WorldWideScience

Sample records for student background variables

  1. An investigation of the relationships between junior high school students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables and structure of knowledge recall of biological content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrius, Olive Joyce

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between Junior High School students' (8th and 9th grades) background variables (e.g. cognitive factors, prior knowledge, preference for science versus non-science activities, formal and informal activities) and structure of information recall of biological content. In addition, this study will illustrate how flow maps, a graphic display, designed to represent the sequential flow and cross linkage of ideas in information recalled by the learner can be used as a tool for analyzing science learning data. The participants (46 junior high school students) were taught a lesson on the human digestive system during which they were shown a model of the human torso. Their pattern of information recall was determined by using an interview technique to elicit their understanding of the functional anatomy of the human digestive system. The taped responses were later transcribed for construction of the flow map. The interview was also used to assess knowledge recall of biological content. The flow map, science interest questionnaire and the cognitive operations (based on content analysis of student's narrative) were used to analyze data from each respondent. This is a case study using individual subjects and interview techniques. The findings of this study are: (1) Based on flow map data higher academic ability students have more networking of ideas than low ability students. (2) A large percentage of 9th grade low ability students intend to pursue science/applied science course work after leaving school but they lack well organized ways of representing science knowledge in memory. (3) Content analysis of the narratives shows that students with more complex ideational networks use higher order cognitive thought processes compared to those with less networking of ideas. If students are to make a successful transition from low academic performance to high academic performance it seems that more emphasis should be placed on

  2. Axiological Background of Vietnamese Students Adaptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Иванович Кудинов

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the ratio of axiological orientation of Vietnamese students and their adaptability. The article demonstrates that the ratio of certain values, attitudes and needs forms a specific type of axiological orientation. The article finds out that the different types of orientation are interrelated with the selective personality adaptive indicators of Vietnamese students and can be regarded as predictors of the adaptation process. The article identifies the current trends of adaptability studies within the context of the system paradigm. The article points out the main determinants of the personal adaptability manifestations. The methodological basis of the research was the dispositional concept of personality and individual traits investigation by A.I. Krupnov, as well as the provisions of the theory of personal potential by D.A. Leontiev, developed within the framework of positive psychology. The aim of the study presented in this article is to identify the relationship between the indicators of axiological orientation and adaptability variables in Vietnamese students. At the first stage of the study, different types of students’ axiological orientation based on the results of cluster analysis have been identified and described: vocational-career, egocentric, socio-communicative orientation types. Statistically significant differences between the selected types were recorded for most of the components. The meaningful characteristics of these types at the behavioral level differ in their attitude to training activities, relationship with other people and personal self-conception. At the next stage the features of adaptability among the representatives with different types of axiological orientation were revealed. The correlation analysis was used to identify the correlation between the axiological variables and adaptability. It turned out that all the three groups are pressed by uncertainty, nostalgia and asthenic feelings. At

  3. Interaction of Socio-Demographic Background Variables with Inter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interaction of Socio-Demographic Background Variables with Inter-Spousal Communication Among Married Couples in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. ... marriage will increase from 20-24years to 25-29years due to the number of years of couple's educational pursuit in Lagos state of Nigeria.

  4. Gamma-Ray Background Variability in Mobile Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucott, Timothy John

    Gamma-ray background radiation significantly reduces detection sensitivity when searching for radioactive sources in the field, such as in wide-area searches for homeland security applications. Mobile detector systems in particular must contend with a variable background that is not necessarily known or even measurable a priori. This work will present measurements of the spatial and temporal variability of the background, with the goal of merging gamma-ray detection, spectroscopy, and imaging with contextual information--a "nuclear street view" of the ubiquitous background radiation. The gamma-ray background originates from a variety of sources, both natural and anthropogenic. The dominant sources in the field are the primordial isotopes potassium-40, uranium-238, and thorium-232, as well as their decay daughters. In addition to the natural background, many artificially-created isotopes are used for industrial or medical purposes, and contamination from fission products can be found in many environments. Regardless of origin, these backgrounds will reduce detection sensitivity by adding both statistical as well as systematic uncertainty. In particular, large detector arrays will be limited by the systematic uncertainty in the background and will suffer from a high rate of false alarms. The goal of this work is to provide a comprehensive characterization of the gamma-ray background and its variability in order to improve detection sensitivity and evaluate the performance of mobile detectors in the field. Large quantities of data are measured in order to study their performance at very low false alarm rates. Two different approaches, spectroscopy and imaging, are compared in a controlled study in the presence of this measured background. Furthermore, there is additional information that can be gained by correlating the gamma-ray data with contextual data streams (such as cameras and global positioning systems) in order to reduce the variability in the background

  5. Beta activity measurements in high, variable gamma backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanga, D.; Sandu, E.; Craciun, L.

    1997-01-01

    In many cases beta activity measurements must be performed in high and variable gamma backgrounds. In such instances it is necessary to use well-shielded detectors but this technique is limited to laboratory equipment and frequently insufficient. In order to perform in a simple manner beta activity measurements in high and variable backgrounds a software-aided counting technique have been developed and a counting system have been constructed. This technique combines the different counting techniques with traditional method of successive measurement of the sample and background. The counting system is based on a programmable multi-scaler which is endowed with appropriate software and allow all operations to be performed via keyboard in an interactive fashion. Two large - area proportional detectors were selected in order to have the same background and the same gamma response within 5%. A program has been developed for the counting data analysis and beta activity computing. The software-aided counting technique has been implemented for beta activity measurement in high and variable backgrounds. (authors)

  6. A Novel Approach to model EPIC variable background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Salvetti, D.; Belfiore, A.

    2017-10-01

    One of the main aim of the EXTraS (Exploring the X-ray Transient and variable Sky) project is to characterise the variability of serendipitous XMM-Newton sources within each single observation. Unfortunately, 164 Ms out of the 774 Ms of cumulative exposure considered (21%) are badly affected by soft proton flares, hampering any classical analysis of field sources. De facto, the latest releases of the 3XMM catalog, as well as most of the analysis in literature, simply exclude these 'high background' periods from analysis. We implemented a novel SAS-indipendent approach to produce background-subtracted light curves, which allows to treat the case of very faint sources and very bright proton flares. EXTraS light curves of 3XMM-DR5 sources will be soon released to the community, together with new tools we are developing.

  7. Online Learning for Students from Diverse Backgrounds: Learning Disability Students, Excellent Students and Average Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Shonfeld

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The perceived contribution of science education online course to pre-service students (N=121 from diverse backgrounds - students with learning disabilities (25 LD students, 28 excellent students and 68 average students is presented in this five years research. During the online course students were asked to choose a scientific subject; to map it and to plan teaching activities; to carry out the proposed activities with students in a classroom experience; and to reflect the process. The assumption was that adapting the online course by using information and communication technology following formative assessment will improve students' self-learning ability as well as broaden their science knowledge, their lab performance and teaching skills. Data were collected using quantitative and qualitative tools including: pre and post questionnaires and nine (three students from each group depth interviews upon completion of the course. Findings, based on students` perceived evaluation, pinpointed on the advantages of the online course for students of the three groups. LD students’ achievements were not inferior to those of their peers, excellent students and average students. Yet, it carefully reports on a slight but explicitly marginal perceived evaluation of the LD students in comparison to excellent students and average students regarding: forum participation, authentic task and water lab performance. The article discusses the affordance of the online course via additional features that can be grouped into two categories: knowledge construction and flexibility in time, interaction and knowledge. Further research is suggested to extend the current study by examine the effect of other courses and different contents and by considering various evaluation methods of online courses, such as: observation, the think aloud, text and tasks analysis, and reflection.

  8. Listening to Students from Refugee Backgrounds: Lessons for Education Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mthethwa-Sommers, Shirley; Kisiara, Otieno

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on a study that examined how students from refugee backgrounds cope with victimization and bullying in three urban high schools in the United States. Qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were employed. Twelve high school students from refugee backgrounds participated in the study, which involved focus group…

  9. Family Background of Beginning Education Students: Implications for Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Roger A.; Coll, Kenneth M.; Osguthorpe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Teacher education has not historically focused on the social and emotional development of teachers even though there is evidence that such variables influence student success (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009). We believe such a focus is important and we explored variables in teacher education students' families of origin that underpin social and…

  10. Family Background and Students' Achievement on a University Entrance Exam in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Juliana; Sampaio, Breno

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of students' performance on the entrance test at Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Brazil. Particular attention is paid to the importance of family background variables, such as parents' education and family income, on students' performance and how they relate to the probability of attending public schools…

  11. RELATION BETWEEN BACKGROUND VARIABLES, VALUES AND CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Rosario González-Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR can be directly influenced by individual value structures. This research aims to provide new knowledge regarding the relationship between basic human values and the public’s perception of CSR. It focuses on the values of higher education students and their views regarding a particular corporate social initiative. The study reveals that social, educational, and economic circumstances influence human values. Those values in turn influence why different students perceive CSR differently. These findings are relevant to companies as they provide a more detailed understanding of why certain consumer groups perceive certain CSR initiatives the way that they do. They also suggest that universities should increase their awareness of the importance of integrating human values and CSR in the curricula of future business managers and social leaders.

  12. Effects of Classical Background Music on Stress, Anxiety, and Knowledge of Filipino Baccalaureate Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Kevin; Macabasag, Romeo Luis A; Capili, Brylle; Castro, Timothy; Danque, Marilee; Evangelista, Hanzel; Rivero, Jenica Ana; Gonong, Michell Katrina; Diño, Michael Joseph; Cajayon, Sharon

    2017-10-28

    Previous work on the use of background music suggests conflicting results in various psychological, behavioral, and educational measures. This quasi-experiment examined the effect of integrating classical background music during a lecture on stress, anxiety, and knowledge. A total of 42 nursing students participated this study. We utilized independent sample t-test and multivariate analysis of variance to examine the effect of classical background music. Our findings suggest that the presence or absence of classical background music do not affect stress, anxiety, and knowledge scores (Λ = 0.999 F(3, 78) = 0.029, p = 0.993). We provided literature to explain the non-significant result. Although classical music failed to establish a significant influence on the dependent variables, classical background music during lecture hours can be considered a non-threatening stimulus. We recommend follow up studies regarding the role of classical background music in regulating attention control of nursing students during lecture hours.

  13. Spatial variability of POPs in European background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Halse

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Passive air samplers (PAS were deployed at 86 European background sites during summer 2006 in order (i to gain further insight into spatial patterns of persistent organic pollutants (POPs in European background air and, (ii to evaluate PAS as an alternative sampling technique under EMEP (Co-operative programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmissions of air pollutants in Europe. The samples were analyzed for selected PCBs, HCHs, DDTs, HCB, PAHs and chlordanes, and air concentrations were calculated on the basis of losses of performance reference compounds. Air concentrations of PCBs were generally lowest in more remote areas of northern Europe with elevated levels in more densely populated areas. γ-HCH was found at elevated levels in more central parts of Europe, whereas α-HCH, β-HCH and DDTs showed higher concentrations in the south-eastern part. There was no clear spatial pattern in the concentrations for PAHs, indicative of influence by local sources, rather than long range atmospheric transport (LRAT. HCB was evenly distributed across Europe, while the concentrations of chlordanes were typically low or non-detectable. A comparison of results obtained on the basis of PAS and active air sampling (AAS illustrated that coordinated PAS campaigns have the potential serve as useful inter-comparison exercises within and across existing monitoring networks. The results also highlighted limitations of the current EMEP measurement network with respect to spatial coverage. We finally adopted an existing Lagrangian transport model (FLEXPART as recently modified to incorporate key processes relevant for POPs to evaluate potential source regions affecting observed concentrations at selected sites. Using PCB-28 as an example, the model predicted concentrations which agreed within a factor of 3 with PAS measurements for all except 1 out of the 17 sites selected for this analysis.

  14. Effects of the Teacher's Background on Teaching and Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, P.

    1976-01-01

    The relationship of certain teacher background variables to their attitudes priorities, expectations, and instructional practices regarding botany and zoology was investigated. Teachers were grouped into three categories: botanists, zoologists, and neutrals; the academic achievement of the students of the teachers in the three categories was…

  15. Role of Family Background, Student Behaviors, and School-Related Beliefs in Predicting High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alyssa K.; Bonitz, Verena S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors' purpose was to test a parsimonious model derived from social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G. Hackett, 1994) and expectancy value theory (J. S. Eccles & A. Wigfield, 2002) that integrates groups of variables (demographic background, student behaviors, and school-related beliefs) with the goal of…

  16. Astronomy: social background of students of the integrated high school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.; Barbosa, J. I. L.

    2017-07-01

    Astronomy-related contents exist in almost all levels of basic education in Brazil and are also frequently disseminated through mass media. Thus, students form their own explanations about the phenomena studied by this science. Therefore, this work has the objective of identifying the possible social background of the Integrated High School students on the term Astronomy. It is a research of a basic nature, descriptive, and for that reason a quali-quantitative approach was adopted; the procedures to obtain the data were effected in the form of a survey. The results show that the tested students have a social background about the object Astronomy, which is on the one hand fortified by elements they have made or which is part of the experience lived by the respondents within the formal space of education, and on the other hand based on elements possibly disseminated through the mass media.

  17. Variability in regional background aerosols within the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Pérez, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Theodosi, C.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Kubilay, N.; Koçak, M.

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this study is the identification of major factors controlling levels and chemical composition of aerosols in the regional background (RB) along the Mediterranean Basin (MB). To this end, data on PM levels and speciation from Montseny (MSY, NE Spain), Finokalia (FKL, Southern Greece) and Erdemli (ERL, Southern Turkey) for the period 2001 to 2008 are evaluated. Important differences on PM levels and composition are evident when comparing the Western and Eastern MBs. The results manifest W-E and N-S PM10 and PM2.5 gradients along the MB, attributed to the higher frequency and intensity of African dust outbreaks in the EMB, while for PM1 very similar levels are encountered. PM in the EMB is characterized by higher levels of crustal material and sulphate as compared to WMB (and central European sites), however, RB nitrate and OC + EC levels are relatively constant across the Mediterranean and lower than other European sites. Marked seasonal trends are evidenced for PM levels, nitrate (WMB), ammonium and sulphate. Also relatively higher levels of V and Ni (WMB) are measured in the Mediterranean basin, probably as a consequence of high emissions from fuel-oil combustion (power generation, industrial and shipping emissions). Enhanced sulphate levels in EMB compared to WMB were measured. The high levels of sulphate in the EMB may deplete the available gas-phase NH3 so that little ammonium nitrate can form due to the low NH3 levels. This study illustrates the existence of three very important features within the Mediterranean that need to be accounted for when modeling climate effects of aerosols in the area, namely: a) the increasing gradient of dust from WMB to EMB; b) the change of hygroscopic behavior of mineral aerosols (dust) via nitration and sulfation; and c) the abundance of highly hygroscopic aerosols during high insolation (low cloud formation) periods.

  18. Schooling Background and Academic Academic Achievement of Agricultural Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In our society academic achievement is considered as a key criterion to judge one’s total potentiality and capability. Academic achievement is seen as a students’ grade point averages in many academic settings. Academic achievement has become an index of students’ future in this highly competitive world and Agricultural education is no exception.  Hence it becomes necessary to find out the factors that determine better academic performance. In this context the present study had been carried out to find out the possible relationship between schooling background and academic achievement of agriculture students. The students admitted in Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai, Vellore between 1999 and 2009 formed the subjects of the study. Findings of the study revealed that determinants like gender, type of school and stream of education had a significant role in the academic achievement of the students. Medium of instruction in HSC did influence the academic achievement but not significantly. It was also found that students who performed well in their HSC did perform well in their undergraduate programme also. This confirms that previous educational outcomes are the most important indicators of student’s future achievement and schooling background has a significant role in academic achievement of students.

  19. Latent variable method for automatic adaptation to background states in motor imagery BCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagaev, Nikolay; Volkova, Ksenia; Ossadtchi, Alexei

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are known to be vulnerable to variabilities in background states of a user. Usually, no detailed information on these states is available even during the training stage. Thus there is a need in a method which is capable of taking background states into account in an unsupervised way. Approach. We propose a latent variable method that is based on a probabilistic model with a discrete latent variable. In order to estimate the model’s parameters, we suggest to use the expectation maximization algorithm. The proposed method is aimed at assessing characteristics of background states without any corresponding data labeling. In the context of asynchronous motor imagery paradigm, we applied this method to the real data from twelve able-bodied subjects with open/closed eyes serving as background states. Main results. We found that the latent variable method improved classification of target states compared to the baseline method (in seven of twelve subjects). In addition, we found that our method was also capable of background states recognition (in six of twelve subjects). Significance. Without any supervised information on background states, the latent variable method provides a way to improve classification in BCI by taking background states into account at the training stage and then by making decisions on target states weighted by posterior probabilities of background states at the prediction stage.

  20. Perceptions of a Housespouse: The Effects of Sex, Economic Productivity, and Subject Background Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwasser, Shirley M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two studies were performed investigating college students' attitudes toward male and female housespouse whose primary duties were childcare and major household tasks and whose economic contributions were earnings from writing. Housespouse's sex and pursuit of outside activities as well as subject's parental background were related to students'…

  1. Aspects of science engagement, student background, and school characteristics: Impacts on science achievement of U.S. students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Larry J.

    Science achievement of U.S. students has lagged significantly behind other nations; educational reformers have suggested science engagement may enhance this critical measure. The 2006 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) was science-focused and measured science achievement along with nine aspects of science engagement: science self-efficacy, science self-concept, enjoyment of science, general interest in learning science, instrumental motivation for science, future-oriented science motivation, general value of science, personal value of science, and science-related activities. I used multilevel modeling techniques to address both aspects of science engagement and science achievement as outcome variables in the context of student background and school characteristics. Treating aspects of science engagement as outcome variables provided tests for approaches for their enhancement; meanwhile, treating science achievement as the outcome variable provided tests for the influence of the aspects of science engagement on science achievement under appropriate controls. When aspects of science engagement were treated as outcome variables, gender and father's SES had frequent (significant) influences, as did science teaching strategies which focused on applications or models and hands-on activities over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. When science achievement was treated as the outcome variable, each aspect of science engagement was significant, and eight had medium or large effect sizes (future-oriented science motivation was the exception). The science teaching strategy which involved hands-on activities frequently enhanced science achievement over-and-above influences of student background and other school characteristics. Policy recommendations for U.S. science educators included enhancing eight aspects of science engagement and implementing two specific science teaching strategies (focus on applications or models

  2. Teachers' classroom management variables and students' academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teachers' classroom management variables and students' academic achievement in French in Cross River State, Nigeria. JU Emeh, CA Agbor. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Humanities Vol. 4(1&2) 2005: 25-27. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  3. Comparative analysis of female physicists in the physical sciences: Motivation and background variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2014-06-01

    The majority of existing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following question: On average, do females who select physics as compared to chemistry doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? This question is analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey data set through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists (n =1137). A logistic regression analysis and prototypical odds ratio uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their academic achievement and experiences ranging from high school through undergraduate education. Results indicate that females who have negative undergraduate chemistry experiences as well as higher grades and positive experiences in undergraduate physics are more likely to pursue a career in physics as opposed to chemistry. Conclusions suggest that a greater emphasis should be placed on the classroom experiences that are provided to females in gateway physics courses. Analyses show that women are not a single entity that should only be examined as a whole group or in comparison to men. Instead women can be compared to one another to see what influences their differences in educational experiences and career choice in STEM-based fields as well as other academic areas of study.

  4. Comparative analysis of female physicists in the physical sciences: Motivation and background variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine P. Dabney

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The majority of existing science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM research studies compare women to men, yet a paucity of research exists that examines what differentiates female career choice within the physical sciences. In light of these research trends and recommendations, this study examines the following question: On average, do females who select physics as compared to chemistry doctoral programs differ in their reported personal motivations and background factors prior to entering the field? This question is analyzed using variables from the Project Crossover Survey data set through a subset of female physical science doctoral students and scientists (n=1137. A logistic regression analysis and prototypical odds ratio uncover what differentiates women in the physical sciences based on their academic achievement and experiences ranging from high school through undergraduate education. Results indicate that females who have negative undergraduate chemistry experiences as well as higher grades and positive experiences in undergraduate physics are more likely to pursue a career in physics as opposed to chemistry. Conclusions suggest that a greater emphasis should be placed on the classroom experiences that are provided to females in gateway physics courses. Analyses show that women are not a single entity that should only be examined as a whole group or in comparison to men. Instead women can be compared to one another to see what influences their differences in educational experiences and career choice in STEM-based fields as well as other academic areas of study.

  5. Building and Activating Students' Background Knowledge: It's What They Already Know That Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Students enter the middle grades with varying amounts of background knowledge. Teachers must assess student background knowledge for gaps or misconceptions and then provide instruction to build on that base. This article discusses effective strategies for assessing and developing students' background knowledge so they can become independent…

  6. Australian and International Student Success Rates in Group of Eight Universities. Go8 Backgrounder 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This Go8 Backgrounder compares the academic performance of three cohorts of students in Group of Eight (Go8) universities: Australian students, international students on campus in Australia (onshore) and international students overseas (offshore). Analysis of data supplied by Go8 universities shows that in 2007 students passed 91.8% of the courses…

  7. Variables That Can Affect Student Ratings of Their Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotlieb, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Attribution theory was applied to help predict the results of an experiment that examined the effects of three independent variables on students' ratings of their professors. The dependent variables were students' perceptions of whether the professor caused the students' grades and student satisfaction with their professor. The results suggest…

  8. Motor skills in kindergarten: Internal structure, cognitive correlates and relationships to background variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberer, Nicole; Gashaj, Venera; Roebers, Claudia M

    2017-04-01

    The present study aimed to contribute to the discussion about the relation between motor coordination and executive functions in preschool children. Specifically, the relation between gross and fine motor skills and executive functions as well as the relation to possible background variables (SES, physical activity) were investigated. Based on the data of N=156 kindergarten children the internal structure of motor skills was investigated and confirmed the theoretically assumed subdivision of gross and fine motor skills. Both, gross and fine motor skills correlated significantly with executive functions, whereas the background variables seemed to have no significant impact on the executive functions and motor skills. Higher order control processes are discussed as an explanation of the relation between executive functions and motor skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Equity in the Turkish Education System: A Multilevel Analysis of Social Background Influences on the Mathematics Performance of 15-Year-Old Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Caner

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discover the level of equity in the Turkish education system using maths outcomes of 15-year-old students in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) exam. In order to do that, associations between various social background variables and student performance are analysed via multilevel models. Female pupils,…

  10. Information visualization courses for students with a computer science background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Linnaeus University offers two master's courses in information visualization for computer science students with programming experience. This article briefly describes the syllabi, exercises, and practices developed for these courses.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF PARENTS’ EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AND STUDY FACILITIES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ALOKAN, FUNMILOLA BOSEDE; OSAKINLE, EUNICE OLUFUNMILAYO; ONIJINGIN, EMMANUEL OLUBU

    2013-01-01

    There has been an outcry against the poor performance of students in the Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Nigeria. This study investigated the difference between the academic performance of students from parents with high educational background and students from parents with low educational background. It also investigated the influence of having study facilities at home on academic performance. The population for this study comprised all public secondary school students in Ondo St...

  12. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities

    OpenAIRE

    Dacre Jane; Woolf Katherine; McManus IC

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A lev...

  13. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, I. C.; Woolf, K.; Dacre, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students.Methods: Attainment at GCSE and A level, and ...

  14. Student Engagement and Classroom Variables in Improving Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Young

    2005-01-01

    The study explored how much student engagement and classroom variables predicted student achievement in mathematics. Since students were nested within a classroom, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was employed for the analysis. The results indicated that student engagement had positive effects on student academic growth per month in math after…

  15. Seasonal and spatial variability of surface ozone over China: contributions from background and domestic pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Both observations and a 3-D chemical transport model suggest that surface ozone over populated eastern China features a summertime trough and that the month when surface ozone peaks differs by latitude and region. Source-receptor analysis is used to quantify the contributions of background ozone and Chinese anthropogenic emissions on this variability. Annual mean background ozone over China shows a spatial gradient from 55 ppbv in the northwest to 20 ppbv in the southeast, corresponding with changes in topography and ozone lifetime. Pollution background ozone (annual mean of 12.6 ppbv shows a minimum in the summer and maximum in the spring. On the monthly-mean basis, Chinese pollution ozone (CPO has a peak of 20–25 ppbv in June north of the Yangtze River and in October south of it, which explains the peaks of surface ozone in these months. The summertime trough in surface ozone over eastern China can be explained by the decrease of background ozone from spring to summer (by −15 ppbv regionally averaged over eastern China. Tagged simulations suggest that long-range transport of ozone from northern mid-latitude continents (including Europe and North America reaches a minimum in the summer, whereas ozone from Southeast Asia exhibits a maximum in the summer over eastern China. This contrast in seasonality provides clear evidence that the seasonal switch in monsoonal wind patterns plays a significant role in determining the seasonality of background ozone over China.

  16. Improved radiological/nuclear source localization in variable NORM background: An MLEM approach with segmentation data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penny, Robert D., E-mail: robert.d.penny@leidos.com [Leidos Inc., 10260 Campus Point Road, San Diego, CA (United States); Crowley, Tanya M.; Gardner, Barbara M.; Mandell, Myron J.; Guo, Yanlin; Haas, Eric B.; Knize, Duane J.; Kuharski, Robert A.; Ranta, Dale; Shyffer, Ryan [Leidos Inc., 10260 Campus Point Road, San Diego, CA (United States); Labov, Simon; Nelson, Karl; Seilhan, Brandon [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Valentine, John D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A novel approach and algorithm have been developed to rapidly detect and localize both moving and static radiological/nuclear (R/N) sources from an airborne platform. Current aerial systems with radiological sensors are limited in their ability to compensate for variable naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) background. The proposed approach suppresses the effects of NORM background by incorporating additional information to segment the survey area into regions over which the background is likely to be uniform. The method produces pixelated Source Activity Maps (SAMs) of both target and background radionuclide activity over the survey area. The task of producing the SAMs requires (1) the development of a forward model which describes the transformation of radionuclide activity to detector measurements and (2) the solution of the associated inverse problem. The inverse problem is ill-posed as there are typically fewer measurements than unknowns. In addition the measurements are subject to Poisson statistical noise. The Maximum-Likelihood Expectation-Maximization (MLEM) algorithm is used to solve the inverse problem as it is well suited for under-determined problems corrupted by Poisson noise. A priori terrain information is incorporated to segment the reconstruction space into regions within which we constrain NORM background activity to be uniform. Descriptions of the algorithm and examples of performance with and without segmentation on simulated data are presented.

  17. Teachers' and Students' Work-Culture Variables Associated with Positive School Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Orna D.; Nutt, Roberta L.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether goodness of fit between teachers' and students' backgrounds is associated with subjective grading and objective achievement at school. One hundred one seventh graders and twenty of their teachers completed the Self-Report Family Inventory. Similarity between teachers' and students' work-culture variables was associated with…

  18. Student financial support. An inventory in 24 European countries. Background report for the project on portability of student financial support

    OpenAIRE

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a description of the current national systems of student financial support in 24 European countries. It provides information on tuition fees, grants, scholarships, student loans, and indirect student support through students families (family allowances and tax benefits) and support in kind in the form of subsidies for travel, accommodation, student restaurants etc. It forms a background report for the study on the extent to which student financial support can be used for ...

  19. Technology Management Education for Students with Educational Background of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Atsushi; Abe, Atsushi

    Japanese industry has been encouraged to transform from a mode of ‘recovery’ to one of 'front-runner' in effective innovation and creation of new businesses and markets based in accomplishments of basic research. Graduate School of Technology Management at Ritsumeikan University strives to not only offer knowledge and skills, but also business experiences to its students so that they may acquire the abilities to discover and solve practical problems logically, analytically and systematically. To achieve these aims, it has inaugurated the Ritsumeikan University Practicum Program by enhancing existing internship programs. Under the guidance of its faculties, this program will allow its students a chance to set and solve actual problems in real world business environments.

  20. The Socio-Economic Background of Erasmus Students: A Trend Towards Wider Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Manuel Souto

    2008-01-01

    The article focuses on the financial issues and family background of Erasmus students. It examines the costs of Erasmus study periods in the academic year 2004/05 and the socio-economic background of Erasmus students that year, based on over 15000 survey responses. Results are compared with those of a similar survey undertaken in 1998 to track…

  1. Reprocessing WFC3/IR Exposures Affected by Time-Variable Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, G.

    2016-11-01

    The background seen in WFC3/IR observations frequently shows strong time-dependent behavior above the constant flux expected for zodiacal continuum light. This is often caused by an emission line of helium at 1.083 μm excited in the sun-illuminated upper atmosphere, when seen in the filters (F105W, F110W) and grisms (G102, G141) sensitive to the feature. The default behavior of the calwf3 pipeline assumes constant source-plus-background fluxes when it performs up-the-ramp fitting to identify cosmic rays and determine the average count rate within a MULTIACCUM IR exposure. calwf3 provides undesirable results in the presence of strongly variable backgrounds, primarily in the form of elevated and non-Gaussian noise in the FLT products. Here we describe methods to improve the noise properties of the reduced products. In the first, we simply turn off the calwf3 crcorr step, treating the IR detector as if it were a CCD, i.e., accumulating flux and reading it out at the end of the exposure. Next, we artificially flatten the ramps in the IMA products and then allow calwf3 to proceed as normal fitting the ramp and identifying CRs. Either of these procedures enable recovery of datasets otherwise corrupted beyond repair and have no discernible effects on photometry of sources in deep combined images.

  2. Mathematical background and attitudes toward statistics in a sample of Spanish college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, José; Martínez, Rafael J; Sánchez, Manuel

    2005-08-01

    To examine the relation of mathematical background and initial attitudes toward statistics of Spanish college students in social sciences the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics was given to 827 students. Multivariate analyses tested the effects of two indicators of mathematical background (amount of exposure and achievement in previous courses) on the four subscales. Analysis suggested grades in previous courses are more related to initial attitudes toward statistics than the number of mathematics courses taken. Mathematical background was related with students' affective responses to statistics but not with their valuing of statistics. Implications of possible research are discussed.

  3. [Similarities and differences in the social background of female medical, nursing and public health visiting students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feith, Helga Judit; Soósné Kiss, Zsuzsanna; Kovácsné Tóth, Agnes; Balázs, Péter

    2008-06-15

    According to our knowledge, there has never been a comprehensive research in Hungary dealing with healthcare university or college students' social background. The main objectives of our cross-section research were to analyze differences in the social background of female students who decided to become doctors, professional nurses and health visitors. This research was conducted among female medical and nursing college students at the Semmelweis University. There were 295 students invited to participate, the response rate was 68,08% (N = 201). Data analysis was performed by SPSS software by using descriptive methods of statistics. We found a decisive difference among medical, nursing and health visitor students while analyzing a number of socio-demographic characteristics. Most medical students came from families where the parents had college or university degrees, but we can state that there is a minimal likelihood in the case of college students that they are descendants of parents with higher educational degrees. We did not find statistical differences in the three student sample groups regarding their marital status, but fewer nursing college students lived in marriage or household partnership. We found a significant difference in the social background of nursing college and medical students. The social disadvantages of nursing and health visitor students are more considerable than those of medical students.

  4. Variables influencing medical student learning in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Cathy J; Boehler, Margaret L; Rogers, David A; Williams, Reed G; Dunnington, Gary; Folse, Roland; Markwell, Stephen J

    2004-02-01

    The operating room (OR) is an important venue where surgeons do much of medical student teaching and yet there has been little work evaluating variables that influence learning in this unique environment. We designed this study to identify variables that affected medical student learning in the OR. We developed a questionnaire based on surgery faculty observations of learning in the OR. The medical students completed the questionnaire on 114 learning episodes in the OR. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to establish the strength of association between various variables and the student's overall perception of learning. The students evaluated 27 variables that might impact their learning in the OR. Strong correlations were identified between the attending physician's attitude, interactions and teaching ability in the OR and the environment being conducive to learning. Surgical faculty behavior is a powerful determinant of student perceptions of what provides for a favorable learning environment in the OR.

  5. Exploring the consequences of combining medical students with and without a background in biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Bates, Amanda; Girard, Suzanne; Buitenhuis, Deanna; Lee, Kyle; Warton, Aidan; Russell, Steve; Caines, Jill; Traficante, Eric; Graves, Lisa

    2014-07-01

    Medical schools have tended to admit students with strong backgrounds in the biomedical sciences. Previous studies have shown that those with backgrounds in the social sciences can be as successful in medical school as those with science backgrounds. However, the experience of being a 'non-science' student over time has not been well described. A mixed-methods study was developed and run with the aim of elucidating the personal experiences of science and non-science students at our institution. Data were generated from a student survey that focused on participants' self-identification as science or non-science students, and on their sense of preparedness and stress, and from a series of student focus groups exploring participants' experiences of science and non-science issues in all aspects of their training. Descriptive statistics were generated for structured survey data. Focus group data and unstructured survey data were analysed to identify common themes. End-of-module and end-of-year examination data for the four class cohorts in the programme were also analysed to compare science and non-science student performance over time. There were clear differences between the experiences and performance of science and non-science students. We found dichotomies in students' self-reported sense of preparedness and stress levels, and marked differences in their examination performance, which diminished over time to converge around the third year of their studies. Combining science and non-science students in the same class affected the students to different extents and in different ways. The potential disruption of mixing science and non-science students diminished as their levels of performance converged. The psychosocial stress experienced by non-science students and the challenges it posed, in both their academic and their personal lives, have implications for how such students should be supported, and how curricula can be configured to afford quality learning for all

  6. Background Noise Acceptance and Personality Factors Involved in Library Environment Choices by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Hickey, Susan; Lemley, Trey

    2012-01-01

    For decades, academic libraries made efforts to provide study environments differing in acoustic environment. The present study aimed to provide an evidence basis for this practice by comparing background noise acceptance and personality factors of two groups of college-aged students self identified as preferring quiet or background noise when…

  7. The Effects of Background Music on Learning Disabled Elementary School Students' Performance in Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legutko, Robert S.; Trissler, Theodore T.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated effects of background music on writing performance of nine 6th grade students with learning disabilities at one suburban public elementary school in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. A single-subject A-B-A design was utilized, and results from graded writing prompts with and without background music over 21…

  8. Language-Related Values, Reading Amount, and Reading Comprehension in Students with Migration Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khechen, Wahiba; Ferdinand, Hanna D.; Steinmayr, Ricarda; McElvany, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although various studies on general language performance have investigated determinants of students' reading comprehension (e.g., reading amount), they have paid insufficient attention to how students perceive parental values influence their language-related values and behaviour--and, as a consequence, their performance. This is…

  9. Students from Non-Dominant Linguistic Backgrounds Making Sense of Cosmology Visualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck Bracey, Zoë E.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of exploratory research with community college students from non-dominant linguistic backgrounds (NDLB) in an introductory astronomy class as they collaborated to reconstruct dynamic cosmology visualizations through drawing. Data included student discourse during the drawing activity, post-activity interviews, and…

  10. College Students' Goals, Plans, and Background Characteristics; A Synthesis of Three Empirical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Robert H.; Scott, Craig S.

    This study was designed to provide longitudinal data bearing on the change and/or stability of college-bound students' educational and vocational goals, as well as their background characteristics. Data from three studies were contrasted and compared. Included in these studies were: (1) a 2-year followup of 4,009 junior college students; (2) a…

  11. The tradeoff between signal detection and recognition rules auditory sensitivity under variable background noise conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Marco

    2015-12-07

    Animal acoustic communication commonly takes place under masked conditions. For instance, sound signals relevant for mating and survival are very often masked by background noise, which makes their detection and recognition by organisms difficult. Ambient noise (AN) varies in level and shape among different habitats, but also remarkable variations in time and space occurs within the same habitat. Variable AN conditions mask hearing thresholds of the receiver in complex and unpredictable ways, thereby causing distortions in sound perception. When communication takes place in a noisy environment, a highly sensitive system might confer no advantage to the receiver compared to a less sensitive one. The effects of noise masking on auditory thresholds and hearing-related functions are well known, and the potential role of AN in the evolution of the species' auditory sensitivity has been recognized by few authors. The mechanism of the underlying selection process has never been explored, however. Here I present a simple fitness model that seeks for the best sensitivity of a hearing system performing the detection and recognition of the sound under variable AN conditions. The model predicts higher sensitivity (i.e. lower hearing thresholds) as best strategy for species living in quiet habitats and lower sensitivity (i.e. higher hearing thresholds) as best strategy for those living in noisy habitats provided the cost of incorrect recognition is not low. The tradeoff between detection and recognition of acoustic signals appears to be a key factor determining the best level of hearing sensitivity of a species when acoustic communication is corrupted by noise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of the 36Cl deposition flux in central Japan: natural background levels and seasonal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosaki, Yuki; Tase, Norio; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nagashima, Yasuo

    2012-01-01

    Essential parameters for the applications of 36 Cl as a tracer in groundwater studies include the initial 36 Cl/Cl ratio, at the time of recharge, and/or the natural background deposition flux of 36 Cl in the recharge area. To facilitate the hydrological use of 36 Cl in central Japan, this study aimed to obtain a precise estimate of the long-term average local 36 Cl flux and to characterize its seasonal variability. The 36 Cl in precipitation was continuously monitored in Tsukuba, central Japan over a period of >5 years. The 36 Cl flux showed a clear seasonal variation with an annual peak during the spring, which was attributed to the seasonal variability of tropopause height. The long-term average 36 Cl flux (32 ± 2 atoms m −2 s −1 ), estimated from the measured data, was consistent with the prediction from the 36 Cl latitudinal fallout model scaled using the global mean production rate of 20 atoms m −2 s −1 . The initial 36 Cl/Cl ratio was estimated to be (41 ± 6) × 10 −15 , which is similar to that of pre-bomb groundwater in the Tsukuba Upland. An observation period covering an 11-year solar cycle would yield more accurate estimates of the values, given the increased 36 Cl flux during the solar minimum. - Highlights: ► We monitored 36 Cl in precipitation in central Japan over a period of >5 years. ► The 36 Cl flux varied seasonally, with a peak in spring. ► The long-term average 36 Cl flux and the initial 36 Cl/Cl ratio were 32 ± 2 atoms m −2 s −1 and (41 ± 6) × 10 −15 , respectively. ► An observation period covering an 11-year solar cycle would yield more accurate estimates of the values, given the increased 36 Cl flux during the solar minimum.

  13. Origin and variability in volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Cécile; Sauvage, Stéphane; Gros, Valérie; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Salameh, Thérèse; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaudion, Vincent; Depelchin, Laurence; Fronval, Isabelle; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Baisnée, Dominique; Bonsang, Bernard; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Locoge, Nadine

    2017-09-01

    More than 7000 atmospheric measurements of over 60 C2 - C16 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were conducted at a background site in Cyprus during a 1-month intensive field campaign held in March 2015. This exhaustive dataset consisted of primary anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs, including a wide range of source-specific tracers, and oxygenated VOCs (with various origins) that were measured online by flame ionization detection-gas chromatography and proton transfer mass spectrometry. Online submicron aerosol chemical composition was performed in parallel using an aerosol mass spectrometer. This study presents the high temporal variability in VOCs and their associated sources. A preliminary analysis of their time series was performed on the basis of independent tracers (NO, CO, black carbon), meteorological data and the clustering of air mass trajectories. Biogenic compounds were mainly attributed to a local origin and showed compound-specific diurnal cycles such as a daily maximum for isoprene and a nighttime maximum for monoterpenes. Anthropogenic VOCs as well as oxygenated VOCs displayed higher mixing ratios under the influence of continental air masses (i.e., western Asia), indicating that long-range transport significantly contributed to the VOC levels in the area. Source apportionment was then conducted on a database of 20 VOCs (or grouped VOCs) using a source receptor model. The positive matrix factorization and concentration field analyses were hence conducted to identify and characterize covariation factors of VOCs that were representative of primary emissions as well as chemical transformation processes. A six-factor PMF solution was selected, namely two primary biogenic factors (relative contribution of 43 % to the total mass of VOCs) for different types of emitting vegetation; three anthropogenic factors (short-lived combustion source, evaporative sources, industrial and evaporative sources; 21 % all together), identified as being either of local origin

  14. [Being online without a purpose -- study of background variables of problematic internet use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prievara, Dóra Katalin; Pikó, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    These days, use of the Internet is unavoidable for the younger generations. The online world is the primary source of infomation and quick communication, and these activities can take many hours per day. The main goal of the present study was to examine the correlations among problematic internet use, social factors, stress and life satisfaction. Data collection was going online during the first semester of the year 2014 (N= 386 girls). The anonymous questionnaire contained items on perceived social support and the amount of online activites beyond sociodemographics. After descriptive statistics, factor, correlation and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to detect interrelationships. According to our data, 78% of the participants spent daily at least 2 hours, 40% more than 4 hours online. Using factor analysis, four factors of online activities were identified: Social networking-surfing, News-information, Risky and Lonely game factors. Only the News-information factor was not related to the problematic internet use. Based on multiple regression analyses, we may conclude that shyness, stress, loneliness and two factors, the Social networking-surfing and the Risky factors acted as background variables for problematic internet use. As a summary we may conclude that the internet has an important role in the everyday life of the participants. In case of the direct aim of the online activities the problematic use did not appear. These activities were mostly searching for information and news. In introduction of prevention, education about the correct use of the internet may be reasonable as early as possible.

