Sample records for structures inversion tomographique

  1. Tomographic inversion of prismatic reflections for the delineation of steeply dipping structures; Inversion tomographique des reflexions prismatiques en vue de la delineation des structures tres pentees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalca, M.


    Seismic imaging of salt flanks still remains a challenge for oil exploration. We propose here to exploit the kinematic information contained in prismatic reflections for the delineation of steeply dipping structures, such as faults or overhangs of salt bodies. This double reflection (on a steeply dipping structure and on a sedimentary interface) contains in fact precious information on the geometry of such structures, information that we try to exploit in travel-time tomography. We first carry out a precise kinematic analysis of these unusual reflections, to better understand under which conditions prismatic reflections can be observed in surface data; and we propose some interpretative guidelines, of great help for identifying such reflections in seismic data. We then study the tomographic inversion of prismatic reflections. Our first attempts at inverting prismatic reflections by standard travel-time tomography reveal a major difficulty due to the possible non definition of the standard forward map. We thus propose a new formulation of travel-time tomography which ensures the definition of the forward map and therefore a robust inversion of prismatic reflections. This approach shows its efficiency for delineating steeply dipping (and/or overhanging) structures on different synthetic experiments. We finally illustrate the benefit of jointly using the information contained in prismatic reflections and in primary events for the velocity model building (simultaneous determination of velocities and interface geometries), through the joint inversion of events interpreted and picked on a realistic synthetic dataset (BP-AIT 2004). (author)

  2. Inverse folding of RNA pseudoknot structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Linda YM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA exhibits a variety of structural configurations. Here we consider a structure to be tantamount to the noncrossing Watson-Crick and G-U-base pairings (secondary structure and additional cross-serial base pairs. These interactions are called pseudoknots and are observed across the whole spectrum of RNA functionalities. In the context of studying natural RNA structures, searching for new ribozymes and designing artificial RNA, it is of interest to find RNA sequences folding into a specific structure and to analyze their induced neutral networks. Since the established inverse folding algorithms, RNAinverse, RNA-SSD as well as INFO-RNA are limited to RNA secondary structures, we present in this paper the inverse folding algorithm Inv which can deal with 3-noncrossing, canonical pseudoknot structures. Results In this paper we present the inverse folding algorithm Inv. We give a detailed analysis of Inv, including pseudocodes. We show that Inv allows to design in particular 3-noncrossing nonplanar RNA pseudoknot 3-noncrossing RNA structures-a class which is difficult to construct via dynamic programming routines. Inv is freely available at Conclusions The algorithm Inv extends inverse folding capabilities to RNA pseudoknot structures. In comparison with RNAinverse it uses new ideas, for instance by considering sets of competing structures. As a result, Inv is not only able to find novel sequences even for RNA secondary structures, it does so in the context of competing structures that potentially exhibit cross-serial interactions.

  3. Solar structure inversion with LOWL data (United States)

    Basu, Sarbani; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Schou, Jesper; Thompson, Michael J.; Tomczyk, Steven


    Inversion results for the radial hydrostatic structure of the Sun, using six months of oscillation data obtained with the LOWL instrument, are presented. Both low and intermediate degree modes are used, thus avoiding the systematic errors that might have occurred in previous inversions by merging more than one data set. Using modes of between 0 deg and 90 deg and frequencies of between 1.5 mHz and 3.5 mHz, the variations with depth of the speed of sound, the density and the pressure were inferred for radii of between 0.05 and 0.85 stellar radius. It was found that in this region, the sound speed was within 0.15% of that of a model constructed using an equation of state that incorporated helium diffusion. The density difference between the Sun and the model was less than 0.8%. Given the small error bars on the inversion results, these differences are considered as being significant.

  4. Inversion structures in Northern Sotho | Zerbian | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inversion structures, in which the logical subject appears in postverbal position, are a wide-spread phenomenon among Bantu languages. The paper presents an overview of inversion structures in Bantu languages and describes in detail the inversion constructions in the Southern Bantu language Northern Sotho. It argues ...

  5. Flame structure of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.


    This paper presents high speed images of OH-PLIF at 10. kHz simultaneously with 2D PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements collected along the entire length of an inverse diffusion flame with circumferentially arranged methane fuel jets. For a fixed fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to four air to fuel velocity ratios, namely Vr = 20.7, 29, 37.4 and 49.8. A double flame structure could be observed composed of a lower fuel entrainment region and an upper mixing and intense combustion region. The entrainment region was enveloped by an early OH layer, and then merged through a very thin OH neck to an annular OH layer located at the shear layer of the air jet. The two branches of this annular OH layer broaden as they moved downstream and eventfully merged together. Three types of events were observed common to all flames: breaks, closures and growing kernels. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks were counterbalanced by flame closures. These breaks in OH signal were found to occur at locations where locally high velocity flows were impinging on the flame. As the Vr increased to 37.4, the OH layers became discontinuous over the downstream region of the flame, and these regions of low or no OH moved upstream. With further increases in Vr, these OH pockets act as flame kernels, growing as they moved downstream, and became the main mechanism for flame re-ignition. Along the flame length, the direction of the two dimensional principle compressive strain rate axis exhibited a preferred orientation of approximately 45° with respect to the flow direction. Moreover, the OH zones were associated with elongated regions of high vorticity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Inversion structures in Northern Sotho | Zerbian | Southern African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It argues that Northern Sotho shows only one inversion structure, namely the impersonal construction. I propose that constructions which arguably constitute cases of locative inversion in neighboring languages can be analysed as impersonal constructions with preposed locative constituents. Evidence from morphosyntax, ...

  7. Inverse Analysis of Cavitation Impact Phenomena on Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambrakos, S. G; Tran, N. E


    A general methodology is presented for in situ detection of cavitation impact phenomena on structures based on inverse analysis of luminescent emissions resulting from the collapsing of bubbles onto surfaces...

  8. Inverse Finite Method Investigation for Adaptive Structures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research project is evaluating an innovative technique that uses fiber optic strain sensors to measure structural deformations and full field strains. An...

  9. Computing specified generators of structured matrix inverses


    Jeannerod , Claude-Pierre; Mouilleron , Christophe


    International audience; The asymptotically fastest known divide-and-conquer methods for inverting dense structured matrices are essentially variations or extensions of the Morf/Bitmead-Anderson algorithm. Most of them must deal with the growth in length of intermediate generators, and this is done by incorporating various generator compression techniques into the algorithms. One exception is an algorithm by Cardinal, which in the particular case of Cauchy-like matrices avoids such growth by f...

