

    Student loans are a crucial aspect of financing a college education for millions of Americans, yet we have surprisingly little empirical evidence concerning individuals' unwillingness to borrow money for educational purposes. This study provides the first large-scale quantitative evidence of levels of loan aversion in the United States. Using…

  13. Federal Student Loan Programs: Opportunities Exist to Improve Audit Requirements and Oversight Procedures. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-10-668

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Kay L.

    2010-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008, Pub. L. No. 110-315, mandated GAO (Government Accountability Office) to study the financial and compliance audits and reviews required or conducted for the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) program and the Federal Direct Student Loan (DL) program. The Department of Education's (Education) Office of…

  14. Postsecondary Education: Student Outcomes Vary at For-Profit, Nonprofit, and Public Schools. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-12-143

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    To respond to Congress' interest in student outcomes at different types of schools, this report addresses the following questions: (1) What does research show about graduation rates, employment outcomes, student loan debts, and default rates for students at for-profit schools compared to those at nonprofit and public schools, taking differences in…

  15. Identifying Self-Efficacy and Financial Behaviors as Predictors of Undergraduate College Students' Financial Literacy at a Land Grant University in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucul, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    Financial literacy has become a serious concern in the wake of the Great Recession of 2008. This study explored the financial literacy of undergraduate college students, who as a group constitute a distinct cohort of learners, emerging adults. The college student population represents a financially at-risk group facing mounting student loan debt.…

  16. College Students and Financial Distress: Exploring Debt, Financial Satisfaction, and Financial Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Kristy L.; Dale, Anita; Spann, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of financial concerns on overall mental health has become a popular topic among researchers and practitioners. In this exploratory study, possible associations of financial anxiety were explored using a sample of 180 college students who sought services at a university peer financial counseling center in a Midwestern state. Of…

  17. Debt as an Urban Chronotrope in Mongolia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Axel

    2017-01-01

    . With the transition to capitalism in the 1990s, both the number of debt obligations and the size of loans expanded dramatically, without being subject to similar curtailment or other formalization. The result is that ‘no one pays back what they owe’, as people complain. Departing from the seemingly peculiar fact...... that people nonetheless keep on lending others money – including debtors they hardly know or with a bad reputation – I argue that debt has acquired a gift-like nature in Ulaanbaatar, and show how the temporality of such ‘generalized debt’ is inseparable from the neo-liberal deregulation of residential spaces...

  18. Parental Discussion about Personal Finances: Does it Make a Difference in the Amount of Debt Incurred?

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy C. Deringer

    2013-01-01

    Higher education costs have increased substantially over the past two decades and, therefore, student loan debt has increased as well. Studies have shown that one earns more money over one’s lifetime if he/she has a four-year college degree. In fact, it is often substantially more depending upon one’s profession. However, for some individuals, the costs of funding higher education may be confusing and often times overwhelming. A study was completed at a university in the pacific northwest (n=...

  19. Examining the Potential Impact of Full Tuition Fees on Mature Part-Time Students in English Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines current part-time mature learners' views on the potential impact upon future students as full fees are introduced from 2012. It investigates the problems which part-time mature learners may face with the advent of student loans and subsequent debt, given that they are usually combining complex lives with their studies, with…

  20. Covenant Violations and Dynamic Loan Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freudenberg, Felix; Imbierowicz, Björn; Saunders, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the dynamic allocation of control rights in private debt contracts of firms. We show that a covenant violation in the prior loan contract implies a stigma for borrowers which results in stricter loan contract terms in subsequent new loan contracts. Our analyses reject...... potentially other explanations such as firm characteristics or agency problems between the lender and firm management, shareholders or public debtholders. After covenant violations in the prior contract, new loans have on average 18 bps higher spreads and include more of those covenant types which also have...

  1. Understanding Loan Aversion in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Boatman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although prior research has suggested that some students may be averse to taking out loans to finance their college education, there is little empirical evidence showing the extent to which loan aversion exists or how it affects different populations of students. This study provides the first large-scale quantitative evidence of levels of loan aversion in the United States. Using survey data collected on more than 6,000 individuals, we examine the frequency of loan aversion in three distinct populations. Depending on the measure, between 20 and 40% of high school seniors exhibit loan aversion with lower rates among community college students and adults not in college. Women are less likely to express loan-averse attitudes than men, and Hispanic respondents are more likely to be loan averse than White respondents.

  2. Student Loans. Direct Loans Could Save Billions in First 5 Years with Proper Implementation. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This paper responds to a congressional request for more information concerning first, the potential cost savings from direct rather than guaranteed student loans and second, the ability of the Department of Education and postsecondary institutions to effectively manage a direct lending program. The report: (1) provides a more complete analysis of…

  3. Federal Student Loans: Impact of Loan Limit Increases on College Prices Is Difficult to Discern. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-14-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicki, Jacqueline M.

    2014-01-01

    For more than a decade, college prices have been rising consistently and have continued to rise at a gradual pace after the Stafford loan limit increases were enacted in 2008 and 2009. However, it is difficult to determine if a direct relationship exists between increases in college prices and the Stafford loan limit increases because of the…

  4. Mortgage Debt and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, James

    2017-01-01

    Different approaches to mortgage debt may impact wages, how homeowners engage with employers and welfare services, and economic growth.......Different approaches to mortgage debt may impact wages, how homeowners engage with employers and welfare services, and economic growth....

  5. DEPENDENCE OF COUNTRY RISK COMPARED TO THE FOREIGN DEBT LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica BĂCESCU-CĂRBUNARU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some of the fundamental aspects of country risk’dependence compared to foreign debt level. Starting from external debt burden we analyze the usage of foreign loans, foreign debt bearing capacity as well as the availability of data regarding the external debt. Country risk represents the exposure to losses which may occur in a business with a foreign partner, caused by specific events that are, at least partially, controlled by the partner country’ government. Macroeconomic analysis of economic and financial component of country risk involves how this risk is influenced by government policy, by the economic role of government, bypricing strategies, investment priorities, financial structures, macroeconomic policy, by the ability to obtain foreign funds, the level of external debt as well as the liquidity and cash flows in that country.

  6. Student Loan Assistance Amendments of 1982. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Education, Arts and Humanities of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate. Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session on S. 2655.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Hearings of the Committee on Education and Labor on the proposed Student Loan Assistance Amendments of 1982 are presented. The bill (S. 2655) is designed to provide increased maximum limitations for student loans under Part B of Title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965 for certain students who lost benefits under the Social Security Act as a…

  7. Cascades in multiplex financial networks with debts of different seniority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummitt, Charles D.; Kobayashi, Teruyoshi

    2015-06-01

    The seniority of debt, which determines the order in which a bankrupt institution repays its debts, is an important and sometimes contentious feature of financial crises, yet its impact on systemwide stability is not well understood. We capture seniority of debt in a multiplex network, a graph of nodes connected by multiple types of edges. Here an edge between banks denotes a debt contract of a certain level of seniority. Next we study cascading default. There exist multiple kinds of bankruptcy, indexed by the highest level of seniority at which a bank cannot repay all its debts. Self-interested banks would prefer that all their loans be made at the most senior level. However, mixing debts of different seniority levels makes the system more stable in that it shrinks the set of network densities for which bankruptcies spread widely. We compute the optimal ratio of senior to junior debts, which we call the optimal seniority ratio, for two uncorrelated Erdős-Rényi networks. If institutions erode their buffer against insolvency, then this optimal seniority ratio rises; in other words, if default thresholds fall, then more loans should be senior. We generalize the analytical results to arbitrarily many levels of seniority and to heavy-tailed degree distributions.

  8. Financing physical therapy doctoral education: methods used by entry-level students and the financial impact after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kris; Coon, Jill; Handford, Leandrea

    2011-01-01

    With the move to the doctor of physical therapy (DPT) degree and increasing tuition costs, there is concern about financing entry-level education. The purposes of this study were to identify how students finance their DPT education and to describe the financial impact after graduation. A written survey was used to collect data on financing DPT education, student debt, and the financial impact on graduates. There were 92 subjects who had graduated from one program. Frequencies as well as nonparametric statistics using cross-tabulations and chi-squared statistics were calculated. The response rate was 55%. Of the respondents, 86% had student loans, 66% worked during school, 57% received some family assistance, and 21% had some scholarship support. The amount of monthly loan repayment was not statistically related to the ability to save for a house, the ability to obtain a loan for a house or car, or the decision to have children. Saving for the future (p = 0.016) and lifestyle choices (p = 0.035) were related to the amount of monthly loan repayment. Major sources of funding were student loans, employment income, and/or family assistance. Respondent's ability to save for the future and lifestyle choices were negatively impacted when loan debt increased. Physical therapist education programs should consider offering debt planning and counseling.

  9. Analysis of the Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    The control variables: external reserve and exchange rate have positive and ... country's inability to meet its debt obligation compounded by the lack of information .... system. There are two schools of thought with different standpoints on the issue. One .... loans, poor documentation and deficient external debt accounting and ...

  10. 42 CFR 57.1512 - Length and maturity of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  11. 42 CFR 57.1518 - Modification of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  12. 42 CFR 57.1507 - Limitations applicable to loan guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  13. Paying for Default: Change over Time in the Share of Federal Financial Aid Sent to Institutions with High Student Loan Default Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquette, Ozan; Hillman, Nicholas W.

    2015-01-01

    Both federal spending on financial aid and student loan default rates have increased over the past decade. These trends have intensified policymakers' concerns that some postsecondary institutions-- particularly in the for-profit sector--maximize revenue derived from federal financial aid without helping students to graduate or find employment.…

  14. Teaching the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act to Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Undergraduate Students through a Role-Play Experiential Learning Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Konrad S.; Thue, Matthew I.

    2017-01-01

    This article begins with a description of a role-play exercise for teaching the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA) to an introductory Legal and Ethical Environment of Business Law (Business Law) undergraduate class. It goes on to provide the context for consumer debt in the United States. Next, the problems of debt collection are…

  15. 7 CFR 1436.13 - Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of... FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.13 Loan installments, delinquency, and acceleration of maturity... delinquency, CCC may permit a rescheduling of the debt or other measures consistent with the collection of...

  16. Financial Aid and College Persistence: Do Student Loans Help or Hurt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Serge

    2018-01-01

    Using data from two freshmen cohorts at a public research university (N = 3730), this study examines the relationship between loan aid and second-year enrollment persistence. Applying a counterfactual analytical framework that relies on propensity score (PS) weighting and matching to address selection bias associated with treatment status, the…

  17. Direct Student Loans: Overpayments during the Department of Education's Conversion to a New Payment System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Carlotta C.

    This report addresses concerns that the Department of Education may have erroneously made overpayments of as much as $400 million to schools participating in the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (FDLP) during the Department's conversion to a new computerized payment system. The investigation found that because the transition to the new…

  18. 42 CFR 57.1510 - Security for loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security for loans. 57.1510 Section 57.1510 Public... Security for loans. Each loan with respect to which a guarantee is made or interest subsidies are paid... TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest...

  19. Modelling Monetary and Fiscal Governance in the Wake of the Sovereign Debt Crisis in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Herzog

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes different government debt relief programs in the European Monetary Union. I build a model and study different options ranging from debt relief to the European Stability Mechanism (ESM. The analysis reveals the following: First, patient countries repay debt, while impatient countries more likely consume and default. Second, without ESM loans, indebted countries default anyway. Third, if the probability to be an impatient government is high, then the supply of loans is constrained. In general, sustainable and unsustainable governments should be incentivized differently especially in a supranational monetary union. Finally, I develop policy recommendations for the ongoing debate in the Eurozone.

  20. Debt rescheduling: the economics of entrapment under globalization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Being, by definition, the alteration of the terms of repayment of a loan with respect to the grace period permissible, the interest rates chargeable, and the overall maturity period, its adoption and application by Nigeria has not only proved dysfunctional, but also instrumental to debt perpetuation and entrapment. The paper is a ...

  1. 7 CFR 762.110 - Loan application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of debts over $1,000; (3) Three years financial history; (4) Three years of production history (for... normal course of business) in the applicant or borrower. (ii) The applicant or borrower, a relative of... to obtain a loan), or other principal owners of the lender have substantial business dealings (other...

  2. 7 CFR 764.51 - Loan application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to make a determination on the loan application. (e) The applicant need not submit any information... ordering a credit report on the applicant; (12) Verification of all debts; (13) Any additional information...-Doc OL request, the applicant must: (1) Be current on all payments to all creditors including the...

  3. A Treasury perspective: where does bank debt fit in your capital structure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The nature and importance of the relationship between banks and operating companies as the foundation for securing funds for day-to-day operating expenses on reasonable terms and conditions, were explored. The nature of bank loans, what to watch for in a loan agreement, when to ask for changes, the level of desirable debt, the mysteries of debt to cash flow ratios, and the principles underlying their management, the effect of hedging on ratios, limitations of hedging programs, and the differences between corporate versus project loans were reviewed

  4. Factors Affecting Student Loan Default Rate at Johnson County Community College: A Multivariate Analysis of Student Loan Default and Repayment between Years 2006 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized a quantitative design using archival data from Johnson County Community College (JCCC), located in Johnson County, Kansas, and the Office of Financial Aid for students who graduated, withdrew or dropped out of the college in academic years 2006, 2007 and 2008. Because this study used archival data, we can only show…

  5. A Study of the Impact of Default Management Practices and Other Factors on Student Loan Default Rates in Public Two-Year Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Randell W.

    2013-01-01

    Default management practices and their relationship to the student loan default rate in public two-year community colleges was the focus of this investigation. Five research questions regarding written default management plans, default management practices, process management, accountability, and other factors impacting default guided the study.…

  6. Student Loan Marketing Association Financial Safety and Soundness Act of 1991. 102d Congress, 1st Session. Report To Accompany S. 1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document is a favorable report to the U.S. Senate on a bill that provides for the financial security of the Student Loan Marketing Association, an act which amends the Higher Education Act of 1965. The report urges the passage of this bill which sets forth various capital levels that safeguard the government from the possibility of loss…

  7. Better Cash Management Can Reduce the Cost of the National Direct Student Loan Program. Report to the Congress by the Comptroller General of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Office of Education has allowed schools participating in the National Direct Student Loan Program to hold more than an annual average of $63 million in federal funds in excess of their 30-day needs. The General Accounting Office estimates that if the Treasury had this money it could save the government interest costs of as much as $4 million,…

  8. Collaboration between students and teachers to accumulate a collection of anatomical preparations of high quality in order to loan them to students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friker, Jutta

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2002 the Veterinary Medicine Faculty of Munich University (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität a project was started to involve students to build up a collection of anatomical preparations. The goal of this plan was to obtain long term preserved preparations for storage in boxes of plastic in order to loan them to students. The question to solve was whether it is possible and efficient to engage students. The cadavers were provided from the section hall. We used only material from animals without clinical symptoms. The students were provided with a list of themes to choose from, or they could submit a proposal. Before starting the preparation, as a first step, the basic material was conserved in a special non-toxic solution, developed at the institute of anatomy. Students could perform the preparations during the semester as well as in semester holidays. Scientific assistants helped the students throughout the project. The period specified to assemble the preparations was one semester plus semester holiday. Over the last two years we have received preparations of different quality. About one third of the preparations were of high quality and suitable for long term preservation. Approximately thirty percent of the students required two semesters to finish their preparations. The remaining preparations had to be rejected because students did not complete their project or the preparations were unsuitable for use. Students are very fascinated with this project. Every semester we accept only half of the applicants due to the overwhelming student interest. In summary, it is shown that the collaboration between the students and teachers can help to expand the learning and teaching tools. Students and teachers benefit from this teamwork. Although some preparations have to be eliminated, the students are able to apply their knowledge while gaining experience with the scalpel and tweeters.

  9. International labor migration and external debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, J A

    1987-01-01

    The prevailing Mexican and US definitions of undocumented migration are poles apart. The US views it as a criminal problem. Mexicans view the undocumented migrants as actors in an economic game in which the rules are extremely disadvantageous to these migrants. Migrants themselves and their communities view the undocumented as a positive element. It is necessary to move toward a bilateral focus and bilateral negotiation on the issue of migratory workers. This proposal derives from several assumptions: 1) the external debt is a bilateral or multilateral issue, 2) it is important to avoid forcing debtor countries to choose between stimulating economic growth or making payment on their foreign debt, 3) prevailing public opinion in the US favors halting undocumented migration, 4) the US views the migration of undocumented Mexicans as the result of forces endogenous to Mexico and exogenous to the US, 5) the US views both Mexico's ability to make payment on its external debt and to halt emigration as tied to the Mexican government's ability or inability to reconcile political stability with scarce monetary resources, and 6) political instability in Mexico could augment emigration to the US and undermine Mexico's ability to address its foreign debt. The following proposal suggests means to link negotiation on the external debt to that of undocumented migration: 1) The Mexican government could reach an accord with the US to channel a portion of the actual interest on the external debt as a fund to be invested in Mexico to construct a system of labor intensive agroindustrial productive units designed to attract former or potential migratory workers; 2) the total amount of these funds would be deducted from interest payments on the principal of the actual external debt and redefined as an ad hoc loan to Mexico to finance these production units; 3) part of the production from these units would be incorporated into ongoing US food relief and food assistance programs; 4) the

  10. 26 CFR 1.586-1 - Reserve for losses on loans of small business investment companies, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... any bad debts pursuant to section 166(a) with respect to a loan (as defined in § 1.586-2(c)(2... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reserve for losses on loans of small business...-1 Reserve for losses on loans of small business investment companies, etc. (a) General rule. As an...

  11. 42 CFR 57.314 - Repayment of loans made after November 17, 1971, for failure to complete a program of study. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Nursing Student Loans § 57.314 Repayment of loans..., medical, or financial difficulties. The Secretary will only repay education loans made after November 17...

  12. Trends in gender, employment, salary, and debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffo, Carla; Kelly, Alan M; Ferguson, James

    2008-09-15

    To characterize trends in gender, employment, starting salaries, and educational debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges from 1988 to 2007. Meta-analysis. Sample Population-Veterinary medical graduates from 26 or 27 of 27 US veterinary schools and colleges from 1988 through 2007. Data were obtained from surveys published in the JAVMA. A chi2 test for trend was used to analyze trends in choices of employment and educational indebtedness for the veterinary graduate populations over time. The greatest changes in employment occurred in predominantly large animal practice, which attracted 10.7% of new graduates in 1989 but only 2.2% in 2007, and in advanced study, which attracted 15.2% of new graduates in 1989 and 36.8% in 2007. In 2007, 75% of graduates were women, but this gender shift was not associated with the decline in the percentage of graduates entering rural practice. From 1989 through 2007, starting salaries in private practice increased at a rate of 4.60%/y. During the same period, educational debt increased at an annual rate of 7.36%, or 60% higher than the rate of increases for starting salaries. As a result, debt at graduation increased from 1.1 times the starting salary in 1989 to 2.0 times the starting salary in 2007. Veterinary students are now more in debt than they have ever been. This trend together with a substantial increase in the rate of interest charged for government-backed education loans create conditions for new graduates that appear unsustainable.

  13. STATE DEBT: A CONCEPTUAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STURZU

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Government debt (also known as public debt and national debt is the debt owed by a central government. (In the U.S. and other federal states, "government debt" may also refer to the debt of a state or provincial government, municipal or local government. By contrast, the annual "government deficit" refers to the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year, that is, the increase of debt over a particular year. Government debt is one method of financing government operations, but it is not the only method. Governments can also create money to monetize their debts, thereby removing the need to pay interest. But this practice simply reduces government interest costs rather than truly canceling government debt, and can result in hyperinflation if used unsparingly. Governments usually borrow by issuing securities, government bonds and bills. Less creditworthy countries sometimes borrow directly from a supranational organization (e.g. the World Bank or international financial institutions. As the government draws its income from much of the population, government debt is an indirect debt of the taxpayers. Government debt can be categorized as internal debt (owed to lenders within the country and external debt (owed to foreign lenders. Sovereign debt usually refers to government debt that has been issued in a foreign currency. Another common division of government debt is by duration until repayment is due. Short term debt is generally considered to be for one year or less, long term is for more than ten years. Medium term debt falls between these two boundaries. A broader definition of government debt may consider all government liabilities, including future pension payments and payments for goods and services the government has contracted but not yet paid.

