Full Text Available In the present research, the recently proposed 3x2 model of achievement goals is tested and associations with achievement emotions and their joint influence on academic achievement are investigated. The study was conducted with 388 students using the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire including the six proposed goal constructs (task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, other-avoidance and the enjoyment and boredom scales from the Achievement Emotion Questionnaire. Exam grades were used as an indicator of academic achievement. Findings from CFAs provided strong support for the proposed structure of the 3x2 achievement goal model. Self-based goals, other-based goals and task-approach goals predicted enjoyment. Task-approach goals negatively predicted boredom. Task-approach and other-approach predicted achievement. The indirect effects of achievement goals through emotion variables on achievement were assessed using bias-corrected bootstrapping. No mediation effects were found. Implications for educational practice are discussed.
Babenko, Oksana; Daniels, Lia M.; White, Jonathan; Oswald, Anna; Ross, Shelley
In achievement settings, the types of motivation individuals develop are crucial to their success and to the ways in which they respond to challenges. Considering the competitive nature of medical education and the high stakes of medical practice, it is important to know what types of motivation (conceptualized here as achievement goals) medical…
Bernardo, Allan B. I.; Ismail, Rosnah
The study investigates the hypothesis that country differences in achievement goals of students are associated with differences in how students with different achievement goals are perceived by students in different cultures. University students from Malaysia and the Philippine were asked to complete questionnaires on their achievement goals and…
Chen, Chen; Zhang, Li-Fang
Temperament and personality have been presumed to affect achievement goals based on the hierarchical model of achievement motivation. This research investigated the relationships of temperament dimensions and the Big Five personality traits to achievement goals based on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework among 775 Chinese adolescent students.…
Arslan, Serhat; Akcaalan, Mehmet; Yurdakul, Cengiz
The objective of this investigation is to make a study of the relationship between achievement goals and science motivation. Research data were collected from 295 university students. Achievement goals and science motivation scales were utilized as measure tools. The link between achievement goals orientation and science motivation was…
Pfeffer-Lachs, Carole F.
The purpose of this study was to assess the goal intent and achievement of university students, during the Fall 2011 semester, at Blue Wave University, a high research activity public institution in the southeast United States. This study merged theories of motivation to measure goal setting and goal attainment to examine if students who chose to…
Litmanen, Topi; Hirsto, Laura; Lonka, Kirsti
Studying in higher education requires long-term commitment. Previous studies have shown that commitment, perceived competence, intrinsic motivation and work-life orientation are positively related to academic achievement. This study examines the kinds of goals theology students have at the beginning of studies, and whether these goals are related…
Lewis, Scott E.
The Achievement Goal Framework describes students' goal orientations as: task-based, focusing on the successful completion of the task; self-based, evaluating performance relative to one's own past performance; or other-based, evaluating performance relative to the performance of others. Goal orientations have been used to explain student success…
Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
Objectives. To compare the achievement goal orientations of first-year with those of third-year undergraduate Australian pharmacy students and to examine the relationship of goal orientations to academic achievement. Methods. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to first-year and third-year students during class time. Students’ grades were obtained from course coordinators. Results. More first-year students adopted performance-approach and mastery-approach goals than did third-year students. Performance-approach goals were positively correlated with academic achievement in the first year. Chinese Australian students scored the highest in adopting performance-approach goals. Vietnamese Australian students adopted mastery-avoidance goals more than other ethnicities. First-year students were more strongly performance approach goal-oriented than third-year students. Conclusion. Adopting performance-approach goals was positively correlated with academic achievement, while adopting avoidance goals was not. Ethnicity has an effect on the adoption of achievement goals and academic achievement. PMID:25258438
Full Text Available This research has been investigating one of the most contemporary approaches of achievement motivation - Achievement Goal Theory, which uses the construct of achievement goals. The construct of achievement goals involves three types of achievement goals: mastery goals, performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals. The main goal of the research was to examine correlation between perfectionism and its aspects with particular types of achievement goals. Also, the goal was to investigate the difference concerning gender regarding the achievement goals. The sample consisted of 200 senior year high school participants. The following instruments were used: Multi-dimensional scale of perfectionism (MSP and Test of achievement goals (TCP. The research results indicate that there is significant positive correlation between: perfectionism with performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals, concern over mistakes and parental expectations with performance approach goals and performance avoidance goals, personal standards and organization with mastery goals and performance approach goals, parental criticism and doubts about action with performance avoidance goals. Significant negative correlation was found between parental criticism and mastery goals. The results concerning the second goal indicates the female subjects have higher average scores in mastery goals.
Sungur, Semra; Senler, Burcu
The present study aimed at investigating elementary students' academic motivation (intrinsic motivation, external regulation, introjected regulation, identified regulation, and amotivation), achievement goals (mastery approach goals, mastery avoidance goals, performance approach goals, performance avoidance goals), competence expectancies, and…
Jang, Leong Yeok; Liu, Woon Chia
This study sought to better understand the adoption of multiple achievement goals at an intra-individual level, and its links to emotional well-being, learning, and academic achievement. Participants were 480 Secondary Two students (aged between 13 and 14 years) from two coeducational government schools. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed the…
Kim, Sun; Hur, Yera; Park, Joo Hyun
The purpose of this study is to investigate the pursuit of achievement goals in medical students and to assess the relationship between achievement goals, learning strategy, and motivation. Two hundred seventy freshman and sophomore premedical students and sophomore medical school students participated in this study, which used the Achievement Goals Scale and the Self-Regulated Learning Strategy Questionnaire. The achievement goals of medical students were oriented toward moderate performance approach levels, slightly high performance avoidance levels, and high mastery goals. About 40% of the students were high or low in all three achievement goals. The most successful adaptive learners in the areas of learning strategies, motivation, and school achievement were students from group 6, who scored high in both performance approach and mastery goals but low in performance avoidance goals. And goal achievement are related to the academic self-efficacy, learning strategies, and motivation in medical students. In the context of academic achievement, mastery goals and performance approach goals are adaptive goals.
Stronge, James H.; Grant, Leslie W.
The first book in the James H. Stronge Research-to-Practice series focuses on improving student achievement through academic goal setting. It offers the tools and plan of action to use performance data to improve instructional practice and increase student achievement. The book is divided into three parts: (1) How Student Achievement Data Can Be…
Ning, Hoi Kwan
This study examined the psychometric properties of the Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) in a sample of Singapore secondary students (N = 1,171). Confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the AGQ-R in measuring the four achievements goals delineated in the 2 × 2 framework. Measurement invariance across ethnic groups was…
Walker, Christopher O.
The goal of the current study was to examine the predictive relationships among a set of cognitive-motivational variables that have been found in previous studies to support academic achievement. Student perception of a classroom's achievement goal structure (classroom mastery, classroom performance-approach, classroom performance-avoidance) was…
Ganesan, Rajalakshmi; Mamat, Norul Hidayah Bt; Mellor, David; Rizzuto, Laura; Kolar, Christina
The present study investigated academic procrastination in the context of the 2 x 2 goal achievement theoretical framework within a population of 450 Malaysian undergraduate students, aged 18 to 25 years. Participants completed the Achievement Goal Questionnaire and the Tuckman Procrastination Test. Approach dimensions of both the mastery and…
Luo, Wenshu; Hogan, David J.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Sheng, Yee Zher; Aye, Khin Maung
This study investigates attributional beliefs of Singapore secondary students in their English study and how they can be predicted by self-construal, competence and achievement goals. A total of 1,496 students were administered surveys on seven attributions, independent and interdependent self-construals, previous achievement, self-efficacy,…
Regner, Isabelle; Loose, Florence; Dumas, Florence
The present study examined whether students' perceptions of two major facets of parental and teacher academic involvement (i.e., academic support and academic monitoring), contribute to the process of students' achievement goals adoption. French junior high-school students completed two questionnaires assessing first their perceptions of parental…
Full Text Available This paper sheds light on the link between achievement goals, motivation, and parental expectations in a sample of 600 students attending higher education institutions in Kosovo. Aside from exploring the stipulated link between the constructs, the research aims to discover whether cultural differences mediate expected results. The results proved that the mastery of goals positively correlates to intrinsic motivation in addition to which curiosity as a subscale of intrinsic motivation positively predicted preferences for the mastery of goals. As expected, performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals, correlated to extrinsic motivation with extrinsic motivation, successfully predict preferences for both types of performance goals. The data proved that among students in Kosovo, all types of goals correlated to intrinsic motivation. Achievement goals were differentiated in extrinsic motivation with mastery goals correlating rather weakly to only one subscale of extrinsic motivation.
Hejazi, Elaheh; Lavasani, Masoud Gholamali; Amani, Habib; Was, Christopher A.
The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between academic identity status, goal orientations and academic achievement. 301 first year high school students completed the Academic Identity Measure and Goal Orientation Questionnaire. The average of 10 exam scores in the final semester was used as an index of academic…
Agbuga, Bulent; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E
This study utilized the 2x2 achievement goal model (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance goals) to explore the relationships between achievement goals and self-reported personal and social responsibility behaviors in high school physical education settings. Two hundred and twenty one Turkish students completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, personal and social responsibility behaviors. Results of the one-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences among the four achievement goals, F(3, 660) = 137.05, p social responsibility (r = .38, p responsibility behaviors, and b = .41, t(216) = 5.23, p social responsibility behaviors. These findings seem to provide convergent evidence that mastery-approach goals are positively related to positive educational outcomes.
Liu, Woon Chia; Wang, C K John; Tan, Oon Seng; Ee, Jessie; Koh, Caroline
The project work (PW) initiative was launched in 2000 by the Ministry of Education, Singapore, to encourage application of knowledge across disciplines, and to develop thinking, communication, collaboration, and metacognitive skills. Although PW has been introduced for a few years, few studies have examined the motivation of students in PW, especially with the use of the recently proposed 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. To use a cluster analytic approach to identify students' achievement goal profiles at an intra-individual level, and to examine their links to various psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Participants were 491 Secondary 2 students (mean age = 13.78, SD = 0.77) from two government coeducational schools. Cluster analysis was performed to identify distinct subgroups of students with similar achievement goal profiles. One-way MANOVAs, followed by post hoc Tukey HSD tests for pairwise comparisons were used to determine whether there was any significant difference amongst clusters in terms of the psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes in PW. Four distinct clusters of students were identified. The cluster with high achievement goals and the cluster with moderately high goals had the most positive psychological characteristics and perceived outcomes. In contrast, the cluster with very low scores for all four achievement goals had the most maladaptive profile. The study provides support for the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework, and demonstrates that multiple goals can operate simultaneously. However, it highlights the need for cross-cultural studies to look into the approach-avoidance dimension in the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.
José Concepción Gaxiola Romero
Full Text Available The academic achievement in high school students of Mexico, according to national and international evaluations has been insufficient. In spite of this situation, is possible to find excellent students, even in the context of sharing negative contextual and physical conditions. There are few investigations that describe the variables associated to resilient students. The alumni that are beyond the risks are called resilient (Rutter, 2007. The aim of this research was to explore and identify the internal variables: goals and resilience, and the external variables: risky neighborhood and risky friends that predicted the scholar achievement of high school students. To measure those variables, was used a compilation of scales validated in the region. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling, and show that resilience predicted indirectly the scholar achievement trough the academic goals. The results could be used in programs to improve the academic achievement of this group of students.
Hao, Qiang; Barnes, Brad; Wright, Ewan; Branch, Robert Maribe
This study investigated the online help-seeking behaviors of computer science students with a focus on the effect of achievement goals. The online help-seeking behaviors investigated were online searching, asking teachers online for help, and asking peers or unknown people online for help. One hundred and sixty-five students studying computer…
Meryem Yilmaz Soylu
Full Text Available The two studies reported here explored the factor structure of the newly constructed Writing Achievement Goal Scale (WAGS, and examined relationships among secondary students' writing achievement goals, writing self-efficacy, affect for writing, and writing achievement. In the first study, 697 middle school students completed the WAGS. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for this data with a three-factor model that corresponds with mastery, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals. The results of Study 1 were an indication for the researchers to move forward with Study 2, which included 563 high school students. The secondary students completed the WAGS, as well as the Self-efficacy for Writing Scale, and the Liking Writing Scale. Students also self-reported grades for writing and for language arts courses. Approximately 6 weeks later, students completed a statewide writing assessment. We tested a theoretical model representing relationships among Study 2 variables using structural equation modeling including students' responses to the study scales and students' scores on the statewide assessment. Results from Study 2 revealed a good fit between a model depicting proposed relationships among the constructs and the data. Findings are discussed relative to achievement goal theory and writing.
Yilmaz Soylu, Meryem; Zeleny, Mary G.; Zhao, Ruomeng; Bruning, Roger H.; Dempsey, Michael S.; Kauffman, Douglas F.
The two studies reported here explored the factor structure of the newly constructed Writing Achievement Goal Scale (WAGS), and examined relationships among secondary students' writing achievement goals, writing self-efficacy, affect for writing, and writing achievement. In the first study, 697 middle school students completed the WAGS. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for this data with a three-factor model that corresponds with mastery, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals. The results of Study 1 were an indication for the researchers to move forward with Study 2, which included 563 high school students. The secondary students completed the WAGS, as well as the Self-efficacy for Writing Scale, and the Liking Writing Scale. Students also self-reported grades for writing and for language arts courses. Approximately 6 weeks later, students completed a statewide writing assessment. We tested a theoretical model representing relationships among Study 2 variables using structural equation modeling including students' responses to the study scales and students' scores on the statewide assessment. Results from Study 2 revealed a good fit between a model depicting proposed relationships among the constructs and the data. Findings are discussed relative to achievement goal theory and writing. PMID:28878707
Stack-Cutler, Holly L.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university…
Stamovlasis, Dimitrios; Gonida, Sofia-Eleftheria N
The present study used achievement goal theory (AGT) as a theoretical framework and examined the role of mastery and performance goals, both performance-approach and performance-avoidance, on school achieve-ment within the nonlinear dynamical systems (NDS) perspective. A series of cusp catastrophe models were applied on students' achievement in a number of school subjects, such as mathematics and language for elementary school and algebra, geometry, ancient and modern Greek language for high school, using achievement goal orientations as control variables. The participants (N=224) were students attending fifth and eighth grade (aged 11 and 14, respectively) in public schools located in northern Greece. Cusp analysis based on the probability density function was carried out by two procedures, the maximum likelihood and the least squares. The results showed that performance-approach goals had no linear effect on achievement, while the cusp models implementing mastery goals as the asymmetry factor and performance-avoidance as the bifurcation, proved superior to their linear alternatives. The results of the study based on NDS support the multiple goal perspective within AGT. Theoretical issues, educational implications and future directions are discussed.
Lazarides, Rebecca; Rubach, Charlott
This longitudinal study examined relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning, support for autonomy, and competence in mathematic classrooms (Time 1), and students' achievement goal orientations and engagement in mathematics 6 months later (Time 2). We tested whether student-perceived instructional characteristics at Time 1 indirectly related to student engagement at Time 2, via their achievement goal orientations (Time 2), and, whether student gender moderated these relationships. Participants were ninth and tenth graders (55.2% girls) from 46 classrooms in ten secondary schools in Berlin, Germany. Only data from students who participated at both timepoints were included (N = 746 out of total at Time 1 1118; dropout 33.27%). Longitudinal structural equation modeling showed that student-perceived teaching for meaning and support for competence indirectly predicted intrinsic motivation and effort, via students' mastery goal orientation. These paths were equivalent for girls and boys. The findings are significant for mathematics education, in identifying motivational processes that partly explain the relationships between student-perceived teaching for meaning and competence support and intrinsic motivation and effort in mathematics.
McGloin, Rory; McGillicuddy, Kara T.; Christensen, John L.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether students with differing goal achievement orientations were more likely to engage in on-task or off-task mobile device usage, as well as whether particular devices (specifically, laptops and smartphones) have a positive or negative relationship with specific task usage. The results of this study…
Phan, Huy Phuong
Recent research indicates that study processing strategies, effort, reflective thinking practice, and achievement goals are important factors contributing to the prediction of students' academic success. Very few studies have combined these theoretical orientations within one conceptual model. This study tested a conceptual model that included, in…
King, Ronnel B.; Ganotice, Fraide A.; Watkins, David A.
We examined how achievement (mastery and performance) and social goals (affiliation, approval, concern, and status) influenced various learning outcomes in two collectivist cultures. Filipino (n = 355) and Hong Kong Chinese (n = 697) secondary students answered the relevant questionnaires. Regression analyses using mastery, performance, and social…
Huy P. Phan
Full Text Available Using the Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R (Elliot & Murayama, 2008, we explored first-year university students’ achievement goal orientations on the premise of the 2 × 2 model. Similar to recent studies (Elliot & Murayama, 2008; Elliot & Thrash, 2010, we conceptualized a model that included both antecedent (i.e., enactive learning experience and consequence (i.e., intrinsic motivation and academic achievement of achievement goals. Two hundred seventy-seven university students (151 women, 126 men participated in the study. Structural equation modeling procedures yielded evidence that showed the predictive effects of enactive learning experience and mastery goals on intrinsic motivation. Academic achievement was influenced intrinsic motivation, performance-approach goals, and enactive learning experience. Enactive learning experience also served as an antecedent of the four achievement goal types. On the whole, evidence obtained supports the AGQ-R and contributes, theoretically, to 2 × 2 model.
Full Text Available There seems to be a general consensus in the literature that doing homework is beneficial for students. Thus, the current challenge is to examine the process of doing homework to find which variables may help students to complete the homework assigned. To address this goal, a path analysis model was fit. The model hypothesized that the way students engage in homework is explained by the type of academic goals set, and it explains the amount of time spend on homework, the homework time management, and the amount of homework done. Lastly, the amount of homework done is positively related to academic achievement. The model was fit using a sample of 535 Spanish students from the last three courses of elementary school (aged 9 to 13. Findings show that: (a academic achievement was positively associated with the amount of homework completed, (b the amount of homework completed was related to the homework time management, (c homework time management was associated with the approach to homework; (d and the approach to homework, like the rest of the variables of the model (except for the time spent on homework, was related to the student's academic motivation (i.e., academic goals.
Full Text Available Youth affiliation to physical activity and their active implication in sport throughout life, are two of the main objectives in Physical Education. In this research we examine the relationship between the achievement goals and the perceived competence in Physical Education since the recent theoretical framework of 3x2 achievement goals. The sample comprised 205 (113 boys and 92 girls, aged 12 and 18 years (M =14,02; SD = 1,70, all of them belonging to two Secondary School in the North of Spain. These students completed the 3x2 Achievement Goal Questionnaire (CML3x2-EF and the perceived competence subscale factor included in the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES, also adapted to Physical Education. We performed descriptive analysis (M and DT, Cronbach alphas and linear regression analysis by stepwise. The results showed a positive correlation between the six goals of achievement and the perceived competence, being particularly high value of approach-task and approach-self. The three approach goals (approach-task, approach-self, approach-other significantly predicted the perceived competence (ß = 0,43; 0,18; 0,20, respectively.
Wei-Ting Hsu, Hsiu-Hua Li, Yi-Hsiang Pan
Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether goal orientations were related to students’ self-reported misbehaviors in physical education and to examine whether the effects were mediated by moral disengagement. A two-study project employing structural equation modeling was conducted with high school students (Study 1, n = 287; Study 2, n = 296. In Study 1, the results showed that mastery-avoidance goals were unable to predict five misbehaviors (i.e., aggressive behavior, low engagement, failure to follow directions, poor self-management, and distracting behavior. Mastery-approach goals negatively predicted low engagement, failure to follow directions, and poor self-management. Performance-approach goals positively predicted aggressive and distracting behaviors, while performance-avoidance goals positively predicted all five misbehaviors. In Study 2, the results indicated that the positive relationships between performance-approach goals and misbehaviors and between performance-avoidance goals and misbehaviors were mediated by moral disengagement. These results are discussed in terms of the model of achievement goals, and implications for physical education are also highlighted.
Stack-Cutler, Holly L; Parrila, Rauno K; Jokisaari, Markku; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
We examine (a) what social ties university students with a history of reading difficulty (RD) report assisting them to achieve their goals, (b) outlets available for developing social ties, (c) resources mobilized within these relationships, and (d) the impact of social ties' status on academic achievement. Participants were 107 university students with RD who were currently completing or had recently completed a university degree. Results showed that university students with RD named friends, parents, and significant others (e.g., boy/girlfriend, spouse) as social ties most often. Personal social ties were developed through social media networking sites and within close relationships, and institutional social ties through academic centers and university general services, among others. Resources mobilized among personal and institutional social ties included emotional and social support, advice and planning, writing and studying help, and goal setting. Institutional social ties also afforded job search assistance, accommodations, skill development, financial support, and mental health services. Finally, the status of employed, but not student, social ties explained academic achievement. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
Alrakaf, Saleh; Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
To identify pharmacy students' preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students' achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge.
Martin, Andrew J.; Elliot, Andrew J.
This study assessed the role of prior personal best goals in predicting subsequent academic motivation and engagement. A total of 1160 high school students participated in a longitudinal survey study exploring the extent to which personal best and mastery and performance (dichotomous) achievement goals predict students' academic motivation and…
Norman, Sonya B; Rosen, Jay; Himmerich, Sara; Myers, Ursula S; Davis, Brittany; Browne, Kendall C; Piland, Neill
According to recent estimates, over 1 million Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans are utilizing the post-9/11 GI Bill to pursue higher education. Data collected by the Department of Defense suggests that greater than 17% of returning Veterans may suffer from mental and physical health disorders, which can negatively affect school performance. The current study explored student Veterans' perceived facilitators and barriers to achieving academic goals. Thirty-one student Veterans completed self-report measures and interviews. Results suggested that Veterans that were reporting problems or symptoms in one mental or physical health domain were likely to be reporting symptoms or problems in others as well. The interview data were coded, and three overarching themes related to barriers and facilitators emerged: person features (e.g., discipline and determination, symptoms and stressors), institutional structure (i.e., what schools and the Department of Veterans Affairs do that was perceived to help or hinder student Veteran success), and policy concerns (i.e., how the structure of the GI Bill affects student Veteran school experience). Results from this research indicate the need for larger studies and program development efforts aimed at enhancing academic outcomes for Veterans.
The purpose of this study was to empirically investigate the relationship between time perspective and achievement goals among 144 community college students engaged in a first-year experience course. A 4 X 5 correlational model was utilized to examine the relationship between four different achievement goals as measured by scores on the…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations, for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation. Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT, is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. Methods 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS, psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT. Results All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90 and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S (β = .16, p Conclusions The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.
Madjar, Nir; Bachner, Yaacov G; Kushnir, Talma
Psychosocial competence and frustration tolerance are important characteristics of skilled medical professionals. In the present study we explored the usefulness of applying a comprehensive motivational theory (Goal orientations), for this purpose. According to goal orientation theory, learning motivation is defined as the general goals students pursue during learning (either mastery goals - gaining new knowledge; or performance goals - gaining a positive evaluation of competence or avoiding negative evaluation). Perceived psychosocial abilities are a desirable outcome, and low frustration tolerance (LFT), is a negative feature of student behavior. The hypothesis was that the mastery goal would be positively associated with psychosocial abilities while performance goals would be positively associated with LFT. 143 first-year medical students completed at the end of an annual doctor-patient communication course a structured questionnaire that included measures of learning goal orientations (assessed by Pattern of Adaptive Learning Scale - PALS), psychosocial abilities (assessed by Psychological Medicine Inventory- student version -PMI-S) and Low Frustration Tolerance (LFT). All study variables were found reliable (Cronbach's α ranged from .66 to .90) and normally distributed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis revealed significant associations supporting the hypotheses. The mastery goal orientation was positively associated with perceived psychosocial abilities (PMI-S) (β = .16, p frustration tolerance (β = -.22, p frustration tolerance (β = .36, p < .001). The results suggest that the goal orientations theory may be a useful theoretical framework for understanding and facilitating learning motivation among medical students. Limitations and suggestions for practice within medical education context are discussed.
Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.
Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In order to test the model, group measures of mastery-approach goal orientation, performance-avoidance goal orientation, self-efficacy, and achievement were employed. Students’ cognitive processing was a...
Senko, Corwin; Tropiano, Katie L.
Achievement goal theory (Dweck, 1986) initially characterized mastery goals and performance goals as opposites in a good-bad dualism of student motivation. A later revision (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998) contended that both goals can provide benefits and be pursued together. Perhaps both frameworks are correct: Their contrasting views…
The main purpose of this study was to examine the mediator and moderator role of self-handicapping and achievement goal orientations variables on the relationship between negative automatic thoughts intrinsic achievement motivation in high school students. 586 high school students, ranging in age from 14 to 20 (M = 16.08), adolescence students…
Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Demirhan, Giyasettin
The aim of this study was to analyse whether conducting physical education lessons according to different motivational climates leads to a significant difference between students' achievement goals, motivational strategies and attitudes towards physical education. Participants (81-ninth grade students) were allocated to one of three experimental…
Valdés-Cuervo, Angel Alberto; Sánchez Escobedo, Pedro Antonio; Valadez-Sierra, María Dolores
The study compares self-concept, locus of control, and goal orientation characteristics of male and female Mexican high school high-achieving students. Three scales were administered to 220 students; 106 (49%) were males and 114 (51%) females. By means of a discriminant analysis, both groups were compared in relation to the variables such as…
Sins, Patrick H.M.; van Joolingen, Wouter; Savelsbergh, Elwin R.; van Hout-Wolters, Bernadette
Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In
Sins, P.H.M.; van Joolingen, W.R.; Savelsbergh, E.R.; van Hout-Wolters, B.H.A.M.
Purpose of the present study was to test a conceptual model of relations among achievement goal orientation, self-efficacy, cognitive processing, and achievement of students working within a particular collaborative task context. The task involved a collaborative computer-based modeling task. In
Diseth, Age; Danielsen, Anne G.; Samdal, Oddrun
Teachers' support of basic psychological needs, self-efficacy, achievement goals, life satisfaction and academic achievement level was measured in a sample of 240 secondary school students (8th and 10th grades). Correlation analysis showed significant positive relations between all of the variables, except for the relation between need support of…
Castejón, Juan L.; Gilar, Raquel; Veas, Alejandro; Miñano, Pablo
The aims of this work were to identify and establish differential characteristics in learning strategies, goal orientations, and self-concept between overachieving, normal-achieving and underachieving secondary students. A total of 1400 Spanish first and second year high school students from the South-East geographical area participated in this study. Three groups of students were established: a group with underachieving students, a group with a normal level of achievement, and a third group with overachieving students. The students were assigned to each group depending on the residual punctuations obtained from a multiple regression analysis in which the punctuation of an IQ test was the predictor and a measure composed of the school grades of nine subjects was the criteria. The results of one-way ANOVA and the Games-Howell post-hoc test showed that underachieving students had significantly lower punctuations in all of the measures of learning strategies and learning goals, as well as all of the academic self-concept, personal self-concept, parental relationship, honesty, and personal stability factors. In contrast, overachieving students had higher punctuations than underachieving students in the same variables and higher punctuations than normal-achieving students in most of the variables in which significant differences were detected. These results have clear educational implications. PMID:27729879
Putwain, David W.; Sander, Paul
This study examined the changes in students' academic behavioural confidence over the course of their first year of academic study and whether changes differ by their achievement goal profile. Self-report data were collected from 434 participants in three waves: at the beginning of the first semester of their first year of undergraduate study, at…
Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.
The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496
Moryl, Rebecca L.
In this article, the author describes a group project to create student-generated podcasts on economics topics. This project provides an innovative opportunity for students to demonstrate proficiency in skills required for the undergraduate economics major and valued in the professional marketplace. Results of a student self-assessment survey on…
Full Text Available Introduction: Identifying affecting factors on academic procrastination is considered as a common psychological trauma in academic environments. Thus, this study aimed to provide a model predicts academic procrastination on the basis of personality traits and achievement goals. Methods: This cross sectional analytic study consisted of 258 students of faculty of nursing, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences who were chosen via randomized stratified ratio sampling and answered to a self-report questionnaire consisted of achievement goals, personality traits, and academic procrastination. Results: Analyzing the data showed that a neurosis personality trait had an indirect and positive effect on students’ academic procrastination. Also, the personality traits such as extraversion, consciousness, agreeableness and openness to experience had an indirect and negative effect on students’ academic procrastination. Conclusion: According to the findings, planners of nursing courses should provide a fresh scientific environment to create a bed for formation of positive personality traits in students so that they can provide a context for adopting an appropriate goal-setting pattern, and in turn, reducing academic procrastination. As well, with the implementation of personality measures and deeper understanding of the inner characteristics of learners’ personality, they can be kept safe from exposure to psychological traumas such as academic procrastination.
Sorkkila, M; Aunola, K; Salmela-Aro, K; Tolvanen, A; Ryba, T V
Student-athletes who strive for success in high-level sports while pursuing upper secondary education may be prone to sport and school burnout. This study examined the co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout in Finnish adolescent student-athletes (N time 1 = 391; N time 2 = 373) across the first year of upper secondary school using cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM). Furthermore, we used sport and school-related achievement goals as predictors of sport and school burnout, namely sport and school-related exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of inadequacy. The results showed that burnout dimensions in a particular domain were substantially stable within the same domain during the first year of upper secondary school and that school-related exhaustion at the beginning of upper secondary school predicted sport-related exhaustion at the end of the school year. Mastery goals in sport and school were negatively associated with cynicism and feelings of inadequacy within the same domain. Furthermore, performance goals in school were positively associated with school-related cynicism. The results can be used by healthcare professionals for early prevention of student-athletes' burnout. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martin, Andrew J.; Collie, Rebecca J.; Mok, Magdalena M. C.; McInerney, Dennis M.
Background: Prior cross-cultural research with students in different national contexts (Australia and China) has shown consistency in the extent to which individual personal best (PB) goals are associated with engagement at school. Aims: This study extends this work to a multicultural context, assessing perceived PB goal structure in school and…
Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.
Musa, Alice K. J.; Dauda, Bala; Umar, Mohammad A.
The paper investigated gender difference in achievement goals and performance in English Language and Mathematics of senior secondary schools students in Borno State, Nigeria. The study specifically sought to determine gender differences in students' academic performances in English Language, Mathematics and overall academic performance as well as…
Baldridge, Mary Caufield
The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a "growth mindset" intervention on the beliefs about intelligence, effort beliefs, achievement goals, and academic self-efficacy of learning disabled (LD) students with reading difficulties. The treatment group consisted of 12 high school LD students with reading difficulties. This…
Casagrand, Janet; Semsar, Katharine
Here we describe a 4-yr course reform and its outcomes. The upper-division neurophysiology course gradually transformed from a traditional lecture in 2004 to a more student-centered course in 2008, through the addition of evidence-based active learning practices, such as deliberate problem-solving practice on homework and peer learning structures, both inside and outside of class. Due to the incremental nature of the reforms and absence of pre-reform learning assessments, we needed a way to retrospectively assess the effectiveness of our efforts. To do this, we first looked at performance on 12 conserved exam questions. Students performed significantly higher post-reform on questions requiring lower-level cognitive skills and those requiring higher-level cognitive skills. Furthermore, student performance on conserved questions was higher post-reform in both the top and bottom quartiles of students, although lower-quartile student performance did not improve until after the first exam. To examine student learning more broadly, we also used Bloom's taxonomy to quantify a significant increase in the Bloom's level of exams, with students performing equally well post-reform on exams that had over twice as many questions at higher cognitive skill levels. Finally, we believe that four factors provided critical contributions to the success of the course reform, including: transformation efforts across multiple course components, alignment between formative and evaluative course materials, student buy-in to course instruction, and instructional support. This reform demonstrates both the effectiveness of incorporating student-centered, active learning into our course, and the utility of using Bloom's level as a metric to assess course reform. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Litalien, David; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; McInerney, Dennis M.
Achievement goal theory has long been a dominant model in the study of student motivation. However, a relatively small number of researchers have investigated gender differences in achievement goals or have considered the possible role that social and extrinsic goals may play in student academic motivation. Adopting a person-centered multiple…
Full Text Available As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution's culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor’s study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap.
Cecchini Estrada, José A; González González-Mesa, Carmen; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Río, Javier
This study examined the relationship between achievement and social goals, and explored how both goals affect students' level of informed self-determination in Physical Education. Participants were 395 high school students. Three scales were used to assess achievement, social goals, and motivation. Several hierarchical regression analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals were the greatest contributors to the individuals' levels of self-determination. Achievement and social goals were found to be separate predictors of students' levels of self-determination, and this highlights the importance of separating mastery and performance goals into avoidance and approach profiles. Girls reported significantly higher values than boys on responsibility, relationship, and mastery-avoidance goals, whereas boys scored higher on performance-approach goals. Researchers could use achievement and social goals to study students' motivation and achievement in Physical Education settings.
This meta-analysis synthesized 93 independent samples (N = 30,003) in 77 studies that reported in 78 articles examining correlations between achievement goals and achievement emotions. Achievement goals were meaningfully associated with different achievement emotions. The correlations of mastery and mastery approach goals with positive achievement…
Lüftenegger, Marko; van de Schoot, Rens; Schober, Barbara; Finsterwald, Monika; Spiel, Christiane
Achievement goal orientations are important for students' ongoing motivation. Students with a mastery goal orientation show the most advantageous achievement and motivational patterns. Much research has been conducted to identify classroom structures which promote students' mastery goal orientation.
I will introduce the radical concept of a final exam where the questions are given beforehand, a method I first encountered as a graduate student at Princeton University from an outstanding and well known astrophysicist and exceptional teacher, Lyman Spitzer.Every Instructor aspires for students to master all the material covered. A comprehensive final can assess the breadth and depth of their learning. Students are required to review early material in light of later topics, create connections and integrate understanding, thus retaining knowledge for the long term. Comprehensive finals can therefore be a significant basis for student learning and evaluation, but are especially daunting for non-STEM majors in required GE synthesis STEM classes. The exam format proposed here calmed student fears and encouraged thorough review.Ten days before the exam students received 20-30 challenging, well-crafted, numbered questions that interconnected and spanned the entire range of topics. The key is crafting questions that lead to deeply understanding the subject matter and mastering skills to solve problems. At the final, each student was required to pick a number out of a hat and answer that numbered question in a 5-minute presentation. They also had to critically comment on 10 other presentations of their peers. They are graded equally on both.The exam sets up definite goals for a student. Equally important, it enhances collaborative learning and peer mentoring. The conceptual questions and problems that students are required to answer can be studied together in study groups. The final presentation is theirs and they are not only encouraged but required to be constructively critical of their peer presentations.I will provide examples of some of the conceptual and problem solving questions I used. These were crafted to interconnect and span the entire range of topics. This method requires students to be prepared for all of the multitude of crafted question encouraging
Schwinger, Malte; Stiensmeier-Pelster, Joachim
Students' perceptions of classroom goals influence their adoption of personal goals. To assess different forms of classroom goals, recent studies have favoured an overall measure of performance classroom goals, compared to a two-dimensional assessment of performance-approach and performance-avoidance classroom goals (PAVCG). This paper considered the relationship between students' perceptions of classroom goals and their endorsement of personal achievement goals. We proposed that three (instead of only two) classroom goals need to be distinguished. We aimed to provide evidence for this hypothesis by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and also by divergent associations between the respective classroom goal and students' personal goal endorsement. A total of 871 (474 female) 10th grade students from several German high schools participated in this study. Students responded to items assessing their perception of mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals in the classroom. Additionally, the students reported how much they personally pursue mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. All items referred to German as a specific school subject. RESULTS.A CFA yielded empirical support for the proposed distinction of three (instead of only two) different kinds of classroom goals. Moreover, in hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) analyses all three classroom goals showed unique associations with students' personal goal adoption. The findings emphasized the need to distinguish performance-approach and PAVCG. Furthermore, our results suggest that multiple classroom goals have interactive effects on students' personal achievement strivings. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Miki, Kaori; Yamauchi, Hirotsugu
We examined the relations among students' perceptions of classroom goal structures (mastery and performance goal structures), students' achievement goal orientations (mastery, performance, and work-avoidance goals), and learning strategies (deep processing, surface processing and self-handicapping strategies). Participants were 323 5th and 6th grade students in elementary schools. The results from structural equation modeling indicated that perceptions of classroom mastery goal structures were associated with students' mastery goal orientations, which were in turn related positively to the deep processing strategies and academic achievement. Perceptions of classroom performance goal stractures proved associated with work avoidance-goal orientations, which were positively related to the surface processing and self-handicapping strategies. Two types of goal structures had a positive relation with students' performance goal orientations, which had significant positive effects on academic achievement. The results of this study suggest that elementary school students' perceptions of mastery goal structures are related to adaptive patterns of learning more than perceptions of performance goal structures are. The role of perceptions of classroom goal structure in promoting students' goal orientations and learning strategies is discussed.