  10. Inverse boundary element calculations based on structural modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller


    The inverse problem of calculating the flexural velocity of a radiating structure of a general shape from measurements in the field is often solved by combining a Boundary Element Method with the Singular Value Decomposition and a regularization technique. In their standard form these methods sol...

  11. Effects of shoot inversion on stem structure in Pharbitis nil (United States)

    Prasad, T. K.; Sack, F. D.; Cline, M. G.


    The effects of shoot inversion on stem structure over 72 hr were investigated in Pharbitis nil by analyzing cell number, cell length, and the cross sectional areas of cells, tissues, and regions. An increase in stem diameter can be attributed to an increase in both cell number and cross sectional area of pith (primarily) and vascular tissue (secondarily). Qualitative observations of cell wall thickness in the light microscope did not reveal any significant effects of shoot inversion on this parameter. The inhibition of shoot elongation was accompanied by a significant decrease in cell length in the pith. The results are generally consistent with an ethylene effect on cell dimensions, especially in the pith.

  12. Structured Sparsity Regularization Approach to the EEG Inverse Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya-Martinez, Jair; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Hansen, Lars Kai


    Localization of brain activity involves solving the EEG inverse problem, which is an undetermined ill-posed problem. We propose a novel approach consisting in estimating, using structured sparsity regularization techniques, the Brain Electrical Sources (BES) matrix directly in the spatio......-temporal source space. We use proximal splitting optimization methods, which are efficient optimization techniques, with good convergence rates and with the ability to handle large nonsmooth convex problems, which is the typical scenario in the EEG inverse problem. We have evaluated our approach under a simulated...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Shubhashis Sanyal


    Full Text Available 0 0 1 171 979 International Islamic University 8 2 1148 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Inversions are various structural possibilities of a kinematic chain. The number of inversions depends on the number of links of a kinematic chain. At the stage of structural synthesis, identification of distinct structural inversions of a particular type of kinematic chain is necessary. Various researchers have proposed methods for identification of distinct inversions. Present method based on Link joint connectivity is proposed to identify the distinct inversions of a planar kinematic chain. Method is tested successfully on single degree and multiple degree of freedom planar kinematic chains. ABSTRAK: Penyonsangan merupakan kebarangkalian pelbagai struktur suatu rangkaian kinematik. Jumlah songsangan bergantung kepada jumlah hubungan suatu rangkaian kinematik. Pada peringkat sintesis struktur, pengenalan songsangan struktur yang berbeza untuk suatu jenis rangkaian kinematik adalah perlu. Ramai penyelidik telah mencadangkan pelbagai kaedah pengenalan songsangan yang berbeza. Kaedah terkini berdasarkan hubungan kesambungan bersama telah dicadangkan untuk mengenalpasti songsangan yang berbeza dalam suatu satah rangkaian kinematik.

  14. Variational structure of inverse problems in wave propagation and vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.


    Practical algorithms for solving realistic inverse problems may often be viewed as problems in nonlinear programming with the data serving as constraints. Such problems are most easily analyzed when it is possible to segment the solution space into regions that are feasible (satisfying all the known constraints) and infeasible (violating some of the constraints). Then, if the feasible set is convex or at least compact, the solution to the problem will normally lie on the boundary of the feasible set. A nonlinear program may seek the solution by systematically exploring the boundary while satisfying progressively more constraints. Examples of inverse problems in wave propagation (traveltime tomography) and vibration (modal analysis) will be presented to illustrate how the variational structure of these problems may be used to create nonlinear programs using implicit variational constraints.

  15. Inverse boundary element calculations based on structural modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter Møller


    The inverse problem of calculating the flexural velocity of a radiating structure of a general shape from measurements in the field is often solved by combining a Boundary Element Method with the Singular Value Decomposition and a regularization technique. In their standard form these methods solve...... for the unknown normal velocities of the structure at the relatively large number of nodes in the numerical model. Efficiently the regularization technique smoothes the solution spatially, since a fast spatial variation is associated with high index singular values, which is filtered out or damped...... in the regularization. Hence, the effective number of degrees of freedom in the model is often much lower than the number of nodes in the model. The present paper deals with an alternative formulation possible for the subset of radiation problems in which a (structural) modal expansion is known for the structure...

  16. Constraining convective regions with asteroseismic linear structural inversions (United States)

    Buldgen, G.; Reese, D. R.; Dupret, M. A.


    Context. Convective regions in stellar models are always associated with uncertainties, for example, due to extra-mixing or the possible inaccurate position of the transition from convective to radiative transport of energy. Such inaccuracies have a strong impact on stellar models and the fundamental parameters we derive from them. The most promising method to reduce these uncertainties is to use asteroseismology to derive appropriate diagnostics probing the structural characteristics of these regions. Aims: We wish to use custom-made integrated quantities to improve the capabilities of seismology to probe convective regions in stellar interiors. By doing so, we hope to increase the number of indicators obtained with structural seismic inversions to provide additional constraints on stellar models and the fundamental parameters we determine from theoretical modeling. Methods: First, we present new kernels associated with a proxy of the entropy in stellar interiors. We then show how these kernels can be used to build custom-made integrated quantities probing convective regions inside stellar models. We present two indicators suited to probe convective cores and envelopes, respectively, and test them on artificial data. Results: We show that it is possible to probe both convective cores and envelopes using appropriate indicators obtained with structural inversion techniques. These indicators provide direct constraints on a proxy of the entropy of the stellar plasma, sensitive to the characteristics of convective regions. These constraints can then be used to improve the modeling of solar-like stars by providing an additional degree of selection of models obtained from classical forward modeling approaches. We also show that in order to obtain very accurate indicators, we need ℓ = 3 modes for the envelope but that the core-conditions indicator is more flexible in terms of the seismic data required for its use.

  17. Extremal inversion of lunar travel time data. [seismic velocity structure (United States)

    Burkhard, N.; Jackson, D. D.


    The tau method, developed by Bessonova et al. (1974), of inversion of travel times is applied to lunar P-wave travel time data to find limits on the velocity structure of the moon. Tau is the singular solution to the Clairaut equation. Models with low-velocity zones, with low-velocity zones at differing depths, and without low-velocity zones, were found to be consistent with data and within the determined limits. Models with and without a discontinuity at about 25-km depth have been found which agree with all travel time data to within two standard deviations. In other words, the existence of the discontinuity and its size and location have not been uniquely resolved. Models with low-velocity channels are also possible.

  18. Measurements of Effective Schottky Barrier in Inverse Extraordinary Optoconductance Structures (United States)

    Tran, L. C.; Werner, F. M.; Solin, S. A.; Gilbertson, Adam; Cohen, L. F.