  15. Family Background, Students' Academic Self-Efficacy, and Students' Career and Life Success Expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mihyeon

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of family background on students' academic self-efficacy and the impact of students' self-efficacy on their career and life success expectations. The study used the national dataset of the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS: 2002), funded by the U.S. Department of Education. Based on a path…

  16. Clinically speaking: A communication skills program for students from non-English speaking backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Caroline San; Rogan, Fran; Kilstoff, Kathleen; Brown, Di

    2006-09-01

    This paper reports on the design, delivery and evaluation of an innovative oral communication skills program for first year students in a Bachelor of Nursing degree at an Australian university. This program was introduced in 2004 to meet the needs of first year undergraduate students from non-English speaking backgrounds who had experienced difficulties with spoken English while on clinical placement. The program consisted of early identification of students in need of communication development, a series of classes incorporated into the degree program to address students' needs, followed by a clinical placement block. This paper describes the structure of the program, discusses some of the major problems encountered by students in the clinical setting and presents some of the teaching strategies used to address these problems. Evaluations of the program suggest that students' communication skills and confidence improved, resulting in a more positive clinical experience for the majority of students.

  17. Instructional Variables and Students' Acquisition of Employable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the impact of teacher quality, teaching methods, and access to training materials on students' acquisition of employable skills in vocational technical subjects, for self employment in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Three questions and three hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study.

  18. Variability of Mediterranean aerosols properties at three regional background sites in the western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Michaël.; Totems, Julien; Barragan, Rubén.; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Augustin, Patrick; Chazette, Patrick; Léon, Jean-François; Olmo-Reyes, Francisco José; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Rocadenbosch, Francesc

    2014-10-01

    In the framework of the project ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the variability of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is examined in three regional background sites on a southwest - northeast (SW-NE) straight line in the middle of the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The three sites are on the northward transport pathway of African dust: - Ersa, Corsica Island, France (43.00ºN, 9.36ºW, 80 m a.s.l), - Palma de Mallorca, Mallorca Island, Spain (39.55ºN, 2.62ºE, 10 m a.s.l) and - Alborán, Alboran Island, Spain (35.94ºN, 3.04ºW, 15 m a.s.l). AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun-photometer products are mainly used. A preliminary analysis shows that at Ersa and Palma sites the annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) has a similar trend with a peak around 0.2 in July. The winter/spring AOD is lower in Palma than in Ersa, while it is reverse in summer/autumn. The aerosol particle size distribution (and the coarse mode fraction) shows clearly the SW-NE gradient with a decreasing coarse mode peak (and a decreasing coarse mode fraction from 0.5 - 0.35 - 0.2 in July) along the axis Alborán - Palma de Mallorca - Ersa. In addition to the seasonal and annual variability analysis, the analysis of AERONET products is completed with a large variety of ground-based and sounding balloons remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. The second part of the presentation will focus on the comparison of the observations at Palma de Mallorca and Ersa of the same long-range transported airmasses. The observations include lidar vertical profiles, balloon borne OPC (Optical Particle Counter) and MSG/SEVIRI AOD, among others.

  19. Origin and variability in volatile organic compounds observed at an Eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Debevec

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 7000 atmospheric measurements of over 60 C2 − C16 volatile organic compounds (VOCs were conducted at a background site in Cyprus during a 1-month intensive field campaign held in March 2015. This exhaustive dataset consisted of primary anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs, including a wide range of source-specific tracers, and oxygenated VOCs (with various origins that were measured online by flame ionization detection–gas chromatography and proton transfer mass spectrometry. Online submicron aerosol chemical composition was performed in parallel using an aerosol mass spectrometer. This study presents the high temporal variability in VOCs and their associated sources. A preliminary analysis of their time series was performed on the basis of independent tracers (NO, CO, black carbon, meteorological data and the clustering of air mass trajectories. Biogenic compounds were mainly attributed to a local origin and showed compound-specific diurnal cycles such as a daily maximum for isoprene and a nighttime maximum for monoterpenes. Anthropogenic VOCs as well as oxygenated VOCs displayed higher mixing ratios under the influence of continental air masses (i.e., western Asia, indicating that long-range transport significantly contributed to the VOC levels in the area. Source apportionment was then conducted on a database of 20 VOCs (or grouped VOCs using a source receptor model. The positive matrix factorization and concentration field analyses were hence conducted to identify and characterize covariation factors of VOCs that were representative of primary emissions as well as chemical transformation processes. A six-factor PMF solution was selected, namely two primary biogenic factors (relative contribution of 43 % to the total mass of VOCs for different types of emitting vegetation; three anthropogenic factors (short-lived combustion source, evaporative sources, industrial and evaporative sources; 21 % all together, identified

  20. Why They Stay - Retention Strategies for Students from Diverse Backgrounds in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, R.

    2014-12-01

    The geosciences have had a chronic problem of underrepresentation of students from diverse ethnic, cultural, and socio-economic backgrounds. While many programs and efforts focus on the recruitment of minorities, a strategic approach to increase retention is equally important for a student's success. Students from diverse backgrounds often face isolation in majority schools, and lack role models and guidance as they navigate through the academic system. Research has shown that continuous and individualized support can greatly strengthen a student's performance and chance of staying in the field. Successful strategies include a strong mentoring system, early involvement in research, cohort building, and creating a welcoming campus climate. At the SOARS Center for Undergraduate Research, we have found that offering students research topics that allow them to give back to society increases engagement and retention significantly. All interventions need to be applied early, often and on a continuous basis in a student's college experience. A long-term mentor assigned to the student beyond a class or a summer research experience can provide follow-up and champion the student's progress. This presentation will share successful approaches of retaining diverse students in the geosciences and discuss how we can support each other in the community to provide such resources.

  1. [Eating Disorders in Female High School Students: Educational and Migration Background, School-Related Stress and Performance-Orientated Classes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, M

    2018-02-01

    Many adolescents and young adults, especially young females, suffer from eating disorders or problematic nutrition behavior. Children and adolescents with migration background as well as from a lower social class are more likely to have eating disorders 1. Although schools are an important context in these age groups, there is a lack of scientific inquiry concerning the relationship between schooling and eating disorders. The present study investigates the relationship between performance-related stress at school and eating disorders while controlling for personnel and familial resources. Interview data on the 7 th grade high school students from the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS)* starting cohort 3 are used. The dependent variable is based on the SCOFF questionnaire. Logistic regressions are calculated using information from students and parents. Performance-related stress at school is operationalized by the negative deviation of realistic from idealistic educational aspirations (EA) and unfulfilled social expectations (SE), performance-oriented class climate is operationalized by students' perception of the performance-orientation of the teacher (PT) and the expectations of classmates (EC). The results point towards an increased risk of suffering from an eating disorder due to performance-related school stress (EA: AME: 0.18; p<0.001; SE: AME: 0.12; p<0.05) and performance-oriented class climate (PT: AME: 0.05; p<0.1; EC: AME: 0.15, p<0.01). They partly explain the relation between both migration background and educational background and eating disorders. In order to prevent eating disorders in female high school students, attention should be paid to performance-orientation experienced at school and in the social background, and improved individual support for disadvantaged students should be made available. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Student Background and Teacher Effects on Achievement and Attainment in Mathematics: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijs, Daniel; Reynolds, David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, we have studied the effect of student social background, classroom social context, classroom organisation, and teacher behaviours on mathematics achievement and attainment in English and Welsh primary schools. Data were collected over 2 years as part of a programme evaluation, for which we observed 138 teachers and tested and…

  4. Attention Drainage Effect: How Background Music Effects Concentration in Taiwanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Peter Tze-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see whether different types of background music affect the performance of a reading comprehension task in Taiwanese college students. There are two major research questions in this study. First, this study tries to find out whether listening to music affect the learner's concentration when they are doing a task…

  5. Students' Moral Reasoning as Related to Cultural Background and Educational Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Yam, Miriam; And Others

    The relationship between moral development and cultural and educational background is examined. Approximately 120 Israeli youth representing different social classes, sex, religious affiliation, and educational experience were interviewed. The youth interviewed included urban middle and lower class students, Kibbutz-born, Youth Aliyah…

  6. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion and toward Students with Special Educational Needs from Different Ethnic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Maria; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Glock, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on social cognition frameworks, we experimentally examined preservice teachers' implicit attitudes toward students with special educational needs (SEN) from different ethnic backgrounds and preservice teachers' explicit attitudes toward inclusive education. Preservice teachers (N = 46) completed an evaluative priming task and…

  7. Maximizing and Personalizing E-Learning Support for Students with Different Backgrounds and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, Olga; Amitan, Irina; Vendelin, Jelena; Vilipõld, Jüri; Saar, Merike

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present a teaching approach to achieve the most personal support for students with different backgrounds and preferences in studying an Informatics course. Design/Methodology/Approach: The presented methodology is based on the main principles of flexible and blended learning. The authors considered three main aspects:…

  8. [Self-directed learning in nursing students with different background factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Yu, Chu-Wei; Kuo, Shu-Yi; Kuang, I-Hsiu

    2013-08-01

    Fostering self-directed learning skills in nursing students may provide a foundation for improving the specialty knowledge of these nurses. This study examines the current status of nursing student self-directed learning behavior and explores how different background factors impact self-directed learning. This research design used a cross-sectional survey and convenience sampling. A total of 550 questionnaires were distributed to participants in enrolled in nursing programs at a 2-year nursing program at an institute of technology in northern Taiwan and a 4-year nursing program at an institute of technology in southern Taiwan. A convenience sampling was used to collect data, with 537 valid questionnaires used in data analysis. Results indicated that the self-directed learning and self-management of nursing students between 20-21 years old was significantly higher than those of students between 18-19 years old. Self-directed learning, desire of learning and self-control in 2-year nursing students were significantly higher than in 4-year and extension education department nursing student participants. Two-year nursing students had the highest self-management scores, followed by extension education department participants and 4-year nursing students. Finally, participants who associated highly with the nursing profession earned the highest self-directed total score, followed by those participants who associated generally and those who associated mildly. The results recommend that teachers at nursing institutes help students develop self-directed learning. Results also recommend teachers increase their students' association with the nursing specialty through understanding the impact of different background factors on self-directed learning.

  9. Emotional variables, dropout and academic performance in Spanish nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roso-Bas, Fátima; Pades Jiménez, Antonia; García-Buades, Esther

    2016-02-01

    The dropout of university studies is a main concern in many countries, also for Health Sciences degrees. The reviews on dropout in all university degrees as well as nursing generally show multidimensional causes with factors related both to institutional and students' characteristics. Regarding the personal variables of students, researchers have focused on financial, family and personality features. Far less attention has been devoted to emotional variables. This study aims to explore whether individual variables of the emotional domain such as perceived emotional intelligence, dispositional optimism/pessimism and depressive rumination are related and/or can predict students' intention to dropout and academic performance. Using a cross-correlational approach, data were obtained from a sample of 144 nursing students. Students with a pessimistic disposition revealed a greater tendency to drop out. The remaining variables correlated significantly with pessimism but had no predictive value on dropout. Our results suggest that students with low levels of emotional clarity and repair and high depressive rumination have pessimistic expectations, so they are more likely to leave studies. No significant results were found in relation to academic performance. We conclude with an identification of strategies to increase retention and academic success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Children with language problems in a speech and hearing clinic : Background variables and extent of language problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegstra, A.L.; Knijff, W.A.; Post, W.J.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S.M.

    Objective: Analysis of a clinical population referred for language analysis in terms of background variables and extent of language problems. Design: Descriptive study. Materials and methods: Children referred to a speech and hearing clinic because of assumed language problems were analyzed with

  11. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane

    2008-04-16

    UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32.

  12. English language support: A dialogical multi-literacies approach to teaching students from CALD backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berniz Kate

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Students in Western university contexts require multiple literacies, numeracies, and critical capacities to succeed. Participation requires a blend of English language capacity, cultural knowhow, and cognisance of the often-hidden racialized assumptions and dispositions underpinning literate performance. Students from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD backgrounds transitioning to Western university settings from local and international contexts often find themselves floundering in this complex sociocultural web. Many students struggle with the English language preferences of their institutions despite meeting International English Language Testing System (IELTS requirements. Once enrolled, students from CALD backgrounds need to navigate the linguistic, semiotic, and cultural landscape of the university, both physically and virtually, to enter the discourses and practices of their chosen disciplines. Universities cannot afford to allow students to ‘sink or swim’ or struggle through with non-specialist or ad-hoc support. In response to a clear need for explicit and ongoing English language support for students from CALD backgrounds, the Student Learning Centre (SLC at Flinders University in South Australia created the English Language Support Program (ELSP. The ELSP sets out to overcome prescriptive and assimilationist approaches to language support by adopting an eclectic blend of learner-centred, critical-creative, and multi-literacies approaches to learning and teaching. Rather than concentrate on skills and/or language appropriateness, the ELSP broadens its reach by unpacking the mechanics and machinations of university study through an intensive—and transgressive—multi-module program. This paper outlines the theoretical and pedagogical challenges of implementing the ELSP.

  13. Predicting Students' Skills in the Context of Scientific Inquiry with Cognitive, Motivational, and Sociodemographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Andreas; Nowak, Kathrin H.; Belzen, Annette Upmeier zu; Tiemann, Rüdiger

    2015-06-01

    Research on predictors of achievement in science is often targeted on more traditional content-based assessments and single student characteristics. At the same time, the development of skills in the field of scientific inquiry constitutes a focal point of interest for science education. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent multiple student characteristics contribute to skills of scientific inquiry. Based on a theoretical framework describing nine epistemological acts, we constructed and administered a multiple-choice test that assesses these skills in lower and upper secondary school level (n = 780). The test items contained problem-solving situations that occur during chemical investigations in school and had to be solved by choosing an appropriate inquiry procedure. We collected further data on 12 cognitive, motivational, and sociodemographic variables such as conceptual knowledge, enjoyment of chemistry, or language spoken at home. Plausible values were drawn to quantify students' inquiry skills. The results show that students' characteristics predict their inquiry skills to a large extent (55%), whereas 9 out of 12 variables contribute significantly on a multivariate level. The influence of sociodemographic traits such as gender or the social background becomes non-significant after controlling for cognitive and motivational variables. Furthermore, the performance advance of students from upper secondary school level can be explained by controlling for cognitive covariates. We discuss our findings with regard to curricular aspects and raise the question whether the inquiry skills can be considered as an autonomous trait in science education research.

  14. Relevance of Student and Contextual School Variables in Explaining a Student's Severity of Violence Experienced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating the role of different types of contextual school…

  15. Student throughput variables and properties: Varying cohort sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas C.A. Stoop

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent research paper described how student throughput variables and properties combine to explain the behaviour of stationary or simplified throughput systems. Such behaviour can be understood in terms of the locus of a point in the triangular admissible region of the H-S plane, where H represents headcounts and S successful credits, each depending on the system properties at that point. The efficiency of the student throughput process is given by the ratio S/H. Simplified throughput systems are characterised by stationary graduation and dropout patterns of students as well as by annual intakes of student cohorts of equal size. The effect of varying the size of the annual intakes of student cohorts is reported on here. The observations made lead to the establishment of a more generalised student throughput theory which includes the simplified theory as a special case. The generalised theory still retains the notion of a triangular admissible region in the H-S plane but with the size and shape of the triangle depending on the size of the student cohorts. The ratio S/H again emerges as the process efficiency measure for throughput systems in general with unchanged roles assigned to important system properties. This theory provides for a more fundamental understanding of student throughput systems encountered in real life. Significance: A generalised stationary student throughput theory through varying cohort sizes allows for a far better understanding of real student throughput systems.

  16. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacre Jane

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W and non-white (NW students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. Results NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. Conclusion The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32.

  17. Causal Variables and Academic Performance of Students in Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic performance of secondary school students in Cross River State: A basis for counselling and programme planning. The study adopted the descriptive survey method. It made use of two research questions and ...

  18. Teacher and Student Variables Affecting Special Education Evaluation and Referral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodson, Lorenzo Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Past research has revealed that African American/Black boys are referred for special education evaluation at disproportionately higher rates than boys of other racial/ethnic groups. This correlational study used survey methodology to examine whether student and teacher demographic variables predicted how likely a teacher would refer boy students…

  19. Variables Impacting Dispositional Empathy in Doctoral Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Amelia C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore variables impacting dispositional empathy in doctoral psychology students. While there is a great deal of research regarding empathy in practicing psychologists and mental health professionals, little is known about empathy in psychology trainees. This is especially surprising given the importance of…

  20. Demographic Variables and Recreational Substance Use Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B. Robert; Davis, Jaime L.

    1988-01-01

    Examined relationship between demographic variables and recreational substance use in college students (N=832). Results revealed that persons using certain recreational substances differed significantly from nonusers. Marijuana users differed from nonusers on parental income, high school grade point average, and political orientation. No…

  1. High Suicidal Ideation and Psychosocial Variables in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Teruel, David; Garcia-Leon, Ana; Muela-Martinez, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The college students have high rates of suicidal ideation often associated with psychosocial factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether some of these psychosocial variables are related to the high prevalence of suicidal ideation in a College Spanish. Method: Participants (n = 40), aged between 21 and 34 years, Mean =…

  2. High repetition rate laser-driven MeV ion acceleration at variable background pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Joseph; Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Feister, Scott; Morrison, John; Frische, Kyle; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, W. M.

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) can produce highly energetic photons, electrons, and ions with numerous potential real-world applications. Many of these applications will require repeatable, high repetition targets that are suitable for LPI experiments. Liquid targets can meet many of these needs, but they typically require higher chamber pressure than is used for many low repetition rate experiments. The effect of background pressure on the LPI has not been thoroughly studied. With this in mind, the Extreme Light group at the Air Force Research Lab has carried out MeV ion and electron acceleration experiments at kHz repetition rate with background pressures ranging from 30 mTorr to >1 Torr using a submicron ethylene glycol liquid sheet target. We present these results and provide two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation results that offer insight on the thresholds for the efficient acceleration of electrons and ions. This research is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under LRIR Project 17RQCOR504 under the management of Dr. Riq Parra and Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier. Support was also provided by the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  3. Cross-National Estimates of the Effects of Family Background on Student Achievement: A Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko

    2008-01-01

    This article uses the data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2000 to examine whether the influence of family background on educational achievement is sensitive to different measures of the family's socio-economic status (SES). The study finds that, when a multidimensional measure of SES is used, the family background has a stronger influence on achievement across countries than if the simpler measure of SES is used. The new measure, which incorporated aspects of parental occupation, education and cultural resources, was not biased towards more wealthy nations, Western nations, or urban population. However, when a proxy of wealth was included in the measure of SES, this reduced the other measured effects of family background on achievement in many countries.

  4. The Educational Strategies of Danish University Students from Professional and Working-Class Backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jens Peter; Munk, Martin D.; Eiberg, Misja

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the various educational strategies, attitudes and behaviors adopted and displayed by Danish university students from professional class and working-class backgrounds. While access to universities in Denmark remains unequal, certain types of universities and fields of study h...... have wider participation among working-class students than others. At the same time a range of qualitative studies show that working-class students tend to be more risk aversive when it comes to job security and to the economic costs of studying. They tend to lack a sense of belonging...... grants and have no tuition fees, and because the social democratic welfare regime gives a central place to the notion of equality of opportunity in the education system. We ask how and to what extent Danish students’ choice of university program, their educational strategies and attitudes and behaviors...

  5. Characterizing the spatial variability of local and background concentration signals for air pollution at the neighbourhood scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shairsingh, Kerolyn K.; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wang, Jonathan M.; Evans, Greg J.

    2018-06-01

    Vehicle emissions represent a major source of air pollution in urban districts, producing highly variable concentrations of some pollutants within cities. The main goal of this study was to identify a deconvolving method so as to characterize variability in local, neighbourhood and regional background concentration signals. This method was validated by examining how traffic-related and non-traffic-related sources influenced the different signals. Sampling with a mobile monitoring platform was conducted across the Greater Toronto Area over a seven-day period during summer 2015. This mobile monitoring platform was equipped with instruments for measuring a wide range of pollutants at time resolutions of 1 s (ultrafine particles, black carbon) to 20 s (nitric oxide, nitrogen oxides). The monitored neighbourhoods were selected based on their land use categories (e.g. industrial, commercial, parks and residential areas). The high time-resolution data allowed pollutant concentrations to be separated into signals representing background and local concentrations. The background signals were determined using a spline of minimums; local signals were derived by subtracting the background concentration from the total concentration. Our study showed that temporal scales of 500 s and 2400 s were associated with the neighbourhood and regional background signals respectively. The percent contribution of the pollutant concentration that was attributed to local signals was highest for nitric oxide (NO) (37-95%) and lowest for ultrafine particles (9-58%); the ultrafine particles were predominantly regional (32-87%) in origin on these days. Local concentrations showed stronger associations than total concentrations with traffic intensity in a 100 m buffer (ρ:0.21-0.44). The neighbourhood scale signal also showed stronger associations with industrial facilities than the total concentrations. Given that the signals show stronger associations with different land use suggests that

  6. Inside Student Government: The Variable Quality of High School Student Councils

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel; Starmanns, Carlos E.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: Student governments are the first direct experience that youth have of representative government. However, very little research has been done on student councils in spite of their ubiquity in American high schools and consistent references to their positive effects on the political socialization of youth.…

  7. Leisure time physical activity, screen time, social background, and environmental variables in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Jorge; Gomes, Helena; Almeida, Mariana; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Santos, Maria Paula

    2007-08-01

    This study analyzes the relationships between leisure time physical activity (LTPA), sedentary behaviors, socioeconomic status, and perceived environmental variables. The sample comprised 815 girls and 746 boys. In girls, non-LTPA participants reported significantly more screen time. Girls with safety concerns were more likely to be in the non-LTPA group (OR = 0.60) and those who agreed with the importance of aesthetics were more likely to be in the active-LTPA group (OR = 1.59). In girls, an increase of 1 hr of TV watching was a significant predictor of non-LTPA (OR = 0.38). LTPA for girls, but not for boys, seems to be influenced by certain modifiable factors of the built environment, as well as by time watching TV.

  8. Exploring domestic energy-saving: The role of environmental concern and background variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, Jan; Ščasný, Milan

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate whether residents' environmental concern has any effect on their energy-saving curtailments and efficiency investments. The novelty of the present work lies in the fact that it seeks to investigate this topic in a multi-country setting, exploiting data from nine OECD countries (Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, France, Italy, South Korea, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden), and also in that it employs a latent variable model which allows us to examine the conditions necessary for the results to be comparable across different countries. Novel in this paper is also the focus on the role of environmental concern as a factor of several curtailments and efficiency investments. Our results suggest that people with higher environmental concern are on average more likely to perform energy-saving curtailments and also are more likely to have some energy-efficiency retrofits installed in dwellings. Most of the socio-economic and demographic variables have mixed effects on efficiency investments and curtailments. However, some interesting patterns emerged with respect to the age of respondents, household income, education and gender of respondents, and also the size of household. - Highlights: ► People with higher environmental concern are more likely to perform energy-saving curtailments. ► People with higher environmental concern are more likely to introduce some energy efficiency retrofits. ► Older people are more concerned about environmental problems, invest in efficiency and curtail more. ► Formal level of education does not play prominent role with respect to domestic energy-saving. ► Wealthier people are more likely to invest in energy efficiency but less likely to curtail.

  9. Association Between Socio-Demographic Background and Self-Esteem of University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Muhammad Ahsan Ul

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to scrutinize self-esteem of university students and explore association of self-esteem with academic achievement, gender and other factors. A sample of 346 students was selected from Punjab University, Lahore Pakistan. Rosenberg self-esteem scale with demographic variables was used for data collection. Besides descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression and t test were used for analysing the data. Significant gender difference was observed, self-esteem was significantly higher in males than females. Logistic regression indicates that age, medium of instruction, family income, student monthly expenditures, GPA and area of residence has direct effect on self-esteem; while number of siblings showed an inverse effect.

  10. From Deficit to Asset: Locating Discursive Resistance in a Refugee-Background Student's Written and Oral Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Shawna; MacDonald, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how a refugee-background student of Somali Bantu heritage employs linguistic resources to make sense of his experience with forced migration, resettlement, and formal education. Much of the educational research on refugee-background students (and other groups of English learners) propagates a deficit orientation in which…

  11. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  12. The variable colours of the fiddler crab Uca vomeris and their relation to background and predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmi, Jan M; Marshall, Justin; Pix, Waltraud; Vorobyev, Misha; Zeil, Jochen

    2006-10-01

    Colour changes in fiddler crabs have long been noted, but a functional interpretation is still lacking. Here we report that neighbouring populations of Uca vomeris in Australia exhibit different degrees of carapace colours, which range from dull mottled to brilliant blue and white. We determined the spectral characteristics of the mud substratum and of the carapace colours of U. vomeris and found that the mottled colours of crabs are cryptic against this background, while display colours provide strong colour contrast for both birds and crabs, but luminance contrast only for a crab visual system. We tested whether crab populations may become cryptic under the influence of bird predation by counting birds overflying or feeding on differently coloured colonies. Colonies with cryptically coloured crabs indeed experience a much higher level of bird presence, compared to colourful colonies. We show in addition that colourful crab individuals subjected to dummy bird predation do change their body colouration over a matter of days. The crabs thus appear to modify their social signalling system depending on their assessment of predation risk.

  13. The Relationship of Discipline Background to Upper Secondary Students' Argumentation on Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Nina; Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Zeidler, Dana L.

    2014-08-01

    In the present STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics)-driven society, socioscientific issues (SSI) have become a focus globally and SSI research has grown into an important area of study in science education. Since students attending the social and science programs have a different focus in their studies and research has shown that students attending a science program are less familiar with argumentation practice, we make a comparison of the supporting reasons social science and science majors use in arguing different SSI with the goal to provide important information for pedagogical decisions about curriculum and instruction. As an analytical framework, a model termed SEE-SEP covering three aspects (of knowledge, value, and experiences) and six subject areas (of sociology/culture, economy, environment/ecology, science, ethics/morality, and policy) was adopted to analyze students' justifications. A total of 208 upper secondary students (105 social science majors and 103 science majors) from Sweden were invited to justify and expound their arguments on four SSI including global warming, genetically modified organisms (GMO), nuclear power, and consumer consumption. The results showed that the social science majors generated more justifications than the science majors, the aspect of value was used most in students' argumentation regardless of students' discipline background, and justifications from the subject area of science were most often presented in nuclear power and GMO issues. We conclude by arguing that engaging teachers from different subjects to cooperate when teaching argumentation on SSI could be of great value and provide students from both social science and science programs the best possible conditions in which to develop argumentation skills.

  14. Academic Achievement, Perceived Stress, Admission Data, and Sociodemographic Background Among Therapy Students in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tamar; Einstein, Ofira

    2017-01-01

    Academic achievement (AA) is of great importance in the academic world. The aims of this study were to: 1) identify contributors to AA of physical therapy (PT) students; 2) evaluate students' perceived stress (PS); and 3) identify contributors to PS. A cross-sectional study involving three undergraduate PT classes in a single academic year was performed 1 week prior to final examinations. Current grade point average (GPA) and admission data were collected from administrative records. Additional data, collected using an online questionnaire, included the Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS), Scale for Assessing Academic Stress (SAAS), and selected sociodemographic variables. Regression analysis identified contributors to AA and to PS. Records of 153 students and questionnaires of 118 students were included in the study. Combined grades from psychometric tests and matriculation exams at admission, low PS, absence due to military reserve service during the academic year, and participation in the second and third years of the PT program accounted for a modest variance (31.1% ) in students' GPA. The low contribution of admission criteria to GPA suggests that there is no justification for raising the level of the present criteria.

  15. Seasonal variability of carbonaceous aerosols in an urban background area in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, D.; Merico, E.; Dinoi, A.; Marinoni, A.; Bonasoni, P.; Contini, D.

    2018-02-01

    Organic (OC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) are important components of atmospheric aerosol particles, playing a key role in climate system and potentially affecting human health. There is a lack of data reported for Southern Italy and this work aims to fill this gap, focusing the attention on the long-term trends of OC and EC concentrations in PM2.5 and PM10, and on atmospheric processes and sources influencing seasonal variability. Measurements were taken at the Environmental-Climate Observatory of Lecce (SE Italy, 40°20‧8″N-18°07‧28″E, 37 m a.s.l.), regional station of the Global Atmosphere Watch program (GAW-WMO). Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between July 2013 and July 2016. In addition, starting in December 2014, simultaneous equivalent Black Carbon (eBC) concentrations in PM10 were measured using a Multi Angle Absorption Photometer. A subset of 722 PM samples (361 for each size fraction) was analysed by using a thermo-optical method with a Sunset Laboratory OC/EC analyser, to determine elemental and organic carbon concentrations. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 28.8 μg/m3 and 17.5 μg/m3. The average OC and EC concentrations in PM10 were 5.4 μg/m3 and 0.8 μg/m3, in PM2.5 these were 4.7 μg/m3 and 0.6 μg/m3. Carbonaceous content was larger during cold season with respect to warm season as well as secondary organic carbon (SOC) that was evaluated using the OC/EC minimum ratio method. SOC was mainly segregated in PM2.5 and represented 53% - 75% of the total OC. A subset of EC data was compared with eBC measurements, showing a good correlation (R2 = 0.80), however, eBC concentrations were higher than EC concentrations of an average factor of 1.95 (+/- 0.55 standard deviation). This could be explained by the presence of a contribution of Brown Carbon (BrC), for example from biomass burning, in eBC measurements. Weekly patterns showed a slight decrease of carbon content during weekends with respect to weekdays especially

  16. Understanding the variable effect of instructional innovations on student learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Heidi L.

    2012-02-01

    As a result of dissatisfaction with the traditional lecture-based model of education a large number of reform-oriented instructional innovations have been developed, enacted, and studied in undergraduate physics courses. While previous work has shown that the impact of instructional innovations on student learning has been overwhelmingly positive, it has also been highly variable. The purpose of this analysis is to investigate this variability. For this analysis, 79 published studies on undergraduate physics instructional innovations were analyzed with respect to the types of innovations used and the methodological characteristics of the studies themselves. The findings of this analysis have indicated that nearly half of the variability in effect size can be accounted for by study design characteristics rather than by the characteristics of the innovations used. However, a subsequent analysis illustrated that one specific innovation, Workshop/Studio Physics, appears to be particularly effective within the observed sample of studies.

  17. Family context variables and the development of self-regulation in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strage, A A

    1998-01-01

    While researchers have begun to specify how features of students' immediate learning environments affect the development and use of self-regulation skills, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of the family context in fostering or impeding the development of these skills. This paper proposes a conceptual framework based on attachment theory (Ainsworth et al., 1978; Bowlby, 1982) and Baumrind's parenting styles typology (Baumrind, 1967, 1991) for examining the relationship between family context variables and the development of self-regulation skills. It also presents initial findings from a study of the parental practices and values associated with academic self-regulation in college students. A sample of 465 students completed the 104-item Student Attitudes and Perceptions Survey, which consists of 4 personal profile scales, 7 family background scales, 2 course characteristics scales, and 2 study habits scales. Perceptions of parents as authoritative and of family as emotionally close were found to be predictive of (1) general confidence and positive sense of self, (2) positive goal-orientation at school, (3) general concern about preparation for the future, and (4) positive adjustment to college. These family profiles were also predictive of (1) students' rating their introductory psychology course as interesting and supportive, (2) favorable ratings of their time and effort management and note-taking skills, and (3) strong agreement with a series of items reflecting components of self-regulated learning. Perceptions of parents as authoritarian and of family as nagging or enmeshed were also predictive of concern about preparation for the future. These family profiles were generally predictive of students' rating their introductory psychology course as difficult, and of time and effort management difficulties. The patterns linking family background profiles with course perceptions, study habits, and individual indices of self-regulated learning

  18. Spirituality in Indian University Students and its Associations with Socioeconomic Status, Religious Background, Social Support, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sibnath; McGirr, Kevin; Sun, Jiandong

    2016-10-01

    The present study aimed to understand spirituality and its relationships with socioeconomic status (SES), religious background, social support, and mental health among Indian university students. It was hypothesized that (1) female university students will be more spiritual than male university students, (2) four domains of spirituality will differ significantly across socioeconomic and religious background of the university students in addition to social support, and (3) there will be a positive relationship between spirituality and mental health of university students, irrespective of gender. A group of 475 postgraduate students aged 20-27 years, 241 males and 234 females, from various disciplines of Pondicherry University, India, participated in the study. Students' background was collected using a structured questionnaire. Overall spirituality and its four dimensions were measured using the Spirituality Attitude Inventory, while mental health status was estimated based on scores of the psychological subscale of the WHO Quality of Life Questionnaire. Female students were significantly more spiritual than male students, particularly in spiritual practice and sense of purpose/connection. Hindu religion and lower family income were associated with lower spirituality. Higher spirituality was associated with congenial family environment and more support from teachers and classmates. There was a strong association between overall spirituality and two spirituality domains (spiritual belief and sense of purpose/connection) with better mental health. Findings suggest an opportunity for open dialogue on spirituality for university students as part of their mental health and support services that fosters a positive mind set and enhancement of resilience.

  19. Exploring the Cross-Cultural Experiences of College Students with Diverse Backgrounds Performing International Service-Learning in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo-lan; Lee, Hsin-hua

    2011-01-01

    Background: In view of the growing globalization, volunteer service organizations, local universities, colleges, and student groups have begun extending their service programs from Taiwan to other countries. This study employs a self-organized, self-funded group of university students participating in international service-learning as its subject,…

  20. Temporal variability of the bioaerosol background at a subway station: concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar; Blatny, Janet Martha

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 10(3) CFU m(-3) and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents.

  1. Temporal Variability of the Bioaerosol Background at a Subway Station: Concentration Level, Size Distribution, and Diversity of Airborne Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybwad, Marius; Skogan, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring bioaerosol environments may present a challenge to biological detection-identification-monitoring (BIODIM) systems aiming at rapid and reliable warning of bioterrorism incidents. One way to improve the operational performance of BIODIM systems is to increase our understanding of relevant bioaerosol backgrounds. Subway stations are enclosed public environments which may be regarded as potential bioterrorism targets. This study provides novel information concerning the temporal variability of the concentration level, size distribution, and diversity of airborne bacteria in a Norwegian subway station. Three different air samplers were used during a 72-h sampling campaign in February 2011. The results suggested that the airborne bacterial environment was stable between days and seasons, while the intraday variability was found to be substantial, although often following a consistent diurnal pattern. The bacterial levels ranged from not detected to 103 CFU m−3 and generally showed increased levels during the daytime compared to the nighttime levels, as well as during rush hours compared to non-rush hours. The airborne bacterial levels showed rapid temporal variation (up to 270-fold) on some occasions, both consistent and inconsistent with the diurnal profile. Airborne bacterium-containing particles were distributed between different sizes for particles of >1.1 μm, although ∼50% were between 1.1 and 3.3 μm. Anthropogenic activities (mainly passengers) were demonstrated as major sources of airborne bacteria and predominantly contributed 1.1- to 3.3-μm bacterium-containing particles. Our findings contribute to the development of realistic testing and evaluation schemes for BIODIM equipment by providing information that may be used to simulate operational bioaerosol backgrounds during controlled aerosol chamber-based challenge tests with biological threat agents. PMID:24162566

  2. Integration and health-related quality of life of undergraduate medical students with migration backgrounds ? Results of a survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kurr?, Jennifer; Scholl, Johanna; Bullinger, Monika; Petersen-Ewert, Corinna

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most medical faculties in Germany are still lacking differentiated counseling programmes for specific target groups. The purpose of the present study was to determine the quality of life and integration of students with migration backgrounds and their interests in counseling programmes.Methods: Data was collected at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf in Germany. Participants were students of the undergraduate medical course; n=890 (89.3%) students without migration b...

  3. Variability of sub-micrometer particle number size distributions and concentrations in the Western Mediterranean regional background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cusack

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the daily and seasonal variability of particle number size distributions and concentrations, performed at the Montseny (MSY regional background station in the western Mediterranean from October 2010 to June 2011. Particle number concentrations at MSY were shown to be within range of various other sites across Europe reported in literature, but the seasonality of the particle number size distributions revealed significant differences. The Aitken mode is the dominant particle mode at MSY, with arithmetic mean concentrations of 1698 cm3, followed by the accumulation mode (877 cm−3 and the nucleation mode (246 cm−3. Concentrations showed a strong seasonal variability with large increases in particle number concentrations observed from the colder to warmer months. The modality of median size distributions was typically bimodal, except under polluted conditions when the size distribution was unimodal. During the colder months, the daily variation of particle number size distributions are strongly influenced by a diurnal breeze system, whereby the Aitken and accumulation modes vary similarly to PM1 and BC mass concentrations, with nocturnal minima and sharp day-time increases owing to the development of a diurnal mountain breeze. Under clean air conditions, high levels of nucleation and lower Aitken mode concentrations were measured, highlighting the importance of new particle formation as a source of particles in the absence of a significant condensation sink. During the warmer months, nucleation mode concentrations were observed to be relatively elevated both under polluted and clean conditions due to increased photochemical reactions, with enhanced subsequent growth owing to elevated concentrations of condensable organic vapours produced from biogenic volatile organic compounds, indicating that nucleation at MSY does not exclusively occur under clean air conditions. Finally, mixing of air masses between polluted and non

  4. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization with Variable-delay Polarization Modulators for the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; CLASS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The search for inflationary primordial gravitational waves and the optical depth to reionization, both through their imprint on the large angular scale correlations in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), has created the need for high sensitivity measurements of polarization across large fractions of the sky at millimeter wavelengths. These measurements are subjected to instrumental and atmospheric 1/f noise, which has motivated the development of polarization modulators to facilitate the rejection of these large systematic effects.Variable-delay polarization modulators (VPMs) are used in the Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) telescopes as the first element in the optical chain to rapidly modulate the incoming polarization. VPMs consist of a linearly polarizing wire grid in front of a moveable flat mirror; varying the distance between the grid and the mirror produces a changing phase shift between polarization states parallel and perpendicular to the grid which modulates Stokes U (linear polarization at 45°) and Stokes V (circular polarization). The reflective and scalable nature of the VPM enables its placement as the first optical element in a reflecting telescope. This simultaneously allows a lock-in style polarization measurement and the separation of sky polarization from any instrumental polarization farther along in the optical chain.The Q-Band CLASS VPM was the first VPM to begin observing the CMB full time in 2016. I will be presenting its design and characterization as well as demonstrating how modulating polarization significantly rejects atmospheric and instrumental long time scale noise.

  5. Refractive errors in students from Middle Eastern backgrounds living and undertaking schooling in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, Serap; Junghans, Barbara M; Barutchu, Ayla; Crewther, Sheila G

    2011-01-01

      Environmental factors associated with schooling systems in various countries have been implicated in the rising prevalence of myopia, making the comparison of prevalence of refractive errors in migrant populations of interest. This study aims to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in children of Middle Eastern descent, raised and living in urban Australia but actively maintaining strong ties to their ethnic culture, and to compare them with those in the Middle East where myopia prevalence is generally low.   A total of 354 out of a possible 384 late primary/early secondary schoolchildren attending a private school attracting children of Middle Eastern background in Melbourne were assessed for refractive error and visual acuity. A Shin Nippon open-field NVision-K5001 autorefractor was used to carry out non-cycloplegic autorefraction while viewing a distant target. For statistical analyses students were divided into three age groups: 10-11 years (n = 93); 12-13 years (n = 158); and 14-15 years (n = 102).   All children were bilingual and classified as of Middle Eastern (96.3 per cent) or Egyptian (3.7 per cent) origin. Ages ranged from 10 to 15 years, with a mean of 13.17 ± 0.8 (SEM) years. Mean spherical equivalent refraction (SER) for the right eye was +0.09 ± 0.07 D (SEM) with a range from -7.77 D to +5.85 D. The prevalence of myopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refraction 0.50 D or more of myopia, was 14.7 per cent. The prevalence of hyperopia, defined as a spherical equivalent refraction of +0.75 D or greater, was 16.4 per cent, while hyperopia of +1.50 D or greater was 5.4 per cent. A significant difference in SER was seen as a function of age; however, no significant gender difference was seen.   This is the first study to report the prevalence of refractive errors for second-generation Australian schoolchildren coming from a predominantly Lebanese Middle Eastern Arabic background, who endeavour to maintain their ethnic ties. The

  6. Student financial support. An inventory in 24 European countries. Background report for the project on portability of student financial support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossensteyn, Johan J.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a description of the current national systems of student financial support in 24 European countries. It provides information on tuition fees, grants, scholarships, student loans, and indirect student support through students families (family allowances and tax benefits) and

  7. Academic Expectations of Australian Students from Aboriginal, Asian and Anglo Backgrounds: Perspectives of Teachers, Trainee-Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandy, Justine; Durkin, Kevin; Barber, Bonnie L.; Houghton, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There are ethnic group differences in academic achievement among Australian students, with Aboriginal students performing substantially below and Asian students above their peers. One factor that may contribute to these effects is societal stereotypes of Australian Asian and Aboriginal students, which may bias teachers' evaluations and influence…

  8. Attitudes and Motivation toward Learning the English Language among Students from Islamic Education System Background: Exploring the Views of Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sheikh Ahmad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of attitudes and motivation has increasingly investigated the nature and role of motivation in L2 learning process, and many are inspired by Canadian psychologists, Robert Gardner and Wallace Lambert [1]. However, in Malaysia, there has been only a meagre number of research that investigates teachers' perceptions on attitudes and motivation of students from religious school background. It is of great significance to explore the attitudes and motivation of these groups of students because the students appeared to be weak in the English language and they also held negative perceptions toward the language [2, 3]. The present study is needed to attain authentic information about possible connections between teachers' personal experiences, their perspectives and their practices regarding teaching and learning of students from the aforementioned background. This qualitative research study contains in-depth teacher interviews that document their personal perceptions, ways of dealing with students in the specified setting, and their suggestions on improving the attitudes and motivation of learning English for students from religious school background. Findings are presented according to the research questions intended for the study and several conclusions were drawn from the data. 