In 2000, the United Nations (UN) made a Millennium Declaration that commits governments across the globe to develop the lives of the people by 2015. This declaration is known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper will examine the role that every government has to play in achieving the goals by focusing ...
Babenko, Oksana; Mosewich, Amber; Abraham, Joseph; Lai, Hollis
To investigate the contributions of psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) and coping strategies (self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and achievement goals) to engagement and exhaustion in Canadian medical students. This was an observational study. Two hundred undergraduate medical students participated in the study: 60.4% were female, 95.4% were 20-29 years old, and 23.0% were in year 1, 30.0% in year 2, 21.0% in year 3, and 26.0% in year 4. Students completed an online survey with measures of engagement and exhaustion from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory-student version; autonomy, competence, and relatedness from the Basic Psychological Needs Scale; self-compassion from the Self-Compassion Scale-short form; leisure-time exercise from the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire; and mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals from the Achievement Goals Instrument. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. The need for competence was the strongest predictor of student engagement (β= 0.35, P= 0.000) and exhaustion (β= -0.33, P= 0.000). Students who endorsed mastery approach goals (β= 0.21, P= 0.005) and who were more self-compassionate (β= 0.13, P= 0.050) reported greater engagement with their medical studies. Students who were less self-compassionate (β= -0.32, P= 0.000), who exercised less (β= -0.12, P= 0.044), and who endorsed mastery avoidance goals (β= 0.22, P= 0.003) reported greater exhaustion from their studies. Students' gender (β= 0.18, P= 0.005) and year in medical school (β= -0.18, P= 0.004) were related to engagement, but not to exhaustion. Supporting students' need for competence and raising students' awareness of self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and mastery approach goals may help protect students from burnout-related exhaustion and enhance their engagement with their medical school studies.
Daniels, Lia M.; Haynes, Tara L.; Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Newall, Nancy E.; Pekrun, Reinhard
Within achievement goal theory debate remains regarding the adaptiveness of certain combinations of goals. Assuming a multiple-goals perspective, we used cluster analysis to classify 1002 undergraduate students according to their mastery and performance-approach goals. Four clusters emerged, representing different goal combinations: high…
Crouzevialle, Marie; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio
We tested whether the goal to attain normative superiority over other students, referred to as performance-approach goals, is particularly distractive for high-Working Memory Capacity (WMC) students—that is, those who are used to being high achievers. Indeed, WMC is positively related to high-order cognitive performance and academic success, a record of success that confers benefits on high-WMC as compared to low-WMC students. We tested whether such benefits may turn out to be a burden under performance-approach goal pursuit. Indeed, for high achievers, aiming to rise above others may represent an opportunity to reaffirm their positive status—a stake susceptible to trigger disruptive outcome concerns that interfere with task processing. Results revealed that with performance-approach goals—as compared to goals with no emphasis on social comparison—the higher the students’ WMC, the lower their performance at a complex arithmetic task (Experiment 1). Crucially, this pattern appeared to be driven by uncertainty regarding the chances to outclass others (Experiment 2). Moreover, an accessibility measure suggested the mediational role played by status-related concerns in the observed disruption of performance. We discuss why high-stake situations can paradoxically lead high-achievers to sub-optimally perform when high-order cognitive performance is at play. PMID:26407097
Gherasim, Loredana Ruxandra; Butnaru, Simona; Mairean, Cornelia
This study investigated how gender shapes the relationships between classroom environment, achievement goals and maths performance. Seventh-grade students ("N"?=?498) from five urban secondary schools filled in achievement goal orientations and classroom environment scales at the beginning of the second semester. Maths performance was…
Midgley, Carol; Urdan, Tim
This study extends previous research on the relations among students' personal achievement goals, perceptions of the classroom goal structure, and reports of the use of self-handicapping strategies. Surveys, specific to the math domain, were given to 484 7th-grade students in nine middle schools. Personal performance-avoid goals positively predicted handicapping, whereas personal performance-approach goals did not. Personal task goals negatively predicted handicapping. Perceptions of a performance goal structure positively predicted handicapping, and perceptions of a task goal structure negatively predicted handicapping, independent of personal goals. Median splits used to examine multiple goal profiles revealed that students high in performance-avoid goals used handicapping more than did those low in performance-avoid goals regardless of the level of task goals. Students low in performance-avoid goals and high in task goals handicapped less than those low in both goals. Level of performance-approach goals had little effect on the relation between task goals and handicapping. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.
Full Text Available Purpose To investigate the contributions of psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness and coping strategies (self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and achievement goals to engagement and exhaustion in Canadian medical students. Methods This was an observational study. Two hundred undergraduate medical students participated in the study: 60.4% were female, 95.4% were 20–29 years old, and 23.0% were in year 1, 30.0% in year 2, 21.0% in year 3, and 26.0% in year 4. Students completed an online survey with measures of engagement and exhaustion from the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory–student version; autonomy, competence, and relatedness from the Basic Psychological Needs Scale; self-compassion from the Self-Compassion Scale–short form; leisure-time exercise from the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire; and mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals from the Achievement Goals Instrument. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. Results The need for competence was the strongest predictor of student engagement (β= 0.35, P= 0.000 and exhaustion (β= −0.33, P= 0.000. Students who endorsed mastery approach goals (β= 0.21, P= 0.005 and who were more self-compassionate (β= 0.13, P= 0.050 reported greater engagement with their medical studies. Students who were less self-compassionate (β= −0.32, P= 0.000, who exercised less (β= −0.12, P= 0.044, and who endorsed mastery avoidance goals (β= 0.22, P= 0.003 reported greater exhaustion from their studies. Students’ gender (β= 0.18, P= 0.005 and year in medical school (β= −0.18, P= 0.004 were related to engagement, but not to exhaustion. Conclusion Supporting students’ need for competence and raising students’ awareness of self-compassion, leisure-time exercise, and mastery approach goals may help protect students from burnout-related exhaustion and enhance their engagement with their medical school
Lee, Jie Qi; McInerney, Dennis M.; Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Ortiga, Yasmin P.
This research aimed to study the relationships between students' future goals (FGs) and their immediate achievement goal orientations (AGOs) among 5733 Singaporean secondary school students (M age = 14.18, SD = 1.26; 53% boys). To this end, we hypothesized that the relationships between like valenced FGs and AGOs (both intrinsic or both extrinsic)…
Achieving the sustainable development goals: transforming public health ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The conference focused on transforming public health education and practice in the context of South Africa.
Full Text Available A key factor in achieving educational goals is collaboration between lecturers at faculty and departmental level, and librarians. Experience has shown that generic skills should be integrated into courses. For example, exercises in information searching, criticism of sources of information and group work will only be meaningful if they are clearly related to the students' subject of study. This is a challenging logistical problem in large groups of students. In the spring of 2009, we started working on the introduction and integration of generic skills using two variations of a model. The experience gained from these initial attempts has been applied in the introduction of first-year university students. To date (autumn term 2012, almost 900 students starting programmes in Engineering Physics, Environmental Engineering, and Industrial Management and Engineering, have taken part in a compulsory introductory course.
Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics learners with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... in recognising methods to direct learners' goals for better engagement with and improved results in mathematics, which could support learners to develop to their full potential in the subject.
A quantitative, exploratory research design was used. ... Goals affect how learners approach mathematics learning activities, which could ... research on academic success and ADHD has focused on reading ... from the data analysis process. ... Achievement goal orientation is based on a ...... Research design: Qualitative,.
Trexler, Cary, Ed.
Nine theme articles focus on the need for students to be conversationally literate about agriculture, food, fiber, and natural resources systems. Discusses the definition of conversational literacy, the human and institutional resources needed, and exemplary models for promoting literacy. (JOW)
Geller, Jason; Toftness, Alexander R; Armstrong, Patrick I; Carpenter, Shana K; Manz, Carly L; Coffman, Clark R; Lamm, Monica H
Prior research by Hartwig and Dunlosky [(2012). Study strategies of college students: Are self-testing and scheduling related to achievement? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19(1), 126-134] has demonstrated that beliefs about learning and study strategies endorsed by students are related to academic achievement: higher performing students tend to choose more effective study strategies and are more aware of the benefits of self-testing. We examined whether students' achievement goals, independent of academic achievement, predicted beliefs about learning and endorsement of study strategies. We administered Hartwig and Dunlosky's survey, along with the Achievement Goals Questionnaire [Elliot, A. J., & McGregor, H. A. (2001). A 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 501-519] to a large undergraduate biology course. Similar to results by Hartwig and Dunlosky, we found that high-performing students (relative to low-performing students) were more likely to endorse self-testing, less likely to cram, and more likely to plan a study schedule ahead of time. Independent of achievement, however, achievement goals were stronger predictors of certain study behaviours. In particular, avoidance goals (e.g., fear of failure) coincided with increased use of cramming and the tendency to be driven by impending deadlines. Results suggest that individual differences in student achievement, as well as the underlying reasons for achievement, are important predictors of students' approaches to studying.
Hornstra, Lisette; Majoor, Marieke; Peetsma, Thea
The multiple goal perspective posits that certain combinations of achievement goals are more favourable than others in terms of educational outcomes. This study aimed to examine longitudinally whether students' achievement goal profiles and transitions between profiles are associated with developments in self-reported and teacher-rated effort and academic achievement in upper elementary school. Participants were 722 fifth-grade students and their teachers in fifth and sixth grade (N = 68). Students reported on their achievement goals and effort in language and mathematics three times in grade 5 to grade 6. Teachers rated students' general school effort. Achievement scores were obtained from school records. Goal profiles were derived with latent profile and transition analyses. Longitudinal multilevel analyses were conducted. Theoretically favourable goal profiles (high mastery and performance-approach goals, low on performance-avoidance goals), as well as transitions from less to more theoretically favourable goal profiles, were associated with higher levels and more growth in effort for language and mathematics and with stronger language achievement gains. Overall, these results provide support for the multiple goal perspective and show the sustained benefits of favourable goal profiles beyond effects of cognitive ability and background characteristics. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Education Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Zusho, Akane; Clayton, Karen
This article is primarily designed to provide a cultural analysis of the literature on achievement goals. First, an overview of the four dominant approaches to the study of culture--namely, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, indigenous psychology, and psychological anthropology--is offered. Second, we analyze the extant body of…
Diseth, Age; Kobbeltvedt, Therese
Previous research is inconclusive regarding antecedents and consequences of achievement goals, and there is a need for more research in order to examine the joint effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement. To investigate the relationship between achievement motives, achievement goals, learning strategies (deep, surface, and strategic), and academic achievement in a hierarchical model. Participants were 229 undergraduate students (mean age: 21.2 years) of psychology and economics at the University of Bergen, Norway. Variables were measured by means of items from the Achievement Motives Scale (AMS), the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students, and an achievement goal scale. Correlation analysis showed that academic achievement (examination grade) was positively correlated with performance-approach goal, mastery goal, and strategic learning strategies, and negatively correlated with performance-avoidance goal and surface learning strategy. A path analysis (structural equation model) showed that achievement goals were mediators between achievement motives and learning strategies, and that strategic learning strategies mediated the relationship between achievement goals and academic achievement. This study integrated previous findings from several studies and provided new evidence on the direct and indirect effects of different types of motives and learning strategies as predictors of academic achievement.
Michou, Aikaterini; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Mouratidis, Athanasios; Lens, Willy
The hierarchical model of achievement motivation presumes that achievement goals channel the achievement motives of need for achievement and fear of failure towards motivational outcomes. Yet, less is known whether autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals can serve as additional pathways between achievement motives and outcomes. We tested whether mastery approach, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and their underlying autonomous and controlling reasons would jointly explain the relation between achievement motives (i.e., fear of failure and need for achievement) and learning strategies (Study 1). Additionally, we examined whether the autonomous and controlling reasons underlying learners' dominant achievement goal would account for the link between achievement motives and the educational outcomes of learning strategies and cheating (Study 2). Six hundred and six Greek adolescent students (Mage = 15.05, SD = 1.43) and 435 university students (Mage M = 20.51, SD = 2.80) participated in studies 1 and 2, respectively. In both studies, a correlational design was used and the hypotheses were tested via path modelling. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying the pursuit of achievement goals mediated, respectively, the relation of need for achievement and fear of failure to aspects of learning outcomes. Autonomous and controlling reasons underlying achievement goals could further explain learners' functioning in achievement settings. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Ntoumanis, Nikos; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Smith, Alison L
Elliot and colleagues (2006) examined the effects of experimentally induced achievement goals, proposed by the trichotomous model, on self-handicapping and performance in physical education. Our study replicated and extended the work of Elliot et al. by experimentally promoting all four goals proposed by the 2 x 2 model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), measuring the participants' own situational achievement goals, using a relatively novel task, and testing the participants in a group setting. We used a randomized experimental design with four conditions that aimed to induce one of the four goals advanced by the 2 x 2 model. The participants (n = 138) were undergraduates who engaged in a dart-throwing task. The results pertaining to self-handicapping partly replicated Elliot and colleagues' findings by showing that experimentally promoted performance-avoidance goals resulted in less practice. In contrast, the promotion of mastery-avoidance goals did not result in less practice compared with either of the approach goals. Dart-throwing performance did not differ among the four goal conditions. Personal achievement goals did not moderate the effects of experimentally induced goals on self-handicapping and performance. The extent to which mastery-avoidance goals are maladaptive is discussed, as well as the interplay between personal and experimentally induced goals.
In order to discuss various criteria for achieving actinide reduction goals, the goals for actinide reduction must be defined themselves. In this context the term actinides is interpreted to mean plutonium and the so called ''minor actinides'' neptunium, americium and curium, but also protactinium. Some possible goals and the reasons behind these will be presented. On the basis of the suggested goals it is possible to analyze various types of devices for production of nuclear energy from uranium or thorium, such as thermal or fast reactors and accelerator driven system, with their associated fuel cycles with regard to their ability to reach the actinide reduction goals. The relation between necessary single cycle burn-up values, fuel cycle processing losses and losses to waste will be defined and discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to arrange the possible systems on order of performance with regard to their potential to reduce the actinide inventory and the actinide losses to wastes. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs
Schrein, Caitlin M.
In the United States, there is a national agenda to increase the number of qualified science, technology, engineering, and maths (STEM) professionals and a movement to promote science literacy among the general public. This project explores the association between formal human evolutionary biology education (HEB) and high school science class enrollment, academic achievement, interest in a STEM degree program, motivation to pursue a STEM career, and socioscientific decision-making for a sample of students enrolled full-time at Arizona State University. Given a lack of a priori knowledge of these relationships, the Grounded Theory Method was used and was the foundation for a mixed-methods analysis involving qualitative and quantitative data from one-on-one interviews, focus groups, questionnaires, and an online survey. Theory development and hypothesis generation were based on data from 44 students. The survey instrument, developed to test the hypotheses, was completed by 486 undergraduates, age 18--22, who graduated from U.S. public high schools. The results showed that higher exposure to HEB was correlated with greater high school science class enrollment, particularly for advanced biological science classes, and that, for some students, HEB exposure may have influenced their enrollment, because the students found the content interesting and relevant. The results also suggested that students with higher K--12 HEB exposure felt more prepared for undergraduate science coursework. There was a positive correlation between HEB exposure and interest in a STEM degree and an indirect relationship between higher HEB exposure and motivation to pursue a STEM career. Regarding a number of socioscientific issues, including but not limited to climate change, homosexuality, and stem cell research, students' behaviors and decision-making more closely reflected a scientific viewpoint---or less-closely aligned to a religion-based perspective---when students had greater HEB exposure
The purposes of this study were to examine the predictors and achievement consequences of academic self-handicapping and to explore cultural variations in the pursuit and effects of performance goals and perceived classroom performance goal structures. Data were collected in 2 consecutive academic years from a diverse sample of high school…
Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin
The Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale was developed by Agbuga and Xiang (2008) by including selected items from the scales of Duda and Nicholls (1992), Elliot (1999), and Elliot and Church (1997) and adapting them into Turkish. The scale consists of 18 items, and students rated each item on a 7-point Likert scale. To ascertain the validity and…
Preckel, Franzis; Brunner, Martin
This longitudinal study investigated the contribution of achievement goals and academic self-concept for the prediction of unexpected academic achievement (i.e., achievement that is higher or lower than expected with respect to students' cognitive ability) in general and when comparing groups of extreme over- and underachievers. Our sample…
Stuebe, Alison M
In mammalian physiology, lactation follows pregnancy, and disruption of this physiology is associated with adverse health outcomes for mother and child. Although lactation is the physiologic norm, cultural norms for infant feeding have changed dramatically over the past century. Breastfeeding initiation fell from 70% in the early 1900s to 22% in 1972. In the past 40 years, rates have risen substantially, to 77% in 2010. Although more mothers are initiating breastfeeding, many report that they do not continue as long as they desire. As reproductive health care experts, obstetricians are uniquely positioned to assist women to make an informed feeding decision, offer anticipatory guidance, support normal lactation physiology, and evaluate and treat breastfeeding complications. Integration of care among the obstetrician, pediatric provider, and lactation consultant may enable more women to achieve their breastfeeding goals, thereby improving health outcomes across two generations.
This study was aimed at determining: (i) relationships among goal expectancy, self-efficacy, attributions and attributional dimensions, (ii) whether motivational patterns, and (iii) attributional styles, differ in accordance with conceptual levels of courses, and (iv) whether attributional style and self-efficacy influence academic achievement in courses differing in conceptual level. A literature study was undertaken to examine the nature of goals, attributions and self-eff...
Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston
Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…
Muis, Krista R; Winne, Philip H; Edwards, Ordene V
A program of research is needed that assesses the psychometric properties of instruments designed to quantify students' achievement goal orientations to clarify inconsistencies across previous studies and to provide a stronger basis for future research. We conducted traditional psychometric and modern Rasch-model analyses of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire (AGQ, Elliot & McGregor, 2001) and the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scale (PALS, Midgley et al., 2000) to provide an in-depth analysis of the two most popular instruments in educational psychology. For Study 1, 217 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty-four were male and 181 were female (two did not respond). Participants completed the AGQ in the context of their educational psychology class. For Study 2, 126 undergraduate students enrolled in educational psychology courses participated. Thirty were male and 95 were female (one did not respond). Participants completed the PALS in the context of their educational psychology class. Traditional psychometric assessments of the AGQ and PALS replicated previous studies. For both, reliability estimates ranged from good to very good for raw subscale scores and fit for the models of goal orientations were good. Based on traditional psychometrics, the AGQ and PALS are valid and reliable indicators of achievement goals. Rasch analyses revealed that estimates of reliability for items were very good but respondent ability estimates varied from poor to good for both the AGQ and PALS. These findings indicate that items validly and reliably reflect a group's aggregate goal orientation, but using either instrument to characterize an individual's goal orientation is hazardous.
DeKorver, Brittland K.; Towns, Marcy H.
Little research exists on college students' learning goals in chemistry, let alone specifically pertaining to laboratory coursework. Because students' learning goals are linked to achievement and dependent on context, research on students' goals in the laboratory context may lead to better understanding about the efficacy of lab curricula. This…
Avelino G. Ignacio Jr.
Full Text Available This research work is an exploration of causality connection of learning styles to mathematics achievement goals. The objectives of the study are as follows: (1 to identify the mathematics achievement goal of students when grouped according to preferred learning style (2 to identify the learning style of students when grouped according to preferred mathematics achievement goal and (3 to determine if there is a significant difference in each mathematics achievement goal when grouped according to learning style. The researcher used explanatory cross-sectional design. The Revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire and Kolb’s Learning Style Inventory 3.1 were utilized to collect data. Results show that respondents hold mastery-approach achievement goals regardless of learning styles. Also, students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style which operates on reflective observation and abstract conceptualization; and students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style which operates on active experimentation and concrete experimentation. Furthermore, findings show that there is no significant difference in the mathematics achievement goals based on learning style. Exploratory research is recommended to understand why students with approach type of mathematics achievement goals hold assimilative learning style and why students with avoidance type of mathematics achievement goals hold accommodative learning style.
Medical libraries and achieving sustainable development goals in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... United Nations 2015 Sustainable Development Goal 3 is designed to achieve good health and well - being for ...
Smith, Lorraine; Alles, Chehani; Lemay, Kate; Reddel, Helen; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Emmerton, Lynne; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Debbie; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol
Goal setting was investigated as part of an implementation trial of an asthma management service (PAMS) conducted in 96 Australian community pharmacies. Patients and pharmacists identified asthma-related issues of concern to the patient and collaboratively set goals to address these. Although goal setting is commonly integrated into disease state management interventions, the nature of goals, and their contribution to goal attainment and health outcomes are not well understood. To identify and describe: 1) goals set collaboratively between adult patients with asthma and their pharmacist, 2) goal specificity and goal achievement, and 3) describe the relationships between specificity, achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Measures of goal specificity, and goal achievement were developed and applied to patient data records. Goals set were thematically analyzed into goal domains. Proportions of goals set, goals achieved and their specificity were calculated. Correlational and regression analyses were undertaken to determine the relationships between goal specificity, goal achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Data were drawn from 498 patient records. Findings showed that patients set a wide range and number of asthma-related goals (N = 1787) and the majority (93%) were either achieved or being working toward by the end of the study. Goal achievement was positively associated with specific and moderately specific goals, but not non-specific goals. However, on closer inspection, an inconsistent pattern of relationships emerged as a function of goal domain. Findings also showed that goal setting was associated with end-of-study asthma control but not to asthma-related quality of life. Pharmacists can help patients to set achievable and specific asthma management goals, and these have the potential to directly impact health outcomes such as asthma control. Goal specificity appears to be an important feature in the
Vrugt, A.; Oort, F.J.
The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model of effective selfregulated learning. Based on effort expenditure we discerned effective self-regulators and less effective self-regulators. The model comprised achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach and -avoidance goals),
Wambua Leonard Munyao
Full Text Available This paper examines Kenya’s performance in achieving the famous millennium development goals. The paper provides the government and other stakeholders with proper understanding of the constraints of achieving the millennium development goals as well as reflecting the phase and the passion of the country in achieving this important development goal. The paper further seeks to stress the importance of this goal in reducing poverty in the country. The paper has cited some key factors undermining achieving of the millennium development goals in Kenya. Major recommendations that can contribute towards achieving of the millennium development goals have also been made.
Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn
The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…
Wolters, Christopher A.; Fan, Weihua; Daugherty, Stacy G.
This study was designed to forge stronger theoretical and empirical links between achievement goal theory and attribution theory. High school students ("N" = 224) completed a self-report survey that assessed 3 types of achievement goals, 7 types of attributions, and self-efficacy. Results indicated that students' adoption of achievement…
Williams, Tammy Kay
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a year long intensive extracurricular middle school science experience on the self-esteem, career goal orientation, and attitude toward science of eighth grade female students using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Sixteen self-selected eighth grade female students participated in extracurricular science experiences such as camping, rock climbing, specimen collecting and hiking, as well as meeting and interacting with female science role models. Data was collected using pre- and posttest methods using the Children's Attitude Toward Science Survey, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) Career Explorer. End of year science course grades were examined for seventh and eighth grades and compared to first semester high school grades. Qualitative data was in the form of: (1) focus group interviews conducted prior to field experiences, at the end of all field experiences, and at the end of the first semester of high school, and (2) journal entries from throughout the project. Qualitative data was examined for changes in student perceptions of science as a discipline, self as scientist, women in science, and social comparison of self in science.
Hornstra, T.E.; Majoor, Marieke; Peetsma, Thea
Background The multiple goal perspective posits that certain combinations of achievement goals are more favourable than others in terms of educational outcomes. Aims This study aimed to examine longitudinally whether students’ achievement goal profiles and transitions between profiles are associated
Van Yperen, Nico W.; Orehek, Edward
The purpose of the present paper is to discuss an important component of workers' willingness to perform at their jobs, that is, their achievement motivation. More specifically, we will discuss the conceptualization of the four achievement goals from the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework and present
Price, Deborah; Tschannen, Dana; Caylor, Shandra
New strategies are emerging to promote structure and increase learning in the clinical setting. Nursing faculty designed a mechanism by which integrative learning and situated coaching could occur more readily in the clinical setting. The Clinical Goals Initiative was implemented for sophomore-, junior-, and senior-level students in their clinical practicums. Students developed weekly goals reflecting three domains of professional nursing practice. Goals were shared with faculty and staff nurse mentors at the beginning of the clinical day to help guide students and mentors with planning for learning experiences. After 6 weeks, faculty and students were surveyed to evaluate project effectiveness. Faculty indicated that goal development facilitated clinical learning by providing more student engagement, direction, and focus. Students reported that goal development allowed them to optimize clinical learning opportunities and track their growth and progress. Faculty and students indicated the goals promoted student self-learning, autonomy, and student communication with nurse mentors and faculty. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Dompnier, Benoît; Darnon, Céline; Butera, Fabrizio
Research on achievement goals has demonstrated that mastery goals positively impact achievement-related outcomes, but paradoxically hold an inconsistent relation with academic achievement. We hypothesized that this relationship depends on the reason why students endorse mastery goals--namely, to garner teachers' appreciation (social desirability) or to succeed at university (social utility). First-year psychology students completed a mastery-goal scale in a standard format, with social-desirability instructions and social-utility instructions. Participants' grades on academic exams were recorded later in the semester. Results indicated that students' perceptions of both social desirability and social utility related to mastery goals moderated the relationship between the endorsement of mastery goals and final grades. This relationship was reduced by the increase of perceived social desirability of mastery goals, and strengthened by the increase of perceived social utility of these goals.
Poortvliet, P.M.; Janssen, O.; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.
The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further
Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.
A theoretical model linking achievement goals to discrete achievement emotions is proposed. The model posits relations between the goals of the trichotomous achievement goal framework and 8 commonly experienced achievement emotions organized in a 2 (activity/outcome focus) x 2 (positive/negative valence) taxonomy. Two prospective studies tested…
Levontin, Liat; Bardi, Anat
Research has neglected the utility of pro-social goals within achievement situations. In this article, four studies demonstrate that amity goal orientation, promoting mutual success of oneself together with others, enhances the utility of mastery goal orientation. We demonstrate this in longitudinally predicting performance (Studies 1 and 2) and in maintaining motivation after a disappointing performance (Studies 3 and 4). The studies demonstrate the same interaction effect in academic and in work achievement contexts. Specifically, whereas amity goal orientation did not predict achievement on its own, it enhanced the positive effect of mastery goal orientation. Together, these studies establish the importance of amity goal orientation while also advancing our understanding of the effects of other achievement goal orientations. We suggest future directions in examining the utility of amity goals in other contexts.
Bandalos, Deborah L.; Finney, Sara J.; Geske, Jenenne A.
Tests a model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Both learning and performance goals affected achievement indirectly through study strategies, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Implications of these findings for teaching and learning statistics are discussed. (Contains 47 references, 3 tables, 3 figures, and 1 appendix.)…
Hamstra, M.R.W.; van Yperen, N.W.; Wisse, B.; Sassenberg, K.
Purpose: Achievement goals, or the standards of competence employees pursue in their work, have far-reaching consequences for employee and organizational functioning. In the current research, we investigated whether employees’ achievement goals can be predicted from their supervisor’s leadership
McCabe, Kira O.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Verbraak, Marc
Over the past decade, an increasing body of literature supports the validity and utility of the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001). From this foundation, researchers have begun to investigate the complex antecedents and consequences underlying achievement goal pursuit. In the
Physics students graduate with a huge array of transferrable skills, which are extremely useful to employers (particularly in the private sector, which is the largest employment base of physicists at all degree levels). However, the key to successfully connecting with these opportunities lies in how well graduates are able to communicate their skills and abilities to potential employers. The ability to communicate effectively is a key professional skill that serves scientists in many contexts, including interviewing for jobs, applying for grants, or speaking with law and policy makers. In this interactive workshop, Crystal Bailey (Careers Program Manager at APS) and Gregory Mack (Government Relations Specialist at APS) will lead activities to help attendees achieve their goals through better communication. Topics will include writing an effective resume, interviewing for jobs, and communicating to different audiences including Congress, among others. Light refreshments will be served.
Tuominen-Soini, Heta; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Niemivirta, Markku
This study examined whether students with different achievement goal orientation profiles differ in terms of subjective well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depressive symptoms, school-related burnout, and educational goal appraisals). Six groups of students with unique motivational profiles were identified. Observed differences in subjective well-being…
Mouratidis, Athanasios A.; Sideridis, Georgios D.
The authors investigated the relation between social achievement goals (A. M. Ryan & S. S. Shim, 2006) and aspects of students' socio-emotional adjustment in a sample of elementary school students. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that after controlling for levels of prosocial skills, a social development goal was positively related…
Sahin, Ertugrul; Topkaya, Nursel; Kürkçü, Recep
Culture plays an important role in the achievement goal orientations of students, which may vary as they progress through their lifespan. However, research examining achievement goal orientations in the Turkish cultural context is scarce. Based on contextual and developmental theories, the aim of this study was to examine sex and age differences…
Gao, Zan; Xiang, Ping; Lochbaum, Marc; Guan, Jianmin
Purpose: The relationships among students' self-efficacy, 2 × 2 achievement goals (mastery-approach [MAp], mastery-avoidance [MAv], performance-approach [PAp], and performance-avoidance goals), and achievement performance remain largely unanswered. We tested a model of the mediating role of self-efficacy on the relationship between 2 × 2…
Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Durik, Amanda M.; Barron, Kenneth E.; Linnenbrink-Garcia, Lisa; Tauer, John M.
The dynamics of individual and situational interest and academic performance were examined in the college classroom and 7 semesters later in conjunction with achievement goals. At the beginning of an introductory psychology course, participants reported their initial interest in psychology, achievement goals, and situational interest in course…
Sinnema, Claire E. L.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.
This article draws on goal-setting theory to investigate the goals set by experienced principals during their performance evaluations. While most goals were about teaching and learning, they tended to be vaguely expressed and only partially achieved. Five predictors (commitment, challenge, learning, effort, and support) explained a significant…
Liem, Gregory Arief D
Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Aziz, Tian Abdul; Purnomo, Yoppy Wahyu; Pramudiani, Puri
The purpose of the present study was to investigate Indonesian pre-service teachers' motivation and achievement goal who studied abroad. The participants of the study were two Indonesian students who enrolled at Secondary Science and Mathematics Education Department on one public university in Ankara, Turkey. Semi structured interview and classroom observation were conducted to understand participants' motivation, achievement goal and the ways to develop it. Findings of the study indicated that by considering Self-Determination Theory participants demonstrated various types of motivation, to wit: amotivation, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to study. In addition, in compliance with the 3 x 2 achievement goal model, they held multiple types of achievement goals. Different types of motivations and achievement goals led them to exhibit different means in developing their motivations and achievement goals. Implications of the study are discussed.
DeKorver, Brittland K.
Chemistry laboratory coursework has the potential to offer many benefits to students, yet few of these learning goals are realized in practice. Therefore, this study seeks to characterize undergraduate students' learning goals for their chemistry laboratory coursework. Data were collected by recording video of students completing laboratory experiments and conducting interviews with the students about their experiences that were analyzed utilizing the frameworks of Human Constructivism and Self-Regulated Learning. A cross-sectional sampling of students allowed comparisons to be made among students with varying levels of chemistry experience and interest in chemistry. The student goals identified by this study were compared to previously described laboratory learning goals of the faculty who instruct these courses in an effort to identify potential avenues to improve laboratory learning.
Senko, Corwin; Hama, Hidetoshi; Belmonte, Kimberly
Two classroom studies tested whether mastery-approach goals and performance-approach goals nudge students to pursue different learning agendas. Each showed that mastery-approach goals promote an interest-based studying approach in which students allocate study time disproportionately to personally interesting material over duller material. Study 2…
Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda
From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able,…
Mouratidis, Athanasios; Michou, Aikaterini
In this cross-sectional study we investigated to what extent autonomous and controlled motivation and social achievement goals are associated with students' emotional experiences at school. We found in a sample of 426 elementary school students, aged from 10 to 12 years, autonomous motivation (i.e. students' engagement in class activities because…
The personality construct of geekism is introduced as the tendency to act out one's need for cognition in the domain of computing technology. Achievement goal theory is introduced, and we ask, what drives geeks in terms of achievement. In a questionnaire study, it is shown that geekism is related to
In this thesis it is argued and demonstrated, that the achievement goals that individuals pursue in achievement situations may crucially influence how they perceive and act in information exchange situations. Notably, whether people are striving to improve their own performance, as compared with
Stoeber, Joachim; Uphill, Mark A; Hotham, Sarah
The question of how perfectionism affects performance is highly debated. Because empirical studies examining perfectionism and competitive sport performance are missing, the present research investigated how perfectionism affected race performance and what role athletes' goals played in this relationship in two prospective studies with competitive triathletes (Study 1: N = 112; Study 2: N = 321). Regression analyses showed that perfectionistic personal standards, high performance-approach goals, low performance-avoidance goals, and high personal goals predicted race performance beyond athletes' performance level. Moreover, the contrast between performance-avoidance and performance-approach goals mediated the relationship between perfectionistic personal standards and performance, whereas personal goal setting mediated the relationship between performance-approach goals and performance. The findings indicate that perfectionistic personal standards do not undermine competitive performance, but are associated with goals that help athletes achieve their best possible performance.
Hart, William; Albarracín, Dolores
This research examined the hypothesis that situational achievement cues can elicit achievement or fun goals depending on chronic differences in achievement motivation. In 4 studies, chronic differences in achievement motivation were measured, and achievement-denoting words were used to influence behavior. The effects of these variables were assessed on self-report inventories, task performance, task resumption following an interruption, and the pursuit of means relevant to achieving or having fun. Findings indicated that achievement priming (vs. control priming) activated a goal to achieve and inhibited a goal to have fun in individuals with chronically high-achievement motivation but activated a goal to have fun and inhibited a goal to achieve in individuals with chronically low-achievement motivation.