    Individually addressable optical sensors with dimensions as low as 250nm, fabricated from metal semiconductor hybrid structures (MSH) of AuTi-GaAs Schottky interfaces, display a transition from resistance decreasing with intensity in micron-scale sensors (Extraordinary Optoconductance, EOC) to resistance increasing with intensity in nano-scale sensors (Inverse Extraordinary Optoconductance I-EOC). I-EOC is attributed to a ballistic to diffusive crossover with the introduction of photo-induced carriers and gives rise to resistance changes of up to 9462% in 250nm devices. We characterize the photo-dependence of the effective Schottky barrier in EOC/I-EOC structures by the open circuit voltage and reverse bias resistance. Under illumination by a 5 mW, 632.8 nm HeNe laser, the barrier is negligible and the Ti-GaAs interface becomes Ohmic. Comparing the behavior of two devices, one with leads exposed, another with leads covered by an opaque epoxy, the variation in Voc with the position of the laser can be attributed to a photovoltaic effect of the lead metal and bulk GaAs. The resistance is unaffected by the photovoltaic offset of the leads, as indicated by the radial symmetry of 2-D resistance maps obtained by rastering a laser across EOC/IEOC devices. SAS has a financial interest in PixelEXX, a start-up company whose mission is to market imaging arrays.

  19. Basement structures over Rio Grande Rise from gravity inversion (United States)

    Constantino, Renata; Hackspacker, Peter Christian; Anderson de Souza, Iata; Sousa Lima Costa, Iago


    In this study, we show that from satellite-derived gravity field, bathymetry and sediment thicknesses, it is possible to give a 3-D model of the basement over oceanic areas, and for this purpose, we have chosen the Rio Grande Rise, in South Atlantic Ocean, to build a gravity-equivalent basement topography. The advantages of the method applied in this study are manifold: does not depend directly on reflection seismic data; can be applied quickly and with fewer costs for acquiring and interpreting the data; and as the main result, presents the physical surface below the sedimentary layer, which may be different from the acoustic basement. We evaluated the gravity effect of the sediments using the global sediment thickness model of NOAA, fitting a sediment compaction model to observed density values from Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) reports. The Global Relief Model ETOPO1 and constraining data from seismic interpretation on crustal thickness are integrated in the gravity inversion procedure. The modeled Moho depth values vary between 6 to 27 km over the area, being thicker under the Rio Grande Rise and also in the direction of São Paulo Plateau. The inversion for the gravity-equivalent basement topography is applied for a gravity residual data, which is free from the gravity effect of sediments and from the gravity effect of the estimated Moho interface. A description of the basement depth over Rio Grande Rise area is unprecedented in the literature, however, our results could be compared to in situ data, provided by DSDP, and a small difference of only 9 m between our basement depth and leg 516 F was found. Our model shows a rift crossing the entire Rio Grande Rise deeper than previously presented in literature, with depths up to 5 km in the East Rio Grande Rise (ERGR) and deeper in the West Rio Grande Rise (WRGR), reaching 6.4 km. We find several short-wavelengths structures not present in the bathymetry data. Seamounts, guyots and fracture zones are much more

  20. Rapid fabrication of 2D and 3D photonic crystals and their inversed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, C-K; Chan, C-H; Chen, C-Y; Tsai, Y-L; Chen, C-C; Han, J-L; Hsieh, K-H


    In this paper a new technique is proposed for the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals using monodisperse polystyrene microspheres as the templates. In addition, the approaches toward the creation of their corresponding inversed structures are described. The inversed structures were prepared by subjecting an introduced silica source to a sol-gel process; programmed heating was then performed to remove the template without spoiling the inversed structures. Utilizing these approaches, 2D and 3D photonic crystals and their highly ordered inversed hexagonal multilayer or monolayer structures were obtained on the substrate

  1. Structure-property maps and optimal inversion in configurational thermodynamics (United States)

    Arnold, Björn; Díaz Ortiz, Alejandro; Hart, Gus L. W.; Dosch, Helmut


    Cluster expansions of first-principles density-functional databases in multicomponent systems are now used as a routine tool for the prediction of zero- and finite-temperature physical properties. The ability of producing large databases of various degrees of accuracy, i.e., high-throughput calculations, makes pertinent the analysis of error propagation during the inversion process. This is a very demanding task as both data and numerical noise have to be treated on equal footing. We have addressed this problem by using an analysis that combines the variational and evolutionary approaches to cluster expansions. Simulated databases were constructed ex professo to sample the configurational space in two different and complementary ways. These databases were in turn treated with different levels of both systematic and random numerical noise. The effects of the cross-validation level, size of the database, type of numerical imprecisions on the forecasting power of the expansions were extensively analyzed. We found that the size of the database is the most important parameter. Upon this analysis, we have determined criteria for selecting the optimal expansions, i.e., transferable expansions with constant forecasting power in the configurational space (a structure-property map). As a by-product, our study provides a detailed comparison between the variational cluster expansion and the genetic-algorithm approaches.

  2. Structural determinant for inducing RORgamma specific inverse agonism triggered by a synthetic benzoxazinone ligand. (United States)

    Marcotte, Douglas J; Liu, YuTing; Little, Kevin; Jones, John H; Powell, Noel A; Wildes, Craig P; Silvian, Laura F; Chodaparambil, Jayanth V


    The nuclear hormone receptor RORγ regulates transcriptional genes involved in the production of the pro-inflammatory interleukin IL-17 which has been linked to autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. This transcriptional activity of RORγ is modulated through a protein-protein interaction involving the activation function 2 (AF2) helix on the ligand binding domain of RORγ and a conserved LXXLL helix motif on coactivator proteins. Our goal was to develop a RORγ specific inverse agonist that would help down regulate pro-inflammatory gene transcription by disrupting the protein protein interaction with coactivator proteins as a therapeutic agent. We identified a novel series of synthetic benzoxazinone ligands having an agonist (BIO592) and inverse agonist (BIO399) mode of action in a FRET based assay. We show that the AF2 helix of RORγ is proteolytically sensitive when inverse agonist BIO399 binds. Using x-ray crystallography we show how small modifications on the benzoxazinone agonist BIO592 trigger inverse agonism of RORγ. Using an in vivo reporter assay, we show that the inverse agonist BIO399 displayed specificity for RORγ over ROR sub-family members α and β. The synthetic benzoxazinone ligands identified in our FRET assay have an agonist (BIO592) or inverse agonist (BIO399) effect by stabilizing or destabilizing the agonist conformation of RORγ. The proteolytic sensitivity of the AF2 helix of RORγ demonstrates that it destabilizes upon BIO399 inverse agonist binding perturbing the coactivator protein binding site. Our structural investigation of the BIO592 agonist and BIO399 inverse agonist structures identified residue Met358 on RORγ as the trigger for RORγ specific inverse agonism.