  14. The lifetime cost to English students of borrowing to invest in a medical degree: a gender comparison using data from the Office for National Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolani, Marco G; Vohra, Ravinder S; Carmichael, Fiona; Mangat, Karanjit; Alderson, Derek

    2015-04-21

    To evaluate this impact on male and female English medical graduates by estimating the total time and amount repaid on loans taken out with the UK's Student Loans Company (SLC). UK. 4286 respondents with a medical degree in the Labour Force Surveys administered by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) between 1997 and 2014. Age-salary profiles were generated to estimate the repayment profiles for different levels of initial graduate debt. 2195 female and 2149 male medical graduates were interviewed by the ONS. Those working full-time (73.1% females and 96.1% males) were analysed in greater depth. Following standardisation to 2014 prices, average full-time male graduates earned up to 35% more than females by the age of 55. The initial graduate debt from tuition fees alone amounts to £39,945.69. Owing to interest charges on this debt the average full-time male graduate repays £57,303 over 20 years, while the average female earns less and so repays £61,809 over 26 years. When additional SLC loans are required for maintenance, the initial graduate debt can be as high as £81,916 and, as SLC debt is written off 30 years after graduation, the average female repays £75,786 while the average male repays £110,644. Medical graduates on an average salary are unlikely to repay their SLC debt in full. This is a consequence of higher university fees and as SLC debt is written off 30 years after graduation. This results in the average female graduate repaying more when debt is low, but a lower amount when debt is high compared to male graduates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Bad debt is (not a bad friend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zavišić Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investing in distressed debt is a less known investment strategy of astute investors. Bonds with uncertain cash flow are the subject of their focus, especially in the Anglo-Saxon financial systems. The range of realized rates of return is very wide and retail investors are out of the game. One aspect of this strategy are investments in non-performing loans, that is the purchase of distressed loans at a discount. It does not take a genius to see that one of the reasons of insolvency in the Serbian economy is the long-standing low economic growth in Serbia, in the region and in Europe. High systemic risk coupled with the inefficient bankruptcy process and out-of-court restructuring are the context in which the problem of non-performing loans is to be solved. A series of other factors related to banks, real estate market, tax considerations, as well as the lack of supportive actions to prevent the increase of non-performing loans act as additional constraints. In mid-2015, a strategy was adopted in Serbia, which recognized this silent and prolonged crisis that has been accumulating within the banking system.

  16. Loans, Logins, and Lasting the Course: Academic Library Use and Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddow, Gaby; Joseph, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    Activities and services that improve student engagement and retention in the higher education sector are important not only to individual students' success but also to university planning and funding. This paper reports on a study carried out to explore whether use of the library by new university students is associated with continued enrolment.…

  17. LOAN BROKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela IONESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A loan is probably the most important financial decision we make in life. In a time when lack of time affects us in every way, including financially, we can only appeal to specialists if we want fast, reliable and quality long-term services. „The notion of “creditor” includes all legal entities, branches of credit institution and nonbankingfinancial institutions that operate in Romania and grant or undertake to grant loans in itscommercial of professional activity”. In the case of loans, the "specialist" has been called loan broker. Loan broker is a person trained in intermediating bank loans who offers advice on choosing the best financial solutions for each client. Through partnerships with banks in Romania, the broker has access to their credit products and assist customers in choosing the loan that best suits their financial needs and possibilities. Moreover, the broker will help in preparing loan application to be submitted to the bank and pursue it to its completion. Loan broker can be defined as the person authorized by the bank or non-bank financial institutions to promote their products through direct contact with natural or legal persons wishing to contract a loan, without any of the parties to have exclusivity. There can be defined as an independent bank or non-bank financial institution, as an intermediary between customers and banks. Through its financial advisors , the company helps customers overcome the difficulty of understanding the credit products, difficulties arising from the multitude of factors that compose such a product, especially in the case of a housing loan or mortgage. Each financial institution is doing everything possible through such partnerships to attract the largest possible portfolio of clients, therefore is developing a real network of brokers to be partners for local or national level (depending on the sites coverage of the branches of each institution on one or more types of credit products. The

  18. The Determinants of Debt Financing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Chenkai

    2013-01-01

    Debt financing is an important part in capital structure. Over the fifty years, most scholars and researchers focus primarily on the balance between debt financing and equity financing. And only few research involve in types of debt financing, as well as the determinant of debt financing. This study is aim to analyse the determinate of debt financing, which examine that the influence by eight different elements. This dissertation examined by quantitative techniques with 591 UK listed comp...

  19. Quantification of ecological debt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Alier, Joan

    2005-01-01

    The discussion about ecological debt is important keeping in mind historical foreign trade, where natural resources exploitation and primary production exported didn't assessment the ecological damage or the environmental values of the interchange. This essay shows the debate of ecological debt on greenhouse emission, enterprise environmental debit, unequal international trade, toxic waste export, and b io piracy ; in order to present the necessity of a new ecological and equitable world economy

  20. 42 CFR 57.213a - Loan cancellation reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan cancellation reimbursement. 57.213a Section 57... Professions Student Loans § 57.213a Loan cancellation reimbursement. (a) For loans made prior to October 22... credited to this insurance fund), and used only to reimburse the school for the institutional share of any...

  1. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, E.P.; Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S.

    1992-08-01

    As private power (non-utility generation) has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital, and that this leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not home by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs

  2. External Debt and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawal Isola Adedoyin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of external debt on economic growth in Nigeria for the period 1981-2014 based on annual data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN Statistical Bulletin (various issues and abstract of National Bureau of Statistics (NBS. The researcher examined the existence of Co-integration among the underlying variables using Auto-regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model after conducting preliminary statistical test to ascertain the normality of the variables as well as stationary of the data set using descriptive and unit root tests. The result of the ARDL test shows that a significant relationship exists between external debt and economic growth both at the long and short run. The study also examined the causality among the variables using Granger causality test and observed that no causality exist among the variables. The study therefore recommends that government should ensure that loans obtained are used to finance profitable projects that would generate reasonable amount of revenue to service the debts and also adequate record of debt payment obligations should be kept and debt should not be allowed to exceed a maximum limit in order to prevent debt overhang.

  3. Analysis of debt leveraging in private power projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahn, E.P. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Meal, M.; Doerrer, S.; Morse, S. (Morse, Richard, Weisenmiller Associates, Inc., Oakland, CA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    As private power has grown to become a significant part of the electricity system, increasing concern about its financial implications has arisen. In many cases, the source of this concern has been the substantial reliance of these projects on debt financing. This study examines debt leveraging in private power projects. The policy debate on these issues has typically been conducted at a high level of generality. Critics of the private power industry assert that high debt leveraging confers an unfair competitive advantage by lowering the cost of capital. This leveraging is only possible because risks are shifted to the utility. Further, debt leveraging is claimed to be a threat to reliability. On the opposite side, it is argued that debt leveraging imposes costs and obligations not borne by utilities, and so there is no financial advantage. The private producers also argue that on balance more risk is shifted away from utilities than to them, and that incentives for reliability are strong. In this study we examine the project finance mechanisms used in private power lending in detail, relying on a sample of actual loan documents. This review and its findings should be relevant to the further evolution of this debate. State regulatory commissions are likely to be interested in it, and Federal legislation to amend the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) could require states to consider the implications of debt leveraging in relation to their oversight of utility power purchase programs.

  4. 34 CFR 682.407 - Discharge of student loan indebtedness for survivors of victims of the September 11, 2001, attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs... the medical professional who provided the medical care; and (C) The individual is unable to work and... payable on a discharge claim is— (i) An amount equal to the sum of the remaining principal balance and...

  5. Safety of Municipal Loan in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko Tetiana V.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is justification of the necessity of legal regulation of actions of the bodies of local self-government when detecting signs of insolvency. Each stage of municipal loans management is analysed from the point of view of availability of legal rules, which do not allow making municipal loans by territorial communities of the cities with weak financial state or regulate sequence of actions of municipalities in default times. The following results were obtained: majority of legal restrictions in the sphere of local finance management are directed at prevention of ungrounded loans or have the form of sanctions, applied to local bodies, which perform their debt obligations with delay; the state formally controls the process of making municipal loans, avoiding financial responsibility; the national legislation does not contain the mechanism of regulation of actions of territorial communities, which experience difficulties when performing debt obligations. The article proves expediency of adoption of a uniform regulatory-legal act in Ukraine, which would regulate all economic relations connected with making municipal loans. This legal document shall contain a section about actions of the municipality-debtor when signs of default start to appear, announcement of default and declaration of the debtor insolvent (bankrupt. The article recommends the following structure of this section: regulation of the procedure of default announcement avoidance; announcement of default with the pre-trial restoration of the debtor’s solvency; and announcement of default with declaring the debtor bankrupt juridically.

  6. Uranium loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    When NUEXCO was organized in 1968, its founders conceived of a business based on uranium loans. The concept was relatively straightforward; those who found themselves with excess supplies of uranium would deposit those excesses in NUEXCO's open-quotes bank,close quotes and those who found themselves temporarily short of uranium could borrow from the bank. The borrower would pay interest based on the quantity of uranium borrowed and the duration of the loan, and the bank would collect the interest, deduct its service fee for arranging the loan, and pay the balance to those whose deposits were borrowed. In fact, the original plan was to call the firm Nuclear Bank Corporation, until it was discovered that using the word open-quotes Bankclose quotes in the name would subject the firm to various US banking regulations. Thus, Nuclear Bank Corporation became Nuclear Exchange Corporation, which was later shortened to NUEXCO. Neither the nuclear fuel market nor NUEXCO's business developed quite as its founders had anticipated. From almost the very beginning, the brokerage of uranium purchases and sales became a more significant activity for NUEXCO than arranging uranium loans. Nevertheless, loan transactions have played an important role in the international nuclear fuel market, requiring the development of special knowledge and commercial techniques

  7. You are Not a Loan: A Debtors Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ross

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Written from the participant perspective of the author, the article documents the debt resistance movement that is one of the enduring offshoots of Occupy Wall Street. Addressing the household debt crisis in the wake of the financial crash, it focuses in particular on student debt, approaching an aggregate 1.2 trillion in the U.S., with defaulters numbering in the tens of millions. The emergence of The Occupy Student Debt Campaign is analyzed, along with the initiatives of its successor, Strike Debt, including the Rolling Jubilee and the Debt Resistors Opera-tions Manual. The article concludes by arguing that debt will be the frontline of anticapitalist struggles in the 21st century, just as the struggle over wages dominated the twentieth century.

  8. 12 CFR 614.4150 - Lending policies and loan underwriting standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... determining that an applicant has the operational, financial, and management resources necessary to repay the debt from cashflow (2) That are appropriate for each loan program and the institution's risk-bearing... loan underwriting standards. Under the policies of its board, each institution shall adopt written...

  9. 7 CFR 1717.154 - Transitional assistance in connection with new loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and efficiencies to be realized from the merger and the relative importance of loan priority to... at least one of the merging parties is an active borrower. (b) Supplemental financing.(1) RUS generally requires that an applicant for a municipal rate loan obtain a portion of its debt financing from a...

  10. 42 CFR 57.306 - Eligibility and selection of nursing student loan applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... applicants. 57.306 Section 57.306 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND... financial need if the school determines that the student's resources, as described in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of...

  11. Debt Out of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Anja; Hubert, Marco; Kenning, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In a representative sample of the German population (n = 946), we explored the links between self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Participants completed the self-control scale (Tangney, Boone, & Baumeister, 2004) and the German Addictive Buying Scale (Raab, Neuner, Reisch, & Scherhorn, 2005......, there was a gender effect on compulsive buying: women were more prone to compulsive buying than men. Age also was significantly negatively related to compulsive buying and positively linked to self-control. Household income was not linked to self-control, compulsive buying, and debts. Implications for practice...

  12. Debt, Neoliberalism and Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbonneau, Mathieu; Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    2014-01-01

    , he develops a theory of debt suggesting that the power of credit, central to neoliberalism, requires the construction of an indebted subjectivity. Producing a responsible, guilty and thus hindered subject, this condition involves individuals and societies facing an infinite social debt. According...... to Lazzarato, post-Fordism should be understood through the ascending influence of neoliberalism, as the state has retroceded its power of money creation to private creditors. Through this process, the relation between capital and labour has been transcended by the creditor–debtor relationship. In the economy...

  13. THE USE OF COMPUTER APPLICATIONS IN THE STUDY OF ROMANIA'S PUBLIC DEBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popeanga Vasile

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Total public debt represents all monetary obligations of the state (government, public institutions, financial, administrative-territorial units at a time, resulting from internal and external loans (in lei and foreign currencies contracted on short, medium and long term, and the state treasury and its own obligations for the amounts advanced temporarily to cover the budget deficit. Loans may be contracted by the state through the Ministry of Finance, in his own name or guaranteed by it. Public debt is expressed in local currency or foreign currency, depending on where the contracts and loan conditions. In order to evaluate Romania's public debt, obligations denominated in another currency than the national currency is calculated using the exchange rate of National Bank of Romania. Also, total public debt of a country can be expressed in absolute values (to know the load on that country's economy which is subject to its creditors, the relative values as a percentage of GDP (to allow comparison over time and between countries and the average size per capita (to allow comparisons and analysis in time and space. Total public debt is calculated and separately manages its two forms, namely domestic public debt and external public debt. Ministry of Finance shall prepare and submit annually to the Government for approval and to Parliament for information, report on public debt, which contains information on government debt portfolio, debt service, public indebtedness indicators and information about primary and secondary market securities state and how to implement the medium-term strategy in managing government debt for the previous year. In order to make comparisons quick and effective on public debt dynamics in Romania, Excel 2010 has new features such as charts and sparkline slicers features which can help discover trends and statistics in accordance with existing data. The aim of this article is accurate assessment of Romania's public debt and its

  14. 34 CFR 682.506 - Limitations on maximum loan amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... loan is intended less— (i) The student's estimated financial assistance; and (ii) The student's.... (b) The Secretary does not guarantee a Federal Consolidation loan in an amount greater than that required to discharge loans eligible for consolidation under § 682.100(a)(4). (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1075...

  15. 7 CFR 1710.401 - Loan application documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beginning date of the loan period and shall be the same as the date on the Financial and Statistical Report... headquarters facilities, Form 740g need not be submitted. (5) Financial and statistical report. Distribution... activities. (13) Federal debt delinquency requirements. See 1710.126. The following documents are required...

  16. Debt Covenant Renegotiation and Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Marc; Westermann, Ramona

    This paper analyzes the impact of debt covenant renegotiation outside corporate distress on firms. We study a structural model of a levered firm that can renegotiate debt both at investment and in corporate distress. Covenant renegotiation at investment reduces the agency cost of debt because...... it induces a firm value maximizing investment financing policy and mitigates the overinvestment problem. Incorporating renegotiation outside corporate distress is crucial to explain empirical occurrence patterns of debt renegotiation, the impact of debt renegotiation on corporate securities, and the relation...

  17. Groups, Pricing, and Cost of Debt: Evidence from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Melih Küllü

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of business group affiliation on cost of loans in an emerging market setting. It focuses on operational strategy, organizational structure and internationalization policies of business group firms and their impact on borrowing cost of affiliated firms. Bank loans are a dominant source of corporate funding in emerging markets, in which business groups exist as leading economic entities. Yet, the impact of belonging to a group on the firm’s cost of debt has not been studied in depth. Our results reveal that the extent of group affiliation, government ownership, and diversification increase the cost of loans. However, a group bank is advantageous in terms of borrowing, and decreases the cost of loans. While foreign ownership is beneficial in terms of pricing, being affiliated with a foreign group is not. Being a financial firm and being cross-listed are not significantly associated with bank loan terms. Borrowing costs are thus influenced in various ways by organizational structure, operational strategies, and global policies of business groups and affiliates. Therefore, business groups may benefit from strategically implementing policies and selecting loan applicant firms.

  18. Californium loan programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The offer of the United States to loan Californium-252 sources to the IAEA was made by Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, then chairman of the USAEC, in his opening statement at the 15th. General Conference of the IAEA held in Vienna in 1971. The purpose of this loan was to make neutron emitting sources available to universities in the Member States for use in educational programmes. The sources, in the form of small needles designed for medical use in radiation therapy, were judged highly suitable for didactic applications due to their small size, limited activity and well documented radiological parameters. Subsequently, in May 1973, the Director General announced the availability of the Californium sources to the Member States. To date, numerous sources have been loaned to universities in Czechoslovakia, Costa Rica, the Federal Republic of Germany, Ghana, India, Iran, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and Uruguay; additional applications for loans are being processed. It is anticipated that the loan programme will be terminated in 1975 once all the available sources have been distributed. n order to provide guidance for the Member States on the safe exploitation of these sources, a prototype use and storage facility was designed by IAEA staff of the Dosimetry Section of the Division of Life Sciences, and constructed at the IAEA laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. Figures 2-5 illustrate some of the details of this container, which is being given to the Ghana Nuclear Centre in support of a training programme for students at the university in Accra. Further advice to users of these sources will be provided by the publication of an instructional syllabus, a laboratory manual for experiments and the safety precautions inherent in the proper handling of neutron emitting radionuclides, authored by Professors Erich J. Hall and Harald H. Rossi of Columbia University. The syllabus and manual will be published as part of the IAEA Technical Series in September

  19. Financial guarantees and public debt in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogutu Miruka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.

  20. 49 CFR 22.15 - Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality... PROGRAM (STLP) Policies Applying to STLP Loans § 22.15 Delinquency on Federal, State, or Municipality Debt... appropriate Federal and State databases. (b) If any delinquencies are determined during the application...

  1. 12 CFR 615.5102 - Issuance of debt obligations through the Funding Corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Issuance of Bonds.../liability management policies of the System institutions and the requirements of the market. The guidelines, priorities, and objectives shall be designed to ensure that the debt marketing responsibilities of the...

  2. Determinants of non-performing loans: The case of Eurozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makri Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to identify the factors affecting the non-performing loans rate (NPL of Eurozone’s banking systems for the period 2000-2008, just before the beginning of the recession. In our days, Eurozone is in the middle of an unprecedented financial crisis, calling into question the soundness of the banking systems of European countries. Looking at both macro-variables (e.g. annual percentage growth rate of gross domestic product, public debt as % of gross domestic product, unemployment and micro-variables (e.g. loans to deposits ratio, return on assets, return on equity, we investigate which factors determine NPL on aggregate level. Overall, our findings reveal strong correlations between NPL and various macroeconomic (public debt, unemployment, annual percentage growth rate of gross domestic product and bank-specific (capital adequacy ratio, rate of nonperforming loans of the previous year and return on equity factors.

  3. A model of the demand for Islamic banks debt-based financing instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mansor; Khalid, Norlin

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the demand for debt-based financing instruments of the Islamic banks. Debt-based financing, such as through baibithamanajil and al-murabahah, is by far the most prominent of the Islamic bank financing and yet it has been largely ignored in Islamic economics literature. Most studies instead have been focusing on equity-based financing of al-mudharabah and al-musyarakah. Islamic bank offers debt-based financing through various instruments derived under the principle of exchange (ukud al-mu'awadhat) or more specifically, the contract of deferred sale. Under such arrangement, Islamic debt is created when goods are purchased and the payments are deferred. Thus, unlike debt of the conventional bank which is a form of financial loan contract to facilitate demand for liquid assets, this Islamic debt is created in response to the demand to purchase goods by deferred payment. In this paper we set an analytical framework that is based on an infinitely lived representative agent model (ILRA model) to analyze the demand for goods to be purchased by deferred payment. The resulting demand will then be used to derive the demand for Islamic debt. We also investigate theoretically, factors that may have an impact on the demand for Islamic debt.

  4. The Effect of External Debt on Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardin Senadza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper examines the effect of external debt on economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA in view of an upsurge in the level of external debt in many countries on the continent. Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses annual data for 39 SSA countries from 1990 to 2013 and employs the System Generalised Methods of Moments (GMM estimation technique. Findings: The paper finds that external debt negatively affects economic growth in SSA. Categorization of countries based on per capita income however does not affect the external debt-growth nexus, neither does there exist a non-linear relationship between external debt and economic growth. Research limitations/implications: The finding of a negative relationship between external debt and growth does not necessarily imply that SSA countries should cut back on foreign borrowing in other to boost growth. Rather, given the huge savings gaps in some of the countries, what governments in SSA must do is to ensure that the foreign loans are invested in projects that would eventually generate enough returns to amortize the debt. Originality/value: Not only does the present paper extend to more recent data but we also apply one of the frontier econometric techniques - the system GMM approach - to unravel the external debt-economic growth dynamics in SSA.

  5. Corporate debt pricing I.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilya, Gikhman

    2007-01-01

    In this article we discuss fundamentals of the debt securities pricing. We begin with a generalization of the present value concept. Though the present value is the base valuation method in the modern finance we will illustrate that this concept does not sufficiently accurate in producing instrument pricing. The incompleteness of the unique present value approach stems from variability of the interest rates. Admitting variability of the interest rates we define two present values one for buye...

  6. 42 CFR 417.937 - Loan and loan guarantee provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan and loan guarantee provisions. 417.937 Section... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.937 Loan and loan guarantee provisions. (a) Disbursement of loan proceeds. The principal amount of any loan made or...

  7. 7 CFR 1751.103 - Loan and loan advance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan and loan advance requirements. 1751.103 Section... Telecommunications Modernization Plan § 1751.103 Loan and loan advance requirements. (a) For information about loan... February 13, 1996, RUS will make RUS hardship loans, RUS cost-of-money loans, and RTB loans for facilities...

  8. Short-term lending: Payday loans as risk factors for anxiety, inflammation and poor health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Elizabeth; Kuzawa, Christopher W; McDade, Thomas W

    2018-08-01

    While research now consistently links consumer financial debt with adverse emotional health outcomes, specific forms of debt and their impact on measures of physical health are underexplored. This gap in knowledge is significant because different forms of loans and debt may have different experiential qualities. In this paper, we focus on a type of unsecured debt - short-term/payday loan borrowing - that has risen dramatically in recent decades in the United States and is characterized by predatory, discriminatory, and poorly regulated lending practices. Using data from a study of debt and health among adults in Boston, MA (n=286), we test whether short-term borrowing is associated with a range of emotional and physical health indicators. We find that short-term loans are associated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, C-reactive protein levels, and self-reported symptoms of physical health, sexual health, and anxiety, after controlling for several socio-demographic covariates. We discuss these findings within the contexts of regulatory shortcomings, psychosocial stress, and racial and economic credit disparities. We suggest that within the broader context of financial debt and health, short-term loans should be considered a specific risk to population health.

  9. Determinants of Polish public debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Stryjewski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The crisis, which had its beginning in 2007, turned into the debt crisis of the countries. The examples of Greece, Ireland, Iceland or Spain showed the category of public debt in a new light. Poland, at the turn of 2010/2011 also achieved the upper level of public debt acceptable by the law. In the present situation of the European Union countries being in debt, and even insolvent, the situation in Poland becomes riskier. This article attempts at an empirical verification of the determinants of Polish public debt within 95 months (the data link with the period of time from January 2003 to November 2010. The verification of the main factors which cause the formation of public debt takes place by means of an appropriately verified econometric model.

  10. Enhancing Cooperative Loan Scheme Through Automated Loan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Financial transactions through manual system of operation .... Integrated Financial Accounting. The accounting processes for loans are supported within Loans ... principal and interest, and print checks, payment receipts, or ...

  11. THE GENESIS OF THE FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT DEBT SECURITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Osetskyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Government borrowings appear at a certain stage of development the economic system. Governments used loans many centuries ago because there are often occurred situations when borrowings were the only way to attract additional financial resources. The preconditions for government loans from the position of creditors are also important. These, in particular, include: the availability of subjects that have the temporarily available funds; investor confidence in the state, that stimulating their interest in buying government debt securities; state’s ability to repay its obligations and so on. Thus, the article deals with the basic prerequisites of the government securities market and its function at different stages of develop-ment of economic relations. So, it was found, that the main functions of local borrowing in XIV-XX centuries include the following: fiscal, public debt management, improved economic situation in some areas and repayment of previously issued loans. In modern conditions the functions of government securities have expanded and include: regulation of the money market and stock market, smoothing unevenness of funds flow to the budget, funding various pro-grams, support the liquidity of financial institutions. The author also highlights that objective necessity of using government borrowing associated with the presence of contradictions between the existing needs of society and the state’s capacity to satisfy them within existing financial re-sources. And in such situations government securities are a means of mobilizing additional financial resources to the state budget.

  12. 42 CFR 57.214 - Repayment of loans made after November 17, 1971, for failure to complete a program of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Health Professions Student Loans § 57.214 Repayment of loans made... complete these studies, taking into account such factors as academic, medical, or financial difficulties...

  13. Financing investment in environmentally sound technologies: Foreign direct investment versus foreign debt finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyangah, Joshua Okeyo

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a screening model to examine the relationship between alternative sources of private capital and investment in environmentally sound technologies (ESTs). In the model, a polluter (agent) must secure investment funds from the international financial markets in order to upgrade its production and abatement technology. The requisite capital can be obtained via either market loans (debt finance) or foreign direct investment (FDI). Under debt finance, the foreign financier supplies only capital and the relationship between the two parties is more 'arms-length'. By contrast, under FDI, the investor delivers both capital and managerial skills. We use the model to derive the implications of debt finance for optimal investment decisions and compare them to those obtained under FDI. Investment incentives are more pronounced under debt finance. (author)

  14. Educational debt: does it have an influence on initial job location and specialty choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer; Nehrenz, Guy; Danielsen, Randy; Pedersen, Donald

    2014-01-01

    This study applied a quantitative design and analyzed the impact of educational debt on initial specialty and location choices for physician assistant (PA) graduates in Indiana. PAs who graduated between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, and actively practice in Indiana were surveyed. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analyses were performed to determine whether any significant relationships existed among practice specialty, location, and gender. 157 participants (33%) responded to the survey and were considered in the final analysis. Males were more likely than females to be influenced by debt in choosing their specialty and the location of their initial job. A majority of PAs would have reconsidered rural practice if they had received federal and or state loan forgiveness for educational debt. This study provides evidence that debt may influence practice specialty and location choice. Further studies are needed to determine how gender might account for decisions to practice in certain specialties and location.

  15. Dam debt in Tasmania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakers, A.

    1994-01-01

    In 1983 the Australian government blocked the construction of the Gordon-below-Franklin hydroelectric scheme in the western Tasmanian wilderness. The Hydroelectric Commission of Tasmania (HECT) then began the construction of two new hydro schemes, the King scheme and the Anthony scheme. In addition to being environmentally destructive these two new schemes have turned out to be financial disasters. They cost a total of $A1,200 million to construct and with no return from energy sales. The main problem is that the HECT overestimated demand growth and has built three new schemes too many. The need to service a large debt is a disincentive to conserve electricity. Not only is its bargaining position with large users of electricity weak but Tasmania has an unnecessary debt and three rivers (King, Anthony and Pieman) have been needlessly drowned. The growth of the Tasmanian electricity supply industry over the past decade is compared with the alternatives like wind energy and the low risk development on demand options that wind energy offers. 2 figs., 9 refs

  16. Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragosavac Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Collateralized debt obligations (CDOs were issued in 1987 by bankers at Drexel Burnham Lambert Inc. A decade later, CDOs became the leading power on the credit derivative markets, on which the value of derivative assets was derived from the value of other assets. However, unlike options and credit swamps, CDOs are not real, which means that they are constructed, and sometimes even the construction of their construction. CDOs were made to satisfy different types of investors, at one end, there is low-risk with low-income, and at the other, high-risk with high-income. By 2007, following the bubble burst on the US real estate market, losses on the CDO market started to expand. By 2008, the crisis on the CDO market turned into what we call today 'the global financial crisis.' CDOs are 'in the heart' of the crisis, and even wider. Our attempt is to reveal the mechanism of collateralized debt obligations (CDOs and the way in which CDOs expanded the negative effects of the present global financial crisis.

  17. THE PUBLIC DEBT OF DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AS A FACTOR OF STRENGTHENING OF MACROECONOMIC IMBALANCES AND GLOBAL INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. lyasnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article defines the concept of public debt, consider its characteristics, the analysis of the level of public debt in developed and developing countries, considered the change of the OECD countries, the structure of government debt by instrument, an analysis of the measures taken by the governments of developed countries to prevent its further growth. It is necessary to identify the relationship of the budget deficit and public debt: the growth of the budget deficit leads to an increase in public debt. However, the absolute value of the ratio of the budget deficit and, consequently, public debt, there is little informative for economic analysis. It is necessary to identify the processes affecting the maintenance of the budget deficit. It is also necessary to find the tools for measuring changes in public debt relative to GDP dynamics.In the context of the existing market relations is difficult to achieve fiscal balance. The conditions of a deficit or surplus. It is shown that to cover the state budget deficit uses various types of financial loans, which constitute public debt, consisting of internal and external debt.

  18. 34 CFR 682.507 - Due diligence in collecting a loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Due diligence in collecting a loan. 682.507 Section 682... Student Loan Programs § 682.507 Due diligence in collecting a loan. (a) General. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(4) of this section, a lender shall exercise due diligence in the collection of a loan with...

  19. 78 FR 52169 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Federal Direct Stafford/Ford Loan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...; Comment Request; Federal Direct Stafford/Ford Loan and Federal Direct Subsidized/ Unsubsidized Stafford/Ford Loan Master Promissory Note AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), Federal Student Aid (FSA... Stafford/Ford Loan and Federal Direct Subsidized/Unsubsidized Stafford/Ford Loan Master Promissory Note...

  20. Department of Education's Student Loan Programs: Are Tax Dollars at Risk? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Sixth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This hearing was held to consider whether the student loan programs of the Department of Education place tax dollars at risk. In his opening remarks, Representative John L. Mica (Florida) pointed out that for nearly 10 years, the U.S. General Accounting Office has labeled these programs as a high risk for fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement. In…

  1. The Growth Opportunity Channel of Debt Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambona, E.; Golec, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of growth opportunities for debt structure decisions. High growth firms use more unsecured debt to preserve financial flexibility (in the form of untapped secured debt capacity) in connection with future growth opportunities: the growth opportunity channel of debt

  2. Teaching the Federal Budget, National Debt, and Budget Deficit: Findings from High School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Ahn, Meesuk; Crocco, Margaret Smith; Grolnick, Maureen; Gaudelli, William; Walker, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    The issues surrounding the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit are complex, but not beyond the reach of young students. This study finds scant treatment of the federal budget, national debt, and budget deficit in high schools today. It is hardly surprising that high school teachers spend so little time discussing these topics in…

  3. House Prices and Public Debt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads; Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    By using the 2002 case of fraud in the Danish municipality Farum by then mayor Peter Brixtofte as an exogenous shock to public debt of 1 billion DKK, I estimate the effect of public debt on house prices. I find that the average home ownership lost about 570,000 DKK or as much as 29% of the average...... house price in the municipality. Furthermore, I document that the aggregate house price loss of 2.1 billion DKK greatly exceeds the increase in public debt of 1 billion DKK. I find that the drop in house prices is sustained 1 year, indicating that the housing market initially overreacts...

  4. Debt Maturity: Is Long-Term Debt Optimal?

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Alfaro; Fabio Kanczuk

    2007-01-01

    We model and calibrate the arguments in favor and against short-term and long-term debt. These arguments broadly include: maturity premium, sustainability, and service smoothing. We use a dynamic equilibrium model with tax distortions and government outlays uncertainty, and model maturity as the fraction of debt that needs to be rolled over every period. In the model, the benefits of defaulting are tempered by higher future interest rates. We then calibrate our artificial economy and solve fo...

  5. The National Educational Loan Bank: A Proposal for Improving the System of Lending for Higher Education. Working Paper, Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, Kenneth M.

    A National Education Loan Bank (NELB) is proposed as an alternative to existing federal loan programs for education, such as the National Direct Student Loan program and the Guaranteed Student Loan program. The history and structures of these two programs are detailed: financing, costs, insurance arrangements, agencies, volume, and interest rates.…

  6. The Challenge of "Fixing the Debt": Recommendations from the Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Donna L; Chaddock, Harry M

    2018-01-01

    With education debt repayment taking up a significant amount of veterinarians' salaries, for a significant time into the working years, concern has been building that the current debt to starting salary ratio in the veterinary profession is not sustainable. The current ratio is 1.99:1, but it can be significantly higher for students who attend schools as an out-of-state resident. In April, 180 people concerned about this issue gathered at Michigan State University's College of Veterinary Medicine for a Fix the Debt Summit, which focused on actions that would reduce this ratio to a more sustainable level. Attendees were students; new graduates; those working in veterinary academia; employers of veterinarians; and those affiliated with the profession, such as professional associations. As solutions were proposed, participants also committed to taking action within their field of influence.

  7. The Greek public debt problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Nikiforos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the issue of the Greek public debt. After providing a historical discussion, we show that the austerity of the last six years has been unsuccessful in stabilizing the debt while, at the same time, it has taken a heavy toll on the economy and society. The recent experience shows that the public debt is unsustainable and therefore a restructuring is needed. An insistence on the current policies is not justifiable either on pragmatic or on moral or any other grounds. The experience of Germany in the early post-WWII period provides some useful hints for the way forward. A solution to the public debt problem is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the solution of the Greek and European crisis. A wider agenda that deals with the malaises of the Greek economy and the structural imbalances of the Eurozone is of vital importance.

  8. 75 FR 68956 - Debt Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... and procedure, Debt collection. Authority and Issuance 0 Accordingly, for the reasons stated in the..., divorce, death, or disability. (2) The request for special review must include an alternative proposed...

  9. Consequences of Debt Capitalization: Property Ownership and Debt/Tax Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner Eichenberger; David Stadelmann

    2009-01-01

    Public debts capitalize into property prices. Therefore, property owners tend to favor tax over debt financing for government spending. In contrast, tenants do not suffer from debt capitalization. Thus, they tend to favor debt over tax financing. Our model of the resulting democratic fight between property owners and tenants over public debts and taxes predicts that the property ownership rate in a jurisdiction negatively effects the debt level. We provide empirical support for this hypothesi...

  10. How to stop the snowball growth? A way for sustaining public debt over generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina Ion-Lucian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Why public debts are growing so fast in most developing countries, like a dangerous snowball which is growing and growing and no one can stop it? It is only a negative relation between high debt and real growth of economy? How can we definitively remove the Ricardian anxiety which called debt a “terrible scourge”? These are only few questions asked in the last century in relation with debt “overhang” not only by scholars, but by governments as well. This paper aims to answer to other questions like: Why debt’s rate grows faster than GDP? Why governments borrow? For current spending or for public investments? Who should benefits current loans? Who should pay for them and when? How should be the taxation along the economic cycle: neutral or countercyclical? Need we a model to sustain the public debt over generations, or it is good enough to maintain a good ration between real GDP growth and debt and that’s it?

  11. THE IMPACT OF INFLATION ON LEVEL OF DEBT OF BRAZILIAN FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos André Marinho Vieira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions are naturally leveraged companies that use their debt to aim for profit in their operations. The role of financial intermediary gives these institutions the context needed to use financial leverage for profit. Among the several variables used in debt levels of these institutions, Hortlund (2005 highlights inflation as having a central role in this phenomenon. This study aimed to find out how inflation influences the debt of Brazilian financial institutions. To achieve this goal, data of brazilian banks from 1996 to 2013 were analyzed, being related to other variables in order to allocate more consistency of the model used. Through balanced and unbalanced panel data regressions, results indicate that different from the hypothesis defended by Hortlund (2005, inflation has a negative impact on debt earned by financial institutions during the period. Other findings of the study indicate that the representative variables of increased operations of these institutions, such as GDP growth, growth of assets and loans/assets positively impact the leverage of financial institutions, indicating that these are more likely to go into debt when they can apply this capital in productive operations. Finally, it was found out that the guidelines contained in the Capital Accords Basel II and Basel III, which were required by the national financial system, influenced negatively the levels of debt of financial institutions, making them less leveraged.

  12. 77 FR 4927 - Loan Workouts and Nonaccrual Policy, and Regulatory Reporting of Troubled Debt Restructured Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Restructuring'' is as defined in generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and means a restructuring in... definition of a TDR under GAAP. In addition, it is important to recognize the Financial Accounting Standards... accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and the Board does not intend through this policy to change the...

  13. Concern regarding the "Debt" created by Rule 14.10.9 of the Government Employees' Pension Fund Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motseotsile Clement Marumoagae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the prejudicial effect of the rule within the rules of the Government Employees Pension Fund (GEPF, which allows this fund to create a "divorce debt" for its member when the court has ordered that part of such a member's pension interest be paid over to his or her spouse. I argue that this debt is in fact a loan which is provided to the member, which he or she would be expected to pay when he or she exits the fund, with interest. This is despite the fact that the rules of the GEPF do not permit the granting of loans to its members. I argue that the creation of such a loan has the effect of diminishing the GEPF's member’s benefits, and thus threaten his or her social security, and can lead to the member becoming unable to provide for himself or herself when he or she reaches retirement age.

  14. The effect of education debt on dentists' career decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Sean; Vujicic, Marko; Wanchek, Tanya; Ziebert, Anthony; Menezes, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is an association between the amount of education debt on completing dental school (initial debt) and certain career decisions. The authors surveyed 1,842 practicing dentists who completed dental school between 1996 and 2011 to ascertain their initial education debt, the balance on their debt in 2013, and a variety of specialization and practice decisions made during their careers. Data also included demographic characteristics and parental income and education levels. Dentists with higher initial debt were less likely to specialize and more likely to enter private practice, accept high-paying jobs on graduation, and work longer hours. Choice of employment setting, practice ownership, and whether to provide Medicaid and charity care were associated with dentists' sexes and races but not debt. High debt levels influenced some career decisions, but the magnitude of these effects was small compared with the effects of demographic characteristics, including race and sex, on career choices. Policy makers concerned about the influence of student debt on the professional decisions of dental school graduates should recognize that students' demographic characteristics may be more powerful in driving career choices. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Romanians’ Public Debts Saga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica SUSANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of 2009, a very cold breath of austerity was blowing from the European financial and banking system and thoroughly was touching every Member State’s economy, but only for some of them perspective of this severe situation is called bankruptcy frequently. By the spring of this year (2010 – author’s note, Greece’s financial problems set all the Europeans governments on fire and, according on the most worrying news alerts, Germany was terribly angry and eager to treat this country as an undisciplined schoolchild. Many and heavy financial disasters are forecast for other countries as well, and it seems that Spain’s, Portugal’s or Italy’s Mediterranean structure and behaviour would be the reason, since these countries are in pretty identical trouble just like Greece. The ex-communist recently EU Member States, that are united into the so-called platoon of the emergent economies, rapidly detected their own vulnerabilities and their well-known resources leakages. Then, in the old-time verified and practiced tradition of “cuts and poverty under oppression” which communism taught them well, they were abruptly compelled to conform and to adopt dreadful austerity measures. Although among them, Romania is again a special case, taking into account but the heavy burden of the 80’s unbelievable sacrifices and privations, which the population endured because of the totalitarian decision of paying its whole debt. The paper reveals and analyses that, despite the actual context and the political circumstances which are totally different, Romania applied an unprecedentedly severe plan of cuts and privations, installing a general and bitter sensation of déjà-vu, instead of living and feeling the European membership status!

  16. Debt financing structure within the state-owned corporations in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah Odhiambo Nyamita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current public sector financial management reforms agenda within the state-owned corporations in Kenya aimed at integrating and aligning their performance to vision 2030, has not yet achieved the traction required. This study, therefore, examined the different types of debt financing strategies applied by the various state-owned corporations in Kenya, in comparison to those applied by state-owned corporations from developed and developing economies. The study specifically revealed that private debt financing, through bank loans and payables is commonly used amongst Kenyan state-owned corporations. While, most state-owned corporations from developed and developing economies, such as in America, Europe, Asia and South Africa, use public debt financing, through financial securities, traded in both domestic and international capital markets.

  17. Dynamic Capital Structure with Callable Debt and Debt Renegotiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Flor, Christian Riis; Lando, David

    2014-01-01

    We consider a dynamic trade-off model of a firm’s capital structure with debt renegotiation. Debt holders only accept restructuring offers from equity holders backed by threats which are in the equity holders’ own interest to execute. Our model shows that in a complete information model in which...... taxes and bankruptcy costs are the only frictions, violations of the absolute priority rule (APR) are typically optimal. The size of the bankruptcy costs and the equity holders’ bargaining power affect the size of APR violations, but they have only a minor impact on the choice of capital structure....

  18. Sovereign debt threatens the Union: the genesis of a federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loubert, A.

    2012-01-01

    Eurozone sovereign debt crisis - Europe's ‘Alexander Hamilton Moment’ - American sovereign debt crisis of 1780s - Articles of Confederation - U.S. Constitution - Assumption of states' debt - Constitutional transformation key factor in enabling Alexander Hamilton's debt restructuring.

  19. 7 CFR 1782.13 - Transfer of security and assumption of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... at the same interest rate as on the borrower's note(s) or bond(s). The maturity of the debt... loans have the same interest rate and are for the same purpose. If applicable, 7 CFR part 1780 will... processing. (2) The transfer will not be disadvantageous to the Government as determined by the approval...

  20. Currency Denomination of Bank Loans : Evidence from Small Firms in Transition Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Yesin, P.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the firm-level and country-level determinants of the currency denomination of small business loans. We introduce an information asymmetry between banks and firms in a model that also features the trade-off between the cost of debt and firm-level distress costs. Banks in our model don’t

  1. 24 CFR 573.5 - Underwriting standards and availability of loan guarantee assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acceptable financial risk under HUD's generally applicable loan underwriting standards based on the following: (1) The Borrower's ability to pay debt service; and (2) The value of the collateral assigned or... insufficient to make the guarantee an acceptable financial risk, or if the proposed interest rates or fees are...

  2. 75 FR 65615 - Conditional Commitment for a Federal Loan Guarantee for Project Financing for Southwest Intertie...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Conditional Commitment for a Federal Loan Guarantee for Project Financing for... based on the analysis in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for Project Financing for Southwest... support of debt financing for transmission infrastructure investment projects located in the United States...

  3. Direct Student Loan Program: Management Actions Could Enhance Customer Service. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report suggests to congress that they consider clarifying whether Education may regulate the fees charged to borrowers under the Direct Loan Program. It also suggests that FSA collect information from schools that could be used to make improvements to the Direct Loan Program. (Author)

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MEASURES TO REDUCE COSTS OF REGIONAL LOANS SERVICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Arkadyevitch Galanskiy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses major problems of current concern connected with controlling direct obligations of Russian regions (the model of debt servicing cost parameter optimization has been worked out, and their key solutions. The methods offered to analyze debts and manage them are applicable to any Russian Federation regions characterized by budget deficit and forced to cover it using borrowed funds. The important leverage found and their impacts on sub-federal debt servicing cost are also treated in the article.Objective: to identify the direction and impact degree of various parameters on the cost of sub-federal loans.Methodology: there were used general scientific methods: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, systematic approach.Results: main parameters that influence the cost of sub-federal loans servicing and allow its most effective reduction have been identified.

  5. Challenges experienced by debt counsellors in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgomotso Masilo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gauteng, Province of South Africa is experiencing a decreasing number of registered and practising debt counsellors. This paper investigates and assesses the challenges that debt counsellors in Gauteng experiences. Fifteen debt counsellors from three municipalities of Gauteng were interviewed. Data was analysed using ATLAS ti. The paper concluded that though debt counsellors are complying with the regulations in rendering debt counselling service, they still had challenges regarding backlogs in debt review. The paper recommends that debt counsellors should be adequately trained and should restructure their rehabilitation methods on the one hand and the National Credit Regulator should monitor debt counsellors’ practices and assist them with their queries on the other hand.

  6. Corporate fraud and bank loans:Evidence from china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunsen; Chen; Song; Zhu; Yutao; Wang

    2011-01-01

    Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank,as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment By focusing on Chinese firms’borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud,we find that firms’bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower,but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms.In addition,loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before,but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts.In addition,we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the"performance-bank loan"relationship.Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing,which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.

  7. Public Debt and Economic Growth in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Siew-Peng Lee; Yan-Ling Ng

    2015-01-01

    Public debt in the Malaysia increased because of fiscal expansions. This study examines whether public debt contributed to the economic growth in Malaysia over the period 1991 to 2013. It also examines whether other indicators of debt burden, such as budget deficit, budget expenditure, and external debt service and government consumption, have an impact on economic growth. The results of this study are consistent with the existing literature that found a negative association between diet and ...

  8. Debt Boundaries Matter: Evidence From The Subsidiary Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altieri, M.

    2017-01-01

    I exploit the introduction of an accounting reform in the US to investigate whether the presence of subsidiary debt affects the cost of borrowing of conglomerates. The accounting reform forces some firms to restate from standalone firms (declaring one segment unit) to conglomerates (declaring

  9. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Li, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2010-01-01

    We examine how executive compensation affects the cost of debt financing. Analyzing CEO pay data from the UK, we find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have opposite effects on the cost of debt. An increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while an

  10. 42 CFR 413.178 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 413.178 Section 413.178 Public Health...) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.178 Bad debts. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 49199, Aug. 12, 2010. (a) CMS will reimburse each facility its allowable Medicare bad debts, as defined in...

  11. The Odiousness of Greek Debt in Light of the Findings of the Greek Debt Truth Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Bantekas, I; Vivien, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the popular narrative, which suggests that the Greek debt crisis was the result of lavish spending, this article demonstrates that the ‘crisis’ was generated by a transformation of purely private debt into public debt. This finding is supported by the preliminary report of the Greek Parliamentary Committee on the Truth of the Greek Debt, which clearly demonstrated the exponential increase of private debt in Greece risked the collapse of the private financial institutions exposed to it,...

  12. Ecology: The Tropical Deforestation Debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Ken

    2016-08-22

    Tropical deforestation is a significant cause of global carbon emissions and biodiversity loss. A new study shows that deforestation today leaves a carbon and biodiversity debt to be paid over subsequent years. This has potentially profound implications for forest conservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Student saving, does it exist? : A study of students' saving behavior, attitude towards saving and motivation to save.

    OpenAIRE

    Tuvesson, Joakim; Yu, Shiyu

    2011-01-01

    Swedish households are getting deeper in debt and house prices keeps on rising. This is what happened in USA and it was one of the major causes of the recent financial crisis. To avoid a similar crisis in Sweden we think one part of the solution is to make sure that those who are students today and soon will get jobs, buy houses, take loans etcetera have necessary knowledge to do so. Students’ saving is an area that almost completely lacked researchers’ attention, and one goal with this thesi...

  14. Money, Debt, People and Planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob von Uexkull

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread failure to understand money creation plays a key role in the current policy impasse. In a world ruled by money, this failure disempowers and prevents serious consideration of alternatives. The key reasons why we are not moving faster in tackling the global crises are, we are told, because it is too expensive, there is not enough money, it is not (yet profitable enough to do etc. Within the current global monetary framework, this is largely true. Therefore, any realistic plan to change course before we are overwhelmed by the inter-linked environmental, social and security threats facing us, is to change this framework to ensure that money becomes our servant again. The current debt crisis offers an opportunity to replace discredited debt-based money created by private banks in their interest with government-created debt-free money benefitting all, which can be used to fund a global emergency programme.“We know now that government by organised money is just as dangerous as government by organised mob.” — President F.D. Roosevelt, 31.10.36“The essence of the contemporary monetary system is creation of money, out of nothing, by private banks’ often foolish lending. Why is such privatisation of a public function right and proper, but action by the central bank to meet pressing public need, a road to catastrophe?” — Martin Wolf, ‘Financial Times’, 9.11.10“The obvious way to reduce our public and private debts is to stop having all our money created as debt.” — James Robertson, ‘Future Money’

  15. Increasing educational indebtedness influences medical students to pursue specialization: a military recruitment potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, Asha G; Coutinho, Karl; Swan, Kenneth G; Heinrich, George F

    2013-02-01

    Cost of medical education and student indebtedness has increased dramatically. This study surveyed medical students on educational debt, educational costs, and whether indebtedness influenced career choice. Responses should impact (1) Department of Defense (DoD) recruitment of physicians and (2) future of primary care. The authors surveyed 188 incoming medical students (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey-New Jersey Medical School, Class of 2012) concerning educational indebtedness, perceptions about educational costs, and plans regarding loan repayment. Data were analyzed and expressed as mean +/- standard error. Students with loans anticipated their medical educational costs to be $155,993. 62% felt costs were "exorbitant," and 28% "appropriate." 64% planned to specialize, whereas only 9% chose primary care. 28% of students planning specialization said income potential influenced their decision. 70% of students said cost was a factor in choosing New Jersey Medical School over a more expensive school. Students anticipated taking about 10 years to repay loans. As medical educational costs and student indebtedness rise, students are choosing less costly education and career paths with higher potential future earnings. These trends will negatively impact health care availability, accessibility, and cost. DoD programs to provide financial assistance in exchange for military service are not well publicized. These findings should increase DoD recruitment opportunities.

  16. Entrance Counseling Guide for Direct Loan Borrowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This guide describes the four types of loans offered by the Direct Loan Program[SM]: (1) Direct Subsidized Loans; (2) Direct Unsubsidized Loans; (3) Direct PLUS Loans; and (4) Direct Consolidation Loans. Among the topics covered in the guide are: Use of Your Loan Money, The Master Promissory Note, How Your Loans Will Be Disbursed (Paid Out),…

  17. Public Service Loan Forgiveness. NASFAA Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) program was established in 2007 to encourage student borrowers to work in the public sector. Qualifying borrowers may have their Direct Loans forgiven after 10 years of full-time service in an eligible job. Currently, qualifying employers include federal, state, or local government agencies and tax-exempt…

  18. The Parent Loan Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Marian; Supiano, Beckie; Fuller, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    As the cost of college has spiraled ever upward and median family income has fallen, the loan program, called Parent PLUS, has become indispensable for increasing numbers of parents desperate to make their children's college plans work. Last year the government disbursed $10.6-billion in Parent PLUS loans to just under a million families. Even…

  19. Philippines: Population: USAID loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Philippines and the United States Agency for International Development signed an agreement on Christmas Day for a US $5.7 million loan and a US $6 million grant for the country's population program. The loan, which matures in 40 years, carries a 2% interest per year for the first 10 years, and 3% thereafter. A 10-year grace period is provided. The US $11.7 million loan and grant package is the first part of USAID's pledge of US $26.9 million in loan and US $29.8 million in grants for the population project. The agreement was signed by Finance Minister Cesar Virata and USAID director Anthony Schwarzwalder. The total loan package of US $57.7 million will be given in the next 5 years.

  20. A Brief Look at...the Texas B-On-Time Loan Program. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The Texas B-On-Time (BOT) Loan Program is a unique state aid program intended to increase access to higher education in Texas and encourage on-time graduation. This state student loan may be completely forgiven if the otherwise eligible borrower completes his or her degree on time. The BOT Loan Program was developed in response to low on-time…

  1. Some State Loan Agencies Say They May Stay on the Sidelines This Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelderman, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite action by Congress and the Bush administration to shore up the student-loan industry, some state-authorized organizations say they may not return to the loan business this year, and others are cutting some of the borrower benefits and services they provide. Nine state loan agencies stopped issuing either new federally backed or new private…

  2. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1514 Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements. For each application for a...

  3. PUBLIC DEBT DETERMINANTS IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlira Kalaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available State budget is one of the most important instruments where the government reflects its future policies, priorities and commitments. Its reading in recent years clearly shows the increased size of public debt beyond the upper limit of 60% of GDP, in many countries including Albania. This fact constitutes analarming trend signaled even by many international financial institutions. However, the worldwide increasing levels of budget deficits and public debtsare not accidental. Through this article we aim to explore the relationships that exists between different determinants such as governance, social and economic variables that directly affect the size of public debt in Albania, where demographic factors are noted as the main contributors, followed by political systems along with various economic developments that the country has experienced in years.

  4. PUBLIC DEBT SUSTAINABILITY ANALYSIS: EU CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoc Claudiu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis has caused a serious fiscal deterioration that leaves the world economy with serious challenges. In many developed markets as well as in a few emerging markets (Emerging markets public finances have already become, or are at least at risk of becoming, unsustainable. Commonly, public debt sustainability is defined as a sovereign's ability to service debt without large adjustments to public revenue and/or expenditure and without ever-increasing public-debt-to-GDP ratios. Hence, this definition refers to both a country's ability and willingness to repay its debt. We also have to add the fact that there isn`t an universal accepted definition of fiscal or debt sustainability. In light of the growing public debt, the issue of debt sustainability has increasingly attracted attention. In this paper we analyse public debt sustainability scenario in EU economies. At least half of the EU countries will have to implement stringent fiscal consolidation programmes over the next few years in order to prevent already high public-debt-to-GDP ratios from a further significant rise, also the case of Romania. However, drastic fiscal policy adjustment may be not feasible in the short term and hence public debt is likely to grow further. In some scenarios the public-debt-to-GDP ratio is predicted to soar to 133% in 2020, from just over 100% in 2010. By contrast, nearly all EM countries, including major economies, appear to be well positioned to stabilise or even outgrow their current debt ratios without drastic fiscal adjustment. Institutional improvements may help European countries to maintain fiscal credibility. In light of the future fiscal challenges, many European governments may introduce new or more effective national debt limits, similar to those put in place in the past with good results by some Emerging markets. Such institutional reforms could help to insulate fiscal policies from political pressure and to anchor financial market

  5. 76 FR 78827 - Loan Guaranty Revised Loan Modification Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 36 RIN 2900-AN78 Loan Guaranty Revised Loan... amends a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Loan Guaranty regulation related to modification of guaranteed housing loans in default. Specifically, changes are made to requirements related to maximum...

  6. 75 FR 66699 - Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Loan Programs Loan Making Activities; Correction AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction. SUMMARY: This document contains a correction to the proposed rule titled ``Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities'' that was published September 23, 2010. The Farm Service Agency (FSA) is...

  7. Adjustment of the WACC with Subsidized Debt in the Presence of Corporate Taxes: The N-Period Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC applied to the free cash flow (FCF, we assume that the cost of debt is the market, unsubsidized rate. With debt at the market rate and perfect capital markets, debt only creates value in the presence of taxes through the tax shield. In some cases, the firm may be able to obtain a loan at a rate that is below the market rate. With subsidized debt and taxes, there would be a benefit to debt financing, and the unleveraged and leveraged values of the cash flows would be unequal. The benefit of lower tax savings are offset by the benefit of the subsidy. These two benefits have to be introduced explicitly. In this paper we present the adjustments to the WACC with subsidized debt and taxes and the cost of leveraged equity for multiple periods. We demonstrate the analysis for both the WACC applied to the FCF and the WACC applied to the capital cash flow (CCF. We use the calculation of the Adjusted Present Value, APV, to consider both, the tax savings and the subsidy. We show how all the methods match.

  8. Determinants of Complexity of Sovereign Debt Negotiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Mesjasz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The situation on all kinds of financial markets is determined by their increasing complexity. Negotiation of sovereign debt is also a complex endeavor. Its complexity results both from structural characteristics - number of actors, problems of coordination, communication, cooperation and conflict and from cognitive limitations. The survey of literature on sovereign debt management shows that no research has been done on complexity of sovereign debt management, and sovereign debt negotiation in particular. The aim of the paper is to provide initial framework concepts of complexity of sovereign debt restructuring negotiation referring to a universal collection of characteristics of negotiation. A model of debt restructuring negotiation is elaborated and a set of its complexity- related characteristics is proposed.

  9. Financial Audit: Bureau of the Public Debt's Fiscal Years 2001 and 2000 Schedules of Federal Debt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The accompanying auditor's report presents the results of our audits of the Schedules of Federal Debt Managed by the Bureau of the Public Debt for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2001 and 2000...

  10. Four Popular Books on Consumer Debt: A Context for Quantitative Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Miller

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The topics of credit cards, mortgages, subprime lending, and fringe banking are rich sources of problems and discussions for classes focused on quantitative literacy. In this theme book review, we look at four recent books on the consumer debt industry: Credit Card Nation, by Robert Manning; Maxed Out, by James Scurlock; Collateral Damaged, by Charles Geisst; and Broke, USA, by Gary Rivlin. Credit Card Nation takes a scholarly look at the history of credit in America with a focus on the genesis and growth of the credit card industry up to the turn of the 20th century. Maxed Out also examines the credit card industry, but its approach is to highlight the stories of individuals struggling with debt and thereby examine some of the damaging effects of credit card debt in the United States. Collateral Damaged is a timely exploration of the root causes at the institutional level of the credit crisis that began in 2008. Broke USA focuses on high-cost financing (pawn shops, payday loans, title loans, describing the history of what Rivlin calls the "poverty industry" and the political and legal challenges critics have mounted against the industry. Each of these books has something to offer a wide variety of quantitative literacy classes, providing scenarios, statistics, and problems worthy of examination. After reviewing each of the four books, we provide several examples of such quantitative literacy applications and close with some thoughts on the relationship between financial literacy and quantitative literacy.

  11. Risks of Mortgage Loans in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Tichý

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Indebtedness through mortgage loans is dominant of household debt in the Czech Republic. The gradual increase in the household debt level may also entail increasing credit risk assumed by banks in connection with their credit exposure to this sector. The objective of the paper is to verify the risk and identify factors that affect the credit risk development in the Czech Republic. We look for correlation between the risk development and the interest rate development. Furthermore, we verify links between the risk and the development of real estate collateral value. The paper does confirm that there are real risks associated with the potential increase in interest rates. No significant risks have been confirmed with regard to the current development of the residential property value. The paper also strives to provide an identification and verification of risks stemming from individual banks’ internal processes. It features a detailed analysis of the internal factors (aspects comprising revenue, competition, as well as distribution.

  12. Sustainability of Government Debt in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OG Dayaratna-Banda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of government budget deficit on debt sustainability in Sri Lanka by using a novel methodological approach. The study used annual time series data from 1960 to 2012 in Sri Lanka for empirical testing. Sustainability of government debt is tested by using face value, market value and discounted market value of government debt as a proportion of GDP. Discounted market value of debt to GDP ratio was calculated using weighted average interest rate. Results of Augmented Dickey Fuller and Phillips-Perron tests indicate that debt ratios are non-stationary implying the existence of an unsustainable debt outlook. Results of the Chow test, employed to test if a structural break can be observed in 1978 as a result of moving away from the command economy to a market-oriented economy, indicate that the policy change has not led to have any fixed change in the mean of debt serials. The results compel us to conclude that public debt in Sri Lankan is not sustainable, so that a switch is required from foreign debt to other sources of financing of fiscal deficit or deficit reduction.

  13. The Debt Overhang Hypothesis: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Muhammad Imran

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the debt overhang hypothesis for Pakistan in the period 1960-2007. The study examines empirically the dynamic behaviour of GDP, debt services, the employed labour force and investment using the time series concepts of unit roots, cointegration, error correlation and causality. Our findings suggest that debt-servicing has a negative impact on the productivity of both labour and capital, and that in turn has adversely affected economic growth. By severely constraining the ability of the country to service debt, this lends support to the debt-overhang hypothesis in Pakistan. The long run relation between debt services and economic growth implies that future increases in output will drain away in form of high debt service payments to lender country as external debt acts like a tax on output. More specifically, foreign creditors will benefit more from the rise in productivity than will domestic producers and labour. This suggests that domestic labour and capital are the ultimate losers from this heavy debt burden.

  14. Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2009-01-01

    .... Reducing this debt to a sustainable level has been a priority of the U.S. government. Since 2003, debt relief negotiations have taken place in a variety of fora and led to the cancellation of a significant amount of Iraq's external debt...

  15. Assessing debt sustainability in a stochastic environment: 200 years of Dutch debt and deficit management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen, S.; France, A.

    2012-01-01

    When debt levels approach critical levels, tax payers may revolt against the associated debt service burden. Funding problems may arise in capital markets when lenders anticipate such revolts and refuse to participate in debt auctions. We provide a stochastic framework to assess whether such

  16. Dante’s Debts in their Documentary Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franek Sznura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Dante’s so-called “debts”, the most sizeable of which were guaranteed by his relatives and friends. Out of these loans, those contracted for the highest amounts remained unsettled even decades after the agreed repayment date. The salient features of the Florentine notarial contracts stipulated ex causa mutui during the age of Dante will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to the difference between the sum of money which was actually given in loan and the sum declared in the document, the duration of the contract, the personal guarantees requested and the relationship between notarial records and private account books. The different uses of the notarial instrumentum mutui will be illustrated, from its implementation on the debtor’s estate to the transfer of the negotiable instrument to third parties. In certain instances, fictive debts (ad defensionem were contracted with the aid of trusted friends and other individuals who acted as figureheads (in order to defend the assets of the bankrupt, thus damaging the mass of creditors, for example or else constructed in such a way as to define a priority of mortgages on the assets of the debtors. Even in this latter case, possible or feared actions undertaken by third parties, which could compromise the debtor’s assets, were immediately deflected in order to avoid repercussions.

  17. Loan Defaults in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H Baltagi; Panicos O Demetriades

    2011-01-01

    African financial deepening is beset by a high rate of loan defaults, which encourages banks to hold liquid assets instead of lending. We put forward a novel theoretical model that captures the salient features of African credit markets which shows that equilibrium with high loan defaults and low lending can arise when contract enforcement institutions are weak, investment opportunities are relatively scarce and information imperfections abound. We provide evidence using a panel of 110 banks ...

  18. Political connections, media monitoring and long-term loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deming; Yang; Zhengfei; Lu; Danglun; Luo

    2014-01-01

    We analyze data on Chinese non-state-listed firms and find that it is easier for firms with political connections to obtain long-term loans with extended debt maturities than it is for firms without political connections. Our investigation indicates that this phenomenon is significantly less common with increased media monitoring. Houston et al.(2011) find strong evidence that the state ownership of media is associated with higher levels of bank corruption in China, but our study shows that, to a certain extent, media monitoring can curb corruption.

  19. Political connections, media monitoring and long-term loans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deming Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We analyze data on Chinese non-state-listed firms and find that it is easier for firms with political connections to obtain long-term loans with extended debt maturities than it is for firms without political connections. Our investigation indicates that this phenomenon is significantly less common with increased media monitoring. Houston et al. (2011 find strong evidence that the state ownership of media is associated with higher levels of bank corruption in China, but our study shows that, to a certain extent, media monitoring can curb corruption.

  20. Playing the Numbers: The Best Bad Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, William R.

    2012-01-01

    College graduates and current students are swimming in a sea of debt. As of this writing, the total amount of outstanding student loan debt has been estimated at $960 billion. The Occupy Student Debt movement, inspired by Occupy Wall Street, has suggested that all student loan debt should be forgiven. As a starting point, members of the movement…

  1. Financial Statement Audit: U.S. Department of Education, Federal Direct Student Loan Program for the Year Ended September 30, 1994. Audit Control Number 17-48320.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Inspector General (ED), Washington, DC.

    An independent audit was done of the principal financial statements of the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program of the Department of Education for the year ending September 30, 1994. In planning and performing the review the auditors considered the internal control structure of the program in order to determine auditing procedures. The…

  2. Bad Loans and Loan Write-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    福田, 慎一; 鯉渕, 賢

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate who bears the burden when writing off bad loans in Japan. Traditionally, Japanese main banks bore large burdens in saving their customers. We still find that some main banks bear a large burden in saving their customers. However, in most cases, main banks became very reluctant to bear large burdens when bailing out their customers. In the transition from the bank-based system to a market-based system, traditional implicit rules are collapsing dramatically. We sug...

  3. Corporate fraud and bank loans: Evidence from china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsen Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank, as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment. By focusing on Chinese firms’ borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud, we find that firms’ bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower, but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms. In addition, loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before, but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts. In addition, we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the “performance-bank loan” relationship. Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing, which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.

  4. FINANCIAL BALANCE AND LOANS OF THE SHAREHOLDERS TO THE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rus Luminita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present analyses, based on a case study show the influence on the financial balance of the loans from shareholders , taking into account the accounting treatment of loans. We do not know that the Romanian economic literature to be treated that aspect. That is why we consider the study as being useful to managers, members, shareholders, and all business partners to form the economic decisions. The purpose of this financial analysis is to examine critically the accounting and financial information ofered by the companies to assess their performance and their financial position (Laurence Le Gallo. The financial position of firms is assessed based on the financial structure and financial balance. In a same time the financial balance is approached from a static perspective based on the: net situation, working capital, necessary of working capital, net treasury. The present analyses deals with financial balance in a static manner based on these four indicators listed. The sources of data for the analysis of financial balance are offered mainly in the financial statement. This document has been used data from a company that is engaged in the carriage of goods. Analysis was made over a period of five years. The present analysis showed that financial balance is influenced by the way that the shareholders loans to the company are treated by including them in long-term debt or short-term. Reprocessing of loans and their inclusion in long-term debt, changes the perspective on financial balance showing that on the long-term company has a stable balance. These aspects require preparation of loan agreements with associates as loans work in reality. The contracts must to highlight the progress of the loan on the long term and not to be extended or remodeled the short-term contracts. Of course, there are always solutions to improve the financial balance and in this way the financial position and the performance of the company. However, the proposed solutions

  5. Central bank independence and public debt policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    The various proposals for the institutional design of the European Monetary Union have drawn fresh attention to the link between monetary and public debt policies. This paper explores the strategic interaction between fiscal authorities setting public debt and the central bank controlling monetary

  6. Executive Compensation and the Cost of Debt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Rezaul; Liu, Hao; Veld-Merkoulova, Yulia V.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how different components of executive compensation affect the cost of debt. We find that debt-like and equity-like pay components have differing effects: an increase in defined benefit pensions is associated with lower bond yield spread, while higher share holdings lead to higher

  7. 19 CFR 351.508 - Debt forgiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Identification and Measurement of Countervailable Subsidies § 351.508 Debt forgiveness. (a) Benefit. In the case of an assumption or forgiveness of a firm's debt obligation, a benefit exists equal to the amount of...

  8. Public debt, secular stagnation and functional finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Fiscal policy and public debt may be required to maintain full employment and avoid secular stagnation. This conclusion emerges from a range of different models, including OLG specifications and stock-flow consistent (post-) Keynesian models. One of the determinants of the required long-run debt ...

  9. State debt dynamics: the methodological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crijanovschi Stela

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development

  10. STATE DEBT DYNAMICS: THE METHODOLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela CRIJANOVSCHI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it’s presented the methodological aspect of the state debt. The issue of supplementary money in order to cover the state debt is one of the factors that generate inflation, which respectively has a negative impact on the economic development.

  11. Government debt in Greece: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Mah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Greek government debt has been increasing above the percentage stated in the growth and stability path from 112.9% in 2008 to 175.6% in 2013. This paper investigates the determinants of the general government debt in Greek by means of Vector Error Correction Model framework, Variance Decomposition and Generalized Impulse Response Function Analysis. The analysis showed a significant negative relationship between general government debt and government deficit, general government debt and inflation. Shocks to general government and inflation will cause general government debt to increase. Government deficit should be increased since there is gross capital formation included in its calculation which could be invested in income generating projects. The current account balance should be reduced by improving the net trade balance.

  12. Public Debt, Corruption and Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that look into the relationship between public debt and economic growth. It is hard to find, however, research addressing the role of corruption between these two variables. Noticing this vacancy in current literature, we strive to investigate the effect of corruption on the relationship between public debt and economic growth. For this purpose, the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects models and the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM models (Arellano-Bond, 1991 are estimated with data of 77 countries from 1990 to 2014. The empirical results show that the interaction term between public debt and corruption is statistically significant. This confirms the hypothesis that the effect of public debt on economic growth is a function of corruption. The sign of the marginal effect is negative in corrupt countries, but public debt enhances economic growth within countries that are not corrupt, i.e., highly transparent.

  13. PUBLIC DEBT ANALYSIS BASED ON SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena DASCALU

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is an analysis of public debt, in terms of sustainability and vulnerability indicators, under a functioning market economy. The problems encountered regarding the high level of public debt or the potential risks of budgetary pressure converge to the idea that sustainability of public finances should be a major challenge for public policy. Thus, the policy adequate to address public finance sustainability must have as its starting point the overall strategy of the European Union, as well as the economic development of Member States, focusing on the most important performance components, namely, reducing public debt levels, increasing productivity and employment and, last but not the least, reforming social security systems. In order to achieve sustainable levels of public debt, the European Union Member States are required to establish and accomplish medium term strategic budgetary goals to ensure a downward trend in public debt.

  14. Classification of non-performing loans portfolio using Multilayer Perceptron artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Clésio Silva de Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to apply a Multilayer Perceptron (MLP neural network technique to create classification models from a portfolio of Non-Performing Loans (NPLs to classify this type of credit derivative. These credit derivatives are characterized as the amount of loans that were not paid and are already overdue more than 90 days. Since these titles are, because of legislative motives, moved by losses, Credit Rights Investment Funds (FDIC performs the purchase of these debts and the recovery of the credits. Using the Multilayer Perceptron (MLP architecture of Artificial Neural Network (ANN, classification models regarding the posterior recovery of these debts were created. To evaluate the performance of the models, evaluation metrics of classification relating to the neural networks with different architectures were presented. The results of the classifications were satisfactory, given the classification models were successful in the presented economics costs structure.

  15. 7 CFR 1710.50 - Insured loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Types of Loans and... determined pursuant to 7 CFR part 1714, and the borrower may elect to include in the loan documents a...

  16. 7 CFR 1710.51 - Direct loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Types of Loans and... borrowers. (b) Loan documents. Successful applicants will be required to execute and deliver to RUS a...

  17. ANALYSIS OF MODELS OF EARLY DEBT REPAYMENT IN THE Generalized CREDIT TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the patterns of early repayment in multi-period credit transactions. Considered one of the most common ways of conversion of unpaid interest for early repayment, so-called 78 rule. The relationship of this rule with the linear approximation of the exact value; redeemable debt is determined. The analysis of the maximum excess payment of interest on 78 rule. It has been shown how interest payment on 78 rule depended on the time of early repayment. Early repayment of debt is an agreement under which the borrower pays to the lender amount of money equal to the current balance (as of loan account. Then further regular payments cease and the contract terminates. However, the amount of outstanding debt is determined by the structure of prescription charges. So in the uniform schemes of repayment of consumer credit each payment contains the same part of principal amounts and the total interest. In case of early repayment the Bank loses a significant fraction of the expected interest payments. Therefore, in practice, often used so-called accelerated schemes of interest payments. One of them is 78 rule. Use the 78 rule is simple and straightforward. The name of the rule is due to the fact that the sum of the numbers 12 monthly payments is 78. In the schemes of consumer loan with a term of one year interest payment for the current month is equal to m/78 of the total amount of interest payments, where m is the number of remaining payments. The rule name is stored and in the more general case with an arbitrary number of payments. In general interest payment is determined by the relative weight of the total amount of interest in each payment. In uniform schemes it is constant. In accelerated with a particular speed decreases. Therefore, additional cash expenses by the 78 rule may be considered as additional penalties for early repayment of the debt. It this article is shown how this penalty depends on time before maturity. It is shown that

  18. Debt Collection: More Aggressive Action Needed To Collect Debts Owed by Health Professionals. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Honorable John R. Kasich, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed and evaluated debt collection activities of five programs of the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) that provide financial assistance to health professions students and medical facilities. The principal findings include: (1) HRSA changes have improved delinquency rates; however, large…

  19. Financial attitudes, knowledge, and habits of chiropractic students: A descriptive survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Julie; Lawrence, Dana J.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Goertz, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Our purpose was to describe the financial knowledge, habits and attitudes of chiropractic students. Methods: We designed a cross-sectional survey to measure basic financial knowledge, current financial habits, risk tolerance, and beliefs about future income among 250 students enrolled in business courses at one US chiropractic college. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed. Results: We received 57 questionnaires (23% response rate). Most respondents would accumulate over $125,000 in student loan debt by graduation. Financial knowledge was low (mean 77%). Most respondents (72%) scored as average financial risk takers. Chiropractic students reported recommended short-term habits such as having checking accounts (90%) and health insurance (63%) or paying monthly bills (88%) and credit cards (60%). Few saved money for unplanned expenses (39%) or long-term goals (26%), kept written budgets (32%), or had retirement accounts (19%). Conclusion: These chiropractic students demonstrated inadequate financial literacy and did not engage in many recommended financial habits. PMID:24587498

  20. 7 CFR 2201.19 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 2201.19 Section 2201.19 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.19 Loan terms. (a) All Loans...

  1. 5 CFR 1655.14 - Loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan payments. 1655.14 Section 1655.14 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.14 Loan payments. (a) Loan payments must be made through payroll deduction in accordance with the loan agreement. Once loan...

  2. 7 CFR 1436.7 - Loan term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan term. 1436.7 Section 1436.7 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS FARM STORAGE FACILITY LOAN PROGRAM REGULATIONS § 1436.7 Loan term. (a) For eligible facility loan commodities other than sugar, the term of the loan will be 7...

  3. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 400.202 Section 400.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed...

  4. 7 CFR 764.401 - Loan decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan decision. 764.401 Section 764.401 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.401 Loan decision. (a) Loan approval. (1) The Agency will approve a loan only if it determines that: (i) The applicant's farm operating...

  5. 7 CFR 1710.407 - Loan documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan documents. 1710.407 Section 1710.407 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Application Requirements and Procedures for Loans § 1710.407 Loan documents. Following approval of a loan, RUS will forward...

  6. 13 CFR 500.204 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 500.204 Section 500.204 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.204 Loan terms. (a) All loans guaranteed under the...

  7. 13 CFR 400.204 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 400.204 Section 400.204 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.204 Loan terms. (a) All loans guaranteed under the Program shall be...

  8. 7 CFR 1710.406 - Loan approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan approval. 1710.406 Section 1710.406 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Application Requirements and Procedures for Loans § 1710.406 Loan approval. (a) A loan is approved when the Administrator...

  9. 13 CFR 500.202 - Loan amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 500.202 Section 500.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.202 Loan amount. The aggregate amount of loan...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.113 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 1710.113 Section 1710.113 Agriculture... GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.113 Loan security. (a) RUS makes loans only if, in the judgment of the...

  11. 7 CFR 1735.22 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 1735.22 Section 1735.22 Agriculture... GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1735.22 Loan security. (a) RUS makes loans only if, in the judgment of the Administrator, the...

  12. 7 CFR 762.121 - Loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan purposes. 762.121 Section 762.121 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.121 Loan purposes. (a) Operating Loan purposes. (1) Loan... the need to refinance; (viii) Payment of loan closing costs; (ix) Payment of costs associated with...

  13. 7 CFR 1738.22 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 1738.22 Section 1738.22 Agriculture... RURAL BROADBAND ACCESS LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1738.22 Loan security. (a) RUS makes loans only if, in the judgment of the Administrator, the security therefore is...

  14. 7 CFR 1737.92 - Loan documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan documents. 1737.92 Section 1737.92 Agriculture... PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED TELECOMMUNICATIONS LOANS Final Loan Approval Procedures § 1737.92 Loan documents. Following approval of the loan, RUS shall forward the...

  15. Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cont, Rama; Jessen, Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    be made arbitrarily small—and thus the credit rating arbitrarily high—by increasing leverage, but the ratings obtained strongly depend on assumptions on the credit environment (high spread or low spread). More importantly, CPDO loss distributions are found to exhibit a wide range of tail risk measures......Constant Proportion Debt Obligations (CPDOs) are structured credit derivatives that generate high coupon payments by dynamically leveraging a position in an underlying portfolio of investment-grade index default swaps. CPDO coupons and principal notes received high initial credit ratings from...... the major rating agencies, based on complex models for the joint transition of ratings and spreads for all names in the underlying portfolio. We propose a parsimonious model for analysing the performance of CPDO strategies using a top-down approach that captures the essential risk factors of the CPDO. Our...

  16. Savings and Debts in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The savings and debts problematic bring us in front the Keynesian principles of supporting the global demand, so spectacular immortalized inside his “General Theory of Money. The architects of the European Union consider that production in agriculture and other economic branches is “ab initio” grounded on the credit mechanism administrated by banks: the present day approach of the agricultural process configured it as costly, owing a relatively medium to long term duration, and risky, making important the banking institution for mitigating such constrains. Romania fights for the ambitious goal of entering in the euro zone, and this target became even more challenging after the new EU Regulation No 1176/2011 on the prevention and correction of macroeconomic imbalances, which stipulates a safer surveillance for the member states. In fact, our country has to meet the exigencies of nominal and real convergence criteria, measured by the European scoreboard and relevant index.

  17. The Little Data Book on External Debt 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The little data book on external debt, a pocket edition of Global Development Finance (GDF) 2009, volume two, summary and country tables, contains statistical tables on the external debt of the 128 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed external debt under the debtor reporting system. It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting ...

  18. The Little Data Book on External Debt 2007

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The little data book on external debt, a pocket edition of Global Development Finance (GDF) 2007, volume two, summary and country tables, contains statistical tables on the external debt of the 135 countries that report public and publicly guaranteed debt under the debtor reporting system. It also includes tables of selected debt and resource flow statistics for individual reporting countr...

  19. 26 CFR 1.166-1 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bad debts. 1.166-1 Section 1.166-1 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.166-1 Bad debts. (a... shall be allowed in respect of bad debts owed to the taxpayer. For this purpose, bad debts shall...

  20. 7 CFR 792.4 - Demand for payment of debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand for payment of debts. 792.4 Section 792.4... AGRICULTURE PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM DEBT SETTLEMENT POLICIES AND PROCEDURES § 792.4 Demand for payment of debts. (a) When a debt is due FSA, an initial written demand for payment of such amount...

  1. Simulation analysis of alternative strategies for public debt issuance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of domestic debt in the public debt portfolio for market development purposes. While the ... objective, it is essential to have an effective public debt portfolio which provides an appropriate benchmarking structure against which the performance of debt managers can ... The cost metric is primarily influenced by the size of the.

  2. The effects of debt burden on the Nigerian economy | Ogege ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It employs the ordinary least squares (OLS) to test the relationship between debt burden and the growth in the Nigerian economy. The finding shows that there is a negative relationship between debt stock (internal and external debt) and gross domestic product, meaning that an increase in debt stock will lead to reduction ...

  3. Public debt managers' behaviour interactions with macro policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, Lex; Öztürk, Bahar; Wierts, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of public debt management, the policy behaviour of debt managers, and the interaction of debt management with financial stability and monetary policy. The main focus is on the euro area. Empirical estimations of a debt management reaction function indicate that the share

  4. Estimating the optimal growth-maximising public debt threshold for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts to estimate an optimal growth-maximising public debt threshold for Zimbabwe. The public debt threshold is estimated by assessing the relationship between public debt and economic growth. The analysis is undertaken to determine the tipping point beyond which increases in public debt adversely affect ...

  5. Public debt managers' behaviour: interactions with macro policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogduin, L.; Öztürk, B.; Wierts, P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of public debt management, the policy behaviour of debt managers, and the impact of debt management on financial stability and monetary policy.The focus is on the euro area. Empirical estimations of a debt management reaction function indicate that the share of short

  6. Credit Card Debt Hardship Letter Samples

    OpenAIRE

    lissa coffey

    2016-01-01

    Having trouble with your credit card debt? Below you will find examples of hardship letters. There are several things to consider when writing a credit card hardship letter. A hardship letter is the first step to letting the credit card company know that things are bad. This free credit card hardship letter sample is only a guide in order to start the negotiation. Credit card debt hardship letter example, hardship letter to credit card. If you are having trouble paying off your debt and need ...

  7. Introduction: On the ethics of debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. Carter

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue stems from a 2015 conference on the ‘Ethics of Debt’, organised by the guest editors and held at Iowa State University. Three themes emerged from the conference and are represented in the articles and documentary film selected for the special issue. The first concerns representations of debt in art and literature. The second theme demonstrates how debt arises and functions in specific contexts. The final theme addresses moral and ethical responses to debt within society.