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to assess the effects of two different achievement sport contexts, practice and competition, on the motivational profile of professional/semi-professional athletes. Forty-eight Spanish national/international-level female athletes (basketball = 18; handball = 12; soccer = 11; volleyball = 7, mean age 25.14 ± 3.43 years, agreed to participate in the study. They completed a questionnaire, prior and after training and competition, to assess achievement goals, achievement goal dominance, goal pursuit, motivational climate, motivation, burnout and perceived recovery-exertion. Data analyses revealed that, both in practice and competition, these team-sport athletes overwhelmingly showed a strong mastery-approach achievement goal in dominance as well as in pursuit. A significant finding was that this group of national/international-level, professional/semi-professional athletes not only adopted a mastery-approach achievement goal, but they also actively pursued it. It is also remarkable that this profile remained stable at post-tests, even after a painful defeat in competition, which produced a significant negative effect on the athletes’ burnout (emotional and physical exhaustion and devaluation of sport participation and self-determined motivation. As expected, the difference between total recovery and perceived exertion significantly increased after practice and competition. National/international-level team-sport professional/semi-professional female athletes held and pursue stable mastery-approach goal dominance.
Shen, Bo; Chen, Ang; Guan, Jianmin
On the basis of an integrated theoretical approach to achievement motivation, the authors designed this study to investigate the potential influence of mastery goal, performance-approach and avoidance-approach goals, individual interest, and situational interest on students' learning in a physical education softball unit. The authors collected and…
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the prospective teachers' locus of control in goal orientations and of both orientations in academic achievement. The participants were 270 undergraduate students studying in different majors at the Faculty of Education in Pamukkale University. Goal Orientations and Locus of Control Scales were…
Full Text Available Saleh Alrakaf,1 Ahmed Abdelmageed,2 Mary Kiersma,2 Sion A Coulman,3 Dai N John,3 June Tordoff,4 Claire Anderson,5 Ayman Noreddin,6 Erica Sainsbury,1 Grenville Rose,7 Lorraine Smith11Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Manchester University, Fort Wayne, IN, USA; 3School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ; 5School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 6School of Pharmacy, Hampton University, Hampton, VA, USA; 7Aftercare, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ and Elliot and Murayama's revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R are widely used to assess students' achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA.Methods: In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit.Results: In contrast to the scale developers' findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study.Conclusion: Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and
Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Schippl, Jens
Is it possible to change urban mobility in Europe to achieve ambitious sustainability goals? If so, who should dowhat by when? These questions are answered in a new Roadmap on urban mobility prepared as part of the European FP7 research project TRANSFORuM.......Is it possible to change urban mobility in Europe to achieve ambitious sustainability goals? If so, who should dowhat by when? These questions are answered in a new Roadmap on urban mobility prepared as part of the European FP7 research project TRANSFORuM....
Shearer, Rick L.; Gregg, Andrea; Joo, K. P.
As educators, one of our goals is to help students arrive at deeper levels of learning. However, how is this accomplished, especially in online courses? This design-based research study explored the concept of deep learning through a series of design changes in a graduate education course. A key question that emerged was through what learning…
Bipp, T.; Dam, van K.
In the current study, we investigated the role of three basic motivational needs (need for power, affiliation, achievement) as antecedents of goals within the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework, and examined their combined predictive validity with regard to academic performance in a sample of 120
Pekrun, Reinhard; Elliot, Andrew J.; Maier, Markus A.
The authors propose a theoretical model linking achievement goals and achievement emotions to academic performance. This model was tested in a prospective study with undergraduates (N = 213), using exam-specific assessments of both goals and emotions as predictors of exam performance in an introductory-level psychology course. The findings were…
Murayama, Kou; Elliot, Andrew J
Little research has been conducted on achievement motivation and memory and, more specifically, on achievement goals and memory. In the present research, the authors conducted two experiments designed to examine the influence of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals on immediate and delayed remember-know recognition memory. The experiments revealed differential effects for achievement goals over time: Performance-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on an immediate recognition test, whereas mastery-approach goals showed higher correct remember responding on a delayed recognition test. Achievement goals had no influence on overall recognition memory and no consistent influence on know responding across experiments. These findings indicate that it is important to consider quality, not just quantity, in both motivation and memory, when studying relations between these constructs.
van Kuijk, Mechteld F.; Deunk, Marjolein I.; Bosker, Roel J.; Ritzema, Evelien S.
In this paper, we investigated whether student reading comprehension could be improved with help of a teacher Professional Development (PD) program targeting goals, data use, and instruction. The effect of this PD program on 2nd- and 3rd-grade student achievement was examined using a
Zhou, Mingming; Kam, Chester Chun Seng
Limited research has examined the mediational role of coping strategy in students' motivation and procrastination. In this study, we examined the relationships among self-efficacy, achievement goals, boredom coping strategies and procrastination with 506 Chinese college students. Data were collected via questionnaires. Structural equation…
Park, Soowon; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Jun-Young; Shin, Jongho
Medical and business are one of the most popular majors among students, and both fields require intensive training to reach certain level of expertise. During the development of professionalism, goal can become a crucial role in psychological impetus. The purpose of this study is to compare goal contents, goal characteristics, and effect of goal characteristics on student's major satisfaction between medical and business. A total of 193 undergraduate students (97 medical students, 96 business students) answered survey questions including goal contents, goal characteristics (goal autonomy, goal attainability, social value of goal) and satisfaction on their majors. Qualitative analysis of goal contents and quantitative analysis of goal characteristics, and their effects on student major satisfaction were performed. Goal content analysis showed percentage of social concern goal was higher in medical students (25.8%) than business students (6.3%), whereas percentage of wealth goal was higher business students (24.0%) than medical students (3.1%). Among goal characteristics, goal attainability and social value of goal were higher in medical students than business students. In both groups, social value of goal was significantly predict major satisfaction. Goal contents and goal characteristics are different between medical and business students. Curriculum and educational interventions that concerning students' goal and developing programs to enhance students' social value of goal is necessary.
Over the past two years, the teachers and students in Carter County, Kentucky have been utilizing goal setting. As a result, the district has shown tremendous growth on not only state assessments, but also on local assessments. Additionally, the number of students meeting benchmarks for college and career readiness has increased significantly. The…
Howell, Andrew J.; Buro, Karen
As a maladaptive behavioural outcome, procrastination should correlate with beliefs about ability and achievement goals that are themselves relatively maladaptive. Accordingly, procrastination should be predicted by entity as opposed to incremental implicit theories (i.e., viewing attributes such as ability as relatively fixed vs. malleable,…
Hall, Nathan C; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Muis, Krista R; Ranellucci, John
The link between achievement goals and achievement emotions is well established; however, research exploring potential mediators of this relationship is lacking. The control-value theory of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315) posits that perceptions of control and value mediate the relationship between achievement goals and achievement emotions, whereas the bidirectional theory of affect (Linnenbrink & Pintrich, 2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) proposes that perceived progress mediates this relationship. The present study empirically evaluated three hypothesized mediators of the effects of achievement goals on learning-related emotions as proposed in the control-value theory and the bidirectional theory of affect. Undergraduate students (N = 273) from humanities, social science, and STEM disciplines participated. Participants completed web-based questionnaires evaluating academic achievement goals, perceptions of control, perceived task value, and achievement emotions. Results provided empirical support primarily for perceived progress as a mediator of mastery-approach goal effects on positive emotions (enjoyment, hope), showing indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals on outcome-related emotions (hope, anxiety) via perceived control. Indirect effects of mastery- and performance-approach goals were further observed on anxiety via perceived value, with higher value levels predicting greater anxiety. Study findings partially support Linnenbrink and Pintrich's (2002, Educational Psychologist, 37, 69) bidirectional theory of affect while underscoring the potential for indirect effects of goals on emotions through perceived control as proposed by Pekrun (2006, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315). © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Gerdessen, J C; de Vries, J H M
Diet models based on goal programming (GP) are valuable tools in designing diets that comply with nutritional, palatability and cost constraints. Results derived from GP models are usually very sensitive to the type of achievement function that is chosen.This paper aims to provide a methodological insight into several achievement functions. It describes the extended GP (EGP) achievement function, which enables the decision maker to use either a MinSum achievement function (which minimizes the sum of the unwanted deviations) or a MinMax achievement function (which minimizes the largest unwanted deviation), or a compromise between both. An additional advantage of EGP models is that from one set of data and weights multiple solutions can be obtained. We use small numerical examples to illustrate the 'mechanics' of achievement functions. Then, the EGP achievement function is demonstrated on a diet problem with 144 foods, 19 nutrients and several types of palatability constraints, in which the nutritional constraints are modeled with fuzzy sets. Choice of achievement function affects the results of diet models. MinSum achievement functions can give rise to solutions that are sensitive to weight changes, and that pile all unwanted deviations on a limited number of nutritional constraints. MinMax achievement functions spread the unwanted deviations as evenly as possible, but may create many (small) deviations. EGP comprises both types of achievement functions, as well as compromises between them. It can thus, from one data set, find a range of solutions with various properties.
Vásquez-Colina, María D.; Gonzalez-DeHass, Alyssa R.; Furner, Joseph M.
This paper reports findings of a pilot study examining the feasibility of a research design to investigate how achievement goals relate to the construct of math anxiety. In addition, we also consider how other important achievement-related behaviors, like self-efficacy, help-seeking, and self-regulation, might also relate to students' math…
Perfiles estudiantiles de metas de logro, instrucciones de meta y retroalimentación externa: su efecto en el desempeño de tareas matemáticas y afectividad. Student profiles of achievement goals, goal instructions and external feedback: Their effect on mathematical task performance and affect
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Este estudio investiga cómo los perfiles estudiantiles de metas de logro y otras características personales, junto con factores situacionales como las instrucciones de orientación a la meta y la retroalimentación externa influyen en el rendimiento y en las experiencias y emociones metacognitivas de los estudiantes mientras resuelven problemas matemáticos. En el estudio participaron 870 alumnos de 7º y 9º curso de ambos género. Los estudiantes completaron una serie de cuestionarios de auto-informe que evaluaban la actitud hacia las matemáticas, la ansiedad ante los exámenes, el autoconcepto matemático y las orientaciones de meta. También se midió la habilidad para las matemáticas y el rendimiento en tareas matemáticas junto con las experiencias y emociones metacognitivas, y el gusto por las tareas. Un análisis jerárquico de conglomerados arrojó 8 perfiles estudiantiles diferentes, y sólo algunos de ellos implicaban metas de orientación al logro. Una serie de MANOVAs puso de manifiesto los efectos significativos de perfil y tratamiento sobre rendimiento en la tarea, experiencias y emociones metacognitivas, además de una interacción significativa entre perfil y tratamiento en el caso de las valoraciones del esfuerzo.
Palabras clave: Metas de orientación al logro, perfiles estudiantiles, retroalimentación, experiencias metacognitivas, intereses.
The present study investigated how student profiles of achievement goals and other person characteristics along with situational factors, such as goal-orientation instructions and external feedback, influence performance, metacognitive experiences and emotions during mathematical problem solving. The study involved 870 students of seventh and ninth grade of both genders. Students completed a series of self-report questionnaires tapping attitude toward mathematics, test anxiety, mathematics self-concept, and achievement goal orientations. Ability in
Ali Akbar Ahmadi
Full Text Available Introduction: The main purpose of this study was to assess fulfillment of goals about “Health Transformation Plan (HTP of Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education” from the perspective of managers, which is as one of the most important management challenges in the Health System Reform Plan. These goals included six packages determined by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education, the fulfillment of each of which one was evaluated separately as sub-goals in the current study. Finally, the rank of each package in comparison to other packages was determined and presented, using means rank test (Friedman test. Method: This study was conducted using a questionnaire in which comments of the senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital were collected as the research data. Due to the fact that about one year has passed since the beginning of implementation of HTP and since there were no documented methods or questionnaires, the researcher designed a self-made questionnaire. The basis of designing the questionnaire was the set of guidelines developed for Health System Reform Plan. These guidelines include goals that a hospital should achieve during implementation of Health System Reform Plan. After sharing these goals with senior and middle managers of Nemazee hospital (as the place of research, they were converted to a questionnaire including 20 questions. The questionnaire included the goals that must be achieved in Nemazee hospital of Shiraz during the implementation of the plan. After designing the questionnaire, a preliminary test was taken to assess the reliability. Results: Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.88 showed a high rate of reliability in the above questionnaire. After the final data collection, the questionnaire was tested in a sample of 100 senior and middle managers; the results showed that about six packages were specified by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. The majority of
Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Calmeiro, Luis
Grounded in Lazarus's (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.
Chen, Zuosong; Sun, Kaihong; Wang, Kun
This study aims to investigate the relationships among self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping and the potential mediating role of achievement goals in the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping in college physical education. The participants were 320 Chinese college students. Three validated scales were employed to assess participants' self-esteem, achievement goals, and self-handicapping in college physical education. Results showed that self-esteem had a negative effect on self-handicapping. Self-esteem had a positive effect on mastery goals, but had a negative effect on performance-avoidance goals. Mastery goals had a negative effect and performance-avoidance goals had a positive effect on self-handicapping. Moreover, mastery goals and performance-avoidance goals partially mediated the relationship between self-esteem and self-handicapping, and self-esteem had both direct and indirect effects on self-handicapping in college physical education. The findings indicate that improving individual's self-esteem and promoting mastery goals while reducing performance-avoidance goals may be relevant strategies to reduce self-handicapping in college physical education.
Bipp, T.; Steinmayr, R.; Spinath, B.
In the present study we examined the nomological network of achievement motivation and personality by inspecting the relationships between four goal orientations (learning, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, work avoidance), the Big Five personality traits, and intelligence. Within a
Skaalvik, Einar M.; Federici, Roger A.
The purpose of this study was to test possible interactions between mastery and performance goal structures in mathematics classrooms when predicting students' goal orientations. More specifically, we tested if the degree of performance goal structure moderated the associations between mastery goal structure and students' goal orientations.…
Ntoumanis, N; Biddle, S
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of achievement goal orientations and perceived motivational climate to perceptions of the intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety in a sample of university athletes representing various team sports. Although some studies have demonstrated that task orientation and mastery climate are associated with adaptive emotional patterns and ego orientation and performance climate are linked to less adaptive emotions, others have not verified these findings. In the present study, structural equation modeling was used to test these links. The results showed that perceptions of a performance climate were associated with ego orientation, whereas perceptions of a mastery climate were linked to task orientation. Furthermore, no significant links were found between task orientation and direction of competitive anxiety, while it was shown that the impact of ego orientation on the intensity and direction of cognitive and somatic anxiety was exerted through self-confidence. No significant direct links were found between motivational climates and competitive anxiety, thus implying that motivational climates may have an indirect impact on affective responses through the different goal orientations. The findings of the present study are discussed along with suggestions for examining situational and individual difference variables that may explain the relationships between intensity and direction of competitive anxiety and achievement goals and motivational climates.
Eberlinc, M.; Medved, K.; Simic, J.
The EU has set its short-term goals in the Europe 2020 Strategy (20% of CO 2 emissions reduction, 20% increase in energy efficiency, 20% share of renewables in final energy). The analyses show that the EU Member States in general are on the right track of achieving these goals; they are even ahead (including Slovenia). But setting long-term goals by 2050 is a tougher challenge. Achieving CO 2 emissions reduction goes hand in hand with increasing the share of renewables and strategically planning the projects, which include exploiting the potential of renewable sources of energy (e.g. hydropower). In Slovenia, the expected share of hydropower in electricity production from large HPPs in the share of renewables by 2030 is 1/3. The paper includes a presentation of a hydro power plants project on the middle Sava river in Slovenia and its specifics (influenced by the expansion of the Natura 2000 protected sites and on the other hand by the changes in the Environment Protection Law, which implements the EU Industrial Emissions Directive and the ETS Directive). Studies show the importance of the HPPs in terms of CO 2 emissions reduction. The main conclusion of the paper shows the importance of energy infrastructure projects, which contribute to on the one hand the CO 2 emissions reduction and on the other the increase of renewables.(author)
Sortkær, Bent; Reimer, David
Disciplinary climate has emerged as one of the single most important factors related to student achievement. Using data from the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 for Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Latvia and Norway we find a significant and nontrivial association...... between the perceived disciplinary climate in the classroom and students’ mathematics performance in Canada, Denmark and Norway. Furthermore we exploit country specific class-size rules in order to single out a subsample with classroom-level data (PISA is sampled by age and not by classes) and find...... that the estimates based on school-level data might underestimate the relationship between disciplinary climate and student achievement. Finally we find evidence for gender differences in the association between disciplinary climate and student achievement that can partly be explained by gender-specific perceptions...
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males;...
Ingram, G.E.; Elerath, J.G.; Wood, A.P.
The approach, recommended by GE-ARSD, for confirming the achievement of LMFBR reliability goals relies upon a comprehensive understanding of the physical and operational characteristics of the system and the environments to which the system will be subjected during its operational life. This kind of understanding is required for an approach based on system hardware testing or analyses, as recommended in this report. However, for a system as complex and expensive as the LMFBR, an approach which relies primarily on system hardware testing would be prohibitive both in cost and time to obtain the required system reliability test information. By using an analytical approach, results of tests (reliability and functional) at a low level within the specific system of interest, as well as results from other similar systems can be used to form the data base for confirming the achievement of the system reliability goals. This data, along with information relating to the design characteristics and operating environments of the specific system, will be used in the assessment of the system's reliability
Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the achievement of teacher learning in cognitive, affective and psychomotor in conducting professional development. This study was categorized as a descriptive study. The respondents of this study were teachers and students in the Department of Electrical Engineering at a Vocational Secondary School in Bangka Belitung. Methods of data collection used questionnaires. The data were analyzed with descriptive analysis. The results of this study consisted of: (1 teachers’ opinion, most teachers had worked very well in learning of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor, (2 students’ opinion, several teachers had succeeded in cognitive learning, and managed very well on affective and psychomotor learning.
Kaniuka, Theodore S.
The main purpose of schools is to improve the academic performance of all students and more recently with special regard to those that have historically struggled to meet state achievement goals. In an effort to attain these goals, educators have utilized many approaches including enhancing student self-esteem as a precursor to improving the…
Duchesne, Stephane; Ratelle, Catherine
Recent literature on the determinants of academic motivation has shown that parenting and emotions are central elements in understanding students' achievement goals. The authors of this study set out to examine the predictive relationship between parental behaviors during the last year of elementary school and adolescents' achievement goals at the…
Ferradás Canedo, María M; Freire Rodríguez, Carlos; Regueiro Fernández, Bibiana; Valle Arias, Antonio
The relationship between defensive pessimism, self-esteem, and achievement goals is a controversial issue. The main contribution of this research is the adoption of a person-centered approach to explore the existence of differentiated profiles of university students, which combine self-esteem and defensive pessimism. In addition, we analyze whether these profiles differ in their achievement goals (learning, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and work-avoidance). 1,028 university students took part in the study. Four student profiles were identified: (a) HSE/MDP (high self-esteem and moderate defensive pessimism); (b) LSE/LDP (low self-esteem and low defensive pessimism); (c) HSE/LDP (high self-esteem and low defensive pessimism); and (d) LSE/HDP (low self-esteem and high defensive pessimism). These four profiles differ significantly in their achievement goals. The use of defensive pessimism may involve students with either low or high self-esteem, although the two profiles follow differentiated motivational achievement trajectories.
Ferradás, María del Mar; Freire, Carlos; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José Carlos
In highly competitive settings like university, the fear of failure leads some students to protect their self-worth using self-handicapping strategies. The present investigation examines to what extent academic goals are related to those tactics in university students. Specifically, MANCOVA was applied to estimate statistical differences linked to behavioral and claimed self-handicapping strategies according to the level (high/medium/low) of four types of academic goal (achievement approach, achievement avoidance, mastery approach, and work avoidance). Degree, year in school, and gender were entered as covariates. 940 students (86.5% women) from University of A Coruña (M = 20.44; SD = 1.73) participated. Results show that: (a) both behavioral and claimed self-handicapping are promoted by ego-oriented goals (achievement avoidance, F(2, 937) = 23.56, p self-handicapping (F(2, 937) = 9.09, p self-handicapping; and (c) mastery approach goals are significantly, negatively related to both types of self-handicapping (F(2, 937) = 20.09, p < .001, η p 2 = .041). Psychological and educational implications of the findings are discussed.
Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M
Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Seventy-three undergraduate students were assessed on their prior knowledge and misconceptions about Newtonian mechanics, and then reported their achievement goals and participated in think-aloud protocols while reading Newtonian physics texts. A mastery-approach goal orientation positively predicted deep processing strategies, shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change. In contrast, a performance-approach goal orientation did not predict either of the processing strategies, but negatively predicted conceptual change. A performance-avoidance goal orientation negatively predicted deep processing strategies and conceptual change. Moreover, deep and shallow processing strategies positively predicted conceptual change as well as recall. Finally, both deep and shallow processing strategies mediated relations between mastery-approach goals and conceptual change. Results provide some support for Dole and Sinatra's (1998) Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model of conceptual change but also challenge specific facets with regard to the role of depth of processing in conceptual change. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Seaton, Marjorie; Parker, Philip; Marsh, Herbert W.; Craven, Rhonda G.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing
Research suggests that motivated students and those with high academic self-concepts perform better academically. Although substantial evidence supports a reciprocal relation between academic self-concept and achievement, there is less evidence supporting a similar relation between achievement goal orientations and achievement. There is also a…
Full Text Available Introduction: Several factors play a role in academic achievement, individual’s excellence and capability to do actions and tasks that the learner is in charge of in learning areas. The main goal of this study was to present academic achievement causal model based on the dimensions of goal orientation and learning approaches among the students of Medical Science and Dentistry courses in Guilan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: This study is based on a cross-sectional model. The participants included 175 first and second year students of the Medical and Dentistry schools in Guilan University of Medical Sciences selected by random cluster sampling [121 persons (69% Medical Basic Science students and 54 (30.9% Dentistry students]. The measurement tool included the Goal Orientation Scale of Bouffard and Study Process Questionnaire of Biggs and the students’ Grade Point Average. The study data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and structural equations modeling. SPSS 14 and Amos were used to analyze the data. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between goal orientation and learning strategies (P<0.05. In addition, the results revealed that a significant relationship exists between learning strategies [Deep Learning (r=0.37, P<0.05, Surface Learning (r=-0.21, P<0.05], and academic achievement. The suggested model of research is fitted to the data of the research. Conclusion: Results showed that the students’ academic achievement model fits with experimental data, so it can be used in learning principles which lead to students’ achievement in learning.
Full Text Available Using data from a 50-state survey of policies, state case study analyses, the 1993-94 Schools and Staffing Surveys (SASS, and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP, this study examines the ways in which teacher qualifications and other school inputs are related to student achievement across states. The findings of both the qualitative and quantitative analyses suggest that policy investments in the quality of teachers may be related to improvements in student performance. Quantitative analyses indicate that measures of teacher preparation and certification are by far the strongest correlates of student achievement in reading and mathematics, both before and after controlling for student poverty and language status. State policy surveys and case study data are used to evaluate policies that influence the overall level of teacher qualifications within and across states. This analysis suggests that policies adopted by states regarding teacher education, licensing, hiring, and professional development may make an important difference in the qualifications and capacities that teachers bring to their work. The implications for state efforts to enhance quality and equity in public education are discussed.
Full Text Available Goal achievement is considered to be related to need satisfaction, motivation, and self-esteem. The self-assessed abilities for goal achievement were operationalized as positive self-talk, perceived self-efficacy, the performance level of doing a task, the aspiration level, the in/congruence between performance and prognosis, and frustration tolerance to pursue one’s goals in spite of some obstacles. In total, 392 students whose mean age was 21 years old were investigated, divided in sub-samples, with the positive self-talk scale from the ASTQS questionnaire, the self-efficacy scale by Schwarzer & Jerusalem, and the AHA computerized test method from Vienna test system. Students’ self-assessment of one’s abilities for goal achievement revealed the most frequent high levels of perceived self-efficacy and good performance in coding tasks. The other self-assessed abilities for goal achievement were expressed more often at a medium level. The gender differences in the performance level of doing a task were compared to some previous results that indicated a variety of trends, because of the age peculiarities and the types of the tasks that were executed. The advance in age was related to more frequent use of positive self-talk and lower aspiration level, besides to lower performance level. The proposed model of the abilities for goal achievement was successfully approbated in this study revealing the strengths in the students’ self-assessment of one’s abilities for goal achievement and some weaknesses that should be the focus of further interventions in order to increase the students’ frustration tolerance ability and the use of positive self-talk.
Kyle, Vanessa A.; White, Katherine M.; Hyde, Melissa K.; Occhipinti, Stefano
We examined goal importance, focusing on high, but not exclusive priority goals, in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to predict students' academic performance. At the beginning of semester, students in a psychology subject (N = 197) completed TPB and goal importance items for achieving a high grade. Regression analyses revealed partial…
Vedder, P.H.; Kouwenhoven, C.; Burk, W.J.
Goal preferences indicate intentions to achieve or avoid particular states. We examined whether Curacaoan and Dutch students differ in goal preferences related to school and whether goal preferences are associated with students' evaluation of the classroom climate. Measurement invariance of the
Full Text Available The present study examined the predictiveness of self-regulated learning strategies and goal orientation of elementary students’ academic achievement. Eighty one (n = 81 fifth graders were asked to respond to two scales. It was hypothesized that student achievement would be predicted by prior achievement, use of self-regulation strategies, and goal orientation. Results showed that prior achievement and use of self-regulation strategies accounted for a significant amount of variance in students’ academic achievement. Overall, goal orientation was not a significant predictor of students’ outcomes measures across different subject areas. Areas for future research are explored and implications for school personnel are provided.
Tan, X.; Shi, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, JY
Although economic growth is slowing down in the new normal period, air pollution is still a very serious problem in China. The 15% binding goal of sulfur dioxide emission reduction from 2016 to 2020, as stipulated in the 13th Five-Year Plan, has been an ambitious target for the Chinese government. This paper studies the synthetic evaluation and forecasting analysis of sulfur dioxide in China by means of a “grey model” approach combined with the grey relational analysis methods, with the panel data of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2015. Grey analysis used to analyse a system with imperfect information, such that a variety of available solutions is reviewed, and the optimal solution is identified. Some encouraging results show that national emissions and a majority of provinces will achieve the target. Over time, the gap of regional differences is rapidly closing. According to the results of grey relational analysis, we find industrial structure and energy consumption have a more significant impact on sulfur dioxide emissions than GDP. Atmospheric treatment investment and environmental protection manpower play a more important role in emissions variation. Based on the findings, we should distinguish different factors and take different measures to protect the environment.
Ng, Chi-Hung Clarence
This study explored adult learners' goal profiles in relation to the completion of a compulsory academic essay. Based on learners' scores on items assessing mastery, performance-approach, and work-avoidance goals, cluster analyses produced three distinct categories of learners: performance-focused, work-avoidant, and multiple-goal learners. These…
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E. Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations. PMID:28197109
Tian, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Huebner, E Scott
The purpose of this study was to examine the multiple mediational roles of academic social comparison directions (upward academic social comparison and downward academic social comparison) on the relationships between achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and subjective well-being (SWB) in school (school satisfaction, school affect) in adolescent students in China. A total of 883 Chinese adolescent students (430 males; Mean age = 12.99) completed a multi-measure questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypotheses. Results indicated that (1) mastery goal orientations and performance-approach goal orientations both showed a statistically significant, positive correlation with SWB in school whereas performance-avoidance goal orientations showed a statistically significant, negative correlation with SWB in school among adolescents; (2) upward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between the three types of achievement goal orientations (i.e., mastery goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals) and SWB in school; (3) downward academic social comparisons mediated the relation between mastery goal orientations and SWB in school as well as the relation between performance-avoidance goal orientations and SWB in school. The findings suggest possible important cultural differences in the antecedents of SWB in school in adolescent students in China compared to adolescent students in Western nations.
Anderson, Claire; Coulman, Sion A.; John, Dai N.; Tordoff, June; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine
Objective: To identify pharmacy students’ preferred achievement goals in a multi-national undergraduate population, to investigate achievement goal preferences across comparable degree programs, and to identify relationships between achievement goals, academic performance, and assessment type. Methods: The Achievement Goal Questionnaire was administered to second year students in 4 universities in Australia, New Zealand, England, and Wales. Academic performance was measured using total scores, multiple-choice questions, and written answers (short essay). Results: Four hundred eighty-six second year students participated. Students showed an overall preference for the mastery-approach goal orientation across all sites. The predicted relationships between goal orientation and multiple-choice questions, and written answers scores, were significant. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind to examine pharmacy students’ achievement goals at a multi-national level and to differentiate between assessment type and measures of achievement motivation. Students adopting a mastery-approach goal are more likely to gain high scores in assessments that measure understanding and depth of knowledge. PMID:25995510
Chan, Kwok-wai; Chan, Siu-mui
Two achievement goals and three perceived parenting styles were identified in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. Significant correlations exist within the perceived parenting styles and the achievement goals. Parental authoritativeness was significantly and positively related to learning goal, and parental authoritarianism was…
Annals of Modern Education ... This study investigated the relationship between family status and students' academic achievements in agricultural science subject. To achieve this goal, students from Katsina State Science and Technical Education Board (STEB) were purposively selected for the study.Random sampling ...
Lee, Suk-Hyang; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.
This article provides teachers with practical tips and ideas about how self-monitoring works in conjunction with goal-setting strategies to support students to set and achieve different types of academic goals. In addition, specific examples of academic goals and self-monitoring forms are provided to give teachers an example of such goals. To…
Full Text Available This study aims to develop a valid and reliable instrument for measuring students' social studies achievement goal. The research was conducted on a study group consisted of 374 middle school students studying in the central district of Diyarbakır in 2014-2015 school year fall semester. Expert opinion was consulted with regard to the scale's content and face validity. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA were performed in order to measure the scale's construct validity. As a result of EFA, a 29-item and a six-factor structure model which explains 50.82% of the total variance was obtained. The emerging factors were called as a self-approach, task-approach, other-approach, task-avoidance, other-avoidance and self-avoidance respectively. The findings acquired CFA indicated that the 29-item and six-factor structure related to social studies oriented achievement goal scale have acceptable goodness of fit indices. The scale's reliability coefficients were calculated by means of internal consistency method. As a result of reliability analysis, it was determined that the reliability coefficients were within admissible limits. The finding of the item correlation and 27% of upper and lower group comparisons demonstrated that all of the items in the scale should remain. In light of these results, it could be argued that the scale is reliable and valid instrument and can be used in order to test students' social studies achievement goals.
Xiang, Shiyuan; Liu, Yan; Bai, Lu
This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents' school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control), achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals) and school adjustment variables (emotion, students' life satisfaction, school self-esteem, problem behavior, academic achievement, and self-determination in school). A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test our hypotheses. The results indicated that parental autonomy support was associated with adolescents' school adjustment in an adaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance approach goals; however, parental psychological control was associated with adolescents' school adjustment in a maladaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance avoidance goals. In addition, the results indicated that mastery avoidance goals suppressed the relationship between parental autonomy support and adolescents' school adjustment, and performance approach goals suppressed the relationship between this adjustment and parental psychological control. These findings extend the limited literature regarding the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goals and enable us to evidence the mediating and suppressing effects of achievement goals. This study highlights the importance of parenting in adolescents' school adjustment through the cultivation of different achievement goals.
Full Text Available Relevant others (e.g., fellow group members influence how goals and goal-directed behaviors are construed and valued. In turn, according to the “expectancy × value” model of motivated behavioral choice, people engage in goal-directed behaviors when they expect success and ascribe high values to a certain task. In this pilot study, we combine predictions from a social psychological goal perspective with recent theoretical developments from educational psychology, testing the processes that link a person’s social identity with the effort for the achievement goals. With a pilot study using a sample of 86 university students, we tested the assumption that expectation for success and subjective task values mediate the relation between the student identity and effort intentions. In line with our expectations, stronger identification with the group of students was related to stronger effort intentions, mediated via interest and attainment value. These results suggest that social identity may have a profound impact on the engagement decisions made in educational settings.
de Kleijn, Renske A. M.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke; Pilot, Albert
To be effective, feedback should be goal-related. In order to better understand goal-related feedback in Master's thesis projects, the present study explores the goals of supervisors and students in supervision dyads and similarities and differences within and between these dyads. Twelve supervisors and students were interviewed, and their goals…
Leondari, Angeliki; Gonida, Eleftheria
Background: Academic self-handicapping refers to the use of impediments to successful performance on academic tasks. Previous studies have shown that it is related to personal achievement goals. A performance goal orientation is a positive predictor of self-handicapping, whereas a task goal orientation is unrelated to self-handicapping. Aims: The…
King, Ronnel B.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Nasser, Ramzi
Goals are important predictors of key educational outcomes. However, most of the research on goal theory has been conducted in Western societies. In this study we examine how different types of goals (mastery, performance, social, and extrinsic) derived from personal investment theory are associated with key learning outcomes across nine cultural…
Cadigan, Francoise Jane; Wei, Yichun; Clifton, Rodney A.
Very little Canadian research has examined the academic achievement of private school students. Data from The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 were used to examine the achievement of private school students. The study found that private school students outperformed their public school peers. In addition, the students'…
Sullivan, Nancy G.; Hamsa, Irene Schulz; Heath, Panagiota; Perry, Robert; White, Stacy J.
As the new millennium approaches, a long anticipated reckoning for the education system of the United States is forthcoming, Years of school reform initiatives have not yielded the anticipated results. A particularly perplexing problem involves the lack of significant improvement of student achievement in math and science. Three "Partnership" projects represent collaborative efforts between Xavier University (XU) of Louisiana, Southern University of New Orleans (SUNO), Mississippi Valley State University (MVSU), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Stennis Space Center (SSC), to enhance student achievement in math and science. These "Partnerships" are focused on students and teachers in federally designated rural and urban empowerment zones and enterprise communities. The major goals of the "Partnerships" include: (1) The identification and dissemination of key indices of success that account for high performance in math and science; (2) The education of pre-service and in-service secondary teachers in knowledge, skills, and competencies that enhance the instruction of high school math and science; (3) The development of faculty to enhance the quality of math and science courses in institutions of higher education; and (4) The incorporation of technology-based instruction in institutions of higher education. These goals will be achieved by the accomplishment of the following objectives: (1) Delineate significant ?best practices? that are responsible for enhancing student outcomes in math and science; (2) Recruit and retain pre-service teachers with undergraduate degrees in Biology, Math, Chemistry, or Physics in a graduate program, culminating with a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction; (3) Provide faculty workshops and opportunities for travel to professional meetings for dissemination of NASA resources information; (4) Implement methodologies and assessment procedures utilizing performance-based applications of higher order
Full Text Available In learning mathematics, students are naturally motivated to protect their self-worth by maintaining a belief that they are competent in this area. However, there is an important question which educators have to answer: “Why do students often confuse ability with worth?” The most important reason is that in our society students are widely considered to be worthy according to their ability to achieve in the given tasks in mathematics. Irrespective the contributions of the Multiple Intelligence Theory of intelligence in education, unfortunately mathematics is still regarded as predicting students’ overall ability to learn. Educators should realize that the need in order to protect self-worth arises primarily from fear of failure. Therefore, if this fear of failure is strong, some students will not try and gradually they will produce failure- avoiding strategies to avoid certain tasks in order not to look bad or receive negative assessments from others to protect his/her self-worth. It is important to make sure that the performance goals do not promote failure-avoidance (performance-avoidance-oriented behavior, such as avoiding unfavorable judgments of capabilities and looking incompetent when the student encounters greater challenges. The main purpose of this qualitative study, therefore, is to explore students’ achievement goal motivation, their self-worth and how these motivational factors impact their learning goals in mathematics. This study hypothesizes that self- worth protection in math has also been considered from a performance-avoidance goal viewpoint.This study emphasizes that educators, who consider true self-worth as the student’s inherent value, should avoid comparing their students’ ability, capability relative to others as well as students’ academic performance and outcomes with others in class context.
Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Ryan, Allison M.; Harakeh, Zeena; Shin, Huiyoung; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.
This research investigated whether classroom-based peer norms for achievement goals moderate friendship selection, maintenance and influence processes related to academic achievement in 46 Grade 5 and Grade 6 classrooms (N = 901, 58.7% Grade 5 students, 48.5% boys). A distinction was made between peer norms for mastery (i.e., developing…
Wijnen, A.M.; Ryan, Allison; Harakeh, Z.; Shin, Huiyoung; Vollebergh, W.A.M.
This research investigated whether classroom-based peer norms for achievement goals moderate friendship selection, maintenance and influence processes related to academic achievement in 46 5th and 6th grade classrooms (N = 901, 58.7% 5th grade students, 48.5% boys). A distinction was made between
Apply to the Climate Leadership Award for Excellence in GHG Management (Goal Achievement Award), which publicly recognizes organizations that achieve publicly-set aggressive greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals.
Standage, Martyn; Treasure, Darren C
Contemporary research suggests that task and ego achievement goal orientations affect students' intrinsic motivation in physical education. This research has assessed intrinsic motivation as a unidimensional contruct, however, which is inconsistent with the more contemporary postulates of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991) which states that intrinsic motivation is only one type of motivation. To date, research has not addressed whether different types of motivation at the situational level are influenced by the proneness to adopt task or ego involvement. To examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and multidimensional situational motivation in PE. Middle school children (182 male, 136 female; M age = 13.2 years). Responded to questionnaires assessing their dispositional goal orientation (POSQ; Roberts, Treasure, & Balague, 1998) and situational motivation (SIMS; Guay, Vallerand, & Blanchard, 2000) in PE. Task orientation was found to be positively associated with more self-determined types of situational motivation. Ego orientation was weakly related to less self-determined motivation. An extreme group split was conducted to create four goal groups and goal profile analyses conducted. A significant MANOVA was followed by univariate analyses, post hoc comparisons, and calculated effect sizes, which revealed that groups high in task orientation reported more motivationally adaptive responses than groups low in task orientation. The results suggest that a high level of task orientation singularly or in combination with ego orientation fosters self-determined situational motivation in the context of PE.
This study examined how performance feedback type (progress vs. distance) affects Korean college students' self-regulation and task achievement according to relative goal importance in the pursuit of multiple goals. For this study, 146 students participated in a computerised task. The results showed the interaction effects of goal importance and…
Antonaci, Alessandra; Klemke, Roland; Stracke, Christian M.; Specht, Marcus
Gamification in engineering education has been applied with success in the last years. Also, Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are recognized as a good strategy to enhance engineering education. Nevertheless, MOOCs have two main weaknesses: first, lack of addressing personal goals; and second, low
The point that African continent has been trying to solve its development challenges will be an overstatement. One of the major efforts was the decision taken at the United Nations (UN) Millennium Summit in September 2000 where the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) was adopted as a framework for the continents ...
Xiang, Shiyuan; Liu, Yan; Bai, Lu
This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents’ school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control), achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals) and school adjustment variables (emotion, students’ life satisfaction, school self-esteem, problem behavior, academic achievement, and self-determination in school). A structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to test our hypotheses. The results indicated that parental autonomy support was associated with adolescents’ school adjustment in an adaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance approach goals; however, parental psychological control was associated with adolescents’ school adjustment in a maladaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance avoidance goals. In addition, the results indicated that mastery avoidance goals suppressed the relationship between parental autonomy support and adolescents’ school adjustment, and performance approach goals suppressed the relationship between this adjustment and parental psychological control. These findings extend the limited literature regarding the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goals and enable us to evidence the mediating and suppressing effects of achievement goals. This study highlights the importance of parenting in adolescents’ school adjustment through the cultivation of different achievement goals. PMID:29085321
Full Text Available This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents’ school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control, achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance goals and school adjustment variables (emotion, students’ life satisfaction, school self-esteem, problem behavior, academic achievement, and self-determination in school. A structural equation modeling (SEM approach was used to test our hypotheses. The results indicated that parental autonomy support was associated with adolescents’ school adjustment in an adaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance approach goals; however, parental psychological control was associated with adolescents’ school adjustment in a maladaptive manner, both directly and through its positive relationship with both mastery and performance avoidance goals. In addition, the results indicated that mastery avoidance goals suppressed the relationship between parental autonomy support and adolescents’ school adjustment, and performance approach goals suppressed the relationship between this adjustment and parental psychological control. These findings extend the limited literature regarding the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goals and enable us to evidence the mediating and suppressing effects of achievement goals. This study highlights the importance of parenting in adolescents’ school adjustment through the cultivation of different achievement goals.
... achieving a vocational goal. 21.53 Section 21.53 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... achieving a vocational goal. (a) Requirement. The Department of Veterans Affairs shall determine the reasonable feasibility of achieving a vocational goal in each case in which a veteran has either: (1) An...
Abdulkareem, Rasaq L.; Sheu, Adaramaja A.; Kayode, David J.
This study investigated the relationship between culture and university goal achievement in South west geo-political zone, Nigeria. Specifically, the purpose was to find out the nature of the corporate culture and university goal achievement as well as to determine the relationship between corporate culture and university goal achievement in South…
Wang, Jian; Shen, Bo; Luo, Xiaobin; Hu, Qingshan; Garn, Alex C.
Purpose: Using Butler's teacher achievement goal orientation as a conceptual framework, we developed this study to validate a teachers' achievement goal instrument for teaching physical education. Methods: A sample of 322 Chinese physical education teachers participated in this study and completed measures of achievement goal orientations and job…
Xiang, Shiyuan; Liu, Yan; Bai, Lu
This study examines the multiple mediating roles of achievement goals based on a 2 × 2 framework of the relationships between parenting styles and adolescents’ school adjustment. The study sample included 1061 Chinese adolescent students (50.4% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19, who completed questionnaires regarding parenting styles (parental autonomy support and psychological control), achievement goals (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, and performance avoidance...
Ozdemir Oz, Ayse; Lane, Jennie F.; Michou, Aikaterini
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of autonomous and controlling reasons underlying an endorsed achievement goal to intrinsic motivation and cheating. The endorsement of the achievement goal was ensured by involving 212 (M(subscript age) = 19.24, SD = 0.97) freshman students in a spatial task and asking them to report their most…
The motivational, cognitive, and performance benefits associated with setting goals are presented in light of goal-setting theory. These theoretical principles provide a framework that teachers can use to guide students in setting and pursuing personal reading goals that are proximal, specific, and compatible with students' reading abilities…
Jan 21, 2009 ... Initiatives and Poverty Reduction Using CBMS: Action Plan and Future ...... They are far less likely to contract malaria and tuberculosis and .... problem areas in each barangay in response to the call of the MDGs. ... out rates among high school students due to lack of money to pay for ...... The Mexican NGO.
Friedman, Robert M
This commentary builds on the papers presented at the Vanderbilt Conference by emphasizing the importance of better understanding the process of change-making if real change in the real world is to be achieved. The commentary reviews several frameworks and research findings related to achieving large-scale sustainable change that benefits children and families. It calls for the application of systems thinking as a complement to the more micro-level research that was presented at the Vanderbilt conference. Such an approach would have implications for framing of the issue, for the strategies that are taken to try to achieve change, and for research/evaluation methods for studying complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems.
Developing a global mind-set in college students is a goal of many colleges and universities. Most often this goal is met by encouraging students to study abroad. This article explains how a service learning student engagement program at home achieves this goal by pairing Introduction to Sociology students with young immigrant children in a weekly…
Was, Christopher A.; Al-Harthy, Ibrahim; Stack-Oden, Maura; Isaacson, Randall M.
Introduction: Two constructs that have received a great deal of attention in Educational Psychology research are Achievement Orientation and Identity Status. However, the relationship between these two constructs has not received the attention that the current researcher feel is warranted. The impetus for the current study is the paucity of…
Vroland-Nordstrand, Kristina; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; Jacobsson, Helén; Johansson, Ulla; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena
The efficacy of two different goal-setting approaches (children's self-identified goals and goals identified by parents) were compared on a goal-directed, task-oriented intervention. In this assessor-blinded parallel randomized trial, 34 children with disabilities (13 males, 21 females; mean age 9y, SD 1y 4mo) were randomized using concealed allocation to one of two 8-week, goal-directed, task-oriented intervention groups with different goal-setting approaches: (1) children's self-identified goals (n=18) using the Perceived Efficacy and Goal-Setting System, or (2) goals identified by parents (n=16) using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Participants were recruited through eight paediatric rehabilitation centres and randomized between October 2011 and May 2013. The primary outcome measure was the Goal Attainment Scaling and the secondary measure, the COPM performance scale (COPM-P). Data were collected pre- and post-intervention and at the 5-month follow-up. There was no evidence of a difference in mean characteristics at baseline between groups. There was evidence of an increase in mean goal attainment (mean T score) in both groups after intervention (child-goal group: estimated mean difference [EMD] 27.84, 95% CI 22.93-32.76; parent-goal group: EMD 21.42, 95% CI 16.16-26.67). There was no evidence of a difference in the mean T scores post-intervention between the two groups (EMD 6.42, 95% CI -0.80 to 13.65). These results were sustained at the 5-month follow-up. Children's self-identified goals are achievable to the same extent as parent-identified goals and remain stable over time. Thus children can be trusted to identify their own goals for intervention, thereby influencing their involvement in their intervention programmes. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.
Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Kaić, Bernard; Vilibić-Čavlek, Tatjana; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana
Poliomyelitis is a very old disease of humans, caused by poliovirus. With appearance of the epidemics in the 20th century, poliomyelitis became a global public health issue. In 1988, the World Health Organization started a campaign for global eradication of poliomyelitis and till now poliomyelitis cases have been reduced by more than 99%. In Croatia, the introduction of vaccination in 1961 resulted in dramatic reduction of paralytic disease. The European region, including Croatia was certified polio free in 2002. However, the final goal of the "polio-free world" has not yet been reached. To reinforce the campaign, the global polio eradication initiative has come up with the Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 with detailed program how to resolve the main challenges: (a) continued transmission of wild polioviruses in endemic reservoirs; (b) reinfection of polio-free areas; and (c) outbreaks due to the circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). Global oral polio vaccine cessation will follow, with the introduction of universal use of inactivated polio vaccine.
As capitalism is being re-invented and the voices of multiple stakeholders are becoming more prevalent and demanding, it is the perfect time for the private sector to embrace large-scale collaboration and a shared sense of purpose. Since the explosive growth of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the 1990s, a new era of responsibility, purpose and a re-envisioned capitalism are dramatically apparent. Beyond financial support, business leaders have the opportunity to galvanize networks, advocate for regulation and policy change, and form supporting consortia to support global development. The role of the private sector in development has changed significantly from a model of benevolent contributor to a model of collaborator, investor, business partner and exponential value creator. The new era of collaboration should move beyond a shared value mindset to new models of partnership where each contributor plays an equal role in defining challenges and designing solutions with the greater goal of sustainable value creation. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have the unprecedented opportunity to take leadership roles in engaging the private sector in more game-changing collaborations.
Full Text Available Efforts to meet human water needs only at local scales may cause negative environmental externality and stress on the water system at regional and global scales. Hence, assessing SDG targets requires a broad and in-depth knowledge of the global to local dynamics of water availability and use. Further, Interconnection and trade-offs between different SDG targets may lead to sub-optimal or even adverse outcome if the set of actions are not properly pre-designed considering such interlinkages. Thus scientific research and evidence have a role to play in facilitating the implementation of SDGs through assessments and policy engagement from global to local scales. The paper addresses some of these challenges related to implementation and monitoring the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals from a water perspective, based on the key findings of a conference organised in 2015 with the focus on three essential aspects of SDGs- indicators, interlinkages and implementation. The paper discusses that indicators should not be too simple but ultimately deliver sustainability measures. The paper finds that remote sensing and earth observation technologies can play a key role in supporting the monitoring of water targets. It also recognises that implementing SDGs is a societal process of development, and there is need to link how SDGs relate to public benefits and communicate this to the broader public.
This paper presents both theoretical and survey evidence on the effect of flexible learning--in particular, the shift to a more student-centred approach to learning--on academic achievement by students. A survey was conducted of 577 business students at a major Australian university in order to elicit their preferences for academic achievement and…
Oleribe, Obinna Ositadimma; Taylor-Robinson, Simon David
World leaders adopted the UN Millennium Declaration in 2000, which committed the nations of the world to a new global partnership, aimed at reducing extreme poverty and other time-bound targets, with a stated deadline of 2015. Fifteen years later, although significant progress has been made worldwide, Nigeria is lagging behind for a variety of reasons, including bureaucracy, poor resource management in the healthcare system, sequential healthcare worker industrial action, Boko Haram insurgency in the north of Nigeria and kidnappings in the south of Nigeria. The country needs to tackle these problems to be able to significantly advance with the new sustainable development goals (SDGs) by the 2030 target date.
Shim, Sungok Serena; Wang, Cen; Makara, Kara A.; Xu, Xiao-Guang; Xie, Li-Na; Zhong, Ming
University life can be stressful and students may struggle to adjust socially. We examined students' social achievement goals--their orientations towards their relationships with their peers--as one important factor underlying students' social and psychological adjustment in college. When investigating the direct and indirect effects of social…
Chandra, Vinesh; Lloyd, Margaret
A major challenge for researchers and educators has been to discern the effect of ICT use on student learning outcomes. This paper maps the achievements in Year 10 Science of two cohorts of students over two years where students in the first year studied in a traditional environment while students in the second took part in a blended or e-learning…
Chang, Anna; Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Hauer, Karen E
Lifelong learning is essential for doctors to maintain competence in clinical skills. With performance feedback, learners should be able to formulate specific and achievable learning goals in areas of need. We aimed to determine: (i) the type and specificity of medical student learning goals after a required clinical performance examination; (ii) differences in goal setting among low, average and high performers, and (iii) whether low performers articulate learning goals that are concordant with their learning needs. We conducted a single-site, multi-year, descriptive comparison study. Senior medical students were given performance benchmarks, individual feedback and guidelines on learning goals; each student was subsequently instructed to write two clinical skills learning goals. Investigators coded the learning goals for specificity, categorised the goals, and performed statistical analyses to determine their concordance with student performance level (low, average or high) in data gathering (history taking and physical examination) or communication skills. All 208 students each wrote two learning goals and most (n=200, 96%) wrote two specific learning goals. Nearly two-thirds of low performers in data gathering wrote at least one learning goal that referred to history taking or physical examination; one-third wrote learning goals pertaining to the organisation of the encounter. High performers in data gathering wrote significantly more patient education goals and significantly fewer history-taking goals than average or low performers. Only 50% of low performers in communication wrote learning goals related to communication skills. Low performers in communication were significantly more likely than average or high performers to identify learning goals related to improving performance in future examinations. The provision of performance benchmarking, individual feedback and brief written guidelines helped most senior medical students in our study to write specific
de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs
The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their dominant achievement goals were linked to…
Phan, Huy P.
Introduction: The achievement goals framework has been researched and used to explain and account for individuals' learning and academic achievements. Over the past three decades, progress has been made in the conceptualizations and research development of different possible theoretical models of achievement goals. Notably, in this study, we…
Gonida, Eleftheria N; Cortina, Kai S
Parental involvement in homework is a home-based type of involvement in children's education. Research and theory suggest that it is beneficial for learning and achievement under certain conditions and for particular groups of individuals. The study examined whether different types of parents' involvement in homework (autonomy support, control, interference, cognitive engagement) (1) are predicted by their mastery and performance goals for their child and their beliefs of the child's academic efficacy, and (2) predict student achievement goal orientations, efficacy beliefs, and achievement. Grade-level differences were also investigated. The sample consisted of 282 elementary school (5th grade) and junior high school students (8th grade) and one of their parents. Surveys were used for data collection. Structural equation modelling was applied for data analysis. (1) Autonomy support during homework was predicted by parent mastery goal, parents' control and interference by their performance goal and perceptions of child efficacy, and cognitive engagement as supplementary to homework by parent perceptions of child efficacy. (2) Parental autonomy support, control, and interference were differentially associated with student mastery and performance goal orientations, whereas parent cognitive engagement was associated with student efficacy beliefs. (3) The structural model was the same for elementary and junior high school students but the latent means for a number of variables were different. Different types of parental involvement in homework were associated with different outcomes with parent autonomy support to be the most beneficial one. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Oli Negassa. Adama Science and Technology University, Ethiopia ... achievement in science education across selected preparatory schools of Ethiopia. The .... To what extent do students' achievements vary across grade levels, regions,.
Mastrotheodoros, S.; Talias, Michael A.; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso
Adolescents differ in the way they motivate themselves, and the way they choose, perceive, and approach their goals. Goal orientations have been proposed to be a significant aspect of individual differences. In general, some students aim at gaining a higher level of skills, whereas other students
Defries, Z; Grothe, L
The authors studied 21 schizophrenic and borderline college students who achieved B+ or higher grade averages and underwent psychotherapy while in college. High academic achievement was found to provide relief from feelings of worthlessness and ineffectuality resulting from poor relationships with parents, siblings, and peers. Psychotherapy and the permissive yet supportive college atmosphere reinforced the students' self-esteem.
Lee, Gregory M.; Lind, Mary L.
For student achievement, the diffusion and adoption of information technology (IT) infrastructure enabled by special funding was posited to have a positive impact on student achievement. Four urban school districts provided the context for this study to assess the impact of IT adoption on standardized test scores.
Creed, Peter A.; Hood, Michelle
Participants were 181 university students who completed measures of career development (self-efficacy, perceived barriers, distress, planning, and exploration) and goal adjustment capacity (disengagement and reengagement). We expected (a) that when contemplating unachievable goals, those with a higher capacity to adjust their goals (i.e., to…
Cohen, Joanna; Darnon, Céline; Mollaret, Patrick
We sought to distinguish mastery goals (i.e., desire to learn) from performance goals (i.e., desire to achieve more positive evaluations than others) in the light of social judgment research. In a pilot study, we made a conceptual distinction between three types of traits (agency, competence, and effort) that are often undifferentiated. We then tested the relevance of this distinction for understanding how people pursuing either mastery or performance goals are judged. On self-perception, results revealed that effort was predicted by the adoption of mastery goals and agency by performance goals (Study 1). On judgments, results showed that (a) the target pursuing mastery goals was perceived as oriented toward effort, and (b) the target pursuing performance goals was oriented toward agency (Study 2). Finally, these links were shown again by participants who inferred a target's goals from his traits (Study 3). Results are discussed in terms of the social value of achievement goals at school.
Shen, Yung-Chi; Chou, Chiyang James; Lin, Grace T.R.
Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: →This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. →Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. →Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. →Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. →The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.
Sinelnikov, Oleg A.; Hastie, Peter A.
We examined the perspective, goals, and strategies of students enrolled in collegiate physical education courses. Our aim was to determine the extent to which a model developed by Allen (1986) describing student-social systems in high schools would approximate those in a collegiate setting. Forty-six students from two elective volleyball classes…
Miñano Pérez, Pablo; Castejón Costa, Juan-Luis; Gilar Corbí, Raquel
As a result of studies examining factors involved in the learning process, various structural models have been developed to explain the direct and indirect effects that occur between the variables in these models. The objective was to evaluate a structural model of cognitive and motivational variables predicting academic achievement, including general intelligence, academic self-concept, goal orientations, effort and learning strategies. The sample comprised of 341 Spanish students in the first year of compulsory secondary education. Different tests and questionnaires were used to evaluate each variable, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was applied to contrast the relationships of the initial model. The model proposed had a satisfactory fit, and all the hypothesised relationships were significant. General intelligence was the variable most able to explain academic achievement. Also important was the direct influence of academic self-concept on achievement, goal orientations and effort, as well as the mediating ability of effort and learning strategies between academic goals and final achievement.
Psencik, Kay; Baldwin, Rhonda
In 2010, district leaders of Douglas County Public Schools, Douglasville, Georgia, launched an ambitious initiative to ensure that teachers set goals that focus on increasing their effectiveness and show student growth. To achieve this goal, the district leadership team focused on common district assessments to establish common learning…
Putwain, David W.; Symes, Wendy
Background: Previous work suggests that the expectation of failure is related to higher test anxiety and achievement goals grounded in a fear of failure. Aim: To test the hypothesis, based on the work of Elliot and Pekrun (2007), that the relationship between perceived competence and test anxiety is mediated by achievement goal orientations.…
Ranellucci, John; Muis, Krista R.; Duffy, Melissa; Wang, Xihui; Sampasivam, Lavanya; Franco, Gina M.
Background: Research is needed to explore conceptual change in relation to achievement goal orientations and depth of processing. Aims: To address this need, we examined relations between achievement goals, use of deep versus shallow processing strategies, and conceptual change learning using a think-aloud protocol. Sample and Method:…
Many have claimed, but only some have shown, that the social nature of teaching and classrooms is likely to have a direct effect on students’ achievement goals. This study examined the extent to which Dutch secondary school students’ (N = 2892) achievement goals were related to the interpersonal
Shim, Sungok Serena; Ryan, Allison M.; Cassady, Jerrell
This longitudinal study examined the effects of achievement goals on the growth trajectories of self-esteem during the first-year at a comprehensive public university. College freshmen (N = 311) were followed for one academic year with three time points. Between-individual differences and within-individual change in achievement goals were…
Van Yperen, N.W.; Hamstra, M.R.W.; van der Klauw, Marloes
We examined the relations between achievement goals and cheating in two studies. The findings from Study 1 show that the extent to which people intend to behave unethically in the areas of work, sport and education is a function of their dominant achievement goals in these particular settings. An
The goal was to examine the predictiveness of achievement goals for self-confidence, cognitive anxiety, and somatic anxiety using a prospective design. 160 high school athletes completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport after daily practice and the Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 before an official competition. Using hierarchical regression analyses, mastery-approach goals were found as positive predictors of self-confidence and negative predictors of cognitive and somatic anxiety. In contrast, performance- and mastery-avoidance goals positively predicted cognitive and somatic anxiety. Also, performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted self-confidence. Generally, athletes who pursued task mastery and improvement of competence were less physically and cognitively anxious and more self-confident. However, athletes felt tense, worried, and had lower confidence when they endorsed avoidance forms of achievement goals.
Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos
Grounded in the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and th...
Nie, Youyan; Liem, Gregory Arief D.
Underpinned by the hierarchical model of approach and avoidance motivation, the study examined the differential relations of individual-oriented and social-oriented achievement motives to approach and avoidance achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-avoidance). A total of 570 Chinese high school…
Ronald B. Lumpkin
Full Text Available Much of the focus in the literature in raising student achievement has included parental involvement, principal leadership, quality of instruction, students’ socioeconomic status, curriculum, and use of technology. Limited empirical research relates the condition of the school building as a variable that affects student achievement. Furthermore, there is no research that has examined the impact of building codes on achievement outcomes in the state of Florida. This research determined whether academic achievement of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students as measured by the mathematics and reading subtests of the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT increased in new school buildings compliant to the 2000 Florida State Requirements for Educational Facilities. A causal-comparative design determined whether the independent variables, old and new school building influenced student achievement as measured by students’ FCAT mathematics and reading subtest scores. The control group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in old buildings. The experimental group was two cohorts of 4th-, 8th-, 9th-, and 10th-grade students who attended school in new buildings. Transition from an old school into a new school was the treatment. Two hypotheses were formulated for testing and the research question for the inquiry was whether the percentage of students passing the FCAT mathematics and reading subtests increases after transitioning from an old school building into a new 2000 UBC (Uniform Building Code compliant facility.
Miller, Angie L.; Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.
The current study explores relationships among gender, perceived parenting style, the personality traits of conscientiousness and neuroticism, perfectionism, and achievement goal orientation in a high ability and high achieving young adult population. Using data from Honors College students at a Midwestern university, a path model suggests that…
Full Text Available In medical education, setting goals for clinical clerkship is the responsibility of educational groups. Taking the students' opinions into account, it is possible to study the efficacy of education in terms of learning and achieving educational goals. (1In periodontics and restorative departments of Shahed and Tehran University of Medical Sciences, it is reported that, achieving educational goals is not poss-ible (2. Also, some studies have reported the inadequacy of educational objectives in anesthesia clerkship from the viewpoint of medical students (3. In this descriptive-analytic study, 166 medical students of neurology wards at Imam Reza Hospital in Kermanshah during 2011- 2012 were selected via a survey to study the achievement rate of educational goals. We used a questionnaire to collect data. Reliability of the questionnaire (including content and face validity was obtained via consulting with ten faculty members of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences.The mean age of the participants was 21.34 (±1.43 years. 60.5% of them were females. 3.6% were freshmen and 49.9% were sophomores. 79.5% knew the goals before the start of clinical clerkship and 76.5% took part in the justification session in which their responsibility and method of evaluation were presented. 78.3% of them received the emergency protocol of Neurology. Overall, the participants ranked the goal achievement as high (41.6%, well (45.2% and medium (23.3%. There was no statistically significantly association between achieving educational goals and age and clinical clerkship period. However, there was a statis¬tically significantly association between the increase rate of achieving educational goals and introducing the objectives at the beginning of clinical clerkship period (p=0.011, justification session at the beginning of clinical clerkship (p=0.019 being familiar with emergency protocols of Neurology (p=0.04 and the season (winter in comparison with fall and spring in
Vaulerin, Jérôme; Colson, Serge S; Emile, Mélanie; Scoffier-Mériaux, Stéphanie; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne
We investigated the associations between the Big Five personality traits and occupational burnout in firefighters and the mediating role of achievement goals in this relationship. Two hundred twenty male firefighters from 20 to 62 years old participated and mediation analyses were performed. The results showed that neuroticism was positively related to the three dimensions of burnout, both directly and through mastery avoidance goals. Mastery approach goals mediated the relationships between conscientiousness and physical fatigue and between openness to experience and physical fatigue. Three of the Big Five personality traits, neuroticism, conscientiousness and openness to experience, and achievement goals, may be important factors in understanding and preventing firefighter burnout.
Spasenović Vera Z.
The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful lear...
Phelps, Terri; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert
This study investigated the impact that military deployment has upon academic achievement of elementary school students. TerraNova test scores of 137 fourth and fifth grade students in two elementary schools with a high proportion of military dependent children were examined for two consecutive years. Although the academic test performance fell…
Anderson, Lorin W.
The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected student characteristics, student involvement in learning, and achievement. Both naturalistic (n = 28, 27) and experimental studies were conducted. In the experimental study, two classes (n = 29, 26) learned a sequence of matrix arithmetic by mastery learning strategies.…
Diaz, Abby T.
This researcher seeks to answer the following question: How did two elementary Title I schools, identified as "high performing" on the first Smarter Balanced assessment, address elements of Maslow's hierarchy of needs when developing school-wide initiatives to enhance student achievement? Many students in Title I schools face barriers to…
Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.; Sias, Shari M.
Students from a master's program in Substance Abuse and Clinical Counseling (SACC) at a midsize southeastern university were surveyed to determine personal characteristics and career goals. Sixty-two of the 68 students currently enrolled in the program volunteered to anonymously complete the questionnaire. The typical profile of the SACC student…
Lee, Minhye; Bong, Mimi
By analyzing the open-ended reasons for studying generated by 3 different groups of Korean middle school students, we aimed to provide partial answers to current issues in achievement goal research that are difficult to resolve solely with the use of survey ratings. We categorized student responses using the achievement goal frameworks of Midgley…
Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.
When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics such as metacognition. We investigate a sample population of 218 students in a first-semester introductory algebra-based physics course, drawn from 14 laboratory sections within six semesters of course sections, to determine the influence of achievement goals on life science majors' attitudes towards physics. Learning orientations that, respectively, pertain to mastery goals and performance goals, in addition to a learning orientation that does not report a performance goal, were recorded from students in the specific context of learning a problem-solving framework during an in-class exercise. Students' learning orientations, defined within the context of students' self-reported statements in the specific context of a problem-solving-related research-based course implementation, are compared to pre-post results on physics problem-solving items in a well-established attitudinal survey instrument, in order to establish the categories' validity. In addition, mastery-related and performance-related orientations appear to extend to overall pre-post attitudinal shifts, but not to force and motion concepts or to overall course grade, within the scope of an introductory physics course. There also appears to be differentiation regarding overall course performance within health science majors, but not within biology majors, in terms of learning orientations; however, health science majors generally appear to fare less well on all measurements in the study than do biology majors, regardless of learning orientations.
Lina M. Grisales
Full Text Available During the General Assembly of the United Nations, in September 2000,189 countries (including Colombia committed to eight objectives leading to a more human and fairer world. Such objectives are called the Millennium Development Goals (mdg and to achieve them it is crucial to incorporate them in the action agendas of each country. The purpose of this monograph is to recognize current public policies in Colombia and Antioquia leading the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, specifically those related to the reduction of mortality among children less than 5 years of age, improvement of maternal health and fighting against hiv/aids, malaria and dengue.In Colombia, Conpes 91 of 2005 is the only guideline given by the Government establishing goals and strategies to achieve the Millennium Development Goals in 2015. Nevertheless, other policies, programs and projects before and even after the Millennium Statement (but without explicit purpose contribute to achieving such goals. Revision of those policies is an effort for the research project “Degree of contribution of public policies to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals related to the health sector, Antioquia, 2006”, which will evaluate the impact these guidelines have had in the achievement of the development goals in that particular sector.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the integration of indigenous values developed in Turkey to Schwartz’s universal values. Students (N = 593 from six universities in Istanbul responded the value scale, which consists of 10 etic PVQ items (each item representing one of 10 main Schwartz values and 23 emic WAG items (representing work-achievement goals. PROXSCAL, a multidimensional scaling method, was used to test whether etic and emic sets of values integrate and form the universal circular structure proposed in Schwartz value theory. The motivational continuum of values as a circular structure was similar to pan-cultural results, but adding another value type to the openness to change pole. While some of the items in this region represent autonomy of thought, remaining items diverge. The principle of conflicting values on opposite poles was not supported in relation to openness to change-conservation dimension. These two poles had similar priorities, contrasting with pan-cultural results, and demonstrating a culture-specific aspect of responding to motivational goals. Insights gained by emic studies will be functional in enriching understanding values, and contributing to the comprehensiveness and universality of Schwartz value theory.
Full Text Available Considering the importance yet paucity of help-seeking in e-learning, the present study investigated the motivational antecedents of help-seeking among online college students. We explored and compared the influences of achievement approach goals from the old and new achievement motivation models (Elliot & McGregor, 2001; Elliot, Murayama, & Pekrun, 2011 on online students’ help-seeking through intrinsic/extrinsic motivation. Path analyses were used to test two models of help-seeking among college students from four online educational psychology classes (N = 93 based on the two models of achievement goals. Our results showed that the new 3 × 2 model was a better fit than the old 2 × 2 model, suggesting that the achievement approach goals of the new model differ from those of the old model conceptually as Elliot, Murayama, and Pekrun (2011 posited. Second, our results revealed both unexpected direct and indirect positive influence of performance- and other-approach goals on online students’ help-seeking behaviour through extrinsic motivation. Third, while mastery-approach goals indirectly predicted help-seeking through intrinsic motivation, self- and task-approach predicted help-seeking in a dramatically different manner. Self-approach goals displayed indirect influence on help-seeking through intrinsic motivation similar to mastery-approach, yet task-approach displayed a negative direct influence on help-seeking. These results suggested the potential positive impact of self-approach and the detrimental influence of task-approach goals on help-seeking in e-learning environment. Conceptual issues and pedagogical implications for online instructions are discussed.
Yousefy, Alireza; Ghassemi, Gholamreza; Firouznia, Samaneh
Despite their ascribed intellectual ability and achieved academic pursuits, medical students' academic achievement is influenced by motivation. This study is an endeavor to examine the role of motivation in the academic achievement of medical students. In this cross-sectional correlational study, out of the total 422 medical students, from 4th to final year during the academic year 2007-2008, at School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 344 participated in completion of the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM), comprising 43 items and measuring eight aspects of motivation. The gold standard for academic achievement was their average academic marks at pre-clinical and clinical levels. Data were computer analyzed by running a couple of descriptive and analytical tests including Pearson Correlation and Student's t-student. Higher motivation scores in areas of competition, effort, social concern, and task were accompanied by higher average marks at pre-clinical as well as clinical levels. However, the latter ones showed greater motivation for social power as compared to the former group. Task and competition motivation for boys was higher than for girls. In view of our observations, students' academic achievement requires coordination and interaction between different aspects of motivation.
Senko, Corwin; Freund, Alexandra M
Achievement goal research consistently reveals that mastery-avoidance goals (i.e., striving to avoid losses) are maladaptive, especially in comparison to mastery-approach goals (i.e., striving for gains). Nearly all of it has been done with children or young adults, however. Lifespan theories of motivation posit that people in late adulthood are more likely than young adults to strive toward maintenance and loss-prevention rather than gains, and also that they sometimes profit from pursuing t...
Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Lee, Nikki; Boschloo, Annemarie; De Groot, Renate; Jolles, Jelle
This study investigated whether academic achievement was predicted by the goal which generally drives a student’s learning behaviour. Secondly, the role of metacognitive self-regulation was examined. The dominant goal orientation was assessed using a new method. 735 adolescents aged 10-19 years read
Carette, Bernd; Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.
Given the widespread use and well-known consequences of achievement goals in different competence-relevant situations, it is important to gain a thorough understanding of how these differences in goal pursuit are formed. Using different analytic approaches, we show that birth order lies at the heart
Sijbom, R.B.L.; Janssen, O.; van Yperen, N.W.
We identified leaders’ achievement goals and composition of creative input as important factors that can clarify when and why leaders are receptive to, and supportive of, subordinates’ creative input. As hypothesized, in two experimental studies, we found that relative to mastery goal leaders,
Poortvliet, P. Marijn; Janssen, Onne; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.
This investigation tested the joint effect of achievement goals and ranking information on information exchange intentions with a commensurate exchange partner. Results showed that individuals with performance goals were less inclined to cooperate with an exchange partner when they had low or high
Lina M. Grisales; Libardo A. Giraldo
During the General Assembly of the United Nations, in September 2000,189 countries (including Colombia) committed to eight objectives leading to a more human and fairer world. Such objectives are called the Millennium Development Goals (mdg) and to achieve them it is crucial to incorporate them in the action agendas of each country. The purpose of this monograph is to recognize current public policies in Colombia and Antioquia leading the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, speci...
Milošević Nikoleta M.
Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and
Cook, Karen A; Jack, Susan M; Siden, Hal; Thabane, Lehana; Browne, Gina
With improvements in pediatric care and technology, more young adults (YAs) with life-limiting conditions (LLCs) are surviving into adulthood. However, they have limited expectations to live beyond the first decade of adulthood. This study describes the monumental efforts required for YAs with LLCs to achieve their goals in an abbreviated life. The experiences and aspirations of YAs with LLCs to achieve their goals are relatively unknown. This report focuses on their experiences of living with uncertainty and its impact on achieving developmental goals. This study is one component of a larger descriptive study using an innovative bulletin board focus group to examine life experiences of YAs with LLCs. YAs with LLCs share the aspirations and goals of all YAs. Some participants demonstrated a striking capacity to navigate system barriers and achieve their goals, whereas others "got stuck" resulting in lost opportunities. Successful personal life investments were possible if resources were made available, coordinated, navigable, and responsive to new and special requests. Transformative changes to health, social care, and community services are necessary to support their YA ambitions. This study gave voice to those who were previously unheard and demonstrates the monumental hurdles YAs with LLCs face to achieve their goals. A palliative approach to care can mitigate unnecessary hardships and support their goals.
Cook, David A; Castillo, Richmond M; Gas, Becca; Artino, Anthony R
Measurement of motivation and cognitive load has potential value in health professions education. Our objective was to evaluate the validity of scores from Dweck's Implicit Theories of Intelligence Scale (ITIS), Elliot's Achievement Goal Questionnaire-Revised (AGQ-R) and Leppink's cognitive load index (CLI). This was a validity study evaluating internal structure using reliability and factor analysis, and relationships with other variables using the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Two hundred and thirty-two secondary school students participated in a medical simulation-based training activity at an academic medical center. Pre-activity ITIS (implicit theory [mindset] domains: incremental, entity) and AGQ-R (achievement goal domains: mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, performance-avoidance), post-activity CLI (cognitive load domains: intrinsic, extrinsic, germane) and task persistence (self-directed repetitions on a laparoscopic surgery task) were measured. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha) was > 0.70 for all domain scores except AGQ-R performance-avoidance (alpha 0.68) and CLI extrinsic load (alpha 0.64). Confirmatory factor analysis of ITIS and CLI scores demonstrated acceptable model fit. Confirmatory factor analysis of AGQ-R scores demonstrated borderline fit, and exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-domain model for achievement goals (mastery-approach, performance and avoidance). Correlations among scores from conceptually-related domains generally aligned with expectations, as follows: ITIS incremental and entity, r = -0.52; AGQ-R mastery-avoidance and performance-avoidance, r = 0.71; mastery-approach and performance-approach, r = 0.55; performance-approach and performance-avoidance, r = 0.43; mastery-approach and mastery-avoidance, r = 0.36; CLI germane and extrinsic, r = -0.35; ITIS incremental and AGQ-R mastery-approach, r = 0.34; ITIS incremental and CLI germane, r = 0.44; AGQ-R mastery
Vedder, Paul; Kouwenhoven, Coen; Burk, William J
Goal preferences indicate intentions to achieve or avoid particular states. We examined whether Curacaoan and Dutch students differ in goal preferences related to school and whether goal preferences are associated with students' evaluation of the classroom climate. Measurement invariance of the instruments was also tested between samples. Participants attended vocational high schools in Curacao (N = 276) or in the Netherlands (N = 283). Both the classroom climate and goal preferences differed between the samples. In the Netherlands the preference for individuality, belongingness, and recognition was stronger, whereas in Curacao mastery, satisfaction, self-determination, and material gain were more frequently endorsed. The two variables were modestly correlated. Schools do have a globalizing effect on students' school experiences and hardly adapt to goal preferences. The latter seem to be affected by non-school related cultural factors.
Dhindsa, Harkirat S.; Chung, Gilbert
The aim of this study was to evaluate attitudes towards and achievement in science of Form 3 students studying in single-sex and coeducational schools in Brunei. The results demonstrated significant differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of male and female students in single-sex schools and students in coeducational schools. These differences were at moderate level. In single-sex schools, the girls achieved moderately better in science than the boys despite their attitudes were only marginally better than the boys. However, there were no gender differences in attitudes towards and achievement in science of students in coeducational schools. The attitudes towards and achievement in science of girls in single-sex schools were moderately better than those of girls in coeducational schools. Whereas the attitudes towards and achievement in science of boys in single-sex schools were only marginally better than the boys in coeducational schools. However, further research to investigate (a) if these differences are repeated at other levels as well as in other subjects, and (b) the extent to which school type contributed towards these differences is recommended.
Schmidt, Stephen G
Although the process of goal setting in rehabilitation of individuals with persistent pain is considered a fundamental and requisite skill, it is frequently reported as a challenging element of clinical practice. Factors which may contribute to the complexity of goal setting include the potential for unrecognized shifts in cognitive function, psychological comorbidities, and the social context of both providers and patients. This review aims to describe factors which may confound the process of setting and achieving collaborative rehabilitation goals using a biopsychosocial framework and to provide recommendations to enhance goal setting effectiveness.
The major purpose of this study was to test the hypothesized paths from dualistic passions through achievement goals to subjective vitality and performance in sports. 645 high school athletes participated. The proposed structural equation model, with relationships between dualistic passions and subjective vitality and sports performance mediated by achievement goals, fit the data well, especially for mastery-approach and performance-approach goals. Harmonious and obsessive passions may lead athletes to high performance via the adoption of mastery-approach goals. However, these passions seem to have two paths influencing personal functioning: direct effects make players feel energetic, and indirect effects on subjective vitality through adoption of mastery-approach and performance-approach goals.
Fernandez-Rio, Javier; Cecchini Estrada, Jose A; Mendez-Giménez, Antonio; Fernández-Garcia, Benjamín; Saavedra, Pablo
The goal of this study was to assess achievement goal dominance, self-determined situational motivation and competence in high-level swimmers before and after three training sessions set at different working intensities (medium, sub-maximal and maximal). Nineteen athletes (males, n=9, 18.00±2.32 years; females, n=10, 16.30±2.01 years, range = 14-18) agreed to participate. They completed a questionnaire that included the Dominant Achievement Goal assessment instrument, the 2×2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport (AGQ-S), The Situational Motivation Scale (SIMS) and the Competence subscale of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise questionnaire (BPNES). Results indicated that participants overwhelmingly showed mastery-approach achievement goal dominance, and it remained stable at the conclusion of the different training sessions under all intensity levels. This profile was positively correlated to self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, swimmers' feelings of competence increased only after the medium intensity level training session. After the completion of the maximal intensity training session, swimmers' self-determined motivation was significantly lower compared to the other two training sessions, which could be caused by a temporary period of burnout. Results indicated that high-level swimmers had a distinct mastery-approach dominant achievement goal profile that was not affected by the workload of the different training sessions. They also showed high levels of self-determined situational motivation and competence. However, heavy workloads should be controlled because they can cause transitory burnout.
de Lange, Annet H.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Bal, P. Matthijs
The aim of this study was to increase our insight into older employees' achievement motivation by examining the prevalence of dominant achievement goals among a "unique" group of 172 Dutch workers who remained active after their post-statutory retirement age. Moreover, we investigated how their
Full Text Available Literature on school refusal has shown a link between school refusal and poor school performance. However, there has been little investigation into the individual underlying factors, and specifically factors directly related to the learning process, such as the learning goals of students and their expectations of success and/or failure. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate the influence of Learned Helplessness (LH and learning goals on school refusal. We hypothesized that LH and learning goals exert a unique role in predicting school refusal above and beyond the roles of academic achievement, age, and gender. The sample consisted of 201 Italian students with an average age of 11.93, with both low (57.2 % of students and high (42.8 % academic achievement. School refusal, LH, and learning goals were measured by means of questionnaires. The results confirm the hypothesis of this study; in fact, we found that learning goals and, above all, LH play a more predictive role of school refusal than academic achievement. These results extend previous studies on school refusal and, for the first time, they provide additional knowledge about this problem, analyzing the relationship between school refusal, learning goals, and LH, still neglected in the literature. Implications on the psychological well-being of students are discussed.
Full Text Available We conducted behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI research to investigate the effects of two types of achievement goals--mastery goals and performance-approach goals--on challenge seeking and feedback processing. The results of the behavioral experiment indicated that mastery goals were associated with a tendency to seek challenge, both before and after experiencing difficulty during task performance, whereas performance-approach goals were related to a tendency to avoid challenge after encountering difficulty during task performance. The fMRI experiment uncovered a significant decrease in ventral striatal activity when participants received negative feedback for any task type and both forms of achievement goals. During the processing of negative feedback for the rule-finding task, performance-approach-oriented participants showed a substantial reduction in activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and the frontopolar cortex, whereas mastery-oriented participants showed little change. These results suggest that performance-approach-oriented participants are less likely to either recruit control processes in response to negative feedback or focus on task-relevant information provided alongside the negative feedback. In contrast, mastery-oriented participants are more likely to modulate aversive valuations to negative feedback and focus on the constructive elements of feedback in order to attain their task goals. We conclude that performance-approach goals lead to a reluctant stance towards difficulty, while mastery goals encourage a proactive stance.
Maulidya, Sity Rahmy; Hasanah, Rusi Ulfa; Retnowati, Endah
Problem solving is the key of doing and also learning mathematics. It takes also the fundamental role of developing mathematical knowledge. Responding to the current reform movement in mathematics, students are expected to learn to be a flexible thinker. The ability to think flexible is challenged by the globalisation, hence influence mathematics education. A flexible thinking includes ability to apply knowledge in different contexts rather than simply use it in similar context when it is studied. Arguably problem solving activities can contribute to the development of the ability to apply skills to unfamiliar situations. Accordingly, an appropriate classroom instructional strategy must be developed. A cognitive load theory suggests that by reducing extraneous cognitive load during learning could enhance transfer learning. A goal-free problem strategy that is developed based in cognitive load theory have been showed to be effective for transfer learning. This strategy enables students to learn a large numbers of problem solving moves from a mathematics problem. The instruction in a goal-free problem directs students to `calculate as many solution as you can' rather than to calculate a single given goal. Many experiment research evident goal-free problem enhance learning. This literature review will discuss evidence goal-free problem facilitate students to solve problems flexibly and thus enhance their problem solving skills, including how its implication in the classroom.
Olofsson, Åke; Taube, Karin; Ahl, Astrid
Broadened recruitment to higher education is on the agenda in many countries, and it is also widely recognized that the number of dyslexic students entering higher education is increasing. In Sweden, as in many other European countries, higher education institutions are required to accommodate students with dyslexia. The present study focuses on the study outcome for 50 students with diagnosed dyslexia, mainly in teacher education and nurses' training, at three universities in Northern Sweden. The students trusted their own ability to find information on the Internet but mistrusted their own abilities in reading course books and articles in English and in taking notes. The mean rate of study was 23.5 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System credits per semester, which is slightly below the national baseline of 26.7. The results show that more than half of the students are examined at a normal rate of study but that about one fifth have a very low rate of study. Messages Most students with dyslexia can compensate for their reading problems. Taking notes during lessons and reading in foreign language may be especially difficult for students with dyslexia. Diagnoses should distinguish between reading comprehension and word decoding. More than half of the students with dyslexia can achieve at a normal rate of study. One-fifth of the students with dyslexia may need a longer period of study than other students. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Spasenović Vera Z.
Full Text Available The paper considers correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Attention first focuses on the issue of prosocial behavior defining, making it operational and measuring it. Next consideration is given to the ways that prosocial behavior contributes to academic achievement. It is thought that prosocial behavior can produce indirect effects on student prosocial behavior because it is bound to certain academically relevant forms of behavior leading to successful learning and work. Also, correlation is interpreted by means of teacher’s preferences of prosocial students, which is reflected in teacher expectations and behavior towards students but in evaluating their work too. In addition, prosocial behavior may produce direct effects, for it is through peer prosocial interactions that positive intellectual exchange is performed, which contributes to more successful mastering of teaching content. The paper provides a survey of investigations whose results indicate that there exists correlation between student prosocial behavior and academic achievement. Also, consideration is given to possible methods and treatments for encouraging prosocial behavior in school context, especially the role of teacher in the process and the importance of the program for promoting student prosocial skills.
Stephen Machin; Sandra McNally
The widening gap between the average educational achievement of boys and girls has been the subject of much discussion. This gap is especially controversial for students taking national exams at the end of their compulsory education. However, the gender gap is also apparent at earlier and at later stages of education. In this paper, we analyse changes over time in the gender achievement gap at the different stages of compulsory education. We first use a combination of data sources to paint a ...
Denilson Mendes de Oliveira
Full Text Available Classroom structures constitute motivational aspects to learn, which can be easily manipulated by teachers during mediation of scientific knowledge to ensure students’ engagement. Organization of learning activities, evaluation and autonomy are some examples of such structures. Two types of goals may be developed in classrooms due to different instructional strategies: performance goals and mastery goals. This work’s objectives were to compare instructional strategies of two high school chemistry teachers (Teacher A and Teacher B from two public schools located in Viçosa (Brazil and infer possible motivational patterns found among students. The comparison was based on the achievement goal theory and organized within the three classroom structures. Data were gathered through field notes from participant observation in two Chemistry classes and semi-structured interviews with both of the teachers. It was verified that Teacher A utilized strategies aligned with mastery goals, while Teacher B utilized instructional strategies that were consistent with the two types of goals. It is concluded that this can influence student engagement during Chemistry classes, considering that teachers have an important role in the orchestration of classroom structures, articulating instructional strategies that favor learning and mediation of the scientific knowledge.
Scobbie, Lesley; Wyke, Sally; Dixon, Diane
Goal setting is considered to be a fundamental part of rehabilitation; however, theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice have not been comprehensively reviewed. (i) To identify and discuss specific theories of behaviour change relevant to goal-setting practice in the rehabilitation setting. (ii) To identify 'candidate' theories that that offer most potential to inform clinical practice. The rehabilitation and self-management literature was systematically searched to identify review papers or empirical studies that proposed a specific theory of behaviour change relevant to setting and/or achieving goals in a clinical context. Data from included papers were extracted under the headings of: key constructs, clinical application and empirical support. Twenty-four papers were included in the review which proposed a total of five theories: (i) social cognitive theory, (ii) goal setting theory, (iii) health action process approach, (iv) proactive coping theory, and (v) the self-regulatory model of illness behaviour. The first three of these theories demonstrated most potential to inform clinical practice, on the basis of their capacity to inform interventions that resulted in improved patient outcomes. Social cognitive theory, goal setting theory and the health action process approach are theories of behaviour change that can inform clinicians in the process of setting and achieving goals in the rehabilitation setting. Overlapping constructs within these theories have been identified, and can be applied in clinical practice through the development and evaluation of a goal-setting practice framework.
Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C; Cabanach, Ramón G; González-Pienda, Julio A; Rodríguez, Susana; Rosário, Pedro; Muñoz-Cadavid, María A; Cerezo, Rebeca
In this paper, the relations between academic goals and various indicators that define the quality of the learning process are analyzed. The purpose was to determine to what extent high, moderate, or low levels of academic goals were positively or negatively related to effort regulation, the value assigned to academic tasks, meta-cognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, beliefs about learning control, and management of time and study environment. The investigation was carried out with a sample of 632 university students (70% female and 30% male) and mean age of 21.22 (SD=2.2).The results show that learning goals, or task orientation, are positively related to all the indictors of learning quality considered herein. Although for other kinds of goals-work-avoidance goals, performance-approach goals, and performance-avoidance goals-significant relations were not found with all the indicators, there was a similar tendency of significant results in all cases; the higher the levels of these goals, the lower the levels of the indicators of learning quality.
Harnish, David Alan
Many schools struggle to meet No Child Left Behind's stringent adequate yearly progress standards, although the benchmark has stimulated national creativity and reform. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of principals' leadership styles, curriculum reform, and student achievement to ascertain possible factors to improve…
Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil; Depren, Ozer
Following past researches, student background, learning strategies, self-related cognitions in mathematics and school climate variables were important for achievement. The purpose of this study was to identify a number of factors that represent the relationship among sets of interrelated variables using principal component factor analysis and…
James, Lori; Pate, James; Leech, Donald; Martin, Ellice; Brockmeier, Lantry; Dees, Elizabeth
This quantitative research study was designed to examine the relationship between system resource allocation patterns and student achievement, as measured by eighth grade Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT) mathematics, eighth grade CRCT reading, eleventh grade Georgia High School Graduation Test (GHSGT) mathematics, eleventh grade and…
This study examined the relationships between teacher leadership, science teacher self-efficacy, and fifth-grade science student achievement in diverse schools in a San Antonio, Texas, metropolitan school district. Teachers completed a modified version of the "Leadership Behavior Description Question" (LBDQ) Form XII by Stogdill (1969),…
Händel, Marion; Vialle, Wilma; Ziegler, Albert
The reported study investigated students' perceptions of their high-performing classmates in terms of intelligence, social skills, and conscientiousness in different school subjects. The school subjects for study were examined with regard to cognitive, physical, and gender-specific issues. The results show that high academic achievements in…
Ronfeldt, Matthew; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James
Researchers and policymakers often assume that teacher turnover harms student achievement, though recent studies suggest this may not be the case. Using a unique identification strategy that employs school-by-grade level turnover and two classes of fixed-effects models, this study estimates the effects of teacher turnover on over 850,000 New York…
Lamm, Kevan W.; Sheikh, Emana; Carter, Hannah S.; Lamm, Alexa J.
Finding strategies to increase the motivation of students, their connection with the material, and retention of the content, has been very important within leadership education. Previous research studies have shown that personality traits can predict desired outcomes, including goal orientation or motivational disposition. However, there have not…
Cady, Sara C.
Research studies have shown that one half of all students who begin college fail to realize their goals. This case study of one community college provided a comprehensive examination of best practices developed over several years through strategic enrollment planning. Additionally, this dissertation examined the decision-making processes that…
Li, Chiung-Huang; Chi, Likang; Yeh, Suh-Ruu; Guo, Kwei-Bin; Ou, Cheng-Tsung; Kao, Chun-Chieh
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of 2 x 2 achievement goals on intrinsic motivation and performance in handball. Participants were 164 high school athletes. All completed the 2 x 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport and the Intrinsic Motivation subscale of the Sport Motivation Scale; the coach for each team rated his athletes' overall sports performance. Using simultaneous-regression analyses, mastery-approach goals positively predicted both intrinsic motivation and performance in sports, whereas performance-avoidance goals negatively predicted sports performance. These results suggest that athletes who pursue task mastery and improvement of their competence perform well and enjoy their participation. In contrast, those who focus on avoiding normative incompetence perform poorly.
Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård
This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Trexler, Cary J.; Hess, Alexander J.; Hayes, Kathryn N.
Nationally, both science and agricultural education professional organizations have identified agriculture as a fundamental technology to be studied by students, with the goal of achieving an understanding of the agri-food system necessary for democratic participation. Benchmarks representing the content that K-12 children need to understand about…
Froiland, John Mark; Worrell, Frank C.
Using structural equation models, with gender, parent education, and prior grade point average (GPA) as control variables, we examined the relationships among intrinsic motivation to learn, learning goals, behavioral engagement at school, and academic performance (measured by GPA) in 1,575 students in an ethnically and racially diverse high…
Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Ring, C.
This study examined whether (a) training and competition influence achievement goals, effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; (b) achievement goals mediate the effects of training and competition on effort, enjoyment, tension, and performance; and (c) the context influences the relationships
Waskiewicz, Rhonda A
To determine the extent of the relationship between students' inherent motivation to achieve in a doctor of pharmacy program and their motivation to achieve on a single low-stakes test of content knowledge. The Attitude Toward Learning Questionnaire (ATL) was administered to 66 third-year pharmacy students at the beginning of the spring 2011 semester, and the Student Opinion Scale (SOS) was administered to the same group immediately following completion of the Pharmacy Curricular Outcomes Assessment (PCOA). Significant differences were found in performance approach and work avoidance based on situational motivation scores. Situational motivation was also found to be directly correlated with performance and mastery approaches and inversely correlated with work avoidance. Criteria were met for predicting importance and effort from performance and mastery approaches and work avoidance scores of pharmacy students. The ability to predict pharmacy students' motivation to perform on a low-stakes standardized test of content knowledge increases the test's usefulness as a measure of curricular effectiveness.
De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Kirschner, Paul A.
The GOALS study (Grootschalig Onderzoek naar Activiteiten van Limburgse Scholieren [Large-scale Research of Activities in Dutch Students]) was set up to investigate possible associations between different forms of physical activity and inactivity with cognitive performance, academic achievement and
Andriessen, I.; Phalet, K.; Lens, W.
Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination
What considerations must be addressed to ensure that efforts to achieve the EU's new 2030 emissions and renewables targets are compatible with the other energy goals of the EU and its member states: energy security, and energy affordability? How should these other energy goals be addressed when pursuing energy efficiency improvements, upgrading electricity systems to handle different renewable energy sources, and developing policies to reduce overall CO2 emissions? Markets have been defined as being central to achieving all of Europe's energy goals - both the creation of an EU internal energy market and the use of the Emissions Trading System (ETS) to allow a market for managing a portion of the continent's greenhouse gas emissions. But once these markets are in place and operational, there will still be great variances among the goals, instruments, and level of market integration available for the different countries and regions of Europe. Choosing the most cost effective mechanisms for pursuing the new goals will require effective use of the flexibility that is available - an improved ETS, tradable national targets for non-ETS emissions, and a rapidly widening array of cost-effective renewable energy options. Sufficient use of this flexibility should facilitate the flow of energy investments toward energy system improvements where there is low-hanging fruit - anywhere in the continent - without requiring that local or continental energy security goals be sacrificed. (author).
Stornes, Tor; Ommundsen, Yngvar
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between achievement goals, perceptions of motivational climate and sportspersonship in a sample of young male Norwegian handball players. A cross-sectional study of 440 male handball players aged from 14 to 16 was conducted, in which the players responded to a questionnaire measuring…
Rambo-Hernandez, Karen E.; Atadero, Rebecca A.; Balgopal, Meena
This study examined the impact of incorporating group design projects into a second-year engineering class on achievement goal orientations and two academic outcomes: concept inventory and final exam scores. In this study, two sections were taught using lecture format, but one section also completed three group design projects as part of their…
Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Thomas
The purpose of this research was to meta-analyze studies which experimentally induced an achieve- ment goal state to examine its causal effect on the individual’s performance at the task at hand, and to investigate the moderator effects of feedback anticipation and time pressure. The data set
Grinstead, Mary L.; Mauldin, Teresa; Sabia, Joseph J.; Koonce, Joan; Palmer, Lance
Using microdata from the American Dream Demonstration, the current study examines factors associated with savings and savings goal achievement (indicated by a matched withdrawal) among participants of individual development account (IDA) programs. Multinomial logit results show that hours of participation in financial education programs, higher…
This study examined the relationship of motivational climate and differential achievement goals to meta-cognitive self-regulation, regulation of effort, help-seeking and self-handicapping in physical education (PE). The sample consisted of 273 pupils (boys n = 125; girls n = 148) attending 10th grade PE classes in Norway. Both motivational…
Gary G. Huang
Full Text Available School restructuring raises questions about the role of school districts in improving student learning. Centralization by state governments and decentralization to individual schools as proposed in systemic reform leave districts' role unsettled. Empirical research on the district role in the context of ongoing reform is inadequate. This analysis of combined data from the NAEP and the Common Core of Data (CCD was intended to address the issue. We analyzed 1990, 1992, and 1996 NAEP 8th grade mathematics national assessment data in combination with CCD data of corresponding years to examine the extent to which student achievement was related to districts' control over instructional expenditure, adjusting for relevant key factors at both district and student levels. Upon sample modification, we used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM to estimate the relationships of student achievement to two district fiscal policy indictors, current expenditure per pupil (CEPP and districts' discretionary rates for instructional expenditure (DDR. Net of relevant district factors, DDR was found unrelated to districts' average 8th grade math performance. The null effect was consistent in the analysis of the combined NAEP-CCD data for 1990, 1992, and 1996. In contrast, CEPP was found related to higher math performance in a modest yet fairly consistent way. Future research may be productive to separately study individual states and integrate the findings onto the national level.
Full Text Available This paper presents results of a research conducted in large Croatian companies that intended to connect and establish eventual influences between the usage of outsourcing and achieving business goals in those companies. It was also meant to establish if (and in which segments outsourcing was being used in large Croatian companies, what were the main reasons for its use, if it was conducted according to specific plans and with tracking of achieved results, if expectations that surveyed companies had about outsourcing were met, and what are the future possibilities and perspectives of those companies regarding outsourcing. Many other useful data regarding outsourcing and goal achievement were also collected and linked together in order to establish eventual influences of outsourcing on the effectiveness of making business in large Croatian companies.
Background Key challenges in benchmarking health service achievement of policy goals in areas such as chronic disease are: 1) developing indicators and understanding how policy goals might work as indicators of service performance; 2) developing methods for economically collecting and reporting stakeholder perceptions; 3) combining and sharing data about the performance of organizations; 4) interpreting outcome measures; 5) obtaining actionable benchmarking information. This study aimed to explore how a new Boolean-based small-N method from the social sciences—Qualitative Comparative Analysis or QCA—could contribute to meeting these internationally shared challenges. Methods A ‘multi-value QCA’ (MVQCA) analysis was conducted of data from 24 senior staff at 17 randomly selected services for chronic disease, who provided perceptions of 1) whether government health services were improving their achievement of a set of statewide policy goals for chronic disease and 2) the efficacy of state health office actions in influencing this improvement. The analysis produced summaries of configurations of perceived service improvements. Results Most respondents observed improvements in most areas but uniformly good improvements across services were not perceived as happening (regardless of whether respondents identified a state health office contribution to that improvement). The sentinel policy goal of using evidence to develop service practice was not achieved at all in four services and appears to be reliant on other kinds of service improvements happening. Conclusions The QCA method suggested theoretically plausible findings and an approach that with further development could help meet the five benchmarking challenges. In particular, it suggests that achievement of one policy goal may be reliant on achievement of another goal in complex ways that the literature has not yet fully accommodated but which could help prioritize policy goals. The weaknesses of QCA can be
Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos
Grounded in the 2x2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and the indicators of athletes' welfare. Finally, measurement and structural invariance was tested with respect to gender in the hypothesized model. An alternative model was also estimated specifying self-esteem as an antecedent of the four goals and cognitive appraisals. Four hundred and twenty-four team sport participants (Mage=24.25) responded to a multisection questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the hypothesized model only. Challenge and threat appraisals partially mediated the relationships observed between mastery-based goals and the well-being indicators. Lastly, the hypothesized model was found to be invariant across gender.
Full Text Available In a randomized field trial with 2,850 seventh-grade mathematics students, we evaluated whether an educational technology intervention increased mathematics learning. Assigning homework is common yet sometimes controversial. Building on prior research on formative assessment and adaptive teaching, we predicted that combining an online homework tool with teacher training could increase learning. The online tool ASSISTments (a provides timely feedback and hints to students as they do homework and (b gives teachers timely, organized information about students’ work. To test this prediction, we analyzed data from 43 schools that participated in a random assignment experiment in Maine, a state that provides every seventh-grade student with a laptop to take home. Results showed that the intervention significantly increased student scores on an end-of-the-year standardized mathematics assessment as compared with a control group that continued with existing homework practices. Students with low prior mathematics achievement benefited most. The intervention has potential for wider adoption.
Li, Hong [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Johnson, Kenneth I. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States); Newhouse, Norman L. [PPG Industries, Inc., Cheswick, PA (United States)
Led by PPG and partnered with Hexagon Lincoln and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), the team recently carried out a project “Achieving Hydrogen Storage Goals through High-Strength Fiber Glass”. The project was funded by DOE’s Fuel Cell Technologies office within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, starting on September 1, 2014 as a two-year project to assess technical and commercial feasibilities of manufacturing low-cost, high-strength glass fibers to replace T700 carbon fibers with a goal of reducing the composite total cost by 50% of the existing, commercial 700 bar hydrogen storage tanks used in personal vehicles.
Baptista, Deise Regina; Thieme, Rubia Daniela; Reis, Walleri Christini Torelli; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano Januário
Diabetes and its complications are substantial causes of morbidity and mortality, and caused approximately 5.1 million deaths worldwide in 2013. Early detection and treatment of diabetes complications can prevent their progression. This study compared the proportions of patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and T2DM, respectively) who achieved the goals of good clinical control. Adults and elderly patients with T1DM and T2DM at a public outpatient endocrinology service in Brazil were retrospectively evaluated between 2012 and 2013. Clinical and socio demographic data were obtained from medical records and evaluated in accordance with the Brazilian Diabetes Society Guidelines. Care process measures, outcomes indicators, and supporting process measures were evaluated. A total of 1031 records were analyzed: 29 and 71 % of patients had T1DM and T2DM, respectively. T2DM patients had significantly higher BMI than T1DM patients (overweight and obesity in 85.1 vs. 47.5 %, p achieved all targets, and 1.1 % did not achieve any. The achievement of goals of good clinical practice varies among the parameters evaluated. Almost no patients achieved all targets. Many patients are overweight and do not achieve targets for HbA1c, lipid profile, or blood pressure control.
Mills, Anne E; Spencer, Edward M
The recognition that the success of the healthcare organization depends on its achievement of two interrelated goals is a relatively recent phenomenon. In its mid-history the healthcare organization was largely able to ignore cost issues. In its latter history, many would argue that it ignored its quality goals as it pursued its cost goals (15). Either approach, given declining revenues and a competitive landscape, is incompatible with continued responsible operation. If this is true, then tools that were appropriate when the healthcare organization was focused on the achievement of one or another of these goals are not adequate as the healthcare organization seeks to achieve both goals together. Thus, new perspectives and new tools must be found that help the organization address two intimately related but sometimes conflicting goals. Values based decision-making can be the perspective needed, and organization ethics is one tool that can be of use in supporting it within the institution. But there are caveats. In order for values based decision-making to be effective, leadership must take an active role in promoting its use. It must relinquish a degree of control and it must begin to trust its stakeholders to make decisions within the context of the organization's values and goals. This can be extremely difficult, as control by senior management is often seen as the only effective means of ensuring that correct decisions are made. There are additional difficulties in the healthcare organization. Control rests within two groups and the healthcare organization is operating in an environment in which variance elimination is emphasized as a means of controlling costs. This may be an appealing notion for revenue strapped healthcare organization leaders, but it implies greater control exerted by managers, not less. Relinquishing any degree of control is a frightening prospect, but it has been done successfully. An excellent example of leadership encouraging decisions
Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie
"Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For women, the negative stereotype that exists in our culture states that women are typically not as capable as men in mathematics or science subjects. This study specifically explored the potential impact of stereotype threat on women who have chosen a science-based college major. They were tested in the domain of chemistry, which is related to mathematics and often involves high level of mathematics skills. I attempted to generate a stereotype threat in the participants through describing a chemistry challenge exam as either one that had consistently shown a gender bias against women and to create a nullification effect by describing the exam as one that had shown no gender bias in the past. In the third experimental condition acting as a control, participants received only generic instructions related to taking the test itself. The second part of this study investigated whether stereotype threat effects could impact women's achievement goal orientations. In previous studies performance avoidance goal orientations have been associated with individuals placed in a stereotype threat environment. The findings on the stereotype threat effect were not significant for the chemistry challenge test achievement scores. This may be due to several factors. One factor may be the design of the chemistry challenge test and the instructions for the test. The other factor may be the women in this study. As individuals who have chosen a science based major, they may have developed coping skills and strategies that reduced the impact of a stereotype threat. It is also possible that the testing environment itself generated an implicit stereotype
Li, Chengyue; Hou, Yilin; Sun, Mei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo
Although much public scrutiny and academic attention has focused on the evaluations of system implementation since the beginning of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in China, few studies have systematically evaluated the achievements of the stated policy goals. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the policy goals of NRCMS have been achieved. Using multistage sampling processes, two rounds of cross-sectional household surveys including 9787 and 7921 rural households were conducted in Eastern China in year 2000 and year 2008, respectively. A pre- and post-implementation comparison was used to evaluate the achievement of policy goals in three measures: impoverishment from major health hazards, household financial risk from medical expenses, and rural income inequity. Intention surveys were also applied to find out potential obstacles in the implementation of NRCMS. The rate of re-impoverishment from health hazard was reduced from 2.69 % ex ante to 2.12 % ex post, a decrease of 21.13 %. The severity of impoverishment fell from a previous 4.66 % to 3.02 %, a decline of 35.18 %. Economic risk of medical treatment population relative to the whole population fell from 2.62 ex ante to 2.03 ex post, a 22.52 % reduction. As indication of effect on improving income equity, the Gini coefficient fell from 0.4629 to 0.4541. The effects of NRCMS were significantly better than those of RCMS. Despite the preliminary achievements, our intention survey of key respondents identified that technical difficulties in actuarial funding and more sustainable reimbursement schedules has become the most challenging barriers in achieving the goals of NRCMS, while raising the insurance premium on NRCMS was no longer as big a barrier. With NRCMS, China has established a medical security system to reduce the financial burden of healthcare on rural residents. NRCMS has achieved some positive though limited effects; but technical difficulties in the implementation of
Bonafini, Fernanda Cesar; Chae, Chungil; Park, Eunsung; Jablokow, Kathryn Weed
Engagement in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) is based on students who self-organize their participation according to their own goals and interests. Visual materials such as videos and discussion forums are basic ways of engaging students in MOOCs. Student achievement in MOOCs is typically measured using assessments distributed throughout the…
Harackiewicz, Judith M.; Canning, Elizabeth A.; Tibbetts, Yoi; Giffen, Cynthia J.; Blair, Seth S.; Rouse, Douglas I.; Hyde, Janet S.
Many students start college intending to pursue a career in the biosciences, but too many abandon this goal because they struggle in introductory biology. Interventions have been developed to close achievement gaps for underrepresented minority students and women, but no prior research has attempted to close the gap for first-generation students,…
Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård
This is the accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article This research explored the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the 2 x 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort. A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between intrinsic motivation and increased work effort was more positive for employees with h...
Leonard, Julia A; Lee, Yuna; Schulz, Laura E
Persistence, above and beyond IQ, is associated with long-term academic outcomes. To look at the effect of adult models on infants' persistence, we conducted an experiment in which 15-month-olds were assigned to one of three conditions: an Effort condition in which they saw an adult try repeatedly, using various methods, to achieve each of two different goals; a No Effort condition in which the adult achieved the goals effortlessly; or a Baseline condition. Infants were then given a difficult, novel task. Across an initial study and two preregistered experiments ( N = 262), infants in the Effort condition made more attempts to achieve the goal than did infants in the other conditions. Pedagogical cues modulated the effect. The results suggest that adult models causally affect infants' persistence and that infants can generalize the value of persistence to novel tasks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Soares, António Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás; Domingues, Valentina; da Conceição Alvim-Ferraz, Maria; Delerue-Matos, Cristina
Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioremediation (BR) are two of the most common soil remediation technologies. Their application is widespread; however, both present limitations, namely related to the efficiencies of SVE on organic soils and to the remediation times of some BR processes. This work aimed to study the combination of these two technologies in order to verify the achievement of the legal clean-up goals in soil remediation projects involving seven different simulated soils separately contaminated with toluene and xylene. The remediations consisted of the application of SVE followed by biostimulation. The results show that the combination of these two technologies is effective and manages to achieve the clean-up goals imposed by the Spanish Legislation. Under the experimental conditions used in this work, SVE is sufficient for the remediation of soils, contaminated separately with toluene and xylene, with organic matter contents (OMC) below 4 %. In soils with higher OMC, the use of BR, as a complementary technology, and when the concentration of contaminant in the gas phase of the soil reaches values near 1 mg/L, allows the achievement of the clean-up goals. The OMC was a key parameter because it hindered SVE due to adsorption phenomena but enhanced the BR process because it acted as a microorganism and nutrient source.
