WorldWideScience

Sample records for sts-55 earth observation

  1. STS-39 Earth observation of Earth's limb at sunset shows atmospheric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-39 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, shows the Earth's limb at sunset with numerous atmospheric scattering layers highlighted. The layers consist of fine particles suspended in very stable layers of the atmosphere. The layers act as a prism for the sunlight.

  2. STS-59 crewmembers in training for onboard Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The six astronauts in training for the STS-59 mission are shown onboard Earth observations tips by Justin Wilkinson (standing, foreground) of the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) group. Astronaut Sidney M. Gutierrez, mission commander, is at center on the left side of the table. Others, left to right, are Astronauts Kevin P. Chilton, pilot; Jerome (Jay) Apt and Michael R.U. (Rich) Clifford, both mission specialists; Linda M. Godwin, payload commander; and Thomas D. Jones, mission specialist.

  3. Earth observations during Space Shuttle mission STS-45 Mission to Planet Earth - March 24-April 2, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, David E.; Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Mckay, Mary F.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Amsbury, David L.; Bremer, Jeffrey; Ackleson, Steven G.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is presented of the activities and results of the Space Shuttle mission STS-45, known as the Mission to Planet Earth. Observations of Mount St. Helens, Manila Bay and Mt. Pinatubo, the Great Salt Lake, the Aral Sea, and the Siberian cities of Troitsk and Kuybyshev are examined. The geological features and effects of human activity seen in photographs of these areas are pointed out.

  4. GROUND-BASED TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mooij, E. J. W. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); López-Morales, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Karjalainen, R.; Hrudkova, M. [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, La Palma (Spain); Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto (Canada)

    2014-12-20

    We report the first ground-based detections of the shallow transit of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e using a 2 m class telescope. Using differential spectrophotometry, we observed one transit in 2013 and another in 2014, with average spectral resolutions of ∼700 and ∼250, spanning the Johnson BVR photometric bands. We find a white light planet-to-star radius ratio of 0.0190{sub −0.0027}{sup +0.0023} from the 2013 observations and 0.0200{sub −0.0018}{sup +0.0017} from the 2014 observations. The two data sets combined result in a radius ratio of 0.0198{sub −0.0014}{sup +0.0013}. These values are all in agreement with previous space-based results. Scintillation noise in the data prevents us from placing strong constraints on the presence of an extended hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Nevertheless, our detections of 55 Cnc e in transit demonstrate that moderate-sized telescopes on the ground will be capable of routine follow-up observations of super-Earth candidates discovered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite around bright stars. We expect it also will be possible to place constraints on the atmospheric characteristics of those planets by devising observational strategies to minimize scintillation noise.

  5. STS-55 MS3 Harris draws blood sample from Payload Specialist Schlegel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel (left) serves as a test subject inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, a physician, performs one of many blood draws designed to help investigate human physiology under microgravity conditions. The two crewmembers use intravehicular activity (IVA) foot restraints (foot loops) in front of Rack 10, a stowage rack, to steady themselves during the procedure. Schlegel represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  6. STS-56 Earth observation of Perth in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is probably the best view of Perth in Western Australia. (For orientation purposes, note that the coastline runs north and south). The major feature on the coast is the large estuary of the Swan River. The large port city of Perth is situated on the north bank and the smaller city of Freemantle on the south bank by the sea. Smaller seaside towns trail off north and south of this center of urban life. Inland lies a prominent escarpment, more than 600 feet high, seen running down the middle of the view and dividing the lighter-colored coastal lowlands from the highlands where dark-colored tree savanna and desert scrub dominates the land. The Moore River can be seen entering the sea at the top of the frame. Rottnest Island is visible in the sea and Garden Island near bottom edge of the frame. Perth is the largest economic center in Western Australia. It receives natural gas from an offshore field hundreds of miles

  7. STS-48 ESC Earth observation of ice pack, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of the breakup of pack ice along the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with katabatic downdrafts from the interior of the continent, are seen peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into long filaments of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits, and growlers to flow northward into the South Atlantic Ocean. These photos are used to study ocean wind, tide and current patterns. Similar views photographed during previous missions, when analyzed with these recent views may yield information about regional ice drift and breakup of ice packs. The image was captured using an electronic still camera (ESC), was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and was converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission. The ESC documentation was part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography.

  8. STS-45 Earth observation of the Persian Gulf and the island of Abu Ali

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-45 Earth observation taken aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, is of the northern reaches of the Persian Gulf with the sunglint pattern centered on the Saudi Arabian island of Abu Ali. Bright features along the coast are thought to be deposits of oil, released from a terminal offshore of Kuwait during the recent Persian Gulf War. Further up the coast, in Kuwait, the black, oil-soaked desert surrounding the site of the oil well fires is clearly visible. View was taken from an altitude of 160 nautical miles with OV-104 located at 28 degrees north and 52.8 degrees east. During the STS-45 mission, an international survey team focused on oil contamination of the shallow-water habitants in the area north of Abu Ali Island. Crewmembers contacted the NOAA survey vessel, the R/V Mt. Mitchell, several times and photographed water color and sunglint within the study area and throughout the entire Persian Gulf. These photographic data are expected to aid the Persian Gulf researchers in

  9. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-41 - Discovery's mission to planet earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.; Amsbury, David L.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Richards, Richard N.; Cabana, Robert D.; Shepherd, William M.; Akers, Thomas D.; Melnick, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of space flight STS-41 is presented, including personal observations and comments by the mission astronauts. The crew deployed the Ulysses spacecraft to study the polar regions of the sun and the interplanetary space above the poles. Environmental observations, including those of Lake Turkana, Lake Chad, biomass burning in Madagascar and Argentina, and circular features in Yucatan are described. Observations that include landforms and geology, continental sedimentation, desert landscapes, and river morphology are discussed.

  10. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  11. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross monitors Payload Specialist Walter's Anthrorack activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter breathes into Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) device for Pulmonary Perfusion and Ventilation During Rest and Exercise experiment while working inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Seated on the bicycle ergometer, Walter utilizes the respiratory monitoring system, part of a broad battery of experiments designed to investigate human physiology under microgravity conditions. In the background, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross monitors Walter's activity. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day SL-D2 mission. Visible on the aft end cone are a fire extinguisher and the Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE) Macintosh portable computer mounted on an adjustable work platform.

  12. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross and Payload Specialist Walter work in SL-D2 module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross floats near cycle ergometer and Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) as German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter reviews a checklist in front of Rack 11 Experiment Rack. These experiment stations and the crewmembers are in the shirt-sleeve environment of the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module onboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. In the background is the SL-D2 aft end cone. Behind Ross and Walter is Rack 12 Experiment Rack with Baroreflex (BA).

  13. Earth observations during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 - Discovery's mission to planet earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael; Amsbury, David; Pitts, David; Jaklitch, Pat; Wilkinson, Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Helms, David; Chambers, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The noteworthy imagery acquired during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 is documented. Attention is given to frozen Tibetan lakes, Merapi Volcano in Java, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, the coastline east of Tokyo Japan, land use in southern India, and the Indus River Delta. Observations of Kamchatka Peninsula, Lake Baikal, Moscow, Katmai National Park and Mt. Augustine, Alaska, the Alaskan coast by the Bering Sea, snow-covered New York, the Rhone River valley, the Strait of Gibraltar, and Mt. Ararat, Turkey, are also reported.

  14. High-Definition Television (HDTV) Images for Earth Observations and Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Holland, S. Douglas; Runco, Susan K.; Pitts, David E.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Andrefouet, Serge M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of Detailed Test Objective 700-17A, astronauts acquired Earth observation images from orbit using a high-definition television (HDTV) camcorder, Here we provide a summary of qualitative findings following completion of tests during missions STS (Space Transport System)-93 and STS-99. We compared HDTV imagery stills to images taken using payload bay video cameras, Hasselblad film camera, and electronic still camera. We also evaluated the potential for motion video observations of changes in sunlight and the use of multi-aspect viewing to image aerosols. Spatial resolution and color quality are far superior in HDTV images compared to National Television Systems Committee (NTSC) video images. Thus, HDTV provides the first viable option for video-based remote sensing observations of Earth from orbit. Although under ideal conditions, HDTV images have less spatial resolution than medium-format film cameras, such as the Hasselblad, under some conditions on orbit, the HDTV image acquired compared favorably with the Hasselblad. Of particular note was the quality of color reproduction in the HDTV images HDTV and electronic still camera (ESC) were not compared with matched fields of view, and so spatial resolution could not be compared for the two image types. However, the color reproduction of the HDTV stills was truer than colors in the ESC images. As HDTV becomes the operational video standard for Space Shuttle and Space Station, HDTV has great potential as a source of Earth-observation data. Planning for the conversion from NTSC to HDTV video standards should include planning for Earth data archiving and distribution.

  15. The Near-Earth Encounter of Asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55): Thermal IR Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lucy F.; Emery, J. P.; Moskovitz, N. A.; Busch, M. W.; Yang, B.; Granvik, M.

    2012-10-01

    The near-Earth approach (0.00217 AU, or 0.845 lunar distances) of the C-type asteroid 308635 (2005 YU55) in November 2011 presented a rare opportunity for detailed observations of a low-albedo NEA in this size range. As part of a multi-telescope campaign to measure visible and infrared spectra and photometry, we obtained mid-infrared ( 8 to 22 micron) photometry and spectroscopy of 2005 YU55 using Michelle [1] on the Gemini North telescope on UT November 9 and 10, 2011. An extensive radar campaign [2] together with optical lightcurves [3,4] established the rotation state of YU55. In addition, the radar imaging resulted in a shape model for the asteroid, detection of numerous boulders on its surface, and a preliminary estimate of its equatorial diameter at 380 +/- 20 m. In a preliminary analysis, applying the radar and lightcurve-derived parameters to a rough-surface thermophysical model fit to the Gemini/Michelle thermal emission photometry results in a thermal inertia range of approximately 500 to 1500 J m-2 s-1/2 K-1, with the low-thermal-inertia solution corresponding to the small end of the radar size range and vice versa. Updates to these results will be presented and modeling of the thermal contribution to the measured near-infrared spectra from Palomar/Triplespec and IRTF/SpeX will also be discussed. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of observatory staff and the support of the NASA NEOO program (LFL and JPE), the Carnegie fellowship (NAM), and NASA AES, NSF, and the NRAO Jansky Fellowship (MWB). [1] De Buizer, J. and R. Fisher, Proc. Hris (2005), pp. 84-87. [2] Busch, M.W. et al., ACM (2012), abstract #6179. [3] Warner, B., MPBull 39 (2), 84 [4] Pravec, P.

  16. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank on OV-102's middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Three STS-55 crewmembers participate in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with a waste water tank below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Bernard A. Harris, Jr, inside the airlock, holds middeck floor access panel MD54G and looks below at Pilot Terence T. Henricks who is in the bilge area. Commander Steven R. Nagel is lying on middeck floor at the left.

  17. Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of 55 Cnc e

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Rodler, Florian

    2014-01-01

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between 2012 January and 2013 November with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial velocity signal above 35 cm s–1 (3σ) and confine the stellar v sin i to 0.2 ± 0.5 km s–1. The s...

  18. STS-55 crewmembers repair waste water tank under OV-102's middeck subfloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Pilot Terence T. Henricks uses a spotlight and pen to point out a possible problem area on a waste water tank in the bilge area below Columbia's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102's, middeck. Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross records the activity with a video camcorder. The crewmembers are participating in an inflight maintenance (IFM) exercise to counter problems experienced with the waste water tank.

  19. Phase Curve Analysis of Super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Isabel; Hu, Renyu

    2018-01-01

    One of the primary questions when characterizing Earth-sized and super-Earth-sized exoplanets is whether they have a substantial atmosphere like Earth and Venus, or a bare-rock surface that may come with a tenuous atmosphere like Mercury. Phase curves of the planets in thermal emission provide clues to this question, because a substantial atmosphere would transport heat more efficiently than a bare-rock surface. Analyzing phase curve photometric data around secondary eclipse has previously been used to study energy transport in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. Here we use phase curve, Spitzer time-series photometry to study the thermal emission properties of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cancri e. We utilize a previously developed semi-analytical framework to fit a physical model to infrared photometric data of host star 55 Cancri from the Spitzer telescope IRAC 2 band at 4.5 μm. The model uses various parameters of planetary properties including Bond albedo, heat redistribution efficiency (i.e., the ratio between the radiative timescale and advective timescale of the photosphere), and atmospheric greenhouse factor. The phase curve of 55 Cancri e is dominated by thermal emission with an eastward-shifted hot spot located on the planet surface. We determine the heat redistribution efficiency to be ≈1.47, which implies that the advective timescale is on the same order as the radiative timescale. This requirement from the phase curve cannot be met by the bare-rock planet scenario, because heat transport by currents of molten lava would be too slow. The phase curve thus favors the scenario with a substantial atmosphere. Our constraints on the heat redistribution efficiency translate to a photosphere pressure of ~1.4 bar. The Spitzer IRAC 2 band is thus a window into the deep atmosphere of the planet 55 Cancri e.

  20. On the possibility of Earth-type habitable planets in the 55 Cancri system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bloh, W; Cuntz, M; Franck, S; Bounama, C

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of Earth-type planets in the planetary system of 55 Cancri, a nearby G8 V star, which is host to two, possibly three, giant planets. We argue that Earth-type planets around 55 Cancri are in principle possible. Several conditions are necessary. First, Earth-type planets must have formed despite the existence of the close-in giant planet(s). In addition, they must be orbitally stable in the region of habitability considering that the stellar habitable zone is relatively close to the star compared to the Sun because of 55 Cancri's low luminosity and may therefore be affected by the close-in giant planet(s). We estimate the likelihood of Earth-type planets around 55 Cancri based on the integrated system approach previously considered, which provides a way of assessing the long-term possibility of photosynthetic biomass production under geodynamic conditions.

  1. A Search for Water in a Super-Earth Atmosphere: High-resolution Optical Spectroscopy of 55Cancri e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, Lisa J. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); De Mooij, Ernst J. W.; Watson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University, Belfast (United Kingdom); Jayawardhana, Ray [Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario L3T 3R1 (Canada); De Kok, Remco, E-mail: esteves@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ernst.demooij@dcu.ie, E-mail: c.a.watson@qub.ac.uk, E-mail: rayjay@yorku.ca, E-mail: r.j.de.kok@sron.nl [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, Postbus 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2017-06-01

    We present the analysis of high-resolution optical spectra of four transits of 55Cnc e, a low-density super-Earth that orbits a nearby Sun-like star in under 18 hr. The inferred bulk density of the planet implies a substantial envelope, which, according to mass–radius relationships, could be either a low-mass extended or a high-mass compact atmosphere. Our observations investigate the latter scenario, with water as the dominant species. We take advantage of the Doppler cross-correlation technique, high-spectral resolution, and the large wavelength coverage of our observations to search for the signature of thousands of optical water absorption lines. Using our observations with HDS on the Subaru telescope and ESPaDOnS on the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, we are able to place a 3 σ lower limit of 10 g mol{sup −1} on the mean-molecular weight of 55Cnc e’s water-rich (volume mixing ratio >10%), optically thin atmosphere, which corresponds to an atmospheric scale-height of ∼80 km. Our study marks the first high-spectral resolution search for water in a super-Earth atmosphere, and demonstrates that it is possible to recover known water-vapor absorption signals in a nearby super-Earth atmosphere, using high-resolution transit spectroscopy with current ground-based instruments.

  2. A Case for an Atmosphere on Super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Isabel; Hu, Renyu

    2017-12-01

    One of the primary questions when characterizing Earth-sized and super-Earth-sized exoplanets is whether they have a substantial atmosphere like Earth and Venus or a bare-rock surface like Mercury. Phase curves of the planets in thermal emission provide clues to this question, because a substantial atmosphere would transport heat more efficiently than a bare-rock surface. Analyzing phase-curve photometric data around secondary eclipses has previously been used to study energy transport in the atmospheres of hot Jupiters. Here we use phase curve, Spitzer time-series photometry to study the thermal emission properties of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cancri e. We utilize a semianalytical framework to fit a physical model to the infrared photometric data at 4.5 μm. The model uses parameters of planetary properties including Bond albedo, heat redistribution efficiency (I.e., ratio between radiative timescale and advective timescale of the atmosphere), and the atmospheric greenhouse factor. The phase curve of 55 Cancri e is dominated by thermal emission with an eastward-shifted hotspot. We determine the heat redistribution efficiency to be {1.47}-0.25+0.30, which implies that the advective timescale is on the same order as the radiative timescale. This requirement cannot be met by the bare-rock planet scenario because heat transport by currents of molten lava would be too slow. The phase curve thus favors the scenario with a substantial atmosphere. Our constraints on the heat redistribution efficiency translate to an atmospheric pressure of ˜1.4 bar. The Spitzer 4.5 μm band is thus a window into the deep atmosphere of the planet 55 Cancri e.

  3. Who Uses Earth Observations? User Types in Group on Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    How can we communicate concepts in the physical sciences unless we know our audience? The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) User Interface Committee (UIC) has a responsibility within GEO to support and advocate for the user community in the development of Global Earth Observations System of Systems (GEOSS) and related work. As part of its efforts, the UIC has been working on developing a taxonomy that can be used to characterize the broad spectrum of users of GEOSS and its data, services, and applications. The user type taxonomy is designed to be broad and flexible but aims at describing the needs of the users GEOSS is going to serve. These user types represent a continuum of users of Earth observations from research through to decision support activities, and it includes organizations that use GEOSS as a tool to provide data and services for customers and consumers of the information. The classification scheme includes factors about skills and capacity for using Earth observations, sophistication level, spatial resolution, latency, and frequency of data. As part of the effort to develop a set of User Types, the GEO UIC foresees that those inside and outside GEO can use the typologies to understand how to engage users at a more effective level. This talk presents the GEOSS User Type taxonomy, explaining the development and highlights of key feedback. The talk will highlight possible ways to use the User Type taxonomy to communicate concepts and promote the use of Earth observations to a wide variety of users.

  4. HOST payload for STS-95 being moved into SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Orbiting Systems Test (HOST) is checked out by technicians in the Space Shuttle Processing Facility. One of the payloads on the STS-95 mission, the HOST platform is carrying four experiments to validate components planned for installation during the third Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission and to evaluate new technologies in an earth orbiting environment. The STS-95 mission is scheduled to launch Oct. 29. It will carry three other payloads: the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, and the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  5. Earth observation from the manned low Earth orbit platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huadong; Dou, Changyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Chunming; Yue, Xijuan

    2016-05-01

    The manned low Earth orbit platforms (MLEOPs), e.g., the U.S. and Russia's human space vehicles, the International Space Station (ISS) and Chinese Tiangong-1 experimental space laboratory not only provide laboratories for scientific experiments in a wide range of disciplines, but also serve as exceptional platforms for remote observation of the Earth, astronomical objects and space environment. As the early orbiting platforms, the MLEOPs provide humans with revolutionary accessibility to the regions on Earth never seen before. Earth observation from MLEOPs began in early 1960s, as a part of manned space flight programs, and will continue with the ISS and upcoming Chinese Space Station. Through a series of flight missions, various and a large amount of Earth observing datasets have been acquired using handheld cameras by crewmembers as well as automated sophisticated sensors onboard these space vehicles. Utilizing these datasets many researches have been conducted, demonstrating the importance and uniqueness of studying Earth from a vantage point of MLEOPs. For example, the first, near-global scale digital elevation model (DEM) was developed from data obtained during the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). This review intends to provide an overview of Earth observations from MLEOPs and present applications conducted by the datasets collected by these missions. As the ISS is the most typical representative of MLEOPs, an introduction to it, including orbital characteristics, payload accommodations, and current and proposed sensors, is emphasized. The advantages and challenges of Earth observation from MLEOPs, using the ISS as an example, is also addressed. At last, a conclusive note is drawn.

  6. Earth as an extrasolar planet: Earth model validation using EPOXI earth observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tyler D; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Deming, Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Livengood, Timothy A; Seager, Sara; Barry, Richard K; Hearty, Thomas; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Wellnitz, Dennis D

    2011-06-01

    The EPOXI Discovery Mission of Opportunity reused the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to obtain spatially and temporally resolved visible photometric and moderate resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of Earth. These remote observations provide a rigorous validation of whole-disk Earth model simulations used to better understand remotely detectable extrasolar planet characteristics. We have used these data to upgrade, correct, and validate the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional line-by-line, multiple-scattering spectral Earth model. This comprehensive model now includes specular reflectance from the ocean and explicitly includes atmospheric effects such as Rayleigh scattering, gas absorption, and temperature structure. We have used this model to generate spatially and temporally resolved synthetic spectra and images of Earth for the dates of EPOXI observation. Model parameters were varied to yield an optimum fit to the data. We found that a minimum spatial resolution of ∼100 pixels on the visible disk, and four categories of water clouds, which were defined by using observed cloud positions and optical thicknesses, were needed to yield acceptable fits. The validated model provides a simultaneous fit to Earth's lightcurve, absolute brightness, and spectral data, with a root-mean-square (RMS) error of typically less than 3% for the multiwavelength lightcurves and residuals of ∼10% for the absolute brightness throughout the visible and NIR spectral range. We have extended our validation into the mid-infrared by comparing the model to high spectral resolution observations of Earth from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, obtaining a fit with residuals of ∼7% and brightness temperature errors of less than 1 K in the atmospheric window. For the purpose of understanding the observable characteristics of the distant Earth at arbitrary viewing geometry and observing cadence, our validated forward model can be

  7. USGEO Common Framework For Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, J.; de la Beaujardiere, J.; Bristol, S.

    2015-12-01

    The United States Group on Earth Observations (USGEO) Data Management Working Group (DMWG) is an interagency body established by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The primary purpose of this group is to foster interagency cooperation and collaboration for improving the life cycle data management practices and interoperability of federally held earth observation data consistent with White House documents including the National Strategy for Civil Earth Observations, the National Plan for Civil Earth Observations, and the May 2013 Executive Order on Open Data (M-13-13). The members of the USGEO DMWG are working on developing a Common Framework for Earth Observation Data that consists of recommended standards and approaches for realizing these goals as well as improving the discoverability, accessibility, and usability of federally held earth observation data. These recommendations will also guide work being performed under the Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI). This talk will summarize the Common Framework, the philosophy behind it, and next steps forward.

  8. STS-68 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This STS-68 patch was designed by artist Sean Collins. Exploration of Earth from space is the focus of the design of the insignia, the second flight of the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2). SRL-2 was part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) project. The world's land masses and oceans dominate the center field, with the Space Shuttle Endeavour circling the globe. The SRL-2 letters span the width and breadth of planet Earth, symbolizing worldwide coverage of the two prime experiments of STS-68: The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) instruments; and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) sensor. The red, blue, and black colors of the insignia represent the three operating wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR, and the gold band surrounding the globe symbolizes the atmospheric envelope examined by MAPS. The flags of international partners Germany and Italy are shown opposite Endeavour. The relationship of the Orbiter to Earth highlights the usefulness of human space flights in understanding Earth's environment, and the monitoring of its changing surface and atmosphere. In the words of the crew members, the soaring Orbiter also typifies the excellence of the NASA team in exploring our own world, using the tools which the Space Program developed to explore the other planets in the solar system.

  9. Confirming Variability in the Secondary Eclipse Depth of the Rocky Super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburo, Patrick; Mandell, Avi; Deming, Drake; Garhart, Emily

    2017-01-01

    We present a reanalysis of Spitzer transit and secondary eclipse observations of the rocky super Earth 55 Cancri e using Pixel Level Decorrelation (Deming et al. 2015). Secondary eclipses of this planet were found to be significantly variable by Demory et al. (2016), implying a changing brightness temperature which could be evidence of volcanic activity due to tidal forces. If genuine, this result would represent the first evidence for such a process outside of bodies in our own solar system, and would further expand our understanding of the huge variety of planetary systems that can develop in our universe. Spitzer eclipse observations, however, are subject to strong systematic effects which can heavily impact the retrieved eclipse model. A reanalysis of this result with an independent method is therefore needed to confirm eclipse depth variability. We tentatively confirm variability, finding a shallower increase in eclipse depth over the course of observations compared to Demory et al. (2015).

  10. Delivery of information from earth observation satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    Satellite-based systems for measuring the surface of the earth and its atmosphere from space have evolved rapidly in the past decade. The amount of data available in the future promises to be truly staggering. This paper addresses the requirements for handling data from earth observation systems. It begins with the premise that our objective is to acquire an understanding of the state and evolution of our planet, and proceeds from there to argue that earth observation satellite systems are, in reality, systems for delivering information. This view has implications on how we approach the design of such systems, and how we handle the data they produce in order to derive maximum benefit from them. The paper examines these issues and puts forth some of the technical requirements for future satellite-based earth observation systems, based on the concept that earth observation is a quantitative measurement discipline that is driven by requirements for information. (Author). 8 refs., 3 figs

  11. Earth Observing System Covariance Realism Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda Romero, Juan A.; Miguel, Fred

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will be given at the International Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meetings June 13-15, 2017 to discuss the Earth Observing System Covariance Realism updates.

  12. A Geograns update. New experiences to teach earth sciences to students older than 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Pinazo, S.

    2009-04-01

    How to teach earth science to students that have access to the university after the age of 55 is a challenge due to the different background of the students. They ranged from those with only basic education (sometimes they finished school at the age of 9) to well educate students such as university professors, physicians or engineers. Students older than 55 are enrolled in what is called the university programme NauGran project at the University of Valencia. They follow diverse topics, from health science to Arts. Since 2006 the Department of Geography and the NauGran project developed the Club for Geographers and Walkers called Geograns. The objective is to teach Earth Science in the field as a strategy to improve the knowledge of the students with a direct contact with the territory. This initiative reached a successful contribution by the students, with 70 students registered. The successful strategy we have developed since then is to base our teaching on field work. Every lecture is related to some visits to the field. A pre-excursion lecture introduces the key questions of the study site (hydrology, geology, botany, geomorphology…). During the field work we review all the topics and the students are encouraged to ask and discuss any of the topics studied. Finally, a post-excursion lecture is given to review the acquired knowledge. During the last academic year 2007-2008 the excursion focussed on: (i) energy sources: problems and solutions, with visit to nuclear, wind and hydraulic power stations; (i) human disturbances and humankind as landscaper, with visits to wetlands, river gorges and Iberian settlements; and (iii) human activities and economical resources, with visits to vineyards and wineries and orange fields devoted to organic farming. This is being a positive strategy to teach Earth Science to a wide and heterogeneous group of students, as they improve their knowledge with a direct contact with the landscape, other colleagues and teachers in the

  13. Connecting Earth observation to high-throughput biodiversity data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Alex; Sollmann, Rahel; Wilting, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Understandably, given the fast pace of biodiversity loss, there is much interest in using Earth observation technology to track biodiversity, ecosystem functions and ecosystem services. However, because most biodiversity is invisible to Earth observation, indicators based on Earth observation could...... observation data. This approach is achievable now, offering efficient and near-real-time monitoring of management impacts on biodiversity and its functions and services....

  14. STS-40 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  15. Data Assimilation: Making Sense of Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Albert Lahoz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, air quality and environmental degradation are important societal challenges for the 21st Century. These challenges require an intelligent response from society, which in turn requires access to information about the Earth System. This information comes from observations and prior knowledge, the latter typically embodied in a model describing relationships between variables of the Earth System. Data assimilation provides an objective methodology to combine observational and model information to provide an estimate of the most likely state and its uncertainty for the whole Earth System. This approach adds value to the observations – by filling in the spatio-temporal gaps in observations; and to the model – by constraining it with the observations. In this review paper we motivate data assimilation as a methodology to fill in the gaps in observational information; illustrate the data assimilation approach with examples that span a broad range of features of the Earth System (atmosphere, including chemistry; ocean; land surface; and discuss the outlook for data assimilation, including the novel application of data assimilation ideas to observational information obtained using Citizen Science. Ultimately, a strong motivation of data assimilation is the many benefits it provides to users. These include: providing the initial state for weather and air quality forecasts; providing analyses and reanalyses for studying the Earth System; evaluating observations, instruments and models; assessing the relative value of elements of the Global Observing System (GOS; and assessing the added value of future additions to the GOS.

  16. The Earth Observation Technology Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, P.; Boyd, D. S.; Danson, F. M.; Donoghue, D. N. M.; Ferrier, G.; Galiatsatos, N.; Marsh, A.; Pope, A.; Ramirez, F. A.; Tate, N. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Earth Observation Technology Cluster is a knowledge exchange initiative, promoting development, understanding and communication about innovative technology used in remote sensing of the terrestrial or land surface. This initiative provides an opportunity for presentation of novel developments from, and cross-fertilisation of ideas between, the many and diverse members of the terrestrial remote sensing community. The Earth Observation Technology Cluster involves a range of knowledge exchange activities, including organisation of technical events, delivery of educational materials, publication of scientific findings and development of a coherent terrestrial EO community. The initiative as a whole covers the full range of remote sensing operation, from new platform and sensor development, through image retrieval and analysis, to data applications and environmental modelling. However, certain topical and strategic themes have been selected for detailed investigation: (1) Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles, (2) Terrestrial Laser Scanning, (3) Field-Based Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy, (4) Hypertemporal Image Analysis, and (5) Circumpolar and Cryospheric Application. This paper presents general activities and achievements of the Earth Observation Technology Cluster, and reviews state-of-the-art developments in the five specific thematic areas.

  17. A grid portal for Earth Observation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, G.; Cafaro, M.; Carteni, G.; Epicoco, I.; Quarta, G.

    2005-01-01

    Earth Observation techniques offer many powerful instruments far Earth planet study, urban development planning, military intelligence helping and so on. Tera bytes of EO and geo spatial data about lands, oceans, glaciers, cities, etc. are continuously downloaded through remote-sensing infrastructures and stored into heterogeneous, distributed repositories usually belonging to different virtual organizations. A problem-solving environment can be a viable solution to handle, coordinate and share heterogeneous and distributed resources. Moreover, grid computing is an emerging technology to salve large-scale problems in dynamic, multi-institutional Virtual Organizations coordinated by sharing resources such as high-performance computers, observation devices, data and databases aver high-speed networks, etc. In this paper we present the Italian Grid far Earth Observation (I-GEO) project, a pervasive environment based on grid technology to help the integration and processing of Earth Observation data, providing a tool to share and access data, applications and computational resources among several organizations

  18. Earth Observing System, Conclusions and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The following Earth Observing Systems (E.O.S.) recommendations were suggested: (1) a program must be initiated to ensure that present time series of Earth science data are maintained and continued. (2) A data system that provides easy, integrated, and complete access to past, present, and future data must be developed as soon as possible. (3) A long term research effort must be sustained to study and understand these time series of Earth observations. (4) The E.O.S. should be established as an information system to carry out those aspects of the above recommendations which go beyond existing and currently planned activities. (5) The scientific direction of the E.O.S. should be established and continued through an international scientific steering committee.

  19. The international earth observing system: a cultural debate about earth sciences from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the International Earth Observing System, i.e. the combined earth observation programmes of space agencies worldwide and of the relevance of advanced space-borne sensor systems to the study and understanding of interactions between land surface and atmosphere. The

  20. Pull vs. Push: How OmniEarth Delivers Better Earth Observation Information to Subscribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, C.; Slagowski, S.; Dyrud, L.; Fentzke, J.; Hargis, B.; Steerman, M.

    2015-04-01

    Until very recently, the commercialization of Earth observation systems has largely occurred in two ways: either through the detuning of government satellites or the repurposing of NASA (or other science) data for commercial use. However, the convergence of cloud computing and low-cost satellites is enabling Earth observation companies to tailor observation data to specific markets. Now, underserved constituencies, such as agriculture and energy, can tap into Earth observation data that is provided at a cadence, resolution and cost that can have a real impact to their bottom line. To connect with these markets, OmniEarth fuses data from a variety of sources, synthesizes it into useful and valuable business information, and delivers it to customers via web or mobile interfaces. The "secret sauce" is no longer about having the highest resolution imagery, but rather it is about using that imagery - in conjunction with a number of other sources - to solve complex problems that require timely and contextual information about our dynamic and changing planet. OmniEarth improves subscribers' ability to visualize the world around them by enhancing their ability to see, analyze, and react to change in real time through a solutions-as-a-service platform.

  1. Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available in the Dukuduku coastal forest Earth Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) MA CHO, P DEBBA, R MATHIEU, A RAMOELO, L NAIDOO, H VAN DEVENTER, O MALAHLELA AND R MAIN CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, Pretoria, South Africa PO Box 395... Observation for Biodiversity Assessment (EO-BA) programme is designed to enhance biodiversity assessment and conservation through the application of earth observation data, with particular focus on the African continent. MISSION To initiate and develop...

  2. JEOS. The JANUS earth observation satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molette, P.; Jouan, J.

    The JANUS multimission platform has been designed to minimize the cost of the satellite (by a maximum reuse of equipment from other proprogrammes) and of its associated launch by Aŕiane (by a piggy-back configuration optimized for Ariane 4). The paper describes the application of the JANUS platform to an Earth observation mission with the objective to provide a given country with a permanent monitoring of its earth resources by exploitation of spaceborne imagery. According to this objective, and to minimize the overall system and operational cost, the JANUS Earth Observation Satellite (JEOS) will provide a limited coverage with real time transmission of image data, thus avoiding need for on-board storage and simplifying operations. The JEOS operates on a low earth, near polar sun synchronous orbit. Launched in a piggy-back configuration on Ariane 4, with a SPOT or ERS spacecraft, it reaches its operational orbit after a drift orbit of a few weeks maximum. In its operational mode, the JEOS is 3-axis stabilised, earth pointed. After presentation of the platform, the paper describes the solid state push-broom camera which is composed of four optical lenses mounted on a highly stable optical bench. Each lens includes an optics system, reused from an on-going development, and two CCD linear arrays of detectors. The camera provides four registered channels in visible and near IR bands. The whole optical bench is supported by a rotating mechanism which allows rotation of the optical axis in the across-track direction. The JEOS typical performance for a 700 km altitude is then summarized: spatial resolution 30 m, swath width 120 km, off-track capability 325 km,… The payload data handling and transmission electronics, derived from the French SPOT satellite, realizes the processing, formatting, and transmission to the ground; this allows reuse of the standard SPOT receiving stations. The camera is only operated when the spacecraft is within the visibility of the ground

  3. The Common Framework for Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Stryker, T. S.; Sherman, R.

    2016-12-01

    Each year, the Federal government records petabytes of data about our home planet. That massive amount of data in turn provides enormous benefits to society through weather reports, agricultural forecasts, air and water quality warnings, and countless other applications. To maximize the ease of transforming the data into useful information for research and for public services, the U.S. Group on Earth Observations released the first Common Framework for Earth Observation Data in March 2016. The Common Framework recommends practices for Federal agencies to adopt in order to improve the ability of all users to discover, access, and use Federal Earth observations data. The U.S. Government is committed to making data from civil Earth observation assets freely available to all users. Building on the Administration's commitment to promoting open data, open science, and open government, the Common Framework goes beyond removing financial barriers to data access, and attempts to minimize the technical impediments that limit data utility. While Earth observation systems typically collect data for a specific purpose, these data are often also useful in applications unforeseen during development of the systems. Managing and preserving these data with a common approach makes it easier for a wide range of users to find, evaluate, understand, and utilize the data, which in turn leads to the development of a wide range of innovative applications. The Common Framework provides Federal agencies with a recommended set of standards and practices to follow in order to achieve this goal. Federal agencies can follow these best practices as they develop new observing systems or modernize their existing collections of data. This presentation will give a brief on the context and content of the Common Framework, along with future directions for implementation and keeping its recommendations up-to-date with developing technology.

  4. STS-84 Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-84 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Atlantis launching into Earth orbit to join the Russian Space Station Mir as part of Phase One of the International Space Station program. The names of the eight astronauts who flew onboard Atlantis, including the two who changed their positions onboard Mir for a long duration flight, are shown along the border of the patch. The STS-84/Mir-23 team will transfer 7,000 pounds of experiments, Station hardware, food and clothing to and from Mir during the five-day period of docking. The Phase One program is represented by the rising Sun and by the Greek letter Phi followed by one star. This sixth Shuttle-Mir docking mission is symbolized by the six stars surrounding the word Mir in Cyrillic characters. Combined, the seven stars symbolize the current configuration of Mir, composed of six modules launched by the Russians and one module brought up by Atlantis on a previous docking flight.

  5. First results of the earth observation water cycle multi-mission observation strategy (WACMOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Zhongbo; Fernadez-Prieto, D.; Timmermans, J.; Chen, Xuelong; Hungershoefer, K.; Schröder, M.; Schulz, J.; Stammes, P.; Wang, Peng; Wolters, e.

    2014-01-01

    Observing and monitoring the different components of the global water cycle and their dynamics are essential steps to understand the climate of the Earth, forecast the weather, predict natural disasters like floods and droughts, and improve water resources management. Earth observation technology is

  6. Optical MEMS for earth observation payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, B.; Lobb, D. R.; Freire, M.

    2017-11-01

    An ESA study has been taken by Lusospace Ltd and Surrey Satellite Techonoly Ltd (SSTL) into the use of optical Micro Eletro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) for earth Observation. A review and analysis was undertaken of the Micro-Optical Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) available in the market with potential application in systems for Earth Observation. A summary of this review will be presented. Following the review two space-instrument design concepts were selected for more detailed analysis. The first was the use of a MEMS device to remove cloud from Earth images. The concept is potentially of interest for any mission using imaging spectrometers. A spectrometer concept was selected and detailed design aspects and benefits evaluated. The second concept developed uses MEMS devices to control the width of entrance slits of spectrometers, to provide variable spectral resolution. This paper will present a summary of the results of the study.

  7. Analysis of Critical Earth Observation Priorities for Societal Benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, E. R.; Huff, A. K.; Carpenter, A. T.; Friedl, L.

    2011-12-01

    To ensure that appropriate near real-time (NRT) and historical Earth observation data are available to benefit society and meet end-user needs, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) sponsored a multi-disciplinary study to identify a set of critical and common Earth observations associated with 9 Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate, Disasters, Ecosystems, Energy, Health, Water, and Weather. GEO is an intergovernmental organization working to improve the availability, access, and use of Earth observations to benefit society through a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The study, overseen by the GEO User Interface Committee, focused on the "demand" side of Earth observation needs: which users need what types of data, and when? The methodology for the study was a meta-analysis of over 1,700 publicly available documents addressing Earth observation user priorities, under the guidance of expert advisors from around the world. The result was a ranking of 146 Earth observation parameters that are critical and common to multiple SBAs, based on an ensemble of 4 statistically robust methods. Within the results, key details emerged on NRT observations needed to serve a broad community of users. The NRT observation priorities include meteorological parameters, vegetation indices, land cover and soil property observations, water body and snow cover properties, and atmospheric composition. The results of the study and examples of NRT applications will be presented. The applications are as diverse as the list of priority parameters. For example, NRT meteorological and soil moisture information can support monitoring and forecasting for more than 25 infectious diseases, including epidemic diseases, such as malaria, and diseases of major concern in the U.S., such as Lyme disease. Quickly evolving events that impact forests, such as fires and insect outbreaks, can be monitored and forecasted with a combination of vegetation indices, fuel

  8. Confirming Variability in the Secondary Eclipse Depth of the Super-Earth 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburo, P.; Mandell, A.; Deming, D.; Garhart, E.

    2018-05-01

    We present a reanalysis of five transit and eight eclipse observations of the ultrashort-period super-Earth 55 Cancri e observed using the Spitzer Space Telescope during 2011–2013. We use pixel-level decorrelation to derive accurate transit and eclipse depths from the Spitzer data, and we perform an extensive error analysis. We focus on determining possible variability in the eclipse data, as was reported in Demory et al. From the transit data, we determine updated orbital parameters, yielding T 0 = 2,455,733.0037 ± 0.0002, P = 0.7365454 ± 0.0000003 days, i = 83.5 ± 1.°3, and R p = 1.89 ± 0.05 R ⊕. Our transit results are consistent with a constant depth, and we conclude that they are not variable. We find a significant amount of variability between the eight eclipse observations and confirm agreement with Demory et al. through a correlation analysis. We convert the eclipse measurements to brightness temperatures, and generate and discuss several heuristic models that explain the evolution of the planet’s eclipse depth versus time. The eclipses are best modeled by a year-to-year variability model, but variability on shorter timescales cannot be ruled out. The derived range of brightness temperatures can be achieved by a dark planet with inefficient heat redistribution intermittently covered over a large fraction of the substellar hemisphere by reflective grains, possibly indicating volcanic activity or cloud variability. This time-variable system should be observable with future space missions, both planned (JWST) and proposed (i.e., ARIEL).

  9. Digest of NASA earth observation sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A digest of technical characteristics of remote sensors and supporting technological experiments uniquely developed under NASA Applications Programs for Earth Observation Flight Missions is presented. Included are camera systems, sounders, interferometers, communications and experiments. In the text, these are grouped by types, such as television and photographic cameras, lasers and radars, radiometers, spectrometers, technology experiments, and transponder technology experiments. Coverage of the brief history of development extends from the first successful earth observation sensor aboard Explorer 7 in October, 1959, through the latest funded and flight-approved sensors under development as of October 1, 1972. A standard resume format is employed to normalize and mechanize the information presented.

  10. Development of the AuScope Australian Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawling, T.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in monitoring technology and significant investment in new national research initiatives, will provide significant new opportunities for delivery of novel geoscience data streams from across the Australian continent over the next decade. The AuScope Australian Earth Observing System (AEOS) is linking field and laboratory infrastructure across Australia to form a national sensor array focusing on the Solid Earth. As such AuScope is working with these programs to deploy observational infrastructure, including MT, passive seismic, and GNSS networks across the entire Australian Continent. Where possible the observational grid will be co-located with strategic basement drilling in areas of shallow cover and tied with national reflection seismic and sampling transects. This integrated suite of distributed earth observation and imaging sensors will provide unprecedented imaging fidelity of our crust, across all length and time scales, to fundamental and applied researchers in the earth, environmental and geospatial sciences. The AEOS will the Earth Science community's Square Kilometer Array (SKA) - a distributed telescope that looks INTO the earth rather than away from it - a 10 million SKA. The AEOS is strongly aligned with other community strategic initiatives including the UNCOVER research program as well as other National Collaborative Research Infrastructure programs such as the Terrestrial Environmental Research Network (TERN) and the Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) providing an interdisciplinary collaboration platform across the earth and environmental sciences. There is also very close alignment between AuScope and similar international programs such as EPOS, the USArray and EarthCube - potential collaborative linkages we are currently in the process of pursuing more fomally. The AuScope AEOS Infrastructure System is ultimately designed to enable the progressive construction, refinement and ongoing enrichment of a live, "FAIR" four

  11. NCAR Earth Observing Laboratory - An End-to-End Observational Science Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, A.; Baeuerle, B.; Grubišić, V.; Hock, T. F.; Lee, W. C.; Ranson, J.; Stith, J. L.; Stossmeister, G.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers who want to understand and describe the Earth System require high-quality observations of the atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere. Making these observations not only requires capable research platforms and state-of-the-art instrumentation but also benefits from comprehensive in-field project management and data services. NCAR's Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) is an end-to-end observational science enterprise that provides leadership in observational research to scientists from universities, U.S. government agencies, and NCAR. Deployment: EOL manages the majority of the NSF Lower Atmosphere Observing Facilities, which includes research aircraft, radars, lidars, profilers, and surface and sounding systems. This suite is designed to address a wide range of Earth system science - from microscale to climate process studies and from the planet's surface into the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere. EOL offers scientific, technical, operational, and logistics support to small and large field campaigns across the globe. Development: By working closely with the scientific community, EOL's engineering and scientific staff actively develop the next generation of observing facilities, staying abreast of emerging trends, technologies, and applications in order to improve our measurement capabilities. Through our Design and Fabrication Services, we also offer high-level engineering and technical expertise, mechanical design, and fabrication to the atmospheric research community. Data Services: EOL's platforms and instruments collect unique datasets that must be validated, archived, and made available to the research community. EOL's Data Management and Services deliver high-quality datasets and metadata in ways that are transparent, secure, and easily accessible. We are committed to the highest standard of data stewardship from collection to validation to archival. Discovery: EOL promotes curiosity about Earth science, and fosters advanced understanding of the

  12. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A. E.; Behnke, J.; Lowe, D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-12-01

    NASA’s Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA’s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA’s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO’s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO’s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA’s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for

  13. NASA's Earth Observing Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Andrew E.; Behnke, Jeanne; Lowe, Dawn; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) has been a central component of NASA Earth observation program for over 10 years. It is one of the largest civilian science information system in the US, performing ingest, archive and distribution of over 3 terabytes of data per day much of which is from NASA s flagship missions Terra, Aqua and Aura. The system supports a variety of science disciplines including polar processes, land cover change, radiation budget, and most especially global climate change. The EOSDIS data centers, collocated with centers of science discipline expertise, archive and distribute standard data products produced by science investigator-led processing systems. Key to the success of EOSDIS is the concept of core versus community requirements. EOSDIS supports a core set of services to meet specific NASA needs and relies on community-developed services to meet specific user needs. EOSDIS offers a metadata registry, ECHO (Earth Observing System Clearinghouse), through which the scientific community can easily discover and exchange NASA s Earth science data and services. Users can search, manage, and access the contents of ECHO s registries (data and services) through user-developed and community-tailored interfaces or clients. The ECHO framework has become the primary access point for cross-Data Center search-and-order of EOSDIS and other Earth Science data holdings archived at the EOSDIS data centers. ECHO s Warehouse Inventory Search Tool (WIST) is the primary web-based client for discovering and ordering cross-discipline data from the EOSDIS data centers. The architecture of the EOSDIS provides a platform for the publication, discovery, understanding and access to NASA s Earth Observation resources and allows for easy integration of new datasets. The EOSDIS also has developed several methods for incorporating socioeconomic data into its data collection. Over the years, we have developed several methods for determining

  14. Continuity of Earth Radiation Budget Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, N. G.; Su, W.; Wong, T.; Priestley, K.

    2017-12-01

    Earth's climate is determined by the exchange of radiant energy between the Sun, Earth and space. The absorbed solar radiation at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) fuels the climate system, providing the energy required for atmospheric and oceanic motions. Earth's radiation budget (ERB) involves a balance between how much solar energy Earth absorbs and how much terrestrial thermal infrared radiation is emitted to space. Because of its critical role in climate, continuous monitoring of the ERB is necessary for improved understanding and prediction of climate variability and change. NASA's long history in observing the TOA ERB is acknowledged in the 2007 and 2013 reports of the IPCC (IPCC 2007, 2013), the 2007 NRC Decadal Survey (NRC 2007), and the GCOS implementation plan of the WMO (GCOS 2016). A key reason for NASA's success in this area is due to its support of the CERES Project and its predecessor, ERBE. During ERBE, the TOA ERB was observed using both scanner and nonscanner broadband instruments. The CERES project consists of six scanner instruments flying alongside high-resolution spectral imagers (MODIS, VIIRS) in morning and afternoon sun-synchronous orbits. In addition to extending the ERBE TOA radiation budget record, CERES also provides observations of Earth's surface radiation budget with unprecedented accuracy. Here we assess the likelihood of a measurement gap in the ERB record. We show that unless a follow-on ERB instrument to the last available CERES copy (FM6) is built and launched, there is a significant risk of a measurement gap in the ERB record by the mid-2020s. A gap is of concern not only because the ERB would not be monitored during the gap period but also because it would be exceedingly difficult to tie the records before and after the gap together with sufficient accuracy for climate analyses. While ERB instruments are highly stable temporally, they lack the absolute accuracy needed to bridge a gap. Consequently, there is a requirement that

  15. Observed tidal braking in the earth/moon/sun system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulidis, D. C.; Smith, D. E.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.

    1987-01-01

    The low degree and order terms in the spherical harmonic model of the tidal potential were observed through the perturbations which are induced on near-earth satellite orbital motions. Evaluations of tracking observations from 17 satellites and a GEM-T1 geopotential model were used in the tidal recovery which was made in the presence of over 600 long-wavelength coefficients from 32 major and minor tides. Wahr's earth tidal model was used as a basis for the recovery of the ocean tidal terms. Using this tidal model, the secular change in the moon's mean motion due to tidal dissipation was found to be -25.27 + or - 0.61 arcsec/century squared. The estimation of lunar acceleration agreed with that observed from lunar laser ranging techniques (-24.9 + or - 1.0 arcsec/century squared), with the corresponding tidal braking of earth's rotation being -5.98 + or - 0.22 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared. If the nontidal braking of the earth due to the observed secular change in the earth's second zonal harmonic is considered, satellite techniques yield a total value of the secular change of the earth's rotation rate of -4.69 + or - 0.36 x 10 to the minus 22 rad/second squared.

  16. Properties of an Earth-like planet orbiting a Sun-like star: Earth observed by the EPOXI mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livengood, Timothy A; Deming, L Drake; A'hearn, Michael F; Charbonneau, David; Hewagama, Tilak; Lisse, Carey M; McFadden, Lucy A; Meadows, Victoria S; Robinson, Tyler D; Seager, Sara; Wellnitz, Dennis D

    2011-11-01

    NASA's EPOXI mission observed the disc-integrated Earth and Moon to test techniques for reconnoitering extrasolar terrestrial planets, using the Deep Impact flyby spacecraft to observe Earth at the beginning and end of Northern Hemisphere spring, 2008, from a range of ∼1/6 to 1/3 AU. These observations furnish high-precision and high-cadence empirical photometry and spectroscopy of Earth, suitable as "ground truth" for numerically simulating realistic observational scenarios for an Earth-like exoplanet with finite signal-to-noise ratio. Earth was observed at near-equatorial sub-spacecraft latitude on 18-19 March, 28-29 May, and 4-5 June (UT), in the range of 372-4540 nm wavelength with low visible resolving power (λ/Δλ=5-13) and moderate IR resolving power (λ/Δλ=215-730). Spectrophotometry in seven filters yields light curves at ∼372-948 nm filter-averaged wavelength, modulated by Earth's rotation with peak-to-peak amplitude of ≤20%. The spatially resolved Sun glint is a minor contributor to disc-integrated reflectance. Spectroscopy at 1100-4540 nm reveals gaseous water and carbon dioxide, with minor features of molecular oxygen, methane, and nitrous oxide. One-day changes in global cloud cover resulted in differences between the light curve beginning and end of ≤5%. The light curve of a lunar transit of Earth on 29 May is color-dependent due to the Moon's red spectrum partially occulting Earth's relatively blue spectrum. The "vegetation red edge" spectral contrast observed between two long-wavelength visible/near-IR bands is ambiguous, not clearly distinguishing between the verdant Earth diluted by cloud cover versus the desolate mineral regolith of the Moon. Spectrophotometry in at least one other comparison band at short wavelength is required to distinguish between Earth-like and Moon-like surfaces in reconnaissance observations. However, measurements at 850 nm alone, the high-reflectance side of the red edge, could be sufficient to

  17. STS 63: Post flight presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    At a post flight conference, Captain Jim Wetherbee, of STS Flight 63, introduces each of the other members of the STS 63 crew (Eileen Collins, Pilot; Dr. Bernard Harris, Payload Commander; Dr. Michael Foale, Mission Specialist from England; Dr. Janice Voss, Mission Specialist; and Colonel Vladimir Titor, Mission Specialist from Russia), gave a short autobiography of each member and a brief description of their assignment during this mission. A film was shown that included the preflight suit-up, a view of the launch site, the actual night launch, a tour of the Space Shuttle and several of the experiment areas, several views of earth and the MIR Space Station and cosmonauts, the MlR-Space Shuttle rendezvous, the deployment of the Spartan Ultraviolet Telescope, Foale and Harris's EVA and space walk, the retrieval of Spartan, and the night entry home, including the landing. Several spaceborne experiments were introduced: the radiation monitoring experiment, environment monitoring experiment, solid surface combustion experiment, and protein crystal growth and plant growth experiments. This conference ended with still, color pictures, taken by the astronauts during the entire STS 63 flight, being shown.

  18. Flexible Description and Adaptive Processing of Earth Observation Data through the BigEarth Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgan, Dorian; Bacu, Victor; Stefanut, Teodor; Nandra, Cosmin; Mihon, Danut

    2016-04-01

    The Earth Observation data repositories extending periodically by several terabytes become a critical issue for organizations. The management of the storage capacity of such big datasets, accessing policy, data protection, searching, and complex processing require high costs that impose efficient solutions to balance the cost and value of data. Data can create value only when it is used, and the data protection has to be oriented toward allowing innovation that sometimes depends on creative people, which achieve unexpected valuable results through a flexible and adaptive manner. The users need to describe and experiment themselves different complex algorithms through analytics in order to valorize data. The analytics uses descriptive and predictive models to gain valuable knowledge and information from data analysis. Possible solutions for advanced processing of big Earth Observation data are given by the HPC platforms such as cloud. With platforms becoming more complex and heterogeneous, the developing of applications is even harder and the efficient mapping of these applications to a suitable and optimum platform, working on huge distributed data repositories, is challenging and complex as well, even by using specialized software services. From the user point of view, an optimum environment gives acceptable execution times, offers a high level of usability by hiding the complexity of computing infrastructure, and supports an open accessibility and control to application entities and functionality. The BigEarth platform [1] supports the entire flow of flexible description of processing by basic operators and adaptive execution over cloud infrastructure [2]. The basic modules of the pipeline such as the KEOPS [3] set of basic operators, the WorDeL language [4], the Planner for sequential and parallel processing, and the Executor through virtual machines, are detailed as the main components of the BigEarth platform [5]. The presentation exemplifies the development

  19. Earth Observations from Space: The First 50 Years of Scientific Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Observing Earth from space over the past 50 years has fundamentally transformed the way people view our home planet. The image of the "blue marble" is taken for granted now, but it was revolutionary when taken in 1972 by the crew on Apollo 17. Since then the capability to look at Earth from space has grown increasingly sophisticated and has evolved from simple photographs to quantitative measurements of Earth properties such as temperature, concentrations of atmospheric trace gases, and the exact elevation of land and ocean. Imaging Earth from space has resulted in major scientific accomplishments; these observations have led to new discoveries, transformed the Earth sciences, opened new avenues of research, and provided important societal benefits by improving the predictability of Earth system processes. This report highlights the scientific achievements made possible by the first five decades of Earth satellite observations by space-faring nations. It follows on a recent report from the National Research Council (NRC) entitled Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond, also referred to as the "decadal survey." Recognizing the increasing need for space observations, the decadal survey identifies future directions and priorities for Earth observations from space. This companion report was requested by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to highlight, through selected examples, important past contributions of Earth observations from space to our current understanding of the planet.