  3. A cellular automata-based deterministic inversion algorithm for the characterization of linear structural heterogeneities (United States)

    Fischer, P.; Jardani, A.; Lecoq, N.


    Inverse problem permits to map the subsurface properties from a few observed data. The inverse problem can be physically constrained by a priori information on the property distribution in order to limit the nonuniqueness of the solution. The geostatistical information is often chosen as a priori information; however, when the field properties present a spatial locally distributed high variability, the geostatistical approach becomes inefficient. Therefore, we propose a new method adapted for fields presenting linear structures (such as a fractured field). The Cellular Automata-based Deterministic Inversion (CADI) method is, as far as we know when this paper is produced, the first inversion method which permits a deterministic inversion based on a Bayesian approach and using a dynamic optimization to generate different linear structures iteratively. The model is partitioned in cellular automaton subspaces, each one controlling a different zone of the model. A cellular automata subspace structures the properties of the model in two units ("structure" and "background") and control their dispensing direction and their values. The partitioning of the model in subspaces permits to monitor a large-scale structural model with only a few pilot-parameters and to generate linear structures with local direction changes. Thereby, the algorithm can easily handle with large-scale structures, and a sensitivity analysis is possible on these structural pilot-parameters, which permits to considerably accelerate the optimization process in order to find the best structural geometry. The algorithm has been successfully tested on simple, to more complex, theoretical models with different inversion techniques by using seismic and hydraulic data.

  4. Monte Carlo waveform inversion and deep continental structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzert, E.J.


    The study of the three dimensional structure of the earth is limited by the uneven distribution of earthquake sources and seismic stations. The distribution of the earthquakes is fixed as most earthquakes occur along the plate boundaries. The use of artificial sources can improve the distribution

  5. Monte Carlo waveform inversion and deep continental structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijzert, E.J.


    The study of the three dimensional structure of the earth is limited by the uneven distribution of earthquake sources and seismic stations. The distribution of the earthquakes is fixed as most earthquakes occur along the plate boundaries. The use of artificial sources can improve the distribution of

  6. Structural Health Monitoring Using High-Density Fiber Optic Strain Sensor and Inverse Finite Element Methods (United States)

    Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alexander; Quach, Cuong C.; Cooper, Eric G.; Parks, Jeffrey; Spangler, Jan L.


    In an effort to mitigate accidents due to system and component failure, NASA s Aviation Safety has partnered with industry, academia, and other governmental organizations to develop real-time, on-board monitoring capabilities and system performance models for early detection of airframe structure degradation. NASA Langley is investigating a structural health monitoring capability that uses a distributed fiber optic strain system and an inverse finite element method for measuring and modeling structural deformations. This report describes the constituent systems that enable this structural monitoring function and discusses results from laboratory tests using the fiber strain sensor system and the inverse finite element method to demonstrate structural deformation estimation on an instrumented test article

  7. Acoustic Full waveform inversion strategy using structural constraint in VTI media (United States)

    Joo, Y.


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is an effective method for deriving high resolution earth models for seismic imaging from full waveforms of the seismic data. Since accounting for seismic anisotropy can improve reservoir delineation in oil and gas field, anisotropic FWI has received much attention during the last decade. However, the intrinsic non-linearity, ill-posedness, and possibility of being trapped in local minima must be addressed to consider multiparameter FWI in an anisotropic media. In multiparameter FWI, moreover, the sensitivity difference between the parameters should be considered. In this study, we applyed the cross-gradient approach usually used for joint interpretation of two different types of geophysical measurments which has structural similarity to overcome the intrinsic drawbacks of the anisotropic FWI. The cross-gradient technique as the structural constraints was shown to improve the structural conformity in joint inversion. It is well acknowledged that the vertical P-wave velocity (Vpz) is more sensitive than the horizontal one (Vpx), so Vpz which has higher sensitivity was firstly reconstructed, then Vpx was inverted using the stuctural information of reconstructed Vpz as the structural constraints. We also the plane-wave approach and a multifrequency simultaneous inversion method for efficient anisotropic inversion. By applying the cross-graient methodology, both the vertical and horizontal velocities were reconstructed properly for the various VTI models, and the root mean square (RMS) error curves converged steadily to lower values. The computational cost of FWI can be effectively reduced by using the proposed FWI algorithm.

  8. Joint Inversion of Crustal and Uppermost Mantle Structure in Western China (United States)


    Crosson, Tomographic inversion for three-dimensional velocity structure at Mount St. Helens using earthquake data, J. Geophys. Res., 94, pp... Saint Louis University Department of Geology 221 N. Grand Boulevard 605 E. Springfield Ave. St. Louis, MO 63103 Champaign, IL 61820 8

  9. Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines and application to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure: Inverse load calculation procedure for offshore wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahn, T. [Pahn Ingenieure, Am Seegraben 17b 03051 Cottbus Germany; Rolfes, R. [Institut f?r Statik und Dynamik, Leibniz Universit?t Hannover, Appelstra?e 9A 30167 Hannover Germany; Jonkman, J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA


    A significant number of wind turbines installed today have reached their designed service life of 20 years, and the number will rise continuously. Most of these turbines promise a more economical performance if they operate for more than 20 years. To assess a continued operation, we have to analyze the load-bearing capacity of the support structure with respect to site-specific conditions. Such an analysis requires the comparison of the loads used for the design of the support structure with the actual loads experienced. This publication presents the application of a so-called inverse load calculation to a 5-MW wind turbine support structure. The inverse load calculation determines external loads derived from a mechanical description of the support structure and from measured structural responses. Using numerical simulations with the software fast, we investigated the influence of wind-turbine-specific effects such as the wind turbine control or the dynamic interaction between the loads and the support structure to the presented inverse load calculation procedure. fast is used to study the inverse calculation of simultaneously acting wind and wave loads, which has not been carried out until now. Furthermore, the application of the inverse load calculation procedure to a real 5-MW wind turbine support structure is demonstrated. In terms of this practical application, setting up the mechanical system for the support structure using measurement data is discussed. The paper presents results for defined load cases and assesses the accuracy of the inversely derived dynamic loads for both the simulations and the practical application.