Rehman, Rehana; Katpar, Shahjahan; Khan, Rakhshaan; Hussain, Mehwish
To explore financial wellness (FW) awareness amongst public and private sector medical college students of Karachi. A cross sectional questionnaire based survey was conducted on medical students from 3 public and 5 private sector medical colleges of Karachi from February 2011 to December 2011. All ethnic groups having age range of 18-23 years were included. A questionnaire tailored from wellness wheel evaluated the responses of FW on a four point Likert's scale ranging from 0-3(never, sometimes, mostly, and always). Factor analysis explored common FW factors among both public and private sector medical college (MC) students. Private MC Students were better in terms of making short and long terms financial goals compared to students in public sector. The students of public MC were more focused to make and restricting to given budgets (p=0.05). The FW element of keeping savings in bank account was responded more by private MC candidates (P thrift as well (P bank accounts. They were however deficient in the knowledge of making and restricting themselves to budgets.
Andriessen, Iris; Phalet, Karen; Lens, Willy
Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination Theory, has not yet been validated among minority students. To replicate across cultures the known motivational benefits of perceived instrumentality and internal regulation by distant future goals; to clarify when and how the future motivates minority students' educational performance. Participants in this study were 279 minority students (100 of Turkish and 179 of Moroccan origin) and 229 native Dutch students in Dutch secondary schools. Participants rated the importance of future goals, their perceptions of instrumentality, their task motivation and learning strategies. Dependent measures and their functional relations with future goal setting were simultaneously validated across minority and non-minority students, using structural equation modelling in multiple groups. As expected, Positive Perceived Instrumentality for the future increases task motivation and (indirectly) adaptive learning of both minority and non-minority students. But especially internally regulating future goals are strongly related to more task motivation and indirectly to more adaptive learning strategies. Our findings throw new light on the role of future goal setting in minority school careers: distant future goals enhance minority and non-minority students' motivation and learning, if students perceive positive instrumentality and if their schoolwork is internally regulated by future goals.
Columbia University's Summer Research Program for Science Teachers (SRP), founded in 1990, is one of the largest, best known university professional development programs for science teachers in the U.S. For eight weeks in each of two consecutive summers, teachers participate as a member of a research team, led by a member of Columbia University's research faculty. In addition to the laboratory experience, all teachers meet weekly during the summer for a series of pedagogical activities to assist them in transferring the experience to their classrooms. The primary goal of the program is to provide K-12 science teachers with opportunities to work at the cutting edge of science and engineering, and thus to revitalize their teaching and help them to appreciate the use of inquiry-based methods in their classroom instruction. The secondary goals of the program are to give the pre-college teacher the ability to guide their students toward careers in science and engineering, to develop new teaching strategies, and to foster long-term scholarly collaborations. The last is especially important as it leads to a model of the teacher as active in science yet committed to the pre-college classroom. Since its inception, SRP has focused on an objective assessment of the program's impact on attitudes and instructional practices of participating teachers, on the performance of these teachers in their mentors' laboratories, and most importantly, on the impact of their participation in the program has on student interest and performance in science. Our research resulted in a paper published in the journal Science. SRP also facilitates a multi-site survey-based evaluation of other teacher research programs around the country. The author will present the findings of both studies.
Full Text Available It is well established that students’ beliefs in skill malleability influence their academic performance. Specifically, thinking of ability as an incremental (vs. fixed trait is associated with better outcomes. Though this was shown across many domains, little research exists into these beliefs in the writing domain and into the mechanisms underlying their effects on writing performance. The aim of this study was twofold: to gather evidence on the validity and reliability of instruments to measure beliefs in skill malleability, achievement goals, and self-efficacy in writing; and to test a path-analytic model specifying beliefs in writing skill malleability to influence writing performance, via goals and self-efficacy. For that, 196 Portuguese students in Grades 7-8 filled in the instruments and wrote an opinion essay that was assessed for writing performance. Confirmatory factor analyses supported instruments’ validity and reliability. Path analysis revealed direct effects from beliefs in writing skill malleability to mastery goals (ß = .45; from mastery goals to self-efficacy for conventions, ideation, and self-regulation (ß = .27, .42, and .42, respectively; and from self-efficacy for self-regulation to writing performance (ß = .16; along with indirect effects from beliefs in writing skill malleability to self-efficacy for self-regulation via mastery goals (ß = .19, and from mastery goals to writing performance via self-efficacy for self-regulation (ß = .07. Overall, students’ mastery goals and self-efficacy for self-regulation seem to be key factors underlying the link between beliefs in writing skill malleability and writing performance. These findings highlight the importance of attending to motivation-related components in the teaching of writing.
The integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, which has been implemented since 2004, accelerated the progress towards schistosomiasis control in China, and achieved transmission control of the disease across the country by the end of 2015, which achieved the overall objective of the Mid- and Long-term National Plan for Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis (2004-2015) on schedule. Then, the goal of schistosomiasis elimination by 2025 was proposed in China in 2014. To achieve this new goal on schedule, we have to address the key issues, and implement precision control measures with more precise identification of control targets, so that we are able to completely eradicate the potential factors leading to resurgence of schistosomiasis transmission and enable the achievement of schistosomiasis elimination on schedule. Precision schistosomiasis control, a theoretical innovation of precision medicine in schistosomiasis control, will provide new insights into schistosomiasis control based on the conception of precision medicine. This paper describes the definition, interventions and the role of precision schistosomiasis control in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China, and demonstrates that sustainable improvement of professionals and integrated control capability at grass-root level is a prerequisite to the implementation of schistosomiasis control, precision schistosomiasis control is a key to the further implementation of the integrated strategy for schistosomiasis control with focus on infectious source control, and precision schistosomiasis control is a guarantee of curing schistosomiasis patients and implementing schistosomiasis control program and interventions.
Ichinose, Cherie; Clinkenbeard, Jennifer
This study compared student engagement and achievement levels between students enrolled in a traditional college algebra lecture course and students enrolled in a "flipped" course. Results showed that students in the flipped class had consistently higher levels of achievement throughout the course than did students in the traditional…
Marc R. Lochbaum
Full Text Available Purpose: was to examine the 2 x 2 achievement goal profiles of Chilean young adults regularly participating in competitive and recreational sport. Materials: participants were 108 female and 132 males who were recruited from the Valparaiso and Viña del Mar areas of Chile. Participants completed a valid and reliable measure of the 2 x 2 achievement goals referenced to sport participation. Results: indicated that the entire sample significantly ( p - .05 and very meaningfully (Hedges’ g range 1.13 - 2.91 endorsed the mastery-approach goal more so than the other three achievement goals. Male participants significantly ( p - .05 endorsed both approach goals and the mastery goal contrast more so than the female participants. These differences approached medium in meaningfulness (Hedges’ g range .40 - .46. Significant differences did not exist between competitive and recreational athletes on any of the achievement goals or goal contrasts. Confirming the lack of significant differences were the computed small to negligible in magnitude effect sizes. Conclusions: the present data were a first look into profiling sport participants on the 2 x 2 achievement goals in Chile. Given this sample of Chilean participants endorsed the performance goals far less than found in the sport psychology 2 x 2 achievement goal literature, more research is needed before these results are generalized to Chilean sport participants. Future research must also examine the relationships of antecedents and consequences to the 2 x 2 achievement goals to advance sport psychology in Chile.
Hein, Vello; Hagger, Martin S
We examined a theoretical model of global self-esteem that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. The model hypothesized that self-determined or autonomous motives would mediate the influence of achievement goal orientation on global self-esteem. The adapted version of the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (Mullan et al., 1997), the Perception of Success Questionnaire (Roberts & Balague, 1991), and Rosenberg's (1965) self-esteem scales were administered to 634 high school students aged 11 - 15 years. A structural equation model supported the hypotheses and demonstrated that autonomous motives mediated the effect of goal orientations on global self-esteem. The results suggest that generalized motivational orientations influence self-esteem by affecting autonomous motivation and is consistent with theory that suggests that experiences relating to intrinsic motivation are the mechanism by which global motivational orientations are translated into adaptive outcomes like self-esteem. The findings suggest that physical activity interventions that target autonomous motives in physical activity contexts are likely to enhance young people's general self-esteem.
Shimoda, Todd Adrian
modifiability of SCI-WISE was rarely used, and finding better ways to facilitate modification and make its power more understandable for students is desirable. Overall, the SCI-WISE system showed promising initial results for helping students of a wide range of achievement levels and goal orientations develop inquiry skills.
Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel F.
Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the US have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a approx. 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover. as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth. In addition to multiplying the value of NASA's architecture for future human spaceflight to achieve the goals multiple major stakeholders. if humans one day travel beyond the Earth-Moon system - say, to Mars - technologies and capabilities for operating
Artino, Anthony R; Dong, Ting; DeZee, Kent J; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David; Durning, Steven J
Practicing physicians have a societal obligation to maintain their competence. Unfortunately, the self-regulated learning skills likely required for lifelong learning are not explicitly addressed in most medical schools. The authors examined how medical students' perceptions of the learning environment relate to their self-regulated learning behaviors. They also explored how students' perceptions and behaviors correlate with performance and change across medical school. The authors collected survey data from 304 students at different phases of medical school training. The survey items assessed students' perceptions of the learning environment, as well as their metacognition, procrastination, and avoidance-of-help-seeking behaviors. The authors operationalized achievement as cumulative medical school grade point average (GPA) and, for third- and fourth-year students, collected clerkship outcomes. Students' perceptions of the learning environment were associated with their metacognition, procrastination, and help-avoidance behaviors. These behaviors were also related to academic outcomes. Specifically, avoidance of help seeking was negatively correlated with cumulative medical school GPA (r=-0.23, P<.01) as well as exam (r=-0.22, P<.05) and clinical performance (r=-0.34, P<.01) in the internal medical clerkship; these help-avoidance behaviors were also positively correlated with students' presentation at a grade adjudication committee (r=0.20, P<.05). Additionally, students' perceptions of the learning environment varied as a function of their phase of training. Medical students' perceptions of the learning environment are related, in predictable ways, to their use of self-regulated learning behaviors; these perceptions seem to change across medical school.
Binns, Colin; Lee, Mi Kyung; Low, Wah Yun; Zerfas, Alfred
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) replaced the Millennium Development Goals (MDCs) in 2015, which included several goals and targets primarily related to nutrition: to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger and to reduce child mortality and improve maternal health. In the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) member countries as a group, infant and child mortality were reduced by more than 65% between 1990 and 2015, achieving the MDG target of two-thirds reduction, although these goals were not achieved by several smaller countries. The SDGs are broader in focus than the MDGs, but include several goals that relate directly to nutrition: 2 (zero hunger-food), 3 (good health and well-being-healthy life), and 12 (responsible consumption and production-sustainability). Other SDGs that are closely related to nutrition are 4 and 5 (quality education and equality in gender-education and health for girls and mothers, which is very important for infant health) and 13 (climate action). Goal 3 is "good health and well-being," which includes targets for child mortality, maternal mortality, and reducing chronic disease. The Global Burden of Disease Project has confirmed that the majority of risk for these targets can be attributed to nutrition-related targets. Dietary Guidelines were developed to address public health nutrition risk in the Asia Pacific region at the 48th APACPH 2016 conference and they are relevant to the achievement of the SDGs. Iron deficiency increases the risk of maternal death from haemorrhage, a cause of 300000 deaths world-wide each year. Improving diets and iron supplementation are important public health interventions in the APACPH region. Chronic disease and obesity rates in the APACPH region are now a major challenge and healthy life course nutrition is a major public health priority in answering this challenge. This article discusses the role of public health nutrition in achieving the SDGs. It also examines the role of
Full Text Available Several indications that indicate student in low achievement motivation, among others: (1 lack of enthusiasm to follow the lesson, (2 less attention to the teacher, (3 the students have not targeted yet, (4 students tend to ignore the task, (5 (6 students are less harmonious with teachers, (7 students are lazy to learn, and (8 some students feel scared with the teacher. Students 'perceptions of teacher's social support are factors that allegedly influence students' achievement motivation. This study aims to determine the relationship of students' perceptions of the social support of teachers with achievement motivation. The method used throughout this research is quantitative with regression technique. Samples numbered to 206 students of SMA Negeri 1 V Koto Timur Padang Pariaman, and selected by proportional random sampling. The instrument used is the student's perception scale of teacher's social support and achievement motivation. The research findings indicate that there is a significant correlation between around teacher's social support with student achievement motivation.
Van Meter, K J; Van Cappellen, P; Basu, N B
In August 2017, the Gulf of Mexico's hypoxic zone was declared to be the largest ever measured. It has been estimated that a 60% decrease in watershed nitrogen (N) loading may be necessary to adequately reduce eutrophication in the Gulf. However, to date there has been no rigorous assessment of the effect of N legacies on achieving water quality goals. In this study, we show that even if agricultural N use became 100% efficient, it would take decades to meet target N loads due to legacy N within the Mississippi River basin. Our results suggest that both long-term commitment and large-scale changes in agricultural management practices will be necessary to decrease Mississippi N loads and to meet current goals for reducing the size of the Gulf hypoxic zone. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.
Van Meter, K. J.; Van Cappellen, P.; Basu, N. B.
In August 2017, the Gulf of Mexico’s hypoxic zone was declared to be the largest ever measured. It has been estimated that a 60% decrease in watershed nitrogen (N) loading may be necessary to adequately reduce eutrophication in the Gulf. However, to date there has been no rigorous assessment of the effect of N legacies on achieving water quality goals. In this study, we show that even if agricultural N use became 100% efficient, it would take decades to meet target N loads due to legacy N within the Mississippi River basin. Our results suggest that both long-term commitment and large-scale changes in agricultural management practices will be necessary to decrease Mississippi N loads and to meet current goals for reducing the size of the Gulf hypoxic zone.
Bergeron, Julie; Chouinard, Roch; Janosz, Michel
The main goal was to test if teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation are predicting dropout intention equally for low and high socio-economic status students. A questionnaire measuring teacher-student relationships and achievement motivation was administered to 2,360 French Canadian secondary students between 12 and 15 years old…
Cunningham, Glennis Edge
The primary goal of schools is to promote the highest degree of learning possible. Yet teachers spend the majority of their time engaged in lecturing while students spend the majority of their time passively present (Cawelti, 1997, Grinder, 1991; Jackson & Davis, 2000; Jenkins, 1996). Helping students develop proficiency in learning, which translates into using that expertise to construct knowledge in subject domains, is a crucial goal of education. Students need exposure to teaching and learning practices that prepare them for both the classroom and their places in the future workforce (Ettinger, 1998; Longley, Goodchild, Maguire, & Rhind, 2001; NRC, 1996; Texley & Wild, 1996). The purpose of this study was to determine if achievement in high school science courses could be enhanced utilizing mindmapping. The subjects were primarily 9th and 10th graders (n = 147) at a suburban South Texas high school. A pretest-posttest control group design was selected to determine the effects of mindmapping on student achievement as measured by a teacher-developed, panel-validated instrument. Follow-up interviews were conducted with the teacher and a purposive sample of students (n = 7) to determine their perceptions of mindmapping and its effects on teaching and learning. Mindmapping is a strategy for visually displaying large amounts of conceptual, hierarchical information in a concise, organized, and accessible format. Mindmaps arrange information similar to that found on the traditional topic outline into colorful spatial displays that offer the user a view of the "forest" as well as the "trees" (Hyerle, 1996; Wandersee, 1990b). An independent samples t-test and a one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) determined no significant difference in achievement between the groups. The experimental group improved in achievement at least as much as the control group. Several factors may have played a role in the lack of statistically significant results. These factors include the
Smith, Wade Clay, Jr.
The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.
Computer game assisted instruction and students' achievement in social studies. ... This paper examines the effects of computer game assisted instructional method, student's achievement in social studies in ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Van Yperen, Nico W.; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom
During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement
Ding, Gangqiang; Zhao, Wenhua; Chen, Junshi
The results of Chinese Nutrition and Health Surveillance (2010-2012) showed that the anemia prevalence in China reduced significantly compared with 2002, and people's nutrition and health status have improved. Unbalanced diet still exist, such as low intake of vegetables and fruits, and high intake of salt. The serum total cholesterol level and the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and borderline high cholesterolemia were high among urban adults, and more attention should be paid for high serum total cholesterol level among older adults. These results are significant to the development of nutrition and health intervention strategy, carry out nutrition intervention and the achievement of national nutrition and health goals.
Nico W Van Yperen
Full Text Available During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of
Van Yperen, Nico W; Blaga, Monica; Postmes, Tom
During the past three decades, the achievement goal approach to achievement motivation has emerged as an influential area of research, and is dedicated to understanding the reasons behind the individual's drive to achieve competence and performance. However, the current literature on achievement goals is segmented rather than integrated. That is, citations across the three major and distinct achievement domains (work, education, and sports) are more the exception than the rule and similarities and differences between findings for the different achievement domains have yet to be tested. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships between self-reported achievement goals and nonself-report performance through meta-analysis, and the moderating potential of achievement domain. Identifying achievement domain as moderator improves our understanding to which contexts we can (not) generalize conclusions to, it helps to understand seemingly inconsistent findings, and opens avenues for future research on the underlying processes. Because the achievement goal (AG) measure used in a study is partially confounded with achievement domain, we examined the moderating role of this variable as well. Our findings suggest that - overall - approach goals (either mastery or performance) were associated positively with performance attainment, whereas avoidance goals (either mastery or performance) were associated negatively with performance attainment. These relationships were moderated by achievement domain. For example, relative to the education or work domain, in the sports domain, we did not observe negative correlations between avoidance goals and performance. The absence of statistical moderation due to AG measure suggests that the observed moderation of achievement domain cannot be explained by the AG measure utilized. We suggest further steps to integrate the achievement goal literature, and accordingly, to broaden and deepen understanding of performance
The Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment for internal fire and flood events defined a relatively high risk for a total loss of electric power possibly leading to core damage. Backup power sources were disabled due to fire and flooding in the diesel generator area with propagation of the flooding to a common switchgear room. The ATR risk assessment was employed to define options for relocation of backup power system components to achieve needed risk reduction while minimizing costs. The risk evaluations were performed using sensitivity studies and importance measures. The risk-based evaluations of relocation options for backup power systems saved over $3 million from what might have been otherwise considered open-quotes necessaryclose quotes for safety/risk improvement. The ATR experience shows that the advantages of a good risk assessment are to define risk significance, risk specifics, and risk solutions which enable risk goals to be achieved at the lowest cost
Mo, Annie X; Agosti, Jan M; Walson, Judd L; Hall, B Fenton; Gordon, Lance
In March 2013, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation co-sponsored a meeting entitled "Schistosomiasis Elimination Strategy and Potential Role of a Vaccine in Achieving Global Health Goals" to discuss the potential role of schistosomiasis vaccines and other tools in the context of schistosomiasis control and elimination strategies. It was concluded that although schistosomiasis elimination in some focal areas may be achievable through current mass drug administration programs, global control and elimination will face several significant scientific and operational challenges, and will require an integrated approach with other, additional interventions. These challenges include vector (snail) control; environmental modification; water, sanitation, and hygiene; and other future innovative tools such as vaccines. Defining a clear product development plan that reflects a vaccine strategy as complementary to the existing control programs to combat different forms of schistosomiasis will be important to develop a vaccine effectively.
Wang, C K John; Liu, Woon Chia; Lochbaum, Marc R; Stevenson, Sarah J
We examined whether perceived competence moderated the relationships between implicit theories, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation for sports and physical activity. We placed 309 university students into high and moderate perceived competence groups. When perceived competence was high, entity beliefs did not predict the performance-avoidance goal; yet when perceived competence was moderately low, entity beliefs did predict this goal. The mastery-avoidance goal had no relationship with intrinsic motivation when perceived competence was high, but had a significant negative relationship when perceived competence was moderately low. Our findings highlight the importance of reexamining the role of perceived competence when studying implicit beliefs and the 2 x 2 achievement goals.
A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…
Cecchini-Estrada, José-Antonio; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio
This longitudinal study investigated the effects of a mastery motivational climate in physical education (PE) classes on 2×2 achievement goal orientation and dominance, self-regulated learning (SRL), and physical activity (PA) in leisure time. A total of 408 (264 women, 144 men) university students were randomly assigned to two groups:…
Standage, Martyn; Duda, Joan L.; Ntoumanis, Nikos
Examines a study of student motivation in physical education that incorporated constructs from achievement goal and self-determination theories. Self-determined motivation was found to positively predict, whereas amotivation was a negative predictor of leisure-time physical activity intentions. (Contains 86 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)
de Bruin, A.P.; Bakker, F.C.; Oudejans, R.R.D.
Objectives: To examine the relationships between disordered eating in female gymnasts and dancers and their perspective towards achievement in sport and dance, respectively. With an emphasis on outperforming others (ego involvement), more disordered eating was expected than when personal progress
Niia, Anna; Almqvist, Lena; Brunnberg, Elinor; Granlund, Mats
This study shows that students, teachers, and parents in Swedish schools ascribe differing meanings and significance to students' participation in school in relation to academic achievement. Students see participation as mainly related to social interaction and not academic achievement, whilst teachers view students' participation as more closely…
Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S
Keeping students back in the same grade - retention - has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine students
Full Text Available Background: There have been various consultations on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs by different groups. However, even if it is clear that the health sector has led the development success of the MDGs, only a few MDG reports consider public health experts’ points of view and these are mainly government driven. Designs: The World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA has executed a global survey to consult public health professionals worldwide concerning the implementation and achievements of the MDGs.The survey was conceived by WFPHA health professionals and promulgated online. Public health professionals and organisations dealing with MDGs responded to the survey. Content analysis was conducted to analyse the data. Results: Survey participants attributed the highest importance worldwide to MDGs dealing with women, poverty and hunger reduction, and disease prevention and management. Moreover, they underlined the role of education, referring both to school children and professionals. In high and upper-middle income countries, environmental challenges also received considerable attention.Notably, respondents underlined that weak governance and unstable political situations, as well as the gap between professionals and politicians, were among the main causes that detracted from MDG achievements. Conclusion: The public health workforce felt it would be imperative to be included from the outset in the design and implementation of further goals. This implies that those professionals have to take an active part in the political process leading to a new and accountable framework.
Achieving CO 2 emission reduction goals remains one of today's most challenging tasks. Global energy demand will grow for many decades to come. In many regions of the world cheap fossil fuels seem to be the way forward to meet ever growing energy demand. However, there are negative consequences to this, most notably increasing emission levels. Politicians and industry therefore must accept that make hard choices in this generation need to be made to bring about real changes for future generations and the planet to limit CO 2 emissions and climate change. In his presentation, prof. Rose will provide an insight into how CO 2 emission reduction goals can be set and achieved and how a balance between future energy needs and supply can be realised in the long run up to 2050 both globally and regionally. This will be done based on WEC's own leading analysis in this area, namely it recently launched World Energy Scenarios: composing energy futures to 2050 report and WEC's scenarios, Jazz and Symphony. WEC's full analysis, the complete report and supporting material is available online at: http://www.worldenergy.org/publications/2013/world-energy-scenarios-composing-energy-futures-to-2050.(author)
de Silva, Amala; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Abeykoon, Palitha
With state-funded health care that is free at the point of delivery, a sound primary health-care policy and widespread health-care services, Sri Lanka seems a good example of universal health coverage. Yet, health transition and disparities in provision and financing threaten this situation. Sri Lanka did well on the Millennium Development Goal health indicators, but the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for health has a wider purview, which is to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". The gender gap in life expectancy and the gap between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy make achievement of the health SDG more challenging. Although women and children do well overall, the comparative health disadvantage for men in Sri Lanka is a cause for concern. From a financing perspective, high out-of-pocket expenditure and high utilization of the private sector, even by those in the lowest income quintile, are concerns, as is the emerging "third tier", where some individuals accessing state health care that is free at the point of delivery actually bear some of the costs of drugs, investigations and surgery. This cost sharing is resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for individuals, and delays in and non-compliance with treatment. These concerns about provision and financing must be addressed, as health transition will intensify the morbidity burden and loss of well-being, and could derail plans to achieve the health SDG.
To identify food-safety educational goals for dietetics and hospitality management students. Written questionnaires were used to identify educational goals and the most important food safety competencies for entry-level dietitians and foodservice managers. The sample included all directors of didactic programs in dietetics approved by the American Dietetic Association and baccalaureate-degree hospitality programs with membership in the Council on Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education. Fifty-one percent of the directors responded. Descriptive statistics were calculated. chi 2 analysis and independent t tests were used to compare educators' responses for discrete and continuous variables, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis grouped statements about food safety competence. Internal consistency of factors was measured using Cronbach alpha. Thirty-four percent of dietetics programs and 70% of hospitality programs required or offered food safety certification. Dietetics educators reported multiple courses with food safety information, whereas hospitality educators identified 1 or 2 courses. In general, the educators rated food-safety competencies as very important or essential. Concepts related to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HAACP), irradiation, and pasteurization were rated less highly, compared with other items. Competencies related to reasons for outbreaks of foodborne illness were rated as most important. Food safety certification of dietitians and an increased emphasis on HAACP at the undergraduate level or during the practice component are suggested. Research is recommended to assess the level of food-safety competence expected by employers of entry-level dietitians and foodservice managers.
Mason, Andrew J.; Bertram, Charles A.
When considering performing an Introductory Physics for Life Sciences course transformation for one's own institution, life science majors' achievement goals are a necessary consideration to ensure the pedagogical transformation will be effective. However, achievement goals are rarely an explicit consideration in physics education research topics…
Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit
Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite
Raymond, Jofrey; Kassim, Neema; Rose, Jerman W; Agaba, Morris
Achieving nutritional requirements for pregnant and lactating mothers in rural households while maintaining the intake of local and culture-specific foods can be a difficult task. Deploying a linear goal programming approach can effectively generate optimal dietary patterns that incorporate local and culturally acceptable diets. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether a realistic and affordable diet that achieves nutritional goals for rural pregnant and lactating women can be formulated from locally available foods in Tanzania. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess dietary intakes of 150 pregnant and lactating women using a weighed dietary record (WDR), 24 h dietary recalls and a 7-days food record. A market survey was also carried out to estimate the cost per 100 g of edible portion of foods that are frequently consumed in the study population. Dietary survey and market data were then used to define linear programming (LP) model parameters for diet optimisation. All LP analyses were done using linear program solver to generate optimal dietary patterns. Our findings showed that optimal dietary patterns designed from locally available foods would improve dietary adequacy for 15 and 19 selected nutrients in pregnant and lactating women, respectively, but inadequacies remained for iron, zinc, folate, pantothenic acid, and vitamin E, indicating that these are problem nutrients (nutrients that did not achieve 100% of their RNIs in optimised diets) in the study population. These findings suggest that optimal use of local foods can improve dietary adequacy for rural pregnant and lactating women aged 19-50 years. However, additional cost-effective interventions are needed to ensure adequate intakes for the identified problem nutrients.
Mwendera, E. J.
An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being
Peixoto, Francisco; Monteiro, Vera; Mata, Lourdes; Sanches, Cristina; Pipa, Joana; Almeida, Leandro S.
Keeping students back in the same grade – retention – has always been a controversial issue in Education, with some defending it as a beneficial remedial practice and others arguing against its detrimental effects. This paper undertakes an analysis of this issue, focusing on the differences in student motivation and self-related variables according to their retention related status, and the interrelationship between retention and these variables. The participants were 695 students selected from two cohorts (5th and 7th graders) of a larger group of students followed over a 3-year project. The students were assigned to four groups according to their retention-related status over time: (1) students with past and recent retention; (2) students with past but no recent retention; (3) students with no past but recent retention; (4) students with no past or recent retention. Measures of achievement goal orientations, self-concept, self-esteem, importance given to school subjects and Grade Point Average (GPA) were collected for all students. Repeated measures MANCOVA analyses were carried out showing group differences in self-esteem, academic self-concept, importance attributed to academic competencies, task and avoidance orientation and academic achievement. To attain a deeper understanding of these results and to identify profiles across variables, a cluster analysis based on achievement goals was conducted and four clusters were identified. Students who were retained at the end of the school year are mainly represented in clusters with less adaptive motivational profiles and almost absent from clusters exhibiting more adaptive ones. Findings highlight that retention leaves a significant mark that remains even when students recover academic achievement and retention is in the distant past. This is reflected in the low academic self-concept as well as in the devaluation of academic competencies and in the avoidance orientation which, taken together, can undermine
Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Adelson, Jill L.; Firmender, Janine M.
The primary goal of Project M[superscript 2] was to develop and field-test challenging geometry and measurement units for all K-2 students. This article reports on the achievement results for students in Grade 2 at 12 urban and suburban sites in 4 states using the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics concepts subtest and an open-response…
Penn, M. J.; McKay, M. A.; Kovac, S. A.; Jensen, L.; Hare, H. S.; Mitchell, A. M.; Bosh, R.; Watson, Z.; Baer, R.; Pierce, M.; Gelderman, R.; Walter, D. K.
The Citizen Continental-America Telescopic Eclipse (CATE) Experiment for 2017 is being developed at the National Solar Observatory in partnership with universities, schools, astronomy clubs, and corporations. The CATE experiment will use more than 60 identical telescopes equipped with digital cameras from Oregon to South Carolina to image the solar corona. The project will then splice these images together to show the corona during a 90-minute period, revealing for the first time the plasma dynamics of the inner solar corona. The goals for the CATE experiment range from providing an authentic STEM research experience for students and lifelong learners, to making state-of-the-art solar coronal observations of the plasma dynamics of coronal polar plumes, to increasing the US scientific literacy. Private funds are being raised for the CATE equipment, and so the telescopes will stay with the volunteers after the eclipse and be used in follow-on citizen science astronomy projects. The 2017 eclipse will be viewed by hundreds of millions of people. Four sets of undergraduate students in the path of the 2017 eclipse have become local experts for the eclipse and trainers for the CATE volunteers. These students traveled to the 2016 March eclipse in Indonesia and collected observations with prototype CATE telescopes; science results from these 2016 observations will be discussed. Training videos for use in 2017 were developed and tested on volunteers. Finally several high school groups along the path of totality have been engaged in the CATE project and will participate in the eclipse data collection. This work was supported by the NSO "Training for the 2017 Citizen CATE Experiment" funded by NASA (NASA NNX16AB92A). The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the NSF.
The study explored how much student engagement and classroom variables predicted student achievement in mathematics. Since students were nested within a classroom, hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) was employed for the analysis. The results indicated that student engagement had positive effects on student academic growth per month in math after…
Ruble, Lisa; McGrew, John H
It is encouraging that children with autism show a strong response to early intervention, yet more research is needed for understanding the variability in responsiveness to specialized programs. Treatment predictor variables from 47 teachers and children who were randomized to receive the COMPASS intervention (Ruble et al. in The collaborative model for promoting competence and success for students with ASD. Springer, New York, 2012a) were analyzed. Predictors evaluated against child IEP goal attainment included child, teacher, intervention practice, and implementation practice variables based on an implementation science framework (Dunst and Trivette in J Soc Sci 8:143-148, 2012). Findings revealed one child (engagement), one teacher (exhaustion), two intervention quality (IEP quality for targeted and not targeted elements), and no implementation quality variables accounted for variance in child outcomes when analyzed separately. When the four significant variables were compared against each other in a single regression analysis, IEP quality accounted for one quarter of the variance in child outcomes.
Simon C Mathews
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that LDL particle concentration (LDL-P may remain elevated at guideline recommended LDL cholesterol goals, representing a source of residual risk. We examined the following seven separate lipid parameters in achieving the LDL-P goal of <1000 nmol/L goal for very high risk secondary prevention: total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, TC/HDL, <3; a composite of ATP-III very high risk targets, LDL-C<70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL and TG<150 mg/dL; a composite of standard secondary risk targets, LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150; LDL phenotype; HDL-C ≥ 40; TG<150; and TG/HDL-C<3. METHODS: We measured ApoB, ApoAI, ultracentrifugation lipoprotein cholesterol and NMR lipoprotein particle concentration in 148 unselected primary and secondary prevention patients. RESULTS: TC/HDL-C<3 effectively discriminated subjects by LDL-P goal (F = 84.1, p<10(-6. The ATP-III very high risk composite target (LDL-C<70, nonHDL-C<100, TG<150 was also effective (F = 42.8, p<10(-5. However, the standard secondary prevention composite (LDL-C<100, non-HDL-C<130, TG<150 was also effective but yielded higher LDL-P than the very high risk composite (F = 42.0, p<10(-5 with upper 95% confidence interval of LDL-P less than 1000 nmol/L. TG<150 and TG/HDL-C<3 cutpoints both significantly discriminated subjects but the LDL-P upper 95% confidence intervals fell above goal of 1000 nmol/L (F = 15.8, p = 0.0001 and F = 9.7, p = 0.002 respectively. LDL density phenotype neared significance (F = 2.85, p = 0.094 and the HDL-C cutpoint of 40 mg/dL did not discriminate (F = 0.53, p = 0.47 alone or add discriminatory power to ATP-III targets. CONCLUSIONS: A simple composite of ATP-III very high risk lipoprotein cholesterol based treatment targets or TC/HDL-C ratio <3 most effectively identified subjects meeting the secondary prevention target level of LDL-P<1000 nmol/L, providing a potential alternative to advanced lipid testing in many clinical
Mastrorilli, Tara M.; Harnett, Susanne; Zhu, Jing
The "Arts Achieve: Impacting Student Success in the Arts" project involves a partnership between the New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) and five of the city's premier arts organizations. "Arts Achieve" provides intensive and targeted professional development to arts teachers over a three-year period. The goal of the…
Self-efficacy predicts academic achievement by influencing the effect of skills, previous experience, mental ability, or other self-beliefs on subsequent achievement. Students with high self-efficacy set challenging goals engage in more effective learning strategy use and persevere when encountered by difficult tasks.
Chopra, Mickey; Lawn, Joy E; Sanders, David; Barron, Peter; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Bradshaw, Debbie; Jewkes, Rachel; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Flisher, Alan J; Mayosi, Bongani M; Tollman, Stephen M; Churchyard, Gavin J; Coovadia, Hoosen
15 years after liberation from apartheid, South Africans are facing new challenges for which the highest calibre of leadership, vision, and commitment is needed. The effect of the unprecedented HIV/AIDS epidemic has been immense. Substantial increases in mortality and morbidity are threatening to overwhelm the health system and undermine the potential of South Africa to attain the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However The Lancet's Series on South Africa has identified several examples of leadership and innovation that point towards a different future scenario. We discuss the type of vision, leadership, and priority actions needed to achieve such a change. We still have time to change the health trajectory of the country, and even meet the MDGs. The South African Government, installed in April, 2009, has the mandate and potential to address the public health emergencies facing the country--will they do so or will another opportunity and many more lives be lost?