  20. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  1. Simulator testing system (STS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, V.N.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there has been a greater demand placed on the capabilities and time usage of real-time nuclear plant simulators due to NRC, INPO and utilities requirements. The requirements applied to certification, new simulators, upgrades, modifications, and maintenance of the simulators vary; however, they all require the capabilities of the simulator to be tested whether it is for NRC 10CFR55.45b requirements, ATP testing of new simulators, ATP testing of upgrades with or without panels, adding software/hardware due to plant modifications, or analyzing software/hardware problems on the simulator. This paper describes the Simulator Testing System (STS) which addresses each one of these requirements placed on simulators. Special attention will be given to ATP testing of upgrades without the use of control room panels. The capabilities and applications of the four parts of STS which are the Display Control Software (DCS), Procedure Control Software (PCS), Display Generator Software (DGS) and the Procedure Generator Software (PGS) will be reviewed

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION USING EARTH OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ito

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we introduce to secondary education an Earth observation technique using synthetic aperture radar (SAR. The goal is to increase interest in and raise the awareness of students in the Earth observation technique through practical activities. A curriculum is developed based on the result of questionnaire surveys of school teachers. The curriculum is composed of 16 units. Teaching materials related to the Earth observation technique are researched and developed. We designed a visual SAR processor and a small corner reflector (CR as a new teaching technique. In teaching sessions at secondary school, the developed teaching materials and software were used effectively. In observation experiments, students set up CRs that they had built, and ALOS PALSAR was able to clearly observe all of the CRs. The proposed curriculum helped all of the students to understand the usefulness of the Earth observation technique.

  3. Observation and integrated Earth-system science: A roadmap for 2016-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Adrian; Fellous, Jean-Louis; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Trenberth, Kevin; Asrar, Ghassem; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Burrows, John P.; Ciais, Philippe; Drinkwater, Mark; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gobron, Nadine; Guilyardi, Eric; Halpern, David; Heimann, Martin; Johannessen, Johnny; Levelt, Pieternel F.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Penner, Joyce; Scholes, Robert; Shepherd, Ted

    2016-05-01

    This report is the response to a request by the Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science to prepare a roadmap on observation and integrated Earth-system science for the coming ten years. Its focus is on the combined use of observations and modelling to address the functioning, predictability and projected evolution of interacting components of the Earth system on timescales out to a century or so. It discusses how observations support integrated Earth-system science and its applications, and identifies planned enhancements to the contributing observing systems and other requirements for observations and their processing. All types of observation are considered, but emphasis is placed on those made from space. The origins and development of the integrated view of the Earth system are outlined, noting the interactions between the main components that lead to requirements for integrated science and modelling, and for the observations that guide and support them. What constitutes an Earth-system model is discussed. Summaries are given of key cycles within the Earth system. The nature of Earth observation and the arrangements for international coordination essential for effective operation of global observing systems are introduced. Instances are given of present types of observation, what is already on the roadmap for 2016-2025 and some of the issues to be faced. Observations that are organised on a systematic basis and observations that are made for process understanding and model development, or other research or demonstration purposes, are covered. Specific accounts are given for many of the variables of the Earth system. The current status and prospects for Earth-system modelling are summarized. The evolution towards applying Earth-system models for environmental monitoring and prediction as well as for climate simulation and projection is outlined. General aspects of the improvement of models, whether through refining the

  4. Policy Document on Earth Observation for Urban Planning and Management: State of the Art and Recommendations for Application of Earth Observation in Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Janet; King, Bruce; Xiaoli, Ding; Dowman, Ian; Quattrochi, Dale; Ehlers, Manfred

    2007-01-01

    A policy document on earth observation for urban planning and management resulting from a workshop held in Hong Kong in November 2006 is presented. The aim of the workshop was to provide a forum for researchers and scientists specializing in earth observation to interact with practitioners working in different aspects of city planning, in a complex and dynamic city, Hong Kong. A summary of the current state of the art, limitations, and recommendations for the use of earth observation in urban areas is presented here as a policy document.

  5. Atmospheric correction of Earth-observation remote sensing images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In earth observation, the atmospheric particles contaminate severely, through absorption and scattering, the reflected electromagnetic signal from the earth surface. It will be greatly beneficial for land surface characterization if we can remove these atmospheric effects from imagery and retrieve surface reflectance that ...

  6. Priorities to Advance Monitoring of Ecosystem Services Using Earth Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cord, Anna F; Brauman, Kate A; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Huth, Andreas; Ziv, Guy; Seppelt, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    Managing ecosystem services in the context of global sustainability policies requires reliable monitoring mechanisms. While satellite Earth observation offers great promise to support this need, significant challenges remain in quantifying connections between ecosystem functions, ecosystem services, and human well-being benefits. Here, we provide a framework showing how Earth observation together with socioeconomic information and model-based analysis can support assessments of ecosystem service supply, demand, and benefit, and illustrate this for three services. We argue that the full potential of Earth observation is not yet realized in ecosystem service studies. To provide guidance for priority setting and to spur research in this area, we propose five priorities to advance the capabilities of Earth observation-based monitoring of ecosystem services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. STS-84 M.S. Kondakova with husband Ryumin at SLF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    STS-84 Mission Specialist Elena V. Kondakova, a cosmonaut with the Russian Space Agency, and her husband, Valery Ryumin, greet press represenatives and other well wishers after her arrival at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility. Ryumin is director of the Mir- Shuttle program for RSC Energia in Russia. This will be Kondakovas first flight on a U.S. Space Shuttle, but her second trip into space. She spent 169 days in space as flight engineer of the 17th main mission on Mir from October 1994 to March 1995. STS-84 will be the sixth docking of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. During the docking, STS-84 Mission Specialist C. Michael Foale will transfer to the Russian space station to become a member of the Mir 23 crew, replacing U.S. astronaut Jerry M. Linenger, who will return to Earth on Atlantis. Foale is scheduled to remain on Mir about four months until his replacement arrives on STS-86 in September.

  8. The impact of a dedicated Science-Technology-Society (STS) course on student knowledge of STS content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Paul E.

    In the last half century, public awareness of issues such as population growth, environmental pollution and the threat of nuclear war has pressured science education to reform to increase student social responsibility. The emerging Science-Technology-Society (STS) movement addressed these concerns by developing numerous strategies and curricula. Considerable diagnostic research has been conducted on student knowledge of the nature of science, but not on the wider scope of STS content (e.g., the nature of science and technology and their interactions with society). However, researchers have not widely studied the impact of comprehensive STS curricula on students' knowledge of STS content nor the nature of STS teaching practice that influenced this knowledge gain. This study examined student success and teacher performance in a special STS course in Ontario, Canada. Research questions focused on the STS content knowledge gain by students completing this course and the impact of the STS teachers' teaching practices on this knowledge gain. Student data were collected using pre-course and post-course assessments of students' STS content knowledge. Teacher data were obtained using semi-structured interviews, classroom observations and videotapes. Statistical analysis indicated that, after completing the STS course, students significantly increased their STS content knowledge as measured by the Views on Science Technology Society instrument. Gender and academic achievement had no significant impact on this knowledge gain, implying that this course, as taught by these teachers, could appeal to a wide range of students as a general education course. The second part of the study indicated that detailed research is needed on the relationship between STS teaching practice and student STS content knowledge gain. The small sample size prevents generalizations but initial indications show that factors such constructivist teaching practices and strong teacher STS content knowledge

  9. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) through 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Barbara; Cripe, Douglas

    Ministers from the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Member governments, meeting in Geneva, Switzerland in January 2014, unanimously renewed the mandate of GEO through 2025. Through a Ministerial Declaration, they reconfirmed that GEO’s guiding principles of collaboration in leveraging national, regional and global investments and in developing and coordinating strategies to achieve full and open access to Earth observations data and information in order to support timely and knowledge-based decision-making - are catalysts for improving the quality of life of people around the world, advancing global sustainability, and preserving the planet and its biodiversity. GEO Ministers acknowledged and valued the contributions of GEO Member governments and invited all remaining Member States of the United Nations to consider joining GEO. The Ministers also encouraged all Members to strengthen national GEO arrangements, and - of particular interest to COSPAR - they highlighted the unique contributions of Participating Organizations. In this regard, ten more organizations saw their applications approved by Plenary and joined the ranks along with COSPAR to become a Participating Organization in GEO, bringing the current total to 77. Building on the efforts of a Post-2015 Working Group, in which COSPAR participated, Ministers provided additional guidance for GEO and the evolution of its Global Earth Observation System of System (GEOSS) through 2025. Five key areas of activities for the next decade include the following: 1.) Advocating for the value of Earth observations and the need to continue improving Earth observation worldwide; 2.) Urging the adoption and implementation of data sharing principles globally; 3.) Advancing the development of the GEOSS information system for the benefit of users; 4.) Developing a comprehensive interdisciplinary knowledge base defining and documenting observations needed for all disciplines and facilitate availability and accessibility of

  10. Earth rotation excitation mechanisms derived from geodetic space observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göttl, F.; Schmidt, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earth rotation variations are caused by mass displacements and motions in the subsystems of the Earth. Via the satellite Gravity and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field variations can be identified which are caused by mass redistribution in the Earth system. Therefore time variable gravity field models (GFZ RL04, CSR RL04, JPL RL04, ITG-Grace03, GRGS, ...) can be used to derive different impacts on Earth rotation. Furthermore satellite altimetry provides accurate information on sea level anomalies (AVISO, DGFI) which are caused by mass and volume changes of seawater. Since Earth rotation is solely affected by mass variations and motions the volume (steric) effect has to be reduced from the altimetric observations in order to infer oceanic contributions to Earth rotation variations. Therefore the steric effect is estimated from physical ocean parameters such as temperature and salinity changes in the oceans (WOA05, Ishii). In this study specific individual geophysical contributions to Earth rotation variations are identified by means of a multitude of accurate geodetic space observations in combination with a realistic error propagation. It will be shown that due to adjustment of altimetric and/or gravimetric solutions the results for polar motion excitations can be improved.

  11. Compensatory plasticity in the action observation network: virtual lesions of STS enhance anticipatory simulation of seen actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avenanti, Alessio; Annella, Laura; Candidi, Matteo; Urgesi, Cosimo; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2013-03-01

    Observation of snapshots depicting ongoing motor acts increases corticospinal motor excitability. Such motor facilitation indexes the anticipatory simulation of observed (implied) actions and likely reflects computations occurring in the parietofrontal nodes of a cortical network subserving action perception (action observation network, AON). However, direct evidence for the active role of AON in simulating the future of seen actions is lacking. Using a perturb-and-measure transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) approach, we show that off-line TMS disruption of regions within (inferior frontal cortex, IFC) and upstream (superior temporal sulcus, STS) the parietofrontal AON transiently abolishes and enhances the motor facilitation to observed implied actions, respectively. Our findings highlight the critical role of IFC in anticipatory motor simulation. More importantly, they show that disruption of STS calls into play compensatory motor simulation activity, fundamental for counteracting the noisy visual processing induced by TMS. Thus, short-term plastic changes in the AON allow motor simulation to deal with any gap or ambiguity of ever-changing perceptual worlds. These findings support the active, compensatory, and predictive role of frontoparietal nodes of the AON in the perception and anticipatory simulation of implied actions.

  12. Value of Earth Observation for Risk Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, F.; Shapiro, C. D.; Grasso, M.; Pearlman, J.; Adkins, J. E.; Pindilli, E.; Geppi, D.

    2017-12-01

    Societal benefits flowing from Earth observation are intuitively obvious as we use the information to assess natural hazards (such as storm tracks), water resources (such as flooding and droughts in coastal and riverine systems), ecosystem vitality and other dynamics that impact the health and economic well being of our population. The most powerful confirmation of these benefits would come from quantifying the impact and showing direct quantitative links in the value chain from data to decisions. However, our ability to identify and quantify those benefits is challenging. The impact of geospatial data on these types of decisions is not well characterized and assigning a true value to the observations on a broad scale across disciplines still remains to be done in a systematic way. This presentation provides the outcomes of a workshop held in October 2017 as a side event of the GEO Plenary that addressed research on economic methodologies for quantification of impacts. To achieve practical outputs during the meeting, the workshop focused on the use and value of Earth observations in risk mitigation including: ecosystem impacts, weather events, and other natural and manmade hazards. Case studies on approaches were discussed and will be part of this presentation. The presentation will also include the exchange of lessons learned and a discussion of gaps in the current understanding of the use and value of earth observation information for risk mitigation.

  13. Sensing Planet Earth - Chalmers' MOOCs on Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobiger, Thomas; Stöhr, Christian; Murtagh, Donal; Forkman, Peter; Galle, Bo; Mellquist, Johan; Soja, Maciej; Berg, Anders; Carvajal, Gisela; Eriksson, Leif; Haas, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of universities around the globe produce and conduct Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). In the beginning of 2016, Chalmers University of Technology ran two MOOCs on the topic of Earth observations on the edX platform. Both four week long courses were at introductory level and covered topics related to solid Earth, atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere and cryosphere. It was discussed how one can measure and trace global change and use remote sensing tools for disaster monitoring. Research has attempted to assess the learners' motivations to participate in MOOCs, but there is a need for further case studies about motivations, opportunities and challenges for teachers engaging in MOOC development. In our presentation, we are going to report about the experiences gained from both the MOOC production and the actual course run from the instructors' perspective. After brief introduction to MOOCs in general and at Chalmers in particular, we share experiences and challenges of developing lecture and assessment material, the video production and coordination efforts between and within different actors involved in the production process. Further, we reflect upon the actual run of the course including course statistics and feedback from the learners. We discuss issues such as learner activation and engagement with the material, teacher-learner and student-student interaction as well as the scalability of different learning activities. Finally, we will present our lessons-learned and conclusions on the applicability of MOOCs in the field of Earth science teaching.

  14. Utilizing Earth Observations for Societal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    Over the last four decades a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such as the US, European Community, Japan, China, Russia, India has and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as water resources and availability, energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This presentation discusses a process to transition Earth science data and products for societal needs including NASA's experience in achieving such objectives. It is important to mention that there are many challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the

  15. Copernicus: a quantum leap in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Josef

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the most ambitious, most comprehensive Earth observation system world-wide. It aims at giving decision-makers better information to act upon, at global, continental, national and regional level. The European Union (EU) leads the overall programme, while the European Space Agency (ESA) coordinates the space component. Similar to meteorology, satellite data is combined with data from airborne and ground sensors to provide a holistic view of the state of the planet. All these data are fed into a range of thematic information services designed to benefit the environment and to support policy-makers and other stakeholders to make decisions, coordinate policy areas, and formulate strategies relating to the environment. Moreover, the data will also be used for predicting future climate trends. Never has such a comprehensive Earth-observation based system been in place before. It will be fully integrated into an informed decision making process, thus enabling economic and social benefits through better access to information globally. A key feature of Copernicus is the free and open data policy of the Sentinel satellite data. This will enable that Earth observation based information enters completely new domains of daily life. High quality, regularly updated satellite observations become available for basically everyone. To ensure universal access new ground segment and data access concepts need to be developed. As more data are made available, better decisions can made, more business will be created and science and research can be achieved through the upcoming Sentinel data.

  16. Earth observation open science and innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Aubrecht, Christoph

    2018-01-01

    This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. Over  the  past  decades,  rapid developments in digital and sensing technologies, such  as the Cloud, Web and Internet of Things, have dramatically changed the way we live and work. The digital transformation is revolutionizing our ability to monitor our planet and transforming the  way we access, process and exploit Earth Observation data from satellites. This book reviews these megatrends and their implications for the Earth Observation community as well as the wider data economy. It provides insight into new paradigms of Open Science and Innovation applied to space data, which are characterized by openness, access to large volume of complex data, wide availability of new community tools, new techniques for big data analytics such as Artificial Intelligence, unprecedented level of computing power, and new types of collaboration among researchers, innovators, entrepreneurs and citizen scientists. In addition, this book aims to provide reade...

  17. EOS Reference Handbook 1999: A Guide to NASA's Earth Science Enterprise and the Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D. (Editor); Greenstone, R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The content of this handbook includes Earth Science Enterprise; The Earth Observing System; EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS); Data and Information Policy; Pathfinder Data Sets; Earth Science Information Partners and the Working Prototype-Federation; EOS Data Quality: Calibration and Validation; Education Programs; International Cooperation; Interagency Coordination; Mission Elements; EOS Instruments; EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigations; and Points-of-Contact.

  18. STS-107 M.S. Laurel Clark during TCDT M113 training activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Mission Specialist Laurel Clark (in yellow cap) is instructed on the operation of an M113 armored personnel carrier during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a standard part of launch preparations. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia.

  19. Applying sensor web strategies to big data earth observations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, TL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation data and meta-data are a central concern of the earth sciences. These data are generated by a myriad of both in-situ and remote sensors. Other sources of data include computational simulations, various ex-situ sources...

  20. Earth Observations: Experiences from Various Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja Bye, Bente

    2015-04-01

    With Earth observations and the Group of Earth Observations as the common thread, a variety of communication strategies have been applied showcasing the use of Earth observations in geosciences such as climate change, natural hazards, hydrology and more. Based on the experiences from these communication strategies, using communication channels ranging from popular articles in established media, video production, event-based material and social media, lessons have been learned both with respect to the need of capacity, skills, networks, and resources. In general it is not difficult to mobilize geoscientists willing to spend some time on outreach activities. Time for preparing and training is however scarce among scientists. In addition, resources to cover the various aspects of professional science outreach is far from abundant. Among the challenges is the connection between the scientific networks and media channels. Social media competence and capacity are also issues that needs to be addressed more explicitly and efficiently. An overview of the experiences from several types of outreach activities will be given along with some input on possible steps towards improved communication strategies. Steady development of science communication strategies continuously integrating trainging of scientists in use of new outreach tools such as web technology and social innovations for more efficient use of limited resources will remain an issue for the scientific community.

  1. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  2. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  3. Pioneer Venus and near-earth observations of interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalov, J.D.; Russell, C.T.; Knudsen, W.C.; Scarf, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-three transient interplanetary shocks observed near earth during 1978-1982, and mostly reported in the literature, have also been identified at the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft. There seems to be a fairly consistent trend for lower shock speeds, farther from the sun. Shock normals obtained using the Pioneer Venus data correspond well with published values from near earth. By referring to the portion of the Pioneer Venus plasma data used here from locations at longitudes within 37 degree of earth, it is found that shocks are weaker at earth, compared with closer to the sun

  4. The Earth Observing System Terra Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Langley's remarkable solar and lunar spectra collected from Mt. Whitney inspired Arrhenius to develop the first quantitative climate model in 1896. After the launch in Dec. 16 1999, NASA's Earth Observing AM Satellite (EOS-Terra) will repeat Langley's experiment, but for the entire planet, thus pioneering a wide array of calibrated spectral observations from space of the Earth System. Conceived in response to real environmental problems, EOS-Terra, in conjunction with other international satellite efforts, will fill a major gap in current efforts by providing quantitative global data sets with a resolution better than 1 km on the physical, chemical and biological elements of the earth system. Thus, like Langley's data, EOS-Terra can revolutionize climate research by inspiring a new generation of climate system models and enable us to assess the human impact on the environment. In the talk I shall review the historical perspective of the Terra mission and the key new elements of the mission. We expect to have first images that demonstrate the most innovative capability from EOS Terra 5 instruments: MODIS - 1.37 micron cirrus cloud channel; 250m daily coverage for clouds and vegetation change; 7 solar channels for land and aerosol studies; new fire channels; Chlorophyll fluorescence; MISR - first 9 multi angle views of clouds and vegetation; MOPITT - first global CO maps and C114 maps; ASTER - Thermal channels for geological studies with 15-90 m resolution.

  5. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Little, Mike; Huang, Thomas; Jacob, Joseph; Yang, Phil; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based file systems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  6. Benchmark Comparison of Cloud Analytics Methods Applied to Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Little, M. M.; Huang, T.; Jacob, J. C.; Yang, C. P.; Kuo, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud computing has the potential to bring high performance computing capabilities to the average science researcher. However, in order to take full advantage of cloud capabilities, the science data used in the analysis must often be reorganized. This typically involves sharding the data across multiple nodes to enable relatively fine-grained parallelism. This can be either via cloud-based filesystems or cloud-enabled databases such as Cassandra, Rasdaman or SciDB. Since storing an extra copy of data leads to increased cost and data management complexity, NASA is interested in determining the benefits and costs of various cloud analytics methods for real Earth Observation cases. Accordingly, NASA's Earth Science Technology Office and Earth Science Data and Information Systems project have teamed with cloud analytics practitioners to run a benchmark comparison on cloud analytics methods using the same input data and analysis algorithms. We have particularly looked at analysis algorithms that work over long time series, because these are particularly intractable for many Earth Observation datasets which typically store data with one or just a few time steps per file. This post will present side-by-side cost and performance results for several common Earth observation analysis operations.

  7. "New Space Explosion" and Earth Observing System Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensaas, G. L.; Casey, K.; Snyder, G. I.; Christopherson, J.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe recent developments in spaceborne remote sensing, including introduction to some of the increasing number of new firms entering the market, along with new systems and successes from established players, as well as industry consolidation reactions to these developments from communities of users. The information in this presentation will include inputs from the results of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) 2017 Civil Commercial Imagery Evaluation Workshop and the use of the US Geological Survey's Requirements Capabilities and Analysis for Earth Observation (RCA-EO) centralized Earth observing systems database and how system performance parameters are used with user science applications requirements.

  8. The future of Earth observation in hydrology

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew; Rodell, Matthew; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Miralles, Diego G.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Wagner, Wolfgang; Lucieer, Arko; Houborg, Rasmus; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Franz, Trenton E.; Shi, Jiancheng; Gao, Huilin; Wood, Eric F.

    2017-01-01

    In just the past 5 years, the field of Earth observation has progressed beyond the offerings of conventional space-agency-based platforms to include a plethora of sensing opportunities afforded by CubeSats, unmanned aerial vehicles

  9. Aspiring to Spectral Ignorance in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    Enabling robust, defensible and integrated decision making in the Era of Big Earth Data requires the fusion of data from multiple and diverse sensor platforms and networks. While the application of standardised global grid systems provides a common spatial analytics framework that facilitates the computationally efficient and statistically valid integration and analysis of these various data sources across multiple scales, there remains the challenge of sensor equivalency; particularly when combining data from different earth observation satellite sensors (e.g. combining Landsat and Sentinel-2 observations). To realise the vision of a sensor ignorant analytics platform for earth observation we require automation of spectral matching across the available sensors. Ultimately, the aim is to remove the requirement for the user to possess any sensor knowledge in order to undertake analysis. This paper introduces the concept of spectral equivalence and proposes a methodology through which equivalent bands may be sourced from a set of potential target sensors through application of equivalence metrics and thresholds. A number of parameters can be used to determine whether a pair of spectra are equivalent for the purposes of analysis. A baseline set of thresholds for these parameters and how to apply them systematically to enable relation of spectral bands amongst numerous different sensors is proposed. The base unit for comparison in this work is the relative spectral response. From this input, determination of a what may constitute equivalence can be related by a user, based on their own conceptualisation of equivalence.

  10. STS-78 Flight Day 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-78 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Terence T. Henricks, Pilot Kevin R. Kregel, Payload Cmdr. Susan J. Helms, Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Charles E. Brady, Jr., and Payload Specialists Jean-Jacques Favier, Ph.D. and Robert B. Thirsk, M.D., are shown conducting a news conference to discuss the progress of the international mission with media from the United States, Canada and Europe. During the press conference, the crew explained the relevance of the experiments conducted aboard the Life Sciences and Microgravity mission, and praised support crews and researchers on Earth who are involved in the mission. Payload Specialist Dr. Robert Thirsk told Canadian journalists of how the research will not only benefit astronauts as they conduct long-term space missions, but also people on Earth. Some of the research will aid studies on osteoporosis and the effects steroids have on bones, and also may help doctors on Earth develop treatments for muscle diseases like muscular dystrophy, Thirsk told reporters in Toronto.

  11. Earth observations from space: History, promise, and reality. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In this report the Committee on Earth Studies (CES), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board (SSB) within the National Research Council (NRC), reviews the recent history (nominally from 1981 to 1995) of the U.S. earth observations programs that serve civilian needs. The principal observations programs examined are those of NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The Air Force' s Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) is discussed, but only from the perspective of its relationship to civil needs and the planned merger with the NOAA polar-orbiting system. The report also reviews the interfaces between the earth observations satellite programs and the major national and international environmental monitoring and research programs. The monitoring and research programs discussed are the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), the World Climate Research Program (WCRP), related international scientific campaigns, and operational programs for the sharing and application of environmental data. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad historical review and commentary based on the views of the CES members, with particular emphasis on tracing the lengthy record of advisory committee recommendations. Any individual topic could be the subject of an extended report in its own right. Indeed, extensive further reviews are already under way to that end. If the CES has succeeded in the task it has undertaken. This report will serve as a useful starting point for any such more intensive study. The report is divided into eight chapters: ( I ) an introduction, (2) the evolution of the MTPE, (3) its relationship to the USGCRP, (4) applications of earth observations data, (5) the role that smaller satellites can play in research and operational remote sensing, (6) earth system modeling and information systems, (7) a number of associated activities that contribute to the MTPE

  12. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.

    2010-12-01

    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  13. LT-STM/STS observation of definite superconducting gap states on the multistage crystal surface of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Hironaru; Aoki, Ryozo

    1996-01-01

    Low temperature STM/STS observations have been carried out on cleaved BSCCO crystal surfaces. The authors have succeeded in detection of a special layer, probably a CuO 2 or Ca layer exposed on the surface. The STS spectrum which was reproducibly observed on this special site shows a considerably anisotropic but distinct superconducting gap structure with a definite and flat gap bottom region. This gap structure shows significantly different characteristic from another gap structure observed on the BiO layer, which shows a rounded shape at the gap bottom region without any indication of a finite gap state

  14. Earth observation space programmes, SAFISY activities, strategies of international organisations, legal aspects. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume is separated in four sessions. First part is on earth observation space programmes (international earth observation projects and international collaboration, the ERS-1, SPOT and PRIRODA programmes, the first ESA earth observation polar platform and its payload, the future earth observation remote sensing techniques and concepts). The second part is on SAFISY activities (ISY programmes, education and applications, demonstrations and outreach projects). The third part is on programme and strategies of international organisations with respect to earth observation from space. The fourth part is on legal aspects of the use of satellite remote sensing data in Europe. (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  15. Planning and Scheduling for Fleets of Earth Observing Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Morris, Robert; Smith, David E.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We address the problem of scheduling observations for a collection of earth observing satellites. This scheduling task is a difficult optimization problem, potentially involving many satellites, hundreds of requests, constraints on when and how to service each request, and resources such as instruments, recording devices, transmitters, and ground stations. High-fidelity models are required to ensure the validity of schedules; at the same time, the size and complexity of the problem makes it unlikely that systematic optimization search methods will be able to solve them in a reasonable time. This paper presents a constraint-based approach to solving the Earth Observing Satellites (EOS) scheduling problem, and proposes a stochastic heuristic search method for solving it.

  16. Transforming Water Management: an Emerging Promise of Integrated Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    Throughout its history, civilization has relied on technology to facilitate many of its advances. New innovations and technologies have often provided strategic advantages that have led to transformations in institutions, economies and ultimately societies. Observational and information technologies are leading to significant developments in the water sector. After a brief introduction tracing the role of observational technologies in the areas of hydrology and water cycle science, this talk explores the existing and potential contributions of remote sensing data in water resource management around the world. In particular, it outlines the steps being undertaken by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and its Water Task to facilitate capacity building efforts in water management using Earth Observations in Asia, Africa and Latin and Caribbean America. Success stories on the benefits of using Earth Observations and applying GEO principles are provided. While GEO and its capacity building efforts are contributing to the transformation of water management through interoperability, data sharing, and capacity building, the full potential of these contributions has not been fully realized because impediments and challenges still remain.

  17. Enhancing Earth Observation Capacity in the Himalayan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, B. R.

    2012-12-01

    Earth observations bear special significance in the Himalayan Region owing to the fact that routine data collections are often hampered by highly inaccessible terrain and harsh climatic conditions. The ongoing rapid environmental changes have further emphasized its relevance and use for informed decision-making. The International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), with a regional mandate is promoting the use of earth observations in line with the GEOSS societal benefit areas. ICIMOD has a proven track record to utilize earth observations notably in the areas of understanding glaciers and snow dynamics, disaster risk preparedness and emergency response, carbon estimation for community forestry user groups, land cover change assessment, agriculture monitoring and food security analysis among others. This paper presents the challenges and lessons learned as a part of capacity building of ICIMOD to utilize earth observations with the primary objectives to empower its member countries and foster regional cooperation. As a part of capacity building, ICIMOD continues to make its efforts to augment as a regional resource center on earth observation and geospatial applications for sustainable mountain development. Capacity building possesses multitude of challenges in the region: the complex geo-political reality with differentiated capacities of member states, poorer institutional and technical infrastructure; addressing the needs for multiple user and target groups; integration with different thematic disciplines; and high resources intensity and sustainability. A capacity building framework was developed based on detailed needs assessment with a regional approach and strategy to enhance capability of ICIMOD and its network of national partners. A specialized one-week training course and curriculum have been designed for different thematic areas to impart knowledge and skills that include development practitioners, professionals, researchers and

  18. Value of Earth Observations: Key principles and techniques of socioeconomic benefits analysis (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedl, L.; Macauley, M.; Bernknopf, R.

    2013-12-01

    Internationally, multiple organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal benefits that governments, businesses, and NGOs can derive from applications of Earth-observing satellite observations, research, and models. A growing set of qualitative, anecdotal examples on the uses of Earth observations across a range of sectors can be complemented by the quantitative substantiation of the socioeconomic benefits. In turn, the expanding breadth of environmental data available and the awareness of their beneficial applications to inform decisions can support new products and services by companies, agencies, and civil society. There are, however, significant efforts needed to bridge the Earth sciences and social and economic sciences fields to build capacity, develop case studies, and refine analytic techniques in quantifying socioeconomic benefits from the use of Earth observations. Some government programs, such as the NASA Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences Program have initiated activities in recent years to quantify the socioeconomic benefits from applications of Earth observations research, and to develop multidisciplinary models for organizations' decision-making activities. A community of practice has conducted workshops, developed impact analysis reports, published a book, developed a primer, and pursued other activities to advance analytic methodologies and build capacity. This paper will present an overview of measuring socioeconomic impacts of Earth observations and how the measures can be translated into a value of Earth observation information. It will address key terms, techniques, principles and applications of socioeconomic impact analyses. It will also discuss activities to pursue a research agenda on analytic techniques, develop a body of knowledge, and promote broader skills and capabilities.

  19. Earth Glint Observations Conducted During the Deep Impact Spacecraft Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R. K.; Deming, L. D.; Robinson, T.; Hewagama, T.

    2010-01-01

    We describe observations of Earth conducted using the High Resolution Instrument (HRI) - a 0.3 m f/35 telescope - on the Deep Impact (DI) spacecraft during its recent flybys. Earth was observed on five occasions: 2008-Mar-18 18:18 UT, 2008-May-28 20:05 UT, 2008-Jun-4 16:57 UT, 2009-Mar-27 16:19 and 2009-Oct-4 09:37 UT. Each set of observations was conducted over a full 24-hour rotation of Earth and a total of thirteen NIR spectra were taken on two-hour intervals during each observing period. Photometry in the 450, SSO, 650 and 8S0 nm filters was taken every fifteen minutes and every hour for the 350, 750 and 950 nm filters. The spacecraft was located over the equator for the three sets of observations in 2008, while the 2009- Mar and 2009-Oct were taken over the north and south Polar Regions, respectively. Observations of calibrator stars Canopus and Achernar were conducted on multiple occasions through all filters. The observations detected a strong specular glint not necessarily associated with a body of water. We describe spectroscopic characterization of the glint and evidence for the possibility of detection of reflection from high cirrus clouds. We describe implications for observations of extrasolar planets.

  20. Earth observing system - Concepts and implementation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartle, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    The concepts of an Earth Observing System (EOS), an information system being developed by the EOS Science and Mission Requirements Working Group for international use and planned to begin in the 1990s, are discussed. The EOS is designed to study the factors that control the earth's hydrologic cycle, biochemical cycles, and climatologic processes by combining the measurements from remote sensing instruments, in situ measurement devices, and a data and information system. Three EOS platforms are planned to be launched into low, polar, sun-synchronous orbits during the Space Station's Initial Operating Configuration, one to be provided by ESA and two by the United States.

  1. The future of Earth observation in hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCabe, Matthew F.; Rodell, Matthew; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Miralles, Diego G.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Wagner, Wolfgang; Lucieer, Arko; Houborg, Rasmus; Verhoest, Niko E.C.; Franz, Trenton E.

    2017-01-01

    In just the past 5 years, the field of Earth observation has progressed beyond the offerings of conventional space-agency-based platforms to include a plethora of sensing opportunities afforded by CubeSats, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and smartphone technologies that are being embraced by

  2. STS-107 M.S. Laurel Clark takes a break during TCDT M113 training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Mission Specialist Laurel Clark takes a break during training on the operation of an M113 armored personnel carrier during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a standard part of launch preparations. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia.

  3. Providing Context-sensitive Access to the Earth Observation Product Library

    OpenAIRE

    Kiemle, Stephan; Freitag, Burkhard

    2007-01-01

    The German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) has developed a digital library for the long-term management of earth observation data products. This Product Library is a central part of DFD’s multi-mission ground segment Data and Information Management System (DIMS) currently hosting one million digital products, corresponding to 150 Terabyte of data. Its data model is regularly extended to support products of upcoming earth observation missions. The ever increasing complexity led to the develop...

  4. NextGEOSS: The Next Generation Data Hub For Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja Bye, Bente; De Lathouwer, Bart; Catarino, Nuno; Concalves, Pedro; Trijssenaar, Nicky; Grosso, Nuno; Meyer-Arnek, Julian; Goor, Erwin

    2017-04-01

    The Group on Earth observation embarked on the next 10 year phase with an ambition to streamline and further develop its achievements in building the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars of engaging communities, delivering technological developments and advocating the use of GEOSS, in order to support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will present the NextGEOSS concept, a concept that revolves around providing the data and resources to the users communities, together with Cloud resources, seamlessly connected to provide an integrated ecosystem for supporting applications. A central component of NextGEOSS is the strong emphasis put on engaging the communities of providers and users, and bridging the space in between.

  5. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Massimo; Atakan, Kuvvet; Pedersen, Helle; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) aims to create a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. The main vision of the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) is to address the three basic challenges in Earth Sciences: (i) unravelling the Earth's deformational processes which are part of the Earth system evolution in time, (ii) understanding the geo-hazards and their implications to society, and (iii) contributing to the safe and sustainable use of geo-resources. The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. EPOS will improve our ability to better manage the use of the subsurface of the Earth. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS has now started its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP). One of the main challenges during the implementation phase is the integration of multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations

  6. Citizen Observatories and the New Earth Observation Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Grainger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation is diversifying, and now includes new types of systems, such as citizen observatories, unmanned aerial vehicles and wireless sensor networks. However, the Copernicus Programme vision of a seamless chain from satellite data to usable information in the hands of decision makers is still largely unrealized, and remote sensing science lacks a conceptual framework to explain why. This paper reviews the literatures on citizen science, citizen observatories and conceptualization of remote sensing systems. It then proposes a Conceptual Framework for Earth Observation which can be used in a new Earth observation science to explain blockages in the chain from collecting data to disseminating information in any Earth observation system, including remote sensing systems. The framework differs from its predecessors by including social variables as well as technological and natural ones. It is used here, with evidence from successful citizen science projects, to compare the factors that are likely to influence the effectiveness of satellite remote sensing systems and citizen observatories. The paper finds that constraints on achieving the seamless “Copernicus Chain” are not solely technical, as assumed in the new Space Strategy for Europe, but include social constraints too. Achieving the Copernicus Chain will depend on the balance between: (a the ‘forward’ momentum generated by the repetitive functioning of each component in the system, as a result of automatic operation or human institutions, and by the efficiency of interfaces between components; and (b the ‘backward’ flow of information on the information needs of end users. Citizen observatories will face challenges in components which for satellite remote sensing systems are: (a automatic or straightforward, e.g., sensor design and launch, data collection, and data products; and (b also challenging, e.g., data processing. Since citizen observatories will rely even more on

  7. The Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel-hydrogen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles W.

    1992-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on the Earth Observing System (EOS) nickel hydrogen battery. Information is given on the life evaluation test, cell characteristics, acceptance and characterization tests, and the battery system description.

  8. Observations of Near-Earth Asteroids in Polarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasiev, V. L.; Ipatov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    We report the results of position, photometric, and polarimetric observations of two near-Earth asteroids made with the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 1.2-hour measurements of the photometric variations of the asteroid 2009 DL46 made onMarch 8, 2016 (approximately 20m at a distance of about 0.23 AU from the Earth) showed a 0.m2-amplitude flash with a duration of about 20 minutes. During this time the polarization degree increased from the average level of 2-3% to 14%. The angle of the polarization plane and the phase angle were equal to 113° ± 1° and 43°, respectively. Our result indicates that the surface of the rotating asteroid (the rotation period of about 2.5 hours) must be non-uniformly rough. Observations of another asteroid—1994 UG—whose brightness was of about 17m and which was located at a geocentric distance of 0.077 AU, were carried out during the night of March 6/7, 2016 in two modes: photometric and spectropolarimetric. According to the results of photometric observations in Johnson's B-, V-, and R-band filters, over one hour the brightness of the asteroid remained unchanged within the measurement errors (about 0.m02). Spectropolarimetric observations in the 420-800 nm wavelength interval showed the polarization degree to decrease from 8% in the blue part of the spectrum to 2% in the red part with the phase angle equal to 44°, which is typical for S-type near-Earth asteroids.

  9. Earth observations from space: the first 50 years of scientific achievements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Scientific Accomplishments of Earth Observations from Space; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    .... This book describes how the ability to view the entire globe at once, uniquely available from satellite observations, has revolutionized Earth studies and ushered in a new era of multidisciplinary Earth sciences...

  10. Role of light satellites in the high-resolution Earth observation domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Moshe

    1999-12-01

    Current 'classic' applications using and exploring space based earth imagery are exclusive, narrow niche tailored, expensive and hardly accessible. On the other side new, inexpensive and widely used 'consumable' applications will be only developed concurrently to the availability of appropriate imagery allowing that process. A part of these applications can be imagined today, like WWW based 'virtual tourism' or news media, but the history of technological, cultural and entertainment evolution teaches us that most of future applications are unpredictable -- they emerge together with the platforms enabling their appearance. The only thing, which can be ultimately stated, is that the definitive condition for such applications is the availability of the proper imagery platform providing low cost, high resolution, large area, quick response, simple accessibility and quick dissemination of the raw picture. This platform is a constellation of Earth Observation satellites. Up to 1995 the Space Based High Resolution Earth Observation Domain was dominated by heavy, super-expensive and very inflexible birds. The launch of Israeli OFEQ-3 Satellite by MBT Division of Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI) marked the entrance to new era of light, smart and cheap Low Earth Orbited Imaging satellites. The Earth Resource Observation System (EROS) initiated by West Indian Space, is based on OFEQ class Satellites design and it is capable to gather visual data of Earth Surface both at high resolution and large image capacity. The main attributes, derived from its compact design, low weight and sophisticated logic and which convert the EROS Satellite to valuable and productive system, are discussed. The major advantages of Light Satellites in High Resolution Earth Observation Domain are presented and WIS guidelines featuring the next generation of LEO Imaging Systems are included.

  11. LIDAR technology developments in support of ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Yannig; Caron, Jérôme; Hélière, Arnaud; Bézy, Jean-Loup; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    Critical lidar technology developments have been ongoing at the European Space Agency (ESA) in support of EarthCARE (Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer), the 6th Earth Explorer mission, and A-SCOPE (Advanced Space Carbon and Climate Observation of Planet Earth), one of the candidates for the 7th Earth Explorer mission. EarthCARE is embarking an Atmospheric backscatter Lidar (ATLID) while A-SCOPE is based on a Total Column Differential Absorption Lidar. As EarthCARE phase B has just started, the pre-development activities, aiming at validating the technologies used in the flight design and at verifying the overall instrument performance, are almost completed. On the other hand, A-SCOPE pre-phase A has just finished. Therefore technology developments are in progress, addressing critical subsystems or components with the lowest TRL, selected in the proposed instrument concepts. The activities described in this paper span over a broad range, addressing all critical elements of a lidar from the transmitter to the receiver.

  12. STS-69 postflight presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A postflight conference of the STS-69 mission is presented. The flightcrew ('The Dog Team') consisted of Cmdr. David Walker, Pilot Kenneth Cockrell, Payload Cmdr. James Voss, and Mission Specialists James Newman and Michael Gernhardt. The mission's primary objective was the deployment and retrieval of the SPARTAN-201 satellite, which investigated the interaction between the Sun and it's solar wind. Other secondary experiments and shuttle payloads included the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), which grew several layers of semiconductor films, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), the Capillary Pumped Loop-2/Gas Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA), several Get Away Specials (GAS) experiments, the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS), the Thermal Energy Storage (TES-2) experiment, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus-7 (CGBA-7), the National Institutes of Health-Cells 4 (NIH-C4) experiment, and the Biological Research in Canister-6 (BRIC-6) experiment. Earth views consisted of Saudi Arabia water wells, uncommon vortices over Oman, the Amazon River, the Bahamas, Somalia, a sunset over the Earth's horizon, and two hurricanes, Luis and Marilyn.

  13. STS-70 Post Flight Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Glen (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    In this post-flight overview, the flight crew of the STS-70 mission, Tom Henricks (Cmdr.), Kevin Kregel (Pilot), Major Nancy Currie (MS), Dr. Mary Ellen Weber (MS), and Dr. Don Thomas (MS), discuss their mission and accompanying experiments. Pre-flight, launch, and orbital footage is followed by the in-orbit deployment of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) and a discussion of the following spaceborne experiments: a microgravity bioreactor experiment to grow 3D body-like tissue; pregnant rat muscular changes in microgravity; embryonic development in microgravity; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX); terrain surface imagery using the HERCULES camera; and a range of other physiological tests, including an eye and vision test. Views of Earth include: tropical storm Chantal; the Nile River and Red Sea; lightning over Brazil. A three planet view (Earth, Mars, and Venus) was taken right before sunrise. The end footage shows shuttle pre-landing checkout, entry, and landing, along with a slide presentation of the flight.

  14. The Potential Benefits of Earth Observations for the Water-Energy-Food Nexus and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Earth Observations have been shown to have the potential to play an important role in the management of the Water-Energy-Food (W-E-F) Nexus. To date, their primary application has come through support to decisions related to the better use of water in the production of food and in the extraction of energy. However, to be fully effective, the uses of Earth observations should be coordinated across the sectors and appropriately applied at multiple levels of the governance process. This observation argues for a new approach to governance and management of the W-E-F Nexus that implements collaborative planning based on broader usage of Earth observations. The Future Earth W-E-F Nexus Cluster project has documented a number of ways in which Earth observations can support decision-making that benefits the management of these sectors and has identified gaps in the data and information systems needed for this purpose. This presentation will summarize those findings and discuss how the role of Earth observations could be strengthened and expanded to the Sustainable Development Goals and Integrated Water Resources Management.

  15. Earth Observing Data System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klene, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) acquires and distributes an abundance of Earth science data on a daily basis to a diverse user community worldwide. The NASA Big Earth Data Initiative (BEDI) is an effort to make the acquired science data more discoverable, accessible, and usable. This presentation will provide a brief introduction to the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) project and the nature of advances that have been made by BEDI to other Federal Users.

  16. Earth Observation Research for GMES Initial Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijma, Sybrand; Balzter, Heiko; Nicolas-Perea, Virginia

    2013-04-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: * Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). * Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centres and market leaders in the private sector. * Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. * Developing a collaborative training network, through the placement of researchers for short periods in other GIONET organizations. Reliable, thorough and up-to-date environmental information is essential for understanding climate change the impacts it has on people's lives and ways to adapt to them. The GIONET researchers are being trained to understand the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers have been placed in industry and universities across Europe, as

  17. Evaluation of STS 430 and STS 444 for SOFC Interconnect Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Huh, J. Y.; Jun, J. H.; Kim, D. H.; Jun, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Ferritic stainless steels for the SOFC interconnect applications are required to possess not only a good oxidation resistance, but also a high electrical conductivity of te oxide scale that forms during exposure at the SOFC operating environment. In order to understand the effects of alloying elements on the oxidation behavior of ferritic stainless steels and on the electrical properties of oxide scales, two kinds of commercial ferritic stainless steels, STS 430 and STS 444, were investigated by performing isothermal oxidations at 800 .deg. C in a wet air containing 3% H 2 O. The results showed that STS 444 was superior to STS 430 in both of the oxidation resistance and the area specific resistance. Although STS 444 contained a less amount of Mn for the (Mn, Cr) 3 O 4 spinel formation than STS 430, the minor alloying elements of Al and Mo in STS 444, which were accumulated in the base metal region adjacent the scale, were suggested to reduce the scale growth rate and to enhance the scale adherence to the base metal

  18. Sharing Earth Observation Data When Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, E. L., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    While the global community is struck by pandemics and epidemics from time to time the ability to fully utilize earth observations and integrate environmental information has been limited - until recently. Mature science understanding is allowing new levels of situational awareness be possible when and if the relevant data is available and shared in a timely and useable manner. Satellite and other remote sensing tools have been used to observe, monitor, assess and predict weather and water impacts for decades. In the last few years much of this has included a focus on the ability to monitor changes on climate scales that suggest changes in quantity and quality of ecosystem resources or the "one-health" approach where trans-disciplinary links between environment, animal and vegetative health may provide indications of best ways to manage susceptibility to infectious disease or outbreaks. But the scale of impacts and availability of information from earth observing satellites, airborne platforms, health tracking systems and surveillance networks offer new integrated tools. This presentation will describe several recent events, such as Superstorm Sandy in the United States and the Ebola outbreak in Africa, where public health and health infrastructure have been exposed to environmental hazards and lessons learned from disaster response in the ability to share data have been effective in risk reduction.

  19. Discovery prepares to land after successful mission STS-95

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Orbiter Discovery prepares to land on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after successfully completing mission STS-95, lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  20. Kinetic models of magnetic flux ropes observed in the Earth magnetosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, A. A. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vasko, I. Y.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Zelenyi, L. M. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Artemyev, A. V. [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Yushkov, E. V. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFR) are universal magnetoplasma structures (similar to cylindrical screw pinches) formed in reconnecting current sheets. In particular, MFR with scales from about the ion inertial length to MHD range are widely observed in the Earth magnetosphere. Typical MFR have force-free configuration with the axial magnetic field peaking on the MFR axis, whereas bifurcated MFR with an off-axis peak of the axial magnetic field are observed as well. In the present paper, we develop kinetic models of force-free and bifurcated MFR and determine consistent ion and electron distribution functions. The magnetic field configuration of the force-free MFR represents well-known Gold-Hoyle MFR (uniformly twisted MFR). We show that bifurcated MFR are characterized by the presence of cold and hot current-carrying electrons. The developed models are capable to describe MFR observed in the Earth magnetotail as well as MFR recently observed by Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission at the Earth magnetopause.

  1. Kinetic models of magnetic flux ropes observed in the Earth magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, A. A.; Vasko, I. Y.; Petrukovich, A. A.; Zelenyi, L. M.; Artemyev, A. V.; Yushkov, E. V.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic flux ropes (MFR) are universal magnetoplasma structures (similar to cylindrical screw pinches) formed in reconnecting current sheets. In particular, MFR with scales from about the ion inertial length to MHD range are widely observed in the Earth magnetosphere. Typical MFR have force-free configuration with the axial magnetic field peaking on the MFR axis, whereas bifurcated MFR with an off-axis peak of the axial magnetic field are observed as well. In the present paper, we develop kinetic models of force-free and bifurcated MFR and determine consistent ion and electron distribution functions. The magnetic field configuration of the force-free MFR represents well-known Gold-Hoyle MFR (uniformly twisted MFR). We show that bifurcated MFR are characterized by the presence of cold and hot current-carrying electrons. The developed models are capable to describe MFR observed in the Earth magnetotail as well as MFR recently observed by Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission at the Earth magnetopause.

  2. The Montaguto earth flow: nine years of observation and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, L.; Revellino, R; Grelle, G.; Diodato, N; Guadagno, F.M.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methods, results, and interpretation of analyses carried out between 2006 and 2015 at the Montaguto earth flow in southern Italy. We conducted a multi-temporal analysis of earth-flow activity to reconstruct the morphological and structural evolution of the flow. Data from field mapping were combined with a geometric reconstruction of the basal slip surface in order to investigate relations between basal-slip surface geometry and deformation styles of earth-flow material. Moreover, we reconstructed the long-term pattern of earth-flow movement using both historical observations and modeled hydrologic and climatic data. Hydrologic and climatic data were used to develop a Landslide Hydrological Climatological (LHC) indicator model.

  3. Novel Solar Sail Mission Concepts for High-Latitude Earth and Lunar Observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, M.J.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Macdonald, Malcolm

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of solar sail periodic orbits in the Earth-Moon system for ob-servation of the high-latitudes of the Earth and Moon. At the Earth, the high-latitudes will be crucial in answering questions concerning global climate change, monitoring space weather events and ensuring

  4. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-04-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help to improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology, but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability and understanding of climate system feedbacks. Orth, R., E. Dutra, I. F. Trigo, and G. Balsamo (2016): Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-628

  5. Mission operations update for the restructured Earth Observing System (EOS) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita Castro; Chang, Edward S.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Earth Observing System (EOS) will provide a comprehensive long term set of observations of the Earth to the Earth science research community. The data will aid in determining global changes caused both naturally and through human interaction. Understanding man's impact on the global environment will allow sound policy decisions to be made to protect our future. EOS is a major component of the Mission to Planet Earth program, which is NASA's contribution to the U.S. Global Change Research Program. EOS consists of numerous instruments on multiple spacecraft and a distributed ground system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the major ground system developed to support EOS. The EOSDIS will provide EOS spacecraft command and control, data processing, product generation, and data archival and distribution services for EOS spacecraft. Data from EOS instruments on other Earth science missions (e.g., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)) will also be processed, distributed, and archived in EOSDIS. The U.S. and various International Partners (IP) (e.g., the European Space Agency (ESA), the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan, and the Canadian Space Agency (CSA)) participate in and contribute to the international EOS program. The EOSDIS will also archive processed data from other designated NASA Earth science missions (e.g., UARS) that are under the broad umbrella of Mission to Planet Earth.

  6. Basic Earth's Parameters as estimated from VLBI observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The global Very Long Baseline Interferometry observation for measuring the Earth rotation's parameters was launched around 1970s. Since then the precision of the measurements is continuously improving by taking into account various instrumental and environmental effects. The MHB2000 nutation model was introduced in 2002, which is constructed based on a revised nutation series derived from 20 years VLBI observations (1980–1999. In this work, we firstly estimated the amplitudes of all nutation terms from the IERS-EOP-C04 VLBI global solutions w.r.t. IAU1980, then we further inferred the BEPs (Basic Earth's Parameters by fitting the major nutation terms. Meanwhile, the BEPs were obtained from the same nutation time series using a BI (Bayesian Inversion. The corrections to the precession rate and the estimated BEPs are in an agreement, independent of which methods have been applied.

  7. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  8. The COSPAR roadmap on Space-based observation and Integrated Earth System Science for 2016-2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellous, Jean-Louis

    2016-07-01

    The Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science recently commissioned a study group to prepare a roadmap on observation and integrated Earth-system science for the coming ten years. Its focus is on the combined use of observations and modelling to address the functioning, predictability and projected evolution of the Earth system on timescales out to a century or so. It discusses how observations support integrated Earth-system science and its applications, and identifies planned enhancements to the contributing observing systems and other requirements for observations and their processing. The paper will provide an overview of the content of the roadmap. All types of observation are considered in the roadmap, but emphasis is placed on those made from space. The origins and development of the integrated view of the Earth system are outlined, noting the interactions between the main components that lead to requirements for integrated science and modelling, and for the observations that guide and support them. What constitutes an Earth-system model is discussed. Summaries are given of key cycles within the Earth system. The nature of Earth observation and the arrangements for international coordination essential for effective operation of global observing systems are introduced in the roadmap. Instances are given of present types of observation, what is already on the roadmap for 2016-2025 and some of the issues to be faced. The current status and prospects for Earth-system modelling are summarized. Data assimilation is discussed not only because it uses observations and models to generate datasets for monitoring the Earth system and for initiating and evaluating predictions, in particular through reanalysis, but also because of the feedback it provides on the quality of both the observations and the models employed. Finally the roadmap offers a set of concluding discussions covering general developmental needs, requirements for continuity of

  9. Decision-making contexts involving Earth observations in federal and state government agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Thompson, A.

    2017-12-01

    National and international organizations are placing greater emphasis on the societal and economic benefits that can be derived from applications of Earth observations, yet improvements are needed to connect to the decision processes that produce actions with direct societal benefits. The Consortium for the Valuation of Applications Benefits Linked with Earth Science (VALUABLES), a cooperative agreement between Resources for the Future (RFF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), has the goal of advancing methods for the valuation and communication of the applied benefits linked with Earth observations. One of the Consortium's activities is a set of Policy Briefs that document the use of Earth observations for decision making in federal and state government agencies. In developing these Policy Briefs, we pay special attention to documenting the entire information value chain associated with the use of Earth observations in government decision making, namely (a) the specific data product, modeling capability, or information system used by the agency, (b) the decision context that employs the Earth observation information and translates it into an agency action, (c) the outcomes that are realized as a result of the action, and (d) the beneficiaries associated with the outcomes of the decision. Two key examples include the use of satellite data for informing the US Drought Monitor (USDM), which is used to determine the eligibility of agricultural communities for drought disaster assistance programs housed at the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the use of satellite data by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection to develop numeric nutrient water quality standards and monitoring methods for chlorophyll-a, which is codified in Florida state code (62-302.532).

  10. CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the “space arm” for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. We discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  11. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  12. Earth Observation of Vegetation Dynamics in Global Drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng

    Land degradation in global drylands has been a concern related to both the local livelihoods and the changes in terrestrial biosphere, especially in the context of substantial global environmental changes. Earth Observation (EO) provides a unique way to assess the vegetation dynamics over the past...

  13. STS-110 Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    STS-110 mission specialist Lee M.E. Morin carries an affixed 35 mm camera to record work which is being performed on the International Space Station (ISS). Working with astronaut Jerry L. Ross (out of frame), the duo completed the structural attachment of the S0 (s-zero) truss, mating two large tripod legs of the 13 1/2 ton structure to the station's main laboratory during a 7-hour, 30-minute space walk. The STS-110 mission prepared the Station for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The S0 Truss was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the S-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver space walkers around the Station and marked the first time all space walks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  14. Temporal Variability of Observed and Simulated Hyperspectral Earth Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Yolanda; Pilewskie, Peter; Kindel, Bruce; Feldman, Daniel; Collins, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) is a climate observation system designed to study Earth's climate variability with unprecedented absolute radiometric accuracy and SI traceability. Observation System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) were developed using GCM output and MODTRAN to simulate CLARREO reflectance measurements during the 21st century as a design tool for the CLARREO hyperspectral shortwave imager. With OSSE simulations of hyperspectral reflectance, Feldman et al. [2011a,b] found that shortwave reflectance is able to detect changes in climate variables during the 21st century and improve time-to-detection compared to broadband measurements. The OSSE has been a powerful tool in the design of the CLARREO imager and for understanding the effect of climate change on the spectral variability of reflectance, but it is important to evaluate how well the OSSE simulates the Earth's present-day spectral variability. For this evaluation we have used hyperspectral reflectance measurements from the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography (SCIAMACHY), a shortwave spectrometer that was operational between March 2002 and April 2012. To study the spectral variability of SCIAMACHY-measured and OSSE-simulated reflectance, we used principal component analysis (PCA), a spectral decomposition technique that identifies dominant modes of variability in a multivariate data set. Using quantitative comparisons of the OSSE and SCIAMACHY PCs, we have quantified how well the OSSE captures the spectral variability of Earth?s climate system at the beginning of the 21st century relative to SCIAMACHY measurements. These results showed that the OSSE and SCIAMACHY data sets share over 99% of their total variance in 2004. Using the PCs and the temporally distributed reflectance spectra projected onto the PCs (PC scores), we can study the temporal variability of the observed and simulated reflectance spectra. Multivariate time

  15. Evaluate the application of modal test and analysis processes to structural fault detection in MSFC-STS project elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, William T.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) is a very complex and expensive flight system which is intended to carry payloads into low Earth orbit and return. A catastrophic failure of the STS (such as experienced in the 51-L incident) results in the loss of both human life as well as very expensive hardware. One impact of this incident was to reaffirm the need to do everything possible to insure the integrity and reliability of the STS is sufficient to produce a safe flight. One means of achieving this goal is to expand the number of inspection technologies available for use on the STS. The purpose was to begin to evaluate the possible use of assessing the structural integrity of STS components for which Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has responsibility. This entailed reviewing the available literature and determining a low-level experimental program which could be performed by MSFC and would help establish the feasibility of using this technology for structural fault detection.