  9. Student understanding of control of variables: Deciding whether or not a variable influences the behavior of a system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Andrew; Shaffer, Peter S.; Heron, Paula R. L.; McDermott, Lillian C.

    2008-02-01

    The ability of adult students to reason on the basis of the control of variables was the subject of an extended investigation. This paper describes the part of the study that focused on the reasoning required to decide whether or not a given variable influences the behavior of a system. The participants were undergraduates taking introductory Physics and K-8 teachers studying physics and physical science in inservice institutes and workshops. Although most of the students recognized the need to control variables, many had significant difficulty with the underlying reasoning. The results indicate serious shortcomings in the preparation of future scientists and in the education of a scientifically literate citizenry. There are also strong implications for the professional development of teachers, many of whom are expected to teach control of variables to young students.

  10. The Psychologist's Troubled Background: Major Related Life Experiences of Psychology and Law Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werz, Janina; Buechner, Vanessa L.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores major-related life experiences (MRLE) of psychology and law students to examine the stereotype of the wounded psychology student. Previous studies have shown that psychology students know people with mental disorders and are seeking treatment themselves. However, these studies do not allow drawing conclusions about the…

  11. Adolescents' educational aspirations and ethnic background: The case of students of African and Latin American migrant origins in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Gil-Hernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minority students were found to have high educational aspirations, considering their background characteristics. This finding is often attributed to 'migrant optimism.' Yet, whether socioeconomic, educational, or demographic differences between and within ethnic groups mediate and/or moderate students' educational aspirations remains an inconclusive question. Objective: This study investigates the educational aspirations of children of African and Latin American migrants in Spain, looking at four critical factors: (1 family background, (2 educational performance, (3 years lived in Spain, and (4 language used at home. Methods: Data comes from the 2010 General Evaluation of Educational Diagnostic (GEED on lower-secondary students aged 14 (n = 19,293, on average. Multivariate logistic models are applied using mediation and moderation analyses. Results: Results show that (1 minority students have higher college aspirations than students of Spanish origin after accounting for parental socioeconomic status and educational performance; (2 ethnic differentials in aspirations - especially for pupils with Latin American origin - are concentrated among low-performing and disadvantaged students; (3 recent arrival in Spain is not significantly associated with differences in educational aspirations within minority groups; (4 speaking Spanish at home does not lead to differences in aspirations for pupils of African origin. Conclusions: Migrant optimism, as opposed to family language use and years of contact with the Spanish culture and society, seems to be an important factor for the high (net educational aspirations of students from African and Latin American backgrounds. Contribution: The article provides new evidence on ethnic heterogeneity in educational aspirations, being the first that uses representative data from the whole Spanish educational system.

  12. Evaluating the effect of learning style and student background on self-assessment accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoutinen, Satu

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluates a new taxonomy-based self-assessment scale and examines factors that affect assessment accuracy and course performance. The scale is based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy and is evaluated by comparing students' self-assessment results with course performance in a programming course. Correlation has been used to reveal possible connections between student information and both self-assessment and course performance. The results show that students can place their knowledge along the taxonomy-based scale quite well and the scale seems to fit engineering students' learning style. Advanced students assess themselves more accurately than novices. The results also show that reflective students were better in programming than active. The scale used in this study gives a more objective picture of students' knowledge than general scales and with modifications it can be used in other classes than programming.

  13. Diversity in Intensive English Language Centres in South Australia: Sociocultural Approaches to Education for Students with Migrant or Refugee Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha

    2016-01-01

    While there is a body of research concerning the education of students with migrant or refugee backgrounds, little of this research focuses on primary school-aged children. In order to address this gap, the current paper utilises data gained from an ethnographic study to consider the challenges and opportunities associated with diverse classrooms…

  14. Creating Unity through Celebrating Diversity: A Case Study That Explores the Impact of Music Education on Refugee Background Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Renée

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a case study that investigated the impact of music education on students in an F-12 school in Victoria, Australia that is considered as having a high percentage of young people with a refugee background. Key findings from this research indicated that music education had a positive impact on this group of young…

  15. Australian School Practices and the Education Experiences of Students with a Refugee Background: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily; Ziaian, Tahereh; Esterman, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    Schools have the potential for significant impact on the lives of Australian students with a refugee background. Many of these young people speak at least one language other than English, have previous histories of interrupted schooling or have experienced trauma during times of displacement and forced migration. Combined with the further…

  16. Issues and Methodologies in Large-Scale Assessments. Special Issue 2: Measuring Students' Family Background in Large-Scale International Education Studies. IERI Monograph Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brese, Falk; Mirazchiyski, Plamen

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between students' family background and achievement is often seen as an important topic in regard to equality and equity of educational provision. The results of various education studies show that the family background of students correlates with students' academic achievement at school. This paper focuses on the measurement of…

  17. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF STUDENT TEACHERS IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCIENCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyllested, Trine

    The students attending teacher training at University College Capital in Copenhagen, Denmark fall into two groups with different subject profiles: One group prefers to teach at the primary level, the other prefers to teach at the secondary level. The students of primary level science combine...... with other subjects such as History, Danish or Physical Education. The students of secondary level science combine with subjects such as Mathematics and related science subjects: Biology, Geography, Physics and Chemistry....

  18. Prior academic background and student performance in assessment in a graduate entry programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, P L; Gordon, J J; Clark, R M; Langendyk, V

    2004-11-01

    This study aims to identify whether non-science graduates perform as well as science graduates in Basic and Clinical Sciences (B & CS) assessments during Years 1-3 of a four-year graduate-entry programme at the University of Sydney (the 'USydMP'). Students were grouped into five categories: Health Professions (HP), Biomedical Sciences (BMS), Other Biology (BIOL), Physical Sciences (PHYS) or Non-Science (NONS). We examined the performance rank of students in each of the five groups for single best answer (SBA) and modified essay (MEQ) assessments separately, and also calculated the relative risk of failure in the summative assessments in Years 2 and 3. Students with science-based prior degrees performed better in the SBA assessments. The same occurred initially in the MEQs, but the effect diminished with time. The HP students performed consistently better but converged with other groups over time, particularly in the MEQs. Relative performance by the NONS students improved with time in both assessment formats. Overall, differences between the highest and lowest groups were small and very few students failed to meet the overall standard for the summative assessments. HP and BMS students had the lowest failure rate. NONS students were more likely to fail the assessments in Year 2 and 3, but their pass rates were still high. Female students performed significantly better overall at the end of Year 2 and in Year 3. There were only minor differences between Australian resident and International students. While there are small differences in performance in B & CS early in the programme, these lessen with time. The study results will inform decisions regarding timing of summative assessments, selection policy and for providing additional support to students who need it to minimize their risk of failure. Readers should note that this paper refers to student performance in only one of the four curriculum themes, where health professional and science graduates would be

  19. Educational Status of Dental Basic Science Course and its Correlation with Students' Educational Background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozafar Khazaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basic science course plays a pivotal role in the academic achievement of the students. The scientific background and educational performance of the students are also influential in this period. The aim of the present study was to investigate the educational status of dental basic science course in the first three admissions (2009-2011 and its association with students’ educational background in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all dental students admitted to school of dentistry in 2009-2011 years were included. The students’ academic background (scores, grade point average, score of comprehensive basic sciences examination (CBSE were recorded. Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: Kermanshah dental students admitted to university in 2009-2011 were mostly female (59.2%, belonged to regions 2 and 3 (81.6% of university entrance exam, had sciences diploma (89.8% and their grade point average of diploma was nearly 18. There was a significant difference between the three groups of students admitted to university in Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, Arabic, English language and Theology lessones of entrane exam (P<0.05. The students’ failure rate was 1.5% in university coureses. They all (100% passed CBSE and were ranked second nationally in the year. There was no significant difference between male and female students in terms of age, diploma grade point average, grade point average of basic sciences and score of CBSE. Conclusion: Basic science courses of dentistry in Kermanshah enjoyed a rather constant status and students had a good academic level in these courses.

  20. Teaching Evolution to Students with Compromised Backgrounds & Lack of Confidence about Evolution--Is It Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Alexandria; Cotner, Sehoya; Moore, Randy

    2014-01-01

    Students regard evolutionary theory differently than science in general. Students' reported confidence in their ability to understand science in general (e.g., posing scientific questions, interpreting tables and graphs, and understanding the content of their biology course) significantly outweighed their confidence in understanding evolution. We…

  1. Partnership Bound: Using MAPS with Transitioning Students and Families from All Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Shana J.; Francis, Grace L.; Shepherd, Katharine G.; Ziegler, Meg; Mabika, Goma

    2018-01-01

    The McGill Action Planning System (also referred to as Making Action Plans or MAPS) is a supportive, strengths-based process that enables teams to understand each other and work together to support students in achieving their dreams. This process can work very well with all transitioning students with disabilities and their families, including…

  2. Rural Students in a Chinese Top-Tier University: Family Background, School Effects, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.; Ailei, Xie; Jung, Jisun; Yanbi, Hong

    2017-01-01

    New preferential policies in China promise to increase the number of rural students entering top-tier universities, where there is a wider path to a higher social status. While a substantial body of literature has investigated rural students' trajectories to university, there is a dearth of systematic empirical studies on the academic success of…

  3. Financial Information Source, Knowledge, and Practices of College Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Yoko; Koonce, Joan; Plunkett, Scott W.; Pleskus, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Using cross-sectional data, we examined the financial information sources, financial knowledge, and financial practices of young adults, many of whom are first generation college students, ethnic minorities, and immigrants or children of immigrants. Participants (n = 1,249) were undergraduate students at a large regional comprehensive university.…

  4. Teaching Java programming to media students with a liberal arts background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    knew what the problem was: Lack of motivation. The students considered here consist of students to whom programming is not a primary interest and many are prejudicial against programming. We were mistaken, it was not a motivation problem. We designed a questionnaire to find the students’ attitude...

  5. Different Backgrounds--Different Priorities? Student Perceptions of a Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Miikka J.; Vuojärvi, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    A multitude of studies has assessed the success of different technology initiatives but rarely has the focus been on special groups. This paper examines whether university students with children and those without have different perceptions of a technology initiative where students were able to acquire university sponsored laptops and were provided…

  6. The Challenge of Teaching Quantitative Skills to Students with Limited Mathematical Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anosike, Nnamdi

    There is a myth in the African American community that only a few students are bright enough to effectively learn quantitative skills, and many African American students attend college with the assumption that they are not good at mathematics and as a result cannot choose majors that require the mastery of quantitative skills. African American…

  7. Selection of Developmental Errors by Students with Different L1 Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadessy, Moshen

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of Chinese, Malay, and Tamil primary school students' responses to a test featuring 19 error types related to English verb structure revealed no significant differences between the three groups' selection of developmental errors. The test also showed promise in measuring students' English accuracy as opposed to fluency. (CB)

  8. Studying Computer Science in a Multidisciplinary Degree Programme: Freshman Students' Orientation, Knowledge, and Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Kofoed, Uffe

    2004-01-01

    Teachers at universities are facing an increasing disparity in students' prior IT knowledge and, at the same time, experience a growing disengagement of the students with regard to involvement in study activities. As computer science teachers in a joint programme in computer science and business administration, we made a number of similar…

  9. BACKGROUND MUSIC AT THE TIME OF ACADEMIC ASSESSMENT AS STRESS BUSTER: PERCEPTION OF THE STUDENTS AT GOVT. MEDICAL COLLEGE , BILASPUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Manoharrao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Music has numerous applications within a clinical setting. It can be in the form of background music too. It is known that some students study and learn more effectively while listening to music. METHODS: The present study was intended to evaluate the perception of the students at medical college for the innovative idea of playing of background music during examination as a stress buster and their response for including it as one of the measure for reducing the stress among medical students. RESULT: The subjects were divided into three groups on t he basis of suffering from anxiety and stress during examination – No Anxiety (N, Occasional Anxiety (O, Anxiety (A. The groups were subjected to Spearman Correlation (SPSS. When the No Anxiety (N group and Occasional Anxiety (O group were compared, it showed positive correlation (0.482, but failed to show statistical significance [0.189]. However, the comparison of the Occasional Anxiety (O group and Anxiety (A group showed positive correlation (0.873 which was statistically significant. CONCLUSI ON: This study indicates that it is the innovative idea of playing background music liked by most of students and even may reduce anxiety and stress which is likely to improve performance. We are encouraged with the positive trends and results of the study

  10. Using Multilevel Analysis to Examine the Relationship between Upper Secondary Students Internet Safety Awareness, Social Background and Academic Aspirations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Edvard Hatlevik

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, most Norwegian students in upper secondary have had access to their own personal computer at school. Hence, with the increased access to technology, the importance of online connectedness has increased for adolescents’ social interaction and communication. It is, therefore, important to identify and understand the concept of Internet safety among upper secondary school students. A total of 4216 students from 238 classrooms in 23 upper secondary schools completed an Internet safety assessment. The aim of the study was to operationalize and measure Internet safety in a school context, and to further examine the factors predicting students’ Internet safety awareness and responsibility. Our analysis revealed substantial variation in Internet safety awareness between schools, classrooms and students. Overall, the findings indicate that students’ social backgrounds are determining for their development and understanding of Internet safety awareness.

  11. Relationships between parents' academic backgrounds and incomes and building students' healthy eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Kazi Enamul; Hoque, Kazi Fardinul; A/P Thanabalan, Revethy

    2018-01-01

    Building healthy eating habit is essential for all people. School and family are the prime institutions to instill this habit during early age. This study is aimed at understanding the impact of family such as parents' educations and incomes on building students' healthy eating habits. A survey on building students' eating habits was conducted among primary school students of grade 4 (11 years) and 5 (12 years) from Kulim district, Malaysia. Data from 318 respondents were analysed. Descriptive statistics were used to find the present scenario of their knowledge, attitude and practices towards their eating habits while one-way ANOVA and independent sample t -test were used to find the differences between their practices based on students' gender, parents' educations and incomes. The study finds that the students have a good knowledge of types of healthy food but yet their preferences are towards the unhealthy food. Though the students' gender and parents' educations are not found significantly related to students' knowledge, attitude and practices towards healthy eating habits, parents' incomes have significant influence on promoting the healthy eating habit. Findings of this study can be useful to guide parents in healthy food choices and suggest them to be models to their children in building healthy eating habits.

  12. SOCIAL SKILLS AND ACADEMIC BACKGROUND: A COMPARATIVE STUDY AMONG STUDENTS AND PSYCHOLOGY PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diêgo Ferreira de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research had as an objective the comparison of Social Skills (SS on psychology course undergraduates' and professionals working in the area with at least one year of work performance. Three groups participated in this study: 63 students at the beginning of the course (1st, 2nd and 3rd semesters; 54 students at the end of the course (8th, 9th and 10th semesters; and 25 psychologists. For the data collect it was used a Social Skills Inventory (SSI that was applied at the university places of work or availability, or via e-mail, with the professionals. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the overall score of Social Skills, neither between the students at the beginning and the end of the course (p=0.319 nor between students at the end of the course and the psychologists (p= 0,70. There was a significant difference in the comparison of students at the beginning of the course and psychologists (p= 0.009. From the manual, it was possible to verify that the majority, of students and professionals, presented a good repertory of SS in its different factors. It was considered still relevant, the development of activities that could enable a major learning of these SS still during graduation, evaluating that they are fundamental to the psychologists' performance. Keywords: Social skills. Psychology. Psychology students. Psychologists.

  13. Investigation of High School Students' Environmental Attitudes in Terms of Some Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruoglu, Nergiz; Ugulu, Ilker; Yorek, Nurettin

    2015-01-01

    Studying individuals and students' attitudes towards environment and factors affecting students to be responsible individuals towards their environment may provide help towards the solution of environmental problems. In this study, it is aimed to evaluate environmental attitudes of high school students in terms of some variables. The sample of the…

  14. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  15. Predicting Student Success from Non-Cognitive Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Phyllis

    In order to identify the relationship among social support networks, depression, life events, and student progress in medical school, 96 students completed a questionnaire. The results indicated good social support, a high number of recent life events, slight depression and a continuum of not quite passing to doing extremely well in medical…

  16. The Perceived Success of Tutoring Students with Learning Disabilities: Relations to Tutee and Tutoring Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Rinat

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the contribution of two types of variables to the perceived success of a tutoring project for college students with learning disabilities (LD): tutoring-related variables (the degree of engagement in different tutoring activities and difficulties encountered during tutoring), and tutee-related variables (learning…

  17. The Relationship between Background Classical Music and Reading Comprehension on Seventh and Eighth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcon, Evelyn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if there is any relationship on reading comprehension when background classical music is played in the setting of a 7th and 8th grade classroom. This study also examined if there was a statistically significant difference in test anxiety when listening to classical music while completing a test. Reading…

  18. Genetic-background modulation of core and variable autistic-like symptoms in Fmr1 knock-out mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Pietropaolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No animal models of autism spectrum disorders (ASD with good construct validity are currently available; using genetic models of pathologies characterized by ASD-like deficits, but with known causes, may be therefore a promising strategy. The Fmr1-KO mouse is an example of this approach, modeling Fragile X syndrome, a well-known genetic disorder presenting ASD symptoms. The Fmr1-KO is available on different genetic backgrounds (FVB versus C57BL/6, which may explain some of the conflicting results that have been obtained with these mutants up till now. METHODS: Fmr1 KO and their wild-type littermates on both the FVB and C57BL/6 genetic backgrounds were examined on a battery of tests modeling the clinical symptoms of ASD, including the triad of core symptoms (alterations in social interaction and communication, presence of repetitive behaviors, as well as the secondary symptoms (disturbances in sensori-motor reactivity and in circadian patterns of activity, epileptic events. RESULTS: Fmr1-KO mice displayed autistic-like core symptoms of altered social interaction and occurrence of repetitive behaviors with additional hyperactivity. The genetic background modulated the effects of the Fmr1 deletion and it appears that the C57BL/6 background may be more suitable for further research on core autistic-like symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The Fmr1-mouse line does not recapitulate all of the main core and secondary ASD symptoms, but still can be useful to elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms underlying specific ASD-like endophenotypes.

  19. Variables Influencing Credit Card Balances of Students at a Midwestern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, Lucretia; Sahlhoff, Kathleen; Blackstone, Judith; Peden, Blaine; Nahm, Abraham Y.

    2004-01-01

    This research used a Web-based survey of students at a Midwest regional university to measure the extent of credit card use by first-year students and seniors. The results indicate that the variables influencing credit card use and the carrying of a balance from one month to the next include the number of cards held by the student, the student's…

  20. Jump-Start Your Middle School Students' Background Knowledge and Vocabulary Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Elizabeth; Williams-Rossi, Dara

    2012-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in increasingly diverse classrooms is helping students develop the "knowledge and language of science to communicate scientific explanations and ideas" (NRC 1996, p. 144). In this article, the authors share one of their favorite methods for incorporating and reinforcing science vocabulary instruction in…

  1. Finding Voice: The Higher Education Experiences of Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Doris; Egan, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Diversity in the student body, particularly the inclusion of disadvantaged groups, has been incorporated into the discourse of inclusive education, with social justice and equality now part of the agenda. However, the conflation of diversity with equality potentially obscures some structural elements of the contemporary university system. This…

  2. Sex Differences in Attitudes towards Online Privacy and Anonymity among Israeli Students with Different Technical Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Maor; Zhitomirsky-Geffet, Maayan; Bouhnik, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: In this exploratory study, we proposed an experimental framework to investigate and model male/female differences in attitudes towards online privacy and anonymity among Israeli students. Our aim was to comparatively model men and women's online privacy attitudes, and to assess the online privacy gender gap. Method: Various factors…

  3. Reflections on Recruiting, Supporting, Retaining, Graduating, and Obtaining Employment for Doctoral Students from Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieker, Lisa; Wienke, Wilfred; Straub, Carrie; Finnegan, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a summary of the current techniques being used to recruit, retain, and support a diverse range of scholars, including students with disabilities, in a doctoral program. The manuscript provides a summary of the current need for leadership personnel who are scholars with knowledge in special education, general…

  4. Teachers Teaching Students from a Multicultural Background: The Case of Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Nagappan

    2005-01-01

    Teacher educators like talking about the pre-service--in-service continuum as a way of expressing their views, that inevitably, they are expected to play a multifaceted role in and outside of the classroom. In this respect, what is of greater concern is that many teachers are inadequately prepared to teach ethnically diverse students. Malaysia is…

  5. Students' goal preferences, ethnocultural background and the quality of cooperative learning in secondary vocational education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijzen, Daphne Minette

    2006-01-01

    The thesis presents an exploration of the relationships between students’ motivation, represented by students’ personal goals, and the quality of cooperative learning (CL) processes of first and second year students, enrolled in secondary vocational schools. Special attention has been paid to

  6. A Case Study of Chinese Mongolian Students in ELT under the Background of MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lili

    2015-01-01

    In response to the current reform of college English teaching, a case study of Chinese Mongolian students in English language teaching under the influence of MOOCs is carried out in an attempt to examine the efficacy of the integration of information technology into English language teaching. After a brief introduction of the teaching mode of…

  7. LETs and NETs: Exploring How Teachers from Diverse Cultural Backgrounds Impact Student Motivation and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper, an exploratory case study, examines how students' preferences and motivation to learn English are influenced by their perceptions of teaching practices--both of native English teachers and local English teachers. To better understand the context of this research question, this study adopts a method of triangulation in collecting data:…

  8. Deaf students and their classroom communication: an evaluation of higher order categorical interactions among school and background characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas E; Anderson, Melissa L

    2010-01-01

    This article investigated to what extent age, use of a cochlear implant, parental hearing status, and use of sign in the home determine language of instruction for profoundly deaf children. Categorical data from 8,325 profoundly deaf students from the 2008 Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children and Youth were analyzed using chi-square automated interaction detector, a stepwise analytic procedure that allows the assessment of higher order interactions among categorical variables. Results indicated that all characteristics were significantly related to classroom communication modality. Although younger and older students demonstrated a different distribution of communication modality, for both younger and older students, cochlear implantation had the greatest effect on differentiating students into communication modalities, yielding greater gains in the speech-only category for implanted students. For all subgroups defined by age and implantation status, the use of sign at home further segregated the sample into communication modality subgroups, reducing the likelihood of speech only and increasing the placement of students into signing classroom settings. Implications for future research in the field of deaf education are discussed.

  9. Motivation of Dutch high school students from various backgrounds for applying to study medicine: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Isik, Ulviye; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-06-02

    To explore high school students' motivation for applying to study medicine and the factors that influence this. To find explanations for under-representation of minority students in medical education, descriptions of motivation of students with different background characteristics were compared. Qualitative phenomenological study using semistructured one-on-one interviews. One predominantly white and one mixed high school in a large multicultural city in the Netherlands. The study was conducted in March-December 2015. Twenty-four high school students, purposively sampled for demographic characteristics. The analysis consisted of the coding of data using a template based on the motivation types (autonomous and controlled motivation) described by self-determination theory and open coding for factors that influence motivation. The main reasons for pursuing a medical career pertained to autonomous motivation (interest in science and helping people), but controlled motivation (eg, parental pressure, prestige) was also mentioned. Experiences with healthcare and patients positively influenced students' autonomous motivation and served as a reality check for students' expectations. Having to go through a selection process was an important demotivating factor, but did not prevent most students from applying. Having medical professionals in their network also sparked students' interest, while facilitating easier access to healthcare experiences. The findings showed a complex interplay between healthcare experiences, growing up in a medical family, selection processes and motivation. Healthcare experiences, often one of the selection criteria, help students to form autonomous motivation for studying medicine. However, such experiences as well as support in the selection process seem unequally accessible to students. As a result, under-represented students' motivation decreases. Medical schools should be aware of this and could create opportunities to acquire healthcare

  10. Science learning and literacy performance of typically developing, at-risk, and disabled, non-English language background students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrinaga McGee, Patria Maria

    Current education reform calls for excellence, access, and equity in all areas of instruction, including science and literacy. Historically, persons of diverse backgrounds or with disabilities have been underrepresented in science. Gaps are evident between the science and literacy achievement of diverse students and their mainstream peers. The purpose of this study was to document, describe, and examine patterns of development and change in the science learning and literacy performance of Hispanic students. The two major questions of this study were: (1) How is science content knowledge, as evident in oral and written formats, manifested in the performance of typically developing, at-risk, and disabled non-English language background (NELB) students? and (2) What are the patterns of literacy performance in science, and as evident in oral and written formats, among typically developing, at-risk, and disabled NELB students? This case study was part of a larger research project, the Promise Project, undertaken at the University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation. The study involved 24 fourth-grade students in seven classrooms located in Promise Project schools where teachers were provided with training and materials for instruction on two units of science content: Matter and Weather. Four students were selected from among the fourth-graders for a closer analysis of their performance. Qualitative and quantitative data analysis methods were used to document, describe, and examine specific events or phenomena in the processes of science learning and literacy development. Important findings were related to (a) gains in science learning and literacy development, (b) students' science learning and literacy development needs, and (c) general and idiosyncratic attitudes toward science and literacy. Five patterns of science "explanations" identified indicated a developmental cognitive/linguistic trajectory in science

  11. causal variables and academic performance of students in cross

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the causal variables (Child, Family, School, Society and Government) and academic ... parents in the immediate daily aspect of education ... This study employed the descriptive .... on cognitive development. Journal of.

  12. Preparing for an influx of foreign students in technical writing courses: Understanding their background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, C. S.

    1981-01-01

    The cultural and historical influences that students from foreign countries bring with them to technical and report writing classes, in particular those influences that would affect their receipt of instruction in American principles for written prose are examined. The grouping of sentences into idea units and into paragraphs, and the grouping of the paragraphs into whole structures are considered. The different cultures, different habits and norms for handling prose, and the dictates for style and structure and sufficiency and approach are also considered.

  13. The Theoretical, Methodological, and Practical Background for Looking at International Students' Learning Styles, Backgrounds, and Quality Perceptions with Regard to ASB's Three English-Language M.Sc. Programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    This paper looking at the methodological background for a questionnaire study of student perceptions with regard to own learning styles and backgrounds as well as the quality of education in Aarhus School of Business' 3 English-language M.Sc. programs (FIB, EU, and BPM). Theories and models about...... the internationalization of business schools, service quality, and student learning styles are discussed in the paper, as is the statistic methodology for treating the questionnaire responses of the respondents.......This paper looking at the methodological background for a questionnaire study of student perceptions with regard to own learning styles and backgrounds as well as the quality of education in Aarhus School of Business' 3 English-language M.Sc. programs (FIB, EU, and BPM). Theories and models about...

  14. Motivation of Dutch high school students from various backgrounds for applying to study medicine: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Isik, Ulviye; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore high school students’ motivation for applying to study medicine and the factors that influence this. To find explanations for under-representation of minority students in medical education, descriptions of motivation of students with different background characteristics were compared. Design Qualitative phenomenological study using semistructured one-on-one interviews. Setting One predominantly white and one mixed high school in a large multicultural city in the Netherlands. The study was conducted in March–December 2015. Participants Twenty-four high school students, purposively sampled for demographic characteristics. Methods The analysis consisted of the coding of data using a template based on the motivation types (autonomous and controlled motivation) described by self-determination theory and open coding for factors that influence motivation. Results The main reasons for pursuing a medical career pertained to autonomous motivation (interest in science and helping people), but controlled motivation (eg, parental pressure, prestige) was also mentioned. Experiences with healthcare and patients positively influenced students’ autonomous motivation and served as a reality check for students’ expectations. Having to go through a selection process was an important demotivating factor, but did not prevent most students from applying. Having medical professionals in their network also sparked students’ interest, while facilitating easier access to healthcare experiences. Conclusions The findings showed a complex interplay between healthcare experiences, growing up in a medical family, selection processes and motivation. Healthcare experiences, often one of the selection criteria, help students to form autonomous motivation for studying medicine. However, such experiences as well as support in the selection process seem unequally accessible to students. As a result, under-represented students’ motivation decreases. Medical schools

  15. Students' daily emotions in the classroom : Intra-individual variability and appraisal correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Wondimu; van der Werf, Greetje; Minnaert, Alexander; Kuyper, Hans

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent literature on emotions in education has shown that competence- and value-related beliefs are important sources of students' emotions; nevertheless, the role of these antecedents in students' daily functioning in the classroom is not yet well-known. More importantly, to date we

  16. Variables Affecting Secondary School Students' Willingness to Eat Genetically Modified Food Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Jasmien; Bourgonjon, Jeroen; Gheysen, Godelieve; Valcke, Martin

    2017-04-01

    A large-scale cross-sectional study (N = 4002) was set up to determine Flemish secondary school students' willingness to eat genetically modified food (WTE) and to link students' WTE to previously identified key variables from research on the acceptance of genetic modification (GM). These variables include subjective and objective knowledge about genetics and biotechnology, perceived risks and benefits of GM food crops, trust in information from different sources about GM, and food neophobia. Differences between WTE-related variables based on students' grade level, educational track, and gender were analyzed. The students displayed a rather indecisive position toward GM food and scored weakly on a genetics and biotechnology knowledge test. WTE correlated most strongly with perceived benefits and subjective and objective knowledge. The results have clear implications for education, as they reiterate the need to strengthen students' scientific knowledge base and to introduce a GM-related debate at a much earlier stage in their school career.

  17. Who Studies STEM Subjects at a Level and Degree in England? An Investigation into the Intersections between Students' Family Background, Gender and Ethnicity in Determining Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codiroli Mcmaster, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    The relative lack of students studying post-compulsory STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects is a key policy concern. A particular issue is the disparities in uptake by students' family background, gender and ethnicity. It remains unclear whether the relationship between student characteristics and choice can be…

  18. "Low Income Doesn't Mean Stupid and Destined for Failure": Challenging the Deficit Discourse around Students from Low SES Backgrounds in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Jade; Devlin, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    The discourse around students from low socio-economic backgrounds often adopts a deficit conception in which these students are seen as a "problem" in higher education. In light of recent figures pointing to an increase in the number and proportion of these students participating in higher education [Pitman, T. 2014. "More Students…

  19. Abrupt millennial variability and interdecadal-interstadial oscillations in a global coupled model: sensitivity to the background climate state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzel, Olivier [The University of New South Wales, Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney (Australia); Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans (LPO), Brest (France); England, Matthew H. [The University of New South Wales, Climate Change Research Centre (CCRC), Sydney (Australia); Verdiere, Alain Colin de; Huck, Thierry [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Laboratoire de Physique des Oceans (LPO), Brest (France)

    2012-07-15

    The origin and bifurcation structure of abrupt millennial-scale climate transitions under steady external solar forcing and in the absence of atmospheric synoptic variability is studied by means of a global coupled model of intermediate complexity. We show that the origin of Dansgaard-Oeschger type oscillations in the model is caused by the weaker northward oceanic heat transport in the Atlantic basin. This is in agreement with previous studies realized with much simpler models, based on highly idealized geometries and simplified physics. The existence of abrupt millennial-scale climate transitions during glacial times can therefore be interpreted as a consequence of the weakening of the negative temperature-advection feedback. This is confirmed through a series of numerical experiments designed to explore the sensitivity of the bifurcation structure of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation to increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels under glacial boundary conditions. Contrasting with the cold, stadial, phases of millennial oscillations, we also show the emergence of strong interdecadal variability in the North Atlantic sector during warm interstadials. The instability driving these interdecadal-interstadial oscillations is shown to be identical to that found in ocean-only models forced by fixed surface buoyancy fluxes, that is, a large-scale baroclinic instability developing in the vicinity of the western boundary current in the North Atlantic. Comparisons with modern observations further suggest a physical mechanism similar to that driving the 30-40 years time scale associated with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation. (orig.)

  20. Unruh effect in a real scalar field with the Higgs potential on a dynamically variable background space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Shingo [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand)

    2015-09-15

    It is predicted that an accelerating electron performs a Brownian motion in the inertial frame. This Brownian motion in the inertial frame has its roots in the interaction with the thermal excitation given by the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. If such a prediction is possible, correspondingly we propose a prediction in this study that the thermal radiation is emitted in the inertial frame from an electron heated due to the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. The point in our prediction is, although the Unruh effect is limited in the accelerating frame, as well as that the Brownian motion rooted in the Unruh effect appears in the inertial frame, the heat of the particle appears in the inertial frame. Based on such a prediction in this paper, we investigate phenomena in the neighborhood of an accelerating electron in the inertial frame. The model we consider is the four-dimensional Klein-Gordon real scalar field model with the Higgs potential term at the finite temperature identified with the Unruh temperature on the de Sitter space-time. We calculate the one-loop effective potential in the inertial frame with the corrections by the thermal radiation rooted in the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. In this calculation, we take into account that the background space-time is deformed due to the field theory's corrected one-loop effective potential. Based on such an analysis, we illustrate the restoration of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the dynamical variation of the background space-time, and we examine the accelerating particle's world-line and the amount of the energy corresponding to the change of the acceleration. (orig.)

  1. Unruh effect in a real scalar field with the Higgs potential on a dynamically variable background space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    It is predicted that an accelerating electron performs a Brownian motion in the inertial frame. This Brownian motion in the inertial frame has its roots in the interaction with the thermal excitation given by the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. If such a prediction is possible, correspondingly we propose a prediction in this study that the thermal radiation is emitted in the inertial frame from an electron heated due to the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. The point in our prediction is, although the Unruh effect is limited in the accelerating frame, as well as that the Brownian motion rooted in the Unruh effect appears in the inertial frame, the heat of the particle appears in the inertial frame. Based on such a prediction in this paper, we investigate phenomena in the neighborhood of an accelerating electron in the inertial frame. The model we consider is the four-dimensional Klein-Gordon real scalar field model with the Higgs potential term at the finite temperature identified with the Unruh temperature on the de Sitter space-time. We calculate the one-loop effective potential in the inertial frame with the corrections by the thermal radiation rooted in the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. In this calculation, we take into account that the background space-time is deformed due to the field theory's corrected one-loop effective potential. Based on such an analysis, we illustrate the restoration of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the dynamical variation of the background space-time, and we examine the accelerating particle's world-line and the amount of the energy corresponding to the change of the acceleration. (orig.)

  2. An Investigation of Selected Variables Related to Student Algebra I Performance in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Undray

    2016-01-01

    This research study attempted to determine if specific variables were related to student performance on the Algebra I subject-area test. This study also sought to determine in which of grades 8, 9, or 10 students performed better on the Algebra I Subject Area Test. This study also investigated the different criteria that are used to schedule…

  3. A Survey on Turkish Elementary School Students' Environmental Friendly Behaviours and Associated Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, Elvan; Ertepinar, Hamide; Tekkaya, Ceren; Yilmaz, Ayhan

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated elementary school students' environmental knowledge and attitudes, the effects of sociodemographic variables on environmental knowledge and attitudes, and how self-reported environmentally friendly behaviour is related to environmental knowledge, behavioural intentions, environmental affects, and the students' locus of…

  4. Predicting Eight Grade Students' Equation Solving Performances via Concepts of Variable and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Erhan

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on how two algebraic concepts- equality and variable- predicted 8th grade students' equation solving performance. In this study, predictive design as a correlational research design was used. Randomly selected 407 eight-grade students who were from the central districts of a city in the central region of Turkey participated in…

  5. Self-Concept among Primary School Students According to Gender and Academic Achievement Variables in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Srour, Nadia Hayel; Al-Ali, Safa Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the level of self-concept among primary school students according to gender and academic achievement variables in Amman. A random sample was chosen from fourth, fifth and sixth grades in private schools in Amman city. The sample of the study consisted of (365) male and female students, (177) males and (188)…

  6. Analysis of 4th Grade Students' Problem Solving Skills in Terms of Several Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, Gülcan; Bal, Pervin Nedim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine if the level of primary school students in solving problems differs according to some demographic variables. The research is descriptive type in the general survey method, it was carried out with quantitative research techniques. The sample of the study consisted of 587 primary school students in Grade 4. The…

  7. Supporting Students' Understanding of Linear Equations with One Variable Using Algebra Tiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswati, Sari; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to describe how algebra tiles can support students' understanding of linear equations with one variable. This article is a part of a larger research on learning design of linear equations with one variable using algebra tiles combined with balancing method. Therefore, it will merely discuss one activity focused on how students…

  8. The Salience of Selected Variables on Choice for Movie Attendance among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Bruce A.

    A questionnaire was designed for a study assessing both the importance of 28 variables in movie attendance and the importance of movie-going as a leisure-time activity. Respondents were 130 ninth and twelfth grade students. The 28 variables were broadly organized into eight categories: movie production personnel, production elements, advertising,…

  9. Variability in Pretest-Posttest Correlation Coefficients by Student Achievement Level. NCEE 2011-4033

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Russell; Haimson, Joshua; Perez-Johnson, Irma; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    State assessments are increasingly used as outcome measures for education evaluations. The scaling of state assessments produces variability in measurement error, with the conditional standard error of measurement increasing as average student ability moves toward the tails of the achievement distribution. This report examines the variability in…

  10. Using the University Student Depression Inventory to Investigate the Effect of Demographic Variables on Students' Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Nigar G.; Duncanson, Krystle

    2008-01-01

    Depression is a problem in the student population and may impact students of any age, gender and ethnicity. Previous studies have indicated student demographic characteristics are associated with depression; however, these studies have not utilised scales specifically designed to measure depression in the student population. The aim of the present…

  11. On Day-to-Day Variability of Global Lightning Activity as Quantified from Background Schumann Resonance Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtak, V. C.; Williams, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Among the palette of methods (satellite, VLF, ELF) for monitoring global lightning activity, observations of the background Schumann resonances (SR) provide a unique prospect for estimating the integrated activity of global lightning activity in absolute units (coul2 km2/sec). This prospect is ensured by the SR waves' low attenuation, with wavelengths commensurate with the dimensions of dominant regional lightning "chimneys", and by the accumulating methodology for background SR techniques. Another benefit is the reduction of SR measurements into a compact set of resonance characteristics (modal frequencies, intensities, and quality factors). Suggested and tested in numerical simulations by T.R. Madden in the 1960s, the idea to invert the SR characteristics for the global lightning source has been farther developed, statistically substantiated, and practically realized here on the basis of the computing power and the quantity of experimental material way beyond what the SR pioneers had at their disposal. The critical issue of the quality of the input SR parameters is addressed by implementing a statistically substantiated sanitizing procedure to dispose of the fragments of the observed time series containing unrepresentative elements - local interference of various origin and strong ELF transients originating outside the major "chimneys" represented in the source model. As a result of preliminary research, a universal empirical sanitizing criterion has been established. Due to the fact that the actual observations have been collected from a set of individually organized ELF stations with various equipment sets and calibration techniques, the relative parameters in both input (the intensities) and output (the "chimney" activities) are being used as far as possible in the inversion process to avoid instabilities caused by calibration inconsistencies. The absolute regional activities - and so the sought for global activity in absolute units - is determined in the

  12. Impact of physiological variables and genetic background on myocardial frequency-resistivity relations in the intact beating murine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Maricela; Steinhelper, Mark E; Alvarez, Jorge A; Escobedo, Daniel; Pearce, John; Valvano, Jonathan W; Pollock, Brad H; Wei, Chia-Ling; Kottam, Anil; Altman, David; Bailey, Steven; Thomsen, Sharon; Lee, Shuko; Colston, James T; Oh, Jung Hwan; Freeman, Gregory L; Feldman, Marc D

    2006-10-01

    Conductance measurements for generation of an instantaneous left ventricular (LV) volume signal in the mouse are limited, because the volume signal is a combination of blood and LV muscle, and only the blood signal is desired. We have developed a conductance system that operates at two simultaneous frequencies to identify and remove the myocardial contribution to the instantaneous volume signal. This system is based on the observation that myocardial resistivity varies with frequency, whereas blood resistivity does not. For calculation of LV blood volume with the dual-frequency conductance system in mice, in vivo murine myocardial resistivity was measured and combined with an analytic approach. The goals of the present study were to identify and minimize the sources of error in the measurement of myocardial resistivity to enhance the accuracy of the dual-frequency conductance system. We extended these findings to a gene-altered mouse model to determine the impact of measured myocardial resistivity on the calculation of LV pressure-volume relations. We examined the impact of temperature, timing of the measurement during the cardiac cycle, breeding strain, anisotropy, and intrameasurement and interanimal variability on the measurement of intact murine myocardial resistivity. Applying this knowledge to diabetic and nondiabetic 11- and 20- to 24-wk-old mice, we demonstrated differences in myocardial resistivity at low frequencies, enhancement of LV systolic function at 11 wk and LV dilation at 20-24 wk, and histological and electron-microscopic studies demonstrating greater glycogen deposition in the diabetic mice. This study demonstrated the accurate technique of measuring myocardial resistivity and its impact on the determination of LV pressure-volume relations in gene-altered mice.