Thronson, Harley; Lester, Daniel
Every major NASA human spaceflight program in the last four decades has been modified to achieve goals in space not incorporated within the original design goals: the Apollo Applications Program, Skylab, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. Several groups in the U.S. have been identifying major future science goals, the science facilities necessary to investigate them, as well as possible roles for augmented versions of elements of NASA's Constellation program. Specifically, teams in the astronomy community have been developing concepts for very capable missions to follow the James Webb Space Telescope that could take advantage of - or require - free-space operations by astronauts and/or robots. Taking as one example, the Single-Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) telescope with a 10+ m aperture proposed for operation in the 2020 timeframe. According to current NASA plans, the Ares V launch vehicle (or a variant) will be available about the same time, as will the capability to transport astronauts to the vicinity of the Moon via the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle and associated systems. [As the lunar surface offers no advantages - and major disadvantages - for most major optical systems, the expensive system for landing and operating on the lunar surface is not required.] Although as currently conceived, SAFIR and other astronomical missions will operate at the Sun-Earth L2 location, it appears trivial to travel for servicing to the more accessible Earth-Moon L1,2 locations. Moreover, as the recent Orbital Express and Automated Transfer Vehicle Missions have demonstrated, future robotic capabilities should offer capabilities that would (remotely) extend human presence far beyond the vicinity of the Earth.
Aven, Eyvind; Aven, Terje
This article addresses the issue of how performance and risk management can complement each other in order to enhance the management of an enterprise. Often, we see that risk management focuses on goal achievements and not the enterprise risk related to its activities in the value chain. The statement "no goal, no risk" is a common misconception. The main aim of the article is to present a normative model for describing the links between performance and risk, and to use this model to give recommendations on how to best structure and plan the management of an enterprise in situations involving risk and uncertainties. The model, which has several novel features, is based on the interaction between different types of risk management (enterprise risk management, task risk management, and personal risk management) and a structure where the enterprise risk management overrules both the task and personal risk management. To illustrate the model we use the metaphor of a ship, where the ship is loaded with cash-generating activities and has a direction over time determined by the overall strategic objectives. Compared to the current enterprise risk management practice, the model and related analysis are founded on a new perspective on risk, highlighting knowledge and uncertainties beyond probabilities. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Katz, Sherri Jean; Byrne, Sahara
Three studies test several mechanisms of cognitive bridging, or how a strategic communication message functions to connect the abstract goal of an individual with the specific means to achieve the goal. Across all of the experiments (n = 276, n = 209, n = 145), it was demonstrated that participants who received an induced bridging mechanism were more likely to produce cognitive bridging outputs and report more abstract responses than participants who did not receive a bridging technique. We do not find the same pattern of results among participants who received an integrated bridging technique. Taken together, these studies provide evidence that how abstractly or concretely an individual is thinking can be influenced by abstraction cues planted within a strategic message, providing promise for messaging efforts at the moment of decision. In other words, the level of abstract thinking an individual is carrying into an exposure situation is possible to change using cues within the message itself. This is the first article to juxtapose the induced and integrated mechanisms of cognitive bridging.
The Fluoride-salt-cooled High-temperature Reactor (FHR) with a Nuclear air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC) and Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage (FIRES) is a new reactor concept. The FHR uses High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) coated-particle fuel and liquid-salt coolants originally developed for molten salt reactors (MSRs) where the fuel was dissolved in the coolant. The FIRES system consists of high-temperature firebrick heated to high temperatures with electricity at times of low electric prices. For a modular FHR operating with a base-load 100 MWe output, the station output can vary from -242 MWe to +242 MWe. The FHR can be built in different sizes. The reactor concept was developed using a top-down approach: markets, requirements, reactor design. The goals are: (1) increase plant revenue by 50 to 100% relative to base-load nuclear plants with capital costs similar to light-water reactors, (2) enable a zero-carbon nuclear renewable electricity grid, and (3) no potential for major fuel failure and thus no potential for major radionuclide offsite releases in a beyond-design-basis accident (BDBA). The basis for the goals and how they may be achieved is described
Tan, Xiaodong; Wu, Qian; Shao, Haiyan
With its immense population and as the largest developing country in the world, China has made remarkable achievements in health promotion at a relatively low cost. However, China is still faced with challenges such as changes of disease spectrum, the coming era of an aging society, and the risk of environmental pollution. On October 25, 2016, China formally passed the blueprint of "Healthy China 2030," working towards the national goal of reaching a health standard on par with developed countries by 2030, which was also a response to realize the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. "Healthy China 2030" is comprised of 29 chapters that cover five health areas. China is sparing no effort to transfer from being merely the most populous country, to becoming a leading nation in health education. In "Healthy China 2030," collaborated construction and resource sharing were clearly stated as the core strategy. A shift in concentration towards coordinated development of health-based economy from a previous pursuit of rapid economic growth was also underlined. There are also several major issues, such as severely aging population, the burden of chronic diseases, the insufficiency of health expenditure, and the great demand on health protection, waiting to be dealt with during the implementation process of "Healthy China 2030". "Healthy China 2030" is a momentous move to enhance public health, which is also a response to the global commitments. We also need to rethink our approach to reach the living standards and maintain a better environment.
The effect of formative feedback on students achievement in graphical element of economic curriculum. ... Journal of Educational Foundations ... Students achievement in graphical elements of economics curriculums has been a problem over the years, students have been performing poorly in SSCE (WAEC & NECO).
Herges, Rebecca M.; Duffield, Stacy; Martin, William; Wageman, Justin
Mathematics achievement among K-12 students has been a long-standing concern in schools across the United States. A possible solution to this mathematics achievement problem is student motivation. A survey was administered to 65 mathematics students at a Midwestern middle school to determine their beliefs and attitudes related to motivation and…
Professional development programs promoting inquiry-based teaching are challenged with providing teachers content knowledge and using pedagogical approaches that model standards based instruction. Inquiry practices are also important for undergraduate students. This paper focuses on the evaluation of an extensive professional development program for chemistry teachers that included chemistry content tests for students and the teachers and the impact of undergraduate research experiences on college students' attitudes towards chemistry. Baseline results for the students showed that there were no gender differences on the achievement test but white students scored significantly higher than non-white students. However, parent/adult involvement with chemistry homework and projects, was a significant negative predictor of 11th grade students' test chemistry achievement score. This paper will focus on students' achievement and attitude results for teachers who are mid-way through the program providing evidence that on-going, sustained professional development in content and pedagogy is critical for improving students' science achievement.
Background A linguistic validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA) questionnaire was conducted for 12 European languages, documenting that each translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population. Methods Native-speaking residents of the target countries who reported urinary problems/lower urinary tract problems were asked to review a translation of the SAGA questionnaire, which was harmonized among 12 languages: Danish, Dutch, English (UK), Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish. During a cognitive debriefing interview, participants were asked to identify any words that were difficult to understand and explain in their own words the meaning of each sentence in the questionnaire. The qualitative analysis was conducted by local linguistic validation teams (original translators, back translator, project manager, interviewer, and survey research expert). Results Translations of the SAGA questionnaire from English to 12 European languages were well understood by the participants with an overall comprehension rate across language of 98.9%. In addition, the translations retained the original meaning of the SAGA items and instructions. Comprehension difficulties were identified, and after review by the translation team, minor changes were made to 7 of the 12 translations to improve clarity and comprehension. Conclusions Conceptual, semantic, and cultural equivalence of each translation of the SAGA questionnaire was achieved thus confirming linguistic validation. PMID:22525050
McMillan Robichaud J
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information on how target lipid levels can be achieved in end stage renal disease (ESRD patients in a systematic, multidisciplinary fashion. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a pharmacist-directed hyperlipidemia management program for chronic hemodialysis (HD patients. All 26 adult patients on chronic HD at a tertiary care medical facility were entered into the program. A clinical pharmacist was responsible for laboratory monitoring, patient counseling, and the initiation and dosage adjustment of an appropriate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor (statin using a dosing algorithm and monitoring guidelines. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol goal was ≤ 100 mg/dl. A renal dietitian provided nutrition counseling and the nephrologist was notified of potential or existing drug interactions or adverse drug reactions (ADRs. Patients received a flyer containing lipid panel results to encourage compliance. Data was collected at program initiation and for 6 months thereafter. Results At the start of the program, 58% of patients were at target LDL cholesterol. At 6 months, 88% had achieved target LDL (p = 0.015. Mean LDL cholesterol decreased from 96 ± 5 to 80 ± 3 mg/dl (p Conclusions Our findings demonstrate both feasibility and efficacy of a multidisciplinary approach in management of hyperlipidemia in HD patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A linguistic validation of the Self-Assessment Goal Achievement (SAGA questionnaire was conducted for 12 European languages, documenting that each translation adequately captures the concepts of the original English-language version of the questionnaire and is readily understood by subjects in the target population. Methods Native-speaking residents of the target countries who reported urinary problems/lower urinary tract problems were asked to review a translation of the SAGA questionnaire, which was harmonized among 12 languages: Danish, Dutch, English (UK, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Spanish, and Swedish. During a cognitive debriefing interview, participants were asked to identify any words that were difficult to understand and explain in their own words the meaning of each sentence in the questionnaire. The qualitative analysis was conducted by local linguistic validation teams (original translators, back translator, project manager, interviewer, and survey research expert. Results Translations of the SAGA questionnaire from English to 12 European languages were well understood by the participants with an overall comprehension rate across language of 98.9%. In addition, the translations retained the original meaning of the SAGA items and instructions. Comprehension difficulties were identified, and after review by the translation team, minor changes were made to 7 of the 12 translations to improve clarity and comprehension. Conclusions Conceptual, semantic, and cultural equivalence of each translation of the SAGA questionnaire was achieved thus confirming linguistic validation.
Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Vimala, A.
The present study "Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students" was investigated to find the relationship between Self-concept and Achievement Motivation of High School Students. Data for the study were collected using Self-concept Questionnaire developed by Raj Kumar Saraswath (1984) and Achievement Motive Test (ACMT)…
Biebel, Kathleen; Mizrahi, Raphael; Ringeisen, Heather
Accessing and successfully completing postsecondary educational opportunities may be challenging for those living with psychiatric disabilities. This exploratory study highlights the experiences of individuals with psychiatric disabilities participating in postsecondary educational support initiatives. Investigators conducted case studies with 3 education support initiatives across the United States. Focus groups revealed what concrete supported education services were helpful and key ingredients in delivering education supports. Access to specialists, mindfulness techniques, help with time management and procrastination, and facilitating classroom accommodations were identified as critical. Developing authentic relationships with supported education staff, flexibility in service delivery and access to student peers living with psychiatric disabilities were noted as key ingredients in service delivery. Incorporating the voice of students with psychiatric disabilities into supported education services can increase access, involvement, and retention, therein providing more supports to students with psychiatric disabilities achieving their postsecondary education goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Moussa, Wael Soheil
This dissertation examines the student academic achievement through various mechanisms, put in place by the public school district, classroom student behavior, and negative external shocks to the students' living environment. I examine the impacts of various treatments on student short and long run academic outcomes such as math and English test…
Haas, Romi; Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P
To evaluate the ability of participants of a falls prevention programme to set and achieve goals. The study used a prospective longitudinal design and a mixed-methods approach to data collection. Study participants were (1) 220 older adults participating in a 15-week combined exercise and education falls prevention programme and (2) 9 practitioners (3 home-care nurses, 5 community workers, and an exercise physiologist) involved in delivering the programme. Data from goal-setting forms were analyzed, and descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of appropriate goals set and achieved. Data were analyzed according to programme setting (home- or group-based) and whether or not participants were classified as being from a Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) background in the Australian context. Semi-structured interviews with programme practitioners were thematically analyzed. A total of 144 respondents (n=75 CALD group, n=41 non-CALD group, n=6 CALD home, n=22 non-CALD home) set 178 goals. Only 101 (57%) goals could be evaluated according to achievement, because participants set goals that focused on health state instead of behaviour, set goals not relevant to falls prevention, used inappropriate constructs to measure goal achievement, and either did not review their goals or dropped out of the programme before goal review. Of these 101 goals, 64 were achieved. Practitioners described their own difficulties in understanding the process of setting health behaviour goals along with communication, cultural, and logistic difficulties. Both CALD and non-CALD participants and those participating in both group- and home-based programmes experienced difficulty in setting and achieving goals to facilitate behaviour change for falls prevention. Data suggest that home-based participants had more difficulty in setting goals than their group-based counterparts and, to a lesser extent, that CALD participants experienced more difficulty in setting goals than
Evaluation feedback as a predictor of students' achievement in technical education. ... The major purpose of evaluation is to assess the strength and weaknesses of the learner. Therefore, for evaluation to be meaningful, students should ...
Harnessing two language games to enhance students' achievement in English vocabulary: implications for ... This study investigated the use of games strategies on Senior Secondary One (SS1) students' ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Wei, Nancy; Zheng, Hui; Nathan, David M
OBJECTIVE To determine the average fasting, postprandial, and bedtime self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) concentrations associated with specified HbA1c levels using data from the A1c-Derived Average Glucose (ADAG) study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The ADAG study was a multicenter observational study that used continuous glucose monitoring and SMBG testing to determine the relationship between mean average glucose and HbA1c. We used the SMBG data from 470 of the ADAG study participants (237 with type 1 diabetes and 147 with type 2 diabetes) to determine the average fasting, premeal, 90-min postmeal, and bedtime blood glucose (BG) for predefined target HbA1c groups between 5.5 and 8.5% (37-69 mmol/mol). t Tests were used to compare mean BG values between type 1 and type 2 diabetes groups. RESULTS The average fasting BG needed to achieve predefined HbA1c target levels of 5.5-6.49% (37-47 mmol/mol), 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol), 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol), 7.5-7.99% (58-64 mmol/mol), and 8.0-8.5% (64-69 mmol/mol) were 122 mg/dL with 95% CI 117-127, 142 mg/dL (135-150), 152 mg/dL (143-162), 167 mg/dL (157-177), and 178 mg/dL (164-192), respectively. Postmeal BG to achieve the HbA1c level of 6.5-6.99% (48-52 mmol/mol) and 7.0-7.49% (52-58 mmol/mol) were 139 mg/dL (134-144) and 152 mg/dL (147-157), respectively. Bedtime BG was 153 mg/dL (145-161) and 177 mg/dL (166-188), respectively. CONCLUSIONS We have determined the average BG at premeal, postmeal, and bedtime to achieve a variety of HbA1c targets. These results, based on empirical data, will help patients and providers set realistic day-to-day SMBG targets to achieve individualized HbA1c goals.
Pangemanan, Sifrid S.; Saerang, David Paul Elia; Rondonuwu, Mariska
The reason students can facing the world of competition because they have a motivation. A thing that help students to get their motivation when they are not get a motivation by themself is through extrinsic motivational factors. There are two objectives of this research are to analyze the effect of extrinsic motivational factors towards student achievement and to identify the most influental factors on student achievement. The method is multiple linear regression analysis to examine the effec...
Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.
This study examined student-teacher goal congruence and its relation to social and academic motivation. Based on a sample of 97 ninth-graders, high levels of goal congruence for each of the four goals measured (prosocial, responsibility, learning, performance) was positively related to student interest in class and perceived social support from…
Banda, Asiana; Mumba, Frackson; Chabalengula, Vivien M.
This study examined Zambian preservice chemistry teachers' views on the goals of chemistry education, the importance of the goals, and challenges for achieving them in schools. The study sample was comprised of 59 pre-service chemistry teachers at the University of Zambia. Data were collected using a modified Likert-scale questionnaire that was…
Marc R. Lochbaum; Javan Jean-Noel; Zişan Kazak Çetinkalp; Felipe Andrés Vallejo-Reyes; Jose Mena-Campbell
Purpose: was to examine the 2 x 2 achievement goal profiles of Chilean young adults regularly participating in competitive and recreational sport. Materials: participants were 108 female and 132 males who were recruited from the Valparaiso and Viña del Mar areas of Chile. Participants completed a valid and reliable measure of the 2 x 2 achievement goals referenced to sport participation. Results: indicated that the entire sample significantly ( p - .05) and very meaningfully (Hedges’ g range ...
Malinoski, Darren J; Daly, Michael C; Patel, Madhukar S; Oley-Graybill, Chrystal; Foster, Clarence E; Salim, Ali
There is a national shortage of organs available for transplantation. Implementation of preset donor management goals (DMGs) to improve outcomes is recommended, but uniform practices and data are lacking. We hypothesized that meeting DMGs before organ procurement would result in more organs transplanted per donor (OTPD). The eight organ procurement organization in United Network for Organ Sharing Region 5 selected 10 critical care end points as DMGs. Each organ procurement organization submitted retrospective data from 40 standard criteria donors. "DMGs met" was defined as achieving any eight DMGs before procurement. The primary outcome was ≥4 OTPD. Binary logistic regression was used to determine independent predictors of ≥4 OTPD with a pdonors had 3.6±1.6 OTPD. Donors with DMGs met had more OTPD (4.4 vs. 3.3, p50% (OR=4.0), Pao2:FIO2>300 (OR=4.6), and serum sodium 135 to 160 mEq/L (OR=3.4). Meeting DMGs before procurement resulted in more OTPD. Donor factors and critical care end points are independent predictors of organ yield. Prospective studies are needed to determine the true impact of each DMG on the number and function of transplanted organs.
Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Cerin, Ester
Findings regarding gender differences in achievement goal orientations and attributional style have been somewhat inconsistent. One possible explanation for varied findings is that potentially confounding variables such as level of participation and type of sport have not been considered. Athletes (108 males and 164 females) from team and individual sports, competing at recreational and competitive levels, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Sport Attributional Style Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Athletes competing in individual sports had a higher ego orientation than those from team sports, and females scored higher in task orientation than males. Individual sport athletes made more internal, stable, and global, and less externally controllable attributions for positive events, and more internal attributions for negative events than team sport athletes. Competitive female athletes made less global attributions for positive events than did recreational female athletes. This difference was not observed in male athletes. Competitive individual, but not team, athletes made less global attributions than recreational individual athletes. The significant interactions regarding globality suggest that the tradition in sport psychology attribution research to focus solely on internality, stability, and controllability may be inadequate. From an applied perspective, sport psychologists and coaches may find it beneficial to target individual sport athletes and males for interventions designed to enhance task orientation. Similarly, team sport athletes may be appropriate as a focus for attribution retraining programs.
Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel F.; Dissel, Adam F.; Folta, David C.; Stevens, John; Budinoff, Jason G.
Future space science missions developed to achieve the most ambitious goals are likely to be complex, large, publicly and professionally very important, and at the limit of affordability. Consequently, it may be valuable if such missions can be upgraded, repaired, and/or deployed in space, either with robots or with astronauts. In response to a Request for Information from the US National Research Council panel on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System, we developed a concept for astronaut-based in-space servicing at the Earth-Moon L1,2 locations that may be implemented by using elements of NASA's Constellation architecture. This libration point jobsite could be of great value for major heliospheric and astronomy missions operating at Earth-Sun Lagrange points. We explored five alternative servicing options that plausibly would be available within about a decade. We highlight one that we believe is both the least costly and most efficiently uses Constellation hardware that appears to be available by mid-next decade: the Ares I launch vehicle, Orion/Crew Exploration Vehicle, Centaur vehicle, and an airlock/servicing node developed for lunar surface operations. Our concept may be considered similar to the Apollo 8 mission: a valuable exercise before descent by astronauts to the lunar surface.
Palmer, Kara K; Chinn, Katherine M; Robinson, Leah E
Over the past two decades, achievement goal theory (AGT) has been used as a theoretical framework to design and implement motor skill programming in young children. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effects of AGT in motor skill interventions and programming in children aged 0-12 years. This systematic literature search was conducted using three databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Studies were included if they met the following four inclusion criteria: (1) had an intervention with a gross motor outcome, (2) used an intervention grounded in AGT, (3) included young children (aged 0-12 years), and (4) were written in English. Studies were rated according to methodological reporting quality. All literature searches and reporting were consistent with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol. A total of 12 studies met all inclusion criteria and were included in the sample. All studies reported that AGT motor skill interventions were effective for improving motor skills in young children. Studies varied in regard to intervention groups, duration, dosage, and the personnel responsible for implementing the intervention. None of the included studies met the requirements to be considered as having high methodological quality. Based on these findings, AGT is an effective theoretical approach for designing and implementing motor skill interventions for young children.
Earthman, Glen I.
This paper shows that the condition of school facilities has an important impact on student performance and teacher effectiveness. In particular, research demonstrates that comfortable classroom temperature and noise level are very important to efficient student performance. The age of school buildings is a useful proxy in this regard, since older facilities often have problems with thermal environment and noise level. A number of studies have measured overall building condition and its conne...
Full Text Available Education is very important for humans, through the education throughout the world will increasingly flourish. However, if faced with the activities within the learning process, not a few men (students who have less motivation in learning activities. This resulted in fewer maximal learning processes and in turn will affect student achievement. This study focuses to discuss matters relating to the motivation to learn and student achievement, with the aim of strengthening the importance of motivation in the learning process so that a clear relationship with student achievement. The method used is descriptive analysis and simple correlation to the 97 students taking the course introduction to Microeconomics and Indonesian. The conclusion from this research is the students have a good record if it has a well and motivated as well, and this study concludes their tie's difference between learning motivation and achievement of students on two different courses.
Suárez, Natalia; Regueiro, Bibiana; Epstein, Joyce L; Piñeiro, Isabel; Díaz, Sara M; Valle, Antonio
Homework is a debated issue in society and its relationship with academic achievement has been deeply studied in the last years. Nowadays, schools are multicultural stages in which students from different cultures and ethnicities work together. In this sense, the present study aims to compare homework involvement and academic achievement in a sample of native and immigrant students, as well as to study immigrant students' relationship between homework involvement and Math achievement. The sample included 1328 students, 10-16 years old from Spanish families (85.6%) or immigrant students or students of immigrant origin (14.4%) from South America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The study was developed considering three informants: elementary and secondary students, their parents and their teachers. Results showed higher involvement in homework in native students than in immigrant. Between immigrants students, those who are more involved in homework have better academic achievement in Math at secondary grades. There weren't found gender differences on homework involvement, but age differences were reported. Immigrant students are less involved in homework at secondary grades that students in elementary grades. The study highlights the relevance of homework involvement in academic achievement in immigrant students.
Koul, Ravinder; Lerdpornkulrat, Thanita; Poondej, Chanut
There has been considerable research interest into the relationship between the parenting styles of Asians, and student motivation and achievement. The investigation presented in this paper contributes to the literature in this area by examining the influence of perceived parenting style on goal orientations and career aspirations of a sample of…
de Groot, Renate H. M.; van Dijk, Martin L.; Kirschner, Paul A.
The GOALS study (Grootschalig Onderzoek naar Activiteiten van Limburgse Scholieren [Large-scale Research of Activities in Dutch Students]) was set up to investigate possible associations between different forms of physical activity and inactivity with cognitive performance, academic achievement and mental well-being. It was conducted at a…
Simzar, Rahila M; Martinez, Marcela; Rutherford, Teomara; Domina, Thurston; Conley, AnneMarie M
This study uses data from an urban school district to examine the relation between students' motivational beliefs about mathematics and high- versus low-stakes math test performance. We use ordinary least squares and quantile regression analyses and find that the association between students' motivation and test performance differs based on the stakes of the exam. Students' math self-efficacy and performance avoidance goal orientation were the strongest predictors for both exams; however, students' math self-efficacy was more strongly related to achievement on the low-stakes exam. Students' motivational beliefs had a stronger association at the low-stakes exam proficiency cutoff than they did at the high-stakes passing cutoff. Lastly, the negative association between performance avoidance goals and high-stakes performance showed a decreasing trend across the achievement distribution, suggesting that performance avoidance goals are more detrimental for lower achieving students. These findings help parse out the ways motivation influences achievement under different stakes.
Cronin, John; Jensen, Nate
When New York state released the first results of the exams under the Common Core State Standards, many wrongly believed that the results showed dramatic declines in student achievement. A closer look at the results showed that student achievement may have increased. Another lesson from the exams is that states need to closely coordinate new data…
Šori, Iztok; Šušteric, Nika; Gaber, Slavko
Achievement gaps between immigrant and native students indicate failure to assure educational equity in the majority of countries assessed by the Programme for International Student Assessment in 2009 (PISA, 2009). The present article explains disparate achievement results in Europe, first testing the hypothesis of old and new democracies. In…
Objective. To establish whether or not tutor subject-matter expertise influences student achievement in content-based examinations in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum at the University of Transkei (UNITRA) Medical School. Design. A retrospective study of MB ChB III student achievement in end-of-block ...
Lawrence, Arul A. S.; Lawrence, John A.
Personality is the man. The successful living of an individual, as a man, depends to a large extent on the academic achievement of that individual, as a student. This article attempts to find out personality type, academic achievement of secondary school students and relationship between them by selecting a sample of 300 secondary school students…
Moore, Allison B.; MacGregor, Cynthia; Cornelius-White, Jeffrey
Purpose: This paper aims to examine the relationship between student achievement and racial congruence of school personnel and students to help educators and policy makers narrow the achievement gap. Design/methodology/approach: This quasi-experimental, correlational study used publicly available data from 158 elementary schools in the Houston…
Bunns, Sandra D.
The use of student achievement data to improve teaching and learning is a national concern driven by accountability requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002. Research studies that examine how schools use student achievement data document the need for teachers to connect data to instructional practices. Bruner's social constructivist…
Johnson, Genevieve Marie
The current investigation sought to understand the relationships between college student alienation, academic achievement, and use of WebCT. Fifty-three students enrolled in an undergraduate educational psychology course provided three types of data: 1) self-rating of eight Likert scale alienation items, 2) academic achievement measured with four…
Saarivirta, Toni; Kumpulainen, Kristiina
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide national information on school autonomy, leadership and student achievements in Finland. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a literature review on Finnish studies focusing on school autonomy, leadership and student achievement. The studies have been reviewed on the basis of a content…
Chapman, Amanda; Bloxham, Sue
This article analyses interim findings of an ongoing action research project into the use of assessment criteria and grade descriptors in the assessment process. The project is multidisciplinary and covers areas as diverse as Sports Sociology, Economics, Youth and Community Studies, and Education. The idea is to equip first-year students with the…
"Yes we can!" Those famous three words of the Obama campaign could serve as the theme for the culture of hope and excellence at the Cristo Rey Jesuit High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Many of the students arrive in the 9th grade with reading and math skills at an early elementary school level. Others lack the basic life skills to…
Maughan, Erin D.
School nurses help students with the prevention and management of chronic physical and mental health issues, but not all schools have a full-time registered nurse on their staff. The author argues that investing in school nursing has benefits that extend beyond the school and into the community.
Han, Jing; Lu, Qingsheng
Achievement motivation as one of the most important parts in learning motivation indicates a concern with success in competition with some standard of excellence. Learners who are highly motivated to learn a language are likely to use a variety of strategies. Besides achievement motivation, goal setting, a very important cognitive mediator between…
Boncy, Paul Jacques; Adrien, Paul; Lemoine, Jean Frantz; Existe, Alexandre; Henry, Patricia Jean; Raccurt, Christian; Brasseur, Philippe; Fenelon, Natael; Dame, John B; Okech, Bernard A; Kaljee, Linda; Baxa, Dwayne; Prieur, Eric; El Badry, Maha A; Tagliamonte, Massimiliano S; Mulligan, Connie J; Carter, Tamar E; Beau de Rochars, V Madsen; Lutz, Chelsea; Parke, Dana M; Zervos, Marcus J
Haiti and the Dominican Republic, which share the island of Hispaniola, are the last locations in the Caribbean where malaria still persists. Malaria is an important public health concern in Haiti with 17,094 reported cases in 2014. Further, on January 12, 2010, a record earthquake devastated densely populated areas in Haiti including many healthcare and laboratory facilities. Weakened infrastructure provided fertile reservoirs for uncontrolled transmission of infectious pathogens. This situation results in unique challenges for malaria epidemiology and elimination efforts. To help Haiti achieve its malaria elimination goals by year 2020, the Laboratoire National de Santé Publique and Henry Ford Health System, in close collaboration with the Direction d'Épidémiologie, de Laboratoire et de Recherches and the Programme National de Contrôle de la Malaria, hosted a scientific meeting on "Elimination Strategies for Malaria in Haiti" on January 29-30, 2015 at the National Laboratory in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The meeting brought together laboratory personnel, researchers, clinicians, academics, public health professionals, and other stakeholders to discuss main stakes and perspectives on malaria elimination. Several themes and recommendations emerged during discussions at this meeting. First, more information and research on malaria transmission in Haiti are needed including information from active surveillance of cases and vectors. Second, many healthcare personnel need additional training and critical resources on how to properly identify malaria cases so as to improve accurate and timely case reporting. Third, it is necessary to continue studies genotyping strains of Plasmodium falciparum in different sites with active transmission to evaluate for drug resistance and impacts on health. Fourth, elimination strategies outlined in this report will continue to incorporate use of primaquine in addition to chloroquine and active surveillance of cases. Elimination of
Fryatt, Robert; Mills, Anne; Nordstrom, Anders
Concern that underfunded and weak health systems are impeding the achievement of the health Millennium Development Goals in low-income countries led to the creation of a High Level Taskforce on Innovative International Financing for Health Systems in September, 2008. This report summarises the key challenges faced by the Taskforce and its Working Groups. Working Group 1 examined the constraints to scaling up and costs. Challenges included: difficulty in generalisation because of scarce and context-specific health-systems knowledge; no consensus for optimum service-delivery approaches, leading to wide cost differences; no consensus for health benefits; difficulty in quantification of likely efficiency gains; and challenges in quantification of the financing gap owing to uncertainties about financial commitments for health. Working Group 2 reviewed the different innovative mechanisms for raising and channelling funds. Challenges included: variable definitions of innovative finance; small evidence base for many innovative finance mechanisms; insufficient experience in harmonisation of global health initiatives; and inadequate experience in use of international investments to improve maternal, newborn, and child health. The various mechanisms reviewed and finally recommended all had different characteristics, some focusing on specific problems and some on raising resources generally. Contentious issues included the potential role of the private sector, the rights-based approach to health, and the move to results-based aid. The challenges and disagreements that arose during the work of the Taskforce draw attention to the many issues facing decision makers in low-income countries. International donors and recipient governments should work together to improve the evidence base for strengthening health systems, increase long-term commitments, and improve accountability through transparent and inclusive national approaches. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Dakar Education for All (EFA) Framework for Action includes Gender Equality in Education as one of its six time-bound goals. "Gender" being regarded as its transverse theme, the Dakar EFA agreement pays special attention to girls and women in other EFA goals as well. The first time-bound goal of gender parity in primary and secondary education by 2005 was, however, not met by many developing countries, including Nepal. Why they missed the 2005 goal? What are the obstacles for gender parit...
Prabhakar, Janani; Hudson, Judith A
Previous studies suggest that the ability to think about and act on the future emerges between 3 and 5 years of age. However, it is unclear what underlying processes change during the development of early future-oriented behavior. We report three experiments that tested the emergence of future thinking ability through children's ability to explicitly maintain future goals and construct future scenarios. Our main objectives were to examine the effects of goal structure and the effects of working memory demands on children's ability to construct future scenarios and make choices to satisfy future goals. The results indicate that 4-year-olds were able to successfully accomplish two temporally ordered goals even with high working memory demands and a complex goal structure, whereas 3-year-olds were able to accomplish two goals only when the working memory demands were low and the goal structure did not involve additional demands from inferential reasoning and contingencies between the temporally ordered goals. Results are discussed in terms of the development of future thinking in conjunction with working memory, inferential reasoning ability, and goal maintenance abilities. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Silvernail, David L.; Sloan, James E.; Paul, Chelsea R.; Johnson, Amy F.; Stump, Erika K.
The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between school level poverty found in Maine schools and student academic performance. The evidence clearly shows that there is a relationship. As the percent of poverty increases in a school, student performance declines. But the poverty level alone does not explain the wide variations in…
Demir, Ibrahim; Kilic, Serpil
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of learning strategies on mathematics achievement. The sample was compiled from students who participated in Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) in Turkey. The data consisted of 4493 15 years old Turkish students in 158 schools, and analyzed by two levels Bernoulli model as a…
Mercier, Kevin; Doolittle, Sarah
While many teachers continue to ignore the practice of assessing student achievement in physical education, recent federal pressures to include student assessment data in teacher evaluation systems has shown that assessment of student outcomes is here to stay. Though there is a strong tradition of assessing teacher practice in physical education,…
Professional Learning Communities (PLC's) are designed to help schools improve student achievement; all decisions are based on the needs of students. PLC's are an effective way to receive professional development (PD), allow for collaboration with fellow teachers, and offer timely intervention to all students. In a district known for PLC…
Aguilar, Mario Sánchez; Rosas, Alejandro; Zavaleta, Juan Gabriel Molina; Romo-Vázquez, Avenilde
The aim of this study is to describe the images that a group of high-achieving Mexican students hold of mathematicians. For this investigation, we used a research method based on the Draw-A-Scientist Test (DAST) with a sample of 63 Mexican high school students. The group of students' pictorial and written descriptions of mathematicians assisted us…
Bonfa, Antonella; Freddano, Michela
The article analyses the gender effects on student achievement at University of Genova and it is a part of the research performed by the University of Genova called "Benchmarks interfaculty students: Development of a gender perspective to find strategies to understand what leads students to success in their studies", financed by the…
Camelo-Lavadores, Ana Karen; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Pinto-Sosa, Jesus
The purpose of this study was to explore for differences in the academic self-efficacy of Mexican high school students. A gird questionnaire was administered to 1,460 students form private and public schools. As expected, high achieving students showed significantly higher academic self-efficacy that their peers. However, interesting gender…
Thacker, Jerry L.
Describes a study of an Indiana magnet school's effects on student achievement. The school has a diverse student body and offers programs in foreign languages and cultures, economics, politics, history, ecology, and social systems. On the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills, the group of 560 students performed significantly better than they had…
Conway-Klaassen, Janice Marjorie
"Stereotype threat is being at risk of confirming, as a self-characteristic, a negative stereotype about one's group" (C. M. Steele & Aronson, 1995, p. 797). A stereotype threat effect then is described as the detrimental impact on a person's performance or achievement measurements when they are placed in a stereotype threat environment. For…
Larsen, Douglas P; Wesevich, Austin; Lichtenfeld, Jana; Artino, Antony R; Brydges, Ryan; Varpio, Lara
Learning goal programmes are often created to help students develop self-regulated learning skills; however, these programmes do not necessarily consider the social contexts surrounding learning goals or how they fit into daily educational practice. We investigated a high-frequency learning goal programme in which students generated and shared weekly learning goals with their clinical teams in core Year 3 clerkships. Our study explores: (i) how learning goals were incorporated into the clinical work, and (ii) the factors that influenced the use of students' learning goals in work-based learning. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 students and 14 supervisors (attending physicians and residents) sampled from all participating core clerkships. Interviews were coded for emerging themes. Using cultural historical activity theory and knotworking as theoretical lenses, we developed a model of the factors that influenced students' learning goal usage in a work-based learning context. Students and supervisors often faced the challenge of reconciling contradictions that arose when the desired outcomes of student skill development, grading and patient care were not aligned. Learning goals could function as tools for developing new ways of acting that overcame those contradictions by facilitating collaborative effort between students and their supervisors. However, for new collaborations to take place, both students and supervisors had to engage with the goals, and the necessary patients needed to be present. When any one part of the system did not converge around the learning goals, the impact of the learning goals programme was limited. Learning goals are potentially powerful tools to mediate interactions between students, supervisors and patients, and to reconcile contradictions in work-based learning environments. Learning goals provide a means to develop not only learners, but also learning systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the
Full Text Available Curriculum models number many in the world of education. One particular curriculum SCOPE, a comprehensive web based curriculum management program, implemented in Texas schools, has drawn the interest of various educators throughout the state. The purpose of this paper was to carry out a quasi-experimental study to test that the CSCOPE curriculum will improve math TAKS scores for eleventh grade students in a south central Texas urban school district. This paper reviewed three studies in particular pertaining to CSCOPE and its effects on improving math TAKS scores of eleventh grade students in south central Texas urban school districts. The independent variable(s were the curriculum used by the districts. The dependent variable(s are the TAKS math scores. The results were mixed. Ultimately, the studies should expand by further disaggregating commended performance, college career and readiness, dig deeper into the subpopulations and subjects of English and Spanish language arts, and social studies.