  16. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Tyler D. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ennico, Kimberly [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Meadows, Victoria S.; Sparks, William; Schwieterman, Edward W. [NASA Astrobiology Institute' s Virtual Planetary Laboratory, University of Washington, P.O. Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bussey, D. Ben J. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 17-1, Moffett Field, CA 94089, USA Now the NASA Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute. (United States); Breiner, Jonathan, E-mail: tyler.d.robinson@nasa.gov [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  17. Detection of ocean glint and ozone absorption using LCROSS Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Ennico, Kimberly; Meadows, Victoria S.; Sparks, William; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Bussey, D. Ben J.; Breiner, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) observed the distant Earth on three occasions in 2009. These data span a range of phase angles, including a rare crescent phase view. For each epoch, the satellite acquired near-infrared and mid-infrared full-disk images, and partial-disk spectra at 0.26-0.65 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 500) and 1.17-2.48 μm (λ/Δλ ∼ 50). Spectra show strong absorption features due to water vapor and ozone, which is a biosignature gas. We perform a significant recalibration of the UV-visible spectra and provide the first comparison of high-resolution visible Earth spectra to the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model. We find good agreement with the observations, reproducing the absolute brightness and dynamic range at all wavelengths for all observation epochs, thus validating the model to within the ∼10% data calibration uncertainty. Data-model comparisons reveal a strong ocean glint signature in the crescent phase data set, which is well matched by our model predictions throughout the observed wavelength range. This provides the first observational test of a technique that could be used to determine exoplanet habitability from disk-integrated observations at visible and near-infrared wavelengths, where the glint signal is strongest. We examine the detection of the ozone 255 nm Hartley and 400-700 nm Chappuis bands. While the Hartley band is the strongest ozone feature in Earth's spectrum, false positives for its detection could exist. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for future exoplanet characterization missions.

  18. The STS-95 crew participates in a media briefing before returning to JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The day after their return to Earth on board the orbiter Discovery, members of the STS-95 crew participate in a media briefing at the Kennedy Space Center Press Site Auditorium before returning to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. From left to right are Lisa Malone, moderator and chief of NASA Public Affairs' Media Services at Kennedy Space Center; Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Mission Specialist and Payload Commander Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA); and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 mission ended with landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST on Nov. 7. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  19. THEMIS satellite observations of hot flow anomalies at Earth's bow shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hot flow anomalies (HFAs at Earth's bow shock were identified in Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS satellite data from 2007 to 2009. The events were classified as young or mature and also as regular or spontaneous hot flow anomalies (SHFAs. The dataset has 17 young SHFAs, 49 mature SHFAs, 15 young HFAs, and 55 mature HFAs. They span a wide range of magnetic local times (MLTs from approximately 7 to 16.5 MLT. The largest ratio of solar wind to HFA core density occurred near dusk and at larger distances from the bow shock. In this study, HFAs and SHFAs were observed up to 6.3 RE and 6.1 RE (Earth radii, respectively, upstream from the model bow shock. HFA–SHFA occurrence decreases with distance upstream from the bow shock. HFAs of the highest event core ion temperatures were not seen at the flanks. The ratio of HFA ion temperature increase to HFA electron temperature increase is highest around 12 MLT and slightly duskward. For SHFAs, (Tihfa∕Tisw/(Tehfa∕Tesw generally increased with distance from the bow shock. Both mature and young HFAs are more prevalent when there is an approximately radial interplanetary magnetic field. HFAs occur most preferentially for solar wind speeds from 550 to 600 km s−1. The correlation coefficient between the HFA increase in thermal energy density from solar wind values and the decrease in kinetic energy density from solar wind values is 0.62. SHFAs and HFAs do not show major differences in this study.

  20. The Representation of Tropical Cyclones Within the Global William Putman Non-Hydrostatic Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-5) at Cloud-Permitting Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System Model (GEOS-S), an earth system model developed in the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), has integrated the non-hydrostatic finite-volume dynamical core on the cubed-sphere grid. The extension to a non-hydrostatic dynamical framework and the quasi-uniform cubed-sphere geometry permits the efficient exploration of global weather and climate modeling at cloud permitting resolutions of 10- to 4-km on today's high performance computing platforms. We have explored a series of incremental increases in global resolution with GEOS-S from irs standard 72-level 27-km resolution (approx.5.5 million cells covering the globe from the surface to 0.1 hPa) down to 3.5-km (approx. 3.6 billion cells).

  1. Optical MEMS for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Noell, Wilfried; Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Freire, Marco; Guldimann, Benedikt; Kraft, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the relatively large number of optical Earth Observation missions at ESA, this area is interesting for new space technology developments. In addition to their compactness, scalability and specific task customization, optical MEMS could generate new functions not available with current technologies and are thus candidates for the design of future space instruments. Most mature components for space applications are the digital mirror arrays, the micro-deformable mirrors, the programmable micro diffraction gratings and tiltable micromirrors. A first selection of market-pull and techno-push concepts is done. In addition, some concepts are coming from outside Earth Observation. Finally two concepts are more deeply analyzed. The first concept is a programmable slit for straylight control for space spectro-imagers. This instrument is a push-broom spectroimager for which some images cannot be exploited because of bright sources in the field-of-view. The proposed concept consists in replacing the current entrance spectrometer slit by an active row of micro-mirrors. The MEMS will permit to dynamically remove the bright sources and then to obtain a field-of-view with an optically enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. The second concept is a push-broom imager for which the acquired spectrum can be tuned by optical MEMS. This system is composed of two diffractive elements and a digital mirror array. The first diffractive element spreads the spectrum. A micromirror array is set at the location of the spectral focal plane. By putting the micro-mirrors ON or OFF, we can select parts of field-of-view or spectrum. The second diffractive element then recombines the light on a push-broom detector. Dichroics filters, strip filter, band-pass filter could be replaced by a unique instrument.

  2. The Network Structure Underlying the Earth Observation Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitkin, S.; Doane, W. E. J.; Mary, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth Observations Assessment (EOA 2016) is a multiyear project designed to assess the effectiveness of civil earth observation data sources (instruments, sensors, models, etc.) on societal benefit areas (SBAs) for the United States. Subject matter experts (SMEs) provided input and scored how data sources inform products, product groups, key objectives, SBA sub-areas, and SBAs in an attempt to quantify the relationships between data sources and SBAs. The resulting data were processed by Integrated Applications Incorporated (IAI) using MITRE's PALMA software to create normalized relative impact scores for each of these relationships. However, PALMA processing obscures the natural network representation of the data. Any network analysis that might identify patterns of interaction among data sources, products, and SBAs is therefore impossible. Collaborating with IAI, we cleaned and recreated a network from the original dataset. Using R and Python we explore the underlying structure of the network and apply frequent itemset mining algorithms to identify groups of data sources and products that interact. We reveal interesting patterns and relationships in the EOA dataset that were not immediately observable from the EOA 2016 report and provide a basis for further exploration of the EOA network dataset.

  3. Earth Observations for Geohazards: Present and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tomás

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Earth Observations (EO encompasses different types of sensors (e.g., Synthetic Aperture Radar, Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging, Optical and multispectral and platforms (e.g., satellites, aircraft, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and enables us to monitor and model geohazards over regions at different scales in which ground observations may not be possible due to physical and/or political constraints. EO can provide high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution, stereo-mapping and all-weather-imaging capabilities, but not by a single satellite at a time. Improved satellite and sensor technologies, increased frequency of satellite measurements, and easier access and interpretation of EO data have all contributed to the increased demand for satellite EO data. EO, combined with complementary terrestrial observations and with physical models, have been widely used to monitor geohazards, revolutionizing our understanding of how the Earth system works. This Special Issue presents a collection of scientific contributions focusing on innovative EO methods and applications for monitoring and modeling geohazards, consisting of four Sections: (1 earthquake hazards; (2 landslide hazards; (3 land subsidence hazards; and (4 new EO techniques and services.

  4. Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Launch and Early Mission Attitude Support Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracewell, D.; Glickman, J.; Hashmall, J.; Natanson, G.; Sedlak, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite was successfully launched on May 4,2002. Aqua is the second in the series of EOS satellites. EOS is part of NASA s Earth Science Enterprise Program, whose goals are to advance the scientific understanding of the Earth system. Aqua is a three-axis stabilized, Earth-pointing spacecraft in a nearly circular, sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of 705 km. The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics attitude team supported all phases of the launch and early mission. This paper presents the main results and lessons learned during this period, including: real-time attitude mode transition support, sensor calibration, onboard computer attitude validation, response to spacecraft emergencies, postlaunch attitude analyses, and anomaly resolution. In particular, Flight Dynamics support proved to be invaluable for successful Earth acquisition, fine-point mode transition, and recognition and correction of several anomalies, including support for the resolution of problems observed with the MODIS instrument.

  5. Observing atmospheric tides in Earth rotation parameters with VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdiuk, Anastasiia; Böhm, Johannes; Schindelegger, Michael

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we assess the contribution of diurnal (S1) and semi-diurnal (S2) atmospheric tides to variations in Earth rotation by analyzing Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations. Particular emphasis is placed on the dependency of S1 and S2 estimates on varying settings in the a priori delay model. We use hourly Earth rotation parameters (ERP) of polar motion and UT1 as determined with the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) from 25 years of VLBI observations and we adjust diurnal and semi-diurnal amplitudes to the hourly ERP estimates after disregarding the effect of high-frequency ocean tides. Prograde and retrograde polar motion coefficients are obtained for several solutions differing in processing strategies (with/without thermal deformation, time span of observations, choice of a priori ERP model and celestial pole offsets) and we compare the corresponding harmonics with those derived from atmospheric and non-tidal oceanic angular momentum estimates.

  6. VenSAR on EnVision: Taking earth observation radar to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghail, Richard C.; Hall, David; Mason, Philippa J.; Herrick, Robert R.; Carter, Lynn M.; Williams, Ed

    2018-02-01

    Venus should be the most Earth-like of all our planetary neighbours: its size, bulk composition and distance from the Sun are very similar to those of Earth. How and why did it all go wrong for Venus? What lessons can be learned about the life story of terrestrial planets in general, in this era of discovery of Earth-like exoplanets? Were the radically different evolutionary paths of Earth and Venus driven solely by distance from the Sun, or do internal dynamics, geological activity, volcanic outgassing and weathering also play an important part? EnVision is a proposed ESA Medium class mission designed to take Earth Observation technology to Venus to measure its current rate of geological activity, determine its geological history, and the origin and maintenance of its hostile atmosphere, to understand how Venus and Earth could have evolved so differently. EnVision will carry three instruments: the Venus Emission Mapper (VEM); the Subsurface Radar Sounder (SRS); and VenSAR, a world-leading European phased array synthetic aperture radar that is the subject of this article. VenSAR will obtain images at a range of spatial resolutions from 30 m regional coverage to 1 m images of selected areas; an improvement of two orders of magnitude on Magellan images; measure topography at 15 m resolution vertical and 60 m spatially from stereo and InSAR data; detect cm-scale change through differential InSAR, to characterise volcanic and tectonic activity, and estimate rates of weathering and surface alteration; and characterise of surface mechanical properties and weathering through multi-polar radar data. These data will be directly comparable with Earth Observation radar data, giving geoscientists unique access to an Earth-sized planet that has evolved on a radically different path to our own, offering new insights on the Earth-sized exoplanets across the galaxy.

  7. Current NASA Earth Remote Sensing Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Sprigg, William A.; Huete, Alfredo; Pejanovic, Goran; Nickovic, Slobodan; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo; Krapfl, Heide; Budge, Amy; Zelicoff, Alan; Myers, Orrin; hide

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews current NASA Earth Remote Sensing observations in specific reference to improving public health information in view of pollen sensing. While pollen sampling has instrumentation, there are limitations, such as lack of stations, and reporting lag time. Therefore it is desirable use remote sensing to act as early warning system for public health reasons. The use of Juniper Pollen was chosen to test the possibility of using MODIS data and a dust transport model, Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM) to act as an early warning system.

  8. DATA FUSION TECHNOLOGY OF MULTI-PLATFORM EARTH OBSERVATION ON AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Xie; Y. Xue; L. Zhai; H. Sang

    2013-01-01

    Earth observation is the gathering of information via remote sensing technologies supplemented by earth surveying techniques, encompassing the collection, analysis and presentation of data. Remote sensing technology is playing a key role on precision agriculture. From the point of view of remote sensing and photogrammetry field, this article first took an overview of its applications on agriculture throughout past 3 decades, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of different kind...

  9. Near-Earth Asteroid Physical Observations: 1993-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiff, B. A.; Buie, M. W.; Bowell, E.

    1996-09-01

    In September 1993, we initiated a regular program of photometric observations of Near-Earth objects. Since that time we have been allocated 5-7 nights per month at the 42'' Hall telescope at Anderson Mesa. There are three goals of our observing program for each asteroid: (1) to obtain an accurate rotation period and characterization of the lightcurve, (2) to obtain the surface color, and (3) to measure the photometric parameters, H and G. All of the lightcurve observations are made in Kron-Cousins R and we always obtain a V-R color. Limited ECAS colors are also obtained when the objects are bright enough. We have secured periods for 9 asteroids, 1864 Daedalus, 1866 Sisyphus, 3200 Phaethon, 4954 Eric, 5693 (1993 EA), 5836 (1993 MF), 6489 (1991 JX), 1993 QP, and 1993 WD. Some of these periods are a confimation of an earlier result but most are new. We obtained colors for all these objects as well as four additional asteroids, 5407 (1992 AX), 1993 UC, 1993 VW, and 1994 LW. We have additional (as yet unreduced) observations of 2062 Aten, 2212 Hephaistos, 3752 Camillo, 5143 Heracles, 5863 (1983 RB), 6053 (1993 BW3), 7025 (1993 QA), 7092 (1992 LC), 1989 VA, 1992 TC, 1994 RC, and 1995 YA3. The fastest rotation period we find is 2.402 hours for 1866 Sisyphus and the slowest is 93QP at ~ 24 hours. The colors for these objects range from V-R=0.34 for 3200 Phaethon to V-R=0.49 for 1866 Sisyphus and 4954 Eric. Most colors fall near V-R=0.43. These observations should help to provide a more complete understanding of the surface properties and rotational states of the Near-Earth asteroids. This work was supported by NASA Grant NAGW-1470.

  10. 78 FR 67418 - National Plan for Civil Earth Observations; Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... weather; natural hazards; land-use change; ecosystem health; water; natural resources; and other characteristics of the Earth system. Taken together, Earth observations provide the indispensable foundation for... Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Agriculture and Forestry Biodiversity Climate Disasters Ecosystems...

  11. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF DISK AVERAGED OBSERVATIONS OF EARTH WITH AIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hearty, Thomas; Song, Inseok; Kim, Sam; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated mid-infrared spectra of Earth obtained by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on-board the AQUA spacecraft to explore the characteristics that may someday be observed in extrasolar terrestrial planets. We have used the AIRS infrared (R ∼ 1200; 3.75-15.4 μm) spectra to construct directly observed high-resolution spectra of the only known life bearing planet, Earth. The AIRS spectra are the first such spectra that span the seasons. We investigate the rotational and seasonal spectral variations that would arise due to varying cloud amount and viewing geometry and we explore what signatures may be observable in the mid-infrared by the next generation of telescopes capable of observing extrasolar terrestrial planets.

  12. Programmable wide field spectrograph for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamkotsian, Frédéric; Lanzoni, Patrick; Liotard, Arnaud; Viard, Thierry; Costes, Vincent; Hébert, Philippe-Jean

    2017-11-01

    In Earth Observation, Universe Observation and Planet Exploration, scientific return of the instruments must be optimized in future missions. Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MOEMS) could be key components in future generation of space instruments. These devices are based on the mature micro-electronics technology and in addition to their compactness, scalability, and specific task customization, they could generate new functions not available with current technologies. French and European space agencies, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the European Space Agency (ESA) have initiated several studies with LAM and TAS for listing the new functions associated with several types of MEMS, and developing new ideas of instruments.

  13. NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System - EOSDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of NASA's Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), a petabyte-scale archive of environmental data that supports global climate change research. The Earth Science Data Systems provide end-to-end capabilities to deliver data and information products to users in support of understanding the Earth system. The presentation contains photographs from space of recent events, (i.e., the effects of the tsunami in Japan, and the wildfires in Australia.) It also includes details of the Data Centers that provide the data to EOSDIS and Science Investigator-led Processing Systems. Information about the Land, Atmosphere Near-real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) and some of the uses that the system has made possible are reviewed. Also included is information about how to access the data, and evolutionary plans for the future of the system.

  14. Towards disruptions in Earth observation? New Earth Observation systems and markets evolution: Possible scenarios and impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Gil; Claverie, Alain; Pasco, Xavier; Darnis, Jean-Pierre; de Maupeou, Benoît; Lafaye, Murielle; Morel, Eric

    2017-08-01

    This paper reviews the trends in Earth observation (EO) and the possible impacts on markets of the new initiatives, launched either by existing providers of EO data or by new players, privately funded. After a presentation of the existing models, the paper discusses the new approaches, addressing both commercial and institutional markets. New concepts for the very high resolution markets, in Europe and in the US, are the main focus of this analysis. Two complementary perspectives are summarised: on the one hand, the type of system and its operational performance and, on the other, the related business models, concepts of operation and ownership schemes.

  15. The Earth Observation Data for Habitat Monitoring (EODHaM) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Richard; Blonda, Palma; Bunting, Peter; Jones, Gwawr; Inglada, Jordi; Arias, Marcela; Kosmidou, Vasiliki; Petrou, Zisis I.; Manakos, Ioannis; Adamo, Maria; Charnock, Rebecca; Tarantino, Cristina; Mücher, Caspar A.; Jongman, Rob H. G.; Kramer, Henk; Arvor, Damien; Honrado, Joāo Pradinho; Mairota, Paola

    2015-05-01

    To support decisions relating to the use and conservation of protected areas and surrounds, the EU-funded BIOdiversity multi-SOurce monitoring System: from Space TO Species (BIO_SOS) project has developed the Earth Observation Data for HAbitat Monitoring (EODHaM) system for consistent mapping and monitoring of biodiversity. The EODHaM approach has adopted the Food and Agriculture Organization Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) taxonomy and translates mapped classes to General Habitat Categories (GHCs) from which Annex I habitats (EU Habitats Directive) can be defined. The EODHaM system uses a combination of pixel and object-based procedures. The 1st and 2nd stages use earth observation (EO) data alone with expert knowledge to generate classes according to the LCCS taxonomy (Levels 1 to 3 and beyond). The 3rd stage translates the final LCCS classes into GHCs from which Annex I habitat type maps are derived. An additional module quantifies changes in the LCCS classes and their components, indices derived from earth observation, object sizes and dimensions and the translated habitat maps (i.e., GHCs or Annex I). Examples are provided of the application of EODHaM system elements to protected sites and their surrounds in Italy, Wales (UK), the Netherlands, Greece, Portugal and India.

  16. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health: Moving from Research to Operational End Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, J.; Estes, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Health providers and researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will demonstrate NASA's applied science programs efforts to transition from research to operations to benefit society. Satellite earth observations present a unique vantage point of the earth's environment from space, which offers a wealth of health applications for the imaginative investigator. The presentation is directly related to Earth Observing systems and Global Health Surveillance and will present research results of the remote sensing environmental observations of earth and health applications, which can contribute to the health research. As part of NASA approach and methodology they have used Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health Models to provide a method for bridging gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. This presentation will provide a venue where the results of both research and practice using satellite earth observations to study weather and it's role in health research and the transition to operational end users.

  17. Semantics-enabled knowledge management for global Earth observation system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roger L.; Durbha, Surya S.; Younan, Nicolas H.

    2007-10-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is a distributed system of systems built on current international cooperation efforts among existing Earth observing and processing systems. The goal is to formulate an end-to-end process that enables the collection and distribution of accurate, reliable Earth Observation data, information, products, and services to both suppliers and consumers worldwide. One of the critical components in the development of such systems is the ability to obtain seamless access of data across geopolitical boundaries. In order to gain support and willingness to participate by countries around the world in such an endeavor, it is necessary to devise mechanisms whereby the data and the intellectual capital is protected through procedures that implement the policies specific to a country. Earth Observations (EO) are obtained from a multitude of sources and requires coordination among different agencies and user groups to come to a shared understanding on a set of concepts involved in a domain. It is envisaged that the data and information in a GEOSS context will be unprecedented and the current data archiving and delivery methods need to be transformed into one that allows realization of seamless interoperability. Thus, EO data integration is dependent on the resolution of conflicts arising from a variety of areas. Modularization is inevitable in distributed environments to facilitate flexible and efficient reuse of existing ontologies. Therefore, we propose a framework for modular ontologies based knowledge management approach for GEOSS and present methods to enable efficient reasoning in such systems.

  18. Observation of the Earth system from space

    CERN Document Server

    Flury, Jakob; Reigber, Christoph; Rothacher, Markus; Boedecker, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    In the recent years, space-based observation methods have led to a subst- tially improved understanding of Earth system. Geodesy and geophysics are contributing to this development by measuring the temporal and spatial va- ations of the Earth's shape, gravity ?eld, and magnetic ?eld, as well as at- sphere density. In the frame of the GermanR&D programmeGEOTECHNO- LOGIEN,researchprojectshavebeen launchedin2002relatedto the satellite missions CHAMP, GRACE and ESA's planned mission GOCE, to comp- mentary terrestrial and airborne sensor systems and to consistent and stable high-precision global reference systems for satellite and other techniques. In the initial 3-year phase of the research programme (2002-2004), new gravity ?eld models have been computed from CHAMP and GRACE data which outperform previous models in accuracy by up to two orders of m- nitude for the long and medium wavelengths. A special highlight is the - termination of seasonal gravity variations caused by changes in continental water masses...

  19. Building a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and Its Interoperability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Launched in 2005 by industrialized nations, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) began building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). Consisting of both a policy framework, and an information infrastructure, GEOSS, was intended to link and/or integrate the multitude of Earth observation systems, primarily operated by its Member Countries and Participating Organizations, so that users could more readily benefit from global information assets for a number of society's key environmental issues. It was recognized that having ready access to observations from multiple systems was a prerequisite for both environmental decision-making, as well as economic development. From the very start, it was also recognized that the shear complexity of the Earth's system cannot be captured by any single observation system, and that a federated, interoperable approach was necessary. While this international effort has met with much success, primarily in advancing broad, open data policies and practices, challenges remain. In 2014 (Geneva, Switzerland) and 2015 (Mexico City, Mexico), Ministers from GEO's Member Countries, including the European Commission, came together to assess progress made during the first decade (2005 to 2015), and approve implementation strategies and mechanisms for the second decade (2016 to 2025), respectively. The approved implementation strategies and mechanisms are intended to advance GEOSS development thereby facilitating the increased uptake of Earth observations for informed decision-making. Clearly there are interoperability challenges that are technological in nature, and several will be discussed in this presentation. There are, however, interoperability challenges that can be better characterized as economic, governmental and/or political in nature, and these will be discussed as well. With the emergence of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR), and the United Nations

  20. A survey and assessment of the capabilities of Cubesats for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Daniel; Krejci, David

    2012-05-01

    In less than a decade, Cubesats have evolved from purely educational tools to a standard platform for technology demonstration and scientific instrumentation. The use of COTS (Commercial-Off-The-Shelf) components and the ongoing miniaturization of several technologies have already led to scattered instances of missions with promising scientific value. Furthermore, advantages in terms of development cost and development time with respect to larger satellites, as well as the possibility of launching several dozens of Cubesats with a single rocket launch, have brought forth the potential for radically new mission architectures consisting of very large constellations or clusters of Cubesats. These architectures promise to combine the temporal resolution of GEO missions with the spatial resolution of LEO missions, thus breaking a traditional trade-off in Earth observation mission design. This paper assesses the current capabilities of Cubesats with respect to potential employment in Earth observation missions. A thorough review of Cubesat bus technology capabilities is performed, identifying potential limitations and their implications on 17 different Earth observation payload technologies. These results are matched to an exhaustive review of scientific requirements in the field of Earth observation, assessing the possibilities of Cubesats to cope with the requirements set for each one of 21 measurement categories. Based on this review, several Earth observation measurements are identified that can potentially be compatible with the current state-of-the-art of Cubesat technology although some of them have actually never been addressed by any Cubesat mission. Simultaneously, other measurements are identified which are unlikely to be performed by Cubesats in the next few years due to insuperable constraints. Ultimately, this paper is intended to supply a box of ideas for universities to design future Cubesat missions with high scientific payoff.

  1. Results of Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Momary, Thomas; Bolton, Scott; Levin, Steven; Hansen, Candice; Janssen, Michael; Adriani, Alberto; Gladstone, G. Randall; Bagenal, Fran; Ingersoll, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The Juno mission has promoted and coordinated a network of Earth-based observations, including both Earth-proximal and ground-based facilities, to extend and enhance observations made by the Juno mission. The spectral region and timeline of all of these observations are summarized in the web site: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations. Among the earliest of these were observation of Jovian auroral phenomena at X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and measurements of Jovian synchrotron radiation from the Earth simultaneously with the measurement of properties of the upstream solar wind. Other observations of significance to the magnetosphere measured the mass loading from Io by tracking its observed volcanic activity and the opacity of its torus. Observations of Jupiter's neutral atmosphere included observations of reflected sunlight from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared and thermal emission from 5 μm through the radio region. The point of these measurements is to relate properties of the deep atmosphere that are the focus of Juno's mission to the state of the "weather layer" at much higher atmospheric levels. These observations cover spectral regions not included in Juno's instrumentation, provide spatial context for Juno's often spatially limited coverage of Jupiter, and they describe the evolution of atmospheric features in time that are measured only once by Juno. We will summarize the results of measurements during the approach phase of the mission that characterized the state of the atmosphere, as well as observations made by Juno and the supporting campaign during Juno's perijoves 1 (2016 August 27), 3 (2016 December 11), 4 (2017 February 2) and possibly "early" results from 5 (2017 March 27). Besides a global network of professional astronomers, the Juno mission also benefited from the enlistment of a network of dedicated amateur astronomers who provided a quasi-continuous picture of the evolution of features observed by

  2. Building Capacity for Earth Observations in Support of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, B.; Prados, A. I.; Hook, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) looks to build a future where the international community uses Earth observations to make better, informed decisions. This includes application in international agreements such as the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, and the Convention on Biological Diversity. To do this, decision makers first need to build the necessary skills. NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training program (ARSET) seeks to build capacity through remote sensing training. In-person and online trainings raise awareness, enable data access, and demonstrate applications of Earth observations. Starting in 2017, ARSET began offering training focused on applying Earth data to the UN SDGs. These trainings offer insight into applications of satellite data in support of implementing, monitoring, and evaluating the SDGs. This presentation will provide an overview of the use of NASA satellite data to track progress towards increased food security, disaster risk reduction, and conservation of natural resources for societal benefit. It will also include a discussion on capacity building best practices and lessons learned for using Earth observations to meet SDG targets, based on feedback from engaging over 800 participants from 89 nations and 580 organizations in ARSET SDG trainings.

  3. An Information Architect's View of Earth Observations for Disaster Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, K.; Evans, J. D.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Frye, S. W.; Mandl, D.; Dobbs, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations play a significant role in supporting disaster response and risk management, however data complexity is a barrier to broader use especially by the public. In December 2013 the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites Working Group on Information Systems and Services documented a high-level reference model for the use of Earth observation satellites and associated products to support disaster risk management within the Global Earth Observation System of Systems context. The enterprise architecture identified the important role of user access to all key functions supporting situational awareness and decision-making. This paper focuses on the need to develop actionable information products from these Earth observations to simplify the discovery, access and use of tailored products. To this end, our team has developed an Open GeoSocial API proof-of-concept for GEOSS. We envision public access to mobile apps available on smart phones using common browsers where users can set up a profile and specify a region of interest for monitoring events such as floods and landslides. Information about susceptibility and weather forecasts about flood risks can be accessed. Users can generate geo-located information and photos of local events, and these can be shared on social media. The information architecture can address usability challenges to transform sensor data into actionable information, based on the terminology of the emergency management community responsible for informing the public. This paper describes the approach to collecting relevant material from the disasters and risk management community to address the end user needs for information. The resulting information architecture addresses the structural design of the shared information in the disasters and risk management enterprise. Key challenges are organizing and labeling information to support both online user communities and machine-to-machine processing for automated product generation.

  4. Earth Observation System Flight Dynamics System Covariance Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Waqar H.; Tracewell, David

    2016-01-01

    This presentation applies a covariance realism technique to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observation System (EOS) Aqua and Aura spacecraft based on inferential statistics. The technique consists of three parts: collection calculation of definitive state estimates through orbit determination, calculation of covariance realism test statistics at each covariance propagation point, and proper assessment of those test statistics.

  5. STS-114 Crew Interview: Stephen Robinson

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Stephen Robinson, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2), of the STS-114 space mission is seen during a prelaunch interview. He discusses his duties as flight engineer, Extravehicular Activity 2 (EVA 2) spacewalker, and medical officer. Robinson answers questions about his interests in spaceflight and the specific goals of the mission. He identifies this mission as the International Space Station Resupply Mission because supplies and experiments are brought to the International Space Station and Expedition 6 crew of Commander Kenneth Bowersox, and Flight Engineers Donald Pettit and Nikolai Budarin are returning to Earth. Lastly, he talks about the docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis with the International Space Station. He looks forward to this experience in space.

  6. Spaceborne observations of a changing Earth - Contribution from ESÁ s operating and approved satellite missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannessen, J. A.

    2009-04-01

    The overall vision for ESÁs Earth Observation activities is to play a central role in developing the global capability to understand planet Earth, predict changes, and mitigate negative effects of global change on its populations. Since Earth observation from space first became possible more than forty years ago, it has become central to monitoring and understanding how the dynamics of the Earth System work. The greatest progress has been in meteorology, where space-based observations have become indispensable, but it is now also progressively penetrating many of the fields making up Earth sciences. Exploiting Earth observation from space presents major multidisciplinary challenges to the researches working in the Earth sciences, to the technologists who build the state-of-the-art sensors, and to the scientists interpreting measurements made of processes occurring on or within the Earth's surface and in its atmosphere. The scientific community has shown considerable imagination in rising to these challenges, and in exploiting the latest technological developments to measure from space the complex processes and interactions that occur in the Earth System. In parallel, there has been significant progress in developing computer models that represent the many processes that make up the Earth System, and the interactions and feedback between them. Success in developing this holistic view is inextricably linked to the data provided by Earth Observation systems. Satellites provide the fundamental, consistent, regular and global measurements needed to drive, parameterise, test and improve those Earth System models. These developments, together with changes in society's awareness of the need for information on a changing world, have repetitively supported the decisions on how ESA can best focus its resources, and those of the European community that it serves, in order to address critical issues in Earth System science. Moreover, it is a fact that many operational

  7. Earth Observation from Space - The Issue of Environmental Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrieu, Sylvie; Nelson, Ross F.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing scientists work under assumptions that should not be taken for granted and should, therefore, be challenged. These assumptions include the following: 1. Space, especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO), will always be available to governmental and commercial space entities that launch Earth remote sensing missions. 2. Space launches are benign with respect to environmental impacts. 3. Minimization of Type 1 error, which provides increased confidence in the experimental outcome, is the best way to assess the significance of environmental change. 4. Large-area remote sensing investigations, i.e. national, continental, global studies, are best done from space. 5. National space missions should trump international, cooperative space missions to ensure national control and distribution of the data products. At best, all of these points are arguable, and in some cases, they're wrong. Development of observational space systems that are compatible with sustainability principles should be a primary concern when Earth remote sensing space systems are envisioned, designed, and launched. The discussion is based on the hypothesis that reducing the environmental impacts of thedata acquisition step,which is at the very beginning of the information streamleading to decision and action, will enhance coherence in the information streamand strengthen the capacity of measurement processes to meet their stated functional goal, i.e. sustainable management of Earth resources. We suggest that unconventional points of view should be adopted and when appropriate, remedial measures considered that could help to reduce the environmental footprint of space remote sensing and of Earth observation and monitoring systems in general. This article discusses these five assumptions inthe contextof sustainablemanagementof Earth's resources. Takingeachassumptioninturn,we find the following: (1) Space debris may limit access to Low Earth Orbit over the next decades. (2) Relatively speaking, given

  8. Earth System Dynamics: The Determination and Interpretation of the Global Angular Momentum Budget using the Earth Observing System. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation has been to examine the mass and momentum exchange between the atmosphere, oceans, solid Earth, hydrosphere, and cryosphere. The investigation has focused on changes in the Earth's gravity field, its rotation rate, atmospheric and oceanic circulation, global sea level change, ice sheet change, and global ground water circulation observed by contemporary sensors and models. The primary component of the mass exchange is water. The geodetic observables provided by these satellite sensors are used to study the transport of water mass in the hydrological cycle from one component of the Earth to another, and they are also used to evaluate the accuracy of models. As such, the investigation is concerned with the overall global water cycle. This report provides a description of scientific, educational and programmatic activities conducted during the period July 1, 1999 through June 30,2000. Research has continued into measurements of time-varying gravity and its relationship to Earth rotation. Variability of angular momentum and the related excitation of polar motion and Earth rotation have been examined for the atmosphere and oceans at time-scales of weeks to several years. To assess the performance of hydrologic models, we have compared geodetic signals derived from them with those observed by satellites. One key component is the interannual mass variability of the oceans obtained by direct observations from altimetry after removing steric signals. Further studies have been conducted on the steric model to quantify its accuracy at global and basin-scales. The results suggest a significant loss of water mass from the Oceans to the land on time-scales longer than 1-year. These signals are not reproduced in any of the models, which have poorly determined interannual fresh water fluxes. Output from a coupled atmosphere-ocean model testing long-term climate change hypotheses has been compared to simulated errors from the Gravity Recovery and

  9. The Role of Earth Observation on Environmental Management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The success of environmental management and protection lies on the availability of adequate information to support intervention measures. Such information acts as a prerequisite to predict the future and, subsequently, to validate the accuracy of those predictions. In this paper, we illustrate the potential of earth observation ...

  10. NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T.; Mo, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); McMillan, R. S. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walker, R. [Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy, Monterey, CA (United States); Wright, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, P.O. Box 91547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI (United States); Spahr, T. [Minor Planet Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); DeBaun, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth University, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Elsbury, D. [University of California Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 (United States); Gautier, T. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Gomillion, S. [Department of Engineering Physics, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, 600 S. Clyde Morris Boulevard, Daytona Beach, FL 32114 (United States); Hand, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Watkins, J., E-mail: amainzer@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Box 951567, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

    2011-12-20

    With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 {mu}m, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 {+-} 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 {+-} 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 {+-} 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces {approx}13, 200 {+-} 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D {approx} 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

  11. NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF NEAR-EARTH OBJECTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Grav, T.; Mo, W.; McMillan, R. S.; Cutri, R. M.; Walker, R.; Wright, E.; Tholen, D. J.; Jedicke, R.; Denneau, L.; Spahr, T.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T.; Gomillion, S.; Hand, E.; Watkins, J.

    2011-01-01

    With the NEOWISE portion of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) project, we have carried out a highly uniform survey of the near-Earth object (NEO) population at thermal infrared wavelengths ranging from 3 to 22 μm, allowing us to refine estimates of their numbers, sizes, and albedos. The NEOWISE survey detected NEOs the same way whether they were previously known or not, subject to the availability of ground-based follow-up observations, resulting in the discovery of more than 130 new NEOs. The survey's uniform sensitivity, observing cadence, and image quality have permitted extrapolation of the 428 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) detected by NEOWISE during the fully cryogenic portion of the WISE mission to the larger population. We find that there are 981 ± 19 NEAs larger than 1 km and 20,500 ± 3000 NEAs larger than 100 m. We show that the Spaceguard goal of detecting 90% of all 1 km NEAs has been met, and that the cumulative size distribution is best represented by a broken power law with a slope of 1.32 ± 0.14 below 1.5 km. This power-law slope produces ∼13, 200 ± 1900 NEAs with D > 140 m. Although previous studies predict another break in the cumulative size distribution below D ∼ 50-100 m, resulting in an increase in the number of NEOs in this size range and smaller, we did not detect enough objects to comment on this increase. The overall number for the NEA population between 100 and 1000 m is lower than previous estimates. The numbers of near-Earth comets and potentially hazardous NEOs will be the subject of future work.

  12. Low degree Earth's gravity coefficients determined from different space geodetic observations and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta

    2017-04-01

    Large scale mass redistribution and its transport within the Earth system causes changes in the Earth's rotation in space, gravity field and Earth's ellipsoid shape. These changes are observed in the ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 spherical harmonics gravity coefficients, which are proportional to the mass load-induced Earth rotational excitations. In this study, linear trend, decadal, inter-annual, and seasonal variations of low degree spherical harmonics coefficients of Earth's gravity field, determined from different space geodetic techniques, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Earth rotation, and climate models, are examined. In this way, the contribution of each measurement technique to interpreting the low degree surface mass density of the Earth is shown. Especially, we evaluate an usefulness of several climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine the low degree Earth's gravity coefficients using GRACE satellite observations. To do that, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) changes from several CMIP5 climate models are determined and then these simulated data are compared with the GRACE observations. Spherical harmonics ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 changes are calculated as the sum of atmosphere and ocean mass effect (GAC values) taken from GRACE and a land surface hydrological estimate from the selected CMIP5 climate models. Low degree Stokes coefficients of the surface mass density determined from GRACE, SLR, GNSS, Earth rotation measurements and climate models are compared to each other in order to assess their consistency. The comparison is done by using different types of statistical and signal processing methods.

  13. Global Earth Observation System of Systems: Characterizing Uncertainties of Space- based Measurements and Earth System Models Informing Decision Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, R. J.; Frederick, M.

    2006-05-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) framework identifies the benefits of systematically and scientifically networking the capacity of organizations and systems into solutions that benefit nine societal benefit areas. The U.S. Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), the U.S. contribution to the GEOSS, focuses on near-term, mid-term, and long-term opportunities to establish integrated system solutions based on capacities and capabilities of member agencies and affiliations. Scientists at NASA, NOAA, DOE, NSF and other U.S. agencies are evolving the predictive capacity of models of Earth processes based on space-based, airborne and surface-based instruments and their measurements. NASA research activities include advancing the power and accessibility of computational resources (i.e. Project Columbia) to enable robust science data analysis, modeling, and assimilation techniques to rapidly advance. The integration of the resulting observations and predictions into decision support tools require characterization of the accuracies of a range of input measurements includes temperature and humidity profiles, wind speed, ocean height, sea surface temperature, and atmospheric constituents that are measured globally by U.S. deployed spacecraft. These measurements are stored in many data formats on many different information systems with widely varying accessibility and have processes whose documentation ranges from extremely detailed to very minimal. Integrated and interdisciplinary modeling (enabled by the Earth System Model Framework) enable the types of ensemble analysis that are useful for decision processes associated with energy management, public health risk assessments, and optimizing transportation safety and efficiency. Interdisciplinary approaches challenge systems integrators (both scientists and engineers) to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of particular disciplines to develop, verify and validate, and ultimately benchmark the

  14. Promise and Capability of NASA's Earth Observing System to Monitor Human-Induced Climate Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a space-based observing system comprised of a series of satellite sensors by which scientists can monitor the Earth, a Data and Information System (EOSDIS) enabling researchers worldwide to access the satellite data, and an interdisciplinary science research program to interpret the satellite data. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), developed as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS) and launched on Terra in December 1999 and Aqua in May 2002, is designed to meet the scientific needs for satellite remote sensing of clouds, aerosols, water vapor, and land and ocean surface properties. This sensor and multi-platform observing system is especially well suited to observing detailed interdisciplinary components of the Earth s surface and atmosphere in and around urban environments, including aerosol optical properties, cloud optical and microphysical properties of both liquid water and ice clouds, land surface reflectance, fire occurrence, and many other properties that influence the urban environment and are influenced by them. In this presentation I will summarize the current capabilities of MODIS and other EOS sensors currently in orbit to study human-induced climate variations.

  15. UrtheCast Second-Generation Earth Observation Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, K.

    2015-04-01

    UrtheCast's Second-Generation state-of-the-art Earth Observation (EO) remote sensing platform will be hosted on the NASA segment of International Space Station (ISS). This platform comprises a high-resolution dual-mode (pushbroom and video) optical camera and a dual-band (X and L) Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) instrument. These new sensors will complement the firstgeneration medium-resolution pushbroom and high-definition video cameras that were mounted on the Russian segment of the ISS in early 2014. The new cameras are expected to be launched to the ISS in late 2017 via the Space Exploration Technologies Corporation Dragon spacecraft. The Canadarm will then be used to install the remote sensing platform onto a CBM (Common Berthing Mechanism) hatch on Node 3, allowing the sensor electronics to be accessible from the inside of the station, thus limiting their exposure to the space environment and allowing for future capability upgrades. The UrtheCast second-generation system will be able to take full advantage of the strengths that each of the individual sensors offers, such that the data exploitation capabilities of the combined sensors is significantly greater than from either sensor alone. This represents a truly novel platform that will lead to significant advances in many other Earth Observation applications such as environmental monitoring, energy and natural resources management, and humanitarian response, with data availability anticipated to begin after commissioning is completed in early 2018.

  16. Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...

  17. Megapixel Longwave Infrared SLS FPAs for High Spatial Resolution Earth Observing Missions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth observing missions like NASA's LANDSAT Data Continuity Mission - Thermal Infrared Sensor (LDCM-TIRS) require greater spatial resolution of the earth than the ~...

  18. Ultraviolet Observations of the Earth and Moon during the Juno Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, R.; Versteeg, M. H.; Davis, M.; Greathouse, T. K.; Gerard, J. M.; Grodent, D. C.; Bonfond, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present the initial results from Juno-UVS observations of the Earth and Moon obtained during the flyby of the Juno spacecraft on 9 October 2013. Juno-UVS is an imaging spectrograph with a bandpass of 70dog-bone' shape 7.2° long, in three sections of 0.2°, 0.025°, and 0.2° width (as projected onto the sky). Light entering the slit is dispersed by a toroidal grating which focuses UV light onto a curved microchannel plate cross delay line detector with a solar blind UV-sensitive CsI photocathode, which makes up the instrument's focal plane. Tantalum surrounds the detector assembly to shield it from high-energy electrons. The detector electronics are located behind the detector. All other electronics are located in a box inside Juno's spacecraft vault, including redundant low-voltage and high-voltage power supplies, command and data handling electronics, heater/actuator electronics, scan mirror electronics, and event processing electronics. The purpose of Juno-UVS is to remotely sense Jupiter's auroral morphology and brightness to provide context for in situ measurements by Juno's particle instruments. The recent Earth flyby provided an opportunity to: 1) use observations of the lunar surface to improve flux and wavelength calibration at EUV wavelengths λ<91 nm (for which there are few stellar calibration options); 2) test the Juno spacecraft nadir-pulse system (which will be used at Jupiter to control scan mirror movements); 3) observe Earth airglow, aurora, and geocoronal emissions (for science interest); and 4) determine the effectiveness of the Ta shielding to high-energy particles (using dark observations made during Juno's passage through Earth's radiation belts). Preliminary results for each of these objectives will be presented.

  19. Observations in the Earth's magnetotail relating to magnetic merging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    For more than a decade there has been growing conviction that the burst of energy from a solar flare is first stored in magnetic fields and is then released rapidly by magnetic field annihilation (magnetic merging). There has also been recognition that magnetic merging may be responsible for the energy release manifested in auroral phenomena at the Earth. The most substantial evidence that magnetic merging does indeed occur in the Earth's magnetosphere and causes the auroral phenomena is provided by recent observations, in the magnetotail, of very rapid (approximately 500 km s -1 ) tailward, then earthward, flow of plasma during magnetospheric substorms. The observations, made with the Vela and IMP satellites, reveal also that the component of the tail magnetic field perpendicular to the tail neutral sheet changes polarity at the time of the reversal of plasma flow. These features are interpreted as indicative of passage of a magnetic neutral line, at which magnetic merging is proceeding, past the observing satellite. This paper describes an example of such observations made with IMP 6. It is anticipated that such systematic measurements of the plasma, energetic particles and magnetic field in the neighborhood of the passing neutral line on many such occasions will provide a general understanding of the magnetic merging process which can be applied to studies of solar flares and other astrophysical phenomena. (Auth.)

  20. Chemical Mechanisms and Their Applications in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J Eric; Pawson, Steven; Molod, Andrea; Auer, Benjamin; da Silva, Arlindo M; Douglass, Anne R; Duncan, Bryan; Liang, Qing; Manyin, Michael; Oman, Luke D; Putman, William; Strahan, Susan E; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Earth System Model (ESM) is a modular, general circulation model (GCM), and data assimilation system (DAS) that is used to simulate and study the coupled dynamics, physics, chemistry, and biology of our planet. GEOS is developed by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. It generates near-real-time analyzed data products, reanalyses, and weather and seasonal forecasts to support research targeted to understanding interactions among Earth System processes. For chemistry, our efforts are focused on ozone and its influence on the state of the atmosphere and oceans, and on trace gas data assimilation and global forecasting at mesoscale discretization. Several chemistry and aerosol modules are coupled to the GCM, which enables GEOS to address topics pertinent to NASA's Earth Science Mission. This paper describes the atmospheric chemistry components of GEOS and provides an overview of its Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF)-based software infrastructure, which promotes a rich spectrum of feedbacks that influence circulation and climate, and impact human and ecosystem health. We detail how GEOS allows model users to select chemical mechanisms and emission scenarios at run time, establish the extent to which the aerosol and chemical components communicate, and decide whether either or both influence the radiative transfer calculations. A variety of resolutions facilitates research on spatial and temporal scales relevant to problems ranging from hourly changes in air quality to trace gas trends in a changing climate. Samples of recent GEOS chemistry applications are provided.

  1. High magnetic field study of HoBaCo2O5.5 and GdBaCo2O5.5 layered cobaltites: the effect of rare-earth size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontera, C.; Respaud, M.; Garcia-Munoz, J.L.; Llobet, A.; Carrillo, A.E.; Caneiro, A.; Broto, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    By means of high-pulsed magnetic field up to μ 0 H=32 T we have studied HoBaCo 2 O 5+δ (δ=0.52(1)). The high-field M(H) integrated curves evidence a magnetic field-induced phase transition visible from about T=75 to 275 K. The obtained results are compared with the field-induced transition found for GdBaCo 2 O 5+δ (with δ=0.54(2)). The jump of the magnetization at the field-induced transition is independent of the rare earth at this level of oxygen content. In contrast, we have observed larger values of the critical field, and that the transition persists up to higher temperature, when reducing the rare-earth size. This indicates that the low-temperature antiferromagnetic phase becomes more stable when the size of the rare earth is reduced

  2. Earth-based Observing Campaign For Comet 103p/hartley 2 For The Dixi Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen Jean; Kelley, M. S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; DIXI Observing Team

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Impact Extended mission (DIXI) is part of the EPOXI mission and will rendezvous with the comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 4 Nov. 2010 at 13:50 UT. Many of the anticipated key science results will come from the combined interpretation of the in-situ spacecraft data and the Earth- and space-based observing campaigns. DIXI in-situ objectives include characterizing the nucleus properties, understanding the activity (outbursts, and sources), mapping the surface and correlating surface albedo, color and temperature with topography to understand the thermal properties of the surface. The Earth-based observations provide a longer-term context for the in-situ observations, and will characterize the activity levels leading up to the encounter, including assessing the dust environment and volatile species production rates. Earth-based observations will search for outbursts and jets that might be linked to activity. The international observing campaign scheduled at more than 20 observatories, began in March 2010, and will continue beyond January 2011, although selected observations began in 2008 with the recovery of the nucleus (Snodgrass et al., (2010), A&A, 516L) and Spitzer IR observations (Lisse et al., (2009) PASP 121, 968), and in 2009 with the measurement of the rotational light curve. We will report on Earth-based observing highlights and their synergies with the in-situ observations. With these combined data we can not only better understand comet Hartley 2, but through the legacy of telescopic observations we may also better understand comets as a whole.

  3. STS-69 flight day 9 highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The song, 'He's A Tramp', from the Walt Disney cartoon movie, 'Lady and the Tramp', awakened the astronauts, Cmdr. Dave Walker, Pilot Ken Cockrell, and Mission Specialists Jim Voss, Jim Newman, and Mike Gernhardt, on the ninth day of the STS-69 mission. The Wake Shield Facility (WSF) was again unberthed from the shuttle cargo bay and , using the shuttle's robot arm, held over the side of the shuttle for five hours where it collected data on the electrical field build-up around the spacecraft as part of the Charging Hazards and Wake Studies Experiment (CHAWS). Voss and Gernhardt rehearsed their Extravehicular Activity (EVA) spacewalk, which was planned for the next day. Earth views included cloud cover, a hurricane, and its eye.

  4. Large micro-mirror arrays: key components in future space instruments for Universe and Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamkotsian Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In future space missions for Universe and Earth Observation, scientific return could be optimized using MOEMS devices. Micro-mirror arrays are used for designing new generation of instruments, multi-object spectrographs in Universe Observation and programmable wide field spectrographs in Earth Observation. Mock-ups have been designed and built for both applications and they show very promising results.

  5. Public-Private Partnership: Joint recommendations to improve downloads of large Earth observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, R.; Murphy, K. J.; Baynes, K.; Lynnes, C.

    2016-12-01

    With the volume of Earth observation data expanding rapidly, cloud computing is quickly changing the way Earth observation data is processed, analyzed, and visualized. The cloud infrastructure provides the flexibility to scale up to large volumes of data and handle high velocity data streams efficiently. Having freely available Earth observation data collocated on a cloud infrastructure creates opportunities for innovation and value-added data re-use in ways unforeseen by the original data provider. These innovations spur new industries and applications and spawn new scientific pathways that were previously limited due to data volume and computational infrastructure issues. NASA, in collaboration with Amazon, Google, and Microsoft, have jointly developed a set of recommendations to enable efficient transfer of Earth observation data from existing data systems to a cloud computing infrastructure. The purpose of these recommendations is to provide guidelines against which all data providers can evaluate existing data systems and be used to improve any issues uncovered to enable efficient search, access, and use of large volumes of data. Additionally, these guidelines ensure that all cloud providers utilize a common methodology for bulk-downloading data from data providers thus preventing the data providers from building custom capabilities to meet the needs of individual cloud providers. The intent is to share these recommendations with other Federal agencies and organizations that serve Earth observation to enable efficient search, access, and use of large volumes of data. Additionally, the adoption of these recommendations will benefit data users interested in moving large volumes of data from data systems to any other location. These data users include the cloud providers, cloud users such as scientists, and other users working in a high performance computing environment who need to move large volumes of data.

  6. Long Term Preservation of Earth Observation Data in Europe - Challenge and Cooperation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molch, K.; Albani, M.

    2014-12-01

    Earth observation data are unique snapshots of the Earth and the atmosphere. As such they constitute a humankind asset in their importance for monitoring changes in global environmental conditions. With spaceborne Earth observation (EO) missions dating back to the 1970s, 40 years worth of observations are now available in EO data archives worldwide. Data holdings are growing exponentially, e.g. with the Sentinel series of high resolution EO satellites of the European Copernicus Program - which introduces a new dimension of data volumes to be handled. As other EO data holders around the globe, the European Space Agency (ESA) and its member states are committed to keeping the valuable EO data assets safe, accessible, and useable for an unlimited timespan. Rapidly evolving information technology and changing user requirements call for a dedicated and coordinated approach to EO data long term preservation. In Europe collaborative EO data stewardship activities are coordinated by ESA within the ESA long term data preservation (LTDP) program. With a view to the entire data set life cycle of historic and current missions an active LTDP working group addresses a wide range of relevant technical and organizational topics. Studies investigate archiving and access technologies, user expectations, or applicable standards; guidelines and best practices recommend preservation workflows, steps to take in curating individual data sets, the composition of the preserved data set, or concepts for introducing persistent identifiers. Fostering an active international exchange, the activities and documents developed within this European LTDP framework extend beyond Europe by being introduced to the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). The paper describes the European LTDP cooperation framework, discusses individual focus areas and current activities, and highlights the interaction with global data stewardship initiatives.

  7. STS-47 Payload Specialist Mohri tosses an apple during SLJ demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri tosses an apple in the weightless environment of the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbitng Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Mohri was handling the space end of a space-to-Earth youth Conference with students in his home country (Japan) in which he gave a brief demonstration on the specifics of his mission as well as general information on space travel and space physics. Mohri conducts his demonstration in front of the NASDA Material Sciences Rack 10. In the background is the SLJ end cone with Detailed Test Objective (DTO), Foot restraint evaluation, base plate, a banner from Auburn University, and portraits of the backup payload specialists. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  8. Observation and excitation of magnetohydrodynamic waves in numerical models of Earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teed, R.; Hori, K.; Tobias, S.; Jones, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Several types of magnetohydrodynamic waves are theorised to operate in Earth's outer core but their detection is limited by the inability to probe the fluid core directly. Secular variation data and periodic changes in Earth's length-of-day provide evidence for the possible existence of waves. Numerical simulations of core dynamics enable us to search directly for waves and determine their properties. With this information it is possible to consider whether they can be the origin of features observed in observational data. We focus on two types of wave identified in our numerical experiments: i) torsional waves and ii) slow magnetic Rossby waves. Our models display periodic, Earth-like torsional waves that travel outwards from the tangent cylinder circumscribing the inner core. We discuss the properties of these waves and their similarites to observational data. Excitation is via a matching of the Alfvén frequency with that of small modes of convection focused at the tangent cylinder. The slow magnetic Rossby waves observed in our simulations show that these waves may account for some geomagnetic westward drifts observed at mid-latitudes. We present analysis showing excitation of waves by the convective instability and we discuss how the detection of these waves could also provide an estimate of the strength of the toroidal component of the magnetic field within the planetary fluid core.