  10. Methods for joint inversion of waveform and gravity information for 3D density structure (United States)

    Blom, Nienke; Böhm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas


    We develop a joint inversion scheme combining seismic waveform and gravity information to better constrain the Earth's 3D density distribution. Our inversion schemes are based on numerical wave propagation, adjoint techniques, gravity and other non-seismological constraints to enhance resolution. Density variations drive convection in the Earth and serve as a discriminator between thermal and compositional heterogeneities. However, classical seismological observables are only very weakly sensitive to density with significant trade-offs, while potential field measurements such as gravity suffer from inherent non-uniqueness. To put additional constraints on density structure, we develop inversion schemes in which the waveform and gravity data are inverted jointly for both density and seismic velocity parameters. Our inversion scheme is intended to incorporate any information that can help to constrain 3D density structure. This includes gravity-derived quantities such as the mass and moment of inertia of the Earth, but also mineral physical constraints on maximum density heterogeneities (assuming reasonable variations in temperature and composition). In a series of initial synthetic experiments, we aim to construct efficient optimisation schemes that allow us to assimilate all the available types of information. For this, we use 2D numerical wave propagation combined with adjoint techniques for the computation of sensitivity kernels. With these kernels, we drive gradient-based optimisation that incorporates our non-seismological constraints. Specifically, we assess the usefulness of an inversion scheme where the Earth's mass and moment of inertia are enforced in the model by means of a projected gradient scheme. These synthetic experiments will allow us to assess to what extent velocity and density structure need to be coupled in order to obtain useful and meaningful results to a density inversion.

  11. Neuro-fuzzy inverse model control structure of robotic manipulators utilized for physiotherapy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Fahmy


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new neuro-fuzzy controller for robot manipulators. First, an inductive learning technique is applied to generate the required inverse modeling rules from input/output data recorded in the off-line structure learning phase. Second, a fully differentiable fuzzy neural network is developed to construct the inverse dynamics part of the controller for the online parameter learning phase. Finally, a fuzzy-PID-like incremental controller was employed as Feedback servo controller. The proposed control system was tested using dynamic model of a six-axis industrial robot. The control system showed good results compared to the conventional PID individual joint controller.

  12. Structural Anomaly Detection Using Fiber Optic Sensors and Inverse Finite Element Method (United States)

    Quach, Cuong C.; Vazquez, Sixto L.; Tessler, Alex; Moore, Jason P.; Cooper, Eric G.; Spangler, Jan. L.


    NASA Langley Research Center is investigating a variety of techniques for mitigating aircraft accidents due to structural component failure. One technique under consideration combines distributed fiber optic strain sensing with an inverse finite element method for detecting and characterizing structural anomalies anomalies that may provide early indication of airframe structure degradation. The technique identifies structural anomalies that result in observable changes in localized strain but do not impact the overall surface shape. Surface shape information is provided by an Inverse Finite Element Method that computes full-field displacements and internal loads using strain data from in-situ fiberoptic sensors. This paper describes a prototype of such a system and reports results from a series of laboratory tests conducted on a test coupon subjected to increasing levels of damage.

  13. Buried Man-made Structure Imaging using 2-D Resistivity Inversion (United States)

    Anderson Bery, Andy; Nordiana, M. M.; El Hidayah Ismail, Noer; Jinmin, M.; Nur Amalina, M. K. A.


    This study is carried out with the objective to determine the suitable resistivity inversion method for buried man-made structure (bunker). This study was carried out with two stages. The first stage is suitable array determination using 2-D computerized modeling method. One suitable array is used for the infield resistivity survey to determine the dimension and location of the target. The 2-D resistivity inversion results showed that robust inversion method is suitable to resolve the top and bottom part of the buried bunker as target. In addition, the dimension of the buried bunker is successfully determined with height of 7 m and length of 20 m. The location of this target is located at -10 m until 10 m of the infield resistivity survey line. The 2-D resistivity inversion results obtained in this study showed that the parameters selection is important in order to give the optimum results. These parameters are array type, survey geometry and inversion method used in data processing.

  14. Inverse analysis of aerodynamic loads from strain information using structural models and neural networks (United States)

    Wada, Daichi; Sugimoto, Yohei


    Aerodynamic loads on aircraft wings are one of the key parameters to be monitored for reliable and effective aircraft operations and management. Flight data of the aerodynamic loads would be used onboard to control the aircraft and accumulated data would be used for the condition-based maintenance and the feedback for the fatigue and critical load modeling. The effective sensing techniques such as fiber optic distributed sensing have been developed and demonstrated promising capability of monitoring structural responses, i.e., strains on the surface of the aircraft wings. By using the developed techniques, load identification methods for structural health monitoring are expected to be established. The typical inverse analysis for load identification using strains calculates the loads in a discrete form of concentrated forces, however, the distributed form of the loads is essential for the accurate and reliable estimation of the critical stress at structural parts. In this study, we demonstrate an inverse analysis to identify the distributed loads from measured strain information. The introduced inverse analysis technique calculates aerodynamic loads not in a discrete but in a distributed manner based on a finite element model. In order to verify the technique through numerical simulations, we apply static aerodynamic loads on a flat panel model, and conduct the inverse identification of the load distributions. We take two approaches to build the inverse system between loads and strains. The first one uses structural models and the second one uses neural networks. We compare the performance of the two approaches, and discuss the effect of the amount of the strain sensing information.

  15. Inverse QSPR/QSAR Analysis for Chemical Structure Generation (from y to x). (United States)

    Miyao, Tomoyuki; Kaneko, Hiromasa; Funatsu, Kimito


    Retrieving descriptor information (x information) from a value of an objective variable (y) is a fundamental problem in inverse quantitative structure-property relationship (inverse-QSPR) analysis but challenging because of the complexity of the preimage function. Herewith, we propose using a cluster-wise multiple linear regression (cMLR) model as a QSPR model for inverse-QSPR analysis. x information is acquired as a probability density function by combining cMLR and the prior distribution modeled with a mixture of Gaussians (GMMs). Three case studies were conducted to demonstrate various aspects of the potential of cMLR. It was found that the predictive power of cMLR was superior to that of MLR, especially for data with nonlinearity. Moreover, it turned out that the applicability domain could be considered since the posterior distribution inherits the prior distribution's feature (i.e., training data feature) and represents the possibility of having the desired property. Finally, a series of inverse analyses with the GMMs/cMLR was demonstrated with the aim to generate de novo structures having specific aqueous solubility.

  16. Mantle viscosity structure constrained by joint inversions of seismic velocities and density (United States)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Moulik, P.; Lekic, V.