Full Text Available Curriculum models number many in the world of education. One particular curriculum SCOPE, a comprehensive web based curriculum management program, implemented in Texas schools, has drawn the interest of various educators throughout the state. The purpose of this paper was to carry out a quasi-experimental study to test that the CSCOPE curriculum will improve math TAKS scores for eleventh grade students in a south central Texas urban school district. This paper reviewed three studies in particular pertaining to CSCOPE and its effects on improving math TAKS scores of eleventh grade students in south central Texas urban school districts. The independent variable(s were the curriculum used by the districts. The dependent variable(s are the TAKS math scores. The results were mixed. Ultimately, the studies should expand by further disaggregating commended performance, college career and readiness, dig deeper into the subpopulations and subjects of English and Spanish language arts, and social studies.
Righetti, F.; Kumashiro, M.
The present work examines the role of each partner's regulatory focus in the phenomenon of interpersonal goal support in close relationships. We examined the impact of regulatory orientation for interpersonal support of both ideal and ought self goals. Consistent with expectations, two studies
Saeid, Nasim; Eslaminejad, Tahere
Self-directed learning readiness to expand and enhance learning, This is an important goal of higher education, Besides his academic self-efficacy can be improved efficiency and Achievement Motivation, so understanding how to use these strategies by students is very important. Because the purpose this study is determination of relationship between…
Van Vuuren, D. [ed.; Kok, M. [ed.; Van der Esch, S.; Jeuken, M.; Lucas, P.; Prins, Anne-Gerdien; Alkemade, R.; Van den Berg, M.; Hilderink, H.; Kram, T.; Stehfest, E.; De Vries, B. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Den Haag (Netherlands); Biermann, F.; Van der Grijp, N.; Pattberg, P. [Institute for Environmental Studies IVM, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Melamed, C.; Scott, A.; Te Velde, D. W.; Wiggins, S. [Overseas Development Institute ODI, London (United Kingdom)
This report analyses how combinations of technological measures and changes in consumption patterns could contribute to achieving a set of sustainability objectives, taking into account the interlinkages between them. The potential exists for achieving all of the objectives.
Speirs Neumeister, Kristie L.; Finch, Holmes
The purpose of the present study was to create and test a model that (a) illustrated variables influencing the development of perfectionism, and (b) demonstrated how different types of perfectionism may influence the achievement goals of high-ability students. Using a multiple groups path analysis, the researchers found that parenting style was…
Sosik, John J.; Chun, Jae Uk; Koul, Ravinder
This paper examined the direct and interaction effects of students' learning and performance-avoidance goal orientations on their psychological wellbeing and a moderating role of students' gender in these relationships. Using 564 self-reports of freshman college students in a Thai university, we found students' psychological wellbeing to be…
Friedman, Barry A.; Mandel, Rhonda G.
Student retention and performance in higher education are important issues for educators, students, and the nation facing critical professional labor shortages. Expectancy and goal setting theories were used to predict academic performance and college student retention. Students' academic expectancy motivation at the start of the college…
McKellar, Sarah E; Marchand, Aixa D; Diemer, Matthew A; Malanchuk, Oksana; Eccles, Jacquelynne S
This study examines how student perceptions of teacher practices contribute to female high school students' math beliefs and achievement. Guided by the expectancy-value framework, we hypothesized that students' motivation beliefs and achievement outcomes in mathematics are fostered by teachers' emphasis on the relevance of mathematics and constrained by gender-based differential treatment. To examine these questions, structural equation modeling was applied to a longitudinal panel of 518 female students from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. While controlling for prior achievement and race, gendered differential treatment was negatively associated with math beliefs and achievement, whereas relevant math instruction was positively associated with these outcomes. These findings suggest inroads that may foster positive math motivational beliefs and achievement among young women. © 2018 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Using the Turkish portion of the Programme for International Student Assessment dataset ( N = 4,848; 51% boys, 49% girls; age, M = 15.81 years, SD = 0.28), this study investigated factors associated with mathematics achievement among Turkish students. Three different models were estimated using the method of balanced repeated replication with Fay's method and taking into account the presence of five plausible values of the dependent variable. Results showed that male students and older students had better mathematics proficiency. Socio-economic status and school resources also played a significant role in explaining student achievement in mathematics. Finally, students who were more open to problem solving, who attributed their failure to external factors, and who were intrinsically motivated to learn mathematics achieved higher scores. Policy implications are provided.
...) initiative to help streamline operations and manage resources more efficienfly. As you know, CIM is a top-down effort to simplify and improve functional processes by first documenting business goals, methods, and performance measures...
S. H. Sulistijo
Full Text Available This study aims to determine the differences in learning outcomes of between students that are given the Physics learning models of Inquiry-Student Team Achievement Division (ISTAD and guided inquiry, between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. This study was an experimental study with a 2x2x2 factorial design. The study population was the students of class X of SMAN 1 Toroh Grobogan of academic year 2016/2017. Samples were obtained by cluster random sampling technique consists of two classes, class X IPA 3 is used as an experimental class using ISTAD model and class X IPA 4 as the control class using guided inquiry model. Data collection techniques using test techniques for learning outcomes, and technical questionnaire to obtain the data of students' achievement motivation. Analysis of data using two-way ANOVA. The results showed that: (1 there is a difference between the learning outcomes of students with the ISTAD Physics models and with the physics model of guided inquiry. (2 There are differences in learning outcomes between students who have high achievement motivation and low achievement motivation. (3 There is no interaction between ISTAD and guided inquiry Physics models learning and achievement motivation of students.
Avraham, Eli; Ketter, Eran
While tourism marketing literature tends to present marketing as a ‘one-size-fits-all’ process, the current study suggests various destination marketing goals. Until today, the literature mainly concentrated on analyzing marketing strategies, tactics, tools and initiatives for enhancing and perceiving tourism, while other marketing goals were neglected, such as marketing unfamiliar destinations or promoting tourism during and after tourism crises. The purpose of this study is to propose the m...
Research on the effectiveness of educational inputs, particularly research on teacher effectiveness, typically overlooks teachers' potential impact on behavioral outcomes, such as student attendance. Using longitudinal data on teachers and students in North Carolina I estimate teacher effects on primary school student absences in a value-added…
Zhang, Kaili C; Zhang, Abraham
It has been well identified and supported in the literature that values and life goals are associated with one's general well-being. However, there have been few studies on values and life goals among international students in New Zealand. This study addressed this lack of research by focusing on the life goals and personal values among international students in three tertiary institutes in New Zealand. Based on the literature review, the hypothesis of this study is that international students' intrinsic life goals are positively correlated with their spiritual values. In contrast, extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. The Aspirations Index, which was used to assess life goals, and the Schwartz' value survey, which measured the students' personal values, were both distributed to the participants. Follow-up interviews with 24 of the participants were also conducted. Findings revealed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals and that extrinsic goals did not have similar effects. As the research findings showed that spiritual values were positively correlated with intrinsic goals, helping international students to find meaning and purpose in life may promote their well-being, and the learning and growth of international students can be improved by incorporating spiritual values and cultural aspects in college education. The authors also argue that a holistic approach to college education for international students is needed.
Abdulghani, Hamza M; Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed A; Khalil, Mahmood S; Ahmad, Farah; Ponnamperuma, Gominda G; Amin, Zubair
Medical students' academic achievement is affected by many factors such as motivational beliefs and emotions. Although students with high intellectual capacity are selected to study medicine, their academic performance varies widely. The aim of this study is to explore the high achieving students' perceptions of factors contributing to academic achievement. Focus group discussions (FGD) were carried out with 10 male and 9 female high achieving (scores more than 85% in all tests) students, from the second, third, fourth and fifth academic years. During the FGDs, the students were encouraged to reflect on their learning strategies and activities. The discussion was audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed qualitatively. Factors influencing high academic achievement include: attendance to lectures, early revision, prioritization of learning needs, deep learning, learning in small groups, mind mapping, learning in skills lab, learning with patients, learning from mistakes, time management, and family support. Internal motivation and expected examination results are important drivers of high academic performance. Management of non-academic issues like sleep deprivation, homesickness, language barriers, and stress is also important for academic success. Addressing these factors, which might be unique for a given student community, in a systematic manner would be helpful to improve students' performance.
Chakraborty, Arpita; Singh, Manvendra Pratap; Roy, Mousumi
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of university in shaping pro-environmental behaviour in students. Design/methodology/approach: The paper used goal-framing theory to investigate the relationship between goals and pro-environmental behaviour by comparing the responses of entry- and exit-level students. Structural equation…
Madjar, Nir; Nave, Adi; Hen, Shiran
This study investigated associations between student-perceived teacher behaviours and students' personal goal orientations. Thus, the study applied theoretical concepts from self-determination theory and parenting style in an attempt to enhance understanding of additional environmental characteristics possibly affecting personal goal orientation.…
Van der Rijst, Roeland M.; Visser-Wijnveen, Gerda J.; Verloop, Nico; Van Driel, Jan H.
Understanding the relation between teachers' goal statements and students' experiences about the position of research in undergraduate coursework can give use insight into ways to integrate research and teaching and foster undergraduate research. In this study, we examined to what extent teachers' goal statements agreed with students' experiences…
Ferrari, Joseph R.; McCarthy, Brendan J.; Milner, Lauren A.
The present study explores the relationship between students' perception of their institution's mission identity, personal goal orientation tendencies, and the extent to which they engage in mission-driven activities. Goal orientation research categorizes student motivations in three ways: mastery orientation (MO), performance-approach (PAp)…
Hughes, Jan N; Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G
We investigated growth trajectories for classroom performance goal practices and for student behavioral engagement across grades 2 to 5 for 497 academically at-risk elementary students. This study is the first longitudinal investigation of performance goal practices in the early elementary years. On average, teacher use of performance goal practices increased and students' behavioral engagement declined across the four years. Using autoregressive latent trajectory (ALT) models, we examined the synchronous relations between teacher-reported performance goal practices and teacher-reported student behavioral engagement. As expected, as students move into classrooms with a new teacher with less emphasis on performance goal practices, they become more behaviorally engaged in school. Gender did not moderate these results. Implications for teacher professional development are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Montecinos, P; Rodewald, A M
The aim this work was to assess and compare the achievements of medical students, subjected to problem based learning methodology. The information and comprehension categories of Bloom were tested in 17 medical students in four different occasions during the physiopathology course, using a multiple choice knowledge test. There was a significant improvement in the number of correct answers towards the end of the course. It is concluded that these medical students obtained adequate learning achievements in the information subcategory of Bloom using problem based learning methodology, during the physiopathology course.
Full Text Available In our society academic achievement is considered as a key criterion to judge one’s total potentiality and capability. Academic achievement is seen as a students’ grade point averages in many academic settings. Academic achievement has become an index of students’ future in this highly competitive world and Agricultural education is no exception. Hence it becomes necessary to find out the factors that determine better academic performance. In this context the present study had been carried out to find out the possible relationship between schooling background and academic achievement of agriculture students. The students admitted in Adhiparasakthi Agricultural College, Kalavai, Vellore between 1999 and 2009 formed the subjects of the study. Findings of the study revealed that determinants like gender, type of school and stream of education had a significant role in the academic achievement of the students. Medium of instruction in HSC did influence the academic achievement but not significantly. It was also found that students who performed well in their HSC did perform well in their undergraduate programme also. This confirms that previous educational outcomes are the most important indicators of student’s future achievement and schooling background has a significant role in academic achievement of students.
Hough, Kimberly L.
This quantitative survey study was designed to determine whether superintendent accountability behaviors or agreement about accountability behaviors between superintendents and their subordinate central office administrators predicted district student achievement. Hierarchical multiple regression and analyses of covariance were employed,…
the variance in students' academic achievement in Social Studies. It was ... probably the most popular and most widely used technique of the methods of measuring the ..... methods and statistics in education and social sciences (3rd ed).
Soethout, M.B.M.; Heijmans, M.W.; ten Cate, O.T.J.
Background: We know that medical students' biographical characteristics and academic achievement influence career preference. Less is known about the differential association of these characteristics with preference for distinct specialties at different stages of medical training. Aim: To
In the great expansion of the social networking activity, young people are the main users whose choices have vast influence. This study uses the flow theory to gauge the impact of Facebook usage on Tunisian students' achievements, with the presumption that the high usage level might reduce students' scholar achievements. The research design suggests that this impact would vary among students with different interests for the university and multitasking capabilities. Facebook usage would develop students' satisfaction with friends and family, which could enhance their academic performance. Analyses from 161 Tunisian students show that Facebook usage does not affect significantly students' academic performance and their satisfaction with the family, whereas it decreases their actual satisfaction with friends. Yet, a high level of satisfaction of the student with his family continues to enhance his academic performance. Overall, though, Facebook usage appears to do not have a significant effect on undergraduate students' academic performance. However, this interdependency is significantly moderated by the student's interest for the university and his multitasking capabilities. Students with multitasking skills and students with initial interest for the university might experience a positive effect of Facebook usage on their studies, as they keep control over their activity and make it a beneficial leisure activity. However, students who do not have these characteristics tend to not have any significant effect. Results help to understand the psychological attitude and consequent behavior of the youths on this platform. Implications, limitations, and further research directions are offered.
Measuring the quality of the ‘product’ is elemental in education, and most studies depend on observational data about student achievement factors, focusing overwhelmingly on quantitative data namely achievement scores, school data like attendance, facilities, expenditure class size etc. But there is little evidence of learner perceptions. 553 students from two different universities, who graduated from 3 high school types, were asked to respond to two fundamental questions to reflect on schoo...
Bezemer, Dirk; Eggen, Andrea
We provide a literature overview of the linkages between Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) and the Millenium Development Goals (MDGs) and use novel data to examine their relation. We find that introduction of a PRSP is associated with progress in four of the nine MDG indicators we study.
Anseel, Frederik; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Janssen, Onne; Duyck, Wouter
The aim of the current study is to shed new light on the inconsistent relationship between performance-approach (PAp) goals and feedback reactions by examining feedback type as a moderator. Results of a field experiment (N = 939) using a web-based work simulation task showed that the effect of
Energy consumption in the industrialized world has resumed a rising trend but has been moderated by increased energy efficiency. The demand for energy is also being spread more evenly over a variety of fuels. This paper provides a measure for diversity and examines the implications for energy prices, while reiterating the long-term goal of lower energy consumption
In recent years, the Ethiopian government has embarked on an ambitious agriculture development strategy aimed at raising Ethiopia to the status of a middle-income-level country by 2025. Encouraged by the international development push behind the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the rapid expansion of public universities has…
Yu, Darwin D.
Background: A financial accounting class in a Philippine university has a service-learning group project that involves setting up a simple accounting system for microenterprises. Aims: This paper examines the extent to which service-learning goals such as course learning, teamwork, civic responsibility, and impact on the client organization are…
Smith, Robert Stewart
The safety and health mandate of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 is examined in reference to its effectiveness in reducing injuries and its consistency with the goal of promoting general welfare. Chapter 1 describes the essential features of the act and its administration to date, and analyzes the mandate as revealed by legislative…
Educational policies and practices have been largely unsuccessful in closing the achievement gap between Black and White students "Schwartz, 2001". This achievement gap is especially problematic for Black students in science "Maton, Hrabrowski, - Schmitt, 2000. Given the fact that the Black-White achievement gap is still an enigma, the purpose of this article is to address the Black female-Black male academic achievement gap in science majors. Addressing barriers that Black male students may experience as college science and engineering majors, this article presents marketing strategies relative to politics, emotional intelligence, and issues with respect to how science teaching, and Black male students' responses to it, are different. Many Black male students may need to experience a paradigm shift, which structures and enhances their science achievement. Paradigm shifts are necessary because exceptional academic ability and motivation are not enough to get Black males from their first year in a science, technology, education, and mathematics "STEM" major to a bachelor's degree in science and engineering. The conclusions focus on the balance of truth-slippery slopes concerning the confluence of science teachers' further ado and Black male students' theories, methods, and values that position their academic achievement in science and engineering majors.
Dec 21, 2001 ... students must be present in school in order to benefit from academic program in .... attend class but passed with sometimes very high scores (e.g. 83% in CBS ..... done outside class or interaction forms, through online learning plat-form. ... also has obliged all journalism students to possess either an iPhone.
Klug, Julia; Lüftenegger, Marko; Bergsmann, Evelyn; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara
There is a strong urge to foster lifelong learning (LLL) competencies with its key components - motivation and self-regulated learning - from early on in the education system. School in general is presently not considered to be successful in systematically imparting motivation and self-regulated learning strategies. There is strong evidence that decisive motivational determinants decrease the longer students stay in school. At present, the central sources of information about the situation in Austria are international monitoring studies, which only examine selected aspects of specific target groups, and their interpretability concerning mean values is constricted due to cultural differences. Thus, it is important to conduct additional and more differentiated national surveys of the actual state. This is why this study aimed at answering the following questions: (1) how well are Austrian students equipped for the future, in terms of their lifelong learning competencies, (2) can perceived classroom structure predict students' LLL, and (3) is there a correlation of students' LLL with their achievement in the school subjects math and German language. 5366 students (52.1% female) from 36 Austrian schools took part in the online-questionnaire (mean age 15.35 years, SD = 2.45), which measured their perceived LLL competencies in the subjects math and German language, their perceived classroom structure and their achievement. Results showed that the great majority of Austrian students - independent from domain and sex - know and are able to apply cognitive as well as metacognitive learning strategies. With regard to motivation the picture is less satisfactory: whilst students' self-efficacy is not the problem, there is a lack of interest in the school subjects and they often report to follow performance approach goals. Classroom structure positively predicted students' goals, interest, self-efficacy and learning strategies. Self-efficacy, performance approach goals, meta
Full Text Available Gaucher disease, a lysosomal storage disorder, is a multisystem disorder with variable and unpredictable onset and severity. Disease-specific enzyme replacement therapy (ERT has been shown to reverse or ameliorate disease-specific hepatosplenomegaly and anemia and thrombocytopenia. ERT also impacts bone manifestations, including bone crises, bone pain, and appearance of new osteonecrosis, and improves bone mineral density to varying degrees. The objective of this study was to assess achievement of predefined therapeutic goals based on international registry outcomes for Israeli patients with Gaucher disease receiving imiglucerase for four consecutive years on a low-dose regimen followed in a single center. All data were taken from patient files. The therapeutic goals were taken from standards published in the literature for disease-specific clinical parameters. Among 164 patients at baseline, values for spleen and liver volumes, hemoglobin and platelet counts, and Z-scores for lumbar spine and femoral were significantly different from the goal. After four years ERT, there was a significant improvement ( in each of the therapeutic goal parameters from baseline. 15.2% of these patients achieved all hematology-visceral goals. In children, there was achievement of linear growth and puberty. This survey highlights the good overall response in symptomatic patients receiving low-dose ERT with imiglucerase in Israel.
Ishak, Zahari; Low, Suet Fin; Lau, Poh Li
Parenting styles have always been a crucial factor in influencing all aspects of a person's development. The purpose of this study is to test the structural equation model of academic achievement among the students using parenting styles as a moderator. The sample comprised 493 students from eight schools. Parenting styles are determined using the…
Mrs. K. K. Sumathi
The present study is aimed at finding the effectiveness of folk mathematics on achievement at secondary level student. It was an experimental method conducted on secondary school students in teaching mathematics for seventh standard. The result concluded by the investigator was that the effect of folk mathematics was better than the traditional method of teaching.
Nason, Kristen Kendrick
The problem addressed in this cross-sectional, quantitative study was a continual stagnation in student achievement in one U.S. state, which is critical to stakeholders responsible for increasing student advancement in college and the 21st century workforce. Specifically, the objective was to identify the relationship between principal-perceived…
Stress is a universal phenomenon which no human being is free from. This paper examined the magnitude of stress and academic achievement of female students of the University of Ilorin. It was a description survey type. The target population comprised the 400 level female students from the four randomly selected ...
Dedicated educators strive to ensure the achievement of all their students. Much research has been done to determine which factors may lead to success in the classroom, particularly that of the math classroom. As the study of mathematics is fundamental for many careers, a solid foundation is vital for students. This study examined whether or not…
De Paola, Maria; Scoppa, Vincenzo
We carry out a randomized experiment involving undergraduate students enrolled at an Italian University attending two introductory economics classes to evaluate the impact on achievement of examination frequency and interim feedback provision. Students in the treated group were allowed to undertake an intermediate exam and were informed about the…
Olatoye, R. Ademola; Akintunde, S. O.; Yakasai, M. I.
Introduction: This study investigated the extent to which the level of creativity and emotional intelligence influenced the level of academic achievement of Higher National Diploma HND business administration students of Polytechnics in the South Western States of Nigeria. Method: Three instruments; Student Cumulative Grade Point (CGPA)…
Using the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE), this study examines how different combinations of aspirations, expectations and school achievement can influence students' future educational behaviour (applying to university at the age of 17-18). The study shows that students with either high aspirations or high expectations have…
This study set out to investigate cooperative learning approach and students' achievement in Sociology. One research question and one hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance were formulated to guide the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design. One hundred and one (101) students of the schools of ...
Kim, Sunha; Chang, Mido
Although computer games as a way to improve students' learning have received attention by many educational researchers, no consensus has been reached on the effects of computer games on student achievement. Moreover, there is lack of empirical research on differential effects of computer games on diverse learners. In response, this study…
The objective of this study was to find out factors affecting the academic achievement of physics education students' in Benue State University and University of Agriculture, Makurdi. The study sought answers to four research questions. The research was carried out using a sample size of 108 students of the department of ...
Treasure, D C; Carpenter, P J; Power, K T
The recent professionalization of rugby union makes it an excellent achievement context in which to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of sport as a function of competitive standard. During the 1996-97 season, 73 professional and 106 amateur rugby players in England completed a series of questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, beliefs about the purposes of rugby and demographic information. The results of a canonical correlation analysis revealed a conceptually coherent relationship between achievement goal orientations and purposes of rugby. Specifically, a high ego/moderate task orientation was positively related to fitness, aggression and financial remuneration as significant purposes of rugby. Professional players scored higher on those purposes of rugby related to aggression, financial remuneration and fitness, but lower on sportspersonship than amateur players. Professional players also reported higher task and ego goal orientations than amateur players. The findings are discussed in terms of the differences in lifestyle and motivation of professional and amateur rugby union players.
Bonk, Curtis J.; Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Kou, Xiaojing; Xu, Shuya; Sheu, Feng-Ru
This research targeted the learning preferences, goals and motivations, achievements, challenges, and possibilities for life change of self-directed online learners who subscribed to the monthly OpenCourseWare (OCW) e-newsletter from MIT. Data collection included a 25-item survey of 1,429 newsletter subscribers; 613 of whom also completed an…
Improvements in the control of LDL-C levels have occurred in the past decade due to the introduction of increasingly potent statins, such as atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Many patients, however, do not achieve their LDL-C goals, which presents a practical dilemma for clinicians and highlights the need to identify adherence problems in a clinically relevant manner.
This exploratory study investigated how self-perceptions of self-determination and of achievement goal orientation were related to self-perceptions of satisfaction with the learning experience in a population of 495 adults engaged in non-formal lifelong learning through participation as amateur members of the United States Dressage Association.…
This document is a translation of Chapter 10, Sector analysis of transport, in the Norwegian report Climate Cure 2020, Measures and Instruments for Achieving Norwegian Climate Goals by 2020. The sector analysis has been prepared by an inter agency working group, conducted by the Norwegian Public Road Administration. (Author)
Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Rienties, Bart; Giesbers, Bas; Gijselaers, Wim H.
Empirical studies into meaning systems surrounding implicit theories of intelligence typically entail two stringent assumptions: that different implicit theories and different effort beliefs represent opposite poles on a single scale, and that implicit theories directly impact the constructs as achievement goals and academic motivations. Through…
Soehner, David; Ryan, Thomas
This review illuminated principal school leadership as a variable that impacted achievement. The principal as school leader and manager was explored because these roles were thought to impact student achievement both directly and indirectly. Specific principal leadership behaviors and principal effectiveness were explored as variables potentially…
Huber, David J.; Conway, James M.
This study evaluated the hypothesis that schools in Connecticut's Alliance Districts (lowest-performing districts) with higher-quality school improvement plans (SIPs) would have higher levels of student achievement. An exploratory research question evaluated whether SIPs predicted achievement of particular subgroups. SIPs were obtained and scored…
Hawley, Willis D.; And Others
This journal, presented in monograph form, reviews research findings in order to identify elements that influence student academic achievement. Sections focus on effective teaching, effect of school leadership on achievement, schoolwide learning environment, learning resources, and parent involvement. An extensive bibliography is included. (DF)
Sangsawang, Tamon; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been defined as a coronary artery disease risk equivalent. Therefore, the current guideline has been recommended for CKD patients to reach and maintain a low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) goal of less than 100 mg/dL. However, the data regarding the achievement of LDL-C goal in these patients is lacking. This study was conducted to evaluate the types of dyslipidemia affecting patients with CKD stages 3 and 4 and to determine whether these patients achieved LDL-C goal. We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia who were followed-up at Siriraj Hospital between October 2011 and September 2012. In total, 150 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4 and dyslipidemia were recruited. The mean age was 72±10 years, and the body mass index was 25.6±4 kg/m(2); 60% had CKD stage 3 with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 34±12 mL/min/1.73 m(2), and 54% had type 2 diabetes. The percentage of patients with hypercholesterolemia was 78%, hypertriglyceridemia 54%, and low high-density lipoprotein-C 36%. Of these, 52% had mixed hyperlipidemia. Statin treatment was prescribed to 87% of the patients, of which only 31.3% achieved the LDL-C goal according to the National Cholesterol Education Program and the European Society of Cardiology/European Atherosclerosis Society recommendations. Patients who did not achieve the LDL-C goal had a higher cholesterol level at diagnosis and higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes and stroke than those who achieved it. Two-thirds of CKD patients with hyperlipidemia had mixed hyperlipidemia. Despite the high frequency of statin treatment, only one-third of patients with CKD achieved the LDL-C goal. Thus, a developmental plan for the management of dyslipidemia in patients with CKD should be implemented to increase their achievement of the LDL-C goal.
Held, M.; Molt, W.
The change from materialistic to postmaterialistic needs increasingly makes itself felt in the industrialised societies of the Western world. Problems such as the need for new definitions of the quality of life, new approaches questioning the relation between technical progress and social goals, and man's attitude towards nature have become topics of public concern. Policy makers more and more find themselves confronted with these questions. Energy policy and related strategies are taken as an example to illustrate the conflicts currently emerging in the search for new lines of orientation, and to explain the difficulties in finding ways and alternatives which are likely to be accepted as a comprise leading to new goals and values. The all in all ten authors do not foster an attitude of fundamental opposition; they rather elaborate proposals for compromising, sometimes admit not to be able to present answers for the time being, and always try to give a balanced view of the problems involved. (orig.) [de
Karakaş, Özge N.
Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, The Program of Curriculum and Instruction, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2016. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 55-60). The aim of this research was to investigate (a) the effects of mastery-approach (MAp) and performance-approach (PAp) goals induced in an autonomous or a controlling condition to students’ intrinsic motivation through an experiment (Study 1), and (b) the relation of an endorsed...
Tayler-Smith, K; Zachariah, R; Manzi, M; Van den Boogaard, W; Nyandwi, G; Reid, T; Van den Bergh, R; De Plecker, E; Lambert, V; Nicolai, M; Goetghebuer, S; Christaens, B; Ndelema, B; Kabangu, A; Manirampa, J
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the reduction in maternal mortality associated with the emergency obstetric care provided by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and to compare this to the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. METHODS: The impact of MSF's intervention was approximated by estimating how many deaths were averted among women transferred to and treated at MSF's emergency obstetric care facility in Kabezi, Burundi, with a severe acute maternal morbidity. Using this e...
Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Comani, Silvia; Robazza, Claudio
We examined the three-way interactions among competence (actual and perceived), individuals' dispositional goal orientation (task/ego), and perceived sport motivational climate (mastery/performance) in the prediction of pleasant psychobiosocial states (i.e. emotion, cognition, motivation, bodily reaction, movement, performance, and communication) as conceptualized by the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model. The sample consisted of 320 Italian youths (160 girls and 160 boys) aged 13-14 years who were involved in individual or team sports. The assessment included a perceived competence scale, a goal orientation questionnaire, a motivational climate inventory, and pleasant psychobiosocial descriptors. An actual competence scale was also administered to coaches asking them to assess their youngsters. Moderated hierarchical regression analysis showed that perceived competence, actual competence, and task orientation were the strongest predictors of pleasant psychobiosocial states. Moreover, actual competence and perceived competence interacted in different ways with dispositional goal orientations and motivational climate perceptions in the prediction of psychobiosocial states. It is therefore recommended that both constructs be included in motivational research.
Subasi, Münevver; Tas, Yasemin
This study aims to investigate coping strategies of middle school students in science classes in relation to students' goal orientations and motivating tasks conducted in the classroom environment. The study was conducted in spring semester of 2015-2016 academic year. Sample of the study consists of 316 middle school students receiving education…
Peng, Shu-Ling; Cherng, Biing-Lin; Chen, Hsueh-Chih
Previous studies have indicated that situational factors can influence students' creativity. However, no studies have specifically examined the relationship between classroom goal structures and student creativity during real classroom activities. For this study, we recruited 232 seventh-grade students from Taipei City and randomly divided them…
Silcox, James B.; Herren, Ray V.
Describes a study to develop a demographic profile of the 703 students enrolled in automotive mechanics courses at technical institutes in Georgia and to identify differences in the educational goals of different groups of automotive mechanics students (e.g., day/evening students, and different age, racial, and employment status groups). (MAB)
McQuillan, David James
In recent years, providers of massage therapy education have, in growing numbers, started to use online technologies to support the learning processes of their students. Using a narrative review of the existing online learning literature, this paper aims to provide a solid pedagogical foundation for these early explorations. It identifies five key factors—instructional pedagogy, quality of instruction, interaction and communication, individual learner qualities, and the online interface—that contribute to student satisfaction and achievement in the online context. The relationships between those factors and the experience of the online learner are discussed with reference to maximization of student satisfaction and achievement. PMID:21589705
Schumacher, Robin F; Malone, Amelia S
The goal of the present study was to describe fraction-calculation errors among 4 th -grade students and determine whether error patterns differed as a function of problem type (addition vs. subtraction; like vs. unlike denominators), orientation (horizontal vs. vertical), or mathematics-achievement status (low- vs. average- vs. high-achieving). We specifically addressed whether mathematics-achievement status was related to students' tendency to operate with whole number bias. We extended this focus by comparing low-performing students' errors in two instructional settings that focused on two different types of fraction understandings: core instruction that focused on part-whole understanding vs. small-group tutoring that focused on magnitude understanding. Results showed students across the sample were more likely to operate with whole number bias on problems with unlike denominators. Students with low or average achievement (who only participated in core instruction) were more likely to operate with whole number bias than students with low achievement who participated in small-group tutoring. We suggest instruction should emphasize magnitude understanding to sufficiently increase fraction understanding for all students in the upper elementary grades.
Tosti H. C. Chiang
Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of a 3D virtual learning environment based on Second Life on student motivation and achievement in learning English as a second language. Twenty-one university students participate in this study, with the support of an English instructor. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ was used to evaluate students’ intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientation and self-efficacy in Second Life. The pre-test and post-test were used to assess students’ learning achievement. The results showed that students’ intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientations in English learning in Second Life had a positive influence on their self-efficacy. In addition, students’ self-efficacy of English learning in Second Life was found to positively relate to their learning achievement. Moreover, students’ intrinsic and extrinsic goal orientations were found to significantly influence their learning achievement via self-efficacy. In other words, instructors can utilize Second Life to enhance student motivation and achievement in English learning.
Boardley, Ian D; Jackson, Ben
This research aimed to (a) determine whether mastery and intrateam performance achievement goals predicted prosocial and antisocial teammate behavior, (b) explore whether effects of intrateam performance goals were mediated by moral disengagement, and (c) examine whether any effects (Study 2 only) were moderated by cohesion. In Study 1, team athletes (N = 282) from Australia completed questionnaires assessing the aforementioned variables. Structural equation modeling indicated that prosocial teammate behavior was positively predicted by mastery approach goals, and negatively predicted by mastery- and intrateam performance avoidance goals, whereas antisocial teammate behavior was positively predicted by intrateam performance-approach and -avoidance goals; these latter effects were mediated by moral disengagement. In Study 2, team athletes (N = 452) from the United Kingdom completed a measure of cohesion in addition to the Study 1 instruments; the analyses largely confirmed the Study 1 findings. However, the undesirable effect of mastery-avoidance goals on prosocial behavior seen in Study 1 was only apparent in Study 2 when individuals held strong perceptions of team cohesion. In sum, this investigation makes a novel contribution to the literature on team functioning in sport, being the first to explore how athletes' normative goals relative to their teammates might shape effective interaction processes.
Full Text Available Although a number of studies have attempted to determine the antecedents, correlates, and consequences of students’ academic performance, there are few studies in the literature that examine the correlates of academic achievement for physical education and sports undergraduate students. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the academic achievement of first-year physical education and sports students and their sociodemographics, attitudes towards the teaching profession, personality traits, and achievement goal orientations. The participants of the study consisted of 127 (67% male physical education and sports students, ranging in age from 16 to 30 years old when they began their studies. Participants responded to a questionnaire to determine their sociodemographic characteristics, their attitudes towards the teaching profession in their high school years, their core self-evaluations, and their achievement goal orientations. Pearson correlation analysis results showed that students’ first year grade-point average (GPA was associated with gender, high school GPA, core-self evaluations, and mastery-approach achievement goal orientation. Results of the regression analysis suggested that the three variables that predicted the students’ first year GPA were their mastery-approach scores, attitudes towards the teaching profession in high school years, and high school GPA. In order to prevent academic failure in physical education and sports students, those who do not have a mastery-approach goal orientation and who had a low high school GPA should be identified at the beginning of the academic year, so that educational interventions can be directed at these students.
Watson, Joan Monahan
Despite the fact that longitudinal data have been compiled over the past 30 years among undergraduate students in higher education settings regarding narcissism, the literature is devoid of empirical investigations that explore the relationships between narcissism and learning. Because the data suggest that narcissism scores are increasing each…
Studies of Psychological Sense of Community (PSOC) have been conducted in association with various settings, and evidence has shown the impact of PSOC in local neighborhoods and communities, community organizations, and industrial organizations. On the other hand, relatively little is known about the effect of PSOC in student learning…
This paper aims to interrogate some of the processes and tensions I faced in establishing a feminist space in a higher education institution in the UK context. The students I worked with needed to develop an understanding of social justice concepts such as anti-discrimination and anti-oppression in order to progress from their undergraduate…
The goal of the research was to explore the role of motivation, gender roles and stereotypes in the explanation of students' educational outcomes in a stereotypically male educational domain: physics. Eccles and colleagues' expectancy-value model was used as a theoretical framework for the research. The research sample included 736 grammar school…