  9. New successful ideas to teach Earth Science to students older than 55 by means of trekking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Raga, María; Cerdà, Artemi; Civera, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    During the last 10 years, the Geograns Program within the NAUGRAN initiative of the University of Valencia is using trekking as a way to teach in the field Earth Science. This paper review the contribution of this program and show the results and future challenges. The life expectancy is growing all over the world. This is a clear trend in the Western societies where after two generations there is a large group of inhabitants that have a new life after retirement. The universities must understand that this new group of citizens need services that will allow them to know better the society. This is why the University of Valencia developed in the end of the 90's a program to teach to students older than 55. The program that allows to those students to attend lectures at the University is called NAUGRAN. This is a program for more than one thousand students that cover the needs of a group that is having more and more population over the age of 55, and with a life expectancy that surpass the 81 years in Spain. Teaching History, Arts, Sciences or Literature can be easily due for those 55-old students. However, teaching geosciences is being very difficult, as the students must visit the field and the laboratory. Within the GEOGRANS project, and during the last six years, Physical Geography was taught to students older than 55 in independent lecture rooms and field and laboratory classes. The main strategy was to show them the concepts and the ideas of the Physical Geography in the field. The excursions allow to shown the main features of the landscape (rivers, mountains, rocks…) and the impacts of the humankind on the changes of the nature to the students. The program is now 6 years old and it is being very successful with more than 200 hundreds participants and with excursion every two weeks. This paper will show the importance of teaching to students that arrive to the university after retirement. And that trekking is a successful strategy as the students realise

  10. Turning to Ontology in STS? Turning to STS through ‘Ontology’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heur, B.; Leydesdorff, L.; Wyatt, S.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the evidence for the claim of an ‘ontological turn’ in science and technology studies (STS). Despite an increase in references to ‘ontology’ in STS since 1989, we show that there has not so much been an ontological turn as multiple discussions deploying the language of ontology,

  11. STS-72 Flight Day 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    On this second day of the STS-72 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Brian Duffy, Pilot Brent W. Jett, and Mission Specialists Leroy Chiao, Daniel T. Barry, Winston E. Scott, and Koichi Wakata (NASDA), awakened to music from the motion picture 'Star Wars.' The crew performed a systems checkout, prepared for the retrieval of the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU), tested the spacesuits for the EVA, and activated some of the secondary experiments. An in-orbit news interview was conducted with the crew via satellite downlinking. Questions asked ranged from the logistics of the mission to the avoidance procedures the Endeavour Orbiter performed to miss hitting the inactive Air Force satellite, nicknamed 'Misty' (MSTI). Earth views included cloud cover, several storm systems, and various land masses with several views of the shuttle's open cargo bay in the foreground.

  12. A review of the US Global Change Research Program and NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Berrien, III; Anderson, James G.; Costanza, Robert; Gates, W. Lawrence; Grew, Priscilla C.; Leinen, Margaret S.; Mayewski, Paul A.; McCarthy, James J.; Sellers, Piers J.

    1995-01-01

    This report reflects the results of a ten-day workshop convened at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography July 19-28, 1995. The workshop was convened as the first phase of a two part review of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). The workshop was organized to provide a review of the scientific foundations and progress to date in the USGCRP and an assessment of the implications of new scientific insights for future USGCRP and Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System (MTPE/EOS) activities; a review of the role of NASA's MTPE/EOS program in the USGCRP observational strategy; a review of the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) as a component of USGCRP data management activities; and an assessment of whether recent developments in the following areas lead to a need to readjust MTPE/EOS plans. Specific consideration was given to: proposed convergence of U.S. environmental satellite systems and programs, evolving international plans for Earth observation systems, advances in technology, and potential expansion of the role of the private sector. The present report summarizes the findings and recommendations developed by the Committee on Global Change Research on the basis of the presentations, background materials, working group deliberations, and plenary discussions of the workshop. In addition, the appendices include summaries prepared by the six working groups convened in the course of the workshop.

  13. Scalable Earth-observation Analytics for Geoscientists: Spacetime Extensions to the Array Database SciDB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Marius; Lahn, Florian; Pebesma, Edzer; Buytaert, Wouter; Moulds, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Today's amount of freely available data requires scientists to spend large parts of their work on data management. This is especially true in environmental sciences when working with large remote sensing datasets, such as obtained from earth-observation satellites like the Sentinel fleet. Many frameworks like SpatialHadoop or Apache Spark address the scalability but target programmers rather than data analysts, and are not dedicated to imagery or array data. In this work, we use the open-source data management and analytics system SciDB to bring large earth-observation datasets closer to analysts. Its underlying data representation as multidimensional arrays fits naturally to earth-observation datasets, distributes storage and computational load over multiple instances by multidimensional chunking, and also enables efficient time-series based analyses, which is usually difficult using file- or tile-based approaches. Existing interfaces to R and Python furthermore allow for scalable analytics with relatively little learning effort. However, interfacing SciDB and file-based earth-observation datasets that come as tiled temporal snapshots requires a lot of manual bookkeeping during ingestion, and SciDB natively only supports loading data from CSV-like and custom binary formatted files, which currently limits its practical use in earth-observation analytics. To make it easier to work with large multi-temporal datasets in SciDB, we developed software tools that enrich SciDB with earth observation metadata and allow working with commonly used file formats: (i) the SciDB extension library scidb4geo simplifies working with spatiotemporal arrays by adding relevant metadata to the database and (ii) the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) driver implementation scidb4gdal allows to ingest and export remote sensing imagery from and to a large number of file formats. Using added metadata on temporal resolution and coverage, the GDAL driver supports time-based ingestion of

  14. A rightly balanced intellectual property rights regime as a mechanism to enhance commercial earth observation activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doldirina, Catherine

    2010-09-01

    Earth observation by satellites is one of the developing sectors of space activities with the growing involvement in private capital or actors. This leads to the question of how efficient legal rules governing this activity are. Copyright law is one of the key fields of law applicable to earth observation activities and is the subject of the present analysis. This paper describes the current state of copyright regulations in different jurisdictions. It also addresses the issue of defining earth observation data for the purpose of applying copyright protection to them. Finally, it analyses whether more or less copyright protection would be beneficial for the commercialisation of the earth observation activities, and the distribution and further use of data they produce. The paper is largely based on my current doctoral research. Draft chapter on file with the author.

  15. STS-114: Discovery Crew Post Landing Press Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The crew of the STS-114 Discovery is shown during a post landing press briefing. Commander Collins introduces the crew members who consist of Pilot Jim Kelley, Mission Specialist Soichi Noguchi from JAXA, Steve Robinson, Mission Specialist and Charlie Camarda, Mission Specialist. Steve Robinson answers a question from the news media about the repair that he performed in orbit, and his feelings about being back in his hometown of California. Commander Collins talks about the most significant accomplishment of the mission. The briefing ends as each crewmember reflects on the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy and expresses their personal thoughts and feelings as they re-entered the Earth's atmosphere.

  16. Improving the Transition of Earth Satellite Observations from Research to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Lapenta, William M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    There are significant gaps between the observations, models, and decision support tools that make use of new data. These challenges include: 1) Decreasing the time to incorporate new satellite data into operational forecast assimilation systems, 2) Blending in-situ and satellite observing systems to produce the most accurate and comprehensive data products and assessments, 3) Accelerating the transition from research to applications through national test beds, field campaigns, and pilot demonstrations, and 4) Developing the partnerships and organizational structures to effectively transition new technology into operations. At the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPORT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama, a NASA-NOAA-University collaboration has been developed to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth science observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NWS forecast operations and decision-making. The SPoRT Center research focus is to improve forecasts through new observation capability and the regional prediction objectives of the US Weather Research Program dealing with 0-1 day forecast issues such as convective initiation and 24-hr quantitative precipitation forecasting. The near real-time availability of high-resolution experimental products of the atmosphere, land, and ocean from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Advanced Infrared Spectroradiometer (AIRS), and lightning mapping systems provide an opportunity for science and algorithm risk reduction, and for application assessment prior to planned observations from the next generation of operational low Earth orbiting and geostationary Earth orbiting satellites. This paper describes the process for the transition of experimental products into forecast operations, current products undergoing assessment by forecasters, and plans for the future. The SPoRT Web page is at (http://www.ghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/sport).

  17. Spheres of Earth: An Introduction to Making Observations of Earth Using an Earth System's Science Approach. Student Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama; Baker, Marshalyn (Editor); Graff, Trevor (Editor); Lindgren, Charlie (Editor); Mailhot, Michele (Editor); McCollum, Tim (Editor); Runco, Susan (Editor); Stefanov, William (Editor); Willis, Kim (Editor)

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from the Image Science and Analysis Laboratory (ISAL) at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) work with astronauts onboard the International Space Station (ISS) who take images of Earth. Astronaut photographs, sometimes referred to as Crew Earth Observations, are taken using hand-held digital cameras onboard the ISS. These digital images allow scientists to study our Earth from the unique perspective of space. Astronauts have taken images of Earth since the 1960s. There is a database of over 900,000 astronaut photographs available at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov . Images are requested by ISAL scientists at JSC and astronauts in space personally frame and acquire them from the Destiny Laboratory or other windows in the ISS. By having astronauts take images, they can specifically frame them according to a given request and need. For example, they can choose to use different lenses to vary the amount of area (field of view) an image will cover. Images can be taken at different times of the day which allows different lighting conditions to bring out or highlight certain features. The viewing angle at which an image is acquired can also be varied to show the same area from different perspectives. Pointing the camera straight down gives you a nadir shot. Pointing the camera at an angle to get a view across an area would be considered an oblique shot. Being able to change these variables makes astronaut photographs a unique and useful data set. Astronaut photographs are taken from the ISS from altitudes of 300 - 400 km (185 to 250 miles). One of the current cameras being used, the Nikon D3X digital camera, can take images using a 50, 100, 250, 400 or 800mm lens. These different lenses allow for a wider or narrower field of view. The higher the focal length (800mm for example) the narrower the field of view (less area will be covered). Higher focal lengths also show greater detail of the area on the surface being imaged. Scientists from the Image Science and Analysis

  18. EARTH OBSERVATION ACTIVITIES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. El-Magd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was one of the first developing countries in Africa that used earth observation and remote sensing in various applications since 1970s. It has grown up in the last decades to build its own capacity in space science and technology that ended up by launching earth observation satellites. At the same time Egypt continued to develop the capacity in EO applications and contribute to the national development plans. In this domain NARSS, the governmental research institute that lead the EO and space applications has completed many research and development projects in EO applications in mineral resources exploration, coastal and marine resources, air quality, water resources management, food security, etc. This was via operational projects with the stakeholders and users to ensure sustainability and operation of the services. For example, NARSS has developed an operational system to monitor the national crop rice using EO information that capable to provide the actual land planted with rice and predict the yield. The system has enabled to provide recommendations for other plots of land that suitable for rice plantation. In the area of environmental hazards, many projects on the flash floods and the vulnerability to flash flood hazards were developed providing decision makers with vulnerability maps and Atlases on national level. Further details on the EO activities and future plans at NARSS, Egypt will be presented in this paper.

  19. GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: -Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). -Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centers and market leaders in the private sector. -Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: Forest monitoring: Global biomass information systems Forest Monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) Multi-concept Earth Observation Capabilities for Biomass Mapping and Change Detection: Synergy of Multi-temporal and Multi-frequency Interferometric Radar and Optical Satellite Data Land cover and change: Multi-scale Remote Sensing Synergy for Land Process Studies: from field Spectrometry to Airborne Hyperspectral and

  20. Limitations of Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Wave Observations in Low Earth Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Hwang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pc1 pulsations are geomagnetic fluctuations in the frequency range of 0.2 to 5 Hz. There have been several observations of Pc1 pulsations in low earth orbit by MAGSAT, DE-2, Viking, Freja, CHAMP, and SWARM satellites. However, there has been a clear limitation in resolving the spatial and temporal variations of the pulsation by using a single-point observation by a single satellite. To overcome such limitations of previous observations, a new space mission was recently initiated, using the concept of multi-satellites, named the Small scale magNetospheric and Ionospheric Plasma Experiments (SNIPE. The SNIPE mission consists of four nanosatellites (~10 kg, which will be launched into a polar orbit at an altitude of 600 km (TBD in 2020. Four satellites will be deployed in orbit, and the distances between each satellite will be controlled from 10 to 1,000 km by a high-end formation-flying algorithm. One of the possible science targets of the SNIPE mission is observing electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC waves. In this paper, we report on examples of observations, showing the limitations of previous EMIC observations in low earth orbit, and suggest possibilities to overcome those limitations through a new mission.

  1. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    for Earth Observation by initiating feasibility studies of a spaceborne concept to monitor atmospheric CO2 and other greenhouse gases. The purpose of this paper is to present the instruments concept and related technology/instrument developments that are currently running at the European Space Agency. The paper will also outline the development planning proposed for future lidar systems.

  2. Cloud Based Earth Observation Data Exploitation Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, A.; Pinto, S.; Loekken, S.; Marin, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the last few years data produced daily by several private and public Earth Observation (EO) satellites reached the order of tens of Terabytes, representing for scientists and commercial application developers both a big opportunity for their exploitation and a challenge for their management. New IT technologies, such as Big Data and cloud computing, enable the creation of web-accessible data exploitation platforms, which offer to scientists and application developers the means to access and use EO data in a quick and cost effective way. RHEA Group is particularly active in this sector, supporting the European Space Agency (ESA) in the Exploitation Platforms (EP) initiative, developing technology to build multi cloud platforms for the processing and analysis of Earth Observation data, and collaborating with larger European initiatives such as the European Plate Observing System (EPOS) and the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). An EP is a virtual workspace, providing a user community with access to (i) large volume of data, (ii) algorithm development and integration environment, (iii) processing software and services (e.g. toolboxes, visualization routines), (iv) computing resources, (v) collaboration tools (e.g. forums, wiki, etc.). When an EP is dedicated to a specific Theme, it becomes a Thematic Exploitation Platform (TEP). Currently, ESA has seven TEPs in a pre-operational phase dedicated to geo-hazards monitoring and prevention, costal zones, forestry areas, hydrology, polar regions, urban areas and food security. On the technology development side, solutions like the multi cloud EO data processing platform provides the technology to integrate ICT resources and EO data from different vendors in a single platform. In particular it offers (i) Multi-cloud data discovery, (ii) Multi-cloud data management and access and (iii) Multi-cloud application deployment. This platform has been demonstrated with the EGI Federated Cloud, Innovation Platform Testbed Poland

  3. SEARCHING FOR WATER EARTHS IN THE NEAR-INFRARED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zugger, M. E.; Kane, T. J.; Kasting, J. F.; Williams, D. M.; Philbrick, C. R.

    2011-01-01

    Over 500 extrasolar planets (exoplanets) have now been discovered, but only a handful are small enough that they might be rocky terrestrial planets like Venus, Earth, and Mars. Recently, it has been proposed that observations of variability in scattered light (both polarized and total flux) from such terrestrial-sized exoplanets could be used to determine if they possess large surface oceans, an important indicator of potential habitability. Observing such oceans at visible wavelengths would be difficult, however, in part because of obscuration by atmospheric scattering. Here, we investigate whether observations performed in the near-infrared (NIR), where Rayleigh scattering is reduced, could improve the detectability of exoplanet oceans. We model two wavebands of the NIR which are 'window regions' for an Earth-like atmosphere: 1.55-1.75 μm and 2.1-2.3 μm. Our model confirms that obscuration in these bands from Rayleigh scattering is very low, but aerosols are generally the limiting factor throughout the wavelength range for Earth-like atmospheres. As a result, observations at NIR wavelengths are significantly better at detecting oceans than those at visible wavelengths only when aerosols are very thin by Earth standards. Clouds further dilute the ocean reflection signature. Hence, other techniques, e.g., time-resolved color photometry, may be more effective in the search for liquid water on exoplanet surfaces. Observing an exo-Earth at NIR wavelengths does open the possibility of detecting water vapor or other absorbers in the atmosphere, by comparing scattered light in window regions to that in absorption bands.

  4. Co-ordination of satellite and data programs: The committee on earth observation satellites' approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, B. J. J.; Kingwell, J.

    1997-01-01

    Every year, an average of eight new civilian remote sensing satellite missions are launched. Cumulatively, over 250 such missions, each with a cost equivalent in current value to between US 100 million to US 1000 million, have been sponsored by space agencies in perhaps two dozen countries. These missions produce data and information products which are vital for informed decision making all over the world, on matters relating to natural resource exploitation, health and safety, sustainable national development, infrastructure planning, and a host of other applications. By contributing to better scientific understanding of global changes in the atmosphere, land surface, oceans and ice caps, these silently orbiting sentinels in the sky make it possible for governments and industries to make wiser environmental policy decisions and support the economic development needs of humanity. The international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) is the premier world body for co-ordinating and planning civilian satellite missions for Earth observation. Through its technical working groups and special task teams, it endeavours to: • maximise the international benefits from Earth observation satellites; and • harmonise practice in calibration, validation, data management and information systems for Earth observation. CEOS encompasses not only space agencies (data providers), but also the great international scientific and operational programs which rely on Earth science data from space. The user organisations affiliated with CEOS, together with the mission operators, attempt to reconcile user needs with the complex set of considerations — including national interests, cost, schedule — which affect the undertaking of space missions. Without such an internationally co-ordinated consensual approach, there is a much greater risk of waste through duplication, and of missed opportunity, or through the absence of measurements of some vital physical or biological

  5. Current Status and Perspectives for the Estimation of Crop Water Requirements from Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido D’Urso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of current techniques and recent developments in the application of Earth Observationdata for assessing crop water requirements. During recent years there has been much progress in understandingland surface-atmosphere processes and their parameterisation in the management of land and water resources.This knowledge can be combined with the potentiality of Earth Observation techniques from space, whichare able to provide detailed information for monitoring agricultural systems.As today, two main developments in the field of Earth Observation data acquisition and analysis have occurred:a availability of new generations of sensors, with enhanced spectral and spatial resolution;b detailed knowledge of the processes that determine the response of land surface as detected from remote sensorsin different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum.These advancements have made possible a “quantitative” approach in the interpretation of Earth Observation data,ready for being transferred to operative applications i.e. for irrigation scheduling and water management. Thispaper presents a review of current applications of optical data in the visible and near infrared spectral regions, withparticular emphasis to the experiences developed by the author within AQUATER and other research projectsproject.

  6. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using Crew Earth Observation Imagery from the International Space Station to Facilitate Student-Led Authentic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Student-led authentic research in the classroom helps motivate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related subjects. Classrooms benefit from activities that provide rigor, relevance, and a connection to the real world. Those real world connections are enhanced when they involve meaningful connections with NASA resources and scientists. Using the unique platform of the International Space Station (ISS) and Crew Earth Observation (CEO) imagery, the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program provides an exciting way to enable classrooms in grades 5-12 to be active participants in NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. EEAB was created by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This Earth and planetary science education program has created a framework enabling students to conduct authentic research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons using the captivating CEO images being taken by astronauts onboard the ISS. The CEO payload has been a science payload onboard the ISS since November 2000. ISS crews are trained in scientific observation of geological, oceanographic, environmental, and meteorological phenomena. Scientists on the ground select and periodically update a series of areas to be photographed as part of the CEO science payload.

  7. STS-102 Astronaut Thomas Views International Space Station Through Shuttle Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  8. Continental-scale water fluxes from continuous GPS observations of Earth surface loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, A. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Cayan, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    After more than a decade of observing annual oscillations of Earth's surface from seasonal snow and water loading, continuous GPS is now being used to model time-varying terrestrial water fluxes on the local and regional scale. Although the largest signal is typically due to the seasonal hydrological cycle, GPS can also measure subtle surface deformation caused by sustained wet and dry periods, and to estimate the spatial distribution of the underlying terrestrial water storage changes. The next frontier is expanding this analysis to the continental scale and paving the way for incorporating GPS models into the National Climate Assessment and into the observational infrastructure for national water resource management. This will require reconciling GPS observations with predictions from hydrological models and with remote sensing observations from a suite of satellite instruments (e.g. GRACE, SMAP, SWOT). The elastic Earth response which transforms surface loads into vertical and horizontal displacements is also responsible for the contamination of loading observations by tectonic and anthropogenic transients, and we discuss these and other challenges to this new application of GPS.

  9. Perspectives for Distributed Observations of Near-Earth Space Using a Russian-Cuban Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisikalo, D. V.; Savanov, I. S.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Nalivkin, M. A.; Shugarov, A. S.; Bakhtigaraev, N. S.; Levkina, P. A.; Ibragimov, M. A.; Kil'pio, E. Yu.; Sachkov, M. E.; Kartashova, A. P.; Fateeva, A. M.; Uratsuka, Marta R. Rodriguez; Estrada, Ramses Zaldivar; Diaz, Antonio Alonsa; Rodríguez, Omar Pons; Figuera, Fidel Hernandes; Garcia, Maritza Garcia

    2018-06-01

    The creation of a specialized network of large, wide-angle telescopes for distributed observations of near-Earth space using a Russian-Cuban Observatory is considered. An extremely important goal of routine monitoring of near-Earth and near-Sun space is warding off threats with both natural and technogenic origins. Natural threats are associated with asteroids or comets, and technogenic threats with man-made debris in near-Earth space. A modern network of ground-based optical instruments designed to ward off such threats must: (a) have a global and, if possible, uniform geographic distribution, (b) be suitable for wide-angle, high-accuracy precision survey observations, and (c) be created and operated within a single network-oriented framework. Experience at the Institute of Astronomy on the development of one-meter-class wide-angle telescopes and elements of a super-wide-angle telescope cluster is applied to determine preferences for the composition of each node of such a network. The efficiency of distributed observations in attaining maximally accurate predictions of the motions of potentially dangerous celestial bodies as they approach the Earth and in observations of space debris and man-made satellites is estimated. The first estimates of astroclimatic conditions at the proposed site of the future Russian-Cuban Observatory in the mountains of the Sierra del Rosario Biosphere Reserve are obtained. Special attention is given to the possible use of the network to carry out a wide range of astrophysical studies, including optical support for the localization of gravitational waves and other transient events.

  10. STS-69 Flight Day 9 Video File

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The song, 'He's A Tramp', from the Walt Disney cartoon movie, 'Lady and the Tramp', awakened the astronauts, Cmdr. Dave Walker, Pilot Ken Cockrell, and Mission Specialists Jim Voss, Jim Newman, and Mike Gernhardt, on the ninth day of the STS-69 mission. The Wake Shield Facility (WSF) was again unberthed from the shuttle cargo bay and , using the shuttle's robot arm, held over the side of the shuttle for five hours where it collected data on the electrical field build-up around the spacecraft as part of the Charging Hazards and Wake Studies Experiment (CHAWS). Voss and Gernhardt rehearsed their Extravehicular Activity (EVA) spacewalk, which was planned for the next day. Earth views included cloud cover, a hurricane, and its eye.

  11. Linking the Climate and Thermal Phase Curve of 55 Cancri e

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Mark; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.

    2017-11-01

    The thermal phase curve of 55 Cancri e is the first measurement of the temperature distribution of a tidally locked super-Earth, but raises a number of puzzling questions about the planet’s climate. The phase curve has a high amplitude and peak offset, suggesting that it has a significant eastward hot-spot shift as well as a large day-night temperature contrast. We use a general circulation model to model potential climates, and investigate the relation between bulk atmospheric composition and the magnitude of these seemingly contradictory features. We confirm theoretical models of tidally locked circulation are consistent with our numerical model of 55 Cnc e, and rule out certain atmospheric compositions based on their thermodynamic properties. Our best-fitting atmosphere has a significant hot-spot shift and day-night contrast, although these are not as large as the observed phase curve. We discuss possible physical processes that could explain the observations, and show that night-side cloud formation from species such as SiO from a day-side magma ocean could potentially increase the phase curve amplitude and explain the observations. We conclude that the observations could be explained by an optically thick atmosphere with a low mean molecular weight, a surface pressure of several bars, and a strong eastward circulation, with night-side cloud formation a possible explanation for the difference between our model and the observations.

  12. A New Cyber-enabled Platform for Scale-independent Interoperability of Earth Observations with Hydrologic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajib, A.; Zhao, L.; Merwade, V.; Shin, J.; Smith, J.; Song, C. X.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the significant potential of remotely sensed earth observations, their application is still not full-fledged in water resources research, management and education. Inconsistent storage structures, data formats and spatial resolution among different platforms/sources of earth observations hinder the use of these data. Available web-services can help bulk data downloading and visualization, but they are not sufficiently tailored to meet the degree of interoperability required for direct application of earth observations in hydrologic modeling at user-defined spatio-temporal scales. Similarly, the least ambiguous way for educators and watershed managers is to instantaneously obtain a time-series at any watershed of interest without spending time and computational resources on data download and post-processing activities. To address this issue, an open access, online platform, named HydroGlobe, is developed that minimizes all these processing tasks and delivers ready-to-use data from different earth observation sources. HydroGlobe can provide spatially-averaged time series of earth observations by using the following inputs: (i) data source, (ii) temporal extent in the form of start/end date, and (iii) geographic units (e.g., grid cell or sub-basin boundary) and extent in the form of GIS shapefile. In its preliminary version, HydroGlobe simultaneously handles five data sources including the surface and root zone soil moisture from SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive Mission), actual and potential evapotranspiration from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), and precipitation from GPM (Global Precipitation Measurements). This presentation will demonstrate the HydroGlobe interface and its applicability using few test cases on watersheds from different parts of the globe.

  13. Google Earth Engine: a new cloud-computing platform for global-scale earth observation data and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R. T.; Hansen, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    Google Earth Engine is a new technology platform that enables monitoring and measurement of changes in the earth's environment, at planetary scale, on a large catalog of earth observation data. The platform offers intrinsically-parallel computational access to thousands of computers in Google's data centers. Initial efforts have focused primarily on global forest monitoring and measurement, in support of REDD+ activities in the developing world. The intent is to put this platform into the hands of scientists and developing world nations, in order to advance the broader operational deployment of existing scientific methods, and strengthen the ability for public institutions and civil society to better understand, manage and report on the state of their natural resources. Earth Engine currently hosts online nearly the complete historical Landsat archive of L5 and L7 data collected over more than twenty-five years. Newly-collected Landsat imagery is downloaded from USGS EROS Center into Earth Engine on a daily basis. Earth Engine also includes a set of historical and current MODIS data products. The platform supports generation, on-demand, of spatial and temporal mosaics, "best-pixel" composites (for example to remove clouds and gaps in satellite imagery), as well as a variety of spectral indices. Supervised learning methods are available over the Landsat data catalog. The platform also includes a new application programming framework, or "API", that allows scientists access to these computational and data resources, to scale their current algorithms or develop new ones. Under the covers of the Google Earth Engine API is an intrinsically-parallel image-processing system. Several forest monitoring applications powered by this API are currently in development and expected to be operational in 2011. Combining science with massive data and technology resources in a cloud-computing framework can offer advantages of computational speed, ease-of-use and collaboration, as

  14. HD 97658 and its super-Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Grootel V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition. We present the confirmation, based on Spitzer observations, that the super-Earth HD 97658 b transits its host star. HD 97658 is a low-mass (M* = 0.77 ± 0.05 M⊙ K1 dwarf, as determined from the Hipparcos parallax and stellar evolution modeling. To constrain the planet parameters, we carry out Bayesian global analyses of Keck-HIRES radial velocities, and MOST and Spitzer photometry. HD 97658 b is a massive (MP = 7.55−0.79+0.83 M⊕ and large (RP = 2.247−0.095+0.098 R⊕ at 4.5 μm super-Earth. We investigate the possible internal compositions for HD 97658 b. Our results indicate a large rocky component, by at least 60% by mass, and very little H-He components, at most 2% by mass. We also discuss how future asteroseismic observations can improve the knowledge of the HD 97658 system, in particular by constraining its age.

  15. Observations of nonadiabatic acceleration of ions in Earth's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.; Kivelson, M. G.

    1994-01-01

    We present observations of the three-dimensional velocity distributions of protons in the energy range 20 eV to 52 keV at locations within and near the current sheet of Earth's magnetotail at geocentric radial distances 35 to 87 R(sub E). These measurements were acquired on December 8, 1990, with a set of electrostatic analyzers on board the Galileo spacecraft during its approach to Earth in order to obtain one of its gravitational assists to Jupiter. It is found that the velocity distributions are inadequately described as quasi-Maxwellian distributions such as those found in the central plasma sheet at positions nearer to Earth. Instead the proton velocity distributions can be categorized into two major types. The first type is the 'lima bean' shaped distribution with high-speed bulk flows and high temperatures that are similar to those found nearer to Earth in the plasma sheet boundary layer. The second type consists of colder protons with considerably lesser bulk flow speeds. Examples of velocity distributions are given for the plasma mantle, a region near the magnetic neutral line, positions earthward and tailward of the neutral line, and the plasma sheet boundary layer. At positions near the neutral line, only complex velocity distributions consisting of the colder protons are found, whereas both of the above types of distributions are found in and near the current sheet at earthward and tailward locations. Bulk flows are directed generally earthward and tailward at positions earthward and tailward of the neutral line, respectively. Only the high-speed, hot distribution is present in the plasma sheet boundary layer. The observations are interpreted in terms of the nonadiabatic acceleration of protons that flow into the current sheet from the plasma mantle. For this interpretation the hot, 'lima bean' shaped distributions are associated with meandering, or Speiser, orbits in the current sheet. It is suggested that the colder, lower-speed proton velocity

  16. An operational, multistate, earth observation data management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Hays, T. R.; Hill, C. T.; Ballard, R. J.; Morgan, R. P.; Crnkovich, G. G.; Gohagan, J. K.; Schaeffer, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a group of potential users of satellite remotely sensed data - state, local, and regional agencies involved in natural resources management. We assess this group's needs in five states and outline alternative data management systems to serve some of those needs. We conclude that an operational Earth Observation Data Management System (EODMS) will be of most use to these user agencies if it provides a full range of information services - from raw data acquisition to interpretation and dissemination of final information products.

  17. Observing Human-induced Linkages between Urbanization and Earth's Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2004-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of world s population has moved to urban areas. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is considered urban, the spatial coverage and density of cities are expected to rapidly increase in the near future. It is estimated that by the year 2025, 60% of the world s population will live in cities. Human activity in urban environments also alters atmospheric composition; impacts components of the water cycle; and modifies the carbon cycle and ecosystems. However, our understanding of urbanization on the total Earth-climate system is incomplete. Better understanding of how the Earth s atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of the urban environment on this climate system is critical. The goal of the 2003 AGU Union session Human-induced climate variations on urban areas: From observations to modeling was to bring together scientists from interdisciplinary backgrounds to discuss the data, scientific approaches and recent results on observing and modeling components of the urban environment with the intent of sampling our current stand and discussing future direction on this topic. Herein, a summary and discussion of the observations component of the session are presented.

  18. ALISEO on MIOSat: an imaging interferometer for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, A.; Castagnoli, F.; Castellini, G.; Guzzi, D.; Marcoionni, P.; Pippi, I.

    2017-11-01

    The Italian Space Agency (ASI) decided to perform an low cost Earth observation mission based on a new mini satellite named MIOsat which will carry various technological payloads. Among them an imaging interferometer designed and now ready to be assembled and tested by our Institute. The instrument, named ALISEO (Aerospace Leap-frog Imaging Stationary interferometer for Earth Observation), operates in the common-path Sagnac configuration, and it does not utilize any moving part to scan the phase delays between the two interfering beams. The sensor acquires target images modulated by a pattern of autocorrelation functions of the energy coming from each scene pixel, and the resulting fringe pattern remains spatially fixed with respect to the instrument's field-of-view. The complete interferogram of each target location is retrieved by introducing a relative source-observer motion, which allows any image pixels to be observed under different viewing-angles and experience discrete path differences. The paper describes the main characteristics of the imaging interferometer as well as the overall optical configuration and the electronics layout. Moreover some theoretical issues concerning sampling theory in "common path" imaging interferometry are investigated. The experimental activity performed in laboratory is presented and its outcomes are analysed. Particularly, a set of measurements has been carried out using both standard (certificate) reflectance tiles and natural samples of different volcanic rocks. An algorithm for raw data pre-processing aimed at retrieving the at-sensor radiance spectrum is introduced and its performance is addressed by taking into account various issues such as dark signal subtraction, spectral instrument response compensation, effects of vignetting, and Fourier backtransform. Finally, examples of retrieved absolute reflectance of several samples are sketched at different wavelengths.

  19. Dewetted growth of CdTe in microgravity (STS-95)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiederle, M.; Babentsov, V.; Benz, K.W.; Duffar, T.; Dusserre, P.; Corregidor, V.; Dieguez, E.; Delaye, P.; Roosen, G.; Chevrier, V.; Launay, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Two CdTe crystals had been grown in microgravity during the STS-95 mission. The growth configuration was dedicated to obtain dewetting of the crystals and to achieve high quality material. Background for the performed experiments was based on the theory of the dewetting and previous experience. The after flight characterization of the crystals has demonstrated existence of the dewetting areas of the crystals and their improved quality regarding the earth grown reference sample. The samples had been characterized by EDAX, Synchrotron X-ray topography, Photoluminescence and Optical and IR microscopy. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. the law governing acquisition and use of earth observation data in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adv. Phetole P Sekhula

    authorises the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) to acquire and ... agricultural use, environmental mapping and management, disaster .... intergovernmental organisations active in the earth observation arena as well as .... The Principles identify three categories of data and each category is treated uniquely.

  1. Synthetic aperture lidar as a future tool for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbide, Simon; Marchese, Linda; Terroux, Marc; Bergeron, Alain

    2017-11-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a tool of prime importance for Earth observation; it provides day and night capabilities in various weather conditions. State-of-the-art satellite SAR systems are a few meters in height and width and achieve resolutions of less than 1 m with revisit times on the order of days. Today's Earth observation needs demand higher resolution imaging together with timelier data collection within a compact low power consumption payload. Such needs are seen in Earth Observation applications such as disaster management of earthquakes, landslides, forest fires, floods and others. In these applications the availability of timely reliable information is critical to assess the extent of the disaster and to rapidly and safely deploy rescue teams. Synthetic aperture lidar (SAL) is based on the same basic principles as SAR. Both rely on the acquisition of multiple electromagnetic echoes to emulate a large antenna aperture providing the ability to produce high resolution images. However, in SAL, much shorter optical wavelengths (1.5 μm) are used instead of radar ones (wavelengths around 3 cm). Resolution being related to the wavelength, multiple orders of magnitude of improvement could be theoretically expected. Also, the sources, the detector, and the components are much smaller in optical domain than those for radar. The resulting system can thus be made compact opening the door to deployment onboard small satellites, airborne platforms and unmanned air vehicles. This has a strong impact on the time required to develop, deploy and use a payload. Moreover, in combination with airborne deployment, revisit times can be made much smaller and accessibility to the information can become almost in real-time. Over the last decades, studies from different groups have been done to validate the feasibility of a SAL system for 2D imagery and more recently for 3D static target imagery. In this paper, an overview of the advantages of this emerging technology will

  2. Advancing land surface model development with satellite-based Earth observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Trigo, Isabel F.; Balsamo, Gianpaolo

    2017-05-01

    The land surface forms an essential part of the climate system. It interacts with the atmosphere through the exchange of water and energy and hence influences weather and climate, as well as their predictability. Correspondingly, the land surface model (LSM) is an essential part of any weather forecasting system. LSMs rely on partly poorly constrained parameters, due to sparse land surface observations. With the use of newly available land surface temperature observations, we show in this study that novel satellite-derived datasets help improve LSM configuration, and hence can contribute to improved weather predictability. We use the Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land (HTESSEL) and validate it comprehensively against an array of Earth observation reference datasets, including the new land surface temperature product. This reveals satisfactory model performance in terms of hydrology but poor performance in terms of land surface temperature. This is due to inconsistencies of process representations in the model as identified from an analysis of perturbed parameter simulations. We show that HTESSEL can be more robustly calibrated with multiple instead of single reference datasets as this mitigates the impact of the structural inconsistencies. Finally, performing coupled global weather forecasts, we find that a more robust calibration of HTESSEL also contributes to improved weather forecast skills. In summary, new satellite-based Earth observations are shown to enhance the multi-dataset calibration of LSMs, thereby improving the representation of insufficiently captured processes, advancing weather predictability, and understanding of climate system feedbacks.

  3. Multivariate anomaly detection for Earth observations: a comparison of algorithms and feature extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Flach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, many processes at the Earth's surface are constantly monitored by multiple data streams. These observations have become central to advancing our understanding of vegetation dynamics in response to climate or land use change. Another set of important applications is monitoring effects of extreme climatic events, other disturbances such as fires, or abrupt land transitions. One important methodological question is how to reliably detect anomalies in an automated and generic way within multivariate data streams, which typically vary seasonally and are interconnected across variables. Although many algorithms have been proposed for detecting anomalies in multivariate data, only a few have been investigated in the context of Earth system science applications. In this study, we systematically combine and compare feature extraction and anomaly detection algorithms for detecting anomalous events. Our aim is to identify suitable workflows for automatically detecting anomalous patterns in multivariate Earth system data streams. We rely on artificial data that mimic typical properties and anomalies in multivariate spatiotemporal Earth observations like sudden changes in basic characteristics of time series such as the sample mean, the variance, changes in the cycle amplitude, and trends. This artificial experiment is needed as there is no gold standard for the identification of anomalies in real Earth observations. Our results show that a well-chosen feature extraction step (e.g., subtracting seasonal cycles, or dimensionality reduction is more important than the choice of a particular anomaly detection algorithm. Nevertheless, we identify three detection algorithms (k-nearest neighbors mean distance, kernel density estimation, a recurrence approach and their combinations (ensembles that outperform other multivariate approaches as well as univariate extreme-event detection methods. Our results therefore provide an effective workflow to

  4. Distributed Space Mission Design for Earth Observation Using Model-Based Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Sreeja; LeMoigne-Stewart, Jacqueline; Cervantes, Ben; DeWeck, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Distributed Space Missions (DSMs) are gaining momentum in their application to earth observation missions owing to their unique ability to increase observation sampling in multiple dimensions. DSM design is a complex problem with many design variables, multiple objectives determining performance and cost and emergent, often unexpected, behaviors. There are very few open-access tools available to explore the tradespace of variables, minimize cost and maximize performance for pre-defined science goals, and therefore select the most optimal design. This paper presents a software tool that can multiple DSM architectures based on pre-defined design variable ranges and size those architectures in terms of predefined science and cost metrics. The tool will help a user select Pareto optimal DSM designs based on design of experiments techniques. The tool will be applied to some earth observation examples to demonstrate its applicability in making some key decisions between different performance metrics and cost metrics early in the design lifecycle.

  5. Global biogeographical pattern of ecosystem functional types derived from earth observation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivits, Eva; Cherlet, Michael; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F

    2013-01-01

    correspondence of the EFTs to global climate and also to land use classification. The results show the great potential of Earth Observation derived parameters for the quantification of ecosystem functional dynamics and for providing reference status information for future assessments of ecosystem changes........ The association of the EFTs with existing climate and land cover classifications was demonstrated via Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA). The ordination indicated good description of the global environmental gradient by the EFTs, supporting the understanding of phenological and productivity dynamics...... of global ecosystems. Climatic constraints of vegetation growth explained 50% of variation in the phenological data along the EFTs showing that part of the variation in the global phenological gradient is not climate related but is unique to the Earth Observation derived variables. DCA demonstrated good...

  6. Focal plane for the next generation of earth observation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranyies, P.; Toubhans, I.; Badoil, B.; Tanguy, F.; Descours, Francis

    2017-09-01

    Sodern is the French focal plane provider for Earth Observation (EO) satellites. Since the 1980's, Sodern has played an active role first in the SPOT program. Within the two-spacecraft constellation Pleiades 1A/1B over the next years, Sodern introduced advanced technologies as Silicon Carbide (SiC) focal plane structure and multispectral strip filters dedicated to multiple-lines detectors.

  7. Assessment of vegetation trends in drylands from time series of earth observation data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fensholt, R.; Horion, S.; Tagesson, T.; Ehammer, A.; Grogan, K.; Tian, F.; Huber, S.; Verbesselt, J.; Prince, S.D.; Tucker, C.J.; Rasmussen, K.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter summarizes approaches to the detection of dryland vegetation change and methods for observing spatio-temporal trends from space. An overview of suitable long-term Earth Observation (EO) based datasets for assessment of global dryland vegetation trends is provided and a status map of

  8. SWARM - An earth Observation Mission investigating Geospace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, H.; Knudsen, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Swarm mission was selected as the 5th mission in ESA's Earth Explorer Programme in 2004. This mission aims at measuring the Earth's magnetic field with unprecedented accuracy. This will be done by a constellation of three satellites, where two will fly at lower altitude, measuring the gradient...... of the magnetic field, and one satellite will fly at higher altitude. The measured magnetic field is the sum of many contributions including both magnetic fields and currents in the Earth's interior and electrical currents in Geospace. In order to separate all these sources electric field and plasma measurements...... will also be made to complement the primary magnetic field measurements. Together these will allow the deduction of information on a series of solid earth processes responsible for the creation of the fields measured. The completeness of the measurements on each satellite and the constellation aspect...

  9. RADIAL VELOCITY PLANETS DE-ALIASED: A NEW, SHORT PERIOD FOR SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    Radial velocity measurements of stellar reflex motion have revealed many extrasolar planets, but gaps in the observations produce aliases, spurious frequencies that are frequently confused with the planets' orbital frequencies. In the case of Gl 581 d, the distinction between an alias and the true frequency was the distinction between a frozen, dead planet and a planet possibly hospitable to life. To improve the characterization of planetary systems, we describe how aliases originate and present a new approach for distinguishing between orbital frequencies and their aliases. Our approach harnesses features in the spectral window function to compare the amplitude and phase of predicted aliases with peaks present in the data. We apply it to confirm prior alias distinctions for the planets GJ 876 d and HD 75898 b. We find that the true periods of Gl 581 d and HD 73526 b/c remain ambiguous. We revise the periods of HD 156668 b and 55 Cnc e, which were afflicted by daily aliases. For HD 156668 b, the correct period is 1.2699 days and the minimum mass is (3.1 ± 0.4) M + . For 55 Cnc e, the correct period is 0.7365 days-the shortest of any known planet-and the minimum mass is (8.3 ± 0.3) M + . This revision produces a significantly improved five-planet Keplerian fit for 55 Cnc, and a self-consistent dynamical fit describes the data just as well. As radial velocity techniques push to ever-smaller planets, often found in systems of multiple planets, distinguishing true periods from aliases will become increasingly important.

  10. Study on the Treatment of Wastewater Generated at KSC (Kennedy Space Center) STS (Space Transport System) Operations and Projected Effects on the Design of the STS Hazardous Waste Management Facility at Vandenberg AFB, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    launch which gradually falls back to earth. This dust could be a combination of residual sandblasting sand on the launch support facilities, soil from...considerations, which were identified as follows on items from the STS-6 jar test evaluations: o The Effect of Temperature on Silica Precipitation...concrete and the geometry of the flame ducts at Vandenberg compared to KSC. The other 20% of the sludge results from additives ( diatomite and polymer) to

  11. STS-40 Spacelab Life Science 1 (SLS-1) module in OV-102's payload bay (PLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Spacelab Life Science 1 (SLS-1) module is documented in the payload bay (PLB) of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Included in the view are: the spacelab (SL) transfer tunnel joggle section and support struts; SLS-1 module forward end cone with the European Space Agency (ESA) SL insignia, SLS-1 payload insignia, and the upper feed through plate (center); the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pods; and the vertical stabilizer with the Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 901 Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS) at the top 24 inches. The vertical stabilizer points to the Earth's limb and the cloud-covered surface of the Earth below.

  12. Recommendations to Improve Downloads of Large Earth Observation Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Ramachandran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the volume of Earth observation data expanding rapidly, cloud computing is quickly changing the way these data are processed, analyzed, and visualized. Collocating freely available Earth observation data on a cloud computing infrastructure may create opportunities unforeseen by the original data provider for innovation and value-added data re-use, but existing systems at data centers are not designed for supporting requests for large data transfers. A lack of common methodology necessitates that each data center handle such requests from different cloud vendors differently. Guidelines are needed to support enabling all cloud vendors to utilize a common methodology for bulk-downloading data from data centers, thus preventing the providers from building custom capabilities to meet the needs of individual vendors. This paper presents recommendations distilled from use cases provided by three cloud vendors (Amazon, Google, and Microsoft and are based on the vendors’ interactions with data systems at different Federal agencies and organizations. These specific recommendations range from obvious steps for improving data usability (such as ensuring the use of standard data formats and commonly supported projections to non-obvious undertakings important for enabling bulk data downloads at scale. These recommendations can be used to evaluate and improve existing data systems for high-volume data transfers, and their adoption can lead to cloud vendors utilizing a common methodology.

  13. Teachers' learning on the workshop of STS approach as a way of enhancing inventive thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngaewkoodrua, Nophakun; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    To improve science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills, the workshop of improving science teachers to develop the STS lesson plans for enhancing the Inventive thinking skills were organized. The paper aimed to clarify what teachers learn from the workshop. The goal of the activity of the workshop aimed to: 1) improve participants a better understanding of the relationship between the Inquiry based learning with STS approach, 2) understand the meaning and importance of the STS approach and identify the various stages of Yuenyong (2006) STS learning process, 3) discuss what they learned from the examples of Yuenyong (2006) lesson plan, 4) develop some activities for each stage of Yuenyong (2006) STS approach, and 5) ideas of providing STS approach activities for enhancing inventive thinking skills. Participants included 3 science teachers who work in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. Teachers' learning about pedagogy of enhancing the students' inventive thinking skills will be interpreted through participant observation, teachers' tasks, and interview. The finding revealed that all participants could demonstrate their ideas how to generate the STS lesson plans as a way of enhancing inventive thinking skills. Teachers could mention some element of inventive thinking skills which could be generated on their STS learning activities.

  14. The European Plate Observing System (EPOS): Integrating Thematic Services for Solid Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bailo, Daniele; Consortium, Epos

    2016-04-01

    The mission of EPOS is to monitor and understand the dynamic and complex Earth system by relying on new e-science opportunities and integrating diverse and advanced Research Infrastructures in Europe for solid Earth Science. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of the Earth's physical and chemical processes that control earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability and tsunami as well as the processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Through integration of data, models and facilities EPOS will allow the Earth Science community to make a step change in developing new concepts and tools for key answers to scientific and socio-economic questions concerning geo-hazards and geo-resources as well as Earth sciences applications to the environment and to human welfare. EPOS, during its Implementation Phase (EPOS-IP), will integrate multidisciplinary data into a single e-infrastructure. Multidisciplinary data are organized and governed by the Thematic Core Services (TCS) and are driven by various scientific communities encompassing a wide spectrum of Earth science disciplines. These include Data, Data-products, Services and Software (DDSS), from seismology, near fault observatories, geodetic observations, volcano observations, satellite observations, geomagnetic observations, as well as data from various anthropogenic hazard episodes, geological information and modelling. In addition, transnational access to multi-scale laboratories and geo-energy test-beds for low-carbon energy will be provided. TCS DDSS will be integrated into Integrated Core Services (ICS), a platform that will ensure their interoperability and access to these services by the scientific community as well as other users within the society. This requires dedicated tasks for interactions with the various TCS-WPs, as well as the various distributed ICS (ICS-Ds), such as High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, large scale data storage

  15. Vegetation Earth System Data Record from DSCOVR EPIC Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazikhin, Y.; Song, W.; Yang, B.; Mottus, M.; Rautiainen, M.; Stenberg, P.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA's Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) onboard NOAA's Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) mission was launched on February 11, 2015 to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L1 point where it began to collect radiance data of the entire sunlit Earth every 65 to 110 min in June 2015. It provides imageries in near backscattering directions with the scattering angle between 168° and 176° at ten ultraviolet to near infrared (NIR) narrow spectral bands centered at 317.5 (band width 1.0) nm, 325.0 (2.0) nm, 340.0 (3.0) nm, 388.0 (3.0) nm, 433.0 (3.0) nm, 551.0 (3.0) nm, 680.0 (3.0) nm, 687.8 (0.8) nm, 764.0 (1.0) nm and 779.5 (2.0) nm. This poster presents current status of the Vegetation Earth System Data Record of global Leaf Area Index (LAI), solar zenith angle dependent Sunlit Leaf Area Index (SLAI), Fraction vegetation absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the DSCOVR EPIC observations. Whereas LAI is a standard product of many satellite missions, the SLAI is a new satellite-derived parameter. Sunlit and shaded leaves exhibit different radiative response to incident Photosynthetically Active Radiation (400-700 nm), which in turn triggers various physiological and physical processes required for the functioning of plants. FPAR, LAI and SLAI are key state parameters in most ecosystem productivity models and carbon/nitrogen cycle. The product at 10 km sinusoidal grid and 65 to 110 min temporal frequency as well as accompanying Quality Assessment (QA) variables will be publicly available from the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The Algorithm Theoretical Basis (ATBD) and product validation strategy are also discussed in this poster.

  16. STS-69 flight day 6 highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    After being awakened by the Beatles song, 'A Hard Days Night', the flightcrew of the STS-69 mission, Cmdr. Dave Walker, Pilot Ken Cockrell, and Mission Specialists Jim Voss, Jim Newman, and Mike Gernhardt, began their sixth day in orbit by monitoring the free orbiting Wake Shield Facility (WSF). Later Cmdr. Walker conducted an interview with television reporters from Atlanta and Boston, answering questions about the mission and general questions about NASA's space program. The crew filmed a video fo themselves performing daily routines (eating, shaving, exercising), as well as some of the physiological experiments, and shuttle equipment maintenance and checkout. One of the secondary experiments included the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus-7 (CGBA-7), which served as an incubator and experiment station for a variety of tests (agricultural, pharmaceutical, biomedical, and environmental). Earth views included some cloud cover, the Gulf of Mexico, Texas, and the Atlantic Ocean.

  17. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Initial Actions to Enhance Data Sharing to Meet Societal Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adang, T.

    2006-05-01

    Over 60 nations and 50 participating organizations are working to make the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) a reality. The U.S. contribution to GEOSS is the Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), with a vision of enabling a healthy public, economy and planet through an integrated, comprehensive, and sustained Earth observation system. The international Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations have developed strategic plans for both GEOSS and IEOS, respectively, and are now working the first phases of implementation. Many of these initial actions are data architecture related and are being addressed by architecture and data working groups from both organizations - the GEO Architecture and Data Committee and the USGEO Architecture and Data Management Working Group. NOAA has actively participated in both architecture groups and has taken internal action to better support GEOSS and IEOS implementation by establishing the Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO IDE). GEO IDE provides a "system of systems" framework for effective and efficient integration of NOAA's many quasi-independent systems, which individually address diverse mandates in such areas resource management, weather forecasting, safe navigation, disaster response, and coastal mapping among others. GEO IDE will have a services oriented architecture, allowing NOAA Line Offices to retain a high level of independence in many of their data management decisions, and encouraging innovation in pursuit of their missions. Through GEO IDE, NOAA partners (both internal and external) will participate in a well-ordered, standards-based data and information infrastructure that will allow users to easily locate, acquire, integrate and utilize NOAA data and information. This paper describes the initial progress being made by GEO and USGEO architecture and data working groups, a status report on GEO IDE development within NOAA, and an assessment of

  18. Siberian Earth System Science Cluster - A web-based Geoportal to provide user-friendly Earth Observation Products for supporting NEESPI scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, J.; Gerlach, R.; Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.

    2012-04-01

    To provide earth observation products in the area of Siberia, the Siberian Earth System Science Cluster (SIB-ESS-C) was established as a spatial data infrastructure at the University of Jena (Germany), Department for Earth Observation. This spatial data infrastructure implements standards published by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organizsation for Standardization (ISO) for data discovery, data access, data processing and data analysis. The objective of SIB-ESS-C is to faciliate environmental research and Earth system science in Siberia. The region for this project covers the entire Asian part of the Russian Federation approximately between 58°E - 170°W and 48°N - 80°N. To provide discovery, access and analysis services a webportal was published for searching and visualisation of available data. This webportal is based on current web technologies like AJAX, Drupal Content Management System as backend software and a user-friendly surface with Drag-n-Drop and further mouse events. To have a wide range of regular updated earth observation products, some products from sensor MODIS at the satellites Aqua and Terra were processed. A direct connection to NASA archive servers makes it possible to download MODIS Level 3 and 4 products and integrate it in the SIB-ESS-C infrastructure. These data can be downloaded in a file format called Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). For visualisation and further analysis, this data is reprojected, converted to GeoTIFF and global products clipped to the project area. All these steps are implemented as an automatic process chain. If new MODIS data is available within the infrastructure this process chain is executed. With the link to a MODIS catalogue system, the system gets new data daily. With the implemented analysis processes, timeseries data can be analysed, for example to plot a trend or different time series against one another. Scientists working in this area and working with MODIS data can make use

  19. ESA web mapping activities applied to Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, C.; Petiteville, I.; Kohlhammer, G.; Tandurella, G.

    2002-05-01

    Thousands of Earth Observation satellite instrument products are generated daily, in a multitude of formats, using a variety of projection coordinate sytems. This diversity is a barrier to the development of EO multi-mission-based applications and prevents the merging of EO data with GIS data, which is requested by the user community (value-added companies, serivce providers, scientists, institutions, commercial users, and academic users). The web mapping technologies introduced in this article represent an elegant and low-technologies introduced in this article represent an elegant and low-cost solution. The extraordinary added value that is achieved may be considered a revolution in the use of EO data products.

  20. Mission operations concepts for Earth Observing System (EOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Taylor, Thomas D.; Hawkins, Frederick J.

    1991-01-01

    Mission operation concepts are described which are being used to evaluate and influence space and ground system designs and architectures with the goal of achieving successful, efficient, and cost-effective Earth Observing System (EOS) operations. Emphasis is given to the general characteristics and concepts developed for the EOS Space Measurement System, which uses a new series of polar-orbiting observatories. Data rates are given for various instruments. Some of the operations concepts which require a total system view are also examined, including command operations, data processing, data accountability, data archival, prelaunch testing and readiness, launch, performance monitoring and assessment, contingency operations, flight software maintenance, and security.

  1. Development of the Earth Observation Camera of MIRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Lee

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We have designed and manufactured the Earth observation camera (EOC of multi-purpose infrared imaging system (MIRIS. MIRIS is a main payload of the STSAT-3, which will be launched in late 2012. The main objective of the EOC is to test the operation of Korean IR technology in space, so we have designed the optical and mechanical system of the EOC to fit the IR detector system. We have assembled the flight model (FM of EOC and performed environment tests successfully. The EOC is now ready to be integrated into the satellite system waiting for operation in space, as planned.

  2. Earth Observation for the Preservation of the Bacalar Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Raffaella; Iervolino, Pasquale; Freemantle, Terri; Spittle, Stephen; Minchella, Andrea; Marti, Paula; Napiorkowska, Milena; Howard, Gemma; Hernandez Arana, Hector; Cabrera Alvarado, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Near-Real-Time applications have been designed to monitor the impact of human activities in the Bacalar region in Mexico. In particular, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical images have been used for this purpose and satellite derived products have been created to study urban growth, change of mangrove cover over time, and land use. The Earth Observation (EO) derived products have been integrated into a web-based geospatial data platform developed under the project, with the aim of allowing ease of data visualisation and manipulation.