  13. A statistical, task-based evaluation method for three-dimensional x-ray breast imaging systems using variable-background phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Subok; Jennings, Robert; Liu Haimo; Badano, Aldo; Myers, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: For the last few years, development and optimization of three-dimensional (3D) x-ray breast imaging systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and computed tomography, have drawn much attention from the medical imaging community, either academia or industry. However, there is still much room for understanding how to best optimize and evaluate the devices over a large space of many different system parameters and geometries. Current evaluation methods, which work well for 2D systems, do not incorporate the depth information from the 3D imaging systems. Therefore, it is critical to develop a statistically sound evaluation method to investigate the usefulness of inclusion of depth and background-variability information into the assessment and optimization of the 3D systems. Methods: In this paper, we present a mathematical framework for a statistical assessment of planar and 3D x-ray breast imaging systems. Our method is based on statistical decision theory, in particular, making use of the ideal linear observer called the Hotelling observer. We also present a physical phantom that consists of spheres of different sizes and materials for producing an ensemble of randomly varying backgrounds to be imaged for a given patient class. Lastly, we demonstrate our evaluation method in comparing laboratory mammography and three-angle DBT systems for signal detection tasks using the phantom's projection data. We compare the variable phantom case to that of a phantom of the same dimensions filled with water, which we call the uniform phantom, based on the performance of the Hotelling observer as a function of signal size and intensity. Results: Detectability trends calculated using the variable and uniform phantom methods are different from each other for both mammography and DBT systems. Conclusions: Our results indicate that measuring the system's detection performance with consideration of background variability may lead to differences in system performance

  14. Evaluation of the Geographical and Family Background of Student Nurses and Midwives and their Knowledge of Cancer and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkistanli, Esin Ceber; Ergun, Fisun Enuzun; Sari, Dilek; Dalli, Dilek; Aydemir, Gulsun

    2002-01-01

    Plant foods are the custodians of numerous dietary constituents, including vitamins, minerals, fibre, and other potentially anticarcinogenic agents. Eating habits are influenced by many biological, social, psychological, and cultural factors. Despite the relative paucity of definite evidence relevant to prevention in cancer and the tools available for early detection of cancer, people should be informed about the protective factors (dietary influence, life-style and exercise) continuously to develop new habits which will protect against cancer. A descriptive study was here designed to examine the effects of geographical and family background on nutrition of nursing students and their knowledge of recommended dietary guidelines for health promotion and cancer prevention. Most of students and their families lived in Aegean and Marmara regions, and in general they regularly consumed vegetables, fruits and cereals. Fresh vegetable and fruit consumption is rather high in Thrace, Aegean, Marmara and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Students were found to be well informed during courses on dietary guidelines for health promotion and cancer prevention. The greatest promise for cancer prevention rests on our ability to change multiple and often interrelated behaviours that have been shown to increase the risk of cancer.

  15. FROM TATTOOS, VEILS AND NOTEBOOKS: REPRESENTATIONS OF OTHERNESS AND IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES IN YOUNG STUDENTS WITH MIGRANT BACKGROUNDS IN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Olmos Alcaraz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study relationally analyses the processes of the construction of difference and the processes of identity construction in which young adolescents and pre-adolescents with migrant backgrounds within formal educational contexts are involved. The text aims to show and describe how otherness and identity work in an intersectional way. Our analysis considers intersectionality as the most appropriate way of approximation to the reality observed. To do so, we work from biographical interviews and life stories of young people produced through our own respective fieldwork. This material had been analyzed looking for the relations between identity categories (gender, religion, nationality... and how these categories are interpreted for the young adolescents involved in the research. We research in twelve andalusian high schools with students, teachers and families. Along three scholar years, we made 132 interviews and 13 discussion groups. This allows us to address the theoretical objects of the study (otherness/identity in a contextual and process-based way.

  16. Predictors of International Graduate Student Success in U.S. Universities: Analysis of Noncognitive Student Variables and Institutional Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Rania

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between Sedlacek's (2004b) student noncognitive variables (positive self-concept, realistic self-appraisal, successfully handling the system, preference for long-term goals, leadership experience, presence of a strong support person, community service, and knowledge of the…

  17. Diving Deep: A Comparative Study of Educator Undergraduate and Graduate Backgrounds and Their Effect on Student Understanding of Engineering and Engineering Careers, Utilizing an Underwater Robotics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, J. Adam

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that educators having degrees in their subjects significantly enhances student achievement, particularly in secondary mathematics and science (Chaney, 1995; Goe, 2007; Rowan, Chiang, & Miller, 1997; Wenglinsky, 2000). Yet, science teachers in states that adopt the Next Generation Science Standards will be facilitating classroom engineering activities despite the fact that few have backgrounds in engineering. This quantitative study analyzed ex-post facto WaterBotics (an innovative underwater robotics curriculum for middle and high school students) data to determine if educators having backgrounds in engineering (i.e., undergraduate and graduate degrees in engineering) positively affected student learning on two engineering outcomes: 1) the engineering design process, and 2) understanding of careers in engineering (who engineers are and what engineers do). The results indicated that educators having backgrounds in engineering did not significantly affect student understanding of the engineering design process or careers in engineering when compared to educators having backgrounds in science, mathematics, technology education, or other disciplines. There were, however, statistically significant differences between the groups of educators. Students of educators with backgrounds in technology education had the highest mean score on assessments pertaining to the engineering design process while students of educators with disciplines outside of STEM had the highest mean scores on instruments that assess for student understanding of careers in engineering. This might be due to the fact that educators who lack degrees in engineering but who teach engineering do a better job of "sticking to the script" of engineering curricula.

  18. Effects of Family Educational Background, Dwelling and Parenting Style on Students' Academic Achievement: The Case of Secondary Schools in Bahir Dar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Melaku Anteneh

    2017-01-01

    This study predominantly focuses on investigating the respective impacts of family educational background, dwelling background and parenting styles on students' overall academic performance with respect to governmental secondary schools in Bahir Dar town, Ethiopia. A descriptive survey method was employed. A 42 items questionnaire was constructed…

  19. The relationship between problematic internet use, violence trend and some demographic variables among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Babacan Gumus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate relations between problematic internet use, violence trend and some demographic variables in university students. Methods: The study was conducted with students studying at a state university. The sample consisted of 375 university students as 201 female and 174 male. The data were collected using Demographic Information Form, Internet Addiction Scale (IAS and Violence Proneness Scale (VPS. In the analysis of the data; descriptive statistics student t test, ANOVA, Post hoc Tukey HSD test, pearson correlation analysis and stepwise hierarchical regression analysis were used. Results: The mean age of the students was 21.04+/-1.65 years (age range 18-28 years. It was found that 82.7% of the students in the study group use internet with the purpose of information, and 78.4% of the students use internet for social and entertainment purposes. According to IAS points; 3.7% of the students are problematic internet use, whereas 30.4% show borderline indications in terms of problematic internet use. According to VPS points; 40% of students have high trend of violence and 2.7% of the students have very high trend of violence. A positive relationship was determined between IAS and VPS mean scores (r=0.346, p<0.01. Duration of internet use, violence trend, internet use for social and entertainment purposes and gender are the variables that predict problematic internet use level. Problematic internet use, friend relationships, duration of mother education, gender and duration of internet use are significant predictors of violence trend. Conclusion: The research findings indicate that a significant portion of university students are at risk of problematic internet use and high violence trend. It is believed that the findings obtained in this research will be beneficial in terms of taking necessary measures for groups at risk and of raising awareness among university students. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(6.000: 460-467

  20. Ferris Wheels and Filling Bottles: A Case of a Student's Transfer of Covariational Reasoning across Tasks with Different Backgrounds and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heather Lynn; McClintock, Evan; Hornbein, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Using an actor-oriented perspective on transfer, we report a case of a student's transfer of covariational reasoning across tasks involving different backgrounds and features. In this study, we investigated the research question: How might a student's covariational reasoning on Ferris wheel tasks, involving attributes of distance, width, and…

  1. Students' Ways of Thinking about Two-Variable Functions and Rate of Change in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Eric David

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation describes an investigation of four students' ways of thinking about functions of two variables and rate of change of those two-variable functions. Most secondary, introductory algebra, pre-calculus, and first and second semester calculus courses do not require students to think about functions of more than one variable. Yet…

  2. Ranking Practice Variability in the Medical Student Performance Evaluation: So Bad, It's "Good".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boysen Osborn, Megan; Mattson, James; Yanuck, Justin; Anderson, Craig; Tekian, Ara; Fox, John Christian; Harris, Ilene B

    2016-11-01

    To examine the variability among medical schools in ranking systems used in medical student performance evaluations (MSPEs). The authors reviewed MSPEs from U.S. MD-granting medical schools received by the University of California, Irvine emergency medicine and internal medicine residency programs during 2012-2013 and 2014-2015. They recorded whether the school used a ranking system, the type of ranking system used, the size and description of student categories, the location of the ranking statement and category legend, and whether nonranking schools used language suggestive of rank. Of the 134 medical schools in the study sample, the majority (n = 101; 75%) provided ranks for students in the MSPE. Most of the ranking schools (n = 63; 62%) placed students into named category groups, but the number and size of groups varied. The most common descriptors used for these 63 schools' top, second, third, and lowest groups were "outstanding," "excellent," "very good," and "good," respectively, but each of these terms was used across a broad range of percentile ranks. Student ranks and school category legends were found in various locations. Many of the 33 schools that did not rank students included language suggestive of rank. There is extensive variation in ranking systems used in MSPEs. Program directors may find it difficult to use MSPEs to compare applicants, which may diminish the MSPE's value in the residency application process and negatively affect high-achieving students. A consistent approach to ranking students would benefit program directors, students, and student affairs officers.

  3. Predicting health literacy of students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016: The role of demographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Ziapoor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Health literacy is a key outcome measures of health education that should be in the context of broader health promotion. This study aims to predict the health literacy of students in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 1395: the role of demographic variables was performed. Methods: A descriptive correlational study on 350 students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences was done. Sampling was random. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire of health literacy Montazeri et al. Information collected through software SPSS 23 and using t-tests, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient were analyzed. Results: The mean (SD total score of health literacy in students was 4.04 ± 0.43. T-test and ANOVA between health literacy by gender, age, profession, education level and location have a significant relationship. Pearson correlation coefficient between the components of health literacy in research samples showed high correlation was statistically significant (P <0.01. Conclusion: The importance and need for attention to students' health literacy for health promotion as an essential factor in the impact-transition seems to be. Paper Type: Research Article.

  4. Socioscientific Issues-Based Instruction: An Investigation of Agriscience Students' Content Knowledge Based on Student Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous researchers in science education have reported student improvement in areas of scientific literacy resulting from socioscientific issues (SSI)-based instruction. The purpose of this study was to describe student agriscience content knowledge following a six-week SSI-based instructional unit focusing on the introduction of cultured meat…

  5. The Relationship between Intellectual Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence and some Demographic variables among Students of the Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Tavan; Sajjad Tavan; Zahra Ahmadi; Fatemeh Zandnia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: There is a relationship between emotional intelligence and spiritual intelligence. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the relationship between intellectual intelligence and emotional intelligence and some demographic variables among students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Ilam University of Medical Sciences. Methods: Using a cross-correlation method of study, the standard 24-item questionnaire for spiritual intelligence and the standard 90-item que...

  6. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  7. Elementary Students' Affective Variables in a Networked Learning Environment Supported by a Blog: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, Stéphane; Thériault, Pascale; Gagnon, Vincent; Lalancette, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    This study documents to what extent writing on a blog in a networked learning environment could influence the affective variables of elementary-school students' writing. The framework is grounded more specifically in theory of self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985), relationship to writing (Chartrand & Prince, 2009) and the transactional…

  8. Education and Health Matters: School Nurse Interventions, Student Outcomes, and School Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Linda C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a quantitative, correlational study that examined selected school nursing services, student academic outcomes, and school demographics. Ex post facto data from the 2011-2012 school year of Delaware public schools were used in the research. The selected variables were school nurse interventions provided to students…

  9. Psychosocial Variables as Predictors of School Adjustment of Gifted Students with Learning Disabilities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakolade, O. A.; Oyedokun, S. O.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considered several psychosocial variables as predictors of school adjustment of 40 gifted students with learning disabilities in Junior Secondary School in Ikenne Local Government Council Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Purposeful random sampling was employed to select four schools from 13 junior secondary schools in the area, six…

  10. Academic stress in master’s students and its modulatory variables: a between-groups design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Barraza Macías

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation tries to establish the descriptive profile of the academic stress of the students of the masters in education and to identify which sociodemographic and situational variables play a modulator role. This investigation is based on the Person-Surroundings Research Program and the systemical cognitive model of academic stress. The study can be characterized as transectional, correlational and non experimental. The collection of the information was made through the SISCO inventory of Academic Stress which was applied to 152 students. The main results suggest that 95% of the master students report having felt academic stress a few times but with medium-high intensity. Variables gender, civil state, attending masters and institutional support of the attending masters act as modulators in academic stress.

  11. A new mouse model for marfan syndrome presents phenotypic variability associated with the genetic background and overall levels of Fbn1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno L Lima

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease of connective tissue caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 encoding gene FBN1. Patients present cardiovascular, ocular and skeletal manifestations, and although being fully penetrant, MFS is characterized by a wide clinical variability both within and between families. Here we describe a new mouse model of MFS that recapitulates the clinical heterogeneity of the syndrome in humans. Heterozygotes for the mutant Fbn1 allele mgΔloxPneo, carrying the same internal deletion of exons 19-24 as the mgΔ mouse model, present defective microfibrillar deposition, emphysema, deterioration of aortic wall and kyphosis. However, the onset of a clinical phenotypes is earlier in the 129/Sv than in C57BL/6 background, indicating the existence of genetic modifiers of MFS between these two mouse strains. In addition, we characterized a wide clinical variability within the 129/Sv congenic heterozygotes, suggesting involvement of epigenetic factors in disease severity. Finally, we show a strong negative correlation between overall levels of Fbn1 expression and the severity of the phenotypes, corroborating the suggested protective role of normal fibrillin-1 in MFS pathogenesis, and supporting the development of therapies based on increasing Fbn1 expression.

  12. Spatial Variability of the Background Diurnal Cycle of Deep Convection around the GoAmazon2014/5 Field Campaign Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Feng, Zhe; Hagos, Samson M.; Fast, Jerome; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-07-01

    The Amazon rainforest is one of a few regions of the world where continental tropical deep convection occurs. The Amazon’s isolation makes it challenging to observe, but also creates a unique natural laboratory to study anthropogenic impacts on clouds and precipitation in an otherwise pristine environment. Extensive measurements were made upwind and downwind of the large city of Manaus, Brazil during the Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon 2014-2015 (GoAmazon2014/5) field campaign. In this study, 15 years of high-resolution satellite data are analyzed to examine the spatial and diurnal variability of convection occurring around the GoAmazon2014/5 sites. Interpretation of anthropogenic differences between the upwind (T0) and downwind (T1-T3) sites is complicated by naturally-occurring spatial variability between the sites. During the rainy season, the inland propagation of the previous day’s sea-breeze front happens to be in phase with the background diurnal cycle near Manaus, but is out of phase elsewhere. Enhanced convergence between the river-breezes and the easterly trade winds generates up to 10% more frequent deep convection at the GoAmazon2014/5 sites east of the river (T0a, T0t/k, and T1) compared to the T3 site which was located near the western bank. In general, the annual and diurnal cycles during 2014 were representative of the 2000-2013 distributions. The only exceptions were in March when the monthly mean rainrate was above the 95th percentile and September when both rain frequency and intensity were suppressed. The natural spatial variability must be accounted for before interpreting anthropogenically-induced differences among the GoAmazon2014/5 sites.

  13. A study of the relationship between variables from the model of human occupation and subjective well-being among university students in jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Farzaneh; Jibril, Musa; Kielhofner, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The occupational role of a university student can create challenges that negatively affect subjective well-being. Cultural factors can make these problems particularly acute for students from Arab backgrounds. This study examined the relationship between variables derived from the Model of Human Occupation (MOHO) and Jordanian university students' subjective well-being. Using cluster sampling, a total of 670 participants were recruited from the undergraduate student body at the University of Jordan. Data were collected from these students using the Role checklist, the Occupational Self-Assessment, the Affectometer 2, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. As hypothesized, reported roles, valuation of roles, perceived competence in volition, habituation, performance capacity/skills, and the environment were significantly correlated with subjective well-being. A discriminant analysis using the most strongly correlated items significantly classified students into known groups of high and low subjective well-being. Overall, MOHO-based variables offered an effective explanation of factors that influence subjective well-being in Jordanian university students.

  14. Differences between immigrant and national students in motivational variables and classroom-motivational-climate perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Tapia, Jesús; Simón, Carmen

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to see whether Immigrant (IM) and Spanish (National) students (SP) need different kinds of help from teachers due to differences in motivation, family expectancies and interests and classroom-motivational-climate perception. A sample of Secondary Students -242 Spanish and 243 Immigrants- completed questionnaires assessing goal orientations and expectancies, family attitudes towards academic work, perception of classroom motivational climate and of its effects, satisfaction, disruptive behavior and achievement. ANOVAs showed differences in many of the motivational variables assessed as well as in family attitudes. In most cases, Immigrant students scored lower than Spanish students in the relevant variables. Regression analyses showed that personal and family differences were related to student's satisfaction, achievement and disruptive behavior. Finally, multi-group analysis of classroom-motivational-climate (CMC) showed similarities and differences in the motivational value attributed by IM and SP to each specific teaching pattern that configure the CMC. IM lower self-esteem could explain these results, whose implications for teaching and research are discussed.

  15. A Study on Variables that Affect Class Scores of Primary Education Students in Placement Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict class scores which are obtained by adding 70 % of the Placement Test (PT) scores of the primary education sixth and seventh grade students who took it for the first time in the 2007-2008 academic year within the framework of the system of passing to secondary education reorganized by the MNE, 25 % of their end-of-the-year passing grades. The study is of general survey model. The study group consists of students who took the PT in the 200...

  16. The Galker test of speech reception in noise; associations with background variables, middle ear status, hearing, and language in Danish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsen, Maj-Britt Glenn; Söderström, Margareta; Kreiner, Svend; Dørup, Jens; Lous, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    We tested "the Galker test", a speech reception in noise test developed for primary care for Danish preschool children, to explore if the children's ability to hear and understand speech was associated with gender, age, middle ear status, and the level of background noise. The Galker test is a 35-item audio-visual, computerized word discrimination test in background noise. Included were 370 normally developed children attending day care center. The children were examined with the Galker test, tympanometry, audiometry, and the Reynell test of verbal comprehension. Parents and daycare teachers completed questionnaires on the children's ability to hear and understand speech. As most of the variables were not assessed using interval scales, non-parametric statistics (Goodman-Kruskal's gamma) were used for analyzing associations with the Galker test score. For comparisons, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Interrelations were adjusted for using a non-parametric graphic model. In unadjusted analyses, the Galker test was associated with gender, age group, language development (Reynell revised scale), audiometry, and tympanometry. The Galker score was also associated with the parents' and day care teachers' reports on the children's vocabulary, sentence construction, and pronunciation. Type B tympanograms were associated with a mean hearing 5-6dB below that of than type A, C1, or C2. In the graphic analysis, Galker scores were closely and significantly related to Reynell test scores (Gamma (G)=0.35), the children's age group (G=0.33), and the day care teachers' assessment of the children's vocabulary (G=0.26). The Galker test of speech reception in noise appears promising as an easy and quick tool for evaluating preschool children's understanding of spoken words in noise, and it correlated well with the day care teachers' reports and less with the parents' reports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Doctoral Students' Background, Involvement, and Perception of Growth on Their Intention To Persist. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Foroozandeh; Ethington, Corinna A.

    This study examined the extent to which an individual doctoral student's characteristics and involvement in the academic and social life of the department influences the student's perception of growth and development during graduate school, and thus the student's persistence in pursuing a graduate degree. The study surveyed doctoral students…

  18. An Examination of Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes towards Social Studies Course in Terms of Severable Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgaz, Selçuk

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the 5th grade students' attitude towards social studies course regarding several variables. The population of the study consisted of 4435 fifth grade students studying in public schools in Malatya, Yesilyurt. The sample group consisted of 362 students from 10 schools in the same district. The data used in…

  19. Mathematics Anxiety in College Students in Costa Rica and Their Relatonship with Academic Achievement and Socio-Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Monge, Islande C.; Espinoza González, Johan; Fonseca Castro, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The study tried to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the variables of gender, academic achievement, number of times students have taken the course and type of school in students taking the course MAT-001 General Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. To that end, a purposive sample of 472 students of such…

  20. Relevance of student and contextual school variables in explaining a student’s severity of violence experienced

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Teachers conceptualise and interpret violent behaviour of secondary students in different ways. They also differ in their estimates of the relevance of student and contextual school variables when explaining the severity of violence experienced by students. Research can assist here by explicating

  1. Appropriating Scientific Vocabulary in Chemistry Laboratories: A Multiple Case Study of Four Community College Students with Diverse Ethno-Linguistic Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cink, Ruth B.; Song, Youngjin

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated how college students with diverse ethno-linguistic backgrounds used chemistry vocabulary as a way to look at their discursive identities and cultural border crossings during first semester general chemistry laboratories. The data were collected in two major forms: video-taped laboratory observations and…

  2. Utilizing Culture to Improve Communication and School Involvement with Parents from Diverse Backgrounds as a Means to Improve Student Achievement Levels in the United States: A National Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen Dupre; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    School leadership in communicating to parents and students from diverse backgrounds is a problem in education that must be addressed. As the population of the United States is becoming more and more diverse, school administrators must develop new ways to reach their stakeholders. All families must be involved in their children's academic progress…

  3. Personal Best (PB) Goal Structure, Individual PB Goals, Engagement, and Achievement: A Study of Chinese- and English-Speaking Background Students in Australian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…

  4. Influence of school-level and family-level variables on Chinese college students' aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Wang, Lin; Han, Dong; Zhu, Xiongzhao; He, Jincai; Qiu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiuxian; Qiao, Zhengxue; Sui, Hong; Yang, Yanjie

    2017-08-01

    With the frequent occurrence of campus violence, scholars have devoted increasing attention to college students' aggression. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of aggression in Chinese university students and identify factors that could influence their aggression. We can thus find methods to reduce the incidence of college students' aggression in the future. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was used to select university students (N = 4565) aged 16-25 years in Harbin. The Aggression Questionnaire, the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist and the Social Support Revalued Scale were used to collect data. Females reported lower levels of aggression than males (p aggression, and the model was highly significant (R 2  = .233, Ad R 2  = .230, p aggression is affected by gender, family-level and school-level variables. Aggression scores are significantly correlated with not only family-level or school-level variables independently, but their combination as well. We find that the risk factors for aggression include a dissatisfying profession, higher levels of study pressure, poor parental relationships, poor interpersonal relationships, the presence of siblings, punishment, health maladjustment, less subjective support, and lower levels of utilization of social support.

  5. Effects of autogenic training on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Chunmi

    2014-12-01

    This study was undertaken to confirm the effects of autogenic training (AT) on stress response and heart rate variability in nursing school students experiencing stress related to clinical training. The study was carried out from September 2012 to April 2013 in a quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group using a pretest-posttest design. The participants were 40 nursing students in their third year at either of two nursing colleges. All consented to participate. Nineteen nursing students at one college were assigned to the experimental group and underwent the 8-week AT program, and the other 21 were assigned to the control group and did not undergo any training. Stress response was assessed by questionnaire and HRV was measured three times, that is, before the program, at the end of the program, and 6 months after the end of the AT program. A significant time/group interaction was found for stress response (F = 4.68, p = .012), a subjective indicator. However, no significant interaction was found for the objective indicators of heart rate variability, normalized low frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), normalized high frequency (F = 2.59, p = .090), or low frequency to high frequency ratio (F = 1.38, p = .257). The results suggest that AT provides an acceptable approach to stress reduction in nursing students. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. What are the predictor variables of social well-being among the medical science students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi-Pashaki, Nazila; Darvishpour, Azar

    2018-01-01

    Individuals with social well-being can cope more successfully with major problems of social roles. Due to the social nature of human life, it cannot be ignored to pay attention the social aspect of health. The purpose of this study was to identify variables that predict the social well-being of medical students. A descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 489 medical science students of Gilan Province, the North of Iran, during May to September 2016. The samples were selected using quota sampling method. Research instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts: demographic section and Keyes social well-being questionnaire. Data analysis was done using SPSS software version 19 and with descriptive and inferential statistics (t-test, ANOVA, and linear regression). The results showed that majority of the students had average social well-being. Furthermore, a significant relationship between the academic degree ( P = 0.009), major ( P = 0.0001), the interest and field's satisfaction ( P = 0.0001), and social well-being was seen. The results of linear regression model showed that four variables (academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction) were significantly associated with the social well-being ( P social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.

  7. RE-SEARCHING SECONDARY TEACHER TRAINEES IN DISTANCE EDUCATION AND FACE-TO-FACE MODE: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta GARG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and socio-economic status. Distance trainees outperformed the on-campus trainees on their preference for left-hemispheric styles of learning and thinking, budgeting time, learning motivation, overall study habits, academic motivation, attitude towards education, work methods, interpersonal relations, and on their perception about relevance of course content of theory papers in B.Ed., but on-campus trainees outperformed distance trainees on preference for right-hemispheric learning styles, need for achievement, motivation for sports, attitude towards teaching profession, child-centered practices, teachers, overall attitude towards teaching along with their perception for development of teaching skills and attitude, personality development during B.Ed. course. In academic performance distance trainees lag behind the on-campus trainee in their marks in theory papers, skills in teaching and in aggregate.

  8. Assessment of Scientific Reasoning: the Effects of Task Context, Data, and Design on Student Reasoning in Control of Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Han, Jing; Koenig, Kathleen; Raplinger, Amy; Pi, Yuan; Li, Dan; Xiao, Hua; Fu, Zhao; Bao, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Scientific reasoning is an important component under the cognitive strand of the 21st century skills and is highly emphasized in the new science education standards. This study focuses on the assessment of student reasoning in control of variables (COV), which is a core sub-skill of scientific reasoning. The main research question is to investigate the extent to which the existence of experimental data in questions impacts student reasoning and performance. This study also explores the effects of task contexts on student reasoning as well as students' abilities to distinguish between testability and causal influences of variables in COV experiments. Data were collected with students from both USA and China. Students received randomly one of two test versions, one with experimental data and one without. The results show that students from both populations (1) perform better when experimental data are not provided, (2) perform better in physics contexts than in real-life contexts, and (3) students have a tendency to equate non-influential variables to non-testable variables. In addition, based on the analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, a possible progression of developmental levels of student reasoning in control of variables is proposed, which can be used to inform future development of assessment and instruction.

  9. Variability in Institutional Screening Practices Related to Collegiate Student-Athlete Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroshus, Emily

    2016-05-01

    Universal screening for mental health concerns, as part of the preparticipation examination in collegiate sports medicine settings, can be an important and feasible strategy for facilitating early detection of mental health disorders. To assess whether sports medicine departments at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) member colleges have policies related to identifying student-athlete mental health problems, the nature of preparticipation examination screening related to mental health, and whether other departmental or institutional screening initiatives are in place. I also aimed to characterize the variability in screening by institutional characteristics. Cross-sectional study. College sports medicine departments. Team physicians and head athletic trainers at NCAA member colleges (n = 365, 30.3% response rate). Electronic survey of departmental mental health screening activities. A total of 39% of respondents indicated that their institution had a written plan related to identifying student-athletes with mental health concerns. Fewer than half reported that their sports medicine department administers a written or verbal screening instrument for symptoms of disordered eating (44.5%), depression (32.3%), or anxiety (30.7%). The strongest predictors of mental health screening were the presence of a written plan related to identifying student-athlete mental health concerns and the employment of a clinical psychologist. Additionally, Division I institutions and institutions with a greater ratio of athletic trainers to student-athletes tended to engage in more screening. The substantial among-institutions variability in mental health screening suggests that opportunities exist to make these practices more widespread. To address this variability, recent NCAA mental health best-practice guidelines suggested that institutions should screen for a range of mental health disorders and risk behaviors. However, at some institutions, staffing deficits may need to

  10. Investigation of the Aggression Tendency Observed in University Students in Terms of Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih CAMADAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find out whether or not the observed level of aggression in university students varies according to different demographic variables. These variables include grade level, gender, perceived parenting styles, the place where students lived before the university and monthly economic income level of family. The study group consists of the students studying at seven state universities located in different regions of Turkey: Cumhuriyet University [Central Anatolia Region], Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University [Marmara Region], Çukurova University [Mediterranean Region], Dicle University [South Eastern Anatolia Region], Dokuz Eylül University [Aegean Region], İnönü University [Eastern Anatolia Region] and Ondokuz Mayıs University [Black Sea Region]. The Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire was used to collect data. In order to determine the validity of the scale for this research, ‘Deterministic Finite Automat (DFA’ was recalculated again. Also, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency coefficient was recalculated again for the reliability. The obtained results revealed that the factor structures in the original scale are validated for this study and the measurement instrument was found to be reliable for this research. In addition, the Personal Information Form was prepared and given to the participants by the researchers in order to obtain different demographics about them. Various statistical analyses were performed with the data obtained through the form and scale. As a result of the analyses, the aggression level of male students was found to be significantly higher than the females. The level of aggression of the students who perceive their parents’ attitudes as authoritarian was found to be significantly higher than those who are exposed to protective and democratic parenting attitudes. In addition, the students who perceive their fathers as indifferent yielded higher aggression scores than those perceiving their

  11. The Analysis of Fourth Grade Primary Students' Reader Self-Perceptions in Terms of Gender and Preschool Educational Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagirli, Muhittin; Okur, Burçin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse perceptions of fourth grade primary school students on their reading ability. In study, screening model was used as a quantitative research method. The sample of this research was selected by convenience sampling. The sample consisted of 556 fourth grade students who received education in 8 public schools in…

  12. Examining of social skill levels of university students in terms of certain Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevim GÜLLÜ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between certain demographic variables and social skill levels of university students. Material and Methods: There were 100 participants (n=51 female, n=49 male in the study group who were the students at the department of Sport Sciences Faculty of Istanbul University in the 2015-2016 academic year. Of the study group 28 participants were between 18-20 years old, 27 participants were between 21-23 years old, 23 participants were between 24-26 years old and 22 participants were above 27 years old. After the demographic information of the participants was formed, the Social Skill Scale was applied which was developed by Matson, Rotarory and Hessel (1983 and adopted to Turkish. In order to measure their social skill levels, the reliability analysis of that scale was done. Cronbach Alpha value is 0.777; about the subscales, the results were found as such; positive social behaviour subscale 0.924, negative social behaviour subscale 0.904. Significance level was accepted as p<0.05. Results: Gender, age, class, whether or not to play sports with a licence, education level of parents, how many years they have been doing sports, and the level of social skills and subscales of their students were not significantly different. Conclusion: As a result; the demographic variables examined within our study did not make a difference in the level of social skills of the participants.

  13. An exploration of the impact of family background factors on the science achievement of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Patrice J.

    Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, pstudents' family backgrounds. Moreover, the findings of this study suggest that the positive impact of arrival status on the first-generation of Afro-Caribbean immigrants may be influencing their children's academic success in science. The present study holds a few implications for parents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity, immigration pattern, parenting, and achievement.

  14. Critical-thinking ability in respiratory care students and its correlation with age, educational background, and performance on national board examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Richard B; Wilkins, Robert L; Gardner, Donna D; Restrepo, Ruben D

    2011-03-01

    Critical thinking is an important characteristic to develop in respiratory care students. We used the short-form Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal instrument to measure critical-thinking ability in 55 senior respiratory care students in a baccalaureate respiratory care program. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficient to assess the relationships between critical-thinking score, age, and student performance on the clinical-simulation component of the national respiratory care boards examination. We used chi-square analysis to assess the association between critical-thinking score and educational background. There was no significant relationship between critical-thinking score and age, or between critical-thinking score and student performance on the clinical-simulation component. There was a significant (P = .04) positive association between a strong science-course background and critical-thinking score, which might be useful in predicting a student's ability to perform in areas where critical thinking is of paramount importance, such as clinical competencies, and to guide candidate-selection for respiratory care programs.

  15. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in college students: association with sociodemographic variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adman Câmara Soares Lima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: identify the modifiable risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus in college students and associate these factors with their sociodemographic variables.METHOD: cross-sectional study, involving 702 college students from Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, physical exercise data and blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose levels were collected.RESULTS: the most prevalent risk factor was sedentariness, followed by overweight, central obesity, high fasting plasma glucose and arterial hypertension. A statistically significant association was found between overweight and sex (p=0.000, age (p=0.004 and marital status (p=0.012, as well as between central obesity and age (p=0.018 and marital status (p=0.007 and between high fasting plasma glucose and sex (p=0.033.CONCLUSION: distinct risk factors were present in the study population, particularly sedentariness and overweight.

  16. Statistical analysis of morphometric indicators and physical readiness variability of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Gainullin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the interaction of morphometric characteristics with the reactions of the cardiorespiratory system and the indices of physical training during the process of physical exercise training at the university. Material: The students of the first course (n = 91, aged 17-18 took part in the survey. The students were divided into 6 groups. All students were engaged in physical training. All the studied indicators were conditionally divided into two groups. The first group of studies included indicators of physical fitness. The second group was formed by morphofunctional indices. Results: The indicators of the physical preparedness of students demonstrate a wide range and heterogeneity. This should be taken into account when staffing training groups. When using the technique of development of local regional muscular endurance, the values of orthostatic test and the Skibinski index show significant variability. Also high and significant correlation interactions are shown by indicators: manual dynamometry; strength endurance; the values of the Skibinski index. Also, in the orthotropic test, the same effect was observed: age, body length, heart rate. A similar analysis of morphofunctional indices shows significant correlation links: the Skibinski index and orthotropic tests; age and the Skibinski index; weight and body length. Conclusions: from the point of view of physical fitness, groups of sports training (the second group and hypertensive groups (group 5 proved to be the most stable. A group of volunteers turned out to be the most stable relative to the morphofunctional indicators.

  17. Investigation of the Relationship between Psychological Variables and Sleep Quality in Students of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Najafi Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Students of medical sciences are exposed to many emotional and mental problems. In light of the importance of sleep quality in learning and liveliness, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between psychological variables (stress, anxiety, and depression and sleep quality of students. Design. This research is a cross-sectional analytical study, where all students studying at Fasa University of Medical Sciences in 2012-2013 year were selected. To examine the students’ stress, anxiety, and depression values, the standardized 21-item DASS-21 was used, and to examine their sleep quality, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used. Results. The results of the study demonstrated that 73% of the students have moderate and severe stress, and 46.4% of them have PSQ scores ≥ 5. The students’ mean sleep quality score was 4.65±2.37, and their stress score was 8.09±5.14. A statistically significant relationship was found between the students’ stress levels and sleep quality (P<0.001. Conclusion. The high stress levels decrease students’ sleep quality. High stress levels and also the significant relationship between stress value and decrease in students’ sleep quality call for more attention to and care for students’ emotional and mental issues and timely proper interference on the part of authorities.

  18. Level of Self-confidence among Female Students of Hail University in Saudi Arabia in Relationship with some Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedad Mohammad Saleh Alkferi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to detect the level of self-confidence among female students of Hail University, and whether there were significant differences at the level of the students' self-confidence attributed to the variables of age and specialization. The study sample, which was randomly selected, consisted of 802 students from various disciplines at the university (medicine, engineering, psychology, and Islamic culture enrolled for the second semester of the academic year (2015/2016. To achieve the objectives of the study a confidence Scale developed by Kawasmeh and Farah (1996. The scale was checked for its validity and reliability. The statistical package SPSS was used to extract the results. Results of the study revealed a low level of self-confidence for the students of the university, whereas there were no statistically significant differences due to the variables of age and specialization. Keywords: Self-confidence, Students of Hail University, Saudi Arabia, Some variables.

  19. Collimator optimization in myocardial perfusion SPECT using the ideal observer and realistic background variability for lesion detection and joint detection and localization tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, Michael; Du, Yong; Links, Jonathan M.; Frey, Eric C.

    2016-03-01

    In SPECT imaging, collimators are a major factor limiting image quality and largely determine the noise and resolution of SPECT images. In this paper, we seek the collimator with the optimal tradeoff between image noise and resolution with respect to performance on two tasks related to myocardial perfusion SPECT: perfusion defect detection and joint detection and localization. We used the Ideal Observer (IO) operating on realistic background-known-statistically (BKS) and signal-known-exactly (SKE) data. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and localization ROC (LROC) curves (AUCd, AUCd+l), respectively, were used as the figures of merit for both tasks. We used a previously developed population of 54 phantoms based on the eXtended Cardiac Torso Phantom (XCAT) that included variations in gender, body size, heart size and subcutaneous adipose tissue level. For each phantom, organ uptakes were varied randomly based on distributions observed in patient data. We simulated perfusion defects at six different locations with extents and severities of 10% and 25%, respectively, which represented challenging but clinically relevant defects. The extent and severity are, respectively, the perfusion defect’s fraction of the myocardial volume and reduction of uptake relative to the normal myocardium. Projection data were generated using an analytical projector that modeled attenuation, scatter, and collimator-detector response effects, a 9% energy resolution at 140 keV, and a 4 mm full-width at half maximum (FWHM) intrinsic spatial resolution. We investigated a family of eight parallel-hole collimators that spanned a large range of sensitivity-resolution tradeoffs. For each collimator and defect location, the IO test statistics were computed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method for an ensemble of 540 pairs of defect-present and -absent images that included the aforementioned anatomical and uptake variability. Sets of test statistics were

  20. Seasonal variability of carbon in humic-like matter of ambient size-segregated water soluble organic aerosols from urban background environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frka, Sanja; Grgić, Irena; Turšič, Janja; Gini, Maria I.; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos

    2018-01-01

    Long-term measurements of carbon in HUmic-LIke Substances (HULIS-C) of ambient size-segregated water soluble organic aerosols were performed using a ten-stage low-pressure Berner impactor from December 2014 to November 2015 at an urban background environment in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The mass size distribution patterns of measured species (PM - particulate matter, WSOC - water-soluble organic carbon and HULIS-C) for all seasons were generally tri-modal (primarily accumulation mode) but with significant seasonal variability. HULIS-C was found to have similar distributions as WSOC, with nearly the same mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs), except for winter when the HULIS-C size distribution was bimodal. In autumn and winter, the dominant accumulation mode with MMAD at ca. 0.65 μm contributed 83 and 97% to the total HULIS-C concentration, respectively. HULIS-C accounted for a large fraction of WSOC, averaging more than 50% in autumn and 40% in winter. Alternatively, during warmer periods the contributions of ultrafine (27% in summer) and coarse mode (27% in spring) were also substantial. Based on mass size distribution characteristics, HULIS-C was found to be of various sources. In colder seasons, wood burning was confirmed as the most important HULIS source; secondary formation in atmospheric liquid water also contributed significantly, as revealed by the MMADs of the accumulation mode shifting to larger sizes. The distinct difference between the spring and summer ratios of HULIS-C/WSOC in fine particles (ca. 50% in spring, but only 10% in summer) indicated different sources and chemical composition of WSOC in summer (e.g., SOA formation from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) via photochemistry). The enlarged amount of HULIS-C in the ultrafine mode in summer suggests that the important contribution was most likely from new particle formation during higher emissions of BVOC due to the vicinity of a mixed deciduous forest; the higher contribution of

  1. The Influence of Student and School Variables on Student Performance on the New Jersey Assessment of Skills and Knowledge in Grade 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the strength and the direction of the relationships between student (i.e., socioeconomic status, attendance, and gender) and school variables (i.e., formative assessment usage and ASI classification) found in the extant literature to influence student achievement in language arts and mathematics. Analyses were conducted using…

  2. MODELO ESTADÍSTICO PARA ASOCIAR VARIABLES DEL ALUMNO CON SU RENDIMIENTO ESCOLAR I STATISTICAL MODEL TO ASSOCIATE VARIABLES OF THE STUDENT WITH HIS SCHOOL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Rosas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to determine associations between categorical variables pertaining to the student and his school performance, at governmental schools of the municipalities Gómez and Marcano of Nueva Esparta state, by adjusting the effects of column partnership model. The investigation was correlational in nature, with field design, based on applications to a reality of the educational context. As main results, obtained by adjusting the model in reference, the variables associated with school performance in Gómez municipality were: recreational activities, frequent use of computer at home and the use of Internet outside home to do homework. While in Marcano Municipality, they were: to have Internet at home, the place where the student is watching videogames and the number of times he eats in the day. In both municipalities, the characteristics: good feeling of the student when going to school and mastering of mathematical operations, were also linked to school performance.

  3. Predicting Middle School Students' Use of Web 2.0 Technologies out of School Using Home and School Technological Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joan E.; Read, Michelle F.; Jones, Sara; Mahometa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study used multiple regression to identify predictors of middle school students' Web 2.0 activities out of school, a construct composed of 15 technology activities. Three middle schools participated, where sixth- and seventh-grade students completed a questionnaire. Independent predictor variables included three demographic and five computer…

  4. Turkish College Students' Subjective Wellbeing in Regard to Psychological Strengths and Demographic Variables: Implications for College Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated Turkish college students' subjective wellbeing in regard to psychological strength and demographic variables. A sample of Turkish college students (N?=?1,052) aged 17-32 (mean age = 21, SD = 1.79) was administered various psychological strength instruments--the Gratitude Scale, the Rosenberg Self Esteem Inventory, the…

  5. The Relationship of Field Dependent/Independent Cognitive Styles, Stimuli Variability and Time Factor on Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atang, Christopher I.