    The viscosity structure of Earth's deep mantle affects the thermal evolution of Earth, the ascent of mantle upwellings, sinking of subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the mixing of compositional heterogeneities in the mantle. Modeling the long-wavelength dynamic geoid allows us to constrain the radial viscosity profile of the mantle. Typically, in inversions for the mantle viscosity structure, wavespeed variations are mapped into density variations using a constant- or depth-dependent scaling factor. Here, we use a newly developed joint model of anisotropic Vs, Vp, density and transition zone topographies to generate a suite of solutions for the mantle viscosity structure directly from the seismologically constrained density structure. The density structure used to drive our forward models includes contributions from both thermal and compositional variations, including important contributions from compositionally dense material in the Large Low Velocity Provinces at the base of the mantle. These compositional variations have been neglected in the forward models used in most previous inversions and have the potential to significantly affect large-scale flow and thus the inferred viscosity structure. We use a transdimensional, hierarchical, Bayesian approach to solve the inverse problem, and our solutions for viscosity structure include an increase in viscosity below the base of the transition zone, in the shallow lower mantle. Using geoid dynamic response functions and an analysis of the correlation between the observed geoid and mantle structure, we demonstrate the underlying reason for this inference. Finally, we present a new family of solutions in which the data uncertainty is accounted for using covariance matrices associated with the mantle structure models.

  17. Grain Boundary Structures and Collective Dynamics of Inversion Domains in Binary Two-Dimensional Materials (United States)

    Taha, Doaa; Mkhonta, S. K.; Elder, K. R.; Huang, Zhi-Feng


    Understanding and controlling the properties and dynamics of topological defects is a lasting challenge in the study of two-dimensional materials, and is crucial to achieve high-quality films required for technological applications. Here grain boundary structures, energies, and dynamics of binary two-dimensional materials are investigated through the development of a phase field crystal model that is parametrized to match the ordering, symmetry, energy, and length scales of hexagonal boron nitride. Our studies reveal some new dislocation core structures for various symmetrically and asymmetrically tilted grain boundaries, in addition to those obtained in previous experiments and first-principles calculations. We also identify a defect-mediated growth dynamics for inversion domains governed by the collective atomic migration and defect core transformation at grain boundaries and junctions, a process that is related to inversion symmetry breaking in binary lattice.

  18. Identification of moving sinusoidal wave loads for sensor structural configuration by finite element inverse method (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Yu, S.


    In this paper, a beam structure of composite materials with elastic foundation supports is established as the sensor model, which propagates moving sinusoidal wave loads. The inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is applied for reconstructing moving wave loads which are compared with true wave loads. The conclusion shows that iFEM is accurate and robust in the determination of wave propagation. This helps to seek a suitable new wave sensor method.

  19. On the Structure of С*-Algebras Generated by Representations of the Elementary Inverse Semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Grigoryan


    Full Text Available The class of С*-algebras generated by the elementary inverse semigroup and being deformations of the Toeplitz algebra has been introduced and studied. The properties of these algebras have been investigated. All their irreducible representations and automorphism groups have been described. These algebras have been proved to be Z-graded С*-algebras. For a certain class of algebras in the family under consideration the compact quantum semigroup structure has been constructed.

  20. Shape and Stress Sensing of Multilayered Composite and Sandwich Structures Using an Inverse Finite Element Method (United States)

    Cerracchio, Priscilla; Gherlone, Marco; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander


    The marked increase in the use of composite and sandwich material systems in aerospace, civil, and marine structures leads to the need for integrated Structural Health Management systems. A key capability to enable such systems is the real-time reconstruction of structural deformations, stresses, and failure criteria that are inferred from in-situ, discrete-location strain measurements. This technology is commonly referred to as shape- and stress-sensing. Presented herein is a computationally efficient shape- and stress-sensing methodology that is ideally suited for applications to laminated composite and sandwich structures. The new approach employs the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) as a general framework and the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) as the underlying plate theory. A three-node inverse plate finite element is formulated. The element formulation enables robust and efficient modeling of plate structures instrumented with strain sensors that have arbitrary positions. The methodology leads to a set of linear algebraic equations that are solved efficiently for the unknown nodal displacements. These displacements are then used at the finite element level to compute full-field strains, stresses, and failure criteria that are in turn used to assess structural integrity. Numerical results for multilayered, highly heterogeneous laminates demonstrate the unique capability of this new formulation for shape- and stress-sensing.

  1. A wrench and inversion model for structures in the Timor Sea region, northwest Austrialia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.W.


    A structural model is developed for part of the Timor Sea region, northwest Australia, involving multiple strike-slip episodes, and significant changes in the regional or local stress regimes. It is interpreted that both normal and reverse faults have existed since at least the Permian, and have changed their sense of movement in response to changing stress fields, with latest changes occurring as a result of Tertiary collision of the Australian and Eurasian Plates. Both 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets are used to demonstrate development of conventional simple strike-slip models into complex multi-episode models incorporating through-going and abandoned faults. After only three episodes of fault movement, one of which involves inversion, the fault linkages and structural history can become very difficult to unravel. The Jabiru Oil Field is shown to have developed at the intersection of orthogonal faults, with resultant restraining fault bend geometry. Failure to identify a large part of the field for several years after discovery may be attributed to misinterpretation of reversal of fault throw with depth (resulting from inversion), and to lack of appreciation of the significance of abandoned faults. Factors including fault abandonment, fault dips steepening with depth (including sideways concave faults), fault inversion, and trap seal development on inverted and abandoned faults may have a significant influence on the way petroleum traps are mapped and the trapping capacity of seals.

  2. A wrench and inversion model for structures in the Timor Sea region, northwest Austrialia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.W.


    A structural model is developed for part of the Timor Sea region, northwest Australia, involving multiple strike-slip episodes, and significant changes in the regional or local stress regimes. It is interpreted that both normal and reverse faults have existed since at least the Permian, and have changed their sense of movement in response to changing stress fields, with latest changes occurring as a result of Tertiary collision of the Australian and Eurasian Plates. Both 2-D and 3-D seismic data sets are used to demonstrate development of conventional simple strike-slip models into complex multi-episode models incorporating through-going and abandoned faults. After only three episodes of fault movement, one of which involves inversion, the fault linkages and structural history can become very difficult to unravel. The Jabiru Oil Field is shown to have developed at the intersection of orthogonal faults, with resultant restraining fault bend geometry. Failure to identify a large part of the field for several years after discovery may be attributed to misinterpretation of reversal of fault throw with depth (resulting from inversion), and to lack of appreciation of the significance of abandoned faults. Factors including fault abandonment, fault dips steepening with depth (including sideways concave faults), fault inversion, and trap seal development on inverted and abandoned faults may have a significant influence on the way petroleum traps are mapped and the trapping capacity of seals.