  3. Interfacial scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) of chalcogenide/metal hybrid nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saad, Mahmoud M.; Abdallah, Tamer [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt); Easawi, Khalid; Negm, Sohair [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering (Shoubra), Benha University (Egypt); Talaat, Hassan, E-mail: hassantalaat@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Comparing band gaps values obtained optically with STS. • Comparing direct imaging with calculated dimensions. • STS determination of the interfacial band bending of metal/chalcogenide. - Abstract: The electronic structure at the interface of chalcogenide/metal hybrid nanostructure (CdSe–Au tipped) had been studied by UHV scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) technique at room temperature. This nanostructure was synthesized by a phase transfer chemical method. The optical absorption of this hybrid nanostructure was recorded, and the application of the effective mass approximation (EMA) model gave dimensions that were confirmed by the direct measurements using the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) as well as the high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The energy band gap obtained by STS agrees with the values obtained from the optical absorption. Moreover, the STS at the interface of CdSe–Au tipped hybrid nanostructure between CdSe of size about 4.1 ± 0.19 nm and Au tip of size about 3.5 ± 0.29 nm shows a band bending about 0.18 ± 0.03 eV in CdSe down in the direction of the interface. Such a result gives a direct observation of the electron accumulation at the interface of CdSe–Au tipped hybrid nanostructure, consistent with its energy band diagram. The presence of the electron accumulation at the interface of chalcogenides with metals has an important implication for hybrid nanoelectronic devices and the newly developed plasmon/chalcogenide photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

  4. Naval EarthMap Observer: overview and data processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Jeffrey H.; Davis, Curtiss O.; Carney, Megan; Clamons, Dean; Gao, Bo-Cai; Gillis, David; Kappus, Mary E.; Lamela, G.; Montes, Marcos J.; Palmadesso, Peter J.; Rhea, J.; Snyder, William A.

    1999-12-01

    We present an overview of the Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO) spacecraft and then focus on the processing of NEMO data both on-board the spacecraft and on the ground. The NEMO spacecraft provides for Joint Naval needs and demonstrates the use of hyperspectral imagery for the characterization of the littoral environment and for littoral ocean model development. NEMO is being funded jointly by the U.S. government and commercial partners. The Coastal Ocean Imaging Spectrometer (COIS) is the primary instrument on the NEMO and covers the spectral range from 400 to 2500 nm at 10-nm resolution with either 30 or 60 m work GSD. The hyperspectral data is processed on-board the NEMO using NRL's Optical Real-time Automated Spectral Identification System (ORASIS) algorithm that provides for real time analysis, feature extraction and greater than 10:1 data compression. The high compression factor allows for ground coverage of greater than 106 km2/day. Calibration of the sensor is done with a combination of moon imaging, using an onboard light source and vicarious calibration using a number of earth sites being monitored for that purpose. The data will be atmospherically corrected using ATREM. Algorithms will also be available to determine water clarity, bathymetry and bottom type.

  5. Enhancing Earth Observation and Modeling for Tsunami Disaster Response and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimura, Shunichi; Post, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    In the aftermath of catastrophic natural disasters, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, our society has experienced significant difficulties in assessing disaster impact in the limited amount of time. In recent years, the quality of satellite sensors and access to and use of satellite imagery and services has greatly improved. More and more space agencies have embraced data-sharing policies that facilitate access to archived and up-to-date imagery. Tremendous progress has been achieved through the continuous development of powerful algorithms and software packages to manage and process geospatial data and to disseminate imagery and geospatial datasets in near-real time via geo-web-services, which can be used in disaster-risk management and emergency response efforts. Satellite Earth observations now offer consistent coverage and scope to provide a synoptic overview of large areas, repeated regularly. These can be used to compare risk across different countries, day and night, in all weather conditions, and in trans-boundary areas. On the other hand, with use of modern computing power and advanced sensor networks, the great advances of real-time simulation have been achieved. The data and information derived from satellite Earth observations, integrated with in situ information and simulation modeling provides unique value and the necessary complement to socio-economic data. Emphasis also needs to be placed on ensuring space-based data and information are used in existing and planned national and local disaster risk management systems, together with other data and information sources as a way to strengthen the resilience of communities. Through the case studies of the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami disaster, we aim to discuss how earth observations and modeling, in combination with local, in situ data and information sources, can support the decision-making process before, during and after a disaster strikes.

  6. A compounded rare-earth iron garnet single crystal exhibiting stable Faraday rotation against wavelength and temperature variation in the 1.55 μm band

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.C.; Huang, M.; Li Miao

    2006-01-01

    The Bi, Tb and Yb partially substituted iron garnet bulk single crystals of Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 were grown by using Bi 2 O 3 /B 2 O 3 as flux and accelerated crucible rotation technique for single-crystal growth. Faraday rotation (FR) spectra showed that the specific FR of the (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 )Fe 5 O 12 crystal under magnetic field at saturation was measured to be about -1617 o /cm at λ=1.55 μm, Faraday rotation wavelength coefficient (FWC, 0.009%/nm) in the wavelength range of 1.50-1.62 μm and Faraday rotation temperature coefficient (FTC, 3.92x10 -5 /K) at λ=1.55 μm were even smaller than that of YIG. It is proven that through combining two types of Bi-substituted rare-earth iron garnets with opposite FWC and FTC signs, the compound rare-earth iron garnets with low FWC and FTC may be obtained due to the compensation effect. The saturation magnetization of (Tb 0.91 Yb 1.38 Bi 0.71 ) Fe 5 O 12 crystal is 0.48x10 6 A/M and is also much smaller than that of YIG. We have found empirically that there is a simple relationship between the FR θ f (x) and Bi content x for Tb 3- x - y Yb y Bi x Fe 5 O 12 , which is given by θ f (x)=(-2759x+400) o /cm

  7. The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

    2012-12-01

    Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote

  8. Results from Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. S.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Hansen, C. J.; Janssen, M. A.; Adriani, A.; Gladstone, R.; Bagenal, F.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Momary, T.; Payne, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Juno mission has promoted and coordinated a network of Earth-based observations, including both space- and ground-based facilities, to extend and enhance observations made by the Juno mission. The spectral region and timeline of all of these observations are summarized in the web site: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations. Among the earliest of these were observation of Jovian auroral phenomena at X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and measurements of Jovian synchrotron radiation from the Earth simultaneously with the measurement of properties of the upstream solar wind described elsewhere in this meeting. Other observations of significance to the magnetosphere measured the mass loading from Io by tracking its observed volcanic activity and the opacity of its torus. Observations of Jupiter's neutral atmosphere included observations of reflected sunlight from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared and thermal emission from 5 microns through the radio region. The point of these measurements is to relate properties of the deep atmosphere that are the focus of Juno's mission to the state of the "weather layer" at much higher atmospheric levels. These observations cover spectral regions not included in Juno's instrumentation, provide spatial context for Juno's often spatially limited coverage of Jupiter, and they describe the evolution of atmospheric features in time that are measured only once by Juno. We will summarize the results of measurements during the approach phase of the mission that characterized the state of the atmosphere, as well as observations made by Juno and the supporting campaign during Juno's perijoves 1 (August 27), 2 (October 19), 3 (November 2), 4 (November 15), and 5 (November 30). The Juno mission also benefited from the enlistment of a network of dedicated amateur astronomers who, besides providing input needed for public operation of the JunoCam visible camera, tracked the evolution of features in Jupiter

  9. Wiring Damage Analyses for STS OV-103

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Walter, III

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the Shuttle Program s belief that Space Transportation System (STS) wiring damage occurrences are random, that is, a constant occurrence rate. Using Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA)-derived data for STS Space Shuttle OV-103, wiring damage was observed to increase over the vehicle s life. Causal factors could include wiring physical deterioration, maintenance and inspection induced damage, and inspection process changes resulting in more damage events being reported. Induced damage effects cannot be resolved with existent data. Growth analysis (using Crow-AMSAA, or CA) resolved maintenance/inspection effects (e.g., heightened awareness) on all wire damages and indicated an overall increase since Challenger Return-to-Flight (RTF). An increasing failure or occurrence rate per flight cycle was seen for each wire damage mode; these (individual) rates were not affected by inspection process effects, within statistical error.

  10. CubeSat Nighttime Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pack, D. W.; Hardy, B. S.; Longcore, T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite monitoring of visible emissions at night has been established as a useful capability for environmental monitoring and mapping the global human footprint. Pioneering work using Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP) sensors has been followed by new work using the more capable Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Beginning in 2014, we have been investigating the ability of small visible light cameras on CubeSats to contribute to nighttime Earth science studies via point-and-stare imaging. This paper summarizes our recent research using a common suite of simple visible cameras on several AeroCube satellites to carry out nighttime observations of urban areas and natural gas flares, nighttime weather (including lighting), and fishing fleet lights. Example results include: urban image examples, the utility of color imagery, urban lighting change detection, and multi-frame sequences imaging nighttime weather and large ocean areas with extensive fishing vessel lights. Our results show the potential for CubeSat sensors to improve monitoring of urban growth, light pollution, energy usage, the urban-wildland interface, the improvement of electrical power grids in developing countries, light-induced fisheries, and oil industry flare activity. In addition to orbital results, the nighttime imaging capabilities of new CubeSat sensors scheduled for launch in October 2017 are discussed.

  11. Observing the Earth from an Astronaut's View - Applied Remote Sensing in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, Andreas; Hodam, Henryk; Menz, Gunter; Kerstin, Voß

    2015-04-01

    Since spring 2014, NASA conducts the High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) mission at the International Space Station (ISS). HDEV consists of four cameras mounted at ESA's Columbus laboratory. They continuously observe our earth in three different perspectives. Hence, they provide not only footage showing the Sun and the Moon rising and setting but also regular images of landscapes that are difficult to access, such as mountain ranges, deserts, and tropical rainforests. The German educational project "Columbus Eye", which is executed by the University of Bonn and is funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), aims at the implementation of the HDEV imagery and videos in a teaching portal: www.columbuseye.uni-bonn.de. Pupils should be motivated to work with the footage in order to learn about pattern and processes of the coupled human-environment system like volcano eruptions or deforestation. The material is developed on the experiences of the FIS (German abbreviation for "Remote Sensing in Schools") project and its learning portal (www.fis.uni-bonn.de/en). Recognizing that in-depth use of satellite imagery can only be achieved by the means of computer aided learning methods, a sizeable number of e-Learning contents in German and English have been created throughout the last 7 years since FIS' kickoff. The talk presents the educational valorization of ISS and satellite borne imagery data as well as their interactive implementation for teachers and pupils in both learning portals. It will be shown which possibilities the topic of earth observation from space holds ready for teaching the regular STEM curricula. A report of first experiences of a nationwide road show accompanying the mission of the ESA astronaut Alexander Gerst will be given. Among others it involved an event during which pupils from a secondary school in North Rhine-Westphalia have talked to the astronaut via ham radio. Accordingly, the presentation addresses the question of how synergies of human

  12. Implementing earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders for water resource and climate modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegh, E.; Dellwik, Ebba; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses preliminary remote sensing (MODIS) based hydrological modelling results for the Danish island Sjælland (7330 km2) in relation to project objectives and methodologies of a new research project “Implementing Earth observation and advanced satellite based atmospheric sounders....... For this purpose, a) internal catchment processes will be studied using a Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) system, b) Earth observations will be used to upscale from field to regional scales, and c) at the largest scale, satellite based atmospheric sounders and meso-scale climate modelling will be used...

  13. STS-95 Mission Specialist Duque suits up during TCDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, representing the European Space Agency, suits up in the Operations and Checkout Building prior to his trip to Launch Pad 39-B. Duque and the rest of the STS-95 crew are at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) which includes mission familiarization activities, emergency egress training, and a simulated main engine cutoff. The other crew members are Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai (M.D., Ph.D.), representing the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Following the TCDT, the crew will be returning to Houston for final flight preparations.

  14. Pedro Duque arrives at KSC for the STS-95 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), arrives at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet as part of final preparations for launch. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7. The other STS-95 crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).

  15. Mineral evolution and Earth history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Dwight C.

    2015-01-01

    The field of mineral evolution—a merger of mineralogy and Earth history—coalesced in 2008 with the first of several global syntheses by Robert Hazen and coworkers in the American Mineralogist. They showed that the cumulative abundance of mineral species has a stepwise trend with first appearances tied to various transitions in Earth history such as the end of planetary accretion at ca. 4.55 Ga and the onset of bio-mediated mineralogy at ca. >2.5 Ga. A global age distribution is best established for zircon. Observed abundance of zircon fluctuates through more than an order of magnitude during successive supercontinent cycles. The pulse of the Earth is also recorded, albeit imperfectly, by the 87Sr/86Sr composition of marine biogenic calcite; the Sr-isotopic ratio of this mineral reflects the balance of inputs of primitive strontium at mid-ocean ridges and evolved strontium that drains off the continents. A global mineral evolution database, currently in the works, will greatly facilitate the compilation and analysis of extant data and the expansion of research in mineralogy outside its traditional bounds and into more interdisciplinary realms.

  16. Transforming Science Data for GIS: How to Find and Use NASA Earth Observation Data Without Being a Rocket Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Ross; Peters, Byron; Berrick, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    NASAs Earth Observing System Data Information System (EOSDIS) manages Earth Observation satellites and the Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), where the data is stored and processed. The challenge is that Earth Observation data is complicated. There is plenty of data available, however, the science teams have had a top-down approach: define what it is you are trying to study -select a set of satellite(s) and sensor(s), and drill down for the data.Our alternative is to take a bottom-up approach using eight environmental fields of interest as defined by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) called Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs): Disaster Resilience (DR) Public Health Surveillance (PHS) Energy and Mineral Resource Management (EMRM) Water Resources Management (WRM) Infrastructure and Transport Management (ITM) Sustainable Urban Development (SUD) Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture (FSSA) Biodiversity and Ecosystems Sustainability (BES).

  17. A map of the large day-night temperature gradient of a super-Earth exoplanet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michael; de Wit, Julien; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Bolmont, Emeline; Heng, Kevin; Kataria, Tiffany; Lewis, Nikole; Hu, Renyu; Krick, Jessica; Stamenković, Vlada; Benneke, Björn; Kane, Stephen; Queloz, Didier

    2016-04-14

    Over the past decade, observations of giant exoplanets (Jupiter-size) have provided key insights into their atmospheres, but the properties of lower-mass exoplanets (sub-Neptune) remain largely unconstrained because of the challenges of observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe the spectra of super-Earths--exoplanets with masses of one to ten times that of Earth--have so far revealed only featureless spectra. Here we report a longitudinal thermal brightness map of the nearby transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e (refs 4, 5) revealing highly asymmetric dayside thermal emission and a strong day-night temperature contrast. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the infrared revealed a modulation of the thermal flux as 55 Cancri e revolves around its star in a tidally locked configuration. These observations reveal a hot spot that is located 41 ± 12 degrees east of the substellar point (the point at which incident light from the star is perpendicular to the surface of the planet). From the orbital phase curve, we also constrain the nightside brightness temperature of the planet to 1,380 ± 400 kelvin and the temperature of the warmest hemisphere (centred on the hot spot) to be about 1,300 kelvin hotter (2,700 ± 270 kelvin) at a wavelength of 4.5 micrometres, which indicates inefficient heat redistribution from the dayside to the nightside. Our observations are consistent with either an optically thick atmosphere with heat recirculation confined to the planetary dayside, or a planet devoid of atmosphere with low-viscosity magma flows at the surface.

  18. Determining characteristics of artificial near-Earth objects using observability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alex M.; Frueh, Carolin

    2018-03-01

    Observability analysis is a method for determining whether a chosen state of a system can be determined from the output or measurements. Knowledge of state information availability resulting from observability analysis leads to improved sensor tasking for observation of orbital debris and better control of active spacecraft. This research performs numerical observability analysis of artificial near-Earth objects. Analysis of linearization methods and state transition matrices is performed to determine the viability of applying linear observability methods to the nonlinear orbit problem. Furthermore, pre-whitening is implemented to reformulate classical observability analysis. In addition, the state in observability analysis is typically composed of position and velocity; however, including object characteristics beyond position and velocity can be crucial for precise orbit propagation. For example, solar radiation pressure has a significant impact on the orbit of high area-to-mass ratio objects in geosynchronous orbit. Therefore, determining the time required for solar radiation pressure parameters to become observable is important for understanding debris objects. In order to compare observability analysis results with and without measurement noise and an extended state, quantitative measures of observability are investigated and implemented.

  19. STS-95 crew members Duque and Mukai check out slidewire basket

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39-B, STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain (left) and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai look over the gate for the slidewire basket, part of the emergency egress system on the pad. Mukai represents the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), and Duque the European Space Agency (ESA). The STS-95 crew are at KSC to participate in a Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) which includes mission familiarization activities, emergency egress training, and a simulated main engine cut-off exercise. Other STS-95 crew members are Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Payload Specialists John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, and Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. Following the TCDT, the crew will be returning to Houston for final flight preparations.

  20. Enabling the Use of Earth Observation Data for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa with the Water Observation and Information System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzinski, Radoslaw; Kass, Steve; Huber, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The Water Observation and Information System (WOIS) is an open source software tool for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner using Earth Observation (EO) data. The WOIS has been developed by, among others, the authors of this paper under the TIGER......-NET project, which is a major component of the TIGER initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA) and whose main goal is to support the African Earth Observation Capacity for Water Resource Monitoring. TIGER-NET aims to support the satellite-based assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed...... to cross-border basin levels through the provision of a free and powerful software package, with associated capacity building, to African authorities. More than 28 EO data processing solutions for water resource management tasks have been developed, in correspondence with the requirements...

  1. Land and Atmosphere Near-Real-Time Capability for Earth Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in availability and usage of near-real-time data from satellite sensors. The EOSDIS (Earth Observing System Data and Information System) was not originally designed to provide data with sufficiently low latency to satisfy the requirements for near-real-time users. The EOS (Earth Observing System) instruments aboard the Terra, Aqua and Aura satellites make global measurements daily, which are processed into higher-level 'standard' products within 8-40 hours of observation and then made available to users, primarily earth science researchers. However, applications users, operational agencies, and even researchers desire EOS products in near-real-time to support research and applications, including numerical weather and climate prediction and forecasting, monitoring of natural hazards, ecological/invasive species, agriculture, air quality, disaster relief and homeland security. These users often need data much sooner than routine science processing allows, usually within 3 hours, and are willing to trade science product quality for timely access. While Direct Broadcast provides more timely access to data, it does not provide global coverage. In 2002, a joint initiative between NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), and the DOD (Department of Defense) was undertaken to provide data from EOS instruments in near-real-time. The NRTPE (Near Real Time Processing Effort) provided products within 3 hours of observation on a best-effort basis. As the popularity of these near-real-time products and applications grew, multiple near-real-time systems began to spring up such as the Rapid Response System. In recognizing the dependence of customers on this data and the need for highly reliable and timely data access, NASA's Earth Science Division sponsored the Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS)-led development of a new near-real-time system called

  2. Qualitative Validation of the IMM Model for ISS and STS Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, E.; Walton, M.; Reyes, D.; Boley, L.; Saile, L.; Young, M.; Arellano, J.; Garcia, Y.; Myers, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    To validate and further improve the Integrated Medical Model (IMM), medical event data were obtained from 32 ISS and 122 STS person-missions. Using the crew characteristics from these observed missions, IMM v4.0 was used to forecast medical events and medical resource utilization. The IMM medical condition incidence values were compared to the actual observed medical event incidence values, and the IMM forecasted medical resource utilization was compared to actual observed medical resource utilization. Qualitative comparisons of these parameters were conducted for both the ISS and STS programs. The results of these analyses will provide validation of IMM v4.0 and reveal areas of the model requiring adjustments to improve the overall accuracy of IMM outputs. This validation effort should result in enhanced credibility of the IMM and improved confidence in the use of IMM as a decision support tool for human space flight.

  3. Understanding Interdependencies between Heterogeneous Earth Observation Systems When Applied to Federal Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, J.; Sylak-Glassman, E.

    2017-12-01

    We will present a method for assessing interdependencies between heterogeneous Earth observation (EO) systems when applied to key Federal objectives. Using data from the National Earth Observation Assessment (EOA), we present a case study that examines the frequency that measurements from each of the Landsat 8 sensors are used in conjunction with heterogeneous measurements from other Earth observation sensors to develop data and information products. This EOA data allows us to map the most frequent interactions between Landsat measurements and measurements from other sensors, identify high-impact data and information products where these interdependencies occur, and identify where these combined measurements contribute most to meeting a key Federal objective within one of the 13 Societal Benefit Areas used in the EOA study. Using a value-tree framework to trace the application of data from EO systems to weighted key Federal objectives within the EOA study, we are able to estimate relative contribution of individual EO systems to meeting those objectives, as well as the interdependencies between measurements from all EO systems within the EOA study. The analysis relies on a modified Delphi method to elicit relative levels of reliance on individual measurements from EO systems, including combinations of measurements, from subject matter experts. This results in the identification of a representative portfolio of all EO systems used to meet key Federal objectives. Understanding the interdependencies among a heterogeneous set of measurements that modify the impact of any one individual measurement on meeting a key Federal objective, especially if the measurements originate from multiple agencies or state/local/tribal, international, academic, and commercial sources, can impact agency decision-making regarding mission requirements and inform understanding of user needs.

  4. The Importance of Earth Observations and Data Collaboration within Environmental Intelligence Supporting Arctic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Within the IARPC Collaboration Team activities of 2016, Arctic in-situ and remote earth observations advanced topics such as :1) exploring the role for new and innovative autonomous observing technologies in the Arctic; 2) advancing catalytic national and international community based observing efforts in support of the National Strategy for the Arctic Region; and 3) enhancing the use of discovery tools for observing system collaboration such as the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Arctic Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA) and the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project geo reference visualization decision support and exploitation internet based tools. Critical to the success of these earth observations for both in-situ and remote systems is the emerging of new and innovative data collection technologies and comprehensive modeling as well as enhanced communications and cyber infrastructure capabilities which effectively assimilate and dissemination many environmental intelligence products in a timely manner. The Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE) project is well positioned to greatly enhance user capabilities for accessing, organizing, visualizing, sharing and producing collaborative knowledge for the Arctic.

  5. Performance measures in the earth observations commercialization applications program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1996-03-01

    Performance measures in the Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP) are key to its success and include net profitability; enhancements to industry productivity through generic innovations in industry practices, standards, and protocols; and documented contributions to public policy governing the newly developing remote sensing industry. Because EOCAP requires company co-funding, both parties to the agreement (the government and the corporate partner) have incentives to pursue these goals. Further strengthening progress towards these goals are requirements for business plans in the company's EOCAP proposal, detailed scrutiny given these plans during proposal selection, and regularly documented progress reports during project implementation.

  6. Towards the creation of a European Network of Earth Observation Networks within GEO. The ConnectinGEO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; Menard, Lionel; Wald, Lucien; Nativi, Stefano; Plag, Hans-Peter; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Nüst, Daniel; Jirka, Simon; Pearlman, Jay; De Maziere, Martine

    2015-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is a new H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. ConnectinGEO aims to facilitate a broader and more accessible knowledge base to support the needs of GEO, its Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) and the users of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). A broad range of subjects from climate, natural resources and raw materials, to the emerging UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be addressed. The project will generate a prioritized list of critical gaps within available observation data and models to translate observations into practice-relevant knowledge, based on stakeholder consultation and systematic analysis. Ultimately, it will increase coherency of European observation networks, increase the use of Earth observations for assessments and forecasts and inform the planning for future observation systems. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed by project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the space-based, airborne and in-situ observations European networks (e.g. EPOS, EMSO and GROOM, etc), representatives of the industry sector and European and national funding agencies, in particular those participating in the future ERA-PlaNET. At the beginning, the ENEON will be created and managed by the project. Then the management will be transferred to the network itself to ensure

  7. The Nimbus satellites - Pioneering earth observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carolynne

    1990-01-01

    The many scientific achievements of the Nimbus series of seven satellites for low-altitude atmospheric research and global weather surveillance are reviewed. The series provides information on fishery resources, weather modeling, atmospheric pollution monitoring, earth's radiation budget, ozone monitoring, ocean dynamics, and the effects of cloudiness. Data produced by the forty-eight instruments and sensors flown on the satellites are applied in the fields of oceanography, hydrology, geology, geomorphology, geography, cartography, agriculture and meteorology. The instruments include the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (which depicts phytoplankton concentrations in coastal areas), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (which measures sea-surface temperatures and sea-surface wind-speed), and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (which provides information on total amounts of ozone in the earth's atmosphere).

  8. Steering operational synergies in terrestrial observation networks: opportunity for advancing Earth system dynamics modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Baatz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER, Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs, and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration. From this survey overview of data applications in the context of LTER and CZO research, we identified three challenges: (1 widen application of terrestrial observation network data in Earth system modelling, (2 develop integrated Earth system models that incorporate process representation and data of multiple disciplines, and (3 identify complementarity in measured variables and spatial extent, and promoting synergies in the existing observational networks. These challenges lead to perspectives and recommendations for an improved dialogue between the observation networks and the ESD modelling community, including co-location of sites in the existing networks and further formalizing these recommendations among these communities. Developing these synergies will enable cross-site and cross-network comparison and synthesis studies, which will help produce insights around organizing principles, classifications, and general rules of coupling processes with environmental conditions.

  9. Steering operational synergies in terrestrial observation networks: opportunity for advancing Earth system dynamics modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baatz, Roland; Sullivan, Pamela L.; Li, Li; Weintraub, Samantha R.; Loescher, Henry W.; Mirtl, Michael; Groffman, Peter M.; Wall, Diana H.; Young, Michael; White, Tim; Wen, Hang; Zacharias, Steffen; Kühn, Ingolf; Tang, Jianwu; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Braud, Isabelle; Flores, Alejandro N.; Kumar, Praveen; Lin, Henry; Ghezzehei, Teamrat; Jones, Julia; Gholz, Henry L.; Vereecken, Harry; Van Looy, Kris

    2018-05-01

    Advancing our understanding of Earth system dynamics (ESD) depends on the development of models and other analytical tools that apply physical, biological, and chemical data. This ambition to increase understanding and develop models of ESD based on site observations was the stimulus for creating the networks of Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER), Critical Zone Observatories (CZOs), and others. We organized a survey, the results of which identified pressing gaps in data availability from these networks, in particular for the future development and evaluation of models that represent ESD processes, and provide insights for improvement in both data collection and model integration. From this survey overview of data applications in the context of LTER and CZO research, we identified three challenges: (1) widen application of terrestrial observation network data in Earth system modelling, (2) develop integrated Earth system models that incorporate process representation and data of multiple disciplines, and (3) identify complementarity in measured variables and spatial extent, and promoting synergies in the existing observational networks. These challenges lead to perspectives and recommendations for an improved dialogue between the observation networks and the ESD modelling community, including co-location of sites in the existing networks and further formalizing these recommendations among these communities. Developing these synergies will enable cross-site and cross-network comparison and synthesis studies, which will help produce insights around organizing principles, classifications, and general rules of coupling processes with environmental conditions.

  10. High-resolution sensing for precision agriculture: from Earth-observing satellites to unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Matthew F.; Houborg, Rasmus; Lucieer, Arko

    2016-10-01

    With global population projected to approach 9 billion by 2050, it has been estimated that a 40% increase in cereal production will be required to satisfy the worlds growing nutritional demands. Any such increases in agricultural productivity are likely to occur within a system that has limited room for growth and in a world with a climate that is different from that of today. Fundamental to achieving food and water security, is the capacity to monitor the health and condition of agricultural systems. While space-agency based satellites have provided the backbone for earth observation over the last few decades, many developments in the field of high-resolution earth observation have been advanced by the commercial sector. These advances relate not just to technological developments in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), but also the advent of nano-satellite constellations that offer a radical shift in the way earth observations are now being retrieved. Such technologies present opportunities for improving our description of the water, energy and carbon cycles. Efforts towards developing new observational techniques and interpretative frameworks are required to provide the tools and information needed to improve the management and security of agricultural and related sectors. These developments are one of the surest ways to better manage, protect and preserve national food and water resources. Here we review the capabilities of recently deployed satellite systems and UAVs and examine their potential for application in precision agriculture.

  11. High-resolution sensing for precision agriculture: from Earth-observing satellites to unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2016-10-25

    With global population projected to approach 9 billion by 2050, it has been estimated that a 40% increase in cereal production will be required to satisfy the worlds growing nutritional demands. Any such increases in agricultural productivity are likely to occur within a system that has limited room for growth and in a world with a climate that is different from that of today. Fundamental to achieving food and water security, is the capacity to monitor the health and condition of agricultural systems. While space-Agency based satellites have provided the backbone for earth observation over the last few decades, many developments in the field of high-resolution earth observation have been advanced by the commercial sector. These advances relate not just to technological developments in the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), but also the advent of nano-satellite constellations that offer a radical shift in the way earth observations are now being retrieved. Such technologies present opportunities for improving our description of the water, energy and carbon cycles. Efforts towards developing new observational techniques and interpretative frameworks are required to provide the tools and information needed to improve the management and security of agricultural and related sectors. These developments are one of the surest ways to better manage, protect and preserve national food and water resources. Here we review the capabilities of recently deployed satellite systems and UAVs and examine their potential for application in precision agriculture.

  12. Integrating NASA Earth Observations into the Global Indicator Framework for Monitoring the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepps, G.; Gotschalk, E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M. L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Rogers, L.; Ross, K. W.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program conducts rapid 10-week feasibility projects that build decision makers' capacity to utilize NASA Earth observations in their decision making. Teams, in collaboration with partner organizations, conduct projects that create end products such as maps, analyses, and automated tools tailored for their partners' specific decision making needs. These projects illustrate the varied applications about which Earth observations can assist in making better informed decisions, such topics as land use changes, ecological forecasting, public health, and species habitats. As a capacity building program, DEVELOP is interested in understanding how these end products are utilized once the project is over and if Earth observations become a regular tool in the partner's decision making toolkit. While DEVELOP's niche is short-term projects, to assess the impacts of these projects, a longer-term scale is needed. As a result, DEVELOP has created a project strength metrics, and partner assessments, pre- and post-project, as well as a follow up form. This presentation explores the challenges in both quantitative and qualitative assessments of valuing the contributions of these Earth observation tools. This proposal lays out the assessment framework created within the program, and illustrates case studies in which projects have been assessed and long-term partner use of tools examined and quantified.

  13. Interoperability And Value Added To Earth Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperi, J.

    2012-04-01

    Geospatial web services technology has provided a new means for geospatial data interoperability. Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services such as Web Map Service (WMS) to request maps on the Internet, Web Feature Service (WFS) to exchange vectors or Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) to search for geospatialized data have been widely adopted in the Geosciences community in general and in the remote sensing community in particular. These services make Earth Observation data available to a wider range of public users than ever before. The mapshup web client offers an innovative and efficient user interface that takes advantage of the power of interoperability. This presentation will demonstrate how mapshup can be effectively used in the context of natural disasters management.

  14. Observing the Earth from afar with NASA's Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, M. M.; Boller, R. A.; King, B. A.; Baynes, K.; Rice, Z.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Worldview interactive web map application delivers global, near real-time imagery from NASA's fleet of Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites. Within hours of satellite overpass, discover where the latest wildfires, severe storms, volcanic eruptions, dust and haze, ice shelves calving as well as many other events are occurring around the world. Near real-time imagery is made available in Worldview through the Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) via the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS). This poster will explore new near real-time imagery available in Worldview, the current ways in which the imagery is used in research, the news and social media and future improvements to Worldview that will enhance the availability and viewing of NASA EOS imagery.

  15. STS-78 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  16. Measurement of particle directions in low earth orbit with a Timepix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohl, St.; Bergmann, B.; Granja, C.; Pichotka, M.; Polansky, S.; Pospisil, S.; Owens, A.

    2016-01-01

    In Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in space electronic equipment aboard satellites and space crews are exposed to high ionizing radiation levels. To reduce radiation damage and the exposure of astronauts, to improve shielding and to assess dose levels, it is valuable to know the composition of the radiation fields and particle directions. The presented measurements are carried out with the Space Application of Timepix Radiation Monitor (SATRAM). There, a Timepix detector (300 μm thick silicon sensor, pixel pitch 55 μm, 256 × 256 pixels) is attached to the Proba-V, an earth observing satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA). The Timepix detector's capability was used to determine the directions of energetic charged particles and their corresponding stopping powers. Data are continuously taken at an altitude of 820 km on a sun-synchronous orbit. The particles pitch angles with respect to the sensor layer were measured and converted to an Earth Centred Earth Fixed (ECEF) coordinate system. Deviations from an isotropic field are extracted by normalization of the observed angular distributions by a Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation —taking the systematics of the reconstruction algorithm and the pixelation into account.

  17. STS, symmetry and post-truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael

    2017-08-01

    This essay takes up a series of questions about the connection between 'symmetry' in Science and Technology Studies (STS) and 'post-truth' in contemporary politics. A recent editorial in this journal by Sergio Sismondo argues that current discussions of 'post-truth' have little to do with conceptions of 'symmetry' or with concerns about 'epistemic democracy' in STS, while others, such as Steve Fuller and Harry Collins, insist that there are such connections. The present essay discusses a series of questions about the meaning of 'post-truth' and 'symmetry', and the connections of those concepts to each other and to 'epistemic democracy'. The essay ends with a series of other questions about STS and contemporary politics, and an invitation to further discussions.

  18. STS-103 Pilot Scott Kelly during TCDT activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-103 Pilot Scott J. Kelly is ready to take his turn at driving a small armored personnel carrier that is part of emergency egress training during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. Behind him (left) is Mission Specialist Jean-Frangois Clervoy of France, who is with the European Space Agency. At right is Mission Specialist Steven L. Smith. The tracked vehicle could be used by the crew in the event of an emergency at the pad during which the crew must make a quick exit from the area. The TCDT also provides simulated countdown exercises and opportunities to inspect the mission payloads in the orbiter's payload bay. STS-103 is a 'call-up' mission due to the need to replace and repair portions of the Hubble Space Telescope. Although Hubble is operating normally and conducting its scientific observations, only three of its six gyroscopes are working properly. Four EVA's are planned to make the necessary repairs and replacements on the telescope. The other STS-103 crew members are Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr. and Mission Specialists C. Michael Foale (Ph.D.), John M. Grunsfeld (Ph.D.), and Claude Nicollier of Switzerland, who also is with the European Space Agency. The mission is targeted for launch Dec. 6 at 2:37 a.m. EST.

  19. The value of earth observations: methods and findings on the value of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly M.; Serbina, Larisa O.; Richardson, Leslie A.; Ryker, Sarah J.; Newman, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Data from Earth observation systems are used extensively in managing and monitoring natural resources, natural hazards, and the impacts of climate change, but the value of such data can be difficult to estimate, particularly when it is available at no cost. Assessing the socioeconomic and scientific value of these data provides a better understanding of the existing and emerging research, science, and applications related to this information and contributes to the decision making process regarding current and future Earth observation systems. Recent USGS research on Landsat data has advanced the literature in this area by using a variety of methods to estimate value. The results of a 2012 survey of Landsat users, a 2013 requirements assessment, and 2013 case studies of applications of Landsat imagery are discussed.

  20. Earth's transmission spectrum from lunar eclipse observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallé, Enric; Osorio, María Rosa Zapatero; Barrena, Rafael; Montañés-Rodríguez, Pilar; Martín, Eduardo L

    2009-06-11

    Of the 342 planets so far discovered orbiting other stars, 58 'transit' the stellar disk, meaning that they can be detected through a periodic decrease in the flux of starlight. The light from the star passes through the atmosphere of the planet, and in a few cases the basic atmospheric composition of the planet can be estimated. As we get closer to finding analogues of Earth, an important consideration for the characterization of extrasolar planetary atmospheres is what the transmission spectrum of our planet looks like. Here we report the optical and near-infrared transmission spectrum of the Earth, obtained during a lunar eclipse. Some biologically relevant atmospheric features that are weak in the reflection spectrum (such as ozone, molecular oxygen, water, carbon dioxide and methane) are much stronger in the transmission spectrum, and indeed stronger than predicted by modelling. We also find the 'fingerprints' of the Earth's ionosphere and of the major atmospheric constituent, molecular nitrogen (N(2)), which are missing in the reflection spectrum.

  1. On the possibility of space objects invasion observations into the Earth's atmosphere with the help of a multifunctional polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2018-05-01

    Relevance of the tasks associated with the observation of the invasion of space objects into the Earth's atmosphere increases with each passing year. We used astronomical panoramic polarimeter for carrying out of polarimetric observations of objects, that flying into the atmosphere of the Earth from the surrounding outer space.

  2. Facilitating the Easy Use of Earth Observation Data in Earth System Models through CyberConnector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, L.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, C.

    2017-12-01

    Earth system models (ESM) are an important tool used to understand the Earth system and predict its future states. On other hand, Earth observations (EO) provides the current state of the system. EO data are very useful in ESM initialization, verification, validation, and inter-comparison. However, EO data often cannot directly be consumed by ESMs because of the syntactic and semantic mismatches between EO products and ESM requirements. In order to remove the mismatches, scientists normally spend long time to customize EO data for ESM consumption. CyberConnector, a NSF EarthCube building block, is intended to automate the data customization so that scientists can be relieved from the laborious EO data customization. CyberConnector uses web-service-based geospatial processing models (GPM) as the mechanism to automatically customize the EO data into the right products in the right form needed by ESMs. It can support many different ESMs through its standard interfaces. It consists of seven modules: GPM designer, GPM binder, GPM runner, GPM monitor, resource register, order manager, and result display. In CyberConnector, EO data instances and GPMs are independent and loosely coupled. A modeler only needs to create a GPM in the GMP designer for EO data customization. Once the modeler specifies a study area, the designed GPM will be activated and take the temporal and spatial extents as constraints to search the data sources and customize the available EO data into the ESM-acceptable form. The execution of GMP is completely automatic. Currently CyberConnector has been fully developed. In order to validate the feasibility, flexibility, and ESM independence of CyberConnector, three ESMs from different geoscience disciplines, including the Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM), the Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), and the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ), have been experimented with CyberConnector through closely collaborating with modelers. In the experiment

  3. Stephen K. Robinson arrives at KSC for the STS-95 launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, arrives at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet as part of final preparations for launch. The STS-95 mission, targeted for liftoff at 2 p.m. on Oct. 29, includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process. The mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC on Nov. 7. The other STS-95 crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA).

  4. Topology of the European Network of Earth Observation Networks and the need for an European Network of Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; McCallum, Ian; Blonda, Palma; Plag, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed of project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the European space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. This communication presents the complex panorama of Earth Observations Networks in Europe. The list of networks is classified by discipline, variables, geospatial scope, etc. We also capture the membership and relations with other networks and umbrella organizations like GEO. The result is a complex interrelation between networks that can not be clearly expressed in a flat list. Technically the networks can be represented as nodes with relations between them as lines connecting the nodes in a graph. We have chosen RDF as a language and an AllegroGraph 3.3 triple store that is visualized in several ways using for example Gruff 5.7. Our final aim is to identify gaps in the EO Networks and justify the need for a more structured coordination between them.

  5. Evaluating Land-Atmosphere Moisture Feedbacks in Earth System Models With Spaceborne Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, P. A.; Randerson, J. T.; Lawrence, D. M.; Swenson, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a set of metrics for measuring the feedback loop between the land surface moisture state and the atmosphere globally on an interannual time scale. These metrics consider both the forcing of terrestrial water storage (TWS) on subsequent atmospheric conditions as well as the response of TWS to antecedent atmospheric conditions. We designed our metrics to take advantage of more than one decade's worth of satellite observations of TWS from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) along with atmospheric variables from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), and Clouds and the Earths Radiant Energy System (CERES). Metrics derived from spaceborne observations were used to evaluate the strength of the feedback loop in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble (LENS) and in several models that contributed simulations to Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). We found that both forcing and response limbs of the feedback loop were generally stronger in tropical and temperate regions in CMIP5 models and even more so in LENS compared to satellite observations. Our analysis suggests that models may overestimate the strength of the feedbacks between the land surface and the atmosphere, which is consistent with previous studies conducted across different spatial and temporal scales.

  6. Conference on Earth Observation and Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    The NATO Science Committee and its subsidiary Programme Panels provide support for Advanced Research Institutes (ARI) in various fields. The idea is to bring together scientists of a chosen field with the hope that they will achieve a consensus on research direc­ tions for the future, and make recommendations for the benefit of a wider scientific community. Attendance is therefore limited to those whose experience and expertise make the conclusions significant and acceptable to the wider community. Participants are selected on the basis of substantial track records in research or in the synthesis of research results to serve mankind. The proposal for a one-week ARIon Earth Observation and In­ formation Systems was initiated by the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science (SPPOSS). In approving the ARI, the senior NATO Science Committee identified the subject as one of universal impor­ tance, requiring a broad perspective on the development of opera­ tional systems based on successful experimental s...

  7. Big Data in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Chris; Baynes, Katie; McInerney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Approaches that are being pursued for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) data system to address the challenges of Big Data were presented to the NASA Big Data Task Force. Cloud prototypes are underway to tackle the volume challenge of Big Data. However, advances in computer hardware or cloud won't help (much) with variety. Rather, interoperability standards, conventions, and community engagement are the key to addressing variety.

  8. ODM2 (Observation Data Model): The EarthChem Use Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Kerstin; Song, Lulin; Hsu, Leslie; Horsburgh, Jeffrey S.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Mayorga, Emilio; Tarboton, David; Zaslavsky, Ilya

    2014-05-01

    PetDB is an online data system that was created in the late 1990's to serve online a synthesis of published geochemical and petrological data of igneous and metamorphic rocks. PetDB has today reached a volume of 2.5 million analytical values for nearly 70,000 rock samples. PetDB's data model (Lehnert et al., G-Cubed 2000) was designed to store sample-based observational data generated by the analysis of rocks, together with a wide range of metadata documenting provenance of the samples, analytical procedures, data quality, and data source. Attempts to store additional types of geochemical data such as time-series data of seafloor hydrothermal springs and volcanic gases, depth-series data for marine sediments and soils, and mineral or mineral inclusion data revealed the limitations of the schema: the inability to properly record sample hierarchies (for example, a garnet that is included in a diamond that is included in a xenolith that is included in a kimberlite rock sample), inability to properly store time-series data, inability to accommodate classification schemes other than rock lithologies, deficiencies of identifying and documenting datasets that are not part of publications. In order to overcome these deficiencies, PetDB has been developing a new data schema using the ODM2 information model (ODM=Observation Data Model). The development of ODM2 is a collaborative project that leverages the experience of several existing information representations, including PetDB and EarthChem, and the CUAHSI HIS Observations Data Model (ODM), as well as the general specification for encoding observational data called Observations and Measurements (O&M) to develop a uniform information model that seamlessly manages spatially discrete, feature-based earth observations from environmental samples and sample fractions as well as in-situ sensors, and to test its initial implementation in a variety of user scenarios. The O&M model, adopted as an international standard by the Open

  9. Enhanced Formation Flying for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) New Millennium Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Quinn, David

    1997-01-01

    With scientific objectives for Earth observation programs becoming more ambitious and spacecraft becoming more autonomous, the need for new technical approaches on the feasibility of achieving and maintaining formations of spacecraft has come to the forefront. The trend to develop small low cost spacecraft has led many scientists to recognize the advantage of flying several spacecraft in formation, an example of which is shown in the figure below, to achieve the correlated instrument measurements formerly possible only by flying many instruments on a single large platform. Yet, formation flying imposes additional complications on orbit maintenance, especially when each spacecraft has its own orbit requirements. However, advances in automation proposed by GSFC Codes 550 and 712 allow more of the burden in maneuver planning and execution to be placed onboard the spacecraft, mitigating some of the associated operational concerns. The purpose of this analysis is to develop the fundamentals of formation flying mechanics, concepts for understanding the relative motion of free flying spacecraft, and an operational control theory for formation maintenance of the Earth Observing-1 (EO-l) spacecraft that is part of the New Millennium. Results of this development can be used to determine the appropriateness of formation flying for a particular case as well as the operational impacts. Applications to the Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) Earth Observing System (EOS) and New Millennium (NM) were highly considered in analysis and applications. This paper presents the proposed methods for the guidance and control of the EO-1 spacecraft to formation fly with the Landsat-7 spacecraft using an autonomous closed loop three axis navigation control, GPS, and Cross link navigation support. Simulation results using various fidelity levels of modeling, algorithms developed and implemented in MATLAB, and autonomous 'fuzzy logic' control using AutoCon will be presented. The results of these

  10. A High Mass & Low Envelope Fraction for the Warm Neptune K2-55b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney; Sinukoff, Evan; Fulton, Benjamin; Lopez, Eric; Beichman, Charles; Howard, Andrew; Knutson, Heather; Werner, Michael; Schlieder, Joshua; Benneke, Björn; Crossfield, Ian; Isaacson, Howard; Krick, Jessica; Gorjian, Varoujan; Livingston, John; Petigura, Erik; Akeson, Rachel; Batygin, Konstantin; Christiansen, Jessie; Ciardi, David; Crepp, Justin; Jasmine Gonzales, Erica; Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Hirsch, Lea; Kosiarek, Molly; Weiss, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    The NASA K2 mission is using the Kepler spacecraft to search for transiting planets in multiple fields along the ecliptic plane. One of the planets detected by K2 is K2-55b, a warm Neptune in a short-period orbit (2.8 days) around a late K dwarf. We previously obtained near-infrared spectra from IRTF/SpeX to characterize the system and found that the host star K2-55 has a radius of 0.715 (+0.043/-0.040) solar radii, a mass of 0.668 (+/- 0.069) solar masses, and an effective temperature of 4300K (+100/-107). We then combined our updated stellar properties with new fits to the K2 photometry to estimate a planet radius of 4.38 (+0.29/-0.25) Earth radii, confirmed the transit ephemeris using Spitzer/IRAC (GO 11026, PI Werner), and embarked on radial velocity observations with Keck/HIRES to measure the planet mass. Our RV data suggest that K2-55b is much more massive than expected, indicating that the planet has a high density despite having a relatively high mass. The lack of a significant volatile envelope tests current theories of gas giant formation and indicates that K2-55b may have avoided runaway accretion by migration, delayed formation, or inefficient core accretion. We gratefully acknowledge funding from the NASA Sagan Fellowship Program and the NASA K2 Guest Observer Program. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.

  11. Age of the earth and solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manhes, G.

    1977-01-01

    The history of chemical element formation and radiochronology is given. The study of Pb isotope composition evolution enables to estimate the age of the earth. A series of galena of known ages was measured. By means of a model, it is possible to determine the initial isotope composition of Pb on the earth and the age of the earth. On the other hand, the analysis of stony meteorites provides a Pb isotope composition higher than the earth value. A comparison of the data shows a fundamental transition at 4.55 10 9 years [fr

  12. Earth Observation from the International Space Station -Remote Sensing in Schools-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Johannes; Rienow, Andreas; Graw, Valerie; Heinemann, Sascha; Selg, Fabian; Menz, Gunter

    2016-04-01

    Since spring 2014, the NASA High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) mission at the International Space Station (ISS) is online. HDEV consists of four cameras mounted at ESA's Columbus laboratory and is recording the earth 24/7. The educational project 'Columbus Eye - Live-Imagery from the ISS in Schools' has published a learning portal for earth observation from the ISS (www.columbuseye.uni-bonn.de). Besides a video live stream, the portal contains an archive providing spectacular footage, web-GIS and an observatory with interactive materials for school lessons. Columbus Eye is carried out by the University of Bonn and funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Space Administration. Pupils should be motivated to work with the footage in order to learn about patterns and processes of the coupled human-environment system like volcano eruptions or deforestation. The material is developed on the experiences of the FIS (German abbreviation for "Remote Sensing in Schools") project and its learning portal (http://www.fis.uni-bonn.de). Based on the ISS videos three different teaching material types are developed. The simplest teaching type are provided by worksheets, which have a low degree of interactivity. Alongside a short didactical commentary for teachers is included. Additionally, videos, ancillary information, maps, and instructions for interactive school experiments are provided. The observatory contains the second type of the Columbus Eye teaching materials. It requires a high degree of self-organisation and responsibility of the pupils. Thus, the observatory provides the opportunity for pupils to freely construct their own hypotheses based on a spatial analysis tool similar to those provided by commercial software. The third type are comprehensive learning and teaching modules with a high degree of interactivity, including background information, interactive animations, quizzes and different analysis tools (e.g. change detection, classification, polygon or NDVI

  13. First Observations of a Foreshock Bubble at Earth: Implications for Magnetospheric Activity and Energetic Particle Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, D. L.; Omidi, N.; Sibeck, D. G.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-01-01

    Earth?s foreshock, which is the quasi-parallel region upstream of the bow shock, is a unique plasma region capable of generating several kinds of large-scale phenomena, each of which can impact the magnetosphere resulting in global effects. Interestingly, such phenomena have also been observed at planetary foreshocks throughout our solar system. Recently, a new type of foreshock phenomena has been predicted: foreshock bubbles, which are large-scale disruptions of both the foreshock and incident solar wind plasmas that can result in global magnetospheric disturbances. Here we present unprecedented, multi-point observations of foreshock bubbles at Earth using a combination of spacecraft and ground observations primarily from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) mission, and we include detailed analysis of the events? global effects on the magnetosphere and the energetic ions and electrons accelerated by them, potentially by a combination of first and second order Fermi and shock drift acceleration processes. This new phenomena should play a role in energetic particle acceleration at collisionless, quasi-parallel shocks throughout the Universe.

  14. Optical design constrains in triangular Sagnac imaging interferometers for earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barducci, A.; Guzzi, D.; Lastri, C.; Nardino, V.; Pippi, I.

    2017-11-01

    The Italian Space Agency selected the imaging interferometer ALISEO (Aerospace Leap-frog Imaging Stationary interferometer for Earth Observation) as the main payload for a technological optical mission based on the small satellite MIOsat. The simple design of such an instrument, based on Sagnac configuration, makes it a promising for Earth observation missions. The ALISEO instrument acquires an image of 10 Km by 10 Km with a spatial resolution better than 10 m and a spectral resolution of 200 cm-1 (7 nm @ 0.6 μm) in the 0.4 - 1 μm spectral range. ALISEO does not employ any moving part to generate the phase delays between the two interfering beams. The sensor acquires target images modulated by a pattern of autocorrelation functions of the energy coming from each scene pixel, and the resulting fringe pattern remains fixed with respect to the instrument's field-of-view. The complete interferogram of each target location is retrieved by introducing a relative source-observer motion, which allows any image pixels to be observed under different viewing-angles corresponding to different Optical Path Differences (OPDs). In this paper various optical configurations are analyzed in order to meet the mission requirements. Optical configurations are discussed taking into account: detector size, spatial resolution, and entrance pupil aperture. The proposed configurations should avoid vignetting, reduce geometric and chromatic aberrations, and comply with the size and weight constrains requested by space mission. Optical configurations, based on both refractive and reflective focusing elements, are presented and discussed. Finally, some properties pertaining to the selected Sagnac configuration are discussed in conjunction with spectral estimations and data processing.

  15. Training the next generation of Space and Earth Science Engineers and Scientists through student design and development of an Earth Observation Nanosatellite, AlbertaSat-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, B. A.; Bottoms, J.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation addresses the design and developmental process of a Nanosatellite by an interdisciplinary team of undergraduate and graduate students at the University of Alberta. The Satellite, AlbertaSat-1, is the University of Alberta's entry in the Canadian Satellite Design Challenge (CDSC); an initiative to entice Canadian students to contribute to space and earth observation technologies and research. The province of Alberta, while home to a few companies, is very limited in its space industry capacity. The University of Alberta reflects this fact, where one of the major unifying foci of the University is oil, the provinces greatest resource. For students at the U of A, this lack of focus on astronautical, aerospace and space/earth observational research limits their education in these industries/disciplines. A fully student operated project such as AlbertaSat-1 provides this integral experience to almost every discipline. The AlbertaSat-1 team is comprised of students from engineering, physics, chemistry, earth and atmospheric science, business, and computer science. While diverse in discipline, the team is also diverse in experience, spanning all levels from 1st year undergraduate to experienced PhD. Many skill sets are required and the diverse group sees that this is covered and all opinions voiced. Through immersion in the project, students learn quickly and efficiently. The necessity for a flawless product ensures that only the highest quality of work is presented. Students participating must research and understand their own subsystem as well as all others. This overall system view provides the best educational tool, as students are able to see the real impacts of their work on other subsystems. As the project is completely student organized, the participants gain not only technical engineering, space and earth observational education, but experience in operations and financial management. The direct exposure to all aspects of the space and earth

  16. GIONET (GMES Initial Operations Network for Earth Observation Research Training)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, V.; Balzter, H.

    2013-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. Copernicus (previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a joint undertaking of the European Space Agency and the European Commission. It develops fully operational Earth Observation monitoring services for a community of end users from the public and private sector. The first services that are considered fully operational are the land monitoring and emergency monitoring core services. In GIONET, 14 early stage researchers are being trained at PhD level in understanding the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers are based in industry and universities across Europe, as well as receiving the best technical training and scientific education. The training programme through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics. Each topic is carried out by an Early Stage Researcher based in one of the partner organisations and is expected to lead to a PhD degree. The 14 topics are grouped in 5 research themes: Forest monitoring Land cover and change Coastal zone and freshwater monitoring Geohazards and emergency response Climate adaptation and emergency response The methods developed and used in GIONET are as diverse as its research topics. GIONET has already held two summer schools; one at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany), on 'New operational radar satellite applications: Introduction to SAR, Interferometry and Polarimetry for Land Surface Mapping'. The 2nd summer school took place last September at the University of Leicester (UK )on 'Remote sensing of land cover and forest in GMES'. The next Summer School in September 2013

  17. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Roux, A.; Jacquey, C.; Robert, P.; Berthomier, M.; Chust, T.; Grison, B.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D.; Chaston, C. C.; Cully, C. M.; Ergun, B.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, U.; McFadden, J.; Carlson, C.; Larson, D.; Bonnell, J. W.; Mende, S.; Russell, C. T.; Donovan, E.; Mann, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-06-01

    We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=T⊥e/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure) as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996). Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  18. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Le Contel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=T⊥e/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996. Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  19. Cubesats and drones: bridging the spatio-temporal divide for enhanced earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, M. F.; Aragon, B.; Parkes, S. D.; Mascaro, J.; Houborg, R.

    2017-12-01

    In just the last few years, a range of advances in remote sensing technologies have enabled an unprecedented opportunity in earth observation. Parallel developments in cubesats and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have overcome one of the outstanding challenges in observing the land surface: the provision of timely retrievals at a spatial resolution that is sufficiently detailed to make field-level decisions. Planet cubesats have revolutionized observing capacity through their objective of near daily global retrieval. These nano-satellite systems provide high resolution (approx. 3 m) retrievals in red-green-blue and near-infrared wavelengths, offering capacity to develop vegetation metrics for both hydrological and precision agricultural applications. Apart from satellite based advances, nearer to earth technology is being exploited for a range of observation needs. UAVs provide an adaptable platform from which a variety of sensing systems can be deployed. Combinations of optical, thermal, multi- and hyper-spectral systems allow for the estimation of a range of land surface variables, including vegetation structure, vegetation health, land surface temperature and evaporation. Here we explore some of these exciting developments in the context of agricultural hydrology, providing examples of cubesat and UAV imagery that has been used to inform upon crop health and water use. An investigation of the spatial and temporal advantage of these complementary systems is undertaken, with examples of multi-day high-resolution vegetation dynamics from cubesats presented alongside diurnal-cycle responses derived from multiple within-day UAV flights.