    The effects of black and white and color illustrations on student achievement were studied to investigate the relationships between cognitive styles and instructional design. Field dependence (FD) and field independence (FI) were chosen as the cognitive style variables. Subjects were 85 freshman students in the Iowa State University Psychology…

  6. University Transition Challenges for First Year Domestic CALD Students from Refugee Backgrounds: A Case Study from an Australian Regional University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Eric; Harmsworth, Sarah; Rajaeian, Mohammad Mehdi; Parkes, Geoffrey; Bishop, Sue; AlMansouri, Bassim; Lawrence, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) is used broadly and inclusively to describe communities with diverse language, ethnic background, nationality, dress, traditions, food, societal structures, art and religion characteristics. Domestic CALD people are either refugees or voluntary migrants and have obtained permanent residency or…

  7. The Relationship between Cultural Background and Parental Perceptions of Functional Educational Programming for Students with Severe Handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Eileen

    The study examined whether a relationship exists between cultural background (Caucasian, Hispanic, or Black) and families' attitudes toward educational programming for a family member with severe disabilities. Useable surveys were returned by 91 respondents out of the 103 of 337 families (31%) to whom surveys had been distributed. The 40-item…

  8. A Case Study of the Experiences of Instructors and Students in a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) with Different Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Keol; Kim, Mi Hwa

    2015-01-01

    The use of virtual learning environments (VLEs) has become more common and educators recognized the potential of VLEs as educational environments. The learning community in VLEs can be a mixture of people from all over the world with different cultural backgrounds. However, despite many studies about the use of virtual environments for learning,…

  9. Developing models to predict 8th grade students' achievement levels on timss science based on opportunity-to-learn variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Melinda M.

    Science educational reforms have placed major emphasis on improving science classroom instruction and it is therefore vital to study opportunity-to-learn (OTL) variables related to student science learning experiences and teacher teaching practices. This study will identify relationships between OTL and student science achievement and will identify OTL predictors of students' attainment at various distinct achievement levels (low/intermediate/high/advanced). Specifically, the study (a) address limitations of previous studies by examining a large number of independent and control variables that may impact students' science achievement and (b) it will test hypotheses of structural relations to how the identified predictors and mediating factors impact on student achievement levels. The study will follow a multi-stage and integrated bottom-up and top-down approach to identify predictors of students' achievement levels on standardized tests using TIMSS 2011 dataset. Data mining or pattern recognition, a bottom-up approach will identify the most prevalent association patterns between different student achievement levels and variables related to student science learning experiences, teacher teaching practices and home and school environments. The second stage is a top-down approach, testing structural equation models of relations between the significant predictors and students' achievement levels according.

  10. Exploring the Relationships between Tutor Background, Tutor Training, and Student Learning: A Problem-Based Learning Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Heather; Walker, Andrew; Shelton, Brett E.; Fitt, M. Harrison

    2013-01-01

    Despite years of primary research on problem-based learning and literature reviews, no systematic effort has been made to analyze the relationship between tutor characteristics and student learning outcomes. In an effort to fill that gap the following meta-analysis coded 223 outcomes from 94 studies with small but positive gains for PBL students…

  11. How Readability Factors Are Differentially Associated with Performance for Students of Different Backgrounds When Solving Mathematics Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkington, Candace; Clinton, Virginia; Shivraj, Pooja

    2018-01-01

    The link between reading and mathematics achievement is well known, and an important question is whether readability factors in mathematics problems are differentially impacting student groups. Using 20 years of data from the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, we examine how…

  12. Teacher Educators' and Student Teachers' Beliefs about Preparation for Working with Families Including Those from Diverse Socioeconomic and Cultural Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Haem, Jeanne; Griswold, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined teacher preparation for developing family partnerships. The attitudes and practices of teacher educators and the attitudes and experiences of student teachers were explored in focus groups, documents, and a survey instrument. Results indicated that although partnerships were considered important by faculty and…

  13. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  14. Relational Aggression in Preschool Students: An Exploration of the Variables of Sex, Age, and Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Morine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, researchers wished to ascertain whether there were age (three- and four-year old, sibling (with or without older siblings, and sex (male and female differences in the use of relational aggression in preschool students as rated by peers and teachers. In order to answer this research question, two 2 × 2 × 2 factorial ANOVA procedures with the relational aggression composite score as the dependent variable on the PSBS-P and PSBS-T were used for peer and teacher assessment, respectively, of relational aggression. Results revealed that in the peer ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, there was an disordinal age by sibling interaction, in which four-year-old children with siblings were significantly more likely to be rated by their peers as using relational aggression than three-year-old children without siblings. In the teacher ratings of preschool students' relationally aggressive behavior, a main effect for age was observed. Teachers rated four-year old children as evidencing significantly higher levels of relational aggression as compared to three-year-olds. No sex differences were observed in the use of relational aggression either at age three or age four in this sample. Implications for these findings are presented.

  15. The television, school, and family smoking prevention and cessation project. VIII. Student outcomes and mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combination of the two in a 2 x 2 plus 1 design. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Control groups included "treatment as usual" and an "attention control" with the same outcome expectancies as the treatment conditions. Students were surveyed twice in grade 7 and once in each of grades 8 and 9. The interventions occurred during grade 7. We observed significant effects on mediating variables such as knowledge and prevalence estimates, and coping effort. The knowledge and prevalence estimates effects decayed partially but remained significant up to a 2-year follow-up. The coping effort effect did not persist at follow-ups. There were significant main effects of both classroom training and TV programming on knowledge and prevalence estimates and significant interactions of classroom and TV programming on knowledge (negative), disapproval of parental smoking, and coping effort. There were no consistent program effects on refusal/self-efficacy, smoking intentions, or behavior. Previous reports demonstrated successful development and pilot testing of program components and measures and high acceptance of the program by students and parents. The lack of behavioral effects may have been the result of imperfect program implementation or low base rates of intentions and behavior.

  16. Disparities in eating disorder diagnosis and treatment according to weight status, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic background, and sex among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, K R; Lipson, S K

    2018-03-02

    Eating disorders (EDs) present a significant threat to the health of adolescents and young adults, yet remain under-diagnosed and under-treated at a population-level. EDs have historically been thought to afflict "skinny, white, affluent girls" (the SWAG stereotype). As such, higher-weight individuals, racial/ethnic minorities, those from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds, and males may not recognize their need for treatment, may not be properly screened for EDs, and/or may not be referred to treatment. Using large-scale survey data from the healthy bodies study, we examined variations in prevalence of perceived need for ED treatment, ED diagnosis, past-year ED treatment, and treatment barriers according to weight status, race, socioeconomic background, and sex among undergraduate and graduate students with symptoms of an ED (N = 1,747). Among students with symptoms of an ED, 30.7% perceived a need for treatment, 10.5% had received a diagnosis, and 13.6% had received treatment in the past year. Individual characteristics were highly associated with perceived need, diagnosis, and past-year treatment. Females were more likely than males to perceive a need for treatment (OR = 1.97), to be diagnosed (OR = 4.66), and to be treated (OR = 1.64) for their ED symptoms. Socioeconomic background was associated with perceived need for treatment and past-year treatment, with students from affluent backgrounds having higher odds of perceiving need (OR = 1.52) and of receiving treatment (OR = 1.89) compared with their non-affluent peers. At a population-level, the unmet need for ED treatment disproportionately affects certain groups. Stereotypes about who develops EDs could contribute to disparities in ED treatment and outcomes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Developing Purposes of Low-Income College Students in China's Elite Universities: A Longitudinal Case Study of How Socioeconomic Background and University Culture Interact to Influence the Development and Realization of Low Income College Students' Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanxia

    2014-01-01

    In the process of China's transformation from a socialist to a post-socialist society, China's entire system of education has experienced breathtaking expansion and reform. In this context, first-tier universities increasingly accept students from more financially well off backgrounds. While second-tier universities are inclined to accept more…

  18. The influence of background music on reading comprehension of college students%背景音乐对大学生阅读理解的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄盈双

    2017-01-01

    以多名高校生作为主要研究对象,认真细致地考察了不同类型音乐及有无背景音乐对其阅读理解的影响.结果显示,不同类型背景音乐对不同年级的影响不同,不同背景音乐对不同背景音乐偏好被试也产生了不同的影响.这其中,流行音乐对高校生阅读理解的影响非常大.%Taking the college students as the main research object, the paper carefully and meticulously examines the influence of different types of music on reading comprehension.The results show that different types of background music have different effects on different grades, and different background music has different effects on different background music preference subjects.Among them, the impact of popular music has great significance on reading comprehension of college students.

  19. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  20. Heart rate variability affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic field in adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misek, Jakub; Belyaev, Igor; Jakusova, Viera; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid; Barabas, Jan; Jakus, Jan

    2018-05-01

    This study examines the possible effect of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The effect of RF EMF on ANS activity was studied by measuring heart rate variability (HRV) during ortho-clinostatic test (i.e., transition from lying to standing and back) in 46 healthy grammar school students. A 1788 MHz pulsed wave with intensity of 54 ± 1.6 V/m was applied intermittently for 18 min in each trial. Maximum specific absorption rate (SAR 10 ) value was determined to 0.405 W/kg. We also measured the respiration rate and estimated a subjective perception of EMF exposure. RF exposure decreased heart rate of subjects in a lying position, while no such change was seen in standing students. After exposure while lying, a rise in high frequency band of HRV and root Mean Square of the Successive Differences was observed, which indicated an increase in parasympathetic nerve activity. Tympanic temperature and skin temperature were measured showing no heating under RF exposure. No RF effect on respiration rate was observed. None of the tested subjects were able to distinguish real exposure from sham exposure when queried at the end of the trial. In conclusion, short-term RF EMF exposure of students in a lying position during the ortho-clinostatic test affected ANS with significant increase in parasympathetic nerve activity compared to sham exposed group. Bioelectromagnetics. 39:277-288, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. TIMSS 2011 User Guide for the International Database. Supplement 3: Variables Derived from the Student, Home, Teacher, and School Questionnaire Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Pierre, Ed.; Arora, Alka, Ed.; Stanco, Gabrielle M., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This supplement contains documentation on all the derived variables contained in the TIMSS 2011 data files that are based on background questionnaire variables. These variables were used to report background data in the TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics and TIMSS 2011 International Results in Science reports, and are made available…

  2. Variable School Start Times and Middle School Student's Sleep Health and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Daniel S; Wang, Guanghai; Chen, Yao I; Skora, Elizabeth; Hoehn, Jessica; Baylor, Allison; Wang, Jichuan

    2017-08-01

    Improving sleep health among adolescents is a national health priority and implementing healthy school start times (SSTs) is an important strategy to achieve these goals. This study leveraged the differences in middle school SST in a large district to evaluate associations between SST, sleep health, and academic performance. This cross-sectional study draws data from a county-wide surveillance survey. Participants were three cohorts of eighth graders (n = 26,440). The school district is unique because SST ranged from 7:20 a.m. to 8:10 a.m. Path analysis and probit regression were used to analyze associations between SST and self-report measures of weekday sleep duration, grades, and homework controlling for demographic variables (sex, race, and socioeconomic status). The independent contributions of SST and sleep duration to academic performance were also analyzed. Earlier SST was associated with decreased sleep duration (χ 2  = 173, p academic performance, and academic effort. Path analysis models demonstrated the independent contributions of sleep duration, SST, and variable effects for demographic variables. This is the first study to evaluate the independent contributions of SST and sleep to academic performance in a large sample of middle school students. Deficient sleep was prevalent, and the earliest SST was associated with decrements in sleep and academics. These findings support the prioritization of policy initiatives to implement healthy SST for younger adolescents and highlight the importance of sleep health education disparities among race and gender groups. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PENGARUH BACKGROUND MAHASISWA TERHADAP KINERJA AKADEMIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trianasari Angkawijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The Effect of Students’ Background on Academic Performance. This study examines the effect of background variables on the academic performance of accounting students in a private university in Surabaya. The background variables under study included previous academic performance, prior knowledge on accounting, sex, motivation, preparedness, and expectations. The results show that previous academic performance, motivation, and expectations have positive and significant effects on the students’ overall academic performance in accounting, while preparedness affects only the students’ performance in management accounting. In contrast, prior knowledge on accounting and sex do not give significant impacts to the students’ overall academic performance.These findings indicate the importance of previous aca­demic performance as well as motivation and expectations as background variables in current academic performance. Keywords: students’ background, academic performance, accounting Abstrak: Pengaruh Background Mahasiswa terhadap Kinerja Akademik. Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh variabel background terhadap kinerja akademik mahasiswa akuntansi di Universitas Surabaya. Lima variabel background utama dipergunakan, yaitu kinerja akademik sebelumnya, pengetahuan akun­tansi sebelumnya, jenis kelamin, motivasi, kesiapan, dan ekspektasi. Hipotesis diuji menggunakan model regresi linier berganda OLS dan Robust Standar Error. Hasil penelitian memerlihatkan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya, motivasi, dan ekspektasi memiliki pengaruh positif signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan, sementara kesiapan memberikan pengaruh positif hanya pada kinerja akademik akuntansi manajemen. Sebaliknya, pengetahuan akuntansi sebelumnya dan jenis kelamin tidak memberi­kan pengaruh signifikan terhadap kinerja akademik keseluruhan. Temuan ini mengindikasikan bahwa kinerja akademik sebelumnya beserta motivasi dan ekspektasi adalah variabel background

  4. An Examination of Elementary School Students' Parental Style and Parental Internet Style with Respect to Various Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz, Metin; Horzum, Mehmet Barış; Ayas, Tuncay; Koç, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between parental style and internet parental style and find out whether student's parental style and parental internet style differ according to various variables. In this study, survey model was used. The study was performed with 296 students, attending at an elementary school in the second period of 2011-2012 academic years in Sakarya, Turkey. Parental style and parental internet style scales were used. Results indicated ...

  5. Background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of background radiation, whether natural or caused by man's activities, are discussed. The known biological effects of radiation in causing cancers or genetic mutations are explained. The statement that there is a threshold below which there is no risk is examined critically. (U.K.)

  6. The impact of lecture attendance and other variables on how medical students evaluate faculty in a preclinical program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stanley I; Way, David P; Verbeck, Nicole; Nagel, Rollin; Davis, John A; Vandre, Dale D

    2013-07-01

    High-quality audiovisual recording technology enables medical students to listen to didactic lectures without actually attending them. The authors wondered whether in-person attendance affects how students evaluate lecturers. This is a retrospective review of faculty evaluations completed by first- and second-year medical students at the Ohio State University College of Medicine during 2009-2010. Lecture-capture technology was used to record all lectures. Attendance at lectures was optional; however, all students were required to complete lecturer evaluation forms. Students rated overall instruction using a five-option response scale. They also reported their attendance. The authors used analysis of variance to compare the lecturer ratings of attendees versus nonattendees. The authors included additional independent variables-year of student, student grade/rank in class, and lecturer degree-in the analysis. The authors analyzed 12,092 evaluations of 220 lecturers received from 358 students. The average number of evaluations per lecturer was 55. Seventy-four percent (n = 8,968 evaluations) of students attended the lectures they evaluated, whereas 26% (n = 3,124 evaluations) viewed them online. Mean lecturer ratings from attendees was 3.85 compared with 3.80 by nonattendees (P ≤ .05; effect size: 0.055). Student's class grade and year, plus lecturer degree, also affected students' evaluations of lecturers (effect sizes: 0.055-0.3). Students' attendance at lectures, year, and class grade, as well as lecturer degree, affect students' evaluation of lecturers. This finding has ramifications on how student evaluations should be collected, interpreted, and used in promotion and tenure decisions in this evolving medical education environment.

  7. State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriev, Dimitriy A; Saperova, Elena V; Dimitriev, Aleksey D

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV) in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA) can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate. A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR) were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA. Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2), and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1) during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2), and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure), entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA. The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation.

  8. State Anxiety and Nonlinear Dynamics of Heart Rate Variability in Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitriy A Dimitriev

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental research studies have demonstrated that the emotional experience of anxiety impairs heart rate variability (HRV in humans. The present study investigated whether changes in state anxiety (SA can also modulate nonlinear dynamics of heart rate.A group of 96 students volunteered to participate in the study. For each student, two 5-minute recordings of beat intervals (RR were performed: one during a rest period and one just before a university examination, which was assumed to be a real-life stressor. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed. The Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was used to assess the level of SA.Before adjusting for heart rate, a Wilcoxon matched pairs test showed significant decreases in Poincaré plot measures, entropy, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE, and pointwise correlation dimension (PD2, and an increase in the short-term fractal-like scaling exponent of detrended fluctuation analysis (α1 during the exam session, compared with the rest period. A Pearson analysis indicated significant negative correlations between the dynamics of SA and Poincaré plot axes ratio (SD1/SD2, and between changes in SA and changes in entropy measures. A strong negative correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and LLE. A significant positive correlation was found between the dynamics of SA and α1. The decreases in Poincaré plot measures (SD1, complex correlation measure, entropy measures, and LLE were still significant after adjusting for heart rate. Corrected α1 was increased during the exam session. As before, the dynamics of adjusted LLE was significantly correlated with the dynamics of SA.The qualitative increase in SA during academic examination was related to the decrease in the complexity and size of the Poincaré plot through a reduction of both the interbeat interval and its variation.

  9. An Examination of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course and Achievement Scores in Performance Assignments with Regard to Different Variables: A Boarding School Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…

  10. Regional Scale Variability in Background and Source δ13C of Methane in the Atlantic, Europe and the Arctic: Cautionary Tales for Isotopic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R. E.; France, J. L.; Lanoiselle, M.; Zazzeri, G.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Modeling studies of methane δ13C, both of modern atmosphere and glacial palaeoclimates have used a global isotopic signature for each of the main source categories, whereas detailed studies of source fluxes, such as boreal wetlands, suggest that on the centimeter to meter scale there is very great variability. In recent years we have been reassessing the usefulness of using a generic source value from source up to regional scale through sampling campaigns in the European Arctic, the UK and onboard ships sailing the Atlantic up to the Arctic Ocean. Currently the boreal wetland source of methane dominates above 60°N. Within Finland this source varies at the wetland scale from -74 to -66‰ depending on wetland type and seasonal variability in temperature and water table. Lapland road trips and ship sampling suggest that these emissions are homogenized to -70 to -67‰ in the well-mixed regional atmosphere. An infrequent boreal forest fire emission adds a -30 to -26‰ component into the mix, and such inputs have been observed in the Mace Head (Ireland) isotopic record of 2002. The story is much more complex once the latitudes of heavily urbanized and agricultural areas of Northern Europe are reached. Isotopic signatures applied to UK and EC inventories suggest that national emissions can vary from -42 to -60‰ depending on source mix, but even this is too simplified. Fugitive emissions from gas distribution systems vary based on the source of the gas, with biogenic-dominated supplies from west Siberia at -50‰ to thermogenic gas of the Southern North Sea fields at -32‰. Coal emissions are also source-dependent and have a similar range to gas, but unlike pipeline-homogenized gas can vary from one mine to the next. Emissions from ruminants vary due to C3 and C4 plant diets, with C4 closer to -50‰ while C3 emissions are in the low -60's. A recent whole barn experiment in the UK recorded -66‰. Landfill signatures also vary. Sites engineered in the last decade

  11. Which variables relate to the attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anke; Pijl, Sip Jan; Post, Wendy; Minnaert, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    While there is an increased interest in describing attitudes of teachers, parents and peers towards students with special educational needs in regular education, there is a lack of knowledge about various variables relating to the attitudes of these three groups. The aims of this study are: (1) to

  12. Pearson's Correlation between Three Variables; Using Students' Basic Knowledge of Geometry for an Exercise in Mathematical Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Pauline

    2009-01-01

    When studying correlations, how do the three bivariate correlation coefficients between three variables relate? After transforming Pearson's correlation coefficient r into a Euclidean distance, undergraduate students can tackle this problem using their secondary school knowledge of geometry (Pythagoras' theorem and similarity of triangles).…

  13. An Investigation of the Variables Predicting Faculty of Education Students' Speaking Anxiety through Ordinal Logistic Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozpolat, Ebru

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Education students' levels of speaking anxiety are predicted by the variables of gender, department, grade, such sub-dimensions of "Speaking Self-Efficacy Scale for Pre-Service Teachers" as "public speaking," "effective speaking,"…

  14. Developing Students' Reasoning about Samples and Sampling Variability as a Path to Expert Statistical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Joan; Le, Laura; Zieffler, Andrew; Ben-Zvi, Dani

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of developing students' reasoning about samples and sampling variability as a foundation for statistical thinking. Research on expert-novice thinking as well as statistical thinking is reviewed and compared. A case is made that statistical thinking is a type of expert thinking, and as such, research…

  15. A Spreadsheet-Based Visualized Mindtool for Improving Students' Learning Performance in Identifying Relationships between Numerical Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chiu-Lin; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a spreadsheet-based visualized Mindtool was developed for improving students' learning performance when finding relationships between numerical variables by engaging them in reasoning and decision-making activities. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted on the "phenomena of climate…

  16. Examination of Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety and Achievement in Foreign Language in Turkish University Students in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Yunus; Tuncer, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This correlational survey study aimed to investigate whether the Turkish prep-class students' foreign language classroom anxiety levels and foreign language achievement significantly differ in terms of such variables as their gender, their experience abroad, perceived level of income and any third language (other than Turkish and English) they…

  17. What Predicts Student Success in Introductory Data Management Classes? An Investigation of Demographic, Personality, Computer-Related, and Interaction Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kenneth J.; Harris, Ranida B.; Lambert, Alysa D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to data management classes are often times students' first exposure to advanced material in these areas. Many factors are likely to influence success in these classes, but empirical investigations have focused on relatively few variables. In this study, we extend this research by examining the relative contributions of the previously…

  18. Stress among Student Affairs Administrators: The Relationship of Personal Characteristics and Organizational Variables to Work-Related Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Kathleen R.

    1992-01-01

    Examined possible relationships between reported work-related stress and organizational and personal variables, hardiness of personality, exercise activity, and organizational culture of 240 student affairs administrators within Minnesota. Results revealed that job satisfaction and hardiness of personality were greatest predictors of lowered…

  19. Qualitative Evaluation of the Design Variables of a Teaching Intervention to Expose Accounting Students to Pervasive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviers, Herman Albertus

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to evaluate the design variables of a newly developed teaching intervention, "The Amazing Tax Race". It comprises a race against time in which accounting students participate within teams in multiple tax-related activities so that they are exposed to pervasive skills. The findings provide…

  20. Latent variables underlying the memory beliefs of Chartered Clinical Psychologists, Hypnotherapists and undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ost, James; Easton, Simon; Hope, Lorraine; French, Christopher C; Wright, Daniel B

    2017-01-01

    In courts in the United Kingdom, understanding of memory phenomena is often assumed to be a matter of common sense. To test this assumption 337 UK respondents, consisting of 125 Chartered Clinical Psychologists, 88 individuals who advertised their services as Hypnotherapists (HTs) in a classified directory, the Yellow Pages TM , and 124 first year undergraduate psychology students, completed a questionnaire that assessed their knowledge of 10 memory phenomena about which there is a broad scientific consensus. HTs' responses were the most inconsistent with the scientific consensus, scoring lowest on six of these ten items. Principal Components Analysis indicated two latent variables - reflecting beliefs about memory quality and malleability - underlying respondents' responses. In addition, respondents were asked to rate their own knowledge of the academic memory literature in general. There was no significant relationship between participants' self reported knowledge and their actual knowledge (as measured by their responses to the 10-item questionnaire). There was evidence of beliefs among the HTs that could give rise to some concern (e.g., that early memories from the first year of life are accurately stored and are retrievable).

  1. An assessment of the impact of demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables on student success in a community college science course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Audrey Leroy

    The impact of demographic, cognitive, and non-cognitive variables on academic success among community college science students was studied. Demographic variables included gender, employment status, and ethnicity. Cognitive variables included college grade point average, assessment status, course prerequisites, college course success ratios, final course grade, withdrawal patterns, and curriculum format. Non-cognitive variables included enrollment status, educational objectives, academic expectations, and career goals. The sample population included students enrolled in human anatomy courses (N = 191) at a large metropolitan community college located in central Texas. Variables that potentially influence attrition and achievement in college level science courses were examined. Final course grade and withdrawal phenomena were treated as dependent variables, while all other variables were treated as independent variables. No significant differences were found to exist between any of the demographic variables studied and the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. A difference was shown to be associated with the ethnicity variable and achievement levels. Educational objectives and career goals were shown to have an impact on the number of students who withdrew failing. The career goals variable and the academic expectations variable were shown to have an impact on achievement among daytime and evening students. College grade point average and course success ratios were shown to make a difference among students who withdrew passing. None of the other cognitive variables studied were shown to influence the numbers of students who withdrew passing or failing. College grade point average and course prerequisites, however, were shown to make a difference in achievement. The collaborative learning instructional format was found to have no impact on attrition or achievement, however, mean scores earned by students experiencing the collaborative learning format

  2. Relations of some sociocultural variables and attitudes and motivations of young Arab students learning English as a second language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, A A; al-Ansari, S H

    2001-02-01

    This paper examined a number of variables pertaining to the sociocultural outlooks of 412 young Arab students learning English as a foreign language and the relation of their attitudes and motivations prior to their learning of the language. Analysis indicated clearly that certain variables appeared to be correlated with their attitudes and motivations more than others. Most of the students had maids in their homes, and the presence of a maid was associated with most of the psycholinguistic variables tested. Their previous learning experience of the language was positively correlated as was their knowledge of English stories. Having some sort of English games had the highest correlations (.25 to .41). Potential pedagogical implications of these results were discussed.

  3. Zmienne komunikacyjne nauczyciela w percepcji studentow [Teachers' communication variables in higher education students' perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sztejnberg, A.; Brok, den P.J.; Hurek, J.; Karczmarek, Z.; Jankowski, K.; Sitarska, B.; Tkaczuk, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated students¿ perceptions of their best teachers in higher education. Teacher behaviour was conceptualised in terms of the teacher-student interpersonal relationship and described in terms of eight behavioural sectors ¿ leadership, helpful/friendly, understanding, student

  4. Variability in University Students' Use of Technology: An "Approaches to Learning" Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimirinis, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the results of a cross-case study analysis of how students' approaches to learning are demonstrated in blended learning environments. It was initially propositioned that approaches to learning as key determinants of the quality of student learning outcomes are demonstrated specifically in how students utilise technology in…

  5. The extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering among undergraduate nursing students: Implications for pedagogy in nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, S E; Liu, L; van den Akker, O; O'Driscoll, Mike

    2017-03-01

    In the aftermath of the Francis Report nurses are being called to account for an apparent lack of care and compassion, leading to debate around pedagogy in nurse education. Absent from this debate is a consideration of student volunteering within undergraduate nursing programmes and its potential to promote student nurses self-esteem and to enhance the development of critical thinking skills. The aim of this study was therefore to understand the extent of and attitudes towards volunteering among nursing students. A mixed methods approach using a specifically developed questionnaire, followed by in-depth interviews to ascertain extent, variability, and attitudes towards volunteering revealed low levels of volunteering among nursing students. Limited time, limited access, and lack of academic support were cited as reasons. Nevertheless, students displayed positive attitudes towards volunteering. While volunteering has been shown to impact upon students abilities to think critically, to develop personal values and respond to the needs of others, volunteering within the UK undergraduate nursing programme considered here is neither structured nor formalized. Nurse educators should pay attention to the positive benefits of volunteering for nursing students and consider ways in which volunteering might be incorporated into the curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mathematics Anxiety in College Students in Costa Rica and their Relatonship with Academic Achievement and Socio-Demographic Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islande C. Delgado Monge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study tried to determine the relationship between mathematics anxiety and the variables of gender, academic achievement, number of times students have taken the course and type of school in students taking the course MAT-001 General Mathematics of the National University of Costa Rica. To that end, a purposive sample of 472 students of such course was collected and the instrument of Hopko, Mahadevan, Bare and Hunt was adjusted to it (2003. Data collected were analyzed with the statistical program SPSS applying the corresponding hypothesis tests. According with the results, students showed a medium level of math anxiety and women showed a math anxiety significantly higher than men, while student graduated from private schools showed a significantly lower level of math anxiety than those from public schools or from the modality “General Equivalency Diploma”. Besides, the higher the math anxiety of the student is, the lower their academic achievement will be. Finally, there were no statistically significant differences between math anxiety and the number of times students have taken the course.

  7. Analysis of Student and School Level Variables Related to Mathematics Self-Efficacy Level Based on PISA 2012 Results for China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, H. Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the student and school level variables that affect students' self-efficacy levels in mathematics in China-Shanghai, Turkey, and Greece based on PISA 2012 results. In line with this purpose, the hierarchical linear regression model (HLM) was employed. The interschool variability is estimated at approximately 17% in…

  8. Exploring Variability Sources in Student Evaluation of Teaching via Many-Facet Rasch Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü BÖRKAN

    2017-01-01

    Evaluating quality of teaching is important in nearly every higher education institute. The most common way of assessing teaching effectiveness takes place through students. Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET) is used to gather information about students’ experiences with a course and instructor’s performance at some point of semester. SET can be considered as a type of rater mediated performance assessment where students are the raters and instructors are the examinees. When performance as...

  9. Exploring Variability Sources in Student Evaluation of Teaching via Many-Facet Rasch Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü BÖRKAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating quality of teaching is important in nearly every higher education institute. The most common way of assessing teaching effectiveness takes place through students. Student Evaluation of Teaching (SET is used to gather information about students’ experiences with a course and instructor’s performance at some point of semester. SET can be considered as a type of rater mediated performance assessment where students are the raters and instructors are the examinees. When performance assessment becomes a rater mediated assessment process, extra measures need to be taken into consideration in order to create more reliable and fair assessment practices. The study has two main purposes; (a to examine the extent to which the facets (instructor, student, and rating items contribute to instructors’ score variance and (b to examine the students’ judging behavior in order to detect any potential source of bias in student evaluation of teaching by using the Many-Facet Rasch Model. The data set includes one thousand 235 students’ responses from 254 courses. The results show that a students greatly differ in the severity while rating instructors, b students were fairly consistent in their ratings, c students as a group and individual level are tend to display halo effect in their ratings, d students are clustered at the highest two categories of the scale and e the variation in item measures is fairly low. The findings have practical implications for the SET practices by improving the psychometric quality of measurement.

  10. Healthy Life Style Behaviors of University Students of School of Physical Education and Sports in Terms of Body Mass Index and Other Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlar, Volkan; Arslanoglu, Cansel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors of students in the Schools of Physical Education and Sport (SPES) utilizing Body Mass Index (BMI) and other various variables. The study is composed of 1,695 students studying in SPES, in 14 different universities across Turkey. It is made up of 1,067 male and 624 female students.…

  11. The dynamics of variability in introductory physics students' thinking: Examples from kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Brian W.

    Physics education research has long emphasized the need for physics instruction to address students' existing intuitions about the physical world as an integral part of learning physics. Researchers, however, have not reached a consensus-view concerning the nature of this intuitive knowledge or the specific role that it does (or might) play in physics learning. While many early characterizations of student misconceptions cast students' intuitive thinking as largely static, unitary in structure, and counter-productive for the purpose of learning correct physics, much of contemporary research supports a conceptualization of intuitive thought as dynamic, manifold in structure, and generative in the development of expertise. This dissertation contributes to ongoing inquiry into the nature of students' intuitive thought and its role in learning physics through the pursuit of dynamic systems characterizations of student reasoning, with a particular focus on how students settle into and shift among multiple patterns of reasoning about motion. In one thread of this research, simple experimental designs are used to demonstrate how individual students can be predictably biased toward and away from different ways of thinking about the same physical situation when specific parameters of questions posed to students are varied. I qualitatively model students' thinking in terms of the activations and interactions among fine-grained intuitive knowledge and static features of the context. In a second thread of this research, case studies of more dynamic shifts in students' conceptual reasoning are developed from videos of student discussions during collaborative classroom activities. These show multiple local stabilities of students' thinking as well, with evidence of group-level dynamics shifting on the time scale of minutes. This work contributes to existing research paradigms that aim to characterize student thinking in physics education in two important ways: (1) through the

  12. A Diagrammatic Exposition of Regression and Instrumental Variables for the Beginning Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gigi

    2009-01-01

    Some beginning students of statistics and econometrics have difficulty with traditional algebraic approaches to explaining regression and related techniques. For these students, a simple and intuitive diagrammatic introduction as advocated by Kennedy (2008) may prove a useful framework to support further study. The author presents a series of…

  13. Investigation of High School Students' Attitude and Anxiety Levels towards Mathematics in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Semsettin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Turkish high school students' attitude and anxiety levels towards mathematics. For this purpose, the methodology employed in this study was a descriptive study. The participants of the study consisted of 361 high school students from three different high school types from a province in Turkey during…

  14. Is Critical Thinking a Mediator Variable of Student Performance in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Christel; Walter, Paul

    2018-01-01

    The study explores the influences of critical thinking and interests on students' performance at school. The tested students attended German grammar schools ("Gymnasien"). Separate regression analyses showed the expected moderate positive influences of critical thinking and interests on school performance. But analyzed simultaneously,…

  15. Noncognitive Variables to Predict Academic Success among Junior Year Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ellen M. T.

    2017-01-01

    An equitable predictor of academic success is needed as nursing education strives toward comprehensive preparation of diverse nursing students. The purpose of this study was to discover how Sedlacek's (2004a) Noncognitive Questionnaire (NCQ) and Duckworth & Quinn's (2009) Grit-S predicted baccalaureate nursing student academic performance and…

  16. Negative Automatic Thoughts, Emotional Intelligence and Demographical Different Variables Affecting University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direktor, Cemaliye; Simsek, Angelika H.; Serin, Nerguz Bulut

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the relationship of negative automatic thoughts, emotional intelligence subscales, gender, and department of university students. The participants are 291 students (170 female and 121 male) of Department of Psychology, Department of Counselling and Department of Preschool Education, of Private University in North Cyprus.…

  17. Republication of "Functional Analysis of Classroom Variables for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Kern, Lee; dePerczel, Maria; Clarke, Shelley; Wilson, Diane; Childs, Karen E.; White, Ronnie; Falk, George D.

    2018-01-01

    Functional assessment and functional analysis are processes that have been applied successfully in work with people who have developmental disabilities, but they have been used rarely with students who experience emotional or behavioral disorders. In the present study, five students in elementary school programs for severe emotional disturbance…

  18. School-Related Variables in the Dimensions of Anger in High School Students in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siyez, Digdem M.

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the effects of perceived social support from teachers, expectation of academic achievement, school control, and gender on anger dimensions in high school students in Izmir, Turkey. In total, 446 high school students (234 girls, 212 boys) participated in the study. Pearson's correlation and multiple regression analyses…

  19. Understanding the Atom and Relevant Misconceptions: Students' Profiles in Relation to Three Cognitive Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, George; Markos, Angelos; Zarkadis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the formation of particular student profiles based on of their ideas relating to basic characteristics of the atom. Participants were secondary students of 8th, 10th and 12th grades from Northern Greece (n = 421), with specific cohort characteristics e.g. age, grade and class curriculum, and individual differences, e.g.…

  20. Alternative Personality Variables and the Relationship to Holland's Personality Types in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Fox, Daniel J.; Tunick, Roy H.

    2003-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory, two personality questionnaires, and the Sensation-Seeking Scale were completed by 126 college students. Younger students had undifferentiated vocational profiles. Men tended toward Realistic, Enterprising, and Investigative occupations, women toward Social, Enterprising, and Artistic. Significant convergence…

  1. Assessment of Object Permanence in Severely Handicapped Students as a Function of Motor and Prompting Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmer, Steven; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The study assessed object permanence construct performance in 20 severely handicapped students (4 to 14 years old) who were differentiated by treatment (prompt) condition and motor ability level. Results revealed a trait (motor ability) x treatment interaction. (Author/SB)

  2. The Analysis of the School Burnout in Secondary Education Students in Terms of Various Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Seçer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the burnout levels of the secondary education students was analyzed if the burnout levels differentiate according to sex, high school type, academic success, academic department and taking private teaching institutions’ classes or not. The study group of this study that is aimed to analyze school burnout in secondary education students is formed of 282 females and 221 males, in total 503 students who get educated in secondary schools in Erzurum Yakutiye and Palandöken counties. School burnout inventory developed by Aypay (2011 and personal data form were used to collect data. t test and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA were used in the analysis of the data.According to the evidence obtained from the study, the burnout levels of secondary education students differentiate in a meaningful level according to sex, school type, academic success, academic department and taking private teaching institutions’ classes or not.

  3. [Corrective effect of aromatherapy on indices of heart rate variability in students under exam stress conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamyan, H T; Minasyan, S M

    2016-01-01

    There were investigated changes in indices of the activity of regulatory mechanisms of heart rhythm in student under exam stress conditions and the possibility of their correction with aid of aromatherapy. The examination stress was established to be accompanied by pronounced shifts of integral and spectral indices of heart rhythm in students, indicating to the activation of the sympathetic circuit of Autonomic Nervous System in conditions of examination stress. A positive, relaxation impact of the essential oil of orange on the investigated indices was also recorded. The latter is expressed by weakly pronounced changes or lack of them in data of integral and spectral heart rate indices in students from the experimental group, that indicates to the stabilizing effect of used ethereal oil on the psycho-physiological state of students in conditions of exam stress

  4. CALIDAD DE RED COMO VARIABLE MODULADORA DE DEPRESIÓN EN ADOLESCENTES ESTUDIANTES DE NIVEL MEDIO/ QUALITY NETWORK AS MODERATOR VARIABLE OF DEPRESSION IN TEENAGERS HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Soria Trujano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENEn un estudio previo (Nava & Vega, 2008 quisimos probar si alguna alteración emocional (depresión podía seratribuida a la lejanía de la red familiar, los análisis mostraron que sí era posible encontrar diferencias entre jóvenes recluidosy estudiantes universitarios. Sin embargo, los resultados del estudio anterior dejaban una duda, ¿sería posible encontrardepresión aun cuando no hay ausencia de familia de origen? Y, ¿qué variables explicarían tal fenómeno, en caso de encontrardiferencias? Por lo anterior, decidimos realizar un estudio en el cual los participantes fueran adolescentes sin ningunacarencia de familia o alteración psicológica aparente. Evaluamos diferentes variables: apoyo social, estrés, calidad de redy depresión. Los resultados mostraron que sí fue posible replicar los resultados del primer estudio, a pesar de que noexistieron alteraciones emocionales o de red graves. Las conclusiones son discutidas a la luz de los hallazgos empíricos yteóricos correspondientes.ABSTRACTIn a previous study (Nava & Vega, 2008 we wanted to prove if some emotional alterations (depression could beattributed to the remoteness of the family network, the analyses showed that it was possible to find differences betweenyoung adults to imprison and university students. Nevertheless, the results of the previous study left a doubt, would it bepossible to find depression even though there is no absence of origin of family? And what variable would explain suchphenomenon, in case of finding differences? By the previous thing, we decided to make a study where the participants wereadolescents without deficiency of family or apparent psychological alteration. We evaluated different variables, socialsupport, stress, quality of network and depression. The results showed that it was possible to talk back the results of the firststudy, although emotional alterations or of network did not exist seriously. The conclusions are discussed to the

  5. Fixed versus variable practice for teaching medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, David; Truchot, Jennifer; Fabbro, Eleonora; Ceccaldi, Pierre-François; Plaisance, Patrick; Tesnière, Antoine; Hadchouel, Alice

    2018-02-01

    Simulation-based trainings represent an interesting approach to teach medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations (PAEs). In this study, we compared two pedagogical approaches, training students once on three different scenarios of PAEs versus training students three times on the same scenario of PAE. Eighty-five third-year medical students, novice learners for the management of PAEs, were randomized and trained. Students were assessed twice, 1 week and 4 months after the training, on a scenario of PAE new to both groups and on scenarios used during the training. The main outcome was the performance score on the new scenario of PAE at 1 week, assessed on a checklist custom-designed for the study. All students progressed rapidly and acquired excellent skills. One week after the training, there was no difference between the two groups on all the scenarios tested, including the new scenario of PAE (median performance score (IQR) of 8.3 (7.4-10.0) in the variation group versus 8.0 (6.0-10.0) in the repetition group (p = 0.16)). Four months later, the performance of the two groups remained similar. Varying practice with different scenarios was equivalent to repetitive practice on the same scenario for novice learners, with both methods leading to transfer and long-term retention of the skills acquired during the training. What is known: • Simulation-based trainings represent an interesting approach to teach medical students the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations. • It is unclear whether students would benefit more from repetitive practice on the same scenario of asthma exacerbation or from practice on different scenarios in terms of transfer of skills. What is new: • An individual 30-min training on the management of pediatric asthma exacerbations using simulation allows transfer and long-term retention of the skills acquired. • Varying practice with different scenarios is equivalent to repetitive practice on the same

  6. Investigation Faculty of Education Students' Cyberloafing Behaviors in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabaci, I. Bakir

    2017-01-01

    Today, internet-based information technologies are sine qua non of effective learning and teaching. By the use of multiple multi-media tools in education, learning environment is enriched, persistence of learning is ensured and the boringness of the course is prevented. However, the purposeless use of internet in classrooms leads students to get…

  7. Determining the Variables That Affect the Reading Motivation of Educational Faculty Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaskan, Vafa; Özdemir, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    Reading motivation has a significant contribution to acquire the necessary reading skills, and it has an indisputable effect on continuing to read. When the importance of the role model effect of school teachers in acquiring reading skills is considered, it is expected that reading motivation of the students will be high whose teachers also have a…

  8. Culture's Consequences on Student Motivation: Capturing Cross-Cultural Universality and Variability through Personal Investment Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Culture influences basic motivational processes; however, Western theories of achievement motivation seem to have neglected the role of culture. They are inadequate when trying to explain student motivation and engagement across a wide range of cultural groups because they may not have the conceptual tools needed to handle culturally relevant…

  9. Examination of the 8th grade students' TIMSS mathematics success in terms of different variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleli-Yılmaz, Gül; Hanci, Alper

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine how the TIMSS mathematics success of the 8th grade students differentiates according to the school type, gender, mathematics report mark, parents' education level, cognitive domains and cognitive domains by gender. Relational survey method was used in the study. Six-hundred fifty two 8th grade students studying in the same city in Turkey participated in this study. In this study, a 45 question test that was made up by choosing TIMSS 2011 mathematics questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Quantitative data analysis methods were used in the data analysis, frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, independent sample test, one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc tests were applied to data by using SPSS packaged software. At the end of the study, it was determined that the school type, mathematics school mark, parents' education level and cognitive domains influenced the students' TIMSS mathematics success but their gender was a neutral element. Moreover, it was seen that schools which are really successful in national exams are more successful in TIMSS exam; students whose mathematics school marks are 5 and whose parents graduated from university are more successful in TIMSS exams than others. This study was produced from Alper HANCİ's master thesis that is made consulting Asst. Prof. Gül KALELİ YILMAZ.