  3. Uncertainty Estimation of Shear-wave Velocity Structure from Bayesian Inversion of Microtremor Array Dispersion Data (United States)

    Dosso, S. E.; Molnar, S.; Cassidy, J.


    Bayesian inversion of microtremor array dispersion data is applied, with evaluation of data errors and model parameterization, to produce the most-probable shear-wave velocity (VS) profile together with quantitative uncertainty estimates. Generally, the most important property characterizing earthquake site response is the subsurface VS structure. The microtremor array method determines phase velocity dispersion of Rayleigh surface waves from multi-instrument recordings of urban noise. Inversion of dispersion curves for VS structure is a non-unique and nonlinear problem such that meaningful evaluation of confidence intervals is required. Quantitative uncertainty estimation requires not only a nonlinear inversion approach that samples models proportional to their probability, but also rigorous estimation of the data error statistics and an appropriate model parameterization. A Bayesian formulation represents the solution of the inverse problem in terms of the posterior probability density (PPD) of the geophysical model parameters. Markov-chain Monte Carlo methods are used with an efficient implementation of Metropolis-Hastings sampling to provide an unbiased sample from the PPD to compute parameter uncertainties and inter-relationships. Nonparametric estimation of a data error covariance matrix from residual analysis is applied with rigorous a posteriori statistical tests to validate the covariance estimate and the assumption of a Gaussian error distribution. The most appropriate model parameterization is determined using the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), which provides the simplest model consistent with the resolving power of the data. Parameter uncertainties are found to be under-estimated when data error correlations are neglected and when compressional-wave velocity and/or density (nuisance) parameters are fixed in the inversion. Bayesian inversion of microtremor array data is applied at two sites in British Columbia, the area of highest seismic risk in

  4. Making Sense of Abstract Algebra: Exploring Secondary Teachers' Understandings of Inverse Functions in Relation to Its Group Structure (United States)

    Wasserman, Nicholas H.


    This article draws on semi-structured, task-based interviews to explore secondary teachers' (N = 7) understandings of inverse functions in relation to abstract algebra. In particular, a concept map task is used to understand the degree to which participants, having recently taken an abstract algebra course, situated inverse functions within its…

  5. Newton`s iteration for inversion of Cauchy-like and other structured matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, V.Y. [Lehman College, Bronx, NY (United States); Zheng, Ailong; Huang, Xiaohan; Dias, O. [CUNY, New York, NY (United States)


    We specify some initial assumptions that guarantee rapid refinement of a rough initial approximation to the inverse of a Cauchy-like matrix, by mean of our new modification of Newton`s iteration, where the input, output, and all the auxiliary matrices are represented with their short generators defined by the associated scaling operators. The computations are performed fast since they are confined to operations with short generators of the given and computed matrices. Because of the known correlations among various structured matrices, the algorithm is immediately extended to rapid refinement of rough initial approximations to the inverses of Vandermonde-like, Chebyshev-Vandermonde-like and Toeplitz-like matrices, where again, the computations are confined to operations with short generators of the involved matrices.

  6. Localized heuristic inverse quantitative structure activity relationship with bulk descriptors using numerical gradients. (United States)

    Stålring, Jonna; Almeida, Pedro R; Carlsson, Lars; Helgee Ahlberg, Ernst; Hasselgren, Catrin; Boyer, Scott


    State-of-the-art quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are often based on nonlinear machine learning algorithms, which are difficult to interpret. From a pharmaceutical perspective, QSARs are used to enhance the chemical design process. Ultimately, they should not only provide a prediction but also contribute to a mechanistic understanding and guide modifications to the chemical structure, promoting compounds with desirable biological activity profiles. Global ranking of descriptor importance and inverse QSAR have been used for these purposes. This paper introduces localized heuristic inverse QSAR, which provides an assessment of the relative ability of the descriptors to influence the biological response in an area localized around the predicted compound. The method is based on numerical gradients with parameters optimized using data sets sampled from analytical functions. The heuristic character of the method reduces the computational requirements and makes it applicable not only to fragment based methods but also to QSARs based on bulk descriptors. The application of the method is illustrated on congeneric QSAR data sets, and it is shown that the predicted influential descriptors can be used to guide structural modifications that affect the biological response in the desired direction. The method is implemented into the AZOrange Open Source QSAR package. The current implementation of localized heuristic inverse QSAR is a step toward a generally applicable method for elucidating the structure activity relationship specifically for a congeneric region of chemical space when using QSARs based on bulk properties. Consequently, this method could contribute to accelerating the chemical design process in pharmaceutical projects, as well as provide information that could enhance the mechanistic understanding for individual scaffolds.

  7. Design for a Crane Metallic Structure Based on Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Inverse Reliability Strategy (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Ning; Zhi, Bo


    Uncertainties in parameters such as materials, loading, and geometry are inevitable in designing metallic structures for cranes. When considering these uncertainty factors, reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) offers a more reasonable design approach. However, existing RBDO methods for crane metallic structures are prone to low convergence speed and high computational cost. A unilevel RBDO method, combining a discrete imperialist competitive algorithm with an inverse reliability strategy based on the performance measure approach, is developed. Application of the imperialist competitive algorithm at the optimization level significantly improves the convergence speed of this RBDO method. At the reliability analysis level, the inverse reliability strategy is used to determine the feasibility of each probabilistic constraint at each design point by calculating its α-percentile performance, thereby avoiding convergence failure, calculation error, and disproportionate computational effort encountered using conventional moment and simulation methods. Application of the RBDO method to an actual crane structure shows that the developed RBDO realizes a design with the best tradeoff between economy and safety together with about one-third of the convergence speed and the computational cost of the existing method. This paper provides a scientific and effective design approach for the design of metallic structures of cranes.

  8. Remote sensing of row crop structure and component temperatures using directional radiometric temperatures and inversion techniques (United States)

    Kimes, D. S.


    A physically based sensor response model of a row crop was used as the mathematical framework from which several inversion strategies were tested for extracting row structure information and component temperatures using a series of sensor view angles. The technique was evaluated on ground-based radiometric thermal infrared data of a cotton row crop that covered 48 percent of the ground in the vertical projection. The results showed that the accuracies of the predicted row heights and widths, vegetation temperatures, and soil temperatures of the cotton row crop were on the order of 5 cm, 1 deg, and 2 deg C, respectively. The inversion techniques can be applied to directional sensor data from aircraft platforms and even space platforms if the effects of atmospheric absorption and emission can be corrected. In theory, such inversion techniques can be applied to a wide variety of vegetation types and thus can have significant implications for remote sensing research and applications in disciplines that deal with incomplete vegetation canopies.