  20. Characteristics of solar and heliospheric ion populations observed near earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1984-01-01

    The composition and spectra of ions in solar-energetic-particle and energetic-storm-particle events, of diffuse ions upstream of the earth bow shock, and of ions in deep-geomagnetic-tail plasmoids are characterized in a summary of in situ observations. Data are presented in graphs and tables, and remarkable similarities are noted in the distribution functions of the heliospheric ion populations. The solar wind, acting through acceleration mechanisms associated with shocks and turbulence, is identified as the major plasma source of suprathermal and energetic particles. 33 references

  1. CONSTRUCTION OF AN EARTH MODEL: ANALYSIS OF EXOPLANET LIGHT CURVES AND MAPPING THE NEXT EARTH WITH THE NEW WORLDS OBSERVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakley, P. H. H.; Cash, W.

    2009-01-01

    The orbital light curve of a terrestrial exoplanet will likely contain valuable information about the surface and atmospheric features of the planet, both in its overall shape and hourly variations. We have constructed an empirically based code capable of simulating observations of the Earth from any orientation, at any time of year with continuously updated cloud and snow coverage with a New Worlds Observatory. By simulating these observations over a full orbital revolution at a distance of 10 pc we determine that the detection of an obliquity or seasonal terrain change is possible at low inclinations. In agreement with other studies, a 4 m New Worlds Observer can accurately determine the rotation rate of the planet at a success rate from ∼30% to 80% with only 5 days of observations depending on the signal to noise of the observations. We also attempt simple inversions of these diurnal light curves to sketch a map of the reflecting planet's surface features. This mapping technique is only successful with highly favorable systems and in particular requires that the cloud coverage must be lower than the Earth's average. Our test case of a 2 M + planet at 7 pc distance with low exo-zodiacal light and 25% cloud coverage produced crude, but successful results. Additionally, with these highly favorable systems NWO may be able to discern the presence of liquid surface water (or other smooth surfaces) though it requires a complex detection available only at crescent phases in high inclination systems.

  2. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  3. Earth Observation for Food Security and Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Heike; Mauser, Wolfram; Gernot, Klepper

    2016-08-01

    The global and regional potentials of Earth Observation (EO) to contribute to food security and sustainable agriculture in the 2050-timeframe were analysed in the ESA study EO4Food, whose outcome will be presented (www.EO4Food.org). Emphasis was put on the global societal, economic, environmental and technological megatrends that will create demand for food and shape the future societies. They will also constitute the background for developments in EO for food security and sustainable agriculture. The capabilities of EO in this respect were critically reviewed with three perspectives 1) the role of EO science for society, 2) observables from space and 3) development of future science missions.It was concluded that EO can be pivotal for the further development of food security and sustainable agriculture. EO allows to support the whole economic and societal value chain from farmers through food industry to insurance and financial industry in satisfying demands and at the same time to support society in governing sustainable agriculture through verifyable rules and regulations. It has the potential to become the global source of environmental information that is assimilated into sophisticated environmental management models and is used to make agriculture sustainable.

  4. Big Data challenges and solutions in building the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Paolo; Nativi, Stefano; Santoro, Mattia; Boldrini, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    The Group on Earth Observation (GEO) is a voluntary partnership of governments and international organizations launched in response to calls for action by the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development and by the G8 (Group of Eight) leading industrialized countries. These high-level meetings recognized that international collaboration is essential for exploiting the growing potential of Earth observations to support decision making in an increasingly complex and environmentally stressed world. To this aim is constructing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) on the basis of a 10-Year Implementation Plan for the period 2005 to 2015 when it will become operational. As a large-scale integrated system handling large datasets as those provided by Earth Observation, GEOSS needs to face several challenges related to big data handling and big data infrastructures management. Referring to the traditional multiple Vs characteristics of Big Data (volume, variety, velocity, veracity and visualization) it is evident how most of them can be found in data handled by GEOSS. In particular, concerning Volume, Earth Observation already generates a large amount of data which can be estimated in the range of Petabytes (1015 bytes), with Exabytes (1018) already targeted. Moreover, the challenge is related not only to the data size, but also to the large amount of datasets (not necessarily having a big size) that systems need to manage. Variety is the other main challenge since datasets coming from different sensors, processed for different use-cases are published with highly heterogeneous metadata and data models, through different service interfaces. Innovative multidisciplinary applications need to access and use those datasets in a harmonized way. Moreover Earth Observation data are growing in size and variety at an exceptionally fast rate and new technologies and applications, including crowdsourcing, will even increase data volume and variety in the next future

  5. Constraining Earth's Rheology of the Barents Sea Using Grace Gravity Change Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, W.; Root, B. C.; Tarasov, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Barents Sea region was ice covered during last glacial maximum and experiences Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA). Because of the limited amount of relevant geological and geodetic observations, it is difficult to constrain GIA models for this region. With improved ice sheet models and gravity observations from GRACE, it is possible to better constrain Earth rheology. This study aims to constrain the upper mantle viscosity and elastic lithosphere thickness from GRACE data in the Barents Sea region. The GRACE observations are corrected for current ice melting on Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Frans Joseph Land. A secular trend in gravity rate trend is estimated from the CSR release 5 GRACE data for the period of February 2003 to July 2013. Furthermore, long wavelength effects from distant large mass balance signals such as Greenland ice melting are filtered out. A new high-variance set of ice loading histories from calibrated glaciological modeling are used in the GIA modeling as it is found that ICE-5G over-estimates the observed GIA gravity change in the region. It is found that the rheology structure represented by VM5a results in over-estimation of the observed gravity change in the region for all ice sheet chronologies investigated. Therefore, other rheological Earth models were investigated. The best fitting upper mantle viscosity and elastic lithosphere thickness in the Barents Sea region are 4 (±0.5)*10^20 Pas and 110 (±20) km, respectively. The GRACE satellite mission proves to be a useful constraint in the Barents Sea Region for improving our knowledge on the upper mantle rheology.

  6. Comparative analysis of different sensor data (Landsat-TM and MOMS) for earth observation and impact on future sensor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodechtel, J.; Zilger, J.; Salomonson, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    The missions of the German Modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner (MOMS) aboard two flights of the United States Space Transportation System STS demonstrated the feasibility of a novel concept with regard to both technical and scientific objectives. On account of the successful missions a cooperative study was instituted for comparing MOMS observations with the more familiar operational Landsat-Thematic Mapper data over selected testsites as a means of obtaining some relative measure of performance. This paper summarizes the results obtained and presents the MOMS-02

  7. Production of rare earth-silicon-iron alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, O.K.; Bose, D.K.; Gupta, C.K.

    1987-01-01

    At Metallurgy Division, BARC, improved procedures for producing rare earth-silicon alloys have been investigated. In these methods, reduction of mixed rare earth oxide by a ferro-silicon and aluminium mixture in combination with CaO-MgO flux/CaO-CaF 2 flux have been tried to prepare an alloy product with a higher rare earth recovery at a higher rare earth content than the present commercial production method. The rare earth recovery using CaO-CaF 2 was 85 per cent while in the case of CaO-MgO flux it was 76 per cent. The corresponding rare earth contents in the alloy correspond to 40 per cent and 55 per cent by weight respectively. (author)

  8. Observations of low-frequency radio emissions in the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, P.C.; Kellogg, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    A study is made of electromagnetic radiation in the Earth's magnetosphere in the frequency range between 10 kHz and 80 kHz using data from the University of Minnesota Plasma Wave Experiment aboard the IMP 6 satellite. Two types of radio emissions are investigated. First is the nonthermal continuum radiation, it is found that discrete enhancements above ambient levels are correlated with enhancements of the magnetic substorm index AE and appear to follow the onset of the negative bay feature of the AU index by about 20 min or so. The directions of these discrete source regions of continuum radiation are measured as a function of time, and movement of the source region in a dusk-to-dawn direction is directly observed. This drift motion is used to measure the energy of the generating electrons by a time-of-flight method, and a range between 10 keV and 50 keV is found in agreement with previous studies. A second type of radiation is also observed which correlates with auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) on a time scale of ∼ 1 min. This radiation lies between 10 and 60 kHz with a spectral peak near 30 kHz and is found to have a source direction very near that of the coincident AKR. The lower frequency of the spectral peak, in conjunction with the analysis of the spin-modulated wave data, suggests a source location at a higher elevation than the higher-frequency AKR indicating a source altitude of roughly 3 Earth radii

  9. Flight Test Results of the Earth Observing-1 Advanced Land Imager Advanced Land Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Jeffrey A.; Lencioni, Donald E.; Hearn, David R.; Digenis, Constantine J.

    2002-09-01

    The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) is the primary instrument on the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft (EO-1) and was developed under NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The NMP mission objective is to flight-validate advanced technologies that will enable dramatic improvements in performance, cost, mass, and schedule for future, Landsat-like, Earth Science Enterprise instruments. ALI contains a number of innovative features designed to achieve this objective. These include the basic instrument architecture, which employs a push-broom data collection mode, a wide field-of-view optical design, compact multi-spectral detector arrays, non-cryogenic HgCdTe for the short wave infrared bands, silicon carbide optics, and a multi-level solar calibration technique. The sensor includes detector arrays that operate in ten bands, one panchromatic, six VNIR and three SWIR, spanning the range from 0.433 to 2.35 μm. Launched on November 21, 2000, ALI instrument performance was monitored during its first year on orbit using data collected during solar, lunar, stellar, and earth observations. This paper will provide an overview of EO-1 mission activities during this period. Additionally, the on-orbit spatial and radiometric performance of the instrument will be compared to pre-flight measurements and the temporal stability of ALI will be presented.

  10. Effect of observed micropolar motions on wave propagation in deep Earth minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Rafael; Thomas, Christine; Durand, Stephanie

    2018-03-01

    We provide a method to compute the Cosserat couple modulus for a bridgmanite (MgSiO3 silicate perovskite) solid from frequency gaps observed in Raman experiments. To this aim, we apply micropolar theory which is a generalization of the classical linear elastic theory, where each particle has an intrinsic rotational degree of freedom, called micro-rotation and/or spin, and which depends on the so-called Cosserat couple modulus μc that characterizes the micropolar medium. We investigate both wave propagation and dispersion. The wave propagation simulations in both potassium nitrate (KNO3) and bridgmanite crystal leads to a faster elastic wave propagation as well as to an independent rotational field of motion, called optic mode, which is smaller in amplitude compared to the conventional rotational field. The dispersion analysis predicts that the optic mode only appears above a cutoff frequency, ωr , which has been observed in Raman experiments done at high pressures and temperatures on bridgmanite crystal. The comparison of the cutoff frequency observed in experiments and the micropolar theory enables us to compute for the first time the temperature and pressure dependency of the Cosserat couple modulus μc of bridgmanite. This study thus shows that the micropolar theory can explain particle motions observed in laboratory experiments that were before neglected and that can now be used to constrain the micropolar elastic constants of Earth's mantle like material. This pioneer work aims at encouraging the use of micropolar theory in future works on deep Earth's mantle material by providing Cosserat couple modulus that were not available before.

  11. Can we use Earth Observations to improve monthly water level forecasts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, L. J.; Villarini, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamical-statistical hydrologic forecasting approaches benefit from different strengths in comparison with traditional hydrologic forecasting systems: they are computationally efficient, can integrate and `learn' from a broad selection of input data (e.g., General Circulation Model (GCM) forecasts, Earth Observation time series, teleconnection patterns), and can take advantage of recent progress in machine learning (e.g. multi-model blending, post-processing and ensembling techniques). Recent efforts to develop a dynamical-statistical ensemble approach for forecasting seasonal streamflow using both GCM forecasts and changing land cover have shown promising results over the U.S. Midwest. Here, we use climate forecasts from several GCMs of the North American Multi Model Ensemble (NMME) alongside 15-minute stage time series from the National River Flow Archive (NRFA) and land cover classes extracted from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative 300 m annual Global Land Cover time series. With these data, we conduct systematic long-range probabilistic forecasting of monthly water levels in UK catchments over timescales ranging from one to twelve months ahead. We evaluate the improvement in model fit and model forecasting skill that comes from using land cover classes as predictors in the models. This work opens up new possibilities for combining Earth Observation time series with GCM forecasts to predict a variety of hazards from space using data science techniques.

  12. Hidroroute 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, M.; Eixarch, E.; Ortonobes, C.

    2012-04-01

    "HIDROROUTE 55" Saving water is a recurrent topic for students in Spain because the Mediterranean zone suffers periodically severe droughts. Any student knows it and is able to repeat some basic advices like "take showers instead of baths, or "close the tap when brushing your teeth..." But maybe this is a quite superficial awareness about shortage and saving water. Where does the home flowing water come from? How can we be sure that this water is clean and safe to drink? And, tomorrow or next week, will be there water in our tap? Perhaps working in these questions is a good way to understand how difficult is to get water to our homes. In order to deepen in the question we are preparing a teaching unit titled "Hydro route 55: from the Earth to la Maurina trough the water" on 1rst ESO level students (12 years old) of the secondary public school "Institut les Aymerigues" in Terrassa (Barcelona). Students' tasks will be to search information about the way water gets to their homes, including water cycle, treatment and saving water... This unit belongs to an integrated project with all areas involved (history, mathematics, technology, languages and music) that aims to approach students to different aspects of their zone in Terrassa (La Maurina) and it will be implemented at the end of the second term, just some weeks before the Vienna's meeting. School and teaching team: Institut les Aymerigues is a new school that this year has only 1rst ESO students (12 years old). Teaching staff is engaged in developing an integrated and based on competences curriculum. In this context we integrate English and Science content in a unified teaching schedule of six hours per week for the students. One English teacher and two Science teachers are involved in it. In addition we have three student teachers from "Master of Secondary Teachers Training" that are in charge of preparing the Hydroroute 55 activities with the titular teachers. We illustrate students' tasks such as the

  13. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS): Delivering on the Dream, Today and Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Angelita C.; Johnson, Patricia; Case, Warren F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the successful operations of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites over the past 10 years and the plans for the future. Excellent operations performance has been a key factor in the overall success of EOS. The EOS Program was conceived in the 1980s and began to take shape in the early 1990s. EOS consists of a series of satellites that study the Earth as an interrelated system. It began with the launch of Terra in December 1999, followed by Aqua in May 2002, and Aura in July 2004. A key EOS goal is to provide a long-term continuous data set to enable the science community to develop a better understanding of land, ocean, and atmospheric processes and their interactions. EOS has produced unprecedented amounts of data which are used all over the world free of charge. Mission operations have resulted in data recovery for Terra, Aqua, and Aura that have consistently exceeded mission requirements. The paper describes the ground systems and organizations that control the EOS satellites, capture the raw data, and distribute the processed science data sets. The paper further describes how operations have evolved since 1999. Examples of this evolution include (a) the implementation of new mission safety requirements for orbital debris monitoring; (b) technology upgrades to keep facilities at the state of the art; (c) enhancements to meet changing security requirements; and (d) operations management of the 2 international Earth Observing Constellations of 11 satellites known as the "Morning Constellation" and the "A-Train". The paper concludes with a view into the future based on the latest spacecraft status, lifetime projections, and mission plans.

  14. STS-51B Crew Portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-51B mission included (seated left to right) Robert F. Overmyer, commander; and Frederick D. Gregory, pilot. Standing, left to right, are Don L. Lind, mission specialist; Taylor G. Wang, payload specialist; Norman E. Thagard, mission specialist; William E. Thornton, mission specialist; and Lodewijk van den Berg, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger on April 29, 1985 at 12:02:18 pm (EDT), the STS-51A mission's primary payload was the Spacelab-3.

  15. STS-82 Pilot Scott Horowitz at SLF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz flashes a wide grin for photographers after he lands his T-38 jet at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility. Horowitz and the other six members of the STS-82 crew came from their home base at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX, to spend the last few days before launch at KSC. STS-82 is scheduled for liftoff on Feb. 11 during a 65-minute launch window which opens at 3:56 a.m. EST. The 10-day flight aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery will be the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission.

  16. Light olefins from synthesis gas using ruthenium on rare earth oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce, L.; Hardin, S.; Hoang, M.; Turney, T.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of ruthenium carbonyl, Ru/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ with rare earth oxides of high surface area, >50m/sup 2/g/sup -1/, has been studied. [Ru/sub 3/(μ H)(CO)/sub 10/(μ-OM=)] is formed on holmia, but on lanthana only [Ru(CO)/sub 2/]/sub n/ species are observed. Reduction of the carbonyl ligands takes place at <573K to give catalysts for the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide with activity and selectivity dependent on the particular rare earth oxide and pretreatment. Over ceria, the product is up to 55 wt% C2-5 olefins. A similar selectivity is obtained over lanthana only after redispersion through a reduction-oxidation-reduction cycle

  17. ONSETS AND SPECTRA OF IMPULSIVE SOLAR ENERGETIC ELECTRON EVENTS OBSERVED NEAR THE EARTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontar, Eduard P.; Reid, Hamish A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Impulsive solar energetic electrons are often observed in the interplanetary space near the Earth and have an attractive diagnostic potential for poorly understood solar flare acceleration processes. We investigate the transport of solar flare energetic electrons in the heliospheric plasma to understand the role of transport to the observed onset and spectral properties of the impulsive solar electron events. The propagation of energetic electrons in solar wind plasma is simulated from the acceleration region at the Sun to the Earth, taking into account self-consistent generation and absorption of electrostatic electron plasma (Langmuir) waves, effects of nonuniform plasma, collisions, and Landau damping. The simulations suggest that the beam-driven plasma turbulence and the effects of solar wind density inhomogeneity play a crucial role and lead to the appearance of (1) a spectral break for a single power-law injected electron spectrum, with the spectrum flatter below the break, (2) apparent early onset of low-energy electron injection, and (3) the apparent late maximum of low-energy electron injection. We show that the observed onsets, spectral flattening at low energies, and formation of a break energy at tens of keV is the direct manifestation of wave-particle interactions in nonuniform plasma of a single accelerated electron population with an initial power-law spectrum.

  18. Earth Observations, Models and Geo-Design in Support of SDG Implementation and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, H. P.; Jules-Plag, S.

    2016-12-01

    Implementation and Monitoring of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) requires support from Earth observation and scientific communities. Applying a goal-based approach to determine the data needs to the Targets and Indicators associated with the SDGs demonstrates that integration of environmental with socio-economic and statistical data is required. Large data gaps exist for the built environment. A Geo-Design platform can provide the infrastructure and conceptual model for the data integration. The development of policies and actions to foster the implementation of SDGs in many cases requires research and the development of tools to answer "what if" questions. Here, agent-based models and model webs combined with a Geo-Design platform are promising avenues. This advanced combined infrastructure can also play a crucial role in the necessary capacity building. We will use the example of SDG 5 (Gender equality) to illustrate these approaches. SDG 11 (Sustainable Cities and Communities) is used to underline the cross-goal linkages and the joint benefits of Earth observations, data integration, and modeling tools for multiple SDGs.

  19. What four decades of earth observation tell us about land degradation in the Sahel?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbow, Cheikh; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Ouedraogo, Issa

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of land degradation and the quantification of its effects on land productivity have been both a scientific and political challenge. After four decades of Earth Observation (EO) applications, little agreement has been gained on the magnitude and direction of land degradation in the ...

  20. STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Mission Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, with the European Space Agency, is helped with his flight suit by suit tech Tommy McDonald in the Operations and Checkout Building. The final fitting takes place prior to the crew walkout and transport to Launch Pad 39B. Targeted for launch at 2 p.m. EST on Oct. 29, the mission is expected to last 8 days, 21 hours and 49 minutes, and return to KSC at 11:49 a.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  1. Optical sensors for earth observation. Chikyu kansokuyo kogaku sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, A [National Research Laboratory of Metrology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1991-10-10

    Developments are made on an optical imager (ASTER) used to collect mainly images of land areas and an infrared sounder (IMG) to measure vertical air temperature distribution and vertical concentration distribution of specific gases, as satellite mounted sensors for earth observation. All the sensor characteristics of the ASTER comprising a visible near infrared radiometer, short wave infrared radiometer and thermal infrared radiometer are required to be capable of providing measurement, evaluation and assurance at the required accuracies during the entire life time. A problem to be solved is how to combine the on-ground calibration prior to launching, on-satellite calibration, and calibration between the test site and the sensors. The IMG is a Fourier transform spectroscopic infrared sounder, which is demanded of a high wave resolution over extended periods of time as well as a high radiation measuring capability. Also required are the level elevation of analysis algorithms to solve inverse problems from the observed radiation spectra, and the data base with high accuracy. 19 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. The survey on data format of Earth observation satellite data at JAXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, M.; Ikehata, Y.

    2017-12-01

    JAXA's earth observation satellite data are distributed by a portal web site for search and deliver called "G-Portal". Users can download the satellite data of GPM, TRMM, Aqua, ADEOS-II, ALOS (search only), ALOS-2 (search only), MOS-1, MOS-1b, ERS-1 and JERS-1 from G-Portal. However, these data formats are different by each satellite like HDF4, HDF5, NetCDF4, CEOS, etc., and which formats are not familiar to new data users. Although the HDF type self-describing format is very convenient and useful for big dataset information, old-type format product is not readable by open GIS tool nor apply OGC standard. Recently, the satellite data are widely used to be applied to the various needs such as disaster, earth resources, monitoring the global environment, Geographic Information System(GIS) and so on. In order to remove a barrier of using Earth Satellite data for new community users, JAXA has been providing the format-converted product like GeoTIFF or KMZ. In addition, JAXA provides format conversion tool itself. We investigate the trend of data format for data archive, data dissemination and data utilization, then we study how to improve the current product format for various application field users and make a recommendation for new product.

  3. The earth's radiation budget and its relation to atmospheric hydrology. I - Observations of the clear sky greenhouse effect. II - Observations of cloud effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Graeme L.; Greenwald, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    The clear-sky components of the earth's radiation budget (ERB), the relationship of these components to the sea surface temperature (SST), and microwave-derived water-vapor amount are analyzed in an observational study along with the relationship between the cloudy-sky components of ERB and space/time coincident observations of SST, microwave-derived cloud liquid water, and cloud cover. The purpose of the study is to use these observations for establishing an understanding of the couplings between radiation and the atmosphere that are important to understanding climate feedback. A strategy for studying the greenhouse effect of earth by analyzing the emitted clear-sky longwave flux over the ocean is proposed. It is concluded that the largest observed influence of clouds on ERB is more consistent with macrophysical properties of clouds as opposed to microphysical properties. The analysis for clouds and the greenhouse effect of clouds is compared quantitatively with the clear sky results. Land-ocean differences and tropical-midlatitude differences are shown and explained in terms of the cloud macrostructure.

  4. Learning to Improve Earth Observation Flight Planning

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper describes a method and system for integrating machine learning with planning and data visualization for the management of mobile sensors for Earth science...

  5. L-Area STS MTR/NRU/NRX Grapple Assembly Closure Mechanics Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    A review of the closure mechanics associated with the Shielded Transfer System (STS) MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly utilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) was performed. This review was prompted by an operational event which occurred at the Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) utilizing a DTS-XL grapple assembly which is essentially identical to the STS MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly used at the SRS. The CNL operational event occurred when a NRU/NRX fuel basket containing spent nuclear fuel assemblies was inadvertently released by the DTS-XL grapple assembly during a transfer. The SM review of the STS MTR/NRU/NRX grapple assembly will examine the operational aspects of the STS and the engineered features of the STS which prevent such an event at the SRS. The design requirements for the STS NRU/NRX modifications and the overall layout of the STS are provided in other documents.

  6. The development of STS payload environmental engineering standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, W. F.

    1982-01-01

    The presently reported effort to provide a single set of standards for the design, analysis and testing of Space Transportation System (STS) payloads throughout the NASA organization must be viewed as essentially experimental, since the concept of incorporating the diverse opinions and experiences of several separate field research centers may in retrospect be judged too ambitious or perhaps even naive. While each STS payload may have unique characteristics, and the project should formulate its own criteria for environmental design, testing and evaluation, a reference source document providing coordinated standards is expected to minimize the duplication of effort and limit random divergence of practices among the various NASA payload programs. These standards would provide useful information to all potential STS users, and offer a degree of standardization to STS users outside the NASA organization.

  7. Quasi-parallel whistler mode waves observed by THEMIS during near-earth dipolarizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Le Contel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report on quasi-parallel whistler emissions detected by the near-earth satellites of the THEMIS mission before, during, and after local dipolarization. These emissions are associated with an electron temperature anisotropy α=Te/T||e>1 consistent with the linear theory of whistler mode anisotropy instability. When the whistler mode emissions are observed the measured electron anisotropy varies inversely with β||e (the ratio of the electron parallel pressure to the magnetic pressure as predicted by Gary and Wang (1996. Narrow band whistler emissions correspond to the small α existing before dipolarization whereas the broad band emissions correspond to large α observed during and after dipolarization. The energy in the whistler mode is leaving the current sheet and is propagating along the background magnetic field, towards the Earth. A simple time-independent description based on the Liouville's theorem indicates that the electron temperature anisotropy decreases with the distance along the magnetic field from the equator. Once this variation of α is taken into account, the linear theory predicts an equatorial origin for the whistler mode. The linear theory is also consistent with the observed bandwidth of wave emissions. Yet, the anisotropy required to be fully consistent with the observations is somewhat larger than the measured one. Although the discrepancy remains within the instrumental error bars, this could be due to time-dependent effects which have been neglected. The possible role of the whistler waves in the substorm process is discussed.

  8. Smoldering News From STS-77 Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, John M.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour for its second flight in May 1996, as part of the STS-77 mission. This experiment is part of a series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of this study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering in microgravity and normal Earth gravity (1g). As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. The results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical ones carried out in 1g. In addition, they will be used to verify present theories of smolder combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvements in fire safety practices. Two smoldering combustion tests with polyurethane foam were successfully accomplished during the STS-77 mission. The tests investigated smoldering combustion in a quiescent (no-flow) enriched oxygen environment, and in an air environment with a 2-mm/sec airflow through the fuel sample. The primary data from the tests are the ignition characteristics, spread rate, smolder reaction temperature, and products of combustion (solid and gas). On both the first mission on STS-69 and the second mission on STS-77, a smolder front propagated the length of the forced-flow samples, with the spread rate between the corresponding upward and downward 1g smolder rates. Neither of the quiescent cases propagated combustion (the first case was due in part to a problem with the experiment electronics). These

  9. Stability and lifetime testing of photomultiplier detectors for the Earth observing system SOLSTICE program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, Joshua A.; van de Kop, Toni; Drake, Virginia A.; McClintock, William E.; Murphy, John; Rodgers, Paul

    1998-10-01

    The primary objective of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) is to accurately measure the absolute value of the solar UV irradiance at the top of the earth's atmosphere for a minimum mission lifetime of 5 years. To meet this objective, SOLSTICE employs a unique design to determine changes in instrument performance by routinely observing a series of early-type stars and comparing the irradiances directly with the solar value. Although the comparison techniques allows us to track instrument performance, the success of the SOLSTICE experiment depends upon photomultiplier detectors which have graceful degradation properties. Therefore, we have established a laboratory program to evaluate the characteristics of photomultiplier tubes which are exposed to long term fluxes similar to those we expected to encounter in flight. Three types of Hamamatsu photomultiplier tubes were tested as candidates for use in the EOS-SOLSTICE project. The results of these studies: pulse height distribution; quantum efficiency; surface maps,; and lifetime analysis are presented in this paper.

  10. STS and Researcher Intervention Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Martin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When I learned about a concerted campaign against Australian vaccination critics, I decided to intervene in the debate. As a result, some proponents of vaccination turned on me, making abusive comments and complaining to university officials. At several points in this experience, I had to make choices about how to intervene or respond. STS perspectives offered valuable insights for understanding the dynamics of the controversy but provided little guidance for making decisions. Some reasons are offered for why STS lacks tools for guiding practical action in such situations.

  11. Significant results from using earth observation satellites for mineral and energy resource exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, William D.

    1981-01-01

    A large number of Earth-observation satellites orbit our world several times each day, providing new information about the land and sea surfaces and the overlying thin layer of atmosphere that makes our planet unique. Meteorological satellites have had the longest history of experimental use and most are now considered operational. The geologic information collected by the Landsat, Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), Magsat, Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) and Seasat land and ocean observation systems is being thoroughly tested, and some of these systems are now approaching operational use.

  12. Optimization of L1{sub 0} FePt/Fe{sub 45}Co{sub 55} thin films for rare earth free permanent magnet applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannopoulos, G., E-mail: g.giannopoulos@inn.demokritos.gr; Psycharis, V.; Niarchos, D. [INN, NCSR Demokritos, Athens 15310 (Greece); Reichel, L. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); TU Dresden, Institute for Materials Science, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Markou, A.; Panagiotopoulos, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Damm, C.; Fähler, S. [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Khan, Imran; Hong, Jisang [Department of Physics, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-14

    The magnetic properties of magnetron sputtered bilayers consisting of Fe{sub 45}Co{sub 55} ultrathin layers on top of L1{sub 0} FePt films epitaxially grown on MgO substrates are studied in view of their possible application as rare earth free permanent magnets. It is found that FePt layers induce a tetragonal distortion to the Fe-Co layers which leads to increased anisotropy. This allows to take advantage of the Fe-Co high magnetic moment with less significant loss of the coercivity compared to a typical hard/soft exchange spring system. A maximum energy product approaching 50 MGOe is obtained for a FePt(7 ML)/FeCo/(5 ML) sample. The results are in accordance with first-principles computational methods, which predict that even higher energy products are possible for micromagnetically optimized microstructures.

  13. Medium-sized aperture camera for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eugene D.; Choi, Young-Wan; Kang, Myung-Seok; Kim, Ee-Eul; Yang, Ho-Soon; Rasheed, Ad. Aziz Ad.; Arshad, Ahmad Sabirin

    2017-11-01

    Satrec Initiative and ATSB have been developing a medium-sized aperture camera (MAC) for an earth observation payload on a small satellite. Developed as a push-broom type high-resolution camera, the camera has one panchromatic and four multispectral channels. The panchromatic channel has 2.5m, and multispectral channels have 5m of ground sampling distances at a nominal altitude of 685km. The 300mm-aperture Cassegrain telescope contains two aspheric mirrors and two spherical correction lenses. With a philosophy of building a simple and cost-effective camera, the mirrors incorporate no light-weighting, and the linear CCDs are mounted on a single PCB with no beam splitters. MAC is the main payload of RazakSAT to be launched in 2005. RazakSAT is a 180kg satellite including MAC, designed to provide high-resolution imagery of 20km swath width on a near equatorial orbit (NEqO). The mission objective is to demonstrate the capability of a high-resolution remote sensing satellite system on a near equatorial orbit. This paper describes the overview of the MAC and RarakSAT programmes, and presents the current development status of MAC focusing on key optical aspects of Qualification Model.

  14. Transferring Knowledge from a Bird's-Eye View - Earth Observation and Space Travels in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, Andreas; Hodam, Henryk; Menz, Gunter; Voß, Kerstin

    2014-05-01

    In spring 2014, four commercial cameras will be transported by a Dragon spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS) and mounted to the ESA Columbus laboratory. The cameras will deliver live earth observation data from different angles. The "Columbus-Eye"* project aims at distributing the video and image data produced by those cameras through a web portal. It should primary serve as learning portal for pupils comprising teaching material around the ISS earth observation imagery. The pupils should be motivated to work with the images in order to learn about curriculum relevant topics of natural sciences. The material will be prepared based on the experiences of the FIS* (German abbreviation for "Remote Sensing in Schools") project and its learning portal. Recognizing that in-depth use of satellite imagery can only be achieved by the means of computer aided learning methods, a sizeable number of e-Learning contents in German and English have been created throughout the last 5 years since FIS' kickoff. The talk presents the educational valorization of remote sensing data as well as their interactive implementation for teachers and pupils in both learning portals. It will be shown which possibilities the topic of remote sensing holds ready for teaching the regular curricula of Geography, Biology, Physics, Math and Informatics. Beside the sequenced implementation into digital and interactive teaching units, examples of a richly illustrated encyclopedia as well as easy-to-use image processing tools are given. The presentation finally addresses the question of how synergies of space travels can be used to enhance the fascination of earth observation imagery in the light of problem-based learning in everyday school lessons.

  15. High frequency variations of Earth Rotation Parameters from GPS and GLONASS observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Erhu; Jin, Shuanggen; Wan, Lihua; Liu, Wenjie; Yang, Yali; Hu, Zhenghong

    2015-01-28

    The Earth's rotation undergoes changes with the influence of geophysical factors, such as Earth's surface fluid mass redistribution of the atmosphere, ocean and hydrology. However, variations of Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) are still not well understood, particularly the short-period variations (e.g., diurnal and semi-diurnal variations) and their causes. In this paper, the hourly time series of Earth Rotation Parameters are estimated using Global Positioning System (GPS), Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS), and combining GPS and GLONASS data collected from nearly 80 sites from 1 November 2012 to 10 April 2014. These new observations with combining different satellite systems can help to decorrelate orbit biases and ERP, which improve estimation of ERP. The high frequency variations of ERP are analyzed using a de-trending method. The maximum of total diurnal and semidiurnal variations are within one milli-arcseconds (mas) in Polar Motion (PM) and 0.5 milli-seconds (ms) in UT1-UTC. The semidiurnal and diurnal variations are mainly related to the ocean tides. Furthermore, the impacts of satellite orbit and time interval used to determinate ERP on the amplitudes of tidal terms are analyzed. We obtain some small terms that are not described in the ocean tide model of the IERS Conventions 2010, which may be caused by the strategies and models we used or the signal noises as well as artifacts. In addition, there are also small differences on the amplitudes between our results and IERS convention. This might be a result of other geophysical excitations, such as the high-frequency variations in atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and hydrological angular momentum (HAM), which needs more detailed analysis with more geophysical data in the future.

  16. Observing the ExoEarth: Simulating the Retrieval of Exoplanet Parameters Using DSCOVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, S.; Cowan, N. B.; Domagal-Goldman, S. D.; Herman, J. R.; Robinson, T.; Stine, A.

    2017-12-01

    The field of exoplanets has rapidly expanded from detection to include exoplanet characterization. This has been enabled by developments such as the detection of terrestrial-sized planets and the use of transit spectroscopy to study exoplanet atmospheres. Studies of rocky planets are leading towards the direct imaging of exoplanets and the development of techniques to extract their intrinsic properties. The importance of properties such as rotation, albedo, and obliquity are significant since they inform planet formation theories and are key input parameters for Global Circulation Models used to determine surface conditions, including habitability. Thus, a complete characterization of exoplanets for understanding habitable climates requires the ability to measure these key planetary parameters. The retrieval of planetary rotation rates, albedos, and obliquities from highly undersampled imaging data can be honed using satellites designed to study the Earth's atmosphere. In this talk I will describe how the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) provides a unique opportunity to test such retrieval methods using data for the sunlit hemisphere of the Earth. Our methods use the high-resolution DSCOVR-EPIC images to simulate the Earth as an exoplanet, by deconvolving the images to match a variety of expected exoplanet mission requirements, and by comparing EPIC data with the cavity radiometer data from DSCOVR-NISTAR that views the Earth as a single pixel. Through this methodology, we are creating a grid of retrieval states as a function of image resolution, observing cadence, passband, etc. Our modeling of the DSCOVR data will provide an effective baseline from which to develop tools that can be applied to a variety of exoplanet imaging data.

  17. STS-50 USML-1, Onboard Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) was one of NASA's science and technology programs that provided scientists an opportunity to research various scientific investigations in a weightless environment inside the Spacelab module. It also provided demonstrations of new equipment to help prepare for advanced microgravity research and processing aboard the Space Station. The USML-1 flew in orbit for extended periods, providing greater opportunities for research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology (crystal growth), and combustion science. This is a close-up view of the Astroculture experiment rack in the middeck of the orbiter. The Astroculture experiment was to evaluate and find effective ways to supply nutrient solutions for optimizing plant growth and avoid releasing solutions into the crew quarters in microgravity. Since fluids behave differently in microgravity, plant watering systems that operate well on Earth do not function effectively in space. Plants can reduce the costs of providing food, oxygen, and pure water, as well as lower the costs of removing carbon dioxide in human space habitats. The USML-1 flew aboard the STS-50 mission on June 1992 and was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  18. Reviewing innovative Earth observation solutions for filling science-policy gaps in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Anthony; Giuliani, Gregory; Ray, Nicolas; Rahman, Kazi; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Nativi, Stefano; Craglia, Massimo; Cripe, Douglas; Quevauviller, Philippe; Beniston, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Improved data sharing is needed for hydrological modeling and water management that require better integration of data, information and models. Technological advances in Earth observation and Web technologies have allowed the development of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) for improved data sharing at various scales. International initiatives catalyze data sharing by promoting interoperability standards to maximize the use of data and by supporting easy access to and utilization of geospatial data. A series of recent European projects are contributing to the promotion of innovative Earth observation solutions and the uptake of scientific outcomes in policy. Several success stories involving different hydrologists' communities can be reported around the World. Gaps still exist in hydrological, agricultural, meteorological and climatological data access because of various issues. While many sources of data exists at all scales it remains difficult and time-consuming to assemble hydrological information for most projects. Furthermore, data and sharing formats remain very heterogeneous. Improvements require implementing/endorsing some commonly agreed standards and documenting data with adequate metadata. The brokering approach allows binding heterogeneous resources published by different data providers and adapting them to tools and interfaces commonly used by consumers of these resources. The challenge is to provide decision-makers with reliable information, based on integrated data and tools derived from both Earth observations and scientific models. Successful SDIs rely therefore on various aspects: a shared vision between all participants, necessity to solve a common problem, adequate data policies, incentives, and sufficient resources. New data streams from remote sensing or crowd sourcing are also producing valuable information to improve our understanding of the water cycle, while field sensors are developing rapidly and becoming less costly. More recent data

  19. Identification and characterization of novel ERC-55 interacting proteins: evidence for the existence of several ERC-55 splicing variants; including the cytosolic ERC-55-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvigsen, Maja; Jacobsen, Christian; Maunsbach, Arvid B; Honoré, Bent

    2009-12-01

    ERC-55, encoded from RCN2, is localized in the ER and belongs to the CREC protein family. ERC-55 is involved in various diseases and abnormal cell behavior, however, the function is not well defined and it has controversially been reported to interact with a cytosolic protein, the vitamin D receptor. We have used a number of proteomic techniques to further our functional understanding of ERC-55. By affinity purification, we observed interaction with a large variety of proteins, including those secreted and localized outside of the secretory pathway, in the cytosol and also in various organelles. We confirm the existence of several ERC-55 splicing variants including ERC-55-C localized in the cytosol in association with the cytoskeleton. Localization was verified by immunoelectron microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation. Interaction of lactoferrin, S100P, calcyclin (S100A6), peroxiredoxin-6, kininogen and lysozyme with ERC-55 was further studied in vitro by SPR experiments. Interaction of S100P requires [Ca(2+)] of approximately 10(-7) M or greater, while calcyclin interaction requires [Ca(2+)] of >10(-5) M. Interaction with peroxiredoxin-6 is independent of Ca(2+). Co-localization of lactoferrin, S100P and calcyclin with ERC-55 in the perinuclear area was analyzed by fluorescence confocal microscopy. The functional variety of the interacting proteins indicates a broad spectrum of ERC-55 activities such as immunity, redox homeostasis, cell cycle regulation and coagulation.

  20. STS 51-L crewmembers briefed during training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Five members of the STS 51-L crew and a backup crewmember are briefed during a training session in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. From left to right are Astronauts Ellison S. Onizuka, mission specialist; Ronald E. McNair, mission specialist; Gregory Jarvis, Hughes payload specialist; Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist; Sharon Christa McAuliffe, citizen observer/payload specialist representing the Teacher in Space project. Barbara R. Morgan, backup to McAuliffe, is in the right foreground.

  1. COPERNICUS - The European Union Earth Observation Programme - State of play and way ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Astrid-Christina

    2015-04-01

    Copernicus is the new name of the European Earth Observation Programme, GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security). Copernicus or rather its predecessor was established as an EU programme. It covers all the activities for ensuring an uninterrupted provision of accurate and reliable data and information on environmental issues and security matters to users in charge of policy making, implementation and monitoring, in the EU and its Member States. Copernicus aims at providing Europe with a continuous, independent and reliable access to observation data and information. The EU investment aims at filling the observation gaps, providing access to existing assets and developing operational services. The data policy of the Copernicus programme supports an open, full and free of charge data access that is in line with the data sharing principles of the Group for Earth Observation (GEO). Copernicus is structured in six Services: Marine, Atmosphere, Land and Climate change monitoring as well as support to Emergency and Security. Copernicus uses data from satellites and in-situ sensors such as buoys, balloons or air sensors to provide timely and reliable added-value information and forecasting to support for example, agriculture and fisheries, land use and urban planning, the fight against forest fires, disaster response, maritime transport or air pollution monitoring. The need for continuing such observations is becoming critical, considering the increasing political pressure on public authorities to take informed decisions in the field of environment, security and climate change and the need to respect international agreements. Copernicus also contributes to economic stability and growth by boosting commercial applications (the so-called downstream services) in many different sectors through a full and open access to Copernicus observation data and information products. KEY WORDS: Sentinels, big data, data access, Emergency, Marine, Atmosphere.

  2. Incorporating Parallel Computing into the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jay W.

    1998-01-01

    Atmospheric data assimilation is a method of combining actual observations with model forecasts to produce a more accurate description of the earth system than the observations or forecast alone can provide. The output of data assimilation, sometimes called the analysis, are regular, gridded datasets of observed and unobserved variables. Analysis plays a key role in numerical weather prediction and is becoming increasingly important for climate research. These applications, and the need for timely validation of scientific enhancements to the data assimilation system pose computational demands that are best met by distributed parallel software. The mission of the NASA Data Assimilation Office (DAO) is to provide datasets for climate research and to support NASA satellite and aircraft missions. The system used to create these datasets is the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The core components of the the GEOS DAS are: the GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM), the Physical-space Statistical Analysis System (PSAS), the Observer, the on-line Quality Control (QC) system, the Coupler (which feeds analysis increments back to the GCM), and an I/O package for processing the large amounts of data the system produces (which will be described in another presentation in this session). The discussion will center on the following issues: the computational complexity for the whole GEOS DAS, assessment of the performance of the individual elements of GEOS DAS, and parallelization strategy for some of the components of the system.

  3. Study of the fallout of artificial iron-55. Application to the evaluation of the fallout of natural iron of stratospheric origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Chi Trach

    1969-01-01

    The object of this work is to study the iron-55 fallout to establish the world balance of this radioelement. The utilisation of this tracer enables the calculation of the input of natural iron of stratospheric origin to the Earth and the input through the atmosphere of natural iron to the oceans. We have shown that: iron-55 is essentially produced in nuclear explosions according to the 56 Fe(n,2n) 55 Fe reaction; the iron-55 fallout obeys a 'stratospheric pattern' with a decay period between 9 and 11 months; by surface unit and at the same latitude, this fallout is 3.5 times more important on the Eastern part of the Northern Atlantic than over France. By comparison with the strontium-90 fallout, we established the world balance of the iron-55 fallout in the 1962-1965 period. This balance amounts to approximately 50 mega-curies for the iron-55 introduced into the atmosphere; 25.3 mega-curies of which fall down on the Earth during this period. We estimated at 6 x 10 6 tons per year the input of natural iron of stratospheric origin to the Earth and at 1.2 x 10 7 tons per year the input through the atmosphere of natural iron to the oceans. This latter figure represents 13 to 38 per cent of the amount of iron incorporated annually in the pelagic sediments. (author) [fr

  4. Gap analysis of the European Earth Observation Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Guillem; Serral, Ivette; Maso, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observations (EO) are fundamental to enhance the scientific understanding of the current status of the Earth. Nowadays, there are a lot of EO services that provide large volume of data, and the number of datasets available for different geosciences areas is increasing by the day. Despite this coverage, a glance of the European EO networks reveals that there are still some issues that are not being met; some gaps in specific themes or some thematic overlaps between different networks. This situation requires a clarification process of the actual status of the EO European networks in order to set priorities and propose future actions that will improve the European EO networks. The aim of this work is to detect the existing gaps and overlapping problems among the European EO networks. The analytical process has been done by studying the availability and the completeness of the Essential Variables (EV) data captured by the European EO networks. The concept of EVs considers that there are a number of parameters that are essential to characterize the state and trends of a system without losing significant information. This work generated a database of the existing gaps in the European EO network based on the initial GAIA-CLIM project data structure. For each theme the missing or incomplete data about each EV was indentified. Then, if incomplete, the gap was described by adding its type (geographical extent, vertical extent, temporal extent, spatial resolution, etc), the cost, the remedy, the feasibility, the impact and the priority, among others. Gaps in EO are identified following the ConnectinGEO methodology structured in 5 threads; identification of observation requirements, incorporation of international research programs material, consultation process within the current EO actors, GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker analysis, and industry-driven challenges implementation. Concretely, the presented work focuses on the second thread, which is based on

  5. Exospheric Neutral Density at the Earth's subsolar magnetopause deduced from the XMM-Newton X-ray observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, H. K.; Carter, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Soft X-rays can be emitted when highly charged solar wind ions and exospheric neutrals exchange electrons. Astrophysics missions, such as XMM-Newton and ROSAT X-ray telescopes, have found that such solar wind charge exchange happens at the Earth's exosphere. The Earth's magnetosphere can be imaged via soft X-rays in order to understand its interaction with solar wind. Consequently, two soft X-ray telescope missions (CuPID and SMILE) are scheduled to launch in 2019 and 2021. They will provide wide field-of-view soft X-ray images of the Earth's dayside magnetosphere. The imagers will track the location and movement of the cusps, magnetopause, and bow shock in response to solar wind variations. To support these missions, an understanding of exospheric neutral density profile is needed. The neutral density is one of the controlling factors of soft X-ray signals. Strong neutral density can help to obtain high-resolution and high-cadence of soft X-ray images. In this study, we estimate the exospheric neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point using XMM X-ray observations, Cluster plasma observations, and OpenGGCM global magnetosphere - ionosphere MHD model. XMM-Newton observes line-of-sight, narrow field-of-view, integrated soft X-ray emissions when it looks through the dayside magnetosphere. OpenGGCM reproduces soft X-ray signals seen by the XMM spacecraft, assuming exospheric neutral density as a function of the neutral density at the 10RE subsolar point and the radial distance. Cluster observations are used to confirm OpenGGCM plasma results. Finally, we deduce the neutral density at 10 RE subsolar point by adjusting the model results to the XMM-Newton soft X-ray observations.

  6. Reconnection at the earth's magnetopause - Magnetic field observations and flux transfer events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.

    1984-01-01

    Theoretical models of plasma acceleration by magnetic-field-line reconnection at the earth magnetopause and the high-resolution three-dimensional plasma measurements obtained with the ISEE satellites are compared and illustrated with diagrams, graphs, drawings, and histograms. The history of reconnection theory and the results of early satellite observations are summarized; the thickness of the magnetopause current layer is discussed; problems in analyzing the polarization of current-layer rotation are considered; and the flux-transfer events responsible for periods of patchy reconnection are characterized in detail. The need for further observations and refinements of the theory to explain the initiation of reconnection and identify the mechanism determining whether it is patchy or steady-state is indicated.

  7. Introduction to the Special Issue on “Earth Observation FORMOSAT-5”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Pen Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The National SPace Organization (NSPO was founded in 1991 to pursue self-reliant space technology to nurture the domestic space industry and promote space science research in Taiwan. As an extension of the widely-accepted FORMOSAT-2 remote sensing satellite, NSPO is self-reliantly developing FORMOSAT-5 to continue its international earth observation image and space science research services. FORMOSAT-5 will offer state-of-the-art ionospheric space science data for geoscience research. It will also provide two-meter panchromatic and four-meter multi-spectrum images at various processing levels. Using the heritage and lessons-learned from the FORMOSAT-1/Ionospheric Plasma and Electrodynamics Instrument (IPEI, FORMOSAT-5/Advanced Ionospheric Probe (AIP becomes an all-in-one plasma sensor with a sampling rate up to 8192 Hz to measure ionospheric plasma concentrations, velocities, temperatures, and ambient magnetic fields over a wide range of spatial scales. FORMOSAT-5’s global coverage capability, smart agility feature and pioneer use of a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS sensor for commercial optical earth observation satellites (Chang et al. 2012a will bring even broader research applications to the geoscience community. The 500-kg FORMOSAT-5 satellite, as shown in Fig. 1, will soon be launched into a two-day revisit Sun-synchronous orbit at 720 km altitude and 98.28° inclination.

  8. Correlations Between Variations in Solar EUV and Soft X-Ray Irradiance and Photoelectron Energy Spectra Observed on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (XUV; 0-10 nm) radiation are major heat sources for the Mars thermosphere as well as the primary source of ionization that creates the ionosphere. In investigations of Mars thermospheric chemistry and dynamics, solar irradiance models are used to account for variations in this radiation. Because of limited proxies, irradiance models do a poor job of tracking the significant variations in irradiance intensity in the EUV and XUV ranges over solar rotation time scales when the Mars-Sun-Earth angle is large. Recent results from Earth observations show that variations in photoelectron energy spectra are useful monitors of EUV and XUV irradiance variability. Here we investigate photoelectron energy spectra observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) and the FAST satellite during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the Sun were aligned. The Earth photoelectron data in selected bands correlate well with calculations based on 1 nm resolution observations above 27 nm supplemented by broadband observations and a solar model in the 0-27 nm range. At Mars, we find that instrumental and orbital limitations to the identifications of photoelectron energy spectra in MGS/ER data preclude their use as a monitor of solar EUV and XUV variability. However, observations with higher temporal and energy resolution obtained at lower altitudes on Mars might allow the separation of the solar wind and ionospheric components of electron energy spectra so that they could be used as reliable monitors of variations in solar EUV and XUV irradiance than the time shifted, Earth-based, F(10.7) index currently used.

  9. Correlations between variations in solar EUV and soft X-ray irradiance and photoelectron energy spectra observed on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Chamberlin, P. C.

    2013-11-01

    extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (XUV; 0-10 nm) radiation are major heat sources for the Mars thermosphere as well as the primary source of ionization that creates the ionosphere. In investigations of Mars thermospheric chemistry and dynamics, solar irradiance models are used to account for variations in this radiation. Because of limited proxies, irradiance models do a poor job of tracking the significant variations in irradiance intensity in the EUV and XUV ranges over solar rotation time scales when the Mars-Sun-Earth angle is large. Recent results from Earth observations show that variations in photoelectron energy spectra are useful monitors of EUV and XUV irradiance variability. Here we investigate photoelectron energy spectra observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) and the FAST satellite during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the Sun were aligned. The Earth photoelectron data in selected bands correlate well with calculations based on 1 nm resolution observations above 27 nm supplemented by broadband observations and a solar model in the 0-27 nm range. At Mars, we find that instrumental and orbital limitations to the identifications of photoelectron energy spectra in MGS/ER data preclude their use as a monitor of solar EUV and XUV variability. However, observations with higher temporal and energy resolution obtained at lower altitudes on Mars might allow the separation of the solar wind and ionospheric components of electron energy spectra so that they could be used as reliable monitors of variations in solar EUV and XUV irradiance than the time shifted, Earth-based, F10.7 index currently used.

  10. Graphics Processing Units (GPU) and the Goddard Earth Observing System atmospheric model (GEOS-5): Implementation and Potential Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, William M.

    2011-01-01

    Earth system models like the Goddard Earth Observing System model (GEOS-5) have been pushing the limits of large clusters of multi-core microprocessors, producing breath-taking fidelity in resolving cloud systems at a global scale. GPU computing presents an opportunity for improving the efficiency of these leading edge models. A GPU implementation of GEOS-5 will facilitate the use of cloud-system resolving resolutions in data assimilation and weather prediction, at resolutions near 3.5 km, improving our ability to extract detailed information from high-resolution satellite observations and ultimately produce better weather and climate predictions

  11. NextGEOSS project: A user-driven approach to build a Earth Observations Data Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, G.; Voidrot, M. F.; Bye, B. L.; De Lathouwer, B.; Catarino, N.; Concalves, P.; Kraft, C.; Grosso, N.; Meyer-Arnek, J.; Mueller, A.; Goor, E.

    2017-12-01

    Several initiatives and projects contribute to support Group on Earth Observation's (GEO) global priorities including support to the UN 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, the Paris Agreement on climate change, and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction . Running until 2020, the NextGEOSS project evolves the European vision of a user driven GEOSS data exploitation for innovation and business, relying on the three main pillars: engaging communities of practice delivering technological advancements advocating the use of GEOSS These 3 pillars support the creation and deployment of Earth observation based innovative research activities and commercial services. In this presentation we will emphasise how the NextGEOSS project uses a pilot-driven approach to ramp up and consolidate the system in a pragmatique way, integrating the complexity of the existing global ecosystem, leveraging previous investments, adding new cloud technologies and resources and engaging the diverse communities to address all types of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). A set of 10 initial pilots have been defined by the project partners to address the main challenges and include as soon as possible contributions to SDGs associated with Food Sustainability, Bio Diversity, Space and Security, Cold Regions, Air Pollutions, Disaster Risk Reduction, Territorial Planning, Energy. In 2018 and 2019 the project team will work on two new series of Architecture Implementation Pilots (AIP-10 and AIP-11), opened world-wide, to increase discoverability, accessibility and usability of data with a strong User Centric approach for innovative GEOSS powered applications for multiple societal areas. All initiatives with an interest in and need of Earth observations (data, processes, models, ...) are welcome to participate to these pilots initiatives. NextGEOSS is a H2020 Research and Development Project from the European Community under grant agreement 730329.

  12. STS-29 Landing Approach at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission approaches for a landing at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload

  13. Update on Spacewatch Observations of Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Melissa; McMillan, Robert S.; Bressi, Terry; Larsen, Jeff; Mastaler, Ron; Read, Mike; Scotti, Jim; Tubbiolo, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Spacewatch performs targeted astrometric follow-up of near-Earth objects, primarily asteroids (NEAs), to improve knowledge of their orbits. We have a noteworthy history of asteroid and comet observations beginning in 1984 as the first survey to use CCDs to scan the sky for asteroids and comets. Currently, we measure simultaneous astrometry and photometry of observations during an average of 24 nights per lunation (dark and gray time) as the exclusive users of a 1.8-m telescope and a 0.9-m telescope on Kitt Peak. In addition, we use bright time on the 2.3-m Bok Telescope and the 4-m Mayall Telescope on Kitt Peak to chase fainter targets. Continued astrometric follow-up helps to prevent potentially hazardous objects and scientifically interesting NEAs from becoming lost.We prioritize virtual impactors, MPC confirmation page objects, potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) with close approaches within 0.03 AU in the next 30 years, upcoming radar targets with astrometry requests, Yarkovsky effect candidates, NEAs with existing characterization data (WISE, Spitzer, SMASS, MANOS), possible spacecraft destinations (NHATS), and requests from the community.In mid October 2015, we switched from survey mode to targeted astrometry on the 0.9-m telescope. From 2015 October 15 through 2017 June 29 (1.7yr), Spacewatch (observatory codes 291, 691, and ^695) had 20951 MPC-accepted NEO lines of astrometry corresponding to measurements of 2647 different NEOs. This includes 4801 PHA lines of astrometry corresponding to 426 different PHAs, of which 223 lines were at apparent magnitudes V>=22.5. We observed 43% of all NEAs and 52% of all unnumbered NEAs that were observed by any observatory during that period. We observed 50% of all PHAs and 64% of all unnumbered PHAs observed during that period. These statistics do not include submitted measurements of confirmation page objects that were not confirmed as NEAs.Support of Spacewatch is from NASA/NEOO grants, the Lunar and Planetary

  14. Energetic particle beams in the plasma sheet boundary layer following substorm expansion - Simultaneous near-earth and distant tail observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholer, M.; Baker, D. N.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.; Klecker, B.; Terasawa, T.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1986-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of ions and electron beams in the near-earth and deep magnetotail following the onset of substorm are analyzed in terms of the substorm neutral line model. The observations were collected on March 20, 1983 with ISSE 1 and 3. Energy fluxes and intensity-time profiles of protons and electrons are studied. The data reveal that the reconnection at the near-earth neutral line produces ions and electrons for the plasma sheet boundary layer. The maximum electric potential along the neutral line is evaluated.