  10. The Bilingual Advantage for Immigrant Students in French Immersion in Canada: Linking Advantages to Contextual Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady, Callie

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the English and French proficiencies of three groups of early French immersion participants at the Grade 6 level: Canadian-born English-speaking, Canadian-born multilingual, and immigrant multilingual students. In addition to English and French multi-skills tests, the participants completed a questionnaire designed to gather…

  11. Influence of Family and Socio-Demographic Variables on Students with Low Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Pedro F.; Garcia-Linares, M. Cruz; de la Torre, Manuel J.; Carpio, M. de la Villa

    2005-01-01

    In this study we compare the distribution of parental educational styles and the scores reported both by parents and students for various family characteristics (acceptance, control, involvement, and expectations) and socio-demographic factors (socio-economic status, family structure, number of children, and order of birth of the children) in a…

  12. Variables Associated With Reading and Math Achievement among a Heterogeneous Group of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakland, Thomas; Stern, William

    1989-01-01

    Delineated characteristics of over- and under-achievers within a sample of 372 randomly selected public school students aged 6 through 17 years from 3 racial-ethnic groups and 2 levels of socioeconomic status. Found discrepant achievement not to be unique to particular race, intelligence, gender, age, family size, or degree of family intactness.…

  13. Psychosocial Variables Associated with Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, Christy A.; Petrie, Trent A.; Martin, Scott B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations among self-esteem, depression, physical self-concept, and body satisfaction among 1,022 middle school students who were in the FITNESSGRAM[R] Healthy Fitness Zone[TM] (HFZ) compared to those in the Needs Improvement Zone (NIZ) for body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness. After controlling for…

  14. What are the predictor variables of social well-being among the medical science students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazila Javadi-Pashaki

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that the different effects of the demographic factors on social well-being and the need for further consideration of these factors are obvious. Thus, health and education authorities are advised to pay attention students' academic degree, major, group membership, and the interest and field's satisfaction to upgrade and maintain the level of their social well-being.

  15. Examination of the 8th Grade Students' TIMSS Mathematics Success in Terms of Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleli-Yilmaz, Gül; Hanci, Alper

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine how the TIMSS mathematics success of the 8th grade students differentiates according to the school type, gender, mathematics report mark, parents' education level, cognitive domains and cognitive domains by gender. Relational survey method was used in the study. Six-hundred fifty two 8th grade students…

  16. Assessing Students' Understanding of Control of Variables across Three Grade Levels and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tairab, Hassan H.

    2016-01-01

    Research studies that deal with student ability to investigate and carry out inquiry oriented investigations often call for educational practitioners to pay particular attention to incorporating the skills of scientific inquiry in the process of teaching and learning. This has the aim of helping learners acquire the skills needed to become problem…

  17. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  18. An Exploration of the Relationships between Student Racial Background and the School Sub-Contexts of Office Discipline Referrals: A Critical Race Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyon, Yolanda; Lechuga, Chalane; Ortega, Debora; Downing, Barbara; Greer, Eldridge; Simmons, John

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that exclusionary school discipline practices disproportionately impact students of color. Some scholars have theorized that racial disparities likely vary across school sub-contexts, as implicit bias in perceptions of student behavior may be more influential in locations where students and adults have weaker…

  19. Effects of Example Variability and Prior Knowledge in How Students Learn to Solve Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian-Peng; Yang, Ling-Yan; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have consistently demonstrated that multiple examples are better than one example in facilitating learning because the comparison evoked by multiple examples supports learning and transfer. However, research outcomes are unclear regarding the effects of example variability and prior knowledge on learning from comparing multiple…

  20. Using Variable Interval Reinforcement Schedules to Support Students in the Classroom: An Introduction with Illustrative Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulac, David; Benson, Nicholas; Nesmith, Matthew C.; Wollersheim Shervey, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    When behaviors are reinforced with a variable interval reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is available only after an unknown period of time. These types of reinforcement schedules are most useful for reinforcing slow and steady responding and for differentially reinforcing behaviors that are incompatible with some problematic behaviors. This…

  1. Analysis of Primary School Student's Science Learning Anxiety According to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Ferhat; Avgin, Sakine Serap; Kumperli, Ethem

    2016-01-01

    On this research, it is analyzed if the science learning anxiety level shows difference according to variables which are gender, grade level, science lesson grade, mother education, father education level. Scanning Design is used for this study. Research working group is consisted of 294 primary school from 6th, 7th and 8th graders on 2015-2016…

  2. Relationships between somatotype, anthropometry and physical fitness variables in untrained university students

    OpenAIRE

    MASOUD NIKBAKHT

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was investigate relation Between anthropometrics and Body typeendomorph,mesomorph and Ectomorph with factors aerobic fitness, speed and power. The sample includes 45unathletic male students of Tehran University (aged 19-25 years old) who forms three groups of 15 as a whole,that is, 15 ones endomorph, 15 ones mezomorph and 15 ones ectomorph. The physical fitness factor wasmeasured through a special related method designed by Heath, carter and Seldon. Physical fitness ...

  3. Procrastination and predictor variables among a group of dental students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalayin, Cigdem; Balkis, Murat; Tezel, Huseyin; Kayrak, Gul

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of procrastination among a group of Turkish dental students and to determine the predictors and consequences of procrastination. A total number of 273 females and 179 males (aged between 18 and 28) were included in the study. Tuckman procrastination scale, Academic Life Satisfaction Scale, Concern over Mistake Scale, Poor Time Management Scale, Self-Doubt Scale, Irrational Beliefs about Studying Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and Life Satisfaction Scale were used to gather data. Results indicated that 50% of participants were more likely to procrastinate their academic assignments or tasks. Procrastination score did not differ according to gender. The findings suggested that procrastinating students had a higher level of poor time management, self-doubt and irrational beliefs about studying, and poor academic performance and well-being than their non-procrastinating counterparts. Preventive strategies are necessary to overcome procrastination which affects the academic achievement, satisfaction, and well-being of dental students.

  4. The Level of Test-Wiseness for the Students of Arts and Science Faculty at Sharourah and Its Relationship with Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoum, Abedalqader; Khalaf, Hisham Bani; Bajbeer, Abedalqader; Hamad, Hassan Bani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the level of using Test-wiseness strategies for the students of arts and sciences Faculty at Sharourah and its relationship with some variables. a questionnaire was designed which consisted of (29) items measuring three domains of Test-wiseness strategies. It was applied on a sample which consisted of (299) students.…

  5. Analysis of Scientific Attitude, Computer Anxiety, Educational Internet Use, Problematic Internet Use, and Academic Achievement of Middle School Students According to Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekmezci, Mehmet; Celik, Ismail; Sahin, Ismail; Kiray, Ahmet; Akturk, Ahmet Oguz

    2015-01-01

    In this research, students' scientific attitude, computer anxiety, educational use of the Internet, academic achievement, and problematic use of the Internet are analyzed based on different variables (gender, parents' educational level and daily access to the Internet). The research group involves 361 students from two middle schools which are…

  6. Supplemental Instruction: The Effect of Demographic and Academic Preparation Variables on Community College Student Academic Achievement in STEM-Related Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitoy, Eric R.; Hoffman, John L.; Person, Dawn R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated variables associated with academic preparation and student demographics as predictors of academic achievement through participation in supplemental instruction (SI) programs for community college students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) fields. The findings suggest a differential impact of SI outcome for…

  7. Kindergarten Students' Levels of Understanding Some Science Concepts and Scientific Inquiry Processes According to Demographic Variables (The Sampling of Kilis Province in Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Nail; Tosun, Cemal

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the kindergarten students' levels of understanding some science concepts (LUSSC) and scientific inquiry processes (SIP) and compare their LUSSC and SIP in terms of some demographic variables. Also, another purpose of this study is to identify the predictive power of those demographic variables over the…

  8. The Level of Psychological Burnout at the Teachers of Students with Autism Disorders in Light of a Number of Variables in Al-Riyadh Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyat, Omar Khalil

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at measuring the level of the psychological burnout in the teachers of students that have autism symptoms in Al-Riyadh area--kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In light of variables. These variables are the gender, the teaching place, the academic qualification of the teachers, the experience of the teachers, the age of the teachers, and…

  9. Analysis of Students' Online Information Searching Strategies, Exposure to Internet Information Pollution and Cognitive Absorption Levels Based on Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Adile Askim; Emiroglu, Bülent Gürsel

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine students' online information searching strategies, their cognitive absorption levels and the information pollution levels on the Internet based on different variables and to determine the correlation between these variables. The study was designed with the survey model, the study group included 198…

  10. Effects of energy drink consumption on corrected QT interval and heart rate variability in young obese Saudi male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed; Majeed, Farrukh; Yar, Talay; AlRahim, Ahmed; Alhawaj, Ali Fouad; Alzaki, Muneer

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has adverse effects on the heart that might be potentiated in obese individuals. Since the incidence of obesity and use of energy drinks is high among Saudi youth, we used non-invasive tests to study hemodynamic changes produced by altered autonomic cardiac activ.ity following consumption of energy drinks in obese male students. This cross-sectional study was carried out at Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, over a one-year period from December 2013 to December 2014. In Saudi male university students we measured continuous ECG recordings and a one-minute deep breathing maneuver to measure the expiratory-to-inspiratory ratio, the mean heart rate range (MHRR), the mean percentage variability. (M%VHR) and the corrected QT interval (QTc) at 0, 30 and 60 minutes after consumption of energy drink. We enrolled 31 students (18 overweight/obese and 13 normal weights. QTc was significantly in.creased at 60 min as compared with the resting state in overweight/obese subjects (P=.006). Heart rate variability was significantly less in obese as compared with normal weight subjects at 60 minutes as indicated by E:I ratio, (P=.037), MHRR (P=.012), M%VHR (P=.040) after energy drink consumption. Significant increases in diastolic (P=.020) and mean arterial blood pressure (P=.024) were observed at 30 minutes in the obese group. Hemodynamic changes after intake of energy drinks in obese subjects indicate that obesity and energy drinks could synergistically induce harmful effects. This finding warrants efforts to caution the obese on intake of energy drinks and timely intervention to motivate changes in lifestyle.

  11. Structure and correlating variables of attitudes of students, future helping professionals, towards persons with hearing impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glintić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the structure and the correlates of students attitudes towards persons with hearing impairments. The sample consisted of 103 first year students of The Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation (F-93; M-10, divisions Prevention and treatment of conduct disorders and Speech therapy. These attitudes were assessed by The revised version of Multidimensional Attitudes Scale Toward Persons With Disabilities, Empathy by Empathy Quotient, dimensions of personality by The Big Five Inventory, the attachment by Experiences in Close Relationships Scale, the motivation for studying the Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation by the scale assembled for this research. It was found that in the domain of basic dimensions of personality only tendency to collaborate with others negatively correlates with absence of pro-social thoughts (-0.204, scale of anxiety in close relationships, in attachment domain, positively correlates with inhibiting thoughts and feelings (0.220, while the empathy quotient negatively correlates with the absence of pro-social thoughts (-0.226. The motivation for studying Faculty of Special Education and Rehabilitation was not associated with components of the attitude towards people with hearing impairment. Future researches should try to identify predictors of negative emotional and behavioral which lead to ignoring and rejecting of persons with disability.

  12. Personality, emotion-related variables, and media pressure predict eating disorders via disordered eating in Lebanese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria Jose; El-Jor, Claire; Abi Kharma, Joelle; Bassil, Maya; Zeeni, Nadine

    2017-04-18

    Disordered eating behaviors are on the rise among youth. The present study investigates psychosocial and weight-related variables as predictors of eating disorders (ED) through disordered eating (DE) dimensions (namely restrained, external, and emotional eating) in Lebanese university students. The sample consisted of 244 undergraduates (143 female) aged from 18 to 31 years (M = 20.06; SD = 1.67). Using path analysis, two statistical models were built separately with restrained and emotional eating as dependent variables, and all possible direct and indirect pathways were tested for mediating effects. The variables tested for were media influence, perfectionism, trait emotional intelligence, and the Big Five dimensions. In the first model, media pressure, self-control, and extraversion predicted eating disorders via emotional eating. In the second model, media pressure and perfectionism predicted eating disorders via restrained eating. Findings from this study provide an understanding of the dynamics between DE, ED, and key personality, emotion-related, and social factors in youth. Lastly, implications and recommendations for future studies are advanced.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Relationship among Quality Instruction, Teacher Self-Efficacy, Student Background, and Mathematics Achievement in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Won; Han, Seong Won; Kang, Chungseo; Kwon, Oh Nam

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast student, teacher, and school factors that are associated with student mathematics achievement in South Korea and the United States. Using the data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, this study examines factors that are linked to teachers who deliver…

  14. Psychometric properties of sleep quality scale and sleep variables questionnaire in Turkish student sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Önder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a physiological need that affects physical and mental performances. However, the number of individuals who experience problems DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY RELATED TO sleep is increasing in VARIOUS countries. Therefore, it is important to have a short, reliable and valid measure to assess both sleep quality and sleep related variables in school-age children. This study aims to carry out the validity and reliability studies for the Sleep Quality Scale and Sleep Variables Questionnaire (SQS-SVQ used to determine sleep quality, parental control, total sleep time, mid-point of sleep and sleep efficiency and to adapt it into Turkish. The SQS-SVQ consists of seven scale items to measure sleep quality and eight questionnaire items. The validity and reliability studies of the instrument were carried out on data acquired from 4th-8th graders. Factorial validity for SQS and criterion related validity analyses were carried out for the validity of the SQS-SVQ and correlations ranged from 0.51 to 0.73. These analysis results put forth that the scale is a valid measurement tool. Internal consistency coefficient of the SQS was 0.72 and test-retest correlations of the SQS-SVQ ranged from 0.67 to 0.88. These acquired results indicated that the scale WAS reliable. Meanwhile, gender measurement invariance was tested for SQS and results indicated that gender measurement invariance was established. These results have shown that the SQS-SVQ can be used in social researches and especially in educational studies.

  15. The Relationship between a Linear Combination of Intelligence, Musical Background, Rhythm Ability and Tapping Ability to Typewriting Speed and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fante, Cheryl H.

    This study was conducted in an attempt to identify any predictor or combination of predictors of a beginning typewriting student's success. Variables of intelligence, rhythmic ability, musical background, and tapping ability were combined to study their relationship to typewriting speed and accuracy. A sample of 109 high school students was…

  16. Relationships between somatotype, anthropometry and physical fitness variables in untrained university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASOUD NIKBAKHT

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was investigate relation Between anthropometrics and Body typeendomorph,mesomorph and Ectomorph with factors aerobic fitness, speed and power. The sample includes 45unathletic male students of Tehran University (aged 19-25 years old who forms three groups of 15 as a whole,that is, 15 ones endomorph, 15 ones mezomorph and 15 ones ectomorph. The physical fitness factor wasmeasured through a special related method designed by Heath, carter and Seldon. Physical fitness tests included:running in 60 meter; vertical jump; board jump; medicine ball throw; Harvard step test. The statistical analysis ofcorrelation coefficient has best reflected the conception that there are meaningful relationships betweenectomorph component and aerobic fitness .The relationship Between body fat, body weight and aerobic fitnesswas negative; The relationship between body weight and feet power, hand power was negative .The relationshipsbetween skin fold fat, foot power and body’s general speed were considered being as negative. Finally therelationship between girth arm and hand power was considered being as meaningful. Thus somatotype andanthropometry are two indicators for predict physical fitness of adult men.and They can also help coaches inidentifying and choosing new sport athletes.

  17. The good field trip: How elementary students from diverse socio-economic backgrounds learn science, art, and technology at a museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martell, Sandra Toro

    The Good Field Trip is a study that uses an ethnographic approach to answer the question of what learning looks like during a field trip to a museum. The study uses the Contextual Model of Learning (Falk & Dierking, 2000) to investigate elementary students' personal, physical, and sociocultural contexts of learning as well as how time affects students' thoughts and feelings about the experience. The author accompanied a group of eight students on a three and a half day camp-like experience to a museum that promotes environmental stewardship and the integration of art, science, and technology use and learning. The author videotaped the students' conversations and experiences and interviewed students before, during, and after the trip. Analyses of the videotapes were supplemented with student documents, including comic books, journal notes, and reflective essays about the trip. Findings include that not all experiences are marked as science, art, and technology; technology use does not occur; art is presented in a more formalized manner than science, which is composed of observation and the acquisition of knowledge about plants and animals; and conversations and activities resemble traditional modes of learning in school settings.

  18. Prediction of Internet Addiction of University Students Based on Various Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    atma Gizem Karaoglan Yilmaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available That internet is developing fast and its cost is becoming cheaper rapidly increases the number of people using this technology. Although internet provides miscellaneous benefits for the users, it also causes them to encounter certain difficulties. Particularly, those young people, who leave their families to study at a university spend most of their time on the internet because of such personal and social problems as having low satisfaction from life, having social anxiety, not being able to communicate or establish relationships and feeling lonely. And this could lead to internet addiction in young people. The aim of this study is to discuss the internet addiction levels of freshmen and sophomores at university within the scope of educational theories and to predict addiction according to various variables. Survey method is used in the study. The study was carried out on 329 freshmen and sophomores studying at economics, science teaching, primary school mathematics education, primary school teaching and social sciences teaching departments of Bartın University in the second term of 2012-2013 academic year. As an end of the study, factors that cause to internet addiction and what can be done to remove these factors are discussed within theoretical framework.

  19. Nonlinear Heart Rate Variability features for real-life stress detection. Case study: students under stress due to university examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Paolo; Bracale, Marcello; Pecchia, Leandro

    2011-11-07

    This study investigates the variations of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) due to a real-life stressor and proposes a classifier based on nonlinear features of HRV for automatic stress detection. 42 students volunteered to participate to the study about HRV and stress. For each student, two recordings were performed: one during an on-going university examination, assumed as a real-life stressor, and one after holidays. Nonlinear analysis of HRV was performed by using Poincaré Plot, Approximate Entropy, Correlation dimension, Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Recurrence Plot. For statistical comparison, we adopted the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test and for development of a classifier we adopted the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Almost all HRV features measuring heart rate complexity were significantly decreased in the stress session. LDA generated a simple classifier based on the two Poincaré Plot parameters and Approximate Entropy, which enables stress detection with a total classification accuracy, a sensitivity and a specificity rate of 90%, 86%, and 95% respectively. The results of the current study suggest that nonlinear HRV analysis using short term ECG recording could be effective in automatically detecting real-life stress condition, such as a university examination.

  20. The roles of family, culture, and social cognitive variables in the career interests and goals of Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W

    2018-01-01

    Although family and cultural factors have been assumed to play important roles in the career development of Asian Americans, theory-driven research on this topic remains limited. We examined culturally relevant factors that may contribute to Asian Americans' consideration of fields in which they are overrepresented (e.g., science, technology, engineering) and underrepresented (e.g., education, social science). Drawing from social cognitive career theory, a culture-specific, social cognitive model of career interests and choice was tested in Holland's (1997) Investigative (I) and Social (S) themes. A sample of 802 Asian American undergraduates completed measures of family support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interest, and career choice consideration in relation to both Holland themes. Two indicators of acculturation/enculturation (adherence to Asian values and generation status in the United States) were also obtained. The model accounted for a substantial amount of variance in Asian American college students' career consideration in both themes. Family support and acculturation played varying roles, depending on the Holland theme. For example, family support was linked to career choice consideration both directly (in the S theme) and indirectly, via other predictors (in both themes). Contrary to expectations, the acculturation variables did not moderate the relation of family support or interest to career consideration in either theme. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to understand and facilitate the career development of Asian American college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Age dependant somatometric and cephalometric variables among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The process of growth passes through stages of developmental processes. This stage is the age. Age is known to affect many parameters in the body and this includes somatometric and cephalometric variables. Methods: The study was conducted with a total number of 409 students of university of Jos, ...

  2. Students with a foreign background in Italian Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET and the access to Italian as Second Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of a 2014–2015 quantitative survey on a sample of 1,840 foreign students and 1,835 Italian students, of which, 41% of the Italians and 35% of those of foreign origins interviewed were female. The overall age was between 14 and 24, and these students attended courses in the Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET system in six Italian Regions: Emilia-Romagna, Lazio, Lombardy, Sicily, Tuscany, and Veneto. Language is the central issue in the survey, both in relation to the construction of multicultural and transcultural identity, and as a bridge to combine localisms with the global dynamics of migration, in its "dialect" edition. Some conclusive reflections on the enhancement of multilingualism in the Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET system are proposed for the development of national strategies in order to strengthen intercultural teaching and curricula.

  3. Intended Career Choice in Family Medicine in Slovenia: An Issue of Gender, Family Background or Empathic Attitudes in Final Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ster, Marija Petek; Selic, Polona

    2017-06-01

    Among a variety of complex factors affecting a decision to take family medicine as a future specialisation, this study focused on demographic characteristics and assessed empathic attitudes in final year medical students. A convenience sampling method was employed in two consecutive academic years of final year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in May 2014 and May 2015. A modified version of the 16-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Student Version (JSE-S) was administered to examine self-reported empathic attitudes. An intended career in family medicine was reported using a five-point Likert scale. Of the 175 medical school seniors in study year 2013/14, there were 64 (36.6%) men and 111 (63.4%) women, while in the second group (study year 2014/5), there were 68 (40.5%) men and 100 (59.5%) women; 168 students in total. They were 24.9±1.6 (generation 2013/4) and 24.9±1.7 (generation 2014/15) years old. Thirty-six percent of the students in the academic year 2013/14 intended to choose family medicine as a future career, and a similar proportion in academic year 2014/15 (31.7%). Gender (χ 2 =6.763, p=0.034) and empathic attitudes (c 2 =14.914; p=0.001) had a bivariate association with an intended career choice of family medicine in the 2014/15 generation. When logistic regression was applied to this group of students, an intended career choice in family medicine was associated with empathic attitudes (OR 1.102, 95% CI 1.040-1.167, p=0.001), being single (OR 3.659, 95% CI 1.150-11.628, p=0.028) and the father having only primary school education (OR 142.857 95% CI 1.868, p=0.025), but not with gender (OR 1.117, 95% CI 0.854-1.621, p=0.320). The level of students' father's education, and not living in an intimate partnership, increased the odds on senior medical students to choose family medicine, yet we expected higher JSE-S scores to be associated with interest in this speciality. To deepen our understanding, this study should be

  4. An Investigation of Technology Avoidance Effect into Higher Education Environments: Some Empirical Evidence of Marketing Students' Background and Their Use of Personal Computers Outside the Academic Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spais, George S.; Vasileiou, Konstantinos Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to test a research hypothesis in order to explain the technology avoidance effect in higher educational environments. We addressed the core research themes of our study using a survey. Our intention was to test marketing students' perceptions in order to investigate the potent influence of a climate of…

  5. Customization in Schooling Markets: The Relationship between Curriculum and Pedagogy in a "Pop-Up" Learning Project, and the Epistemic Opportunities Afforded by Students' Interests and Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Schooling markets prioritize the needs of valued "customers". In Australia, this has resulted in a proliferation of learning interventions aimed at attracting and holding students perceived to fall into this category, and managing those who don't. In this paper, I attempt two main tasks: a description of the large-scale processes…

  6. Teaching Civic Education in a Migrating Global Community: How Can Students with a Migration Background Contribute to Didactics and Civic Education Theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Susann

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The article enquires about how young migrants perceive and evaluate civic education in school and what expectations they have of the subject. Method: The article is based on a qualitative-oriented research work based on the Grounded Theory; surveys were made by interviews with students. Findings: The article emphasises that educational…

  7. Out-of-School English and the possible effect it has on Second Language Acquisition : - a study on how students with different backgrounds acquire the English language outside of school

    OpenAIRE

    Fallkvist, Anneli

    2016-01-01

    Second language acquisition is a field that has fascinated linguists for numerous years and is a topic that is very much connected to how English teachers in Sweden try to teach the English language to the students in their classrooms. In 2009 Sundqvist examined what possible effects extramural English could have on learners' oral proficiency and their vocabulary. In her study she found out that extramural English “is an independent variable and a possible path to progress in English” (Sundqv...

  8. Complex variables

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, Stephen D

    1999-01-01

    The most important topics in the theory and application of complex variables receive a thorough, coherent treatment in this introductory text. Intended for undergraduates or graduate students in science, mathematics, and engineering, this volume features hundreds of solved examples, exercises, and applications designed to foster a complete understanding of complex variables as well as an appreciation of their mathematical beauty and elegance. Prerequisites are minimal; a three-semester course in calculus will suffice to prepare students for discussions of these topics: the complex plane, basic

  9. The relationship between demographic variables and leisure perceptions of selected South African first year university students / J.T. Weilbach.

    OpenAIRE

    Weilbach, Johannes Theron

    2013-01-01

    Participation in campus leisure and recreation programmes can provide university students with various benefits, but the provision of effective leisure programmes are complicated by the changes that have taken place in the demographic composition of the student population attending South African universities. Increases in the proportion of black students attending university, and decreases in the proportion of white students means that current students possibly exhibit leisure behaviours that...

  10. An Analysis of Students' Self-Efficacy and Motivation in Piano, Based on Different Variables and the Reasons for Their Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egilmez, Hatice Onuray; Engur, Doruk

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the self-efficacy and motivation of Zeki Muren Fine Arts High School piano students were examined based on different variables as well as the reasons for their failure. The data on their self-efficacy were obtained through self-efficacy scale of piano performance and the data on their motivation were obtained through motivation…

  11. Factors Associated with Asian American Students' Choice of STEM Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowinger, Robert; Song, Hyun-a

    2017-01-01

    This study explored Asian American students' likelihood of selecting STEM over liberal arts or business college majors using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Student-level variables were the strongest predictors of college major, followed by parent-level variables, and background variables. Academic achievement and interest were the…

  12. Prediction of the Dimensions of the Spiritual Well-Being of Students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran: The Roles of Demographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Arash; Khatony, Alireza; Jafari, Faranak; Kianipour, Neda

    2017-07-01

    Spiritual well-being is one of the aspects of well-being which organize the physical, psychological, and social aspects. Given the outstanding and unique roles of students in society, providing spiritual well-being as well as identifying and eliminating the negative factors affecting their mental well-being are of the essence. The present study aimed to predict the dimensions of the spiritual well-being of students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences and to investigate the roles of demographic variables in this respect. In this descriptive and correlational study, the statistical population was comprised of 346 doctoral students in the for-profit Schools of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceuticals in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2016. For data collection, an instrument comprising the demographic questions and the 20-item spiritual well-being scale by Paloutzian and Ellison (1982) was utilized. To analyze data, the descriptive (frequency distribution, mean, and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, and chi-squared test) were employed in the SPSS Statistics Software Version 21.0. The results of the present study demonstrated that the spiritual well-being of students was average (71.86±4.84), and of all demographic variables under study, only the variable of gender significantly correlated with the mean score of spiritual well-being. Also, the results revealed that the students' score of religious well-being measured higher than that of their existential well-being. However, a significant correlation was found between spiritual well-being and its dimensions. Also, the religious and existential well-being were found to be significantly related (pspirituality among the students of the for-profit Schools at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Therefore, it is recommended that appropriate plans be laid by the culture and education policy makers to promote the spiritual well-being of university

  13. Background music and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance.

  14. Time Use and Educational Attainment: A Study of Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Emily J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A Canadian university study of 308 students' time use in academic areas used a model relating variables of social background, social psychological characteristics, time use, and educational attainment. Findings suggested that, taking into account these other variables, the time students spend on academic activities and paid employment has little…

  15. The effects of cigarette smoking on aerobic and anaerobic capacity and heart rate variability among female university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee CL

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chia-Lun Lee,1 Wen-Dien Chang21Physical Education Section for General Education, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Sports Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, TaiwanAim: In this study, the effects of cigarette smoking on maximal aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity, and heart rate variability among female university students were investigated.Materials and methods: Twelve smokers and 21 nonsmokers participated in this study. All participants performed an intermittent sprint test (IST and a 20 m shuttle run test to measure their anaerobic capacity and maximal aerobic capacity. The IST was comprised of 6 × 10-second sprints with a 60-second active recovery between each sprint. Heart rate variability was recorded while the participants were in a supine position 20 minutes before and 30 minutes after the IST.Results: The total work, peak power, and heart rate of the smokers and nonsmokers did not differ significantly. However, the smokers’ average power declined significantly during sprints 4 to 6 (smokers versus nonsmokers, respectively: 95% confidence interval =6.2–7.2 joule/kg versus 6.8–7.6 joule/kg; P<0.05, and their fatigue index increased (smokers versus nonsmokers, respectively: 35.8% ± 2.3% versus 24.5% ± 1.76%; P<0.05 during the IST. The maximal oxygen uptake of nonsmokers was significantly higher than that of the smokers (P<0.05. The standard deviation of the normal to normal intervals and the root mean square successive difference did not differ significantly between nonsmokers and smokers. However, the nonsmokers exhibited a significantly higher normalized high frequency (HF, and significantly lower normalized low frequency (LF, LF/HF ratio, and natural logarithm of the LF/HF when compared with those of the smokers (P<0.05.Conclusion: Smoking may increase female smokers’ exercise fatigue and decrease their average performance during an IST, while reducing their maximal aerobic

  16. Web-Based Instruction Systems: Correlation of First Year Online Student Acceptance and Use Variables Related to Intent to Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, William T.

    2014-01-01

    The online education population is growing among all age groups but the connection that allows students to interface to the online classroom has been ignored as an issue for research. Web-based instructional systems are the key technology that enables students to enter the virtual classroom of the internet. The study of student perceptions of the…

  17. Self-Concept: A Comparison of Low Socioeconomic, Low Achieving Secondary Students Across Ethnic, Sex and Age Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Robert P.; And Others

    The self esteem of Anglo, Negro, and Mexican American secondary students was measured using the Self-Esteem Scale (SES). This instrument was administered to 144 students with equal representation from sex, ethnicity, and grade levels (i.e., each of 18 cells contained 8 students). A three-factor analysis of variance revealed a significant main…

  18. The Relationship Between Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Variables and Academic Performance of Students in the Science Enrichment Preparation (S.E.P.) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Paula D.

    This dissertation study concerned the lack of underrepresented minority students matriculating through the health professions pipeline. The term pipeline is "the educational avenue by which one must travel to successfully enter a profession" (Sullivan Alliance, 2004). There are a significant number of health professional pipeline programs based across the United States and, for the purposes of this study, a focus was placed on the Science Enrichment Preparation (S.E.P.) Program which is based at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The S.E.P. Program, is an eight-week residential summer experience, designed to support underrepresented minority pre-health students develop the competitive edge for successful admission into health professional school programs. The bedrock of this dissertation study concerned itself with the relationships between cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables and academic performance of students in the S.E.P. Program from 2005-2013. The study was undertaken to provide a clearer understanding for the NC Health Careers Access Program's (NC-HCAP) leadership with regard to variables associated with the students' academic performance in the S.E.P. Program. The data outcomes were informative for NC-HCAP in identifying cognitive and non-cognitive variables associated with student academic performance. Additionally, these findings provided direction as to what infrastructures may be put into place to more effectively support the S.E.P. participants. It is the researcher's hope this study may serve as an educational model and resource to pipeline programs and others with similar educational missions. The consequences and implications of a non-diverse healthcare workforce are high and far reaching. Without parity representation in the healthcare workforce, health disparities between racial and economic groups will likely continue to grow.

  19. Background sources at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, H.; Schwitters, R.F.; Toner, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    Important sources of background for PEP experiments are studied. Background particles originate from high-energy electrons and positrons which have been lost from stable orbits, γ-rays emitted by the primary beams through bremsstrahlung in the residual gas, and synchrotron radiation x-rays. The effect of these processes on the beam lifetime are calculated and estimates of background rates at the interaction region are given. Recommendations for the PEP design, aimed at minimizing background are presented. 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosmic Microwave Background Timeline 1934 : Richard Tolman shows that blackbody radiation in an will have a blackbody cosmic microwave background with temperature about 5 K 1955: Tigran Shmaonov anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background, this strongly supports the big bang model with gravitational

  1. Background familiar versus perfil escolar do município: qual possui maior impacto no resultado educacional dos alunos brasileiros? Background familiar versus perfil escolar del municipio: ¿ Cuál posee mayor impacto en el resultado educacional de los alumnos brasileños? Family Background versus school profile of the municipality: which has greater impact on the academic performance of Brazilian students?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Lucena Ruas Riani

    2008-12-01

    ón entre la trayectoria escolar del individuo y su origen social.Many factors converge to define the success attained by individual students, including family background, school infrastructure and quality of teaching. Most studies in Brazil call attention to the great importance of the family in children's education, and indicate the country's considerable educational stratification. However, it is important to discuss how the quality of schools and teachers can reduce this stratification. This article describes a study on how to investigate the determinants of educational results in grade, middle and high schools in Brazil, considering both family background and local school structures. The analysis consists of an examination of what aspects of the profiles of local schools may help reduce the influence of family environment on educational stratification. The question, then, is how to lower the importance of the relationship between individual school experiences and social patterns among students.

  2. Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement in Greek University Students: Differences Between Users and Non-Users in Social Cognitive Variables, Burnout, and Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazuras, Lambros; Ypsilanti, Antonia; Lamprou, Efthymios; Kontogiorgis, Christos

    2017-06-07

    Pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE) represents the non-medical use of prescribed medication for the improvement of cognitive functioning and academic performance. Although there are some studies about PCE prevalence, it is less clear how users and non-users of PCE substances differ with respect to their positive and negative student experiences (e.g. academic burnout and engagement with studies) and in social cognitive variables that relate to decision-making and self-regulation of PCE use. The present study assessed whether students with different experiences of PCE substance use displayed differences in academic burnout, study engagement, and social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use. Three hundred and forty-seven university students (mean age (M) = 22.15 years, SD = 1.69; 54% females) completed a battery of anonymous questionnaires on academic burnout, engagement with studies, social cognitive variables relevant to PCE use, and self-reported use of PCE substances and non-prescribed nutritional supplements. Three user groups emerged, namely non-users (51.9%, n = 180), single users of non-prescribed dietary supplements (25.4%, n = 88), and dual users of both non-prescribed dietary supplements and PCE (22.8%, n = 79). Multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the three user groups in intentions, attitudes, social norms, and anticipated regret toward PCE use. No significant differences were observed with respect to academic burnout and work engagement. The findings show that university students may engage in PCE use independent of their student experiences. Rather, a chemically assisted performance enhancement mindset seems to differentiate users from non-users of PCE substances.

  3. The relationship of document and quantitative literacy with learning styles and selected personal variables for aerospace technology students at Indiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Royce Ann

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent that student scores on a researcher-constructed quantitative and document literacy test, the Aviation Documents Delineator (ADD), were associated with (a) learning styles (imaginative, analytic, common sense, dynamic, and undetermined), as identified by the Learning Type Measure, (b) program curriculum (aerospace administration, professional pilot, both aerospace administration and professional pilot, other, or undeclared), (c) overall cumulative grade point average at Indiana State University, and (d) year in school (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior). The Aviation Documents Delineator (ADD) was a three-part, 35 question survey that required students to interpret graphs, tables, and maps. Tasks assessed in the ADD included (a) locating, interpreting, and describing specific data displayed in the document, (b) determining data for a specified point on the table through interpolation, (c) comparing data for a string of variables representing one aspect of aircraft performance to another string of variables representing a different aspect of aircraft performance, (d) interpreting the documents to make decisions regarding emergency situations, and (e) performing single and/or sequential mathematical operations on a specified set of data. The Learning Type Measure (LTM) was a 15 item self-report survey developed by Bernice McCarthy (1995) to profile an individual's processing and perception tendencies in order to reveal different individual approaches to learning. The sample used in this study included 143 students enrolled in Aerospace Technology Department courses at Indiana State University in the fall of 1996. The ADD and the LTM were administered to each subject. Data collected in this investigation were analyzed using a stepwise multiple regression analysis technique. Results of the study revealed that the variables, year in school and GPA, were significant predictors of the criterion variables, document

  4. Examining the Effects of School-Level Variables on Elementary School Students' Academic Achievement: The Use of Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Sala, Matthew Robert

    2014-01-01

    School finance scholars have called for the alignment of accountability policies with state finance formulae to allocate resources toward student learning goals (Adams, 2008; Ryan, 2008; Superfine, 2009; Verstegen, 2002). With the presence of accountability policies that focus on improving students' academic achievement, state finance systems must…

  5. Examination of the Attitudes of School of Physical Education and Sports Students towards Teaching Profession in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya, Turan; Kirtepe, Abdurrahman; Ugurlu, Fatih Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the attitudes of the students who are studying in the physical education and sports departments towards the teaching profession. 244 students attending Ahi Evran University School of Physical Education and Sports and Firat University Sports Sciences Faculty Physical Education and Sport Teacher Training,…

  6. Analyzing Entrepreneurship Skill Levels of the 3rd Grade Primary School Students in Life Sciences Course Based on Different Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Life Sciences course entrepreneurship skills of the 3rd grade primary school students as evaluated by their parents. The study was conducted with the screening model. The participants of the study were the parents (47 mothers and 23 fathers) of the students (32 girls, 38 boys) who study in the center of…

  7. Variables Affecting Students' Intrinsic Motivation for School Mathematics: Two Empirical Studies Based on Deci and Ryan's Theory on Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valas, Harald; Sovik, Nils

    1993-01-01

    Effects of the controlling strategies of the mathematics teacher on student achievement, interest, and mathematics self-concept were demonstrated in a longitudinal study involving 161 seventh graders and 164 eighth graders. This empirical test of the self-determination theory of Deci and Ryan provides insight into student motivation. (SLD)

  8. An Investigation on the Level of Conscious Consumerism of Primary School Students in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Halil Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this is study is to analyze the level of conscious consumerism of primary school students. For that purpose, a 19-item scale consisting of three sub-dimensions was developed. In order to test conduct validity and reliability, the scale was administered on 113 students studying in Sakarya. In accordance with the data obtained, an…

  9. Examination of the Relation between Academic Procrastination and Time Management Skills of Undergraduate Students in Terms of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, Gürbüz; Boyraz, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Academic procrastination is seen to be quite common among undergraduates and time management is thought to be one of the possible reasons of it. Two surveys, academic procrastination and time management, were given to 332 undergraduate students in this correlational research. Students' academic procrastination is explained through frequencies and…

  10. A formação do professor para o ensino superior: prática docente com alunos com deficiência visual The professor educational background for the university academic practice towards visually impaired students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Xavier dos Reis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de existirem políticas que garantem aos alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais o acesso ao ensino regular, inúmeras barreiras são encontradas para que esse processo se efetive, sendo uma delas a formação do professor. A presente pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar a formação de professores universitários formados em Ciências Biológicas/licenciatura para o atendimento de pessoas com deficiência visual no sistema universitário. Buscando entender a formação docente como fenômeno singular e diverso, a metodologia adotada foi qualitativa, sendo selecionados cinco professores que atuavam no curso de Ciências Biológicas/licenciatura de uma universidade pública localizada no sul de Minas Gerais. Foram realizadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com os sujeitos de pesquisa, buscando averiguar a formação e a experiência docente dos sujeitos com alunos com deficiência visual. Os resultados evidenciaram que ainda são grandes as dificuldades encontradas no processo de inclusão, tanto devido a lacunas na formação docente quanto devido à postura adotada pelo professor em sala de aula.In spite of the existence of countless policies assuring impaired students access to the regular educational process, barriers are found preventing the consolidation of the mentioned process. The professor educational background is pointed out as an expressive cause to the failure of the student in the educational process. So far, the objective of the present research was to analyze the professor educational background concerning visually impaired people within the university system. The present theme is relevant considering that few studies have been dedicated to the inclusion process at advanced education. In order to understand the teaching process as a unique and diverse phenomenon, the methodology applied was qualitative and five professors, teaching Biological Sciences - graduated from a public university in the southern of Minas Gerais

  11. Toward Understanding Business Student Professional Development Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Blessley, Misty; Kunkle, Matthew; Schirmer, Michael; Regan, Laureen

    2017-01-01

    Professional development engagement (PDE) is defined as the level of perceived undergraduate engagement in professional development activities. An 11-item measure of PDE exhibited a good reliability. Using a complete data sample of 467 graduating business undergraduates, four variable sets (student background or precollege variables,…

  12. Factors Affecting Turkish Students' Achievement in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer

    2009-01-01

    Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…

  13. Mental Health and Its Associated Variables Among International Students at a Japanese University: With Special Reference to Their Financial Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Kumi; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2015-12-01

    We attempted to identify the risk factors that may affect mental health status of the international students and we conducted the survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The students were divided into two groups; (1) those who received scholarships and (2) those who didn't since we thought the division represented practical patterns of their financial status. The associations of socio-demographic characteristics with depressive symptoms were examined. Of the 726 students, 480 (66.1%) responded and 207 (43.1%) had depressive symptoms. The logistic regression analysis indicated that quality of sleep, amount of exercise, and housing conditions--but not financial status--were statistically associated with the risk of developing depressive symptoms. Although the inversion of the cause and effect is yet to be ascertained, the students who are unsatisfied with their housing conditions, quality of sleep and less exercise need more attention.

  14. Undergraduate Nurse Variables that Predict Academic Achievement and Clinical Competence in Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Ian; Hall, Margaret; Darmawan, I Gusti Ngurah.

    2007-01-01

    A hypothetical model was formulated to explore factors that influenced academic and clinical achievement for undergraduate nursing students. Sixteen latent variables were considered including the students' background, gender, type of first language, age, their previous successes with their undergraduate nursing studies and status given for…

  15. Disproportionality in Special Education: Effects of Individual and School Variables on Disability Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Amanda L.; Bal, Aydin

    2013-01-01

    We examined the risk of disability identification associated with individual and school variables. The sample included 18,000 students in 39 schools of an urban K-12 school system. Descriptive analysis showed racial minority risk varied across 7 disability categories, with males and students from low-income backgrounds at highest risk in most…

  16. Optimal background matching camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Constantine; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Gibson, David P; Cuthill, Innes C

    2017-07-12

    Background matching is the most familiar and widespread camouflage strategy: avoiding detection by having a similar colour and pattern to the background. Optimizing background matching is straightforward in a homogeneous environment, or when the habitat has very distinct sub-types and there is divergent selection leading to polymorphism. However, most backgrounds have continuous variation in colour and texture, so what is the best solution? Not all samples of the background are likely to be equally inconspicuous, and laboratory experiments on birds and humans support this view. Theory suggests that the most probable background sample (in the statistical sense), at the size of the prey, would, on average, be the most cryptic. We present an analysis, based on realistic assumptions about low-level vision, that estimates the distribution of background colours and visual textures, and predicts the best camouflage. We present data from a field experiment that tests and supports our predictions, using artificial moth-like targets under bird predation. Additionally, we present analogous data for humans, under tightly controlled viewing conditions, searching for targets on a computer screen. These data show that, in the absence of predator learning, the best single camouflage pattern for heterogeneous backgrounds is the most probable sample. © 2017 The Authors.

  17. Preservice Teachers' Understanding of Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sue; Bergman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the research on middle school students' understanding of variables and explores preservice elementary and middle school teachers' knowledge of variables. According to research studies, middle school students have limited understanding of variables. Many studies have examined the performance of middle school students and offered…

  18. A Study of the Ways of Spending Leisure Time and Its Related Variables in the Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2015, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Sarraf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Leisure time is an opportunity allowing a person to fill his/her time with mental or entertaining activity according to his/her interest and incentive, when he/she is relatively free. The current study aimed to assess and prioritize the activities of the students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in their leisure time. Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A total of 325 students were selected using random stratified sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire, which its reliability and validity had been confirmed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: Ninety percent of the students had leisure time during the day, which was more than 1 hour in 78% of them. The most important priorities of the students for spending their leisure time was recreation and having fun in 261 subjects (70.5%, rest in 239 (64.6%, using social networks in 239 (64.6%, reading non-school related materials in 229 (61.9%, reading school related materials in 220 (59.5%, sport in 201 (54.3%, and using game software in 193 (52.2%, among which, reading school related materials was significantly different between males and females (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most of the students of Qom University of Medical Sciences do not make effective use of cell phone, social networks, and computer games. Also, sport and studying activities have not considerable place in their leisure activities, which necessitates providing accurate planning.

  19. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Kahn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007. Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235 were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007 were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI, and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85, alcohol misuse (OR 2.80, and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13. Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%, anxiety (50%, and suicidal behaviours (50% generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%, anxiety (38%, suicidal behaviours (40%, and

  20. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and

  1. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-09-30

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE's two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician's motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and negative life

  2. Cosmic microwave background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The 20-ft horn-reflector antenna at Bell Laboratories is discussed in detail with emphasis on the 7.35 cm radiometer. The circumstances leading to the detection of the cosmic microwave background radiation are explored

  3. Zambia Country Background Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hampwaye, Godfrey; Jeppesen, Søren; Kragelund, Peter

    This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change).......This paper provides background data and general information for the Zambia studies focusing on local food processing sub­‐sector; and the local suppliers to the mines as part of the SAFIC project (Successful African Firms and Institutional Change)....

  4. A Research on Attention Control Levels of the Students at Vocational School of Health Services in terms of Sports and Different Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ertuğrul ÖZTÜRK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is thought that the high or low attention levels of students affect their achievements in their social, learning and professional lives equivalently. In this case, it is significant to determine the crucial elements for increasing attention control levels. The aim of this study was to examine attention control levels of university students in terms of different variables. In the study a total of 449 students 268 females and 181 males that are studying at services Vocational School of Health, Ataturk University Erzurum have been in cluded. With the aim of collecting data, the ‘Attention Control Scale’ was used. The techniques of frequency distribution, t test and Anova variance analysis have been used in data analysis. The difference between the views of the group has been reviewed c onsidering the 0.05 significance level of P. According to the findings it has been found out that gender, age and family structure do not make a significant difference with attention control levels. When examined in terms of sports participation of the stu dents, types of sports and weekly sporting duration, attention control averages have been found to be significant differences. It has emerged that the students that do sports have higher levels of attention control than those that do not. The fact that the students have high attention control levels in terms of their professions is an important factor. Studies thay may impact on different factors ought to be carried out in order to increase attention control levels of the students, encouraging sports.

  5. Comparing the attitudes toward obese persons of the students in Physical Education and Sports school in terms of classes and some variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren ULUÖZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes toward obese persons scale (ATOP scores of the students in Physical Education and Sports School in terms of classes and some variables. Materials and Methods: Causal comparative Research method was used in this study. The study was performed 330 students (age:22.33±2.31 including 117 female and 213 male. In order to determine the attitudes toward obese persons ATOP scale developed by Alison et al. (1991 and validated for Turkish population (T-ATOP by Dedeli et al. (2014 was used. All result was summarised by means of descriptive statistical techniques. Independent Sample T Test, Anova Test and Pearson Correlation Test were used for the suitable situation (Accepted significance level: p0.05. As a result of the Anova test, the T-ATOP scores of the four classes showed significant differences F(3, 326=6.51, p<0.05. In relation to this result the T-ATOP scores of 4. class students was significantly higher than the other classes. This shows that 4. Class students have more positive attitudes towards obese than the other class. Conclusion: The main significant result of this study was that as the classes get higher, the attitude towards overweight and obese people changed positively. It can be considered that the students of Physical Education and Sports School have positive attitudes towards overweight and obese persons by being informed about the mechanism of obesity through their courses which directly or indirectly related to obesity during their undergraduate education. In addition to this courses, it can be thought that in the last year of undergraduate education, such as the practice of collective service application, internship, coaching practice, it is possible to create a chance to practice the theoretical knowledge practically, which may lead to students becoming more understanding of overweight obese persons they meet and to explain the sudden change of attitude in the

  6. The Effects of Educational Diversity in a National Sample of Law Students: Fitting Multilevel Latent Variable Models in Data With Categorical Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Nisha C; Panter, A T; Daye, Charles E; Allen, Walter F; Wightman, Linda F

    2009-01-01

    Controversy surrounding the use of race-conscious admissions can be partially resolved with improved empirical knowledge of the effects of racial diversity in educational settings. We use a national sample of law students nested in 64 law schools to test the complex and largely untested theory regarding the effects of educational diversity on student outcomes. Social scientists who study these outcomes frequently encounter both latent variables and nested data within a single analysis. Yet, until recently, an appropriate modeling technique has been computationally infeasible, and consequently few applied researchers have estimated appropriate models to test their theories, sometimes limiting the scope of their research question. Our results, based on disaggregated multilevel structural equation models, show that racial diversity is related to a reduction in prejudiced attitudes and increased perceived exposure to diverse ideas and that these effects are mediated by more frequent interpersonal contact with diverse peers. These findings provide support for the idea that administrative manipulation of educational diversity may lead to improved student outcomes. Admitting a racially/ethnically diverse student body provides an educational experience that encourages increased exposure to diverse ideas and belief systems.

  7. Using Data Mining Techniques Examination of the Middle School Students' Attitude towards Mathematics in the Context of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idil, Feriha Hande; Narli, Serkan; Aksoy, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine middle school students' attitude towards mathematics in the context of their mathematic learning preferences using data mining which is data analysis methodology that has been successfully used in different areas including educational domains. "How do I actually learn?" questionnaire and attitude scale…

  8. Non-Medical Prescription Stimulant Use in Graduate Students: Relationship With Academic Self-Efficacy and Psychological Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdi, Genevieve; Weyandt, Lisa L; Zavras, Brynheld Martinez

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine graduate students' non-medical use of prescription stimulant medication, and the relationship between non-medical use of prescription stimulants with academic self-efficacy, psychological factors (i.e., anxiety, depression, and stress), and internal restlessness. The sample consisted of 807 graduate students from universities located in five geographic regions of the United States. Past-year rates of self-reported non-medical use were determined to be 5.9%, with overall lifetime prevalence of 17.5%. Observed self-reported non-medical use of prescription stimulant medications was significantly correlated with self-reported levels of anxiety and stress, various aspects of internal restlessness, and perceived safety of the medications. Findings support graduate students' motivations of non-medical prescription stimulant use to be both academic and social in nature. Effective prevention and education efforts are needed to help address the non-medical use of prescription stimulants by graduate students on university campuses. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. I Paid for It, So I Deserve It! Examining Psycho-Educational Variables and Student Consumerist Attitudes to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jason E.; Fayombo, Grace; Marshall, Rasheda

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern among educators and university administrators that the high cost of tuition fees has encouraged tertiary level students to adopt a "consumerist view" of tertiary education, where education is seen as a service-for-payment. Anecdotal evidence suggests that this belief may cause lecturers to compromise the…

  10. Mother Tongue as a Determining Variable in Language Attitudes. The Case of Immigrant Latin American Students in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Angel; Janes, Judit

    2008-01-01

    Bearing in mind the relevance of immigration in Spain, we consider the linguistic idiosyncrasy of the autonomous community of Catalonia in the present study to describe and analyse language attitudes to Catalan and Spanish in a sample of 225 students of immigrant origin living in different parts of the region. We focus on language attitudes in so…

  11. Probability, random variables, and random processes theory and signal processing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Shynk, John J

    2012-01-01

    Probability, Random Variables, and Random Processes is a comprehensive textbook on probability theory for engineers that provides a more rigorous mathematical framework than is usually encountered in undergraduate courses. It is intended for first-year graduate students who have some familiarity with probability and random variables, though not necessarily of random processes and systems that operate on random signals. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate students who have a strong mathematical background. The book has the following features: Several app

  12. Self-efficacy, pros, and cons as variables associated with adjacent stages of change for regular exercise in Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Satoshi; Tsuda, Akira; Kobayashi, Hisanori; Fallon, Elizabeth A; Sakano, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    This study examined self-efficacy (confidence to exercise), pros (exercise's advantages), and cons (exercise's disadvantages) as variables associated across the transtheoretical model's six stages of change in 403 Japanese college students. A series of logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results showed that higher pros and lower cons were associated with being in contemplation compared to precontemplation. Lower cons were associated with being in preparation compared to contemplation. Higher self-efficacy was associated with being in action compared to preparation as well as being in maintenance compared to action. Lower cons were associated with being in termination compared to maintenance.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF TRAIT ANGER AND LEVEL OF ANGER EXPRESSION STYLES OF STUDENTS WHO STUDIED AT SCHOOL OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS IN TERMS OF SOME VARIABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Çağatay Dereceli; Hüseyin Kırımoğlu; Mehmet Dallı

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on reviewing trait anger and level of anger expression styles of students who studied at School of Physical Education and Sports of Adnan Menderes University during 2016-2017 academic year in terms of some variables. As data collection tools; “Personal Information Form” and “Trait Anger and Anger Expression Scale” –designed by Spielberger et al. (1988) and adapted by Özer (1994) into Turkish- were employed. Participants’ trait anger and anger expression styles were compared...

  14. Possible impact of fixed point sources of SO2 in NSW to the secondary sulphate measurements at Richmond and the dependence of the background secondary sulphate on meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Cohen, D.D.; Stelcer, E.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution to secondary sulfate measurements at Richmond, Australia, from known point sources of SOz is investigated using air mass back trajectories. The conditional probability function (CPF) shows that contribution for days of high sulfur is from areas north east of the site. This is an area where known point sources of SOz, such as coal fired power stations, are located. The meteorological conditions associated with high sulfur days are examined and an artificial neural network is employed to determine the relationship between meteorological variables and sulfur measurements after the influence of known point sources was removed. It is shown that temperature and humidity have a nonlinear positive correlation with sulphate measurements, while wind speed, mixing layer depth and rainfall have a negative nonlinear correlation. In addition, the time of day at which air masses reach Richmond from the eastern and western power stations varies, and so thus the altitude at which the power stations are crossed. The time of day, as well as the altitude at which an SOz point source was passed, show an impact to the measured sulfate at Richmond, although the extent of this remains to be fully investigated

  15. Health-Related Variables and Academic Performance among First-Year College Students: Implications for Sleep and Other Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trockel, Mickey T.; Barnes, Michael D.; Egget, Dennis L.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzed the effect of several health behaviors and health-related variables on college freshmen's grade point averages (GPAs). Survey data indicated that sleep habits, particularly wake-up time, accounted for the most variance in GPAs. Higher GPAs related to strength training and study of spiritually oriented material. Lower GPAs related to…

  16. In-Between Fatalism and Leverage: The Different Effects of Socioeconomic Variables on Students' Civic and Political Experiences and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malafaia, Carla; Neves, Tiago; Menezes, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the classical relationship between socioeconomic status and political domains, and the need to include different variables (contextual and individual) to measure the effect of economic and cultural capitals on youth participation and knowledge. Method: A multivariate analysis of covariance was performed on a sample…

  17. Foreign Language Learning in a "Monoglot Culture": Motivational Variables amongst Students of French and Spanish at an English University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Leigh

    2013-01-01

    The study on which this article is based investigated reasons for learning a foreign language at university in a predominantly English-speaking environment (the UK). It examined the relative importance of motivational variables as theorised in the field of second language (L2) motivation, and the effect of first language (L1) and linguistic…

  18. Background and justifications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CGS_2

    Due to the rapidly increasing human population, cropping is .... minimize personal bias. However, the cages .... (nutrient contents, DMY, IVDMD); μ = overall mean; Ai. = effect of ... the independent variables); εijkl = random error. 3. Results and ...

  19. The natural radiation background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggleby, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The components of the natural background radiation and their variations are described. Cosmic radiation is a major contributor to the external dose to the human body whilst naturally-occurring radionuclides of primordial and cosmogenic origin contribute to both the external and internal doses, with the primordial radionuclides being the major contributor in both cases. Man has continually modified the radiation dose to which he has been subjected. The two traditional methods of measuring background radiation, ionisation chamber measurements and scintillation counting, are looked at and the prospect of using thermoluminescent dosimetry is considered

  20. Effects of background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to measure the relationship between exposure to different levels of background gamma radiation in different parts of the country, and different Relative Risks for leukaemias and cancers in children. The investigation is linked to an earlier analysis of the effects of prenatal medical x-rays upon leukaemia and cancer risk; the prior hypothesis on which the background-study was based, is derived from the earlier results. In a third analysis, the authors attempted to measure varying potency of medical x-rays delivered at different stages of gestation and the results supply a link between the other two estimates. (author)

  1. The cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1991-01-01

    Recent limits on spectral distortions and angular anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background are reviewed. The various backgrounds are described, and the theoretical implications are assessed. Constraints on inflationary cosmology dominated by cold dark matter (CDM) and on open cosmological models dominated by baryonic dark matter (BDM), with, respectively, primordial random phase scale-invariant curvature fluctuations or non-gaussian isocurvature fluctuations are described. More exotic theories are addressed, and I conclude with the 'bottom line': what theories expect experimentalists to be measuring within the next two to three years without having to abandon their most cherished theorists. (orig.)

  2. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  3. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labree, Wim; Nijman, Henk; van Marle, Hjalmar; Rassin, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n=25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital "De Kijvelanden", were compared to the characteristics of a control group of patients (n=50), incarcerated at the same institution for other severe crimes. Apart from DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II disorders, family backgrounds, level of education, treatment history, intelligence (WAIS scores), and PCL-R scores were included in the comparisons. Furthermore, the apparent motives for the arson offences were explored. It was found that arsonists had more often received psychiatric treatment, prior to committing their index offence, and had a history of severe alcohol abuse more often in comparison to the controls. The arsonists turned out to be less likely to suffer from a major psychotic disorder. Both groups did not differ significantly on the other variables, among which the PCL-R total scores and factor scores. Exploratory analyses however, did suggest that arsonists may differentiate from non-arsonists on three items of the PCL-R, namely impulsivity (higher scores), superficial charm (lower scores), and juvenile delinquency (lower scores). Although the number of arsonists with a major psychotic disorder was relatively low (28%), delusional thinking of some form was judged to play a role in causing arson crimes in about half of the cases (52%).

  4. Influence of social cognitive and ethnic variables on academic goals of underrepresented students in science and engineering: a multiple-groups analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byars-Winston, Angela; Estrada, Yannine; Howard, Christina; Davis, Dalelia; Zalapa, Juan

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the academic interests and goals of 223 African American, Latino/a, Southeast Asian, and Native American undergraduate students in two groups: biological science and engineering (S/E) majors. Using social cognitive career theory (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), we examined the relationships of social cognitive variables (math/science academic self-efficacy, math/science outcome expectations), along with the influence of ethnic variables (ethnic identity, other-group orientation) and perceptions of campus climate to their math/science interests and goal commitment to earn an S/E degree. Path analysis revealed that the hypothesized model provided good overall fit to the data, revealing significant relationships from outcome expectations to interests and to goals. Paths from academic self-efficacy to S/E goals and from interests to S/E goals varied for students in engineering and biological science. For both groups, other-group orientation was positively related to self-efficacy and support was found for an efficacy-mediated relationship between perceived campus climate and goals. Theoretical and practical implications of the study's findings are considered as well as future research directions.

  5. Thermal background noise limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  6. Berkeley Low Background Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K. J.; Norman, E. B.; Smith, A. R.; Poon, A. W. P.; Chan, Y. D.; Lesko, K. T.

    2015-01-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility (BLBF) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in Berkeley, California provides low background gamma spectroscopy services to a wide array of experiments and projects. The analysis of samples takes place within two unique facilities; locally within a carefully-constructed, low background laboratory on the surface at LBNL and at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, SD. These facilities provide a variety of gamma spectroscopy services to low background experiments primarily in the form of passive material screening for primordial radioisotopes (U, Th, K) or common cosmogenic/anthropogenic products; active screening via neutron activation analysis for U,Th, and K as well as a variety of stable isotopes; and neutron flux/beam characterization measurements through the use of monitors. A general overview of the facilities, services, and sensitivities will be presented. Recent activities and upgrades will also be described including an overview of the recently installed counting system at SURF (recently relocated from Oroville, CA in 2014), the installation of a second underground counting station at SURF in 2015, and future plans. The BLBF is open to any users for counting services or collaboration on a wide variety of experiments and projects

  7. On the Social Responsibility Cultivation of College Students Under the Background of We-Media%自媒体背景下大学生社会责任感的培育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜水发; 蒋娜红

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of We-Media,the universities shall cultivate the students’social re-sponsibility through the following measures,namely,improving the students ’media literacy, broadening the education space of the social responsibity,enhancing the ideological and political teachers’comprehensive qualities,setting and publicizing the examples of advanced individuals who have actively performed social responsibities;innovating the carrier design of the social practice,and finally,but not the least,reinforcing the network supervision.%在自媒体背景下,高校要通过提升大学生群体的媒介素养、拓宽社会责任感教育空间、增强思想政治教师综合素质、宣传履行社会责任的先进典型、创新社会实践的载体设计以及加强网络环境监督管理等方面培育大学生的社会责任感。

  8. Italian: Area Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  9. Combined Effect of Levels in Personal Self-Regulation and Regulatory Teaching on Meta-Cognitive, on Meta-Motivational, and on Academic Achievement Variables in Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Jesús; Sander, Paul; Martínez-Vicente, José M; Vera, Mariano; Garzón, Angélica; Fadda, Salvattore

    2017-01-01

    The Theory of Self- vs . Externally-Regulated Learning™ (SRL vs. ERL) proposed different types of relationships among levels of variables in Personal Self-Regulation (PSR) and Regulatory Teaching (RT) to predict the meta-cognitive, meta-motivational and -emotional variables of learning, and of Academic Achievement in Higher Education. The aim of this investigation was empirical in order to validate the model of the combined effect of low-medium-high levels in PSR and RT on the dependent variables. For the analysis of combinations, a selected sample of 544 undergraduate students from two Spanish universities was used. Data collection was obtained from validated instruments, in Spanish versions. Using an ex-post-facto design, different Univariate and Multivariate Analyses (3 × 1, 3 × 3, and 4 × 1) were conducted. Results provide evidence for a consistent effect of low-medium-high levels of PSR and of RT, thus giving significant partial confirmation of the proposed rational model. As predicted, (1) the levels of PSR and positively and significantly effected the levels of learning approaches, resilience, engagement, academic confidence, test anxiety, and procedural and attitudinal academic achievement; (2) the most favorable type of interaction was a high level of PSR with a high level RT process. The limitations and implications of these results in the design of effective teaching are analyzed, to improve university teaching-learning processes.

  10. The Cosmic Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Aled

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a brief review of current theory and observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB. New predictions for cosmological defect theories and an overview of the inflationary theory are discussed. Recent results from various observations of the anisotropies of the microwave background are described and a summary of the proposed experiments is presented. A new analysis technique based on Bayesian statistics that can be used to reconstruct the underlying sky fluctuations is summarised. Current CMB data is used to set some preliminary constraints on the values of fundamental cosmological parameters $Omega$ and $H_circ$ using the maximum likelihood technique. In addition, secondary anisotropies due to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect are described.

  11. Relationship between the Variables Self-Concept and Creativity in a Sample of Childhood-Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Franco Justo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we attempt to prove through experimentation that a relationship exists between affective factors and creative ability. We therefore believe that the expression of the creative capacity will have a positive bearing on the manifestation of self-concept. To this end, we designed a psychoeducational program based on children’s stories, aimed at increasing creative ability in a sample of early childhood education students, while simultaneously obtaining improved expression of their self-concept. To do this, we used a quasi-experimental design of nonequivalent control groups with double pretest. As evaluation instruments we used the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, and Villa and Azumendi’s PCSC test (Perception of Child Self Concept. The results of the study showed significant increases in the experimental group, both in their levels of verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility and originality, and in their self-concept, as compared with the control groups.

  12. University and Student Segmentation: Multilevel Latent-Class Analysis of Students' Attitudes towards Research Methods and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutz, Rudiger; Daniel, Hans-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is often claimed that psychology students' attitudes towards research methods and statistics affect course enrolment, persistence, achievement, and course climate. However, the inter-institutional variability has been widely neglected in the research on students' attitudes towards research methods and statistics, but it is important…

  13. Family Background and Educational Success in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin; McIntoch, James

    This research examines the role of family background variables in the determination of educational attainment in Denmark. A categorical representation of the highest level of education attained is the dependent variable. It is analyzed by procedures which take account of the presence of unobserva...... procedures are in the spirit of the work of Cameron and Heckman (1998), but are more general. Econometric issues and the results of what other Scandinavian researchers in this area have found are also discussed in section 4....

  14. The Influence Of Parental Background On Academic Performance Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was hypothesized that there is no significant difference between the academic performance of students from high socio-economic status background and those from low SES backgrounds, also there is no significant difference between the academic performance of students form intact homes and the broken homes.

  15. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  16. Malaysia; Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Background Paper on Malaysia examines developments and trends in the labor market since the mid-1980s. The paper describes the changes in the employment structure and the labor force. It reviews wages and productivity trends and their effects on unit labor cost. The paper highlights that Malaysia’s rapid growth, sustained since 1987, has had a major impact on the labor market. The paper outlines the major policy measures to address the labor constraints. It also analyzes Malaysia’s recen...

  17. Random sets and random fuzzy sets as ill-perceived random variables an introduction for Ph.D. students and practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Couso, Inés; Sánchez, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This short book provides a unified view of the history and theory of random sets and fuzzy random variables, with special emphasis on its use for representing higher-order non-statistical uncertainty about statistical experiments. The authors lay bare the existence of two streams of works using the same mathematical ground, but differing form their use of sets, according to whether they represent objects of interest naturally taking the form of sets, or imprecise knowledge about such objects. Random (fuzzy) sets can be used in many fields ranging from mathematical morphology, economics, artificial intelligence, information processing and statistics per se, especially in areas where the outcomes of random experiments cannot be observed with full precision. This book also emphasizes the link between random sets and fuzzy sets with some techniques related to the theory of imprecise probabilities. This small book is intended for graduate and doctoral students in mathematics or engineering, but also provides an i...

  18. Backgrounded but not peripheral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    .e. the schema enters into apparently contradictory constructions of the informants’ local home-base and, possibly, of their identity (cf. Hovmark, 2010). Second, I discuss the status and role of the specific linguistic category in question, i.e. the directional adverbs. On the one hand we claim that the DDAs......In this paper I pay a closer look at the use of the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema in context. I address two specific issues: first, I show how the CENTRE-PERIPHERY schema, encoded in the DDAs, enters into discourses that conceptualize and characterize a local community as both CENTRE and PERIPHERY, i......; furthermore, the DDAs are backgrounded in discourse. Is it reasonable to claim, rather boldly, that “the informants express their identity in the use of the directional adverb ud ‘out’ etc.”? In the course of this article, however, I suggest that the DDAs in question do contribute to the socio...

  19. OCRWM Backgrounder, January 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA) assigns to the US Department of Energy (DOE) responsibility for developing a system to safely and economically transport spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste from various storage sites to geologic repositories or other facilities that constitute elements of the waste management program. This transportation system will evolve from technologies and capabilities already developed. Shipments of spent fuel to a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility could begin as early as 1996 if Congress authorizes its construction. Shipments of spent fuel to a geologic repository are scheduled to begin in 1998. The backgrounder provides an overview of DOE's cask development program. Transportation casks are a major element in the DOE nuclear waste transportation system because they are the primary protection against any potential radiation exposure to the public and transportation workers in the event an accident occurs

  20. Monitored background radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruel, C.

    1988-01-01

    A monitored background radiometer is described comprising: a thermally conductive housing; low conductivity support means mounted on the housing; a sensing plate mounted on the low conductivity support means and spaced from the housing so as to be thermally insulated from the housing and having an outwardly facing first surface; the sensing plate being disposed relative to the housing to receive direct electromagnetic radiation from sources exterior to the radiometer upon the first surface only; means for controllably heating the sensing plate; first temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the housing; and second temperature sensitive means to measure the temperature of the sensing plate, so that the heat flux at the sensing plate may be determined from the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate after calibration of the radiometer by measuring the temperatures of the housing and sensing plate while controllably heating the sensing plate

  1. Low background infrared (LBIR) facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Low background infrared (LBIR) facility was originally designed to calibrate user supplied blackbody sources and to characterize low-background IR detectors and...

  2. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Volume two contains the following appendices: Description of soil sampling sites; sampling narrative; raw data soil background; background data analysis; sitewide background soil sampling plan; and use of soil background data for the detection of contamination at waste management unit on the Hanford Site

  3. Perceived boundary of 'differences' and 'sameness' by Japanese students in Australia : Is difference in cultures a significant variable for constructing interpersonal relationship?

    OpenAIRE

    小柳, 志津

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one Japanese undergraduate and postgraduate students in Australian universities participated in semi-structured interviews to examine the interpersonal relationships between Japanese students and other nationalities in Australia, in particular, Australians and other international students. It was found that the Japanese students tended to form closer relationships and feel more comfortable in communicating with other Asian students than Australians, and that many regard Asian students ...

  4. Note on bouncing backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2018-05-01

    The theory of inflation is one of the fundamental and revolutionary developments of modern cosmology that became able to explain many issues of the early Universe in the context of the standard cosmological model (SCM). However, the initial singularity of the Universe, where physics is indefinite, is still obscure in the combined SCM +inflation scenario. An alternative to SCM +inflation without the initial singularity is thus always welcome, and bouncing cosmology is an attempt at that. The current work is thus motivated to investigate the bouncing solutions in modified gravity theories when the background universe is described by the spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) geometry. We show that the simplest way to obtain the bouncing cosmologies in such spacetime is to consider some kind of Lagrangian whose gravitational sector depends only on the square of the Hubble parameter of the FLRW universe. For these modified Lagrangians, the corresponding Friedmann equation, a constraint in the dynamics of the Universe, depicts a curve in the phase space (H ,ρ ), where H is the Hubble parameter and ρ is the energy density of the Universe. As a consequence, a bouncing cosmology is obtained when this curve is closed and crosses the axis H =0 at least twice, and whose simplest particular example is the ellipse depicting the well-known holonomy corrected Friedmann equation in loop quantum cosmology (LQC). Sometimes, a crucial point in such theories is the appearance of the Ostrogradski instability at the perturbative level; however, fortunately enough, in the present work, as long as the linear level of perturbations is concerned, this instability does not appear, although it may appear at the higher order of perturbations.

  5. Physiologic correlates to background noise acceptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampas, Joanna; Harkrider, Ashley; Nabelek, Anna

    2004-05-01

    Acceptance of background noise can be evaluated by having listeners indicate the highest background noise level (BNL) they are willing to accept while following the words of a story presented at their most comfortable listening level (MCL). The difference between the selected MCL and BNL is termed the acceptable noise level (ANL). One of the consistent findings in previous studies of ANL is large intersubject variability in acceptance of background noise. This variability is not related to age, gender, hearing sensitivity, personality, type of background noise, or speech perception in noise performance. The purpose of the current experiment was to determine if individual differences in physiological activity measured from the peripheral and central auditory systems of young female adults with normal hearing can account for the variability observed in ANL. Correlations between ANL and various physiological responses, including spontaneous, click-evoked, and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem and middle latency evoked potentials, and electroencephalography will be presented. Results may increase understanding of the regions of the auditory system that contribute to individual noise acceptance.

  6. Direction Dependent Background Fitting for the Fermi GBM Data

    OpenAIRE

    Szécsi, Dorottya; Bagoly, Zsolt; Kóbori, József; Horváth, István; Balázs, Lajos G.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for determining the background of Fermi GBM GRBs using the satellite positional information and a physical model. Since the polynomial fitting method typically used for GRBs is generally only indicative of the background over relatively short timescales, this method is particularly useful in the cases of long GRBs or those which have Autonomous Repoint Request (ARR) and a background with much variability on short timescales. We give a Direction Dependent Background Fitting...

  7. Ethnic Variables and Negative Life Events as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Behaviors in Latino College Students: On the Centrality of "Receptivo a los Demás"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Edward C.; Yu, Elizabeth A.; Yu, Tina; Kahle, Emma R.; Hernandez, Viviana; Kim, Jean M.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.; Hirsch, Jameson K.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we examined ethnic variables (viz., multigroup ethnic identity and other group orientation) along with negative life events as predictors of depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviors in a sample of 156 (38 male and 118 female) Latino college students. Results of conducting hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the…

  8. Executive Summary - Historical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    matter physics experiments at the High Flux Reactor of The Laue Langevin Institute and the ISIS spallation source at Rutherford-Appleton. Recently, we very actively entered the ICARUS neutrino collaboration and were invited to the PIERRE AUGER collaboration which will search for the highest energies in the Universe. Having close ties with CERN we are very actively engaged in CROSS-GRID, a large computer network project. To better understand the historical background of the INP development, it is necessary to add a few comments on financing of science in Poland. During the 70's and the 80's, research was financed through the so-called Central Research Projects for Science and Technical Development. The advantage of this system was that state-allocated research funds were divided only by a few representatives of the scientific community, which allowed realistic allocation of money to a small number of projects. After 1989 we were able to purchase commercially available equipment, which led to the closure of our large and very experienced electronic workshop. We also considerably reduced our well equipped mechanical shop. During the 90's the reduced state financing of science was accompanied by a newly established Committee of Scientific Research which led to the creation of a system of small research projects. This precluded the development of more ambitious research projects and led to the dispersion of equipment among many smaller laboratories and universities. A large research establishment, such as our Institute, could not develop properly under such conditions. In all, between 1989 and 2004 we reduced our personnel from about 800 to 470 and our infrastructure became seriously undercapitalised. However, with energetic search for research funds, from European rather than national research programs, we hope to improve and modernize our laboratories and their infrastructure in the coming years

  9. What Happens outside of the College Class(ed)room? Examining College Students' Social Class and Social Integration in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between undergraduate students' social class background and variables theorized to affect students' social integration in higher education, including students' perception of campus climate, frequency of faculty interactions, frequency of involvement in campus activities, and sense of belonging.…

  10. Associations between Adolescents' Perceptions of Alcohol Norms and Alcohol Behaviors: Incorporating Within-School Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Amir; Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah; Waasdorp, Tracy E.; Parker, Elizabeth M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Social norm interventions have been implemented in schools to address concerns of alcohol use among high school students; however, research in this area has not incorporated measures of variability that may better reflect the complexity of social influences. Purpose: To examine the association between perceived alcohol norms, the…

  11. Tabagismo em estudantes de Medicina: tendências temporais e fatores associados Smoking among medical students: temporal trends and related variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Após o declínio observado na prevalência de tabagismo entre estudantes de Medicina entre as décadas de 1960 e 1980, parece estar ocorrendo, atualmente, uma estabilização nessa prevalência. OBJETIVO: Avaliar as tendências temporais de tabagismo entre estudantes de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Pelotas (RS nos últimos dezessete anos, e alguns dos fatores associados ao hábito de fumar desses estudantes. MÉTODO: Estudos transversais com metodologias comparáveis foram conduzidos em 1986, 1991, 1996 e 2002. Questionários auto-aplicáveis foram utilizados. Definiu-se como fumante o indivíduo que fumava mais de um cigarro por dia há mais de um mês. Foram realizadas análises descritivas iniciais, análises brutas com utilização dos testes de qui-quadrado para heterogeneidade e tendência linear, e regressão de Poisson para avaliar o efeito do ano cursado sobre a freqüência de tabagismo, com controle para a idade do estudante. RESULTADOS: A prevalência atual de tabagismo entre os estudantes foi de 10,1%, valor estatisticamente similar ao dos levantamentos de 1991 e 1996. Não foram encontradas diferenças na prevalência de tabagismo por sexo, idade, tabagismo materno ou paterno. A freqüência de tabagismo aumentou durante a faculdade. CONCLUSÕES: A tendência de declínio na prevalência de tabagismo em estudantes de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Pelotas parece estar sendo substituída por uma estabilização em torno de 10% a 15%. O combate ao fumo ainda parece indispensável em ambientes universitários, especialmente nas escolas de Medicina.BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of smoking among medical students declined steadily between the 1960s and 1980s, it seems to have stabilized in recent years. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate temporal trends, over the last 17 years, in the smoking habits of medical students at the Universidade Federal de Pelotas, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and to identify

  12. Distintas Modalidades de Aproximar la Educacion al Mundo Productivo: Efectos sobre Variables Psico-Sociales en los Alumnos (Distinct Modalities in Approaching Education for the Productive World: Effects of Socio-psychological Variables on Students).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Abelardo Castro; Carrasco, Decler Martinez; Alegria, Jorge Alegria; Elevancini, Cecilia Maldonado

    2000-01-01

    States that since the 1990s, professional technical education has produced profound transformations in the relationship between education and work in Chile. Examines in a study how modalities of bringing students to the world of work have affected students' socio-psychological characteristics in comparison to training received from traditional…

  13. Background noise levels in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Gjestland, Truls

    2008-01-01

    - This report gives a brief overview of typical background noise levels in Europe, and suggests a procedure for the prediction of background noise levels based on population density. A proposal for the production of background noise maps for Europe is included.

  14. Comparative Study of the Influence of the Home Background on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    between parental involvement and academic achievement of children. It was found ... was a three- page questionnaire titled “Students' Home. Background on .... higher educational expectations, enrolment in gifted and talented programs, and.

  15. A Predictive Study of Student Satisfaction in Online Education Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chun Kuo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended to investigate the degree to which interaction and other predictors contribute to student satisfaction in online learning settings. This was a preliminary study towards a dissertation work which involved the establishment of interaction and satisfaction scales through a content validity survey. Regression analysis was performed to determine the contribution of predictor variables to student satisfaction. The effects of student background variables on predictors were explored. The results showed that learner-instructor interaction, learner-content interaction, and Internet self-efficacy were good predictors of student satisfaction while interactions among students and self-regulated learning did not contribute to student satisfaction. Learner-content interaction explained the largest unique variance in student satisfaction. Additionally, gender, class level, and time spent online per week seemed to have influence on learner-learner interaction, Internet self-efficacy, and self-regulation.

  16. The impact of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary school transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Falkmer, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.

  17. The impact of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence and mental health functioning across the primary-secondary school transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC and mental health functioning (MHF of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten--Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten--Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten--Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition.

  18. The Contours of Inequality: The Links between Socio-Economic Status of Students and Other Variables at the University of Johannesburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, André

    2016-01-01

    The low level of student success in South Africa is an intractable problem, with levels of success differing between the various groups that make up South African society. One of the major constraints influencing student success involves the socio-economic status (SES) of newly entering students. In the South African context, with its very high…

  19. Pre-Service Identification of Talented Teachers through Non-Traditional Measures: A Study of the Role of Affective Variables as Predictors of Success in Student Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basom, Margaret; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Researchers examined relationships between the SRI Gallup Pre-Professional Teacher Interview and performance-based student teaching evaluations and between SRI Interview and California Student Achievement Test (CAT) scores. A relationship between SRI Interview scores and performance-based student teaching evaluations surfaces. CAT scores did not…

  20. The Relation of College Student Self-Efficacy toward Writing and Writing Self-Regulation Aptitude: Writing Feedback Perceptions as a Mediating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Eric; Zumbrunn, Sharon; Conklin, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Despite the powerful effect feedback often has on student writing success more research is needed on how students emotionally react to the feedback they receive. This study tested the predictive and mediational roles of college student writing self-efficacy beliefs and feedback perceptions on writing self-regulation aptitude. Results suggested…

  1. Investigating the Variables in a Mock Exam Study Session Designed to Improve Student Exam Performance in an Undergraduate Behavior Modification and Therapy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Wesley H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify components of an optional mock exam review session (e.g. requiring students to write answers, providing students grading keys for questions) responsible for improvements in student performance on application-based short-essay exams in an undergraduate behavior modification course. Both…

  2. Cataclysmic Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Coel

    2001-01-01

    Cataclysmic variable stars are the most variable stars in the night sky, fluctuating in brightness continually on timescales from seconds to hours to weeks to years. The changes can be recorded using amateur telescopes, yet are also the subject of intensive study by professional astronomers. That study has led to an understanding of cataclysmic variables as binary stars, orbiting so closely that material transfers from one star to the other. The resulting process of accretion is one of the most important in astrophysics. This book presents the first account of cataclysmic variables at an introductory level. Assuming no previous knowledge of the field, it explains the basic principles underlying the variability, while providing an extensive compilation of cataclysmic variable light curves. Aimed at amateur astronomers, undergraduates, and researchers, the main text is accessible to those with no mathematical background, while supplementary boxes present technical details and equations.

  3. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Center for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China: $1,526,000 to inform effective water governance in the Asian highlands of China, Nepal, and Pakistan. • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), India: $1,499,300 for research on ...

  4. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    demographic trends, socio-economic development pathways, and strong ... knowledge and experience, and encourage innovation. ... choices, and will work with stakeholders in government, business, civil society, and regional economic.

  5. Backgrounder

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Safe and Inclusive Cities: ... improving urban environments and public spaces might have on reducing the city's high ... violence against women among urban youth of working class neighbourhoods of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Karachi,.

  6. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    CARIAA's research agenda addresses gaps and priorities highlighted in the ... Research focuses on climate risk, institutional and regulatory frameworks, markets, and ... The researchers will identify relevant drivers and trends and use develop ...

  7. BACKGROUNDER

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    achieving long‐term food security in Africa, with a focus on post‐harvest loss, ... nutrion and health, and the socio‐economic factors that affect food supply ... Water use. Agricultural producvity in sub‐Saharan Africa is the lowest in the world.

  8. The Relationship between Parent-Child Interactions and Prosocial Behavior among Fifth- and Sixth-Grade Students: Gratitude as a Mediating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ho-Tang; Tseng, Shu-Feng; Wu, Pai-Lu; Chen, Chun-Miao

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child interaction, gratitude and prosocial behavior have a crucial impact on psychological development. According to our literature review, these three variables are positively related to one another. Therefore, the authors created a model that treats parent-child interaction as an exogenous variable, gratitude as a mediating variable, and…

  9. Calculus of one variable

    CERN Document Server

    Grossman, Stanley I

    1986-01-01

    Calculus of One Variable, Second Edition presents the essential topics in the study of the techniques and theorems of calculus.The book provides a comprehensive introduction to calculus. It contains examples, exercises, the history and development of calculus, and various applications. Some of the topics discussed in the text include the concept of limits, one-variable theory, the derivatives of all six trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, and infinite series.This textbook is intended for use by college students.

  10. Diffuse Cosmic Infrared Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwek, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB) consists of the cumulative radiant energy released in the processes of structure formation that have occurred since the decoupling of matter and radiation following the Big Bang. In this lecture I will review the observational data that provided the first detections and limits on the CIB, and the theoretical studies explaining the origin of this background. Finally, I will also discuss the relevance of this background to the universe as seen in high energy gamma-rays.