  8. Guide to Direct Consolidation Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Intended for financial aid counselors, this document provides guidelines to the Federal Direct Consolidation Loan Program for borrowers who are in school, as well as those in repayment, or in default. An introductory section explains the basics of the consolidated loan program, loan categories, and interest rates. Next, standards for borrower…

  9. Private Loans: Facts and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute for College Access & Success, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Private loans are one of the riskiest ways to finance a college education. Like credit cards, they typically have variable interest rates. Both variable and fixed rates are higher for those who can least afford them--as high as 13% in June 2014. Private loans are not eligible for the important deferment, income-based repayment, or loan forgiveness…

  10. Determinants of Debt: An Econometric Analysis Based on the Cyprus Survey of Consumer Finances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Petrides

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on the Cyprus Survey of Consumer Finances (CySCF and focuses on the investigation of home secured loans and consumer credit card outstanding balances among Cypriot families. The CySCF runs on a triennial basis with the first database created in 1999 (CySCF1999. According to CySCF1999 and CySCF2002, the overall participation in home secured debt among all families declined from 29.95% in 1999 and 29.77% in 2002 to 25.77% in 2005 (CySCF2005. Credit cards were introduced in the early 1980s and grew significantly during the 1990s. The overall percentage of Cypriot households holding credit cards is estimated at 41.7% for 1999, 50% for 2002, and 48% for 2005. This work deals with the econometric analysis of home secured loans and consumer credit card outstanding balances and it provides results based on logit models. The main variables selected for home secured loans are the age, family status, specific attitude toward credit, employment status, and income. The resulting model exhibits a polynomial behaviour of degree two with respect to age. The main variables for consumer credit card balances are the age, education, general attitude, income code, home secured loans and riskiness. Worth noting is the high probability of having credit card balances for those households where the economically dominant unit is of low age with a positive attitude towards credit.

  11. Corporate insurance and debt capacity: Empirical evidence from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Santoboni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In banks/enterprises relationships a key role is played by Basel II Framework, which accurately correlates banks’ capital requirement to risks, by stimulating a more precise creditworthiness assessment. As known, the containment of risks inherent in bank financing can be carried out ex ante, through an adequate screening, which allows the proper assessment of enterprises’ economic and financial situation and a sound composition of the total loan portfolio, and ex post, through guarantees, which allow benefiting from a loss reduction only after insolvency has occurred. From this perspective, Basel II Framework brings important changes, since life insurance and surety policy are “eligible” guarantees for Credit Risk Mitigation. Nevertheless, banks could offer a better pricing to borrowers not because they are less risky, but because the whole operation would need a lower capital requirement. Therefore, corporate risks reduction – which would allow, in the absence of credit rationing, a more profitable debt capacity – is necessarily achieved through an appropriate “umbrella insurance”, able to cope with both direct and indirect loss. This work aims at investigating the existence of a “virtuous” relationship among corporate insurance purchases, credit risk and debt capacity. Such aim has been pursued through different steps: review of literature, to identify the reasons of corporate demand for insurance; analysis of Italian enterprises’ corporate insurance purchases; drafting of a questionnaire, to submit to a sample of the main insurance companies working in Italy, intended to identify what kind of role they play in the relation with enterprises and which insurance products they offer; drafting of a questionnaire, to submit to a sample of the main banks working in Italy, intended to investigate whether and how the possession of corporate insurance is taken into consideration in the determination of enterprises

  12. 36 CFR 1011.8 - When will the Presidio Trust suspend or terminate debt collection on a debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When will the Presidio Trust... PRESIDIO TRUST DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Presidio Trust Debts § 1011.8 When will the Presidio Trust suspend or terminate debt collection on a debt? If, after pursuing all appropriate means of...

  13. 15 CFR 19.8 - When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will Commerce entities suspend or terminate debt collection on a Commerce debt? 19.8 Section 19.8 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.8 When will...

  14. Exploring the link between household debt and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasianos, Apostolos; Raza, Hamid; Kinsella, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between household debt and income inequality in the USA, allowing for asymmetry, using data over the period 1913–2008. We find evidence of an asymmetric cointegration between household debt and inequality for different regimes. Our results indicate household debt...... only responds to positive changes in income inequality, while there is no evidence of falling inequality significantly affecting household debt. The presence of this asymmetry provides further empirical insights into the emerging literature on household debt and inequality....

  15. Mortgage lenders and loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a short historical overview of the different types of lenders that are active in the origination of residential mortgage loans. First, a distinction is made between depository and nondepository lenders. Second, there are two major types of depository lenders: commercial banks,

  16. Colleges Scramble to Help Students Find New Lenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiano, Beckie

    2008-01-01

    Recent turbulence in the student-loan business has colleges scrambling to find new loan providers. Financial-aid offices at affected colleges are working hard to get the word out to students. Changes in the loan market have hit community colleges particularly hard because their students tend to have smaller loans and higher default rates than…

  17. Parallel debt in the Serbian finance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzman Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the mechanism of parallel debt in the Serbian financial law. While considering whether the mechanism of parallel debt exists under the Serbian law, the Anglo-Saxon mechanism of trust is represented. Hence it is explained why the mechanism of trust is not allowed under the Serbian law. Further on, the mechanism of parallel debt is introduced as well as a debate on permissibility of its cause in the Serbian law. Comparative legal arguments about this issue are also presented in this paper. In conclusion, the author suggests that on the basis of the conclusions drawn in this paper, the parallel debt mechanism is to be declared admissible if it is ever taken into consideration by the Serbian courts.

  18. The EMU debt criterion: an interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. BERNDSEN

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The convergence criteria specified in the Maastricht Treaty on government deficit and debt, inflation, the exchange rate and the long-term interest rate will play an important, if not decisive, role in determining which countries move on to the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU. The aim of this work is to provide a possible interpretation of the EMU debt criterion. The author investigates the government debt criterion which, as Article 104c(2b of the Treaty shows, has a considerable scope for interpretation. Although this subject has been discussed extensively, relatively little work has been done to develop a clear interpretation of the EMU debt criterion. A flexible approach is adopted in which parts of the relevant Treaty text are characterised using two parameters.

  19. A Brazilian Debt-Crisis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf Razin; Efraim Sadka

    2002-01-01

    We develop a stylised model of multiple equilibria, with country risk spreads at the focus of the analysis. Fears that the country default on its debt triggers a reversal in the direction of inflows of international financial capital raise interest-rate spreads and thus the cost of servicing the public debt. The analytical framework is standard: creditors observe the output of borrowing only at a cost.

  20. THE DETERMINANTS OF HOUSEHOLD DEBT DEFAULT

    OpenAIRE

    ALFARO, RODRIGO; GALLARDO, NATALIA

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study household debt default behavior in Chile using survey data. Previous research in this area suggests financial and personal variables help estimate individual and group probabilities of default. We study mortgage and consumer default separately, as the default decisions and overall borrower behavior are different for each type of debt. Our study finds that income and income-related variables are the only significant and robust variables that explain default for both typ...

  1. 31 CFR 380.3 - What collateral may I pledge if I am a Treasury Tax and Loan depositary under 31 CFR part 203...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What collateral may I pledge if I am a Treasury Tax and Loan depositary under 31 CFR part 203, and what value will you assign to it? 380...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT COLLATERAL ACCEPTABILITY AND...

  2. PUBLIC DEBT IN REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Jović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis has led to the requestioning of the justification of economic growth based on borrowing. The issue of public spending and public debt has become particularly important for small and opened economies that are not sufficiently competitive on the world market. If one such country seeks to enter the EU, the rules on the amount of total borrowing and public debt can be a significant obstacle. In recent years, Republic of Srpska has been borrowing rapidly, so in the academic community is already concerned about the possibility and price of servicing those debts. The paper gives a theoretical explanation of the public debt and the needs for borrowing, then to set out the rules on debt level limitation. In the final part, the indicators of indebtedness of Republic of Srpska were presented on the basis of the available information, with the conclusion that this is a medium-indebted country, but also a country that is very vulnerable when it comes to maintaining macroeconomic stability and regular debt servicing

  3. GENDER, DEBT, AND DROPPING OUT OF COLLEGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Rachel E; Hodson, Randy; McLoud, Laura

    2013-02-01

    For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college degree and future difficulties they may face in repaying college debt. We examine these new realities by studying gender differences in the role of debt in the pivotal event of graduating from college using the 1997 cohort of the national longitudinal Survey of youth. In this article, we find that women and men both experience slowing and even diminishing probabilities of graduating when carrying high levels of debt, but that men drop out at lower levels of debt than do women. We conclude by theorizing that high levels of debt are one of the mechanisms that sort women and men into different positions in the social stratification system.

  4. The competitiveness of Eurozone periphery countries’ economies and their debt problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes that after the periphery PIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain joined the Eurozone, several factors previously improving PIGS' export competitiveness (undervalued national currency, protective customs duty, low compensation of employees no longer work. It is revealed that in the pre-crisis years the rapid GDP growth in PIGS took place considerably by means of foreign loans. Moreover, external debt bubbles grew: high rates of economic growth facilitated the inflow of new foreign money used for both reinvestment and current external debt service. Besides, the share of «tradable» goods (that can be moved between countries and internationally traded decreased in the GDP structures of PIGS. During the crisis, the PIGS' economic situation got worse (growth of external and public debts, decline in the GDP and in the investments, high unemployment. Conclusion: the Eurozone should either strengthen the integration (to increase the unification of laws in the economic and social spheres, to tighten control by the Eurozone central authorities, or get rid of the troubled countries. Otherwise, the current crisis, repeatedly flaring and fading, will persist for a long time.

  5. THE COMPETITIVENESS OF EUROZONE PERIPHERY COUNTRIES’ ECONOMIES AND THEIR DEBT PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes that after the periphery PIGS countries (Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain joined the Eurozone, several factors previously improving PIGS' export competitiveness (undervalued national currency, protective customs duty, low compensation of employees no longer work. It is revealed that in the pre-crisis years the rapid GDP growth in PIGS took place considerably by means of foreign loans. Moreover, external debt bubbles grew: high rates of economic growth facilitated the inflow of new foreign money used for both reinvestment and current external debt service. Besides, the share of «tradable» goods (that can be moved between countries and internationally traded decreased in the GDP structures of PIGS. During the crisis, the PIGS' economic situation got worse (growth of external and public debts, decline in the GDP and in the investments, high unemployment. Conclusion: the Eurozone should either strengthen the integration (to increase the unification of laws in the economic and social spheres, to tighten control by the Eurozone central authorities, or get rid of the troubled countries. Otherwise, the current crisis, repeatedly flaring and fading, will persist for a long time.

  6. Debt relief and Development: The case of the 2005 debt relief agreement with Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn 1999 Nigeria became a democracy again after a long period of dictatorship. One of the top priorities for the newly elected President Obasanjo was to clear the huge foreign debt that the country had built up in previous decades. Most of this debt was with bilateral official creditors,

  7. Debt Stabilization and Debt Mutualization in a Monetary Union with Endogenous Risk Premia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, Jacob; van Aarle, B.; Weeren, A.J.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we analyse debt stabilization in a monetary union that features endogenous risk premia. In particular, we analyse debt stabilization in two diametrically opposed regimes. In the first regime, the “national fiscal discipline regime”, financial markets impose sovereign risk premia based

  8. Debt Sustainability of Ukraine: Status, Problems and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mytrofanova Anastasiia S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is a comprehensive analysis of indicators and disclosure of problems of debt sustainability of Ukraine, as well as the formulation of recommendations for its management. There built a system of indicators for debt sustainability analysis consisting of the following elements: indicators of the status, structure and dynamics of the state debt; indicators of the state debt servicing; indicators of the state debt factors; indicators of the debt burden forecast. Based on the calculation and analysis of the indicators, a conclusion is drawn on the deepening of the debt crisis in Ukraine, which is manifested in the excess of normative values of the indicators of status, structure and dynamics of the state debt. The reasons for the aggravation of the debt crisis in Ukraine are revealed and divided into three groups: objective historical, socioeconomic and subjective-institutional ones. Based on the analysis of trends in the sphere of violation of debt sustainability, there defined main problems of debt sustainability management, which form three groups: socio-economic problems; problems in the sphere of public administration; negative impact of related debt factors. In addition, risks and threats of deepening the debt burden are identified. Based on the analysis of these problems, a system of recommendations on the state policy of managing debt sustainability is built, including operational, tactical and strategic measures and reflecting the interrelated action of instruments of fiscal, monetary, investment, foreign trade and other economic policies of the state.

  9. Debt swaps as an innovative tool for financing renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugler, A.

    1999-01-01

    The emergence of a so-called 'secondary market' for Third World debt papers laid the foundations for different types of debt swaps or debt conversions. A debt conversion is a financial transaction in which a 'converter' (or investor) exchanges (swaps) a debt denominated in a hard currency for a domestic debt payable in local currency by the debtor government. This operation is attractive for the investor because it can imply a significant leverage, since the debt paper is purchased at an often substantial discount on the secondary market, whereas the debtor government will redeem it at a rate above the purchase price. Debt swaps can play a role as an additional source of development finance, but their contribution should not be overestimated. Over the last ten years, debt-for-development and debt-for-nature swaps have generated an estimated US$ 1 billion in local currency. In recent years, debt swaps originating with non-governmental organizations have considerably slowed, probably due to rising prices for commercial debt titles. On the other hand, it is expected that there will be an increase of official debt conversions in the future. Since they can be an attractive financing tool, debt swaps could also be used in order to fund investments in or credit facilities for alternative energies. (orig.)

  10. Assessing Tuition- and Debt-Free Higher Education. NASFAA Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The Assessing Tuition- and Debt-Free Higher Education Task Force was convened in July 2016. Charged by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators's (NASFAA's) Board of Directors with evaluating the existing landscape of state and local promise programs with a focus on scaling such models to the national level, the task force…

  11. The high price of debt: household financial debt and its impact on mental and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Elizabeth; Nandi, Arijit; Adam, Emma K; McDade, Thomas W

    2013-08-01

    Household financial debt in America has risen dramatically in recent years. While there is evidence that debt is associated with adverse psychological health, its relationship with other health outcomes is relatively unknown. We investigate the associations of multiple indices of financial debt with psychological and general health outcomes among 8400 young adult respondents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Our findings show that reporting high financial debt relative to available assets is associated with higher perceived stress and depression, worse self-reported general health, and higher diastolic blood pressure. These associations remain significant when controlling for prior socioeconomic status, psychological and physical health, and other demographic factors. The results suggest that debt is an important socioeconomic determinant of health that should be explored further in social epidemiology research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 7 CFR 1610.4 - Loan applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.4 Loan applications. No application for a loan will be considered for approval by the Bank... of the applicant for a Bank loan and the amount thereof. Loan application forms are available from...

  13. 24 CFR 201.41 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan servicing. 201.41 Section 201... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan Administration § 201.41 Loan servicing. (a) Generally...

  14. 49 CFR 260.9 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan terms. 260.9 Section 260.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS GOVERNING LOANS AND LOAN GUARANTEES UNDER THE RAILROAD REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.9 Loan terms. The maximum repayment period for direct loans and guaranteed...

  15. 7 CFR 770.5 - Loan limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan limitations. 770.5 Section 770.5 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.5 Loan limitations. (a) Loan funds may not be... title. (b) The amount of loan funds used to acquire land may not exceed the market value of the land...

  16. 7 CFR 1980.370 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan servicing. 1980.370 Section 1980.370 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.370 Loan servicing. RHS encourages Lenders to... sufficient servicing and counseling to meet the objectives of the loan. Loan servicing should be approached...

  17. 7 CFR 1435.101 - Loan rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan rates. 1435.101 Section 1435.101 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS SUGAR PROGRAM Sugar Loan Program § 1435.101 Loan rates. (a) The national average loan rate for raw cane sugar produced from domestically grown sugarcane is: 18...

  18. 7 CFR 771.5 - Loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan purposes. 771.5 Section 771.5 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.5 Loan purposes. (a) Loan funds may be used..., travel and office operations; (3) Salaries and benefits. (b) Loan funds may not be used to pay expenses...

  19. 7 CFR 774.22 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 774.22 Section 774.22 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS EMERGENCY LOAN FOR SEED PRODUCERS PROGRAM § 774.22 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant must meet all conditions specified by the loan approval official in the notification of loan...

  20. 7 CFR 1980.310 - Loan purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Loan purposes. 1980.310 Section 1980.310 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.310 Loan purposes. The purpose of a loan guaranteed... applicant as a primary residence. The loan may be to purchase a new dwelling or an existing dwelling. The...

  1. 7 CFR 1779.69 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan servicing. 1779.69 Section 1779.69 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.69 Loan servicing. (a) Lender responsibilities. The lender is responsible for servicing the entire loan in accordance with the lender's loan...

  2. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan amounts. 201.10 Section 201.10... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.10 Loan amounts. (a) Property...

  3. 7 CFR 771.13 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 771.13 Section 771.13 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS BOLL WEEVIL ERADICATION LOAN PROGRAM § 771.13 Loan closing. (a) Conditions. The applicant must meet all conditions specified by the loan approval official in the notification of loan approval...

  4. 5 CFR 1655.21 - Loan fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan fee. 1655.21 Section 1655.21 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.21 Loan fee. The TSP will charge a participant a $50.00 loan fee when it disburses the loan and will deduct the fee from the...

  5. 7 CFR 3560.61 - Loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan security. 3560.61 Section 3560.61 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Direct Loan and Grant Origination § 3560.61 Loan security... collateral. (2) The amount of the loan against the collateral does not exceed its estimated security value...

  6. The Ratio Evolution Analysis of the Non-Performing Loans Obtained by the Credit Institutions in Romania during the Period 2007-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Catalina Turkes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the ratio evolution of the non-performing loans obtained by the privately, Romanian and foreign-owned credit institutions, in Romania, during the period December 2007 - June 2015, depending on the change of the legislation regarding the reporting methodology for the purpose of the institutions surveillance according to the prudential regulations of BNR (National Bank of Romania and EU Regulation. The results of this analysis highlighted the fact that the non-performing loans ratio went through a spectacular increase during the period 2007-2013, reaching 21.87% following the promotion of a strategic plan based on the recovery of the debts by restructuring actions, rescheduling or enforcement. In 2014, the non-performing loans ratio decreases to 15.33% following the modification of the debt recovery strategic plan by taking them out from the balance sheet and by their integral provisioning.

  7. Race and Subprime Loan Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Ruben; Owyang, Michael; Ghent, Andra

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate whether race and ethnicity influenced subprime loan pricing during 2005, the peak of the subprime mortgage expansion. We combine loan-level data on the performance of non-prime securitized mortgages with individual- and neighborhood-level data on racial and ethnic characteristics for metropolitan areas in California and Florida. Using a model of rate determination that accounts for predicted loan performance, we evaluate the presence of disparate impact and dispar...

  8. 27 CFR 6.61 - Guaranteeing loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Guaranteeing Loans § 6.61 Guaranteeing loans. The act by an industry member of guaranteeing any loan or the repayment of any financial...

  9. 24 CFR 200.25 - Supplemental loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... loans. A loan, advance of credit or purchase of an obligation representing a loan or advance of credit...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.612 - Loan limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS On-Farm Labor Housing § 3560.612 Loan limits. The maximum loan amount will be 100 percent of the allowable total development costs of on-farm labor housing and...

  11. Government debt management in the euro area - recent theoretical developments and changes in practices

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Wolswijk; Jakob de Haan

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the management of government debt in the euro area, covering both theoretical and practical aspects. It focuses on key aspects of debt management; the objectives of debt management, its organisation, the maturity of debt, inflation-indexation, currency-denomination, the ownership of debt, and debt issuing and trading practices. Main adjustments include an increase in autonomy of debt management agencies, and a convergence in debt maturities and in deb...

  12. Extinction debt: a challenge for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuussaari, Mikko; Bommarco, Riccardo; Heikkinen, Risto K; Helm, Aveliina; Krauss, Jochen; Lindborg, Regina; Ockinger, Erik; Pärtel, Meelis; Pino, Joan; Rodà, Ferran; Stefanescu, Constantí; Teder, Tiit; Zobel, Martin; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2009-10-01

    Local extinction of species can occur with a substantial delay following habitat loss or degradation. Accumulating evidence suggests that such extinction debts pose a significant but often unrecognized challenge for biodiversity conservation across a wide range of taxa and ecosystems. Species with long generation times and populations near their extinction threshold are most likely to have an extinction debt. However, as long as a species that is predicted to become extinct still persists, there is time for conservation measures such as habitat restoration and landscape management. Standardized long-term monitoring, more high-quality empirical studies on different taxa and ecosystems and further development of analytical methods will help to better quantify extinction debt and protect biodiversity.

  13. Prefrontal system dysfunction and credit card debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinella, Marcello; Yang, Bijou; Lester, David

    2004-10-01

    Credit card use often involves a disadvantageous allocation of finances because they allow for spending beyond means and buying on impulse. Accordingly they are associated with increased bankruptcy, anxiety, stress, and health problems. Mounting evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical studies implicates prefrontal-subcortical systems in processing financial information. This study examined the relationship of credit card debt and executive functions using the Frontal System Behavior Scale (FRSBE). After removing the influences of demographic variables (age, sex, education, and income), credit card debt was associated with the Executive Dysfunction scale, but not the Apathy or Disinhibition scales. This suggests that processes of conceptualizing and organizing finances are most relevant to credit card debt, and implicates dorsolateral prefrontal dysfunction.

  14. Carbon debt - Lost in the forest?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ‘carbon debt’ and carbon payback time with reference to bioenergy and biofuels was probably launched by anarticle in Science in 2008. The concept is increasingly seen as an indicator of the sustainability of bioenergy supply chains.Particularly for forest bioenergy supply chains...... the time lapse between harvest and regrowth may be a signifi cant factor for themodeled carbon debt. A meta-analysis of more than 250 model scenarios was conducted to evaluate the factors and assumptionsdetermining carbon debts and payback time of forest bioenergy supply chains. Factors such as spatial...... and temporal scale, biome,origin of the wood resource, which fossil fuels are displaced, forest history, baseline scenario, accounting principle, and databackground were included in the analysis. This paper discusses the evolution of the carbon debt concept, how different factorsand assumptions infl uence...

  15. Government guarantees and public debt in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Bajo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Government fi nancial and performance guarantees have been issued in Croatia since 1996, to support funding and ensure favourable borrowing conditions in the fi nancial market for companies in majority state ownership. However, government guarantees have rarely been part of defi ned strategies and goals of public debt and risk management. Despite their steady growth, the structure of active guarantees and their infl uence on Croatian public debt are still unknown. This paper analyses the amount and structure of state guarantees, their maturities and the authority and accountability for their management, and it compares the structure of guarantees in terms of economic sectors. The main objective of the paper is to determine the infl uence of government guarantees on the public debt growth.

  16. Foreign Debt: Causes and Measures Taken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Botescu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly globalized world, any crisis, including the ones caused by the foreign debtdefault of a country, may have a negative impact which can be contagious both at regional and atglobal level. Taking into account all the risks to which international creditors were subjectedover time, thestock of foreign debt worldwide has experienced a significant increase in the current millennium,actually demonstrating that international lending is profitable. The causes of default, the measures taken by the concerned countries to get out of this situationand the specific examples were the elements which I have tried to capture in this paper. Last butnot least, I have performed an analysis of the evolution of the foreign debt stock and the repaymentcapacity of small and medium-income countries, respectively the most vulnerable countries interms of debt repayment.

  17. Impact of Debt Capital on Outreach and Efficiency Of Microfinance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Debt Capital on Outreach and Efficiency Of Microfinance ... donation or government grants should be sustained in a long term to enable MFIs reach the poor who cannot afford high interest rates charged by debt financed MFIs.

  18. 76 FR 6555 - Loan Guaranty Revised Loan Modification Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... loan; and advances required to preserve the lien position, such as homeowner association fees, special... delinquent interest, advances, or other amounts due; extending the repayment terms; changing the interest... encountered two sets of circumstances that have caused difficulty in easily modifying loans to assist veterans...

  19. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  20. Book Review: IOU: The debt threat and why we must diffuse it | Iyayi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Noreena Hertz's book - I.O.U.: The Debt Threat And Why We Must Defuse It - dedicates itself to the analysis of the huge foreign debt that is owed by. Third World countries. The analysis traces the history of the debt, the processes by which the debt is maintained, the forces that maintain the debt, the consequences of the debt ...

  1. Automatic for the Borrower: How Repayment Based on Income Can Reduce Loan Defaults and Manage Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Sandy; Carew, Diana; Fraire, Jacob; Jacks, Kay; James, Kevin; Madzelan, Daniel; Miller, Scott E.; Simmons, Barry; Thompson, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    When borrowers default on a federal student loan, it can have catastrophic consequences. Their credit scores drop dramatically, severely curtailing their ability to afford a home or a car, and even limiting their ability to sign up for utilities. The cost of their loan rises as late fees pile up. Moreover, the federal government can garnish…

  2. Looking afield: debt collection tips hospitals can borrow from banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Larry; Shelton, Greg

    2015-09-01

    When developing strategies for collecting on patient debt, hospitals can benefit from following the example of the banking industry: Banks take a "do-it-yourself" approach, working delinquent accounts in-house for as long as practical. They embrace technology to give in-house debt collectors optimal opportunity to connect with customers to work out terms for resolving debt. They strategically leverage outside collections agencies based on the makeup of their debt portfolio.

  3. How Does Corruption Affect Public Debt? An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arusha Cooray; Friedrich Schneider

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between corruption and public debt in 106 countries. Results suggest that corruption leads to an increase in public debt. We also investigate if the effect of corruption on pblic debt is increased by government expenditure, the shadow economy and military expenditure. We find that the effect of corruption on public debt is compounded by increased government expenditure and increased size of the shadow economy.

  4. The Greek sovereign debt: Are there really any options?

    OpenAIRE

    Papanikos, Gregory T.

    2014-01-01

    Debt Overhang is a controversial issue in the eurozone countries and is considered as one of the factors which created the current economic crisis. How to deal with sovereign debt has been debated both at the theoretical and policy making level. This paper looks at the Greek debt and four options are discussed: (a) unilateral default (b) unilaterally imposed austerity measures (c) restructuring through negotiating and (d) a tax on wealth to pay for the debt. Optimal options depend on the borr...

  5. SAIL: automating interlibrary loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, E M

    1994-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) initiated the System for Automated Interlibrary Loan (SAIL) pilot project to study the feasibility of using imaging technology linked to the DOCLINE system to deliver copies of journal articles. During the project, NLM converted a small number of print journal issues to electronic form, linking the captured articles to the MEDLINE citation unique identifier. DOCLINE requests for these journals that could not be filled by network libraries were routed to SAIL. Nearly 23,000 articles from sixty-four journals recently selected for indexing in Index Medicus were scanned to convert them to electronic images. During fiscal year 1992, 4,586 scanned articles were used to fill 10,444 interlibrary loan (ILL) requests, and more than half of these were used only once. Eighty percent of all the articles were not requested at all. The total cost per article delivered was $10.76, substantially more than it costs to process a photocopy request. Because conversion costs were the major component of the total SAIL cost, and most of the articles captured for the project were not requested, this model was not cost-effective. Data on SAIL journal article use was compared with all ILL requests filled by NLM for the same period. Eighty-eight percent of all articles requested from NLM were requested only once. The results of the SAIL project demonstrated that converting journal articles to electronic images and storing them in anticipation of repeated requests would not meet NLM's objective to improve interlibrary loan. PMID:8004020

  6. Book-entry bonds as a variety of the debt securities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Кулик

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The article is devoted to the allocation of the features of the legal order and legal nature of the book-entry bonds as a variety of the debt securities. Analysis of the recent researches and publications. The book-entry securities and their place among other objects of the civil legal relations from the moment of their appearance on the securities market have been devoted many scientific works and publications both Ukrainian scientists and scientists of other countries, in particular, E. Dyomushkina, L. Dobrynina, V. A. Barulin, D. Stepanov, E. Reshetin, V. L. Yarotsky, G. N. Shevchenko, O. V. Vygovsky, S. Ya. Vavzhenchuk and others. Paper objective. With regard of definitions of the bond as the debt security of the documentary form of issue which has been proposed by the scientists specialized on civil law problems  at different times of the development of the teaching on securities and specific features of the book–entry securities as certain rights, it is necessary to allocate  peculiarities of   the legal order and legal nature of the book-entry bonds as a variety of the debt securities. Paper main body. In the article the different approaches to the definition of the bond have been given. It is specified that the documentary bond as the debt security mediates or establishes   relations of   the loan between the issuer of the bond and its owner and  obligates the issuer to return a certain cash equivalent within a specified period and to pay a certain percentage (profit. On the base of the comparative analysis of the documentary and book-entry securities the content of which includes the certain rights, the features of the book-entry bond as the debt security have been allocated: 1 the content of the right, embodied in the decision on the issue of the securities and in the securities emission prospectus, includes property ( obligation right of the requirement by its owner to return their nominal value and the

  7. A nuclear power enterprise debt management system construction Based on Sanmen Nuclear Power Co., LTD, debt risk management case analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan; Liu Shuqing

    2010-01-01

    Building nuclear power enterprises need huge investment , often tens of billions RMB. How to do a good job in corporate debt risk management, becoming powerful large-scale development of nuclear power ,ensuring the supply of funds and existing debt service in the process of large-scale development of nuclear power ,is an important task. In this paper, managing the company's debt is very urgent and necessary through analysis of SMNPC financing and debt structure; through the analysis of SMNPC's debt risk management , the authors would like to explore how to build up the framework of the debt management under the large-scale development of nuclear power construction . Nuclear power enterprises need to strengthen supervision mechanism and internal control,build-up and perfect all-round debt risk manage system, keep watch on debt risk in order to ensure preservation and increment of the value of state assets. (authors)

  8. Debt Stabilization Games in the Presence of Risk Premia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.; van Aarle, B.; Plasmans, J.E.J.; Weeren, A.J.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: As a result of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic recession, fiscal deficits have soared in many OECD countries. As a consequence, government debt has been on the rise again after a period of stable or declining government debt. In this paper we analyze debt stabilization

  9. 12 CFR 370.3 - Debt Guarantee Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... convertible debt to be issued, (C) The mandatory conversion date, (D) The conversion rate (i.e., the total... exchange rate in effect on the date that the debt is funded. (c) Calculation and reporting responsibility... guarantee expires on the earliest of the mandatory conversion date for mandatory convertible debt, the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provides for an option to convert the debt instrument into the stock of the issuer, into the stock or debt... property in an amount equal to the approximate value of such stock or debt. (5) Remote and incidental... price that reflects a spread above a benchmark rate, the comparable yield is the sum of the value of the...

  11. Debt overhang and the macroeconomics of carry trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakucionyte, E.; van Wijnbergen, S.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The depreciation of the Hungarian forint in 2009 left Hungarian borrowers with a skyrocketing value of foreign currency debt. The resulting losses worsened debt overhang in to debt-ridden firms and eroded bank capital. Therefore, although Hungarian banks had partially isolated their balance sheets

  12. 7 CFR 3.21 - Referrals of Debts to Justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referrals of Debts to Justice. 3.21 Section 3.21... and Compromise of Claims § 3.21 Referrals of Debts to Justice. An agency shall promptly refer to Justice for litigation debts on which aggressive collection activity has been taken in accordance with...

  13. 48 CFR 31.205-3 - Bad debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bad debts. 31.205-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-3 Bad debts. Bad debts, including actual or estimated losses arising from uncollectible accounts receivable due...

  14. Debt stabilization games in the presence of risk premia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engwerda, J.C.; van Aarle, B.; Plasmans, J.E.J.; Weeren, A.J.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic recession, fiscal deficits have soared in many OECD countries. As a consequence, government debt has been on the rise again after a period of stable or declining government debt. In this paper we analyze debt stabilization in a

  15. 7 CFR 3.12 - Reporting of consumer debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Compromise of Claims § 3.12 Reporting of consumer debts. (a) Notice. In demand letters to debtors... the delinquent consumer debt to credit reporting agencies after 60 days; (2) The specific information... credit bureaus. (d) Stay of disclosure. Agencies shall not disclose a delinquent debt to a credit...

  16. 7 CFR 1403.4 - Demand for payment of debts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand for payment of debts. 1403.4 Section 1403.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Demand for payment of debts. (a) When a debt is due CCC, an initial written demand for payment of such...

  17. Development and foreign debt: The stylized facts 1970-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    they are in crisis, and the debt grows and generates low growth in the next couple of decades. The analysis concentrates on two relations: (R1) the relation between borrowing and growth, and (R2) the relation between initial debt and growth. Both relations are negative, so essentially the stylized story of debt...

  18. Empirical Essays on Debt, Equity, and Convertible Securities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Verwijmeren (Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation consists of four empirical studies on firms’ financing decisions. In the first two studies, we investigate the debt-equity choice for a large number of U.S. firms. We find that firms prefer debt financing over equity financing in case a debt issue allows the firm to

  19. 12 CFR 16.6 - Sales of nonconvertible debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales of nonconvertible debt. 16.6 Section 16.6... RULES § 16.6 Sales of nonconvertible debt. (a) The OCC will deem offers or sales of bank issued... grade; (5) Prior to or simultaneously with the sale of the debt, each purchaser receives an offering...

  20. Using collateral to secure loans

    OpenAIRE

    Yaron Leitner

    2006-01-01

    In “Using Collateral to Secure Loans,” Yaron Leitner asks: Why is collateral used to secure some loans, but not others? And why does collateral potentially involve more risk? He considers these questions, looking at some of the explanations for using collateral, focusing on its benefits and drawbacks.

  1. Credit Derivatives and Loan Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norden, L.; Wagner, W.B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the new markets for credit default swaps (CDS) and the pricing of syndicated loans to U.S. corporates. We find that changes in CDS spreads have a significantly positive coefficient and explain about 25% of subsequent monthly changes in aggregate loan

  2. Democracy, Political Competition and Public Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian CROITORU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two major preferences shaping political choices: one, regarding who should play the leading role in running the economy (mar-kets or politicians and the other, concerning social spending. According to reputation, leftist parties assign the leading role to politicians (i.e. the state, whereas rightist parties entrust mar-kets with the central role in running the econo-my. Right-wing parties’ reputation of not favoring social spending is not backed by facts. Since both the left and the right display similar behav-iors vis-à-vis social spending, it is preferable that markets play the central role in running the econ-omy. Flexible markets help economic growth and employment, reducing the need for high social spending. The freedom of property and freedom from corruption indexes show that, in Romania, the market has never played the central role in running the economy. People’s prevailing con-cern over their wellbeing ‘now’ rather than ‘to-morrow’ generates competition among political right and left for higher social spending, leading to high public debt. Neither left, nor right can guarantee sustainable limits for social benef ts and public debt. Capping the share of public debt in GDP by means of the Constitution provides no guarantee for public debt sustainability, but is worth a try.

  3. THE PUZZLE OF SIMULTANEOUS SAVINGS AND DEBTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODICA IANOLE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available „Neither a borrower nor a lender be” recommends Shakespeare in Hamlet. The advice seems particularly interesting in nowadays society where a person can be easily found in both approximate situations, in the same time. It goes without saying that saving and borrowing do not describe mutually exclusive strategies of financial management and thus many people retain savings or carry on saving at the same time as having debts. We add to this fact a more pragmatically wisdom, the one of the economist Robert Solow -“We (economists think of wealth as fungible; we think a dollar is a dollar. Why don't they (the others do so?” (Solow, 1987 – and we naturally ask ourselves if the mechanism of having simultaneous savings and debts is a rational one, according to traditional economics.Making appeal to the emerging body of behavioral economics literature we reach to the mental accounting theory to see if it can explain savings inclination versus debt inclination. The main research question we want to explore is the following: if mental accounting prevents people from spending money from one „mental account” on goods belonging to another one, will people – after using all their money from a given account – be willing to go into debt to buy goods belonging to this account in a situation when they still have money in other accounts?

  4. 20 CFR 340.16 - Debt collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.16 Debt collection. (a) The Associate Executive Director for Unemployment and... person paying remuneration for time lost or any sum or damages for personal injury to remit the amount of reimbursement due the Board, if any, within 30 days of the date of the payment of remuneration or damages to an...

  5. Capital Structure and International Debt Shifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model that relates a multinational firm's optimal debt policy to taxation and to non-tax factors such as the desire to prevent bankruptcy. The model yields the predictions that a multinational's indebtedness in a country depends on national tax rates and differences between

  6. Sovereign debt and bank fragility in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kwaak, C.; van Wijnbergen, S.

    In May 2012 the Spanish government announced a debt-financed recapitalization of the undercapitalized Spanish banking system. Although there was a wide consensus among economists and policymakers that this was key to solving Spain’s economic troubles, both bank CDS and sovereign CDS further

  7. The biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Loreau, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Habitat destruction is driving biodiversity loss in remaining ecosystems, and ecosystem functioning and services often directly depend on biodiversity. Thus, biodiversity loss is likely creating an ecosystem service debt: a gradual loss of biodiversity-dependent benefits that people obtain from remaining fragments of natural ecosystems. Here, we develop an approach for quantifying ecosystem service debts, and illustrate its use to estimate how one anthropogenic driver, habitat destruction, could indirectly diminish one ecosystem service, carbon storage, by creating an extinction debt. We estimate that c. 2-21 Pg C could be gradually emitted globally in remaining ecosystem fragments because of plant species loss caused by nearby habitat destruction. The wide range for this estimate reflects substantial uncertainties in how many plant species will be lost, how much species loss will impact ecosystem functioning and whether plant species loss will decrease soil carbon. Our exploratory analysis suggests that biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debts can be globally substantial, even when locally small, if they occur diffusely across vast areas of remaining ecosystems. There is substantial value in conserving not only the quantity (area), but also the quality (biodiversity) of natural ecosystems for the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  8. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  9. The pricing of bank debt guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the optimal pricing of government-sponsored bank debt guarantees within the context of an asset substitution framework. We show that the desirability of fair pricing of guarantees depends on the degree of transparency of the banking sector: in relatively opaque banking systems, fair

  10. From debt crisis to sovereign risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukkezen, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    Recent experience taught us that advanced economies can be subject to debt crises, with tremendous impact on the economy. Such crises are -fortunately- rare events with which policy makers do not have to deal on a daily basis. They do have to incorporate sovereign risk, the probability that such a

  11. Enhanced Debt Management: solving the eurozone crisis by linking debt management with fiscal and monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Unconventional approaches to suit unusual circumstances have become acceptable in monetary policy, a formerly highly conservative discipline. In this paper it is argued that unconventional approaches should also be considered in sovereign debt management, in order to contribute to resolving the eurozone sovereign debt crisis. First, the Troika crisis lending to indebted sovereign borrowers in the eurozone is reviewed and compared with standard IMF post-crisis lending. The main difference and ...

  12. SUBSEQUENTLY AQCUIRED ASSETS AS FIDUCIARY SECURITY ON BANK LOANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisadini Prasastinah Usanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Collateral in terms of subsequently acquired assets namely subsequently acquired credit might be charged with fiduciary security. This collateral is not considered ideal regarding the high risk a bank must take. To minimize the risks, the bank analyzes the credit thoroughly, impose fiduciary security officials perfectly and performs monitoring of credits regularly to avoid misconduct committed by the debtor. If a default occurs, the bank will take over the assets. Nevertheless, the problems of execution on the subsequently acquired credits might arise due to debtor’s default and bad debts to the third party. Consequently, subsequently acquired assets as collateral provides as additional collateral. Keywords: bank, subsequently acquired objects, fiduciary, security, loans.

  13. Does debt predict growth? An empirical analysis of the relationship between total debt and economic output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Vanlaer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the recent global financial crisis has stimulated a vast amount of research on the impact of public debt on economic growth and also increasingly on the role of private credit, the total levels of indebtedness of an economy have largely been ignored. This paper studies the impact of the total level of and increases in debt-to-GDP on economic growth for 26 developed countries in the short, medium and longer term. We analyse whether we can predict the future level of growth, simply by looking at the total level of debt, or increases in that debt level. We find that there is a negative correlation between high levels of debt and short term economic growth, but that this effect tapers in the medium and long term. Similarly, we find that rapid debt accumulation is negatively related to economic growth over the short term, the impact is less pronounced over the medium term and is non-existent over the long term.

  14. Precautionary Borrowing and the Credit Card Debt Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Druedahl, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Casper Nordal

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the credit card debt puzzle using a generalization of the buffer-stock consumption model with long-term revolving debt contracts. Closely resembling actual US credit card law, we assume that card issuers can always deny their cardholders access to new debt, but that they cannot...... to simultaneously hold positive gross debt and positive gross assets even though the interest rate on the debt is much higher than the return rate on the assets. Including a risk of being excluded from new borrowing which is positively correlated with unemployment, we are able to simultaneously explain...

  15. The Influence of Debt Maturity Structure on Accounting Conservatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Huiqing; Chen Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    According to the related data of A-share listed companies in 2009-2013,through extension model based on Basu's surplus - the stock return rate model ,this paper studies that the debt maturity structure influences on accounting conservatism. The empirical study finds that the amount of debt affects significantly the prudence,that is,the greater the amount of the debt contract con- cluded, the stronger role of accounting conservatism is ; Debt maturity have significant relationship with accounting conservatism. For the shorter debt maturity, the enterprise is easier to choose more prudent accounting policy, and when the period is longer, accounting conservatism is relatively weaker.

  16. Protecting Colleges and Students: Community College Strategies to Prevent Default

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKibben, Bryce; La Rocque, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    Student loan default, defined as federal loan borrowers' failure to make any payments for at least 270 days, is an issue of increasing importance to community colleges and their students. This report takes a unique look at student loan default at nine community colleges across the nation, and how those colleges are working to help students avoid…

  17. 75 FR 53007 - Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Gulf Opportunity Pilot Loan Program (GO Loan Pilot) AGENCY: U.S...'s GO Loan Pilot until September 30, 2011. Due to the scope and magnitude of the devastation to... streamlined and centralized loan processing available through the GO Loan Pilot to small businesses in the...

  18. 78 FR 64294 - Loan Guaranty: Mandatory Electronic Delivery of Loan Files for Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Loan Guaranty: Mandatory Electronic Delivery of Loan Files for... Affairs (VA) Loan Guaranty Service (LGY) announces a new policy with regard to lender submission of VA- guaranteed closed loan files for review. Currently, lenders can submit loan files selected for review by LGY...

  19. 76 FR 27986 - Funding for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan Programs AGENCY: Farm Service Agency, USDA. ACTION... or guaranteed loan applications for the Conservation Loan (CL) Program because of lack of program... provisions to the existing direct and guaranteed loan regulations found in 7 CFR parts 761, 762, 764, 765...

  20. 77 FR 13530 - Funding for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Funding for the Conservation Loan Program; Farm Loan... Service Agency (FSA) now has funding for and is accepting guaranteed loan applications for the Conservation Loan (CL) Program. Due to a lack of program funding for direct CLs, direct loan applications are...

  1. 7 CFR 1735.73 - Loan design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan design. 1735.73 Section 1735.73 Agriculture... Funds § 1735.73 Loan design. When loan funds are requested for an acquisition, details of the proposed acquisition shall be included in the Loan Design. See 7 CFR part 1737. ...

  2. 7 CFR 1980.481 - Insured loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Business and Industrial Loan Program § 1980.481 Insured loans. Applications...) Constructing and equipping industrial plants for lease to private businesses (not including loans for operating... concurrence prior to approval. B. Applications from private parties for insured loans will not be encouraged...

  3. 7 CFR 773.7 - Loan uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS SPECIAL APPLE LOAN PROGRAM § 773.7 Loan uses. Loan funds may be used for any of the following purposes related to the production or marketing of apples: (a) Payment of costs associated with..., processing or marketing purposes; or (h) Payment of loan closing costs. ...

  4. 7 CFR 1822.274 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan closing. 1822.274 Section 1822.274 Agriculture... SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS AND GRANTS PRIMARILY FOR REAL ESTATE PURPOSES RURAL HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Rural Housing Site Loan Policies...

  5. 24 CFR 573.4 - Loan term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan term. 573.4 Section 573.4 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... COMMUNITY FACILITIES LOAN GUARANTEE RECOVERY FUND § 573.4 Loan term. The term of the loan to be guaranteed...

  6. 44 CFR 206.371 - Loan program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan program. 206.371 Section... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Community Disaster Loans § 206.371 Loan... Special Community Disaster Loan to any local government which has suffered a substantial loss of tax and...

  7. 7 CFR 1776.16 - Loan servicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan servicing. 1776.16 Section 1776.16 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) HOUSEHOLD WATER WELL SYSTEM GRANT PROGRAM HWWS Loans § 1776.16 Loan servicing. (a) If RUS determines that HWWS loans may be serviced by CSC, then the grant recipient will enter into an agreement with...

  8. 5 CFR 1620.35 - Loan payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan payments. 1620.35 Section 1620.35... Nonappropriated Fund Employees § 1620.35 Loan payments. NAF instrumentalities must deduct and transmit TSP loan... CFR part 1655 and Board procedures. Loan payments may not be deducted and transmitted for employees...

  9. 24 CFR 1007.35 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan terms. 1007.35 Section 1007.35... LOAN GUARANTEES FOR NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING § 1007.35 Loan terms. To be eligible for guarantee under this part, the loan shall: (a) Be made for a term not exceeding 30 years; (b) Bear interest (exclusive...

  10. 14 CFR 1300.15 - Loan terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan terms. 1300.15 Section 1300.15... DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures § 1300.15 Loan terms. (a) A loan guaranteed under the program shall be due and payable in full no later than...

  11. 75 FR 14331 - Disaster Assistance Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 123 RIN 3245-AF98 Disaster Assistance Loan Program...-term disaster loans to homeowners, renters, businesses, and non-profit organizations that have been... to disaster victims by raising the statutory loan limit for loans to businesses, increasing the...

  12. 44 CFR 206.361 - Loan program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan program. 206.361 Section... HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Community Disaster Loans § 206.361 Loan... Community Disaster Loan to any local government which has suffered a substantial loss of tax and other...

  13. 5 CFR 1655.12 - Loan agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan agreement. 1655.12 Section 1655.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.12 Loan agreement. (a) Upon determining that a loan application meets the requirements of this part, the TSP record keeper...

  14. 77 FR 59346 - Payday-Alternative Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AE08 Payday-Alternative Loans AGENCY...: The NCUA Board (Board) is currently reviewing its regulation governing payday-alternative loans (PAL... to offer PAL loans, previously referred to as short- term, small amount loans, as an alternative to...

  15. 31 CFR 25.400 - Loan provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SALES LOANS MADE BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY AND FOREIGN MILITARY SALES LOANS MADE BY THE FEDERAL FINANCING BANK AND GUARANTEED BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY Form of Private Loan § 25... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan provisions. 25.400 Section 25...

  16. 7 CFR 1434.18 - Loan repayments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... repayment rate for marketing assistance loans for honey under this part will be in effect on a short-term... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.18 Loan repayments. (a) A honey producer may repay a nonrecourse marketing assistance...

  17. 7 CFR 764.402 - Loan closing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.402 Loan closing. (a) Signature... information for the Agency to reconfirm approval and proceed with loan closing. (3) The Agency or closing... account will be used according to subpart B of part 761 of this chapter when these processes are not...

  18. Governance-Default Risk Relationship and the Demand for Intermediated and Non-Intermediated Debt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husam Aldamen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of corporate governance on the demand for intermediated debt (asset finance, bank debt, non-bank private debt and non-intermediated debt (public debt in the Australian debt market. Relative to other countries the Australian debt market is characterised by higher proportions of intermediated or private debt with a lower inherent level of information asymmetry in that private lenders have greater access to financial information (Gray, Koh & Tong 2009. Our firm level, cross-sectional evidence suggests that higher corporate governance impacts demand for debt via the mitigation of default risk. However, this relationship is not uniform across all debt types. Intermediated debt such as bank and asset finance debt are more responsive to changes in governance-default risk relationship than non-bank and non-intermediated debt. The implication is that a firm’s demand for different debt types will reflect its governance-default risk profile.

  19. 7 CFR 1703.141 - Approved purposes for loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan Program § 1703.141... the project, including vehicles utilizing distance learning and telemedicine technology to deliver...) Providing links between teachers and students or medical professionals who are located at the same facility...

  20. 77 FR 76414 - William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Federal Direct Loan Program AGENCY: Department of Education. ACTION: Final regulations; correction... Loan (Perkins Loan) Program; the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program; and the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan (Direct Loan) Program, including the Public Service Loan Forgiveness (PSLF) Program...

  1. Corporate boards and bank loan contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Koetter, Michael; Wu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role of corporate boards in bank loan contracting. We find that when corporate boards are more independent, both price and nonprice loan terms (e.g., interest rates, collateral, covenants, and performance-pricing provisions) are more favorable, and syndicated loans comprise more lenders. In addition, board size, audit committee structure, and other board characteristics influence bank loan prices. However, they do not consistently affect all nonprice loan terms except for a...

  2. A new Loan-Stock Financial Instrument

    OpenAIRE

    Morozovsky, Alexander; Narasimhan, Rajan; Kholodenko, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    A new financial instrument (a new kind of a loan) is introduced. The loan-stock instrument (LSI) combines fixed rate instruments (loans, etc.) with other financial instruments that have higher volatilities and returns (stocks, mutual funds, currencies, derivatives, options, etc.). This new loan depends on the value of underlying security (for example, stock) in such a way that when underlying security increases, the value of loan decreases and backwards. The procedure to create a risk free po...

  3. 75 FR 69151 - Small Business Jobs Act: 504 Loan Program Debt Refinancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... meeting is open to the public; however, seating is limited so advance notice of attendance is requested... Robert Nelson, District Director, at (617) 565-5561, e-mail: robert.nelson@sba.gov , SBA, Massachusetts...

  4. A Stochastic Delay Model For Pricing Debt And Loan Guarantees: Theoretical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Kemajou, Elisabeth; Mohammed, Salah-Eldin; Tambue, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    We consider that the price of a firm follows a non linear stochastic delay differential equation. We also assume that any claim value whose value depends on firm value and time follows a non linear stochastic delay differential equation. Using self-financed strategy and replication we are able to derive a Random Partial Differential Equation (RPDE) satisfied by any corporate claim whose value is a function of firm value and time. Under specific final and boundary conditions, we solve the RPDE...

  5. 13 CFR 107.845 - Maximum rate of amortization on Loans and Debt Securities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.845 Maximum... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum rate of amortization on...

  6. 76 FR 63151 - Small Business Jobs Act: 504 Loan Program Debt Refinancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... 2010, which authorizes projects approved for financing under Title V of the Small Business Investment...). See 76 FR 9213. This provision of the Jobs Act temporarily authorizes projects approved for financing... the Refinancing Project. Such financing will be available only if the amount of cash that will be...

  7. LOANS AND THE DEPOSITS EVOLUTION AND STRUCTURE OF THE ECONOMIC AGENTS IN THE ARGES COUNTY, DURING JULY 2011 - JULY 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Năftănăilă Cristina Alina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Crediting is one of the main activities of the commercial banks, the loans holding the largest share in all the assets of the banks, representing an important source of income, as the operating income. Increased competition among the banks and between banks and other entities which began to lend or provide funding, determined the important changes in the credit policy promoted by banks and in the structure of the credit portfolio. Through this article we want to present the theoretical aspects on crediting the economic agents, analyzing the factors contributing for taking the local banks decision to change or maintain the credit standards and we also conducted a study that reveals the structure of deposits and loans given to the economic agents, in the Arges county, from August 2011 - August 2012, aimed the modest economic dynamics propagated further increasing of the bad loans and in despite of a difficult external environment, marked by the sovereign debt crisis.

  8. Debt Collection Models and Their Using in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wodyńska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An important element of a companys credit policy is its attitude to collecting due receivables. A company tries to establish the rules of collecting the said amount within the standards that are applied in a company. Depending on the organizational structure of a company, its scope of activity, common practices and, in particular, the credit policy assumed by a company, enterprises use internal, external or mixed debt collection models. Internal debt collection model assumes conducting debt collection activities within the organizational structure of a creditor company. External debt collection consists of ordering debt collection activities at a specialised company that handles debt service (outsourcing, which is connected with acting on behalf and account of the ordering party, but it also consists of receivables trading. The choice of proper debt collection model is not easy, due to, among others, high costs of the process as well as necessary expertise knowledge in the said scope; and the products offered on the market, although they seem similar, do differ substantially among one another. Regardless of the debt collection model, it shall be remembered that debt collection shall be run in a manner that ensures consolidation of entrepreneurs good name and their market position. The debt collection procedure binding in a company shall serve to work out a cooperation model with clients that are based on buyers reliability.

  9. Managing State Debt of Ukraine: Problems and Directions of Optimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syzrantsev Hlib O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The modern state of the state debt of Ukraine and future forecasts of its increase make look for new methods of debt management. That is why the goal of the article lies in revelation of main problems of state debt management in Ukraine on the basis of the analysis of its modern state and also in scientific justification of conceptual grounds of improvement of the mechanism of state debt management and servicing under modern conditions. Analysing, systemising and generalising scientific works of many scientists, the article considers the state debt as an instrument of macro-economic regulation, provides dynamics of growth of external and internal state debts. In the result of the study the article reveals a number of unsolved problems in the sphere of debt management. Due to this the article offers conceptual measures on management of the state debt of Ukraine. The prospect of further studies is the search for state debt management methods that would allow reduction of the debt load on the state budget and economy of Ukraine.

  10. 76 FR 75427 - Farm Loan Programs Loan Making Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Establishment of Federal debt and Agency recovery of loss claim payments. 763.22 Negligence and negligent... the extent that any negligence contributed to the loss under Sec. 763.22. Sec. 763.4 Authorized land... this chapter. Sec. 763.22 Negligence and negligent servicing. (a) The Agency may deny a loss claim in...

  11. Institutions, public debt and growth in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Masuch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides empirical evidence that supports the view that the quality of institutions is an important determinant of long-term growth in European countries. It shows that an initial high government debt level coupled with institutional quality below the EU average tends to be associated with particularly poor longterm real growth performance. Interestingly, the detrimental effect of high debt levels on long-term growth seems cushioned by the presence of very sound institutions. The paper offers some evidence that sound institutions may be particularly important for long-term growth in countries in which the exchange rate tool is no longer available and less so in countries with flexible exchange rate regimes. The empirical findings on the importance of institutions are robust to various measures of output growth, different measures of institutional indicators, different sample sizes, different country groupings and to the inclusions of additional control variables.

  12. Evaluating the underlying factors behind variable rate debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J; Kim, Tae Hyun Tanny

    2007-01-01

    Recent trends show a greater usage of variable rate debt among health care bond issues. In 2004, 63.4% of the total health care bonds issued were variable rate compared with 30.6% in 1995 (Fitch Ratings, 2005). The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the underlying factors, credit spread, issue characteristics, and issuer factors behind why hospitals and health system borrowers select variable rate debt compared with fixed rate debt. From 2000 to 2004, this study sampled 230 newly issued tax-exempt bonds issued by acute care hospitals and health care systems that included both variable and fixed rate debt issues. Using a logistic regression model, hospitals with variable rate debt issues were assigned a value of 1, whereas hospitals with fixed rate debt issues were assigned a value of 0. This study found a positive association between bond insurance and variable rate debt and a negative association between callable feature and variable rate debt. Facilities located in certificate-of-need states that possessed higher case mix acuity, earned higher profit margins, generated higher debt service coverage, and held less debt were more likely to issue variable rate debt. Overall, hospital managers and board members of hospitals possessing a strong financial performance have an interest in utilizing variable rate debt to lower their cost of capital. In addition, this outcome may also reflect that investment bankers are doing a better job in educating senior hospital management about the interest rate savings benefit of variable rate compared with fixed rate debt.

  13. Who will pay the ecological debts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.; Benka, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ecological ignorance of the past has to be addressed. The question is who will pay the ecological debts. State officials know exactly who should pay. According to them the main part of the burden should be carried by companies - the successors of the former socialist factories and companies that inherited the ecological debts. The companies object to this idea. And their reason is obvious - the estimated cost of the disposal of all high risk tips, old chemical stores and contaminated soil amounts to a prohibitive 100 billions Slovak crowns (2.63 billion EUR). The Ministry of Environment of the Slovak Republic has been working on legislation that would address the ecological debt in a comprehensive way for two years. But the final effect is minimal. The draft legislation presented in 2004 did not pass the commenting process and after pressure from the commercial sector the Ministry finally withdrew its draft. The Ministry then formed a working group with representatives of industries that was supposed to find a solution acceptable for both environmentalists and industries. But no progress has been made so far. 'The original bill was superficial and not supported by expert studies. And was presented too early,' explained Jozef Mikulec, a representative of the Industry Association of Slovakia, and argued that not even the European Union has yet issued a dedicated directive addressing the environmental burden. In his opinion the existing legislation - the Act on Water - is sufficient: and the closed and liquidated petrol stations provide a good enough example. At some old petrol stations the distribution pipes were leaking. The Ministry of Environment wants a new act. In its opinion the Act on Water only addresses the ecological debts on an ad hoc basis but does not offer a comprehensive solution. Enforceability measures are missing. 'We cannot even investigate the locations of ecological burdens as without new legislation we do not have access to production plants

  14. Debt bondage and the tricks of capital

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Isabelle; Venkatasubramanian, G.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Migrant labourers, free from rural bondage, are now bonded to other sources of debt, contracted from the agro-industry or construction sectors. The flows of migration in the brick-making and sugar cane sectors in Tamil Nadu, where bondage coexists with many public welfare schemes, illustrate the persistence and renewal of this phenomenon. The welfare schemes play the role of a safety net, but also contribute to low wages, and impunity on the part of employers. Alliances between capital and th...

  15. GENDER, DEBT, AND DROPPING OUT OF COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    DWYER, RACHEL E.; HODSON, RANDY; MCLOUD, LAURA

    2012-01-01

    For many young Americans, access to credit has become critical to completing a college education and embarking on a successful career path. Young people increasingly face the trade-off of taking on debt to complete college or foregoing college and taking their chances in the labor market without a college degree. These trade-offs are gendered by differences in college preparation and support and by the different labor market opportunities women and men face that affect the value of a college ...

  16. Local government and utility firms’ debts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The global financial crisis has affected the Croatian local public sector. In such circumstances, local government units’ debts and borrowing should be approached with caution. The highly interwoven financial operations of local government units and their utilities indicate the need for analysis of consolidated financial statements of local governments and utility companies in order to gain an insight into the real financial “health” of local units. Accordingly, the main aim of this paper is to analyze the size and the structure of the consolidated (local government and utility companies local public debt in Croatia. Accordingly, the paper presents the financial position of local government units supplemented with information on the financial operations of utility companies, with particular emphasis on the size and structure of their liabilities and gross and net debt. Although the current Budget Law does not require formal preparation of consolidated financial statements by local governments and their utility firms, consolidation is stipulated by International Public Sector Accounting Standards (IPSAS. The application of IPSAS regulations would be helpful in determining overall direct and indirect exposure of local government units arising from the financial operations of their utilities.

  17. The Impact of Debt Policy on Financial Performance of Romanian Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of listed companies’ indebtedness on their financial performance. Theoretical research was relied on the specialty literature concerning the analysis of the capital structure and financial structure of the company based on calculation of the financial structure ratio and financial leverage. This paper focuses on the analysis of debt policy impact on companies’ financial performance using the financial leverage method. The financial leverage method reflects the influence of debt policy on company’s return on equity, as well as the ways it engages loans to finance operating assets so it can get higher return on equity. The main aim of this paper is to investigate and analyze the determinants of leverage effect and financial structure of companies that are operating in Romanian food industry, namely manufacturing of dairy products. The conclusion that emerges in this study is the importance of choosing and establishing funding sources by an enterprise, according to funding costs, in order to obtain the optimal combination between external financing resources and internal funding.

  18. 75 FR 23152 - Board of Directors of Federal Home Loan Bank System Office of Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...Governed by the Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) regulations, the Federal Home Loan Bank System's (Bank System) Office of Finance issues debt (``consolidated obligations'') as agent for the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) on which the Banks are jointly and severally liable and publishes combined financial reports on the Banks so that members of the Bank System, investors in the consolidated obligations, and other interested parties can assess the strength of the Bank System that stands behind them. The Office of Finance (OF) is governed by a board of directors, the composition and functions of which are determined by FHFA's regulations. FHFA's experience with the Bank System and with the OF's combined financial reports during the recent period of market stress suggests that the OF and the Bank System could benefit from a reconstituted board and strengthened audit committee. This regulation is intended to achieve that end.

  19. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerns about credit quality, undue concentrations in the bank's portfolio of residential real estate, small business, or small farm loans, or concerns about the bank's overall credit risk management systems...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1275-7 - Inflation-indexed debt instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inflation-indexed debt instruments. 1.1275-7... Inflation-indexed debt instruments. (a) Overview. This section provides rules for the Federal income tax treatment of an inflation-indexed debt instrument. If a debt instrument is an inflation-indexed debt...