  15. Russian State Time and Earth Rotation Service: Observations, Eop Series, Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, M.; Pasynok, S.

    2010-01-01

    Russian State Time, Frequency and Earth Rotation Service provides the official EOP data and time for use in scientific, technical and metrological works in Russia. The observations of GLONASS and GPS on 30 stations in Russia, and also the Russian and worldwide observations data of VLBI (35 stations) and SLR (20 stations) are used now. To these three series of EOP the data calculated in two other Russian analysis centers are added: IAA (VLBI, GPS and SLR series) and MCC (SLR). Joint processing of these 7 series is carried out every day (the operational EOP data for the last day and the predicted values for 50 days). The EOP values are weekly refined and systematic errors of every individual series are corrected. The combined results become accessible on the VNIIFTRI server (ftp.imvp.ru) approximately at 6h UT daily.

  16. Observation of 23 supernovae that exploded <300 pc from Earth during the past 300 kyr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R. B., E-mail: rbfirestone@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Four supernovae (SNe), exploding ≤300 pc from Earth, were recorded 44, 37, 32, and 22 kyr ago in the radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) record during the past 50 kyr. Each SN left a nearly identical signature in the record, beginning with an initial sudden increase in atmospheric radiocarbon, when the SN exploded, followed by a hiatus of 1500 yr, and concluding with a sustained 2000 yr increase in global radiocarbon due to γ-rays produced by diffusive shock in the SN remnant (SNR). For the past 18 kyr excess radiocarbon has decayed with the {sup 14}C half-life. SN22kyrBP, is identified as the Vela SN that exploded 250 ± 30 pc from Earth. These SN are confirmed in the {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and NO{sub 3}{sup −} geologic records. The rate of near-Earth SNe is consistent with the observed rate of historical SNe giving a galactic rate of 14 ± 3 kyr{sup –1} assuming the Chandra Galactic Catalog SNR distribution. The Earth has been used as a calorimeter to determine that ≈2 × 10{sup 49} erg were released as γ-rays at the time of each SN explosion and ≈10{sup 50} erg in γ-rays following each SN. The background rate of {sup 14}C production by cosmic rays has been determined as 1.61 atoms cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}. Approximately 1/3 of the cosmic ray energy produced by diffusive shock in the SNR was observed to be emitted as high-energy γ-rays. Analysis of the {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio in marine sediment identified 19 additional near-Earth SNe that exploded 50-300 kyr ago. Comparison of the radiocarbon record with global temperature variations indicated that each SN explosion is correlated with a concurrent global warming of ≈3°C-4°C.

  17. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  18. Survey of Hyperspectral Earth Observation Applications from Space in the Sentinel-2 Context

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Transon; Raphaël d’Andrimont; Alexandre Maugnard; Pierre Defourny

    2018-01-01

    In the last few decades, researchers have developed a plethora of hyperspectral Earth Observation (EO) remote sensing techniques, analysis and applications. While hyperspectral exploratory sensors are demonstrating their potential, Sentinel-2 multispectral satellite remote sensing is now providing free, open, global and systematic high resolution visible and infrared imagery at a short revisit time. Its recent launch suggests potential synergies between multi- and hyper-spectral data. This st...

  19. Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery tools for exploiting big Earth-Observation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza Molina, D.; Datcu, M.

    2015-04-01

    The continuous increase in the size of the archives and in the variety and complexity of Earth-Observation (EO) sensors require new methodologies and tools that allow the end-user to access a large image repository, to extract and to infer knowledge about the patterns hidden in the images, to retrieve dynamically a collection of relevant images, and to support the creation of emerging applications (e.g.: change detection, global monitoring, disaster and risk management, image time series, etc.). In this context, we are concerned with providing a platform for data mining and knowledge discovery content from EO archives. The platform's goal is to implement a communication channel between Payload Ground Segments and the end-user who receives the content of the data coded in an understandable format associated with semantics that is ready for immediate exploitation. It will provide the user with automated tools to explore and understand the content of highly complex images archives. The challenge lies in the extraction of meaningful information and understanding observations of large extended areas, over long periods of time, with a broad variety of EO imaging sensors in synergy with other related measurements and data. The platform is composed of several components such as 1.) ingestion of EO images and related data providing basic features for image analysis, 2.) query engine based on metadata, semantics and image content, 3.) data mining and knowledge discovery tools for supporting the interpretation and understanding of image content, 4.) semantic definition of the image content via machine learning methods. All these components are integrated and supported by a relational database management system, ensuring the integrity and consistency of Terabytes of Earth Observation data.

  20. The ITC GEONETCast toolbox : a geo capacity building component for education and training in global earth observation and geo information provision to society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaerts, C.M.; Maathuis, B.H.P.; Molenaar, M.; Lemmens, R.

    2009-01-01

    In many countries throughout the world, the use of earth observation data for environmental or societal purposes still remains underexplored, in spite increasing earth observation (EO) data provision. The root cause is mainly a still inadequate generic knowledge to use remote sensing data and derive

  1. Synchronous observations of long-periodic geomagnetic pulsations on the ATS-6 satellite and on the Earth surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfild, Dzh.N.; Bondarenko, N.M.; Buloshnikov, A.M.; Gokhberg, M.B.; Kalisher, A.L.; Mak-Ferron, R.L.; Troitskaya, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Geomagnetic pulsations of the Pi2 and Pc4 types recorded by the ATS-6 geostationary satellite and by observatories located near the geomagnetic longitude of the space satellite from the 24th of May, 1974 to the 1st of September, 1976 are compared. The periods of the Pi2 pulsations measured by the space satellite and on the Earth practically coincide, dynamic spectra and spectral densities are similar. The amplitude of the Pi2 pulsations recorded in auroral latitudes is several times wider than the amplitude measured by the ATS-6 while in middle latitudes the amplitude is much smaller than on the satellite. The Pc4 pulsations are not practically observed on the Earth for they are probably excited in narrow local areas of the magnitosphere. In order to arrive to the single-valued solution of the problem of the mechanism of the generation and localization of the pulsation source it is necessary to carry out simultaneous observations on the Earth and in the magnitosphere

  2. Grade 10 Thai students' scientific argumentation in learning about electric field through science, technology, and society (STS) approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitnork, Amporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    The research aimed to enhance Grade 10 Thai students' scientific argumentation in learning about electric field through science, technology, and society (STS) approach. The participants included 45 Grade 10 students who were studying in a school in Nongsonghong, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Methodology regarded interpretive paradigm. The intervention was the force unit which was provided based on Yuenyong (2006) STS approach. Students learned about the STS electric field unit for 4 weeks. The students' scientific argumentation was interpreted based on Toulmin's argument pattern or TAP. The TAP provided six components of argumentation including data, claim, warrants, qualifiers, rebuttals and backing. Tools of interpretation included students' activity sheets, conversation, journal writing, classroom observation and interview. The findings revealed that students held the different pattern of argumentation. Then, they change pattern of argumentation close to the TAP. It indicates that the intervention of STS electric field unit enhance students to develop scientific argumentation. This finding may has implication of further enhancing scientific argumentation in Thailand.

  3. Corrosion of Zn5Al and Zn55Al alloys with cerium, praseodymium and neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhanova, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    The present work is devoted to corrosion of Zn5Al and Zn55Al alloys with cerium, praseodymium and neodymium. The purpose of present work is elaboration of optimal composition of zinc-aluminium alloys Zn5Al and Zn55Al alloyed by rare-earth metals of cerium subgroup which are used as anode covers for protection of steel from corrosion. Therefore, the regularities of change of corrosion-electrochemical properties in various corrosive mediums have been determined; processes mechanisms of high temperature oxidation of alloys in solid state have been studied; in the products of alloys oxidation their phase components have been defined and their role in the corrosion process have been revealed; the optimal compositions of zinc-aluminium alloys alloyed by rare earth metals, which are protected by two patents of the Republic of Tajikistan have been elaborated.

  4. Earth Observation Services (Image Processing Software)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    San Diego State University and Environmental Systems Research Institute, with other agencies, have applied satellite imaging and image processing techniques to geographic information systems (GIS) updating. The resulting images display land use and are used by a regional planning agency for applications like mapping vegetation distribution and preserving wildlife habitats. The EOCAP program provides government co-funding to encourage private investment in, and to broaden the use of NASA-developed technology for analyzing information about Earth and ocean resources.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  6. Earth Observation Data Quality Monitoring and Control: A Case Study of STAR Central Data Repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, W.; Jochum, M.

    2017-12-01

    Earth observation data quality is very important for researchers and decision makers involved in weather forecasting, severe weather warning, disaster and emergency response, environmental monitoring, etc. Monitoring and control earth observation data quality, especially accuracy, completeness, and timeliness, is very useful in data management and governance to optimize data flow, discover potential transmission issues, and better connect data providers and users. Taking a centralized near real-time satellite data repository, STAR (Center for Satellite Applications and Research of NOAA) Central Data Repository (SCDR), as an example, this paper describes how to develop new mechanism to verify data integrity, check data completeness, and monitor data latency in an operational data management system. Such quality monitoring and control of large volume satellite data help data providers and managers improve data transmission of near real-time satellite data, enhance its acquisition and management, and overcome performance and management issues to better serve research and development activities.

  7. An Investigation of the Ranges of Validity of Asteroid Thermal Models for Near-Earth Asteroid Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommert, M.; Jedicke, R.; Trilling, D. E.

    2018-02-01

    The majority of known asteroid diameters are derived from thermal-infrared observations. Diameters are derived using asteroid thermal models that approximate their surface temperature distributions and compare the measured thermal-infrared flux with model-dependent predictions. The most commonly used thermal model is the Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model (NEATM), which is usually perceived as superior to other models like the Fast-Rotating Model (FRM). We investigate the applicability of the NEATM and the FRM to thermal-infrared observations of Near-Earth Objects using synthetic asteroids with properties based on the real Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) population. We find the NEATM to provide more accurate diameters and albedos than the FRM in most cases, with a few exceptions. The modeling results are barely affected by the physical properties of the objects, but we find a large impact of the solar phase angle on the modeling results. We conclude that the NEATM provides statistically more robust diameter estimates for NEAs observed at solar phase angles less than ∼65°, while the FRM provides more robust diameter estimates for solar phase angles greater than ∼65°. We estimate that <5% of all NEA diameters and albedos derived up to date are affected by systematic effects that are of the same order of magnitude as the typical thermal model uncertainties. We provide statistical correction functions for diameters and albedos derived using the NEATM and FRM as a function of solar phase angle.

  8. Observations of magnetic flux ropes during magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Borg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present an investigation of magnetic flux ropes observed by the four Cluster spacecraft during periods of magnetic reconnection in the Earth's magnetotail. Using a list of 21 Cluster encounters with the reconnection process in the period 2001–2006 identified in Borg et al. (2012, we present the distribution and characteristics of the flux ropes. We find 27 flux ropes embedded in the reconnection outflows of only 11 of the 21 reconnection encounters. Reconnection processes associated with no flux rope observations were not distinguishable from those where flux ropes were observed. Only 7 of the 27 flux ropes show evidence of enhanced energetic electron flux above 50 keV, and there was no clear signature of the flux rope in the thermal particle measurements. We found no clear correlation between the flux rope core field and the prevailing IMF By direction.

  9. STS-91 Launch of Discovery from Launch Pad 39-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Searing the early evening sky with its near sun-like rocket exhaust, the Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39A at 6:06:24 p.m. EDT June 2 on its way to the Mir space station. On board Discovery are Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt; Pilot Dominic L. Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Lynn Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin. The nearly 10-day mission will feature the ninth and final Shuttle docking with the Russian space station Mir, the first Mir docking for the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery, the first on-orbit test of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas will be returning to Earth as a STS-91 crew member after living more than four months aboard Mir.

  10. MACSAT - A Near Equatorial Earth Observation Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. J.; Park, S.; Kim, E.-E.; Park, W.; Chang, H.; Seon, J.

    MACSAT mission was initiated by Malaysia to launch a high-resolution remote sensing satellite into Near Equatorial Orbit (NEO). Due to its geographical location, Malaysia can have large benefits from NEO satellite operation. From the baseline circular orbit of 685 km altitude with 7 degrees of inclination, the neighboring regions around Malaysian territory can be frequently monitored. The equatorial environment around the globe can also be regularly observed with unique revisit characteristics. The primary mission objective of MACSAT program is to develop and validate technologies for a near equatorial orbit remote sensing satellite system. MACSAT is optimally designed to accommodate an electro-optic Earth observation payload, Medium-sized Aperture Camera (MAC). Malaysian and Korean joint engineering teams are formed for the effective implementation of the satellite system. An integrated team approach is adopted for the joint development for MACSAT. MAC is a pushbroom type camera with 2.5 m of Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) in panchromatic band and 5 m of GSD in four multi-spectral bands. The satellite platform is a mini-class satellite. Including MAC payload, the satellite weighs under 200 kg. Spacecraft bus is designed optimally to support payload operations during 3 years of mission life. The payload has 20 km of swath width with +/- 30 o of tilting capability. 32 Gbits of solid state recorder is implemented as the mass image storage. The ground element is an integrated ground station for mission control and payload operation. It is equipped with S- band up/down link for commanding and telemetry reception as well as 30 Mbps class X-band down link for image reception and processing. The MACSAT system is capable of generating 1:25,000-scale image maps. It is also anticipated to have capability for cross-track stereo imaging for Digital elevation Model (DEM) generation.

  11. Observing the Atmospheres of Known Temperate Earth-sized Planets with JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Kreidberg, Laura; Rustamkulov, Zafar; Robinson, Tyler; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2017-12-01

    Nine transiting Earth-sized planets have recently been discovered around nearby late-M dwarfs, including the TRAPPIST-1 planets and two planets discovered by the MEarth survey, GJ 1132b and LHS 1140b. These planets are the smallest known planets that may have atmospheres amenable to detection with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We present model thermal emission and transmission spectra for each planet, varying composition and surface pressure of the atmosphere. We base elemental compositions on those of Earth, Titan, and Venus and calculate the molecular compositions assuming chemical equilibrium, which can strongly depend on temperature. Both thermal emission and transmission spectra are sensitive to the atmospheric composition; thermal emission spectra are sensitive to surface pressure and temperature. We predict the observability of each planet’s atmosphere with JWST. GJ 1132b and TRAPPIST-1b are excellent targets for emission spectroscopy with JWST/MIRI, requiring fewer than 10 eclipse observations. Emission photometry for TRAPPIST-1c requires 5-15 eclipses; LHS 1140b and TRAPPIST-1d, TRAPPIST-1e, and TRAPPIST-1f, which could possibly have surface liquid water, may be accessible with photometry. Seven of the nine planets are strong candidates for transmission spectroscopy measurements with JWST, although the number of transits required depends strongly on the planets’ actual masses. Using the measured masses, fewer than 20 transits are required for a 5σ detection of spectral features for GJ 1132b and six of the TRAPPIST-1 planets. Dedicated campaigns to measure the atmospheres of these nine planets will allow us, for the first time, to probe formation and evolution processes of terrestrial planetary atmospheres beyond our solar system.

  12. NASA Earth Observation Systems and Applications for Health and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that the environment can affect human health in ways that are both complex and global in scope. To address some of these complexities, NASA maintains a diverse constellation of Earth observing research satellites, and sponsors research in developing satellite data applications across a wide spectrum of areas. These include environmental health; infectious disease; air quality standards, policies, and regulations; and the impact of climate change on health and air quality in a number of interrelated efforts. The Health and Air Quality Applications fosters the use of observations, modeling systems, forecast development, application integration, and the research to operations transition process to address environmental health effects. NASA has been a primary partner with Federal operational agencies over the past nine years in these areas. This talk presents the background of the Health and Air Quality Applications program, recent accomplishments, and a plan for the future.

  13. Upstream particles observed in the earth's foreshock region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastman, T.E.; Anderson, R.R.; Frank, L.A.; Parks, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of primarily an extensive study of fully three-dimensional plasma data, we describe the interrelationships of the upstream particles and plasma waves observed in the earth's foreshock region. The University of Iowa LEPEDEAs detect ions and electrons from 1 eV to 45 keV over all except approx.2% of the unit sphere. Comparisons are made with high time resolution particle data obtained by the University of California (Berkeley) instruments and plasma wave data collected by the University of Iowa plasma wave instruments on the two ISEE spacecraft. The presence of ion beams or dispersed ion distributions is found to be a sufficient condition for the presence of electrostatic and electromagnetic wave emissions. Detailed correlations of ions with plasma waves down to a tenth of an ion gyroperiod indicate that ion acoustic emission is enhanced when increased anisotropies and gyrophase organization are observed. Time aliasing effects limit the interpretation of velocity distributions taken within the foreshock region. High time resolution correlations between the different instruments, however, demonstrate that time variations of a single isotropic or anisotropic distribution cannot produce the dispersed ion distributions. Detailed analysis of high time resolution data reveals that the upstream particles undergo significant spatial and temporal variations including gyrophase organization. Gyrophase organization comprises groups of ion clusters each one of which includes ions with similar pitch angles that gyrate together about a common guiding center. On the basis of our high time resolution analysis of three-dimensional plasma data combined with magnetic field and plasma wave data, we conclude that (1) ions observed in the foreshock region display gyrophase organization produced by ion clusters with a spatial scale <1 R/sub g/, and (2) dispersed ion distributions are produced primarily by direct sources at or near the bow shock

  14. A Multi-Purpose Data Dissemination Infrastructure for the Marine-Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafusa, Y.; Saito, H.; Kayo, M.; Suzuki, H.

    2015-12-01

    To open the data from a variety of observations, the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) has developed a multi-purpose data dissemination infrastructure. Although many observations have been made in the earth science, all the data are not opened completely. We think data centers may provide researchers with a universal data dissemination service which can handle various kinds of observation data with little effort. For this purpose JAMSTEC Data Management Office has developed the "Information Catalog Infrastructure System (Catalog System)". This is a kind of catalog management system which can create, renew and delete catalogs (= databases) and has following features, - The Catalog System does not depend on data types or granularity of data records. - By registering a new metadata schema to the system, a new database can be created on the same system without sytem modification. - As web pages are defined by the cascading style sheets, databases have different look and feel, and operability. - The Catalog System provides databases with basic search tools; search by text, selection from a category tree, and selection from a time line chart. - For domestic users it creates the Japanese and English pages at the same time and has dictionary to control terminology and proper noun. As of August 2015 JAMSTEC operates 7 databases on the Catalog System. We expect to transfer existing databases to this system, or create new databases on it. In comparison with a dedicated database developed for the specific dataset, the Catalog System is suitable for the dissemination of small datasets, with minimum cost. Metadata held in the catalogs may be transfered to other metadata schema to exchange global databases or portals. Examples: JAMSTEC Data Catalog: http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/catalog/data_catalog/metadataList?lang=enJAMSTEC Document Catalog: http://www.godac.jamstec.go.jp/catalog/doc_catalog/metadataList?lang=en&tab=categoryResearch Information

  15. Modeling Earth Albedo Currents on Sun Sensors for Improved Vector Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhanderi, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Earth albedo influences vector measurements of the solar line of sight vector, due to the induced current on in the photo voltaics of Sun sensors. Although advanced digital Sun sensors exist, these are typically expensive and may not be suited for satellites in the nano or pico-class. Previously...... an Earth albedo model, based on reflectivity data from NASA's Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer project, has been published. In this paper the proposed model is presented, and the model is sought validated by comparing simulated data with telemetry from the Danish Ørsted satellite. A novel method...... for modeling Sun sensor output by incorporating the Earth albedo model is presented. This model utilizes the directional information of in the Earth albedo model, which is achieved by Earth surface partitioning. This allows accurate simulation of the Sun sensor output and the results are consistent with Ørsted...

  16. Astronaut observations of the Persian (Arabian) Gulf during STS-45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackleson, Steven G.; Pitts, David E.; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Reynolds, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    As a result of the 1991 Persian Gulf war, between mid-January and June 1991, the Persian Gulf was contaminated with an estimated 4 to 6 million barrels of crude oil, released directly into the Gulf from refinement facilities, transhipment terminals, and moored tankers along the coast of Kuwait, and precipitated from oil fire smoke plumes. To assess the environmental impact of the oil, an international team of marine scientists representing 14 nations was assembled under the auspices of the United Nations International Oceanic Commission and the Regional Organization for Protection of the Marine Environment to conduct detailed surveys of the Persian Gulf, the Strait of Hormuz, and the Gulf of Oman, including hydrographic, chemical, and biological measurements. To supplement the field surveys and to serve as an aid in data interpretation, astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis photographed water features and coastal habitats in the Persian Gulf during mission STS-45 (24 March to 02 April 1992). The astronauts collected 111 hand-held, color photographs of the Gulf (72 70-mm photographs and 39 5-inch photographs) from an altitude of 296 km (160 n.mi.). The photographs reveal distributions in water turbidity associated with outflow from the Shatt-al-Arab and water circulation along the entire coast of Iran and the Strait of Hormuz, coastal wetlands and shallow-water habitats, and sticks appearing in the sunglint pattern, which appear to be oil.

  17. STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn and his wife pose before their return flight to JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    At the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station, STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts, poses with his wife Annie before their return flight to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The STS-95 mission ended with landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST on Nov. 7. The STS-95 crew also includes Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  18. ModelLab: A Cloud-Based Platform to Support Advanced Geospatial Modeling of Earth Observation Data, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to promote and facilitate broader use of NASA and other Earth observation data sources, the Phase I research focused on development of a cloud-based...

  19. STS-100 MS Parazynski looks over Destiny in SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, STS-100 Mission Specialist Scott Parazynski looks over part of the U.S. Lab, Destiny. Mission STS-100 will be the ninth construction flight for the International Space Station. It is scheduled to launch April 19, 2001.

  20. sY116, a human Y-linked polymorphic STS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    linked STS, showed different electrophoretic mobilities in three males, two infertile and one fertile. A study of this STS among 35 other normal males showed that this locus is polymorphic. sY116 has a poly A-rich stretch whose instability ...

  1. STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins waves to her family

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves to her family nearby, a last meeting before launch of mission STS-93 on July 20. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT. The primary mission of STS-93 is the release of the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Steven A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  2. Observation of the Earth liquid core resonance by extensometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bán, Dóra; Mentes, Gyula

    2016-04-01

    The axis of the fluid outer core of the Earth and the rotation axis of the mantle do not coincide therefore restoring forces are set up at the core-mantle boundary which try to realign the two axes causing a resonance effect. In celestial reference system it is called the "Free Core Nutation" (FCN), which can be characterized by a period of 432 days while in the Earth reference system it is called the "Nearly Diurnal Free Wobble" (NDFW). The frequency of this phenomenon is near to the diurnal tidal frequencies, especially to P1 and K1 waves. Due to its resonance effect this phenomenon can be detected also by quartz tube extensometers suitable for Earth tides recording. In this study data series measured in several extensometric stations were used to reveal the presence of the FCN resonance. In the Pannonian Basin there are five observatories where extensometric measurements were carried out in different lengths of time. Four stations in Hungary: Sopronbánfalva Geodynamical Observatory (2000-2014), Budapest Mátyáshegy Gravity and Geodynamic Observatory (2005-2012), Pécs uranium mine (1991-1999), Bakonya, near to Pécs (2004-2005) and in Slovakia: Vyhne Earth Tide Observatory (2001-2013). Identical instrumentation in different observatories provides the opportunity to compare measurements with various topography, geology and environmental parameters. The results are also compared to values inferred from extensometric measurements in other stations.

  3. STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston E. Scott suits up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    STS-87 Mission Specialist Winston Scott dons his launch and entry suit with the assistance of a suit technician in the Operations and Checkout Building. This is Scotts second space flight. He and the five other crew members will depart shortly for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Columbia awaits liftoff on a 16-day mission to perform microgravity and solar research. Scott is scheduled to perform an extravehicular activity spacewalk with Mission Specialist Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan, during STS-87. He also performed a spacewalk on STS-72.

  4. STS-99 workers carry new Master Events Controller to Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Workers carry the replacement Enhanced Main Events Controller (E- MEC) to Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A for installation in the aft compartment of the payload bay. The original E-MEC became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  5. Machine Learning for Earth Observation Flight Planning Optimization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper is a progress report of an effort whose goal is to demonstrate the effectiveness of automated data mining and planning for the daily management of Earth...

  6. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... and accepted. The European Space Agency mission Gaia is a proposed space observatory, designed to perform a highly accurate census of our galaxy, the Milky Way, and beyond. Through accurate measurement of star positions, Gaia is expected to discover thousands of extra-solar planets and follow the bending...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  7. Observationally-based Metrics of Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemical Variables are Essential for Evaluating Earth System Model Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. L.; Sarmiento, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is central to the climate's response to increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases as it ventilates a large fraction of the global ocean volume. Global coupled climate models and earth system models, however, vary widely in their simulations of the Southern Ocean and its role in, and response to, the ongoing anthropogenic forcing. Due to its complex water-mass structure and dynamics, Southern Ocean carbon and heat uptake depend on a combination of winds, eddies, mixing, buoyancy fluxes and topography. Understanding how the ocean carries heat and carbon into its interior and how the observed wind changes are affecting this uptake is essential to accurately projecting transient climate sensitivity. Observationally-based metrics are critical for discerning processes and mechanisms, and for validating and comparing climate models. As the community shifts toward Earth system models with explicit carbon simulations, more direct observations of important biogeochemical parameters, like those obtained from the biogeochemically-sensored floats that are part of the Southern Ocean Carbon and Climate Observations and Modeling project, are essential. One goal of future observing systems should be to create observationally-based benchmarks that will lead to reducing uncertainties in climate projections, and especially uncertainties related to oceanic heat and carbon uptake.

  8. Protons in near earth orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Alpat, B; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Béné, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Cavalletti, R; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Chiarini, A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Da Cunha, J P; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; D'Antone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, Pierre; Favier, Jean; Feng, C C; Fiandrini, E; Finelli, F; Fisher, P H; Flaminio, R; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu Hong Tao; Lolli, M; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Massera, F; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mezzanotte, F; Mezzenga, R; Mihul, A; Molinari, G; Mourão, A M; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Pancaldi, G; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pilastrini, R; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Postolache, V; Prati, E; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Recupero, S; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Santos, D; Sartorelli, G; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torromeo, G; Torsti, J; Trümper, J E; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Van den Hirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Von Gunten, H P; Waldmeier-Wicki, S; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan Lu Guang; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye Shu Wei; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A

    2000-01-01

    The proton spectrum in the kinetic energy range 0.1 to 200 GeV was measuredby the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) during space shuttle flight STS-91 atan altitude of 380 km. Above the geomagnetic cutoff the observed spectrum isparameterized by a power law. Below the geomagnetic cutoff a substantial secondspectrum was observed concentrated at equatorial latitudes with a flux ~ 70m^-2 sec^-1 sr^-1. Most of these second spectrum protons follow a complicatedtrajectory and originate from a restricted geographic region.

  9. STS-95 Payload Specialist Glenn participates in a media briefing before returning to JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts, participates in a media briefing at the Kennedy Space Center Press Site Auditorium before returning to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The STS-95 mission ended with landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST on Nov. 7. Also participating in the briefing were the other STS-95 crew members: Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Mission Specialist and Payload Commander Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  10. The STS-95 crew and their families prepare for their return flight to JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    At the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station, STS-95 Pilot Steven W. Lindsey (left), Lindsey's daughter (front), and Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr. (right), a senator from Ohio and one of the original seven Project Mercury astronauts, give a thumbs up on the success of the mission. Members of the STS-95 crew and their families prepared for their return flight to the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The STS-95 mission ended with landing at Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility at 12:04 p.m. EST on Nov. 7. Others returning were Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan-201 solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as a SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  11. Web Map Apps using NASA's Earth Observing Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, R.; Baynes, K.; Pressley, N.; Thompson, C.; Cechini, M.; Schmaltz, J.; Alarcon, C.; De Cesare, C.; Gunnoe, T.; Wong, M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Through the miracle of open web mapping services for satellite imagery, a garden of new applications has sprouted to monitor the planet across a variety of domains. The Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) provide free and open access to full resolution imagery captured by NASAs Earth observing fleet. Spanning 15+ years and running through as recently as a few hours ago, GIBS aims to provide a general-purpose window into NASA's vast archive of the planet. While the vast nature of this archive can be daunting, many domain-specific applications have been built to meet the needs of their respective communities. This presentation will demonstrate a diverse set of these new applications which can take planetarium visitors into (virtual) orbit, guide fire resource managers to hotspots, help anglers find their next catch, illustrate global air quality patterns to local regulators, and even spur a friendly competition to find clouds which are shaped the most like cats. We hope this garden will continue to grow and will illustrate upcoming upgrades to GIBS which may open new pathways for development. data visualization, web services, open access

  12. Physical Characterization of Warm Spitzer-observed Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Emery, Joshua P.; Trilling, David E.; Delbo, Marco; Hora, Joseph L.; Mueller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) connects diagnostic spectral features to specific surface mineralogies. The combination of spectroscopy with albedos and diameters derived from thermal infrared observations can increase the scientific return beyond that of the individual datasets. For instance, some taxonomic classes can be separated into distinct compositional groupings with albedo and different mineralogies with similar albedos can be distinguished with spectroscopy. To that end, we have completed a spectroscopic observing campaign to complement the ExploreNEOs Warm Spitzer program that obtained albedos and diameters of nearly 600 NEOs (Trilling et al., 2010). The spectroscopy campaign included visible and near-infrared observations of ExploreNEOs targets from various observatories. Here we present the results of observations using the low-resolution prism mode (approx. 0.7-2.5 microns) of the SpeX instrument on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF). We also include near-infrared observations of Explore-NEOs targets from the MIT-UH-IRTF Joint Campaign for Spectral Reconnaissance. Our dataset includes near-infrared spectra of 187 ExploreNEOs targets (125 observations of 92 objects from our survey and 213 observations of 154 objects from the MIT survey). We identify a taxonomic class for each spectrum and use band parameter analysis to investigate the mineralogies for the S-, Q-, and V-complex objects. Our analysis suggests that for spectra that contain near-infrared data but lack the visible wavelength region, the Bus-DeMeo system misidentifies some S-types as Q-types. We find no correlation between spectral band parameters and ExploreNEOs albedos and diameters. We investigate the correlations of phase angle with band area ratio and near-infrared spectral slope. We find slightly negative Band Area Ratio (BAR) correlations with phase angle for Eros and Ivar, but a positive BAR correlation with phase angle for Ganymed.The results of our

  13. STS-95 Payload Specialist Duque arrives at KSC to participate in a SPACEHAB familiarization exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    STS-95 Payload Specialist Pedro Duque of Spain, who represents the European Space Agency (ESA), waves after arriving in a T-38 jet aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility at KSC. He is joining other STS-95 crew members in a familiarization tour of the SPACEHAB module and the equipment that will fly with them on the Space Shuttle Discovery scheduled to launch Oct. 29, 1998. The mission includes research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

  14. The future of Earth observation in hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. McCabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In just the past 5 years, the field of Earth observation has progressed beyond the offerings of conventional space-agency-based platforms to include a plethora of sensing opportunities afforded by CubeSats, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, and smartphone technologies that are being embraced by both for-profit companies and individual researchers. Over the previous decades, space agency efforts have brought forth well-known and immensely useful satellites such as the Landsat series and the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE system, with costs typically of the order of 1 billion dollars per satellite and with concept-to-launch timelines of the order of 2 decades (for new missions. More recently, the proliferation of smartphones has helped to miniaturize sensors and energy requirements, facilitating advances in the use of CubeSats that can be launched by the dozens, while providing ultra-high (3–5 m resolution sensing of the Earth on a daily basis. Start-up companies that did not exist a decade ago now operate more satellites in orbit than any space agency, and at costs that are a mere fraction of traditional satellite missions. With these advances come new space-borne measurements, such as real-time high-definition video for tracking air pollution, storm-cell development, flood propagation, precipitation monitoring, or even for constructing digital surfaces using structure-from-motion techniques. Closer to the surface, measurements from small unmanned drones and tethered balloons have mapped snow depths, floods, and estimated evaporation at sub-metre resolutions, pushing back on spatio-temporal constraints and delivering new process insights. At ground level, precipitation has been measured using signal attenuation between antennae mounted on cell phone towers, while the proliferation of mobile devices has enabled citizen scientists to catalogue photos of environmental conditions, estimate daily average temperatures from battery

  15. The future of Earth observation in hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Matthew F.; Rodell, Matthew; Alsdorf, Douglas E.; Miralles, Diego G.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Wagner, Wolfgang; Lucieer, Arko; Houborg, Rasmus; Verhoest, Niko E. C.; Franz, Trenton E.; Shi, Jiancheng; Gao, Huilin; Wood, Eric F.

    2017-07-01

    In just the past 5 years, the field of Earth observation has progressed beyond the offerings of conventional space-agency-based platforms to include a plethora of sensing opportunities afforded by CubeSats, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and smartphone technologies that are being embraced by both for-profit companies and individual researchers. Over the previous decades, space agency efforts have brought forth well-known and immensely useful satellites such as the Landsat series and the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system, with costs typically of the order of 1 billion dollars per satellite and with concept-to-launch timelines of the order of 2 decades (for new missions). More recently, the proliferation of smartphones has helped to miniaturize sensors and energy requirements, facilitating advances in the use of CubeSats that can be launched by the dozens, while providing ultra-high (3-5 m) resolution sensing of the Earth on a daily basis. Start-up companies that did not exist a decade ago now operate more satellites in orbit than any space agency, and at costs that are a mere fraction of traditional satellite missions. With these advances come new space-borne measurements, such as real-time high-definition video for tracking air pollution, storm-cell development, flood propagation, precipitation monitoring, or even for constructing digital surfaces using structure-from-motion techniques. Closer to the surface, measurements from small unmanned drones and tethered balloons have mapped snow depths, floods, and estimated evaporation at sub-metre resolutions, pushing back on spatio-temporal constraints and delivering new process insights. At ground level, precipitation has been measured using signal attenuation between antennae mounted on cell phone towers, while the proliferation of mobile devices has enabled citizen scientists to catalogue photos of environmental conditions, estimate daily average temperatures from battery state, and sense other

  16. The future of Earth observation in hydrology

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew F.

    2017-07-28

    In just the past 5 years, the field of Earth observation has progressed beyond the offerings of conventional space-agency-based platforms to include a plethora of sensing opportunities afforded by CubeSats, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and smartphone technologies that are being embraced by both for-profit companies and individual researchers. Over the previous decades, space agency efforts have brought forth well-known and immensely useful satellites such as the Landsat series and the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) system, with costs typically of the order of 1 billion dollars per satellite and with concept-to-launch timelines of the order of 2 decades (for new missions). More recently, the proliferation of smartphones has helped to miniaturize sensors and energy requirements, facilitating advances in the use of CubeSats that can be launched by the dozens, while providing ultra-high (3–5 m) resolution sensing of the Earth on a daily basis. Start-up companies that did not exist a decade ago now operate more satellites in orbit than any space agency, and at costs that are a mere fraction of traditional satellite missions. With these advances come new space-borne measurements, such as real-time high-definition video for tracking air pollution, storm-cell development, flood propagation, precipitation monitoring, or even for constructing digital surfaces using structure-from-motion techniques. Closer to the surface, measurements from small unmanned drones and tethered balloons have mapped snow depths, floods, and estimated evaporation at sub-metre resolutions, pushing back on spatio-temporal constraints and delivering new process insights. At ground level, precipitation has been measured using signal attenuation between antennae mounted on cell phone towers, while the proliferation of mobile devices has enabled citizen scientists to catalogue photos of environmental conditions, estimate daily average temperatures from battery state, and sense

  17. Teacher beliefs about teaching science through Science-Technology-Society (STS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massenzio, Lynn

    2001-07-01

    Statement of the problem. As future citizens, students will have the enormous responsibility of making decisions that will require an understanding of the interaction of science and technology and its interface with society. Since many societal issues today are grounded in science and technology, learning science in its social context is vital to science education reform. Science-Technology-Society (STS) has been strongly identified with meeting this goal, but despite its benefits, putting theory into practice has been difficult. Research design and methodology. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher beliefs about teaching science through STS. The following broad research questions guided the study: (1) What are the participants' initial beliefs about teaching science through STS? (2) What beliefs emerge as participants reflect upon and share their STS instructional experiences with their peers? A social constructivist theoretical framework was developed to plan interactions and collect data. Within this framework, a qualitative methodology was used to interpret the data and answer the research questions. Three provisionally certified science teachers engaged in a series of qualitative tasks including a written essay, verbal STS unit explanation, reflective journal writings, and focus group interviews. After implementing their STS unit, the participants engaged in meaningful dialogue with their peers as they reflected upon, shared, and constructed their beliefs. Conclusions. The participants strongly believed in STS as a means for achieving scientific and technological literacy, developing cognition, enhancing scientific habits of mind and affective qualities, and fostering citizen responsibility. Four major assertions were drawn: (a) Participants' initial belief in teaching for citizen responsibility did not fully align with practice, (b) Educators at the administrative level should be made aware of the benefits of teaching science through STS, (c

  18. Explorations of Tenth-Grade STS[E] Curricula across Three Provincial Political Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christina Ann

    This thesis focuses on explorations of science, technology, society and the environment (i.e., STS[E]) outcomes/expectations in tenth-grade level science curricula across three Canadian provinces (i.e., Alberta, Manitoba & Ontario) with distinctive provincial political environments at the time of curriculum construction and/or implementation. Document analysis, discourse analysis and a range of theoretical frameworks (i.e., Levinson, 2010; Pedretti & Nazir, 2011 & Krathwohl, 2002) were used to aid in explorations of STS[E] curriculum segments and discourses in each provincial region. More detailed analysis and thematic exploration is presented for each unit associated with climate change as some interesting patterns emerged following initial analysis. My findings are presented as three comparative case studies and represent a small and original contribution to the large body of scholarly research devoted to studies of STS[E] education, where each province represents a unique case that has been explored regarding some aspects the STS[E] curriculum outcomes/expectations and general political culture as well as some other theoretical factors. Findings from this study indicate that Alberta's STS[E] outcomes may be related to Levinson's (2010) 'deliberative' citizenship focus. The following currents from Pedretti and Nazir (2011) appear to be emphasized: logical reasoning, historical, application & design and socio-cultural aligned outcomes when STS[E] is considered as an entity separate from the Alberta curriculum combination of STS and Knowledge. Ontario's STS[E] expectations may align with Levinson's (2010) 'deliberative' or in some select cases a 'deliberative'/'praxis' framework category with some emphasis related to logical reasoning and socio-cultural awareness (Pedretti & Nazir, 2011) in their STS[E] curriculum. The Manitoba STS[E] outcomes may be aligned with a more 'deliberative' approach with some associations that could intersect with the framework

  19. Exploiting Earth observation data pools for urban analysis: the TEP URBAN project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, W.; Esch, T.; Asamer, H.; Boettcher, M.; Brito, F.; Hirner, A.; Marconcini, M.; Mathot, E.; Metz, A.; Permana, H.; Zeidler, J.; Balhar, J.; Soukop, T.; Stankek, F.

    2017-10-01

    Large amounts of Earth observation (EO) data have been collected to date, to increase even more rapidly with the upcoming Sentinel data. All this data contains unprecedented information, yet it is hard to retrieve, especially for nonremote sensing specialists. As we live in an urban era, with more than 50% of the world population living in cities, urban studies can especially benefit from the EO data. Information is needed for sustainable development of cities, for the understanding of urban growth patterns or for studying the threats of natural hazards or climate change. Bridging this gap between the technology-driven EO sector and the information needs of environmental science, planning, and policy is the driver behind the TEP-Urban project. Modern information technology functionalities and services are tested and implemented in the Urban Thematic Exploitation Platform (U-TEP). The platform enables interested users to easily exploit and generate thematic information on the status and development of the environment based on EO data and technologies. The beta version of the web platform contains value added basic earth observation data, global thematic data sets, and tools to derive user specific indicators and metrics. The code is open source and the architecture of the platform allows adding of new data sets and tools. These functionalities and concepts support the four basic use scenarios of the U-TEP platform: explore existing thematic content; task individual on-demand analyses; develop, deploy and offer your own content or application; and, learn more about innovative data sets and methods.

  20. Enabling the Use of Earth Observation Data for Integrated Water Resource Management in Africa with the Water Observation and Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Guzinski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Water Observation and Information System (WOIS is an open source software tool for monitoring, assessing and inventorying water resources in a cost-effective manner using Earth Observation (EO data. The WOIS has been developed by, among others, the authors of this paper under the TIGER-NET project, which is a major component of the TIGER initiative of the European Space Agency (ESA and whose main goal is to support the African Earth Observation Capacity for Water Resource Monitoring. TIGER-NET aims to support the satellite-based assessment and monitoring of water resources from watershed to cross-border basin levels through the provision of a free and powerful software package, with associated capacity building, to African authorities. More than 28 EO data processing solutions for water resource management tasks have been developed, in correspondence with the requirements of the participating key African water authorities, and demonstrated with dedicated case studies utilizing the software in operational scenarios. They cover a wide range of themes and information products, including basin-wide characterization of land and water resources, lake water quality monitoring, hydrological modeling and flood forecasting and mapping. For each monitoring task, step-by-step workflows were developed, which can either be adjusted by the user or largely automatized to feed into existing data streams and reporting schemes. The WOIS enables African water authorities to fully exploit the increasing EO capacity offered by current and upcoming generations of satellites, including the Sentinel missions.

  1. Interactive Computing and Processing of NASA Land Surface Observations Using Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew; Burks, Jason; Bell, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Google's Earth Engine offers a "big data" approach to processing large volumes of NASA and other remote sensing products. h\\ps://earthengine.google.com/ Interfaces include a Javascript or Python-based API, useful for accessing and processing over large periods of record for Landsat and MODIS observations. Other data sets are frequently added, including weather and climate model data sets, etc. Demonstrations here focus on exploratory efforts to perform land surface change detection related to severe weather, and other disaster events.

  2. Characterization of Volume F Trash from the Three FY11 STS Missions: Trash Weights and Categorization and Microbial Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Richard F.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; McCoy, LaShelle E.; Roberts, Michael S.; Wheller, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The project reported here provides microbial characterization support to the Waste Management Systems (WMS) element of NASA's Life Support and Habitation Systems (LSHS) program. Conventional microbiological methods were used to detect and enumerate microorganisms in STS Volume F Compartment trash for three shuttle missions: STS 133, 134, and 135. This trash was usually made available within 2 days of landing at KSC. The Volume F bag was weighed, opened and the contents were cataloged and placed into categories: personal hygiene items - inclUding EVA maximum absorbent garments (MAGs) and Elbow packs (daily toilet wipes, etc), drink containers, food waste (and containers), office waste (paper), and packaging materials - plastic film and duct tape. The average wet trash generation rate for the three STS missions was 0.362 % 0.157 kgwet crew 1 d-1 . This was considerably lower and more variable than the average rate for 4 STS missions reported for FY10. Trash subtotals by category: personal hygiene wastes, 56%; drink items, 11 %; food wastes, 18%; office waste, 3%; and plastic film, 12%. These wastes have an abundance of easily biodegraded compounds that can support the growth of microorganisms. Microbial characterization of trash showed that large numbers of bacteria and fungi have taken advantage of this readily available nutrient source to proliferate. Exterior and interior surfaces of plastic film bags containing trash were sampled and counts of cultivatable microbes were generally low and mostly occurred on trash bundles within the exterior trash bags. Personal hygiene wastes, drink containers, and food wastes and packaging all contained high levels of, mostly, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and lower levels of yeasts and molds. Isolates from plate count media were obtained and identified .and were mostly aerobic heterotrophs with some facultative anaerobes. These are usually considered common environmental isolates on Earth. However, several pathogens were also

  3. Catalogue of {>} 55 MeV Wide-longitude Solar Proton Events Observed by SOHO, ACE, and the STEREOs at {≈} 1 AU During 2009 - 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paassilta, Miikka; Papaioannou, Athanasios; Dresing, Nina; Vainio, Rami; Valtonen, Eino; Heber, Bernd

    2018-04-01

    Based on energetic particle observations made at {≈} 1 AU, we present a catalogue of 46 wide-longitude ({>} 45°) solar energetic particle (SEP) events detected at multiple locations during 2009 - 2016. The particle kinetic energies of interest were chosen as {>} 55 MeV for protons and 0.18 - 0.31 MeV for electrons. We make use of proton data from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Energetic and Relativistic Nuclei and Electron Experiment (SOHO/ERNE) and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory/High Energy Telescopes (STEREO/HET), together with electron data from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (ACE/EPAM) and the STEREO/ Solar Electron and Proton Telescopes (SEPT). We consider soft X-ray data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) and coronal mass ejection (CME) observations made with the SOHO/ Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) and STEREO/ Coronagraphs 1 and 2 (COR1, COR2) to establish the probable associations between SEP events and the related solar phenomena. Event onset times and peak intensities are determined; velocity dispersion analysis (VDA) and time-shifting analysis (TSA) are performed for protons; TSA is performed for electrons. In our event sample, there is a tendency for the highest peak intensities to occur when the observer is magnetically connected to solar regions west of the flare. Our estimates for the mean event width, derived as the standard deviation of a Gaussian curve modelling the SEP intensities (protons {≈} 44°, electrons {≈} 50°), largely agree with previous results for lower-energy SEPs. SEP release times with respect to event flares, as well as the event rise times, show no simple dependence on the observer's connection angle, suggesting that the source region extent and dominant particle acceleration and transport mechanisms are important in defining these characteristics of an event. There is no marked difference between the speed

  4. Rapid Ice-Sheet Changes and Mechanical Coupling to Solid-Earth/Sea-Level and Space Geodetic Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, S.; Ivins, E. R.; Larour, E. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Perturbations in gravitational and rotational potentials caused by climate driven mass redistribution on the earth's surface, such as ice sheet melting and terrestrial water storage, affect the spatiotemporal variability in global and regional sea level. Here we present a numerically accurate, computationally efficient, high-resolution model for sea level. Unlike contemporary models that are based on spherical-harmonic formulation, the model can operate efficiently in a flexible embedded finite-element mesh system, thus capturing the physics operating at km-scale yet capable of simulating geophysical quantities that are inherently of global scale with minimal computational cost. One obvious application is to compute evolution of sea level fingerprints and associated geodetic and astronomical observables (e.g., geoid height, gravity anomaly, solid-earth deformation, polar motion, and geocentric motion) as a companion to a numerical 3-D thermo-mechanical ice sheet simulation, thus capturing global signatures of climate driven mass redistribution. We evaluate some important time-varying signatures of GRACE inferred ice sheet mass balance and continental hydrological budget; for example, we identify dominant sources of ongoing sea-level change at the selected tide gauge stations, and explain the relative contribution of different sources to the observed polar drift. We also report our progress on ice-sheet/solid-earth/sea-level model coupling efforts toward realistic simulation of Pine Island Glacier over the past several hundred years.

  5. The EnMAP Spaceborne Imaging Spectroscopy Mission for Earth Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guanter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaging spectroscopy, also known as hyperspectral remote sensing, is based on the characterization of Earth surface materials and processes through spectrally-resolved measurements of the light interacting with matter. The potential of imaging spectroscopy for Earth remote sensing has been demonstrated since the 1980s. However, most of the developments and applications in imaging spectroscopy have largely relied on airborne spectrometers, as the amount and quality of space-based imaging spectroscopy data remain relatively low to date. The upcoming Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP German imaging spectroscopy mission is intended to fill this gap. An overview of the main characteristics and current status of the mission is provided in this contribution. The core payload of EnMAP consists of a dual-spectrometer instrument measuring in the optical spectral range between 420 and 2450 nm with a spectral sampling distance varying between 5 and 12 nm and a reference signal-to-noise ratio of 400:1 in the visible and near-infrared and 180:1 in the shortwave-infrared parts of the spectrum. EnMAP images will cover a 30 km-wide area in the across-track direction with a ground sampling distance of 30 m. An across-track tilted observation capability will enable a target revisit time of up to four days at the Equator and better at high latitudes. EnMAP will contribute to the development and exploitation of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy applications by making high-quality data freely available to scientific users worldwide.

  6. Elicitation of State and Local User Needs for Future Moderate Resolution Earth Observations: The AmericaView Contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, N. H. F.; Lawrence, R. L.

    2017-12-01

    AmericaView is a nationwide partnership of remote sensing scientists who support the use of Landsat and other public domain remotely sensed data through applied remote sensing research, K-12 and higher STEM education, workforce development, and technology transfer. The national AmericaView program currently has active university-lead members in 39 states, each of which has a "stateview" consortium consisting of some combination of university, agency, non-profit, and other members. This "consortium of consortia" has resulted in a strong and unique nationwide network of remote sensing practitioners. AmericaView has used this network to contribute to the USGS Requirements Capabilities & Analysis for Earth Observations. Participating states have conducted interviews of key remote sensing end users across the country to provide key input at the state and local level for the design and implementation of future U.S. moderate resolution Earth observations.

  7. Ground Radar Polarimetric Observations of High-Frequency Earth-Space Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.; Benjamin, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Strategic roadmaps for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS) enterprise support near-term high-frequency communication systems that provide moderate to high data rates with dependable service. Near-earth and human planetary exploration will baseline Ka-Band, but may ultimately require the use of even higher frequencies. Increased commercial demand on low-frequency earth-space bands has also led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like K u - and K,- band. Data is taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR), which operates at 13.8 GHz, and the true radar reflectivity profile is determined along the PR beam via low-frequency ground based polarimetric observations. The specific differential phase (Kdp) is measured along the beam and a theoretical model is used to determine the expected specific attenuation (k). This technique, called the k-Kdp method, uses a Fuzzy-Logic model to determine the hydrometeor type along the PR beam from which the appropriate k-Kdp relationship is used to determine k and, ultimately, the total path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on PR measurements. Measurements from PR and the NCAR S-POL radar were made during the TEFLUN-B experiment that took place near Melbourne, FL in 1998, and the TRMM-LBA campaign near Ji-Parana, Brazil in 1999.

  8. Earth Observation for Citizen Science Validation, or Citizen Science for Earth Observation Validation? The Role of Quality Assurance of Volunteered Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier G. Leibovici

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental policy involving citizen science (CS is of growing interest. In support of this open data stream of information, validation or quality assessment of the CS geo-located data to their appropriate usage for evidence-based policy making needs a flexible and easily adaptable data curation process ensuring transparency. Addressing these needs, this paper describes an approach for automatic quality assurance as proposed by the Citizen OBservatory WEB (COBWEB FP7 project. This approach is based upon a workflow composition that combines different quality controls, each belonging to seven categories or “pillars”. Each pillar focuses on a specific dimension in the types of reasoning algorithms for CS data qualification. These pillars attribute values to a range of quality elements belonging to three complementary quality models. Additional data from various sources, such as Earth Observation (EO data, are often included as part of the inputs of quality controls within the pillars. However, qualified CS data can also contribute to the validation of EO data. Therefore, the question of validation can be considered as “two sides of the same coin”. Based on an invasive species CS study, concerning Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, the paper discusses the flexibility and usefulness of qualifying CS data, either when using an EO data product for the validation within the quality assurance process, or validating an EO data product that describes the risk of occurrence of the plant. Both validation paths are found to be improved by quality assurance of the CS data. Addressing the reliability of CS open data, issues and limitations of the role of quality assurance for validation, due to the quality of secondary data used within the automatic workflow, are described, e.g., error propagation, paving the route to improvements in the approach.

  9. An Examination of the Change in the Earth's Rotation Rate From Ancient Chinese Observations of Lunar Occultations of the Planets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hilton, James L; Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Ciyuan, Liu

    1992-01-01

    ...., a period with no other known observations useful for Earth rotation studies. The observations are compared to topocentric ephemerides computed using Bretagnon's planetary theories VSOP82 and the Chapront-Touze lunar theory ELP2000-85...

  10. Observation of The Top of The Atmosphere Outgoing Longwave Radiation Using The Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, G.; Llewellyn-Jones, D.

    In the summer of 2002 the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite is due to be launched. On board the MSG satellite is the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) sensor. This is a new radiometer that will be able to observe and measure the outgoing longwave radiation from the top of the atmosphere for the whole ob- served Earth disc, due to its unique position in geostationary orbit. Every 15 minutes the GERB sensor will make a full Earth disc observation, centred on the Greenwich meridian. Thus, the GERB sensor will provide unprecedented coupled temporal and spatial resolution of the outgoing longwave radiation (4.0 to 30.0 microns), by first measuring the broadband radiation (0.32 to 30.0 microns) and then subtracting the measured reflected shortwave solar radiation (0.32 to 4.0 microns), from the earth- atmosphere system. The GERB sensor is able to make measurements to within an accuracy of 1 W/sq. m. A forward model is being developed at Leicester to simulate the data from the GERB sensor for representative geophysical scenes and to investigate key parameters and processes that will affect the top of the atmosphere signal. At the heart of this model is a line-by-line radiative transfer model, the Oxford Reference Forward Model (RFM) that is to be used with model atmospheres generated from ECMWF analysis data. When MSG is launched, cloud data from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI), also on board, is to be used in conjunction with GERB data.

  11. Taming Big Data Variety in the Earth Observing System Data and Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Walter, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Although the volume of the remote sensing data managed by the Earth Observing System Data and Information System is formidable, an oft-overlooked challenge is the variety of data. The diversity in satellite instruments, science disciplines and user communities drives cost as much or more as the data volume. Several strategies are used to tame this variety: data allocation to distinct centers of expertise; a common metadata repository for discovery, data format standards and conventions; and services that further abstract the variations in data.

  12. Carbon and oxygen abundances in cool metal-rich exoplanet hosts: A case study of the C/O ratio of 55 Cancri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teske, Johanna K.; Cunha, Katia; Schuler, Simon C.; Griffith, Caitlin A.; Smith, Verne V.

    2013-01-01

    The super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e, the smallest member of a five-planet system, has recently been observed to transit its host star. The radius estimates from transit observations, coupled with spectroscopic determinations of mass, provide constraints on its interior composition. The composition of exoplanetary interiors and atmospheres are particularly sensitive to elemental C/O ratio, which to first order can be estimated from the host stars. Results from a recent spectroscopic study analyzing the 6300 Å [O I] line and two C I lines suggest that 55 Cnc has a carbon-rich composition (C/O = 1.12 ± 0.09). However, oxygen abundances derived using the 6300 Å [O I] line are highly sensitive to a Ni I blend, particularly in metal-rich stars such as 55 Cnc ([Fe/H] =0.34 ± 0.18). Here, we further investigate 55 Cnc's composition by deriving the carbon and oxygen abundances from these and additional C and O absorption features. We find that the measured C/O ratio depends on the oxygen lines used. The C/O ratio that we derive based on the 6300 Å [O I] line alone is consistent with the previous value. Yet, our investigation of additional abundance indicators results in a mean C/O ratio of 0.78 ± 0.08. The lower C/O ratio of 55 Cnc determined here may place this system at the sensitive boundary between protoplanetary disk compositions giving rise to planets with high (>0.8) versus low (<0.8) C/O ratios. This study illustrates the caution that must applied when determining planet host star C/O ratios, particularly in cool, metal-rich stars.