  9. Inverse Bayesian inference as a key of consciousness featuring a macroscopic quantum logical structure. (United States)

    Gunji, Yukio-Pegio; Shinohara, Shuji; Haruna, Taichi; Basios, Vasileios


    To overcome the dualism between mind and matter and to implement consciousness in science, a physical entity has to be embedded with a measurement process. Although quantum mechanics have been regarded as a candidate for implementing consciousness, nature at its macroscopic level is inconsistent with quantum mechanics. We propose a measurement-oriented inference system comprising Bayesian and inverse Bayesian inferences. While Bayesian inference contracts probability space, the newly defined inverse one relaxes the space. These two inferences allow an agent to make a decision corresponding to an immediate change in their environment. They generate a particular pattern of joint probability for data and hypotheses, comprising multiple diagonal and noisy matrices. This is expressed as a nondistributive orthomodular lattice equivalent to quantum logic. We also show that an orthomodular lattice can reveal information generated by inverse syllogism as well as the solutions to the frame and symbol-grounding problems. Our model is the first to connect macroscopic cognitive processes with the mathematical structure of quantum mechanics with no additional assumptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inverse problem for a physiologically structured population model with variable-effort harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrusyak Ruslan V.


    Full Text Available We consider the inverse problem of determining how the physiological structure of a harvested population evolves in time, and of finding the time-dependent effort to be expended in harvesting, so that the weighted integral of the density, which may be, for example, the total number of individuals or the total biomass, has prescribed dynamics. We give conditions for the existence of a unique, global, weak solution to the problem. Our investigation is carried out using the method of characteristics and a generalization of the Banach fixed-point theorem.

  11. Combined inversion for the three-dimensional Q structure and source parameters using microearthquake spectra (United States)

    Scherbaum, Frank


    The estimation of Q values and/or source corner frequencies fc from single-station narrow-band recordings of microearthquake spectra is a strongly nonunique problem. This is due to the fact that the spectra can be equally well fitted with low-Q/high-fc or a high-Q/low-fc spectral models. Here, a method is proposed to constrain this ambiguity by inverting a set of microearthquake spectra for a three-dimensional Q model structure and model source parameters seismic moment (Mo ) and corner frequency (fc ) simultaneously. The inversion of whole path Q can be stated as a linear problem in the attenuation operator t* and solved using a tomographic reconstruction of the three-dimensional Q structure. This Q structure is then used as a "geometrical constraint" for a nonlinear Marquardt-Levenberg inversion of Mo and fc and a new Q value. The first step of the method consists of interactively fitting the observed microearthquake spectra by spectral models consisting of a source spectrum with an assumed high-frequency decay, a single-layer resonance filter to account for local site effects, and additional "whole path attenuation" along the ray path. From the obtained Q values, a three-dimensional Q model is calculated using a tomographic reconstruction technique (SIRT). The individual Q values along each ray path are then used as Q starting values for a nonlinear iterative Marquardt-Levenberg inversion of Mo and fc and a "new" Q value. Subsequently, the "new" Q values are used to reconstruct the next Q model which again provides starting values for the "next" nonlinear inversion of Mo, fc, and Q. This process is repeated until the "goodness of fit measure" indicates no further improvement of the results. The method has been tested on a set of approximately 2800 P wave spectra (0.9 effects close to the surface shows that site effects may cause a corruption of the resulting Q model at shallow depths. For the given data set and depths below 3-5 km, the method is believed to be

  12. Deep structure of the Alborz Mountains by joint inversion of P receiver functions and dispersion curves (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mehdi; Rahimi, Habib; Motaghi, Khalil; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Romanelli, Fabio; Panza, Giuliano F.


    The Alborz Mountains represent a tectonically and seismically active convergent boundary in the Arabia - Eurasia collision zone, in western Asia. The orogenic belt has undergone a long-lasted tectono-magmatic history since the Cretaceous. The relationship between shallow and deep structures in this complex tectonic domain is not straightforward. We present a 2D velocity model constructed by the assemblage of 1D shear wave velocity (Vs) models from 26 seismic stations, mainly distributed along the southern flank of the Alborz Mountains. The shear wave velocity structure has been estimated beneath each station using joint inversion of P-waves receiver functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. A substantiation of the Vs inversion results sits on the modeling of Bouguer gravity anomaly data. Our velocity and density models show low velocity/density anomalies in uppermost mantle of western and central Alborz at a depth range of ∼50-100 km. In deeper parts of the uppermost mantle (depth range of 100-150 km), a high velocity/density anomaly is located beneath most of the Mountain range. The spatial pattern of these low and high velocity/density structures in the upper mantle is interpreted as the result of post collisional delamination of lower part of the western and central Alborz lithosphere.

  13. Tree-structured method for LUT inverse halftoning and for image halftoning. (United States)

    Mese, Murat; Vaidyanathan, P P


    Recently, the authors proposed a Look Up Table (LUT) based method for inverse halftoning of images. The LUT for inverse halftoning is obtained from the histogram gathered from a few sample halftone images and corresponding original images. Many of the entries in the LUT are unused because the corresponding binary patterns hardly occur in commonly encountered halftones. These are called nonexistent patterns. In this paper, we propose a tree structure which will reduce the storage requirements of an LUT by avoiding nonexistent patterns. We will demonstrate the performance on error diffused images and ordered dither images. Then, we introduce LUT based halftoning and tree-structured LUT (TLUT) halftoning. Even though TLUT method is more complex than LUT halftoning, it produces better halftones and requires much less storage than LUT halftoning.We will demonstrate how error diffusion characteristics can be achieved with this method. Afterwards, our algorithm will bet rained on halftones obtained by Direct Binary Search (DBS).The complexity of TLUT halftoning is higher than error diffusion algorithm but much lower than DBS algorithm. Also, the halftone quality of TLUT halftoning increases if the size of TLUT gets bigger. Thus, halftone image quality between error diffusion and DBS will be achieved depending on the size of tree-structure in TLUT algorithm.

  14. Structural study of micro-emulsions in an inversion domain. Highlighting a bi-continuous cubic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer d'Orth, Arnaud de


    This research thesis report the study of the structure of micro-emulsions in an inversion domain (domain of Winsor equilibriums) by using small angle neutron scattering. In this domain, the micro-emulsion keeps on passing from water-rich state (Winsor I domain) to an oil-rich state (Winsor II domain). In the intermediate domain (Winsor III domain), the micro-emulsion presents the peculiarity to be able to solubilise equal volumes of water and oil. The small angle neutron scattering technique allows highlighting the continuous passage from of an 'oil in water' droplet dispersion (