  11. Background current of radioisotope manometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vydrik, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The technique for calculating the main component of the background current of radioisotopic monometers, current from direct collision of ionizing particles and a collector, is described. The reasons for appearance of background photoelectron current are clarified. The most effective way of eliminating background current components is collector protection from the source by a screen made of material with a high gamma-quanta absorption coefficient, such as lead, for example

  12. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

  13. Background subtraction theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Elgammal, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background subtraction is a widely used concept for detection of moving objects in videos. In the last two decades there has been a lot of development in designing algorithms for background subtraction, as well as wide use of these algorithms in various important applications, such as visual surveillance, sports video analysis, motion capture, etc. Various statistical approaches have been proposed to model scene backgrounds. The concept of background subtraction also has been extended to detect objects from videos captured from moving cameras. This book reviews the concept and practice of back

  14. Variability Bugs:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melo, Jean

    . Although many researchers suggest that preprocessor-based variability amplifies maintenance problems, there is little to no hard evidence on how actually variability affects programs and programmers. Specifically, how does variability affect programmers during maintenance tasks (bug finding in particular......)? How much harder is it to debug a program as variability increases? How do developers debug programs with variability? In what ways does variability affect bugs? In this Ph.D. thesis, I set off to address such issues through different perspectives using empirical research (based on controlled...... experiments) in order to understand quantitatively and qualitatively the impact of variability on programmers at bug finding and on buggy programs. From the program (and bug) perspective, the results show that variability is ubiquitous. There appears to be no specific nature of variability bugs that could...

  15. The learning environment as a mediating variable between self-directed learning readiness and academic performance of a sample of saudi nursing and medical emergency students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Khaled N

    2016-01-01

    There has been some ground-breaking research on self-directed learning (SDL) in nursing education which reveals the superiority of SDL to traditional learning methods in terms of students' academic performance and the development of positive attitudes toward the learning process on the part of both students and teachers. The relationship between students' self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) and students' academic performance, and the mediating role of students' perceptions of the learning environment needs further investigation. In this study, it is proposed that students' perceptions of their learning environment could enhance their SDLR and thus boost their academic performance (in terms of their GPA). A descriptive design was used to examine the relationships between the domains of SDLR, which are self-management, desire to learn and self-control and students' perceptions of the learning environment (SPLE) and students' GPA. A survey involving 342 [Corrected] Saudi students from nursing and emergency medical services undergraduate programs in King Saud University was used for this research. The results showed that SDLR level positively influenced students' academic performance positively, and that students' perceptions of their learning environment played a significant role in determining their level of SDLR and academic performance. It is recommended that nursing and emergency medical services educators provide a supportive learning environment in terms of good teaching, clear goals and standards, appropriate assessment, appropriate workload, and emphasis on independence to encourage students to engage in the process of SDL which can, in turn, enhance their academic performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hanford Site background: Part 1, Soil background for nonradioactive analytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The determination of soil background is one of the most important activities supporting environmental restoration and waste management on the Hanford Site. Background compositions serve as the basis for identifying soil contamination, and also as a baseline in risk assessment processes used to determine soil cleanup and treatment levels. These uses of soil background require an understanding of the extent to which analytes of concern occur naturally in the soils. This report documents the results of sampling and analysis activities designed to characterize the composition of soil background at the Hanford Site, and to evaluate the feasibility for use as Sitewide background. The compositions of naturally occurring soils in the vadose Zone have been-determined for-nonradioactive inorganic and organic analytes and related physical properties. These results confirm that a Sitewide approach to the characterization of soil background is technically sound and is a viable alternative to the determination and use of numerous local or area backgrounds that yield inconsistent definitions of contamination. Sitewide soil background consists of several types of data and is appropriate for use in identifying contamination in all soils in the vadose zone on the Hanford Site. The natural concentrations of nearly every inorganic analyte extend to levels that exceed calculated health-based cleanup limits. The levels of most inorganic analytes, however, are well below these health-based limits. The highest measured background concentrations occur in three volumetrically minor soil types, the most important of which are topsoils adjacent to the Columbia River that are rich in organic carbon. No organic analyte levels above detection were found in any of the soil samples

  17. Backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Labree, W.; Nijman, H.L.I.; Marle, H.J.C. van; Rassin, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight in the backgrounds and characteristics of arsonists. For this, the psychiatric, psychological, personal, and criminal backgrounds of all arsonists (n = 25), sentenced to forced treatment in the maximum security forensic hospital “De Kijvelanden”, were

  18. Measurement of natural background neutron

    CERN Document Server

    Li Jain, Ping; Tang Jin Hua; Tang, E S; Xie Yan Fong

    1982-01-01

    A high sensitive neutron monitor is described. It has an approximate counting rate of 20 cpm for natural background neutrons. The pulse amplitude resolution, sensitivity and direction dependence of the monitor were determined. This monitor has been used for natural background measurement in Beijing area. The yearly average dose is given and compared with the results of KEK and CERN.

  19. Effects of Socio-Economic Background Factors on Typewriting Speed and Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lawrence W.

    The socioeconomic backgrounds of typewriting students as such backgrounds affect typewriting performance is evaluated in this research. There is convincing evidence that socioeconomic factors play a significant role in affecting typewriting performance. Students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are almost always associated with the poorest…

  20. Aluminum as a source of background in low background experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majorovits, B., E-mail: bela@mppmu.mpg.de [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Laubenstein, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, S.S.17/bis, km 18 plus 910, I-67100 Assergi (Italy); Volynets, O. [MPI fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)

    2011-08-11

    Neutrinoless double beta decay would be a key to understanding the nature of neutrino masses. The next generation of High Purity Germanium experiments will have to be operated with a background rate of better than 10{sup -5} counts/(kg y keV) in the region of interest around the Q-value of the decay. Therefore, so far irrelevant sources of background have to be considered. The metalization of the surface of germanium detectors is in general done with aluminum. The background from the decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 26}Al, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th introduced by this metalization is discussed. It is shown that only a special selection of aluminum can keep these background contributions acceptable.

  1. Teaching in Multicultural Background in the States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘若芸

    2010-01-01

    The diversity present in every aspect of American life is an inevitable consequence of its multicultural society.Schools across the country are a reflection of what is,and always has been,an ever changing demographic constitution.Classroom teachers,especially teachers who have no teaching experience in the country,face a stiff challenge of teaching all students,regardless of their backgrounds.As a Chinese guest teacher in the States,I learned that the"growing-up"of a teacher requires positive changes in three areas:knowledge,attitudes and skills.Support from administrators is also vital in the"growing-up"process.

  2. Background of the Degree in Public Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Vargas-Hernández

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review public accountant education in terms of the interrelated subjects as well as its background. The results of this education development project improve the formation of the accountant public education because of its linkage between teachers and students in the research process and the design of new teaching strategies that contribute to solving real problems and facilitate the social projection. The academic administration is characterized by processes that arise and is generated within the same individuals, focused on the construction and reconstruction of knowledge, proper training and formation of builders of their own processes.

  3. INTER-EXAMINER VARIABILITY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To establish whether inter-examiner variability is still a significant factor for the undergraduate orthopaedic clinical ... D. The scores for each student were tabulated and the range, mean, and pass rate determined for each of the examiners. ... has not the heart to reject the man”, consistently gave higher scores (1).

  4. Analysis According to Certain Variables of Scientific Literacy among Gifted Students That Participate in Scientific Activities at Science and Art Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömek, Emre; Yagiz, Dursun; Kurt, Murat

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze scientific literacy levels relevant to science and technology classes among gifted students that participate in scientific activities at science and art centers. This study investigated whether there was a significant difference in scientific literacy levels among gifted students according to the areas of…

  5. The Relationship between Student Attitude toward the VOE Program and Selected Demographic Variables in Six Fort Bend County High Schools in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumba, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Students enrolled in high school beginning typing classes were asked to complete a researcher-developed attitudinal assessment instrument containing 20 statements about Vocational Office Education (VOE) and a short intelligence test. Scores on the VOE instrument were correlated with students' intelligence level, sex, race, grade level, after-high…

  6. A prospective survey of chiropractic student experiences with pediatric care and variability of case mix while on clinical placement in Rarotonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Angela J; Carroll, Matthew T; Russell, David G; Mitchell, Eleanor K L

    2017-03-01

    To compare chiropractic students' perceptions of preparedness for practice before and after a clinical placement in Rarotonga and to report demographics from these experiences. The students completed deidentified pre- and postplacement surveys assessing pediatric practice preparedness. Students tallied the patient numbers, age, and chiropractic techniques used per visit for each day of clinic placement. On completion of the program, participating students (27/34, or 79% of the student cohort) did a postplacement survey on their perception of practice preparedness. Data were analyzed with the Spearman rho correlation, the Mann-Whitney U test, and regression analysis. There was an increase in perceived preparedness for pediatric practice, ranging from 24.1% of the student cohort at the start of the study to 82.1% following clinical placement in Rarotonga. The change in student preparedness to practice with children was positively correlated with the total number of children managed (r s = .05, p = .01) and the number of children managed who were under 10 years of age (r s = .60, p = .001). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated a medium positive effect for postprogram preparedness (F [4, 20] = 3.567, p = .024). Clinical outreach to Rarotonga provided a broad case mix of patients and a change in student perceptions of preparedness to practice with children, which was positively affected by the total number of children managed and the number of children managed who were under 10 years of age.

  7. Sociocultural Variables That Impact High School Students' Perceptions of Native Fauna: A Study on the Species Component of the Biodiversity Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.; Battistón, Luisina V.; García Capocasa, María C.; De Longhi, Ana L.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school sector (private versus state schools) and student gender on knowledge of native fauna. Our main objectives were (a) to describe the knowledge of high school students from the province of Cordoba, Argentina with respect to native animal species, (b) to determine if any exotic species (introduced or…

  8. JEM-X background models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background and determination of its components for the JEM-X X-ray telescope on INTEGRAL are discussed. A part of the first background observations by JEM-X are analysed and results are compared to predictions. The observations are based on extensive imaging of background near the Crab Nebula...... on revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors...

  9. The effect of background music on the perception of personality and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastinger, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to discover stereotypes people may have about different music genres and if these stereotypes are projected onto an individual. Also, the study investigates if music therapy students are more or less biased than non-music majors in this regard. Subjects (N=388) were comprised of student members of the American Music Therapy Association (N=182) and students from a college in the southeastern United States who were not music majors (N=206). Subjects were asked to listen to a recording and complete a short survey. Subjects assigned to the control condition heard only a person reading a script. Subjects assigned to one of the four experimental conditions heard the same recording mixed with background music and ambient crowd noise, intended to simulate a live performance. Subjects were asked to rate the person in the recording on personality descriptors and predict demographic information in the survey. Many of the survey responses were significantly affected by the genre of music. For example, it was shown that when in the presence of rap or country music, all subjects rated the personality of the person in the recording significantly more negative than when in the presence of classical, jazz, or no music. There were no significant differences between the groups for any variable or condition when comparing survey responses between college students and AMTA student members.

  10. The Relationship among School Safety, School Liking, and Students' Self-Esteem: Based on a Multilevel Mediation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghui; Xuan, Xin; Chen, Fumei; Zhang, Cai; Luo, Yuhan; Wang, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perceptions of school safety have an important effect on students' development. Based on the model of "context-process-outcomes," we examined school safety as a context variable to explore how school safety at the school level affected students' self-esteem. Methods: We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the link…

  11. A study of stress and burnout in nursing students in Hong Kong: A questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, R.; Deary, I.; Thompson, D.; Li, G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Stress in nursing students may be related to attrition from nursing programmes and lead to a shortage of nurses entering clinical careers. In addition, stress leads to psychological morbidity which may have profound adverse consequences for individual nursing students.\\ud \\ud Objectives: To follow a cohort of nursing students from entry to their programme to the end of the first year and to study the interrelationship between a range of psychological variables including personalit...

  12. Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, M.

    2001-01-01

    We review the motivations for the search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves and we compare the experimental sensitivities that can be reached in the near future with the existing bounds and with the theoretical predictions. (author)

  13. Berkeley Low Background Counting Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Sensitive low background assay detectors and sample analysis are available for non-destructive direct gamma-ray assay of samples. Neutron activation analysis is also...

  14. Spectral characterization of natural backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, Max

    2017-10-01

    As the distribution and use of hyperspectral sensors is constantly increasing, the exploitation of spectral features is a threat for camouflaged objects. To improve camouflage materials at first the spectral behavior of backgrounds has to be known to adjust and optimize the spectral reflectance of camouflage materials. In an international effort, the NATO CSO working group SCI-295 "Development of Methods for Measurements and Evaluation of Natural Background EO Signatures" is developing a method how this characterization of backgrounds has to be done. It is obvious that the spectral characterization of a background will be quite an effort. To compare and exchange data internationally the measurements will have to be done in a similar way. To test and further improve this method an international field trial has been performed in Storkow, Germany. In the following we present first impressions and lessons learned from this field campaign and describe the data that has been measured.

  15. How Are Students' Attitudes Related to Learning Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsärinne, Mika; Kallio, Manne

    2016-01-01

    This article is a part of a research project aimed to find out how different background variables are related to learning outcomes in technology education related to the school subject Sloyd (craft). The research question of this article is: "How are ninth grade students' attitudes towards the subject related to their learning outcomes?"…

  16. Predicting Student Success in College: What Does the Research Say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merante, Joseph A.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews various methods for predicting college success: correlation of students' high school grades, achievement test scores, and class rank with characteristics of the institution to be attended; examination of demographic variables such as age, sex, birth order, income, parents' education, religious and ethnic background, and geographic factors;…

  17. Cosmic microwave background, where next?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based, balloon-borne and space-based experiments will observe the Cosmic Microwave Background in greater details to address open questions about the origin and the evolution of the Universe. In particular, detailed observations the polarization pattern of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation have the potential to directly probe physics at the GUT scale and illuminate aspects of the physics of the very early Universe.

  18. The Effects of Background Music on the Middle School Students' Recognition of the Expository Text Information%背景音乐对中学生说明文文本信息再认的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明; 张裕鼎; 张立春

    2012-01-01

    以某中学一年级221名学生为被试,考察了不同类型及不同声压水平的背景音乐对中学生说明文文本信息再认过程的影响。实验结果表明:(1)音乐类型主效应显著,声压水平主效应不显著,两者交互作用显著,高音条件下不同音乐类型产生显著的再认成绩差异,而低音条件下未产生显著性差异。(2)高音条件下,不同类型的背景音乐对中学生的说明文文本信息再认成绩产生不同程度的影响。与无音乐环境相比,古典音乐对成绩产生显著的促进作用;流行音乐含中文歌词、流行音乐含日语歌词两个水平均产生显著的干扰作用;流行音乐不含歌词对再认无显著影响;此外,流行音乐含中文歌词干扰作用最大,但与流行音乐含日文歌词相比差异不显著。%We investigate the effects of different types of background music on recognition of the expository text information. The 221 participants are from 5 classes of Grade 1 of one middle school, with the likely same level of the Chinese course. The results of the experiments are as follows: (1) The main effect of the type of background music is significant while that of sound pressure level is not, and the interactive effect is significant: on the condition of high sound pressure level, the type of background music significant effect on the recognition score, but it has no effect on condition of the low sound pressure level. (2) On the condition of high sound pressure level, different types of background music take significantly different effect on the recognition score of the expository text information: comparing with no sound level, the classic music take significant facilitation effect, both the pop music with Chinese lyric and with Japanese lyric produce significant interference effect, and the pop music without lyric produces no effect. Besides, the interference effect taken by the pop music with Chinese is the

  19. Smoking habits and awareness of smoking risks depending on academic background in university students Hábitos tabágicos e conhecimento dos riscos do tabagismo em função da formação académica em estudantes universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Saleiro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate smoking habits among a group of medical students and engineering students in order to assess whether, depending on their specific academic background, differences in smoking habits and attitudes towards smoking were present. Methods: Medical and engineering students from the Oporto University were surveyed using a questionnaire, in which they were asked to mention their smoking habits, their perception about cigarette dependence and to point out, from a list of 12 tobacco-related diseases, which were associated with tobacco use. Results: A total of 338 students (172 of Medicine and 166 of Engineering with median age of 21 years answered the questionnaire. Prevalence of smoking was 21.6% and was greater among males than females (31.8% versus 10.9%. Significantly fewer medical students smoked (16.3%, compared to engineering students (27.1%. Almost 16% of the students did not know nicotine ability to induce dependence, but medical students were more aware of it (p=0.00. All students identified lung cancer as being associated with tobacco use and pointed out, less frequently, other diseases. Except for lung cancer, medical students showed a better knowledge about smoking-related diseases. Conclusions: As expected, medical students showed a better knowledge of smoking-related diseases in general, as compared to engineering students, and they also showed a lower prevalence of smoking habits. This difference may be due to different attitudes towards smoking for which different academic backgrounds may have contributed.Objectivo: Avaliar os hábitos tabágicos de um grupo de estudantes universitários dos cursos de Medicina e de Engenharia por forma a verificar se, dependendo da sua formação académica específica, existem diferenças nos hábitos tabágicos e atitudes perante o tabagismo. Métodos: Estudantes de Medicina e de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto foram avaliados através de um questionário, no qual tiveram de

  20. The Influence of Background Music on Learning in the Light of Different Theoretical Perspectives and the Role of Working Memory Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Janina A M; Seufert, Tina

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how background music influences learning with respect to three different theoretical approaches. Both the Mozart effect as well as the arousal-mood-hypothesis indicate that background music can potentially benefit learning outcomes. While the Mozart effect assumes a direct influence of background music on cognitive abilities, the arousal-mood-hypothesis assumes a mediation effect over arousal and mood. However, the seductive detail effect indicates that seductive details such as background music worsen learning. Moreover, as working memory capacity has a crucial influence on learning with seductive details, we also included the learner's working memory capacity as a factor in our study. We tested 81 college students using a between-subject design with half of the sample listening to two pop songs while learning a visual text and the other half learning in silence. We included working memory capacity in the design as a continuous organism variable. Arousal and mood scores before and after learning were collected as potential mediating variables. To measure learning outcomes we tested recall and comprehension. We did not find a mediation effect between background music and arousal or mood on learning outcomes. In addition, for recall performance there were no main effects of background music or working memory capacity, nor an interaction effect of these factors. However, when considering comprehension we did find an interaction between background music and working memory capacity: the higher the learners' working memory capacity, the better they learned with background music. This is in line with the seductive detail assumption.

  1. Levels of Assertiveness and Peer Pressure of Nursing Students

    OpenAIRE

    Esin Arslan; Nazan Kiliç Akça; Mürüvvet Baser

    2013-01-01

    Background: The research was conducted in order to determine levels of assertiveness and peer pressure of the nursing students.Methodology: This descriptive research has been performed with 154 nursing students in Bozok University, The data were collected with Questionnaire Form, Rathus Assertiveness Inventory and Peer Pressure Scale. We used the data one way Anova, two samples t test, the relationship between several independent variables and scales were evaluated by Pearson correlation tech...

  2. Uncertain Portfolio Selection with Background Risk and Liquidity Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses an uncertain portfolio selection problem with consideration of background risk and asset liquidity. In addition, the transaction costs are also considered. The security returns, background asset return, and asset liquidity are estimated by experienced experts instead of historical data. Regarding them as uncertain variables, a mean-risk model with background risk, liquidity, and transaction costs is proposed for portfolio selection and the crisp forms of the model are provided when security returns obey different uncertainty distributions. Moreover, for better understanding of the impact of background risk and liquidity on portfolio selection, some important theorems are proved. Finally, numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the modeling idea.

  3. The Analysis of the Learning Strategies Utilized By Students in Music Class in Terms of Some Psychosocial Variables (Öğrencilerin Kullandığı Müziği Öğrenme Stratejilerinin Bazı Psikososyal Değişkenler Bakımından Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep SEVER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to bring up learning strategies in music used by 4th, 5th and 6th graders in primary schools in terms of some psychosocial variables. This study is important as it lights the way for the future of our education system and specially strategy teaching in music. The problems and their possible solutions faced during learning of the music were represented. The Sample of this study was composed of totally 200, 4th, 5th and 6th graders in two different primary schools from İzmir-Bornova. The method of the study was Survey model. The opinions of the students regarding their strategies of learning music were gathered by the triple Likert type scale called “Scale for Strategies of Learning Music” which was developed by Kocabaş (1998b. The data analysis was computed under SSPS 15.0 program by using T-test and one way variance. The reliability of the scale of this study was 0,83. As a result of this study, it was observed that gender; school types, the existence of musical education outsources, a person in the family having musical background or playing a musical instrument were effective on the opinions about the strategies followed and used by students during learning music.

  4. Pulsating variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The study of stellar pulsations is a major route to the understanding of stellar structure and evolution. At the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) the following stellar pulsation studies were undertaken: rapidly oscillating Ap stars; solar-like oscillations in stars; 8-Scuti type variability in a classical Am star; Beta Cephei variables; a pulsating white dwarf and its companion; RR Lyrae variables and galactic Cepheids. 4 figs

  5. Student Research Projects Inhibiting Factors from the Students Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Nikrooz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Identifying the research barriers and assess the ability of students to use the university services and facilities is crucial to promote research activities. Present study was carried out to determine the inhibiting factors influencing the student's research projects from the view point of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences students in 2008. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional study 96 students of Yasuj Medical University were selected by stratified random sampling. The data were collected by validate & reliable questionnaire, containing demographic information, inhibiting factors related to students (personal and organization. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The mean scores against the personal barriers and the organizational barriers questions were 43.23±12.96 and 62.58±12.08 respectively. There was a significant difference between personal and organizational barriers (P<0.001 and personal barriers were more important. According to the results, the student's inadequate skills & knowledge of research methodology and lack of awareness of research topics were the most prevalent personal barriers. The most prevalent organizational barriers were unavailability of research consulters, inadequate research skills of consulter, insufficient facilities & equipment and lack of motivating staff & faculties. Other variables such as gender, subject of study and research experience are mentioned in the full text. Conclusion: This study showed that the personal barriers were more important than organizational barriers which interfere with the student's research projects. This can be corrected and controlled by teachers, faculty members, university officials and students, themselves.

  6. Looking for Cosmic Neutrino Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki eYanagisawa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of neutrino oscillation in atmospheric neutrinos by the Super-Kamiokande experiment in 1998, study of neutrinos has been one of exciting fields in high-energy physics. All the mixing angles were measured. Quests for 1 measurements of the remaining parameters, the lightest neutrino mass, the CP violating phase(s, and the sign of mass splitting between the mass eigenstates m3 and m1, and 2 better measurements to determine whether the mixing angle theta23 is less than pi/4, are in progress in a well-controlled manner. Determining the nature of neutrinos, whether they are Dirac or Majorana particles is also in progress with continuous improvement. On the other hand, although the ideas of detecting cosmic neutrino background have been discussed since 1960s, there has not been a serious concerted effort to achieve this goal. One of the reasons is that it is extremely difficult to detect such low energy neutrinos from the Big Bang. While there has been tremendous accumulation of information on Cosmic Microwave Background since its discovery in 1965, there is no direct evidence for Cosmic Neutrino Background. The importance of detecting Cosmic Neutrino Background is that, although detailed studies of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and Cosmic Microwave Background give information of the early Universe at ~a few minutes old and ~300 k years old, respectively, observation of Cosmic Neutrino Background allows us to study the early Universe at $sim$ 1 sec old. This article reviews progress made in the past 50 years on detection methods of Cosmic Neutrino Background.

  7. A Research Synthesis of the Associations between Socioeconomic Background, Inequality, School Climate, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Ruth; Moore, Hadass; Astor, Ron Avi; Benbenishty, Rami

    2017-01-01

    Educational researchers and practitioners assert that supportive school and classroom climates can positively influence the academic outcomes of students, thus potentially reducing academic achievement gaps between students and schools of different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds. Nonetheless, scientific evidence establishing directional…

  8. Neutron background estimates in GESA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The SIMPLE project looks for nuclear recoil events generated by rare dark matter scattering interactions. Nuclear recoils are also produced by more prevalent cosmogenic neutron interactions. While the rock overburden shields against (μ,n neutrons to below 10−8 cm−2 s−1, it itself contributes via radio-impurities. Additional shielding of these is similar, both suppressing and contributing neutrons. We report on the Monte Carlo (MCNP estimation of the on-detector neutron backgrounds for the SIMPLE experiment located in the GESA facility of the Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit, and its use in defining additional shielding for measurements which have led to a reduction in the extrinsic neutron background to ∼ 5 × 10−3 evts/kgd. The calculated event rate induced by the neutron background is ∼ 0,3 evts/kgd, with a dominant contribution from the detector container.

  9. LOFT gamma densitometer background fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimesey, R.A.; McCracken, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    Background gamma-ray fluxes were calculated at the location of the γ densitometers without integral shielding at both the hot-leg and cold-leg primary piping locations. The principal sources for background radiation at the γ densitometers are 16 N activity from the primary piping H 2 O and γ radiation from reactor internal sources. The background radiation was calculated by the point-kernel codes QAD-BSA and QAD-P5A. Reasonable assumptions were required to convert the response functions calculated by point-kernel procedures into the gamma-ray spectrum from reactor internal sources. A brief summary of point-kernel equations and theory is included

  10. A definition of background independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryb, Sean

    2010-01-01

    We propose a definition for background (in)/dependence in dynamical theories of the evolution of configurations that have a continuous symmetry and test this definition on particle models and on gravity. Our definition draws from Barbour's best matching framework developed for the purpose of implementing spatial and temporal relationalism. Among other interesting theories, general relativity can be derived within this framework in novel ways. We study the detailed canonical structure of a wide range of best matching theories and show that their actions must have a local gauge symmetry. When gauge theory is derived in this way, we obtain at the same time a conceptual framework for distinguishing between background-dependent and -independent theories. Gauge invariant observables satisfying Kuchar's criterion are identified and, in simple cases, explicitly computed. We propose a procedure for inserting a global background time into temporally relational theories. Interestingly, using this procedure in general relativity leads to unimodular gravity.

  11. Cognitive Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Children's thinking is highly variable at every level of analysis, from neural and associative levels to the level of strategies, theories, and other aspects of high-level cognition. This variability exists within people as well as between them; individual children often rely on different strategies or representations on closely related problems…

  12. Generative electronic background music system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz [Faculty of Computer Science, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Zolnierska Street 49, Szczecin, PL (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions.

  13. Background metric in supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneya, T.

    1978-01-01

    In supergravity theories, we investigate the conformal anomaly of the path-integral determinant and the problem of fermion zero modes in the presence of a nontrivial background metric. Except in SO(3) -invariant supergravity, there are nonvanishing conformal anomalies. As a consequence, amplitudes around the nontrivial background metric contain unpredictable arbitrariness. The fermion zero modes which are explicitly constructed for the Euclidean Schwarzschild metric are interpreted as an indication of the supersymmetric multiplet structure of a black hole. The degree of degeneracy of a black hole is 2/sup 4n/ in SO(n) supergravity

  14. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  15. Generative electronic background music system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    In this short paper-extended abstract the new approach to generation of electronic background music has been presented. The Generative Electronic Background Music System (GEBMS) has been located between other related approaches within the musical algorithm positioning framework proposed by Woller et al. The music composition process is performed by a number of mini-models parameterized by further described properties. The mini-models generate fragments of musical patterns used in output composition. Musical pattern and output generation are controlled by container for the mini-models - a host-model. General mechanism has been presented including the example of the synthesized output compositions

  16. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garza, J G; Aune, S.; Aznar, F.

    2014-01-01

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micr...

  17. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  18. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  19. Kerr metric in cosmological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidya, P C [Gujarat Univ., Ahmedabad (India). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-06-01

    A metric satisfying Einstein's equation is given which in the vicinity of the source reduces to the well-known Kerr metric and which at large distances reduces to the Robertson-Walker metric of a nomogeneous cosmological model. The radius of the event horizon of the Kerr black hole in the cosmological background is found out.

  20. Low Background Micromegas in CAST

    CERN Document Server

    Garza, J.G.; Aznar, F.; Calvet, D.; Castel, J.F.; Christensen, F.E.; Dafni, T.; Davenport, M.; Decker, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Galán, J.; García, J.A.; Giomataris, I.; Hill, R.M.; Iguaz, F.J.; Irastorza, I.G.; Jakobsen, A.C.; Jourde, D.; Mirallas, H.; Ortega, I.; Papaevangelou, T.; Pivovaroff, M.J.; Ruz, J.; Tomás, A.; Vafeiadis, T.; Vogel, J.K.

    2015-11-16

    Solar axions could be converted into x-rays inside the strong magnetic field of an axion helioscope, triggering the detection of this elusive particle. Low background x-ray detectors are an essential component for the sensitivity of these searches. We report on the latest developments of the Micromegas detectors for the CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST), including technological pathfinder activities for the future International Axion Observatory (IAXO). The use of low background techniques and the application of discrimination algorithms based on the high granularity of the readout have led to background levels below 10$^{-6}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, more than a factor 100 lower than the first generation of Micromegas detectors. The best levels achieved at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC) are as low as 10$^{-7}$ counts/keV/cm$^2$/s, showing good prospects for the application of this technology in IAXO. The current background model, based on underground and surface measurements, is presented, as well as ...

  1. The Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, James; Battle, J.; Cooray, A.; Hristov, V.; Kawada, M.; Keating, B.; Lee, D.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Nam, U.; Renbarger, T.; Sullivan, I.; Tsumura, K.; Wada, T.; Zemcov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER) to search for signatures of first-light galaxy emission in the extragalactic background. The first generation of stars produce characteristic signatures in the near-infrared extragalactic background, including a redshifted Ly-cutoff feature and a characteristic fluctuation power spectrum, that may be detectable with a specialized instrument. CIBER consists of two wide-field cameras to measure the fluctuation power spectrum, and a low-resolution and a narrow-band spectrometer to measure the absolute background. The cameras will search for fluctuations on angular scales from 7 arcseconds to 2 degrees, where the first-light galaxy spatial power spectrum peaks. The cameras have the necessary combination of sensitivity, wide field of view, spatial resolution, and multiple bands to make a definitive measurement. CIBER will determine if the fluctuations reported by Spitzer arise from first-light galaxies. The cameras observe in a single wide field of view, eliminating systematic errors associated with mosaicing. Two bands are chosen to maximize the first-light signal contrast, at 1.6 um near the expected spectral maximum, and at 1.0 um; the combination is a powerful discriminant against fluctuations arising from local sources. We will observe regions of the sky surveyed by Spitzer and Akari. The low-resolution spectrometer will search for the redshifted Lyman cutoff feature in the 0.7 - 1.8 um spectral region. The narrow-band spectrometer will measure the absolute Zodiacal brightness using the scattered 854.2 nm Ca II Fraunhofer line. The spectrometers will test if reports of a diffuse extragalactic background in the 1 - 2 um band continues into the optical, or is caused by an under estimation of the Zodiacal foreground. We report performance of the assembled and tested instrument as we prepare for a first sounding rocket flight in early 2009. CIBER is funded by the NASA/APRA sub-orbital program.

  2. Solar Concepts: A Background Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

  3. Risk factors for addiction potential among college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ranjbaran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tendency toward addiction is provided before drug use begins. The present study aimed to identify the risk factors for addiction potential in the students of Arak University of Medical Sciences. Methods: We conducted this cross-sectional study among 305 students from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Iran in 2016. We selected the students by stratified random sampling and collected the data by family and sociodemographic factors questionnaires and Addiction Potential Scale. Results: Male students, students with low economic status and high family members were more prone to addiction. We identified variable; addiction in close friends, adverse family conditions (dispute with the family, poor economic condition of families, and family size by controlling the effect of other variables, as risk factors for addiction potential. Conclusions: Preventive and intervention actions appear necessary considering the mentioned factors.

  4. Learning Styles of the Students of Biology Department and Prospective Biology Teachers in Turkey and Their Relationship with Some Demographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, M. Handan

    2018-01-01

    This study has been carried out with the aim of researching dominant learning styles of the students studying at the biology departments of the faculty of science or the faculty of arts and sciences as well as the dominant learning styles of the prospective biology teachers studying at the faculty of education of universities in Turkey, by taking…

  5. The Influence of Mathematics Professional Development, School-Level, and Teacher-Level Variables on Primary Students' Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly, Drew; Wang, Chuang; Martin, Christie; Lambert, Richard; Pugalee, David; Middleton, Catherina

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the influence of a professional development project about an internet-based mathematics formative assessment tool and related pedagogies on primary teachers' instruction and student achievement. Teachers participated in 72 h of professional development during the year. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analyses of…

  6. Emotional Intelligence and Its Relation with the Social Skills and Religious Behaviour of Female Students at Dammam University in the Light of Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, Eman Mohammad Reda Ali; Al-Khawaldeh, Naseer Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The study has examined the correlation between emotional intelligence, social skills, and religious behavior among university female students, since it had been noticed that there was escalation in the frequency of some behavioral and emotional problems such as vandalism, aggression, social withdrawal, weakness of social relations, patterns of…

  7. Variables Related to Attitudes toward Domestic Violence and Use of Reasoning, Verbal Aggression, and Violent Conflict Tactics in High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Shannon R.; Gardner, Scott P.

    2002-01-01

    A study of 122 high school students investigated how gender, self-esteem, attitudes toward cohabitation, family openness, parents' annual income, and race were related to attitude towards dating violence. More family openness correlated with use of reasoning in dating conflicts. Low self-esteem correlated with high verbal aggression. (Contains 67…

  8. Influence of Social Cognitive and Gender Variables on Technological Academic Interest among Spanish High-School Students: Testing Social Cognitive Career Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carmen; Inda, Mercedes; Fernández, Carmen Mª

    2016-01-01

    This study tested social cognitive career theory (SCCT) in the technological domain with 2,359 high-school students in Asturias (Spain). Path analyses were run to determine the influence of gender on the SCCT model and to explain the influence of personal (emotional state, gender-role attitudes), contextual (perceived social supports and…

  9. Estudo da ansiedade como variável no relacionamento aluno-paciente Estudio de la ansiedad como variable en el relacionamiento alumnos y pacientes A study of anxiety as a variablein the student-patient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Araújo Sadala

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem o objetivo de analisar a ansiedade como variável na comunicação de alunas de graduação em enfermagem ao prestarem assistência aos pacientes. Os dados foram obtidos pela pesquisadora através da observação participante, estratégia que se constituiu simultaneamente de três procedimentos: registro das interações aluno-paciente pela pesquisadora, registro das mesmas pelos alunos e entrevistas dos alunos pela pesquisadora imediatamente após os dois primeiros procedimentos. A população da pesquisa constituiu-se de 10 alunos de enfermagem , acompanhados durante atividades de estágios curriculares nos 3°, 4° e 6° semestre do curso. A ansiedade, tanto dos alunos como dos pacientes, aparece como variável interferindo no uso da comunicação terapêutica pelos alunos.El estudio tiene por objetivo el análisis de la ansiedad como variable en la comunicación de los alumnos de graduación de enfermería, en actividades relacionadas a cuidados de pacientes. Los datos fueron obtenidos a partir de la observación participante, estrategia esta que constituida por tres procedimientos simultáneos: registro por la investigadora de las interacciones entre alumnos y pacientes; registro por los alumnos de esas mismas interacciones y entre vista de los alumnos por la autora mediatamente después de los dos primeros procedimientos. La populación se constituyó de 10 alumnos de enfermería acompañados durante sus actividades prácticas curriculares en los 3°, 4° e 6° semestres del curso básico (enfermería. La ansiedad de los estudiantes como la de los pacientes , aparece como variable interferente en el uso de la comunicación terapéutica entre ellos.The aim of this study was to analyze the anxiety as a variable in the nursing students communication with patients. Data was obtained through interviews, reports and observations of 10 students during 3 moments: 3th, 4th, and 6th, periods of undergraduate nursing course. Both

  10. Biases in the effects of family background characteristics on voting preference: The Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Graaf, N.D. de; Eisinga, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether intergenerational transmission of party preference is biased by retrospective and other-report measurement of family background characteristics [In our model the dependent variable is voting preference, while one of our explanatory variables is father's party

  11. Background radioactivity in environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; O'Hara, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a literature search to identify information on concentrations of 'background' radioactivity in foodstuffs and other commonly available environmental materials. The review has concentrated on naturally occurring radioactivity in foods and on UK data, although results from other countries have also been considered where appropriate. The data are compared with established definitions of a 'radioactive' substance and radionuclides which do not appear to be adequately covered in the literature are noted. (author)

  12. Background paper on aquaculture research

    OpenAIRE

    Wenblad, Axel; Jokumsen, Alfred; Eskelinen, Unto; Torrissen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    The Board of MISTRA established in 2012 a Working Group (WG) on Aquaculture to provide the Board with background information for its upcoming decision on whether the foundation should invest in aquaculture research. The WG included Senior Advisor Axel Wenblad, Sweden (Chairman), Professor Ole Torrissen, Norway, Senior Advisory Scientist Unto Eskelinen, Finland and Senior Advisory Scientist Alfred Jokumsen, Denmark. The WG performed an investigation of the Swedish aquaculture sector including ...

  13. The isotropic radio background revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I–10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular – CSIC/U. Valencia, Parc Científic, calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cédex (France)

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  14. The isotropic radio background revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky

  15. The association between dopamine receptor (DRD4) gene polymorphisms and second language learning style and behavioral variability in undergraduate students in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maras Atabay, Meltem; Safi Oz, Zehra; Kurtman, Elvan

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) encodes a receptor for dopamine, a chemical messenger used in the brain. One variant of the DRD4 gene, the 7R allele, is believed to be associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between repeat polymorphisms in dopamine DRD4 and second language learning styles such as visual (seeing), tactile (touching), auditory (hearing), kinesthetic (moving) and group/individual learning styles, as well as the relationships among DRD4 gene polymorphisms and ADHD in undergraduate students. A total of 227 students between the ages of 17-21 years were evaluated using the Wender Utah rating scale and DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD. Additionally, Reid's perceptual learning style questionnaire for second language learning style was applied. In addition, these students were evaluated for social distress factors using the list of Threatening Events (TLE); having had no TLE, having had just one TLE or having had two or more TLEs within the previous 6 months before the interview. For DRD4 gene polymorphisms, DNA was extracted from whole blood using the standard phenol/chloroform method and genotyped using polymerase chain reaction. Second language learners with the DRD4.7+ repeats showed kinaesthetic and auditory learning styles, while students with DRD4.7-repeats showed visual, tactile and group learning, and also preferred the more visual learning styles [Formula: see text]. We also demonstrated that the DRD4 polymorphism significantly affected the risk effect conferred by an increasing level of exposure to TLE.

  16. Towards Learning for Employment: A Study of Effect of Different Variables on Employment Readiness of Students Enrolled in Professional Programmes Delhi-NCR, India.

    OpenAIRE

    Khatri, Puja; Raina, Khushboo

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Indian Higher Education system has got 70 million students enrolled in different technical and professional courses, which is highest in world. Being the fastest growing economy, India has got global attention also. Despite such strong foundation, the nation lacks a skilled workforce. The expectations of the industry don’t match with what they receive as a workforce. There has been a continuous effort in instilling technical, communication, spiritual, leadership skills ...

  17. Social Class, Family Background and Intergenerational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James

    This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classification scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classification schemes...... is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was first collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......-Goldthorpe classification system, raising doubts about the statistical validity of occupational classification systems in general. We also estimate regression models of occupational earnings, household earnings, and educational attainment using family background variables as covariates controlling for unobservables...

  18. Social Class, Family Background and Intergenerational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James

    This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classi.cation scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classi.cation schemes...... is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was .rst collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......-Goldthorpe classi.cation system, raising doubts about the statistical validity of occupational classication systems in general. We also estimate regression models of occupational earnings, household earnings, and educational attainment using family background variables as covariates controlling for unobservables...

  19. Resolving the Conflict Between Associative Overdominance and Background Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Charlesworth, Brian

    2016-01-01

    In small populations, genetic linkage between a polymorphic neutral locus and loci subject to selection, either against partially recessive mutations or in favor of heterozygotes, may result in an apparent selective advantage to heterozygotes at the neutral locus (associative overdominance) and a retardation of the rate of loss of variability by genetic drift at this locus. In large populations, selection against deleterious mutations has previously been shown to reduce variability at linked neutral loci (background selection). We describe analytical, numerical, and simulation studies that shed light on the conditions under which retardation vs. acceleration of loss of variability occurs at a neutral locus linked to a locus under selection. We consider a finite, randomly mating population initiated from an infinite population in equilibrium at a locus under selection. With mutation and selection, retardation occurs only when S, the product of twice the effective population size and the selection coefficient, is of order 1. With S >> 1, background selection always causes an acceleration of loss of variability. Apparent heterozygote advantage at the neutral locus is, however, always observed when mutations are partially recessive, even if there is an accelerated rate of loss of variability. With heterozygote advantage at the selected locus, loss of variability is nearly always retarded. The results shed light on experiments on the loss of variability at marker loci in laboratory populations and on the results of computer simulations of the effects of multiple selected loci on neutral variability. PMID:27182952

  20. Family Background and Educational Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    enrollments, especially for females. Not only did the educational opportunities for individuals with disadvantaged backgrounds improve absolutely, but their relative position also improved. A similarly dramatic increase in attendance at university for the period 1985-2005 was found for these cohorts when......We examine the participation in secondary and tertiary education of five cohorts of Danish males and females who were aged twenty starting in 1982 and ending in 2002. We find that the large expansion of secondary education in this period was characterized by a phenomenal increase in gymnasium...