  13. Investigating students' view on STEM in learning about electrical current through STS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupsai, Jiraporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Grade 11 students' views on Science Technology Engineering Mathematics (STEM) with the integration of learning about electrical current based on Science Technology Society (STS) approach [8]. The participants were 60 Grade 11 students in Demonstration Secondary School, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand. The methodology is in the respect of interpretive paradigm. The teaching and learning about Electrical Current through STS approach carried out over 6 weeks. The Electrical Current unit through STS approach was developed based on framework[8] that consists of five stages including (1) identification of social issues, (2) identification of potential solutions, (3) need for knowledge, (4) decision making, and (5) socialization stage. To start with, the question "what if this world is lack of electricity" was challenged in the class in order to move students to find the problem of how to design Electricity Generation from Clean Energy. Students were expected to apply scientific and other knowledge to design of Electricity Generation. Students' views on STEM were collected during their learning by participant' observation and students' tasks. Their views on STEM were categorized when they applied their knowledge for designing the Electricity Generation. The findings indicated that students cooperatively work to solve the problem when applying knowledge about the content of Science and Mathematics and processing skill of Technology and Engineering. It showed that students held the integration of science, technology, engineering and mathematics to design their possible solutions in learning about Electrical Current. The paper also discusses implications for science teaching and learning through STS in Thailand.

  14. Radar and optical observations and physical modeling of triple near-Earth Asteroid (136617) 1994 CC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brozovic, M.; Benner, L. A. M.; Taylor, P.A.; Nolan, M. C.; Howell, E. S.; Magri, C.; Scheeres, D.J.; Giorgini, J. D.; Pollock, J.; Pravec, Petr; Galád, Adrián; Fang, J.; Margot, J. L.; Busch, M.W.; Shepard, M.K.; Reichart, D. E.; Ivarsen, K.M.; Haislip, J.B.; LaCluyze, A.; Jao, J.; Slade, M. A.; Lawrence, K. J.; Hicks, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 1 (2011), s. 241-256 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1107 Grant - others:SAV(SK) Vega 2/0016/09 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : asteroids * radar observations * near-Earth objects * satellites of asteroids Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.385, year: 2011

  15. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrumentation interface control document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This Interface Control Document (ICD) defines the specific details of the complete accomodation information between the Earth Observing System (EOS) PM Spacecraft and the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU-A)Instrument. This is the first submittal of the ICN: it will be updated periodically throughout the life of the program. The next update is planned prior to Critical Design Review (CDR).

  16. Radar and photometric observations and shape modeling of contact binary near-Earth Asteroid 1996 HW1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magri, Christopher; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Mueller, Michael; Vervack, Ronald J.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Giorgini, Jon D.; Ostro, Steven J.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Hicks, Michael D.; Rhoades, Heath; Somers, James M.; Gaftonyuk, Ninel M.; Kouprianov, Vladimir V.; Krugly, Yurij N.; Molotov, Igor E.; Busch, Michael W.; Margot, Jean-Luc; Benishek, Vladimir; Protitch-Benishek, Vojislava; Galád, Adrian; Higgins, David; Kušnirák, Peter; Pray, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    We observed near-Earth Asteroid (8567) 1996 HW1 at the Arecibo Observatory on six dates in September 2008, obtaining radar images and spectra. By combining these data with an extensive set of new lightcurves taken during 2008-2009 and with previously published lightcurves from 2005, we were able to

  17. Re-organizing Earth Observation Data Storage to Support Temporal Analysis of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth Observing System Data and Information System archives many datasets that are critical to understanding long-term variations in Earth science properties. Thus, some of these are large, multi-decadal datasets. Yet the challenge in long time series analysis comes less from the sheer volume than the data organization, which is typically one (or a small number of) time steps per file. The overhead of opening and inventorying complex, API-driven data formats such as Hierarchical Data Format introduces a small latency at each time step, which nonetheless adds up for datasets with O(10^6) single-timestep files. Several approaches to reorganizing the data can mitigate this overhead by an order of magnitude: pre-aggregating data along the time axis (time-chunking); storing the data in a highly distributed file system; or storing data in distributed columnar databases. Storing a second copy of the data incurs extra costs, so some selection criteria must be employed, which would be driven by expected or actual usage by the end user community, balanced against the extra cost.

  18. Radiation environment of the earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    The radiation environment of the earth consists of natural and artificial radiation. This paper explains the distribution and some exposure examples of natural radiation and the relation between life and natural radiation. The earth was born before about 46 hundreds of millions of years. In the present earth, there are some natural radiations with long half-life originated by the earth. They are 232 Th (141 hundreds of millions of years of half-life), 238 U (45 hundreds of millions of years of half-life) and 40 K (13 hundreds of millions of years of half-life). Natural radiation (α-, β-, and γ-ray) from natural radionuclides exists everywhere in the earth. Natural radio nuclides are heat source of the earth, which is about 0.035 μcal/g/y. γ-ray from them is called as ''the earth's crust γ-ray'', which is about 55 nGy/h average of the world and about 50 nGy/h in Japan. The distribution of γ-ray is depended on the kinds of soil and rock. 222 Rn and 230 Rn are rare gases and the concentration of them in a room is larger than outside. Natural radiations originated from the cosmos are proton, ionizing components, neutron component with muon and electron, 3 H, 14 C and 10 Be. Effect of cosmic rays on birth of life, change of temperature, amount of cloud and ultra resistant cell are stated. (S.Y.)

  19. The Role of NASA Observations in Understanding Earth System Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeland, Matthew M.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation will introduce a non-technical audience to NASA Earth science research goals and the technologies used to achieve them. The talk will outline the primary science focus areas and then provide overviews of current and planned missions, in addition to instruments, aircraft, and other technologies that are used to turn data into useful information for scientists and policy-makers. This presentation is part of an Earth Day symposium at the University of Mary.

  20. Redesign of the Electronics and the Mechanical Sensor of the STS-1 Very Broadband Seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanowicz, B.; van Zandt, T.; Friday, J.; Karavas, W.; Porritt, R.; Uhrhammer, R.; Wielandt, E.

    2008-12-01

    The STS-1 VBB, widely viewed as the finest VBB sensor in the world, is currently the principal broad-band seismometer used by the Global Seismographic Network (GSN), GEOSCOPE, and several other global or regional seismic networks. Its continued operation is critical to future, fundamental research in a number of important disciplines within seismology. These include modal studies of the earth, the determination of source processes of very large earthquakes, and tsunami warning. We have recently completed the development of a replacement electronics module for the Streckeisen STS-1 Very Broad-Band (VBB) seismometer. This module maintains the outstanding analog performance of the original sensor electronics, while providing a number of unique performance enhancements that will improve the operability of STS-1 sensors within a modern, digital seismic network. We describe the attributes of this new electronics module, which has now reached production stage. As a second step in this collaboration between the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory and Metrozet (Inc), we have started the development of a commercially-viable replacement to the aging, but state-of-the-art mechanical sensor. We discuss the goals of this new project. The design of the new sensor aims at maintaining many of the unique features that have made the original sensor the world's finest instrument for low frequency seismic recording. It will, however, implement a number of enhancements that promise to improve operating performance and ease-of-use. These include the use of capacitive position sensing to reduce high frequency self-noise, an increase in the upper corner frequency of the sensor, much tighter tolerance (sensor-to-sensor) in scalar response values, and a new, highly-integrated package for deploying the sensors as a standard triaxial set. Importantly, the replacement sensor development is driven by principles of "design-for manufacturing". As such, the new sensor will include a number of

  1. Survey of Hyperspectral Earth Observation Applications from Space in the Sentinel-2 Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Transon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, researchers have developed a plethora of hyperspectral Earth Observation (EO remote sensing techniques, analysis and applications. While hyperspectral exploratory sensors are demonstrating their potential, Sentinel-2 multispectral satellite remote sensing is now providing free, open, global and systematic high resolution visible and infrared imagery at a short revisit time. Its recent launch suggests potential synergies between multi- and hyper-spectral data. This study, therefore, reviews 20 years of research and applications in satellite hyperspectral remote sensing through the analysis of Earth observation hyperspectral sensors’ publications that cover the Sentinel-2 spectrum range: Hyperion, TianGong-1, PRISMA, HISUI, EnMAP, Shalom, HyspIRI and HypXIM. More specifically, this study (i brings face to face past and future hyperspectral sensors’ applications with Sentinel-2’s and (ii analyzes the applications’ requirements in terms of spatial and temporal resolutions. Eight main application topics were analyzed including vegetation, agriculture, soil, geology, urban, land use, water resources and disaster. Medium spatial resolution, long revisit time and low signal-to-noise ratio in the short-wave infrared of some hyperspectral sensors were highlighted as major limitations for some applications compared to the Sentinel-2 system. However, these constraints mainly concerned past hyperspectral sensors, while they will probably be overcome by forthcoming instruments. Therefore, this study is putting forward the compatibility of hyperspectral sensors and Sentinel-2 systems for resolution enhancement techniques in order to increase the panel of hyperspectral uses.

  2. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  3. Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) perspectives about the GEO Supersite initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Wolfgang; Zoffoli, Simona; Giguere, Christine; Hoffmann, Joern; Lindsay, Francis; Seguin, Guy

    2014-05-01

    This presentation is outlining the effort of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) using its global collaboration structure to support implementing the GEO priority action DI-01 Informing Risk Management and Disaster Reduction addressing the component: C2 Geohazards Monitoring, Alert, and Risk Assessment. A CEOS Supersites Coordination Team (SCT) has been established in order to make best use of the CEOS global satellite resources. For this, the CEOS SCT has taken a holistic view on the science data needs and availability of resources, considering the constraints and exploitation potentials of synergies. It is interfacing with the Supersites Science Advisory Group and the Principle Investigators to analyze how the satellite data associated with seismic and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data can support national authorities and policy makers in risk assessment and the development of mitigation strategies. CEOS SCT aims to support the establishment of a fully integrated approach to geohazards monitoring, based on collaboration among existing networks and international initiatives, using new instrumentation such as in-situ sensors, and aggregating space (radar, optical imagery) and ground-based (subsurface) observations. The three Supersites projects which are funded under the EC FP7 action, namely (i) FUTUREVOLC: A European volcanological supersite in Iceland: a monitoring system and network for the future Geohazards Monitoring, Alert, and Risk Assessment, (ii) MARsite: New Directions in Seismic Hazard assessment through Focused Earth Observation in the Marmara Supersite, (iii) MED-SUV: MEDiterranean Volcanoes and related seismic risks, have been examined as a vehicle to fulfill these ambitious objectives. FUTUREVOLC has already been granted CEOS support. This presentation will outline CEOS agreed process and criteria applied by the Supersites Coordination Team (SCT), for selecting these Supersites in the context of the GSNL initiative, as

  4. STS-93 Commander Collins suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    During the third launch preparations in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS-93 Commander Eileen M. Collins waves while having her launch and entry suit checked. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  5. A Web 2.0 and OGC Standards Enabled Sensor Web Architecture for Global Earth Observing System of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, Daniel; Unger, Stephen; Ames, Troy; Frye, Stuart; Chien, Steve; Cappelaere, Pat; Tran, Danny; Derezinski, Linda; Paules, Granville

    2007-01-01

    This paper will describe the progress of a 3 year research award from the NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) that began October 1, 2006, in response to a NASA Announcement of Research Opportunity on the topic of sensor webs. The key goal of this research is to prototype an interoperable sensor architecture that will enable interoperability between a heterogeneous set of space-based, Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)-based and ground based sensors. Among the key capabilities being pursued is the ability to automatically discover and task the sensors via the Internet and to automatically discover and assemble the necessary science processing algorithms into workflows in order to transform the sensor data into valuable science products. Our first set of sensor web demonstrations will prototype science products useful in managing wildfires and will use such assets as the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft, managed out of NASA/GSFC, a UASbased instrument, managed out of Ames and some automated ground weather stations, managed by the Forest Service. Also, we are collaborating with some of the other ESTO awardees to expand this demonstration and create synergy between our research efforts. Finally, we are making use of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) suite of standards and some Web 2.0 capabilities to Beverage emerging technologies and standards. This research will demonstrate and validate a path for rapid, low cost sensor integration, which is not tied to a particular system, and thus be able to absorb new assets in an easily evolvable, coordinated manner. This in turn will help to facilitate the United States contribution to the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), as agreed by the U.S. and 60 other countries at the third Earth Observation Summit held in February of 2005.

  6. STS-82 Pilot Scott Horowitz arrives for TCDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    STS-82 Pilot Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz arrives at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility in a T-38 jet from Houston, TX. Horowitz and the other six crew members are at KSC to participate in the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT), a dress rehearsal for launch. The crew aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-82 will conduct the second Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. The 10-day flight is targeted for a Feb. 11 liftoff.

  7. STS-99 workers move new Master Events Controller into aft compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Pad 39A, workers move the replacement Enhanced Main Events Controller (E-MEC) into Shuttle Endeavour's aft compartment in the payload bay. The original E-MEC became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  8. The faulty Master Events Controller is removed from STS-99 Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Technicians remove a faulty Enhanced Main Events Controller (E- MEC) from Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. The E-MEC became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  9. The magnetic field of the earth - Performance considerations for space-based observing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W. J., Jr.; Taylor, P. T.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Langel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Basic problems inherent in carrying out observations of the earth magnetic field from space are reviewed. It is shown that while useful observations of the core and crustal fields are possible at the peak of the solar cycle, the greatest useful data volume is obtained during solar minimum. During the last three solar cycles, the proportion of data with a planetary disturbance index of less than 2 at solar maximum was in the range 0.4-0.8 in comparison with solar minimum. It is found that current state of the art orbit determination techniques should eliminate orbit error as a problem in gravitational field measurements from space. The spatial resolution obtained for crustal field anomalies during the major satellite observation programs of the last 30 years are compared in a table. The relationship between observing altitude and the spatial resolution of magnetic field structures is discussed. Reference is made to data obtained using the Magsat, the Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), and instruments on board the Space Shuttle.

  10. Earth-based and Galileo SSI multispectral observations of eastern mare serenitatis and the Apollo 17 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesinger, H.; Jaumann, R.; Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    Both the Apollo 17 and the Mare Serenitatis region were observed by Galileo during its fly-by in December 1992. We used earth-based multispectral data to define mare units which then can be compared with the results of the Galileo SSI data evaluation.

  11. Development of a New Research Data Infrastructure for Collaboration in Earth Observation and Global Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Briese, Christian

    2017-04-01

    With the global population having surpassed 7 billion people in 2012, the impacts of human activities on the environment have started to be noticeable almost everywhere on our planet. Yet, while pressing social problems such as mass migration may be at least be partly a consequence of these impacts, many are still elusive, particularly when trying to quantify them on larger scales. Therefore, it is essential to collect verifiable observations that allow tracing environmental changes from a local to global scale over several decades. Complementing in situ networks, this task is increasingly fulfilled by earth observation satellites which have been acquiring measurements of the land, atmosphere and oceans since the beginning of the 1970s. While many multi-decadal data sets are already available, the major limitation hindering their effective exploitation in global change studies is the lack of dedicated data centres offering the high performance processing capabilities needed to process multi-year global data sets at a fine spatial resolution (Wagner, 2015). Essentially the only platform which currently offers these capabilities is Google's Earth Engine. From a scientific perspective there is undoubtedly a high need to build up independent science-driven platforms that are transparent for their users and offer a higher diversity and flexibility in terms of the data sets and algorithms used. Recognizing this need, TU Wien founded the EODC Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring together with other Austrian partners in May 2014 as a public-private partnership (Wagner et al. 2014). Thanks to its integrative governance approach, EODC has succeeded of quickly developing an international cooperation consisting of scientific institutions, public organisations and several private partners. Making best use of their existing infrastructures, the EODC partners have already created the first elements of a federated IT infrastructure capable of storing and

  12. Advanced Calibration Source for Planetary and Earth Observing Imaging

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary and Earth imaging requires radiometrically calibrated and stable imaging sensors.  Radiometric calibration enables the ability to remove or mitigate...

  13. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-fiscal year 2010 annual report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. The work of the Center is shaped by the earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management, and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote-sensing-based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet, and where possible exceed, the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to provide an overview of the scientific and engineering achievements and illustrate the range and scope of the activities and accomplishments at EROS throughout fiscal year (FY) 2010. Additional information concerning the scientific, engineering, and operational achievements can be obtained from the scientific papers and other documents published by EROS staff or by visiting our web site at http://eros.usgs.gov. We welcome comments and follow-up questions on any aspect of this Annual Report and invite any of our customers or partners to contact us at their convenience. To

  14. Rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasgnier, M.

    1980-01-01

    The review deals with pure rare earth materials such as rare earth metals, rare earth hydrides, and rare earth oxides as thin films. Several preparation techniques, control methods, and nature of possible contaminations of thin films are described. These films can now be produced in an extremely well-known state concerning chemical composition, structure and texture. Structural, electric, magnetic, and optical properties of thin films are studied and discussed in comparison with the bulk state. The greatest contamination of metallic rare earth thin films is caused by reaction with hydrogen or with water vapour. The compound with an f.c.c. structure is the dihydride LnH 2 (Ln = lanthanides). The oxygen contamination takes place after annealing at higher temperatures. Then there appears a compound with a b.c.c. structure which is the C-type sesquioxide C-Ln 2 O 3 . At room atmosphere dihydride light rare earth thin films are converted to hydroxide Ln(OH) 3 . For heavy rare earth thin films the oxinitride LnNsub(x)Osub(y) is observed. The LnO-type compound was never seen. The present review tries to set the stage anew for the investigations to be undertaken in the future especially through the new generations of electron microscopes

  15. STS-114: Crew Interviews: 1. Jim Kelly 2. Charlie Camarda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    1) STS-114 Pilot James Kelly mentions his primary job as the Pilot is to back up Commander Eileen Collins all through the flight. James discusses in detail his robotics operations for all of the extravehicular activities and spacewalk work, as well as moving the logistics module back and forth, onto the station and back in the payload bay. He shares his thoughts on the Columbia, the STS-114 mission as a new chapter in space exploration, and the International Space Station. 2) STS-114 Mission Specialist Charlie Camarda discusses his major role in the mission, his feelings for this being his first Space Shuttle flight; shares his thoughts on the Columbia; mentioned that STS-114 is a baby step to what is needed to do for the next step in space exploration, and gave some examples on how the International Space Station can help pave the path to future space exploration.

  16. Uncertainty information in climate data records from Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Christopher J.; Paul, Frank; Popp, Thomas; Ablain, Michael; Bontemps, Sophie; Defourny, Pierre; Hollmann, Rainer; Lavergne, Thomas; Laeng, Alexandra; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Mittaz, Jonathan; Poulsen, Caroline; Povey, Adam C.; Reuter, Max; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Sandven, Stein; Sofieva, Viktoria F.; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    The question of how to derive and present uncertainty information in climate data records (CDRs) has received sustained attention within the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (CCI), a programme to generate CDRs addressing a range of essential climate variables (ECVs) from satellite data. Here, we review the nature, mathematics, practicalities, and communication of uncertainty information in CDRs from Earth observations. This review paper argues that CDRs derived from satellite-based Earth observation (EO) should include rigorous uncertainty information to support the application of the data in contexts such as policy, climate modelling, and numerical weather prediction reanalysis. Uncertainty, error, and quality are distinct concepts, and the case is made that CDR products should follow international metrological norms for presenting quantified uncertainty. As a baseline for good practice, total standard uncertainty should be quantified per datum in a CDR, meaning that uncertainty estimates should clearly discriminate more and less certain data. In this case, flags for data quality should not duplicate uncertainty information, but instead describe complementary information (such as the confidence in the uncertainty estimate provided or indicators of conditions violating the retrieval assumptions). The paper discusses the many sources of error in CDRs, noting that different errors may be correlated across a wide range of timescales and space scales. Error effects that contribute negligibly to the total uncertainty in a single-satellite measurement can be the dominant sources of uncertainty in a CDR on the large space scales and long timescales that are highly relevant for some climate applications. For this reason, identifying and characterizing the relevant sources of uncertainty for CDRs is particularly challenging. The characterization of uncertainty caused by a given error effect involves assessing the magnitude of the effect, the shape of the

  17. Satellite Earth observation data to identify climate and anthropogenic pressures on Bucharest periurban forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan [National Institute of R& D for Optoelectronics, MG5 Bucharest-Magurele, 077125 Romania (Romania); Dida, Adrian [University Transylvania of Brasov, Brasov (Romania)

    2016-03-25

    Satellite Earth observation data in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths represent a useful source of information for forest systems monitoring through derived biogeophysical parameters (vegetation index, leaf area index, canopy cover, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll content, net primary production, canopy water stress, etc.). Use of satellite remote sensing data to assess forest spatio-temporal changes due to climatic or anthropogenic stressors is an excellent example of the value of multispectral and multitemporal observations. Fusion technique was applied to time-series multispectral and multitemporal satellite imagery (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua, Landsat ETM and IKONOS satellite data) for periurban forest areas Cernica-Branesti, placed in the neighboring of Bucharest town, Romania, over 2002-2014 period.

  18. Satellite Earth observation data to identify climate and anthropogenic pressures on Bucharest periurban forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoran, Maria; Savastru, Roxana; Savastru, Dan; Dida, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Satellite Earth observation data in the visible and near-infrared (VNIR) wavelengths represent a useful source of information for forest systems monitoring through derived biogeophysical parameters (vegetation index, leaf area index, canopy cover, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation, chlorophyll content, net primary production, canopy water stress, etc.). Use of satellite remote sensing data to assess forest spatio-temporal changes due to climatic or anthropogenic stressors is an excellent example of the value of multispectral and multitemporal observations. Fusion technique was applied to time-series multispectral and multitemporal satellite imagery (NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua, Landsat ETM and IKONOS satellite data) for periurban forest areas Cernica-Branesti, placed in the neighboring of Bucharest town, Romania, over 2002-2014 period.

  19. STS-93 Pilot Ashby suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Operations and Checkout Building during final launch preparations for the third time, STS-93 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby pulls on his glove, part of his launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Eileen Collins, Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  20. 9+ Years of CALIPSO PSC Observations: An Evolving Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Michael C.; Poole, Lamont R.

    2015-01-01

    Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) play a crucial role in the springtime chemical depletion of ozone at high latitudes. PSC particles (primarily supercooled ternary solution, or STS droplets) provide sites for heterogeneous chemical reactions that transform stable chlorine and bromine reservoir species into highly reactive ozone-destructive forms. Furthermore, large nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) PSC particles can irreversibly redistribute odd nitrogen through gravitational sedimentation (a process commonly known as denitrification), which prolongs the ozone depletion process by slowing the reformation of the stable chlorine reservoirs. Spaceborne observations from the CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) lidar on the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) satellite are providing a rich new dataset for studying PSCs. CALIPSO is an excellent platform for studying polar processes with CALIOP acquiring, on average, over 300,000 backscatter profiles daily at latitudes between 55o and 82o in both hemispheres. PSCs are detected in the CALIOP backscatter profiles using a successive horizontal averaging scheme that enables detection of strongly scattering PSCs (e.g., ice) at the finest possible spatial resolution (5 km), while enhancing the detection of very tenuous PSCs (e.g., low number density NAT) at larger spatial scales (up to 135 km). CALIOP PSCs are separated into composition classes (STS; liquid/NAT mixtures; and ice) based on the ensemble 532-nm scattering ratio (the ratio of total-to-molecular backscatter) and 532-nm particulate depolarization ratio (which is sensitive to the presence of non-spherical, i.e. NAT and ice particles). In this paper, we will provide an overview of the CALIOP PSC detection and composition classification algorithm and then examine the vertical and spatial distribution of PSCs in the Arctic and Antarctic on vortex-wide scales for entire PSC seasons over the more than nine-year data

  1. The Earth Information Exchange: A Portal for Earth Science From the ESIP Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertz, R.; Hutchinson, C.; Hardin, D.

    2006-12-01

    The Federation of Earth Science Information Partners is a unique consortium of more than 90 organizations that collect, interpret and develop applications for remotely sensed Earth Observation Information. Included in the ESIP network are NASA, NOAA and USGS data centers, research universities, government research laboratories, supercomputer facilities, education resource providers, information technology innovators, nonprofit organizations and commercial enterprises. The consortium's work is dedicated to providing the most up-to-date, science-based information to researchers and decision-makers who are working to understand and address the environmental, economic and social challenges facing our planet. By increasing the use and usability of Earth observation data and linking it with decision-making tools, the Federation partners leverage the value of these important data resources for the betterment of society and our planet. To further the dissemination of Earth Science data, the Federation is developing the Earth Information Exchange (EIE). The EIE is a portal that will provide access to the vast information holdings of the members' organizations in one web-based location and will provides a robust marketplace in which the products and services needed to use and understand this information can be readily acquired. Since the Federation membership includes the federal government's Earth observing data centers, we believe that the impact of the EIE on Earth science research and education and environmental policy making will be profound. In the EIE, Earth observation data, products and services, are organized by the societal benefits categories defined by the international working group developing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The quality of the information is ensured in each of the Exchange's issue areas by maintaining working groups of issue area researchers and practitioners who serve as stewards for their respective communities. The

  2. Meeting Earth Observation Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring: An Evaluation of the Revisit Capabilities of Current and Planned Moderate Resolution Optical Earth Observing Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa K. Whitcraft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a highly dynamic process in space and time, with many applications requiring data with both a relatively high temporal resolution (at least every 8 days and fine-to-moderate (FTM < 100 m spatial resolution. The relatively infrequent revisit of FTM optical satellite observatories coupled with the impacts of cloud occultation have translated into a barrier for the derivation of agricultural information at the regional-to-global scale. Drawing upon the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM Initiative’s general satellite Earth observation (EO requirements for monitoring of major production areas, Whitcraft et al. (this issue have described where, when, and how frequently satellite data acquisitions are required throughout the agricultural growing season at 0.05°, globally. The majority of areas and times of year require multiple revisits to probabilistically yield a view at least 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95% clear within eight days, something that no present single FTM optical observatory is capable of delivering. As such, there is a great potential to meet these moderate spatial resolution optical data requirements through a multi-space agency/multi-mission constellation approach. This research models the combined revisit capabilities of seven hypothetical constellations made from five satellite sensors—Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, Resourcesat-2 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (Resourcesat-2 AWiFS, Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI, and Sentinel-2B MSI—and compares these capabilities with the revisit frequency requirements for a reasonably cloud-free clear view within eight days throughout the agricultural growing season. Supplementing Landsat 7 and 8 with missions from different space agencies leads to an improved capacity to meet requirements, with Resourcesat-2 providing the largest

  3. NASA: Changes to the scope, schedule, and estimated cost of the Earth Observing System. Report to the Chair, Government Activities and Transportation Subcommittee, Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Congress funded the Earth Observing System (EOS) as a new NASA program beginning in fiscal year 1991. NASA proposed to launch about 30 types of earth observing instruments beginning in 1998. These instruments were intended to improve satellite data about the earth and to provide new data to support interdisciplinary studies of the earth. EOS is seen by NASA as the first step toward a future period of space-based scientific observation of the earth. The program is directly linked to the objectives of the U.S. Global Change Research Program and international efforts to observe and study the earth. The U.S. Global Change Research Program, which is funded by 11 agencies, is an attempt to achieve these objectives and to improve predictions of climate and other forms of global change. Within that program, EOS is intended to significantly improve scientists' abilities to model, and thereby predict, broad natural relationships among the sea, land, and atmosphere; to observe how water, carbon, and other substances move on the planet or are affected by variations in the sun's radiation; and to assess the impact of human activities on the earth's climate. Ultimately, EOS is to help determine the extent to which human activities are affecting the earth's environment and to provide policymakers with the information they will need to preserve the earth

  4. Linking the Climate and Thermal Phase Curve of 55 Cancri e

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Mark; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The thermal phase curve of 55 Cancri e is the first measurement of the temperature distribution of a tidally locked Super-Earth, but raises a number of puzzling questions about the planet's climate. The phase curve has a high amplitude and peak offset, suggesting that it has a significant eastward hot-spot shift as well as a large day-night temperature contrast. We use a general circulation model to model potential climates, and investigate the relation between bulk atmospheric composition an...

  5. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  6. Defining the Application Readiness of Products when Developing Earth Observing Remote Sensing Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, V. M.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has contributed to the transformation of multiple earth science domains, putting space observations at the forefront of innovation in Earth Science. With new satellite missions being launched every year, new types of Earth Science data are being incorporated into science models and decision-making systems in a broad array of organizations. These applications help hazard mitigation and decision-making in government, private, and civic institutions working to reduce its impact on human wellbeing. Policy guidance and knowledge of product maturity can influence mission design as well as development of product applications in user organizations. Ensuring that satellite missions serve both the scientific and user communities without becoming unfocused and overly expensive is a critical outcome from engagement of user communities. Tracking the applications and product maturity help improve the use of data. NASA's Applications Readiness Levels reduce cost and increase the confidence in applications. ARLs help identify areas where NASA products are most useful while allowing the user to leverage products in early development as well as those ready for operational uses. By considering the needs of the user community early on in the mission-design process, agencies can use ARLs to ensure that satellites meet the needs of multiple constituencies and the development of products are integrated into user organizations organically. ARLs and user integration provide a perspective on the maturity and readiness of a products ability to influence policy and decision-making. This paper describes the mission application development process at NASA and within the Earth Science Directorate. We present the successes and challenges faced by NASA data users and explain how ARLs helps link NASA science to the appropriate policies and decision frameworks. The methods presented here can be adapted to other programs and institutions seeking to rapidly move

  7. Advancements in medium and high resolution Earth observation for land-surface imaging: Evolutions, future trends and contributions to sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Yashon O.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies for imaging the surface of the Earth, through satellite based Earth observations (EO) have enormously evolved over the past 50 years. The trends are likely to evolve further as the user community increases and their awareness and demands for EO data also increases. In this review paper, a development trend on EO imaging systems is presented with the objective of deriving the evolving patterns for the EO user community. From the review and analysis of medium-to-high resolution EO-based land-surface sensor missions, it is observed that there is a predictive pattern in the EO evolution trends such that every 10-15 years, more sophisticated EO imaging systems with application specific capabilities are seen to emerge. Such new systems, as determined in this review, are likely to comprise of agile and small payload-mass EO land surface imaging satellites with the ability for high velocity data transmission and huge volumes of spatial, spectral, temporal and radiometric resolution data. This availability of data will magnify the phenomenon of ;Big Data; in Earth observation. Because of the ;Big Data; issue, new computing and processing platforms such as telegeoprocessing and grid-computing are expected to be incorporated in EO data processing and distribution networks. In general, it is observed that the demand for EO is growing exponentially as the application and cost-benefits are being recognized in support of resource management.

  8. Vision of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems: a European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, G.; Craglia, M.; Nativi, S.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of involving citizens in measuring and providing data is becoming a reality through the concept of "Citizen Observatories". This takes advantage of everybody's capacity to use mobile phone/tablet/laptop to monitor the environment and by trying to find cheap solutions to strengthen the in-situ network of observatories needed for a Global Earth Observation System. Further to the Citizen Observatories approach, the development of cheap sensors based on disposable technologies, nanotech and the piggy-back approach could also be applied to several Societal Challenges and contribute to the GEOSS. The involvement of citizens in the domain of Earth Observation implies dealing with many diverse communities that need to be fully connected into the overall GEOSS architecture. With the introduction of a brokering capability this becomesnow possible. The value of the brokering approach has been demonstrated within the European Union funded EuroGEOSS research project. The EuroGEOSS brokering capability has now been incorporated into the GEOSS information system, (known as the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, or GCI) and renamed the GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker. In a matter of a few months the GEOSS DAB has enabled the GEOSS to extend the data resources available from a few hundred to over 28 million The vison which is discussed here is that with a more active participation of the Citizens one could imagine a world with instant information flow about the state and future evolution of the environment available, similar to what has been achieved in weather forecasting but covering fields such as climate, agriculture, water etc. and covering larger forecast time spans from months to years. Failure on crops for instance could be forecasted and measures to mitigate potential upcoming problems could be put in place well in advance. Obviously, the societal and economic benefits would be manifold and large

  9. The high resolution optical instruments for the Pleiades HR Earth observation satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin-Delrieu, Catherine; Lamard, Jean-Luc; Cheroutre, Philippe; Bailly, Bruno; Dhuicq, Pierre; Puig, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    Coming after the SPOT satellites series, PLEIADESHR is a CNES optical high resolution satellite dedicated to Earth observation, part of a larger optical and radar multi-sensors system, ORFEO, which is developed in cooperation between France and Italy for dual Civilian and Defense use. The development of the two PLEIADES-HR cameras was entrusted by CNES to Thales Alenia Space. This new generation of instrument represents a breakthrough in comparison with the previous SPOT instruments owing to a significant step in on-ground resolution, which approaches the capabilities of aerial photography. The PLEIADES-HR instrument program benefits from Thales Alenia Space long and successful heritage in Earth observation from space. The proposed solution benefits from an extensive use of existing products, Cannes Space Optics Centre facilities, unique in Europe, dedicated to High Resolution instruments. The optical camera provides wide field panchromatic images supplemented by 4 multispectral channels with narrow spectral bands. The optical concept is based on a four mirrors Korsch telescope. Crucial improvements in detector technology, optical fabrication and electronics make it possible for the PLEIADES-HR instrument to achieve the image quality requirements while respecting the drastic limitations of mass and volume imposed by the satellite agility needs and small launchers compatibility. The two flight telescopes were integrated, aligned and tested. After the integration phase, the alignment, mainly based on interferometric measurements in vacuum chamber, was successfully achieved within high accuracy requirements. The wave front measurements show outstanding performances, confirmed, after the integration of the PFM Detection Unit, by MTF measurements on the Proto-Flight Model Instrument. Delivery of the proto flight model occurred mi-2008. The FM2 Instrument delivery is planned Q2-2009. The first optical satellite launch of the PLEIADES-HR constellation is foreseen

  10. MEOS Microsatellite Earth Observation using Miniature Integrated-Optic IR Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman

    future, the MEOS Miniature Earth Observing Satellite will innovatively combine remote atmospheric/land-cover measurements with ecosystem modelling in near real-time to obtain simultaneous variations in lower tropospheric GHG mixing ratios and the resulting responses of surface ecosystems. MEOS will provide lower tropospheric CO2 , CH4 , CO, N2 O, H2 O and aerosol mixing ratios over natural sources and sinks using two kinds of synergistic observations; a forward limb measurement and a follow-on nadir measurement over the same geographical tangent point. The measurements will be accomplished using separate limb and nadir suites of miniature lineimaging spectrometers and will be spatially coordinated such that the same air mass is observed in both views within a few minutes. The limb data will consist of 16-pixel vertical spectral line imaging to provide 2.5-km vertical resolution, while the corresponding nadir measurements will view sixteen 5 by 10 km2 ground pixels with a 160-km East-West swath width. The separate limb and nadir instrument suites each feature two complementary NIR miniature spectrometers that will operate in parallel, alternating the collected optical signal between the high-resolution Fabry-Perot guided-wave FP-IOSPEC spectrometer with simultaneous multiple microchannels at 0.03 FWHM with SNR>400 and the 1220 to 2450 nm broad-band spectrometer with 1.2 nm FWHM such that one undergoes the illuminated segment of the processing while the other spectrometer undergoes its dark signal processing. This spectral region provides several harmonic optical absorption bands associated with CO2 , CH4 , CO, H2 O and N2 O. The innovative data synergy of the coarse resolution broad-band spectra with the scanned spectral measurements of the trace-gas fine features at 0.03 nm FWHM in multiple microchannels will be used to improve the accuracy of the trace gas retrievals relative to current missions. In addition, the mission will retrieve cloud top pressures to better than

  11. STS-32 Commander Brandenstein adjusts IMAX camera during training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 Commander Daniel C. Brandenstein adjusts IMAX camera setting during briefing and training session as technician looks on. The session was conducted in the JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. The IMAX camera will be used onboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, during the STS-32 mission.

  12. STS-9 crewmembers in training session in bldg 9A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Members of the STS-9 crew discuss flight procedures with a trainer in bldg 9A before the STS-9 mission. From left to right are Brewster Shaw, pilot; John Young, crew commander; Robert Parker, mission specialist; and unidentified trainer. They are reviewing procedures manuals on the shuttle mock-up hatch.

  13. Determination of the Earth's pole tide Love number k2 from observations of polar motion using an adaptive Kalman filter approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, F.; Kirschner, S.; Neubersch, D.

    2012-09-01

    The geophysical interpretation of observed time series of Earth rotation parameters (ERP) is commonly based on numerical models that describe and balance variations of angular momentum in various subsystems of the Earth. Naturally, models are dependent on geometrical, rheological and physical parameters. Many of these are weakly determined from other models or observations. In our study we present an adaptive Kalman filter approach for the improvement of parameters of the dynamic Earth system model DyMEG which acts as a simulator of ERP. In particular we focus on the improvement of the pole tide Love number k2. In the frame of a sensitivity analysis k2 has been identified as one of the most crucial parameters of DyMEG since it directly influences the modeled Chandler oscillation. At the same time k2 is one of the most uncertain parameters in the model. Our simulations with DyMEG cover a period of 60 years after which a steady state of k2 is reached. The estimate for k2, accounting for the anelastic response of the Earth's mantle and the ocean, is 0.3531 + 0.0030i. We demonstrate that the application of the improved parameter k2 in DyMEG leads to significantly better results for polar motion than the original value taken from the Conventions of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS).

  14. Building Capacity to Use NASA Earth Observations in the Water Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Crepps, G.; Clayton, A.; Ruiz, M. L.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program builds capacity to use and apply NASA Earth observations to address environmental concerns around the globe. The DEVELOP model builds capacity in both participants (students, recent graduates, and early and transitioning career professionals) who conduct the projects and partners (decision and policy makers) who are recipients of project methodologies and results. Projects focus on a spectrum of thematic topics, including water resource management which made up 30% of the DEVELOP FY2017 portfolio. During this period, DEVELOP conducted water-focused feasibility studies in collaboration with 22 partners across 13 U.S. states and five countries. This presentation will provide an overview of needs identified, DEVELOP's response, data sources, challenges, and lessons learned.

  15. Results of scatterometer systems analysis for NASA/MSC Earth Observation Sensor Evaluation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishen, K.; Vlahos, N.; Brandt, O.; Graybeal, G.

    1971-01-01

    Radar scatterometers have applications in the NASA/MSC Earth Observation Aircraft Program. Over a period of several years, several missions have been flown over both land and ocean. In this paper a system evaluation of the NASA/MSC 13.3-GHz Scatterometer System is presented. The effects of phase error between the Scatterometer channels, antenna pattern deviations, aircraft attitude deviations, environmental changes, and other related factors such as processing errors, system repeatability, and propeller modulation, were established. Furthermore, the reduction in system errors and calibration improvement was investigated by taking into account these parameter deviations. Typical scatterometer data samples are presented.

  16. Grid-based platform for training in Earth Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petcu, Dana; Zaharie, Daniela; Panica, Silviu; Frincu, Marc; Neagul, Marian; Gorgan, Dorian; Stefanut, Teodor

    2010-05-01

    GiSHEO platform [1] providing on-demand services for training and high education in Earth Observation is developed, in the frame of an ESA funded project through its PECS programme, to respond to the needs of powerful education resources in remote sensing field. It intends to be a Grid-based platform of which potential for experimentation and extensibility are the key benefits compared with a desktop software solution. Near-real time applications requiring simultaneous multiple short-time-response data-intensive tasks, as in the case of a short time training event, are the ones that are proved to be ideal for this platform. The platform is based on Globus Toolkit 4 facilities for security and process management, and on the clusters of four academic institutions involved in the project. The authorization uses a VOMS service. The main public services are the followings: the EO processing services (represented through special WSRF-type services); the workflow service exposing a particular workflow engine; the data indexing and discovery service for accessing the data management mechanisms; the processing services, a collection allowing easy access to the processing platform. The WSRF-type services for basic satellite image processing are reusing free image processing tools, OpenCV and GDAL. New algorithms and workflows were develop to tackle with challenging problems like detecting the underground remains of old fortifications, walls or houses. More details can be found in [2]. Composed services can be specified through workflows and are easy to be deployed. The workflow engine, OSyRIS (Orchestration System using a Rule based Inference Solution), is based on DROOLS, and a new rule-based workflow language, SILK (SImple Language for worKflow), has been built. Workflow creation in SILK can be done with or without a visual designing tools. The basics of SILK are the tasks and relations (rules) between them. It is similar with the SCUFL language, but not relying on XML in

  17. What do the data show? Fostering physical intuition with ClimateBits and NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaert Uz, S.; Ward, K.

    2017-12-01

    Through data visualizations using global satellite imagery available in NASA Earth Observations (NEO), we explain Earth science concepts (e.g. albedo, urban heat island effect, phytoplankton). We also provide examples of ways to explore the satellite data in NEO within a new blog series. This is an ideal tool for scientists and non-scientists alike who want to quickly check satellite imagery for large scale features or patterns. NEO analysis requires no software or plug-ins; only a browser and an internet connection. You can even check imagery and perform simple analyses from your smart phone. NEO can be used to create graphics for presentations and papers or as a first step before acquiring data for more rigorous analysis. NEO has potential application to easily explore large scale environmental and climate patterns that impact operations and infrastructure. This is something we are currently exploring with end user groups.

  18. Moving Closer to EarthScope: A Major New Initiative for the Earth Sciences*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D.; Blewitt, G.; Ekstrom, G.; Henyey, T.; Hickman, S.; Prescott, W.; Zoback, M.

    2002-12-01

    EarthScope is a scientific research and infrastructure initiative designed to provide a suite of new observational facilities to address fundamental questions about the evolution of continents and the processes responsible for earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The integrated observing systems that will comprise EarthScope capitalize on recent developments in sensor technology and communications to provide Earth scientists with synoptic and high-resolution data derived from a variety of geophysical sensors. An array of 400 broadband seismometers will spend more than ten years crossing the contiguous 48 states and Alaska to image features that make up the internal structure of the continent and underlying mantle. Additional seismic and electromagnetic instrumentation will be available for high resolution imaging of geological targets of special interest. A network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and sensitive borehole strainmeters will be installed along the western U.S. plate boundary. These sensors will measure how western North America is deforming, what motions occur along faults, how earthquakes start, and how magma flows beneath active volcanoes. A four-kilometer deep observatory bored directly into the San Andreas fault will provide the first opportunity to observe directly the conditions under which earthquakes occur, to collect fault rocks and fluids for laboratory study, and to monitor continuously an active fault zone at depth. All data from the EarthScope facilities will be openly available in real-time to maximize participation from the scientific community and to provide on-going educational outreach to students and the public. EarthScope's sensors will revolutionize observational Earth science in terms of the quantity, quality and spatial extent of the data they provide. Turning these data into exciting scientific discovery will require new modes of experimentation and interdisciplinary cooperation from the Earth

  19. Effects of Rare Earth Metal Addition on Wear Resistance of Chromium-Molybdenum Cast Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasinska J.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses changes in the microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel modified with rare earth metals (REM. The changes were assessed using scanning microscopy. The wear response was determined in the Miller test to ASTM G75. Abrasion tests were supplemented with the surface profile measurements of non-modified and modified cast steel using a Talysurf CCI optical profilometer. It was demonstrated that the modification substantially affected the microstructure of the alloy, leading to grain size reduction and changed morphology of non-metallic inclusions. The observed changes in the microstructure resulted in a three times higher impact strength (from 33 to 99 kJ/cm2 and more than two times higher resistance to cracking (from 116 to 250 MPa. The following surface parameters were computed: Sa: Arithmetic mean deviation of the surface, Sq: Root-mean-square deviation of the surface, Sp: Maximum height of the peak Sv: Maximum depth of the valley, Sz: Ten Point Average, Ssk: Asymmetry of the surface, Sku: Kurtosis of the surface. The findings also indicated that the addition of rare earth metals had a positive effect on the abrasion behaviour of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel.

  20. Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO) science and naval products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Curtiss O.; Kappus, Mary E.; Gao, Bo-Cai; Bissett, W. Paul; Snyder, William A.

    1998-11-01

    A wide variety of applications of imaging spectrometry have been demonstrated using data from aircraft systems. Based on this experience the Navy is pursuing the Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technology (HRST) Program to use hyperspectral imagery to characterize the littoral environment, for scientific and environmental studies and to meet Naval needs. To obtain the required space based hyperspectral imagery the Navy has joined in a partnership with industry to build and fly the Naval EarthMap Observer (NEMO). The NEMO spacecraft has the Coastal Ocean Imaging Spectrometer (COIS) a hyperspectral imager with adequate spectral and spatial resolution and a high signal-to- noise ratio to provide long term monitoring and real-time characterization of the coastal environment. It includes on- board processing for rapid data analysis and data compression, a large volume recorder, and high speed downlink to handle the required large volumes of data. This paper describes the algorithms for processing the COIS data to provide at-launch ocean data products and the research and modeling that are planned to use COIS data to advance our understanding of the dynamics of the coastal ocean.

  1. Excitation of Earth Rotation Variations "Observed" by Time-Variable Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ben F.; Cox, C. M.

    2005-01-01

    Time variable gravity measurements have been made over the past two decades using the space geodetic technique of satellite laser ranging, and more recently by the GRACE satellite mission with improved spatial resolutions. The degree-2 harmonic components of the time-variable gravity contain important information about the Earth s length-of-day and polar motion excitation functions, in a way independent to the traditional "direct" Earth rotation measurements made by, for example, the very-long-baseline interferometry and GPS. In particular, the (degree=2, order= 1) components give the mass term of the polar motion excitation; the (2,O) component, under certain mass conservation conditions, gives the mass term of the length-of-day excitation. Combining these with yet another independent source of angular momentum estimation calculated from global geophysical fluid models (for example the atmospheric angular momentum, in both mass and motion terms), in principle can lead to new insights into the dynamics, particularly the role or the lack thereof of the cores, in the excitation processes of the Earth rotation variations.

  2. Some observations on the greenhouse effect at the Earth's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akitt, J. W.

    2018-01-01

    It is shown that the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and water vapour reflect back to the surface, all IR radiation originating at the surface within their respective spectral bands. This reflection occurs in a very thin layer at the surface, not much over 12 cm in thickness. Heat is lost from the surface by heat exchange with the atmosphere and by loss of radiation. About 52% of radiation leaves the surface in two principal window regions but this is not enough to account for the earth's equilibrium temperature. This window radiation seems to disappear quite quickly and is replaced by black body radiation. It is this which eventually contributes to the earth's radiation balance, and has to originate approximately between 40 and 50 km altitude where the temperature is about correct, near 255 K. Doubling the CO2 concentration increases the surface temperature by about 0.9 °C and this need not have any influence higher up in the atmosphere. The surface temperature seems indeed to have no direct influence on the earth's external radiation balance.

  3. Measure the Propagation of a Halo CME and Its Driven Shock with the Observations from a Single Perspective at Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Lei; Feng, Li; Liu, Siming [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Inhester, Bernd [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, D-37077 Göttingen (Germany); Zhao, Xinhua, E-mail: lfeng@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: inhester@mps.mpg.de [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-02-01

    We present a detailed study of an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection (full-halo CME) event that happened on 2011 February 15, making use of white-light observations by three coronagraphs and radio observations by Wind /WAVES. We applied three different methods to reconstruct the propagation direction and traveling distance of the CME and its driven shock. We measured the kinematics of the CME leading edge from white-light images observed by Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory ( STEREO ) A and B , tracked the CME-driven shock using the frequency drift observed by Wind /WAVES together with an interplanetary density model, and obtained the equivalent scattering centers of the CME by the polarization ratio (PR) method. For the first time, we applied the PR method to different features distinguished from LASCO/C2 polarimetric observations and calculated their projections onto white-light images observed by STEREO-A and STEREO-B . By combining the graduated cylindrical shell (GCS) forward modeling with the PR method, we proposed a new GCS-PR method to derive 3D parameters of a CME observed from a single perspective at Earth. Comparisons between different methods show a good degree of consistence in the derived 3D results.

  4. Science-Technology-Society (STS): A New Paradigm in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Nasser

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the past two decades of goals for science education in schools have induced new orientations in science education worldwide. One of the emerging complementary approaches was the science-technology-society (STS) movement. STS has been called the current megatrend in science education. Others have called it a paradigm shift for the field…

  5. The faulty Master Events Controller is carried away from STS-99 Endeavour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Workers carry away the faulty Enhanced Main Events Controller (E- MEC) from Shuttle Endeavour at Launch Pad 39A. The E-MEC became suspect during the Jan. 31 launch countdown and mission STS-99 was delayed when NASA managers decided to replace it. Each Shuttle carries two enhanced master events controllers (E-MECs), which provide relays for onboard flight computers to send signals to arm and fire pyrotechnics that separate the solid rockets and external tank during assent. Both E-MECs are needed for the Shuttle to be cleared for flight. Currently Endeavour and Columbia are the only two orbiters with the E-MECs. Built by Rockwell's Satellite Space Electronics Division, Anaheim, Calif., each unit weighs 65 pounds and is approximately 20 inches long, 13 inches wide and 8 inches tall. Previously, three Shuttle flights have been scrubbed or delayed due to faulty MECs: STS-73, STS-49 and STS-41-D. The next scheduled date for launch of STS-99 is Feb. 11 at 12:30 p.m. EST.

  6. Observation of an electron band above the Fermi level in FeTe0.55Se0.45 from in-situ surface doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Ma, J.; Qian, T.; Richard, P.; Ding, H.; Xu, N.; Xu, Y.-M.; Fedorov, A. V.; Denlinger, J. D.; Gu, G. D.

    2014-01-01

    We used in-situ potassium (K) evaporation to dope the surface of the iron-based superconductor FeTe 0.55 Se 0.45 . The systematic study of the bands near the Fermi level confirms that electrons are doped into the system, allowing us to tune the Fermi level of this material and to access otherwise unoccupied electronic states. In particular, we observe an electron band located above the Fermi level before doping that shares similarities with a small three-dimensional pocket observed in the cousin, heavily electron-doped KFe 2−x Se 2 compound.

  7. Learning More About Our Earth: An Exploration of NASA's Contributions to Earth Science Through Remote Sensing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Francis

    2017-01-01

    NASA is commonly known for its pioneering work in space exploration and the technological advancements that made access to space possible. NASA is now increasingly known for the agency's research and technologies that support the Earth sciences. This is a presentation focusing on NASA's Earth science efforts told mostly through the technological innovations NASA uses to achieve a greater understanding of the Earth, making it possible to explore the Earth as a system. Enabling this science is NASA's fleet of over two dozen Earth science spacecraft, supported by aircraft, ships and ground observations. NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) is a coordinated series of polar-orbiting and low inclination satellites for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, solid Earth, atmosphere, and oceans. With the launching of the three flagship satellite missions, Terra, Aqua and Aura, beginning in 1999, NASA's initial Mission to Planet Earth made it possible to measure aspects of the environment that touch the lives of every person around the world. NASA harnessing the unique space-based platform means, fortunately, no planet is better studied than the one we actually live on.

  8. A super-Earth transiting a nearby low-mass star.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, David; Berta, Zachory K; Irwin, Jonathan; Burke, Christopher J; Nutzman, Philip; Buchhave, Lars A; Lovis, Christophe; Bonfils, Xavier; Latham, David W; Udry, Stéphane; Murray-Clay, Ruth A; Holman, Matthew J; Falco, Emilio E; Winn, Joshua N; Queloz, Didier; Pepe, Francesco; Mayor, Michel; Delfosse, Xavier; Forveille, Thierry

    2009-12-17

    A decade ago, the detection of the first transiting extrasolar planet provided a direct constraint on its composition and opened the door to spectroscopic investigations of extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Because such characterization studies are feasible only for transiting systems that are both nearby and for which the planet-to-star radius ratio is relatively large, nearby small stars have been surveyed intensively. Doppler studies and microlensing have uncovered a population of planets with minimum masses of 1.9-10 times the Earth's mass (M[symbol:see text]), called super-Earths. The first constraint on the bulk composition of this novel class of planets was afforded by CoRoT-7b (refs 8, 9), but the distance and size of its star preclude atmospheric studies in the foreseeable future. Here we report observations of the transiting planet GJ 1214b, which has a mass of 6.55M[symbol:see text]), and a radius 2.68 times Earth's radius (R[symbol:see text]), indicating that it is intermediate in stature between Earth and the ice giants of the Solar System. We find that the planetary mass and radius are consistent with a composition of primarily water enshrouded by a hydrogen-helium envelope that is only 0.05% of the mass of the planet. The atmosphere is probably escaping hydrodynamically, indicating that it has undergone significant evolution during its history. The star is small and only 13 parsecs away, so the planetary atmosphere is amenable to study with current observatories.

  9. STS-93 Commander Eileen Collins suits up for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    For the third time, in the Operations and Checkout Building, STS- 93 Commander Eileen M. Collins tries on her helmet with her launch and entry suit. After Space Shuttle Columbia's July 20 and 22 launch attempts were scrubbed, the launch was again rescheduled for Friday, July 23, at 12:24 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The STS-93 crew numbers five: Commander Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a shuttle mission.

  10. Using earth observation-based dry season NDVI trends for assessment of changes in tree cover in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F; Fensholt, Rasmus; Tagesson, Håkan Torbern

    2014-01-01

    The co-existence of trees and grasses is a defining feature of savannah ecosystems and landscapes. During recent decades, the combined effect of climate change and increased demographic pressure has led to complex vegetation changes in these ecosystems. A number of recent Earth observation (EO...

  11. STS-49 Endeavour/Intelsat Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Lak Virdee of Intelsat, summarizes Intelsat's role in the STS-49 Endeavour mission. He discusses the reboost hardware, giving details on the capture arm and docker adapter assembly. He describes the rendezvous between Intelsat and the Endeavour Orbiter. Mr. Virdee then answers questions from the press.

  12. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center-Fiscal Year 2009 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Janice S.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) facility focused on providing science and imagery to better understand our Earth. As part of the USGS Geography Discipline, EROS contributes to the Land Remote Sensing (LRS) Program, the Geographic Analysis and Monitoring (GAM) Program, and the National Geospatial Program (NGP), as well as our Federal partners and cooperators. The work of the Center is shaped by the Earth sciences, the missions of our stakeholders, and implemented through strong program and project management and application of state-of-the-art information technologies. Fundamentally, EROS contributes to the understanding of a changing Earth through 'research to operations' activities that include developing, implementing, and operating remote sensing based terrestrial monitoring capabilities needed to address interdisciplinary science and applications objectives at all levels-both nationally and internationally. The Center's programs and projects continually strive to meet and/or exceed the changing needs of the USGS, the Department of the Interior, our Nation, and international constituents. The Center's multidisciplinary staff uses their unique expertise in remote sensing science and technologies to conduct basic and applied research, data acquisition, systems engineering, information access and management, and archive preservation to address the Nation's most critical needs. Of particular note is the role of EROS as the primary provider of Landsat data, the longest comprehensive global land Earth observation record ever collected. This report is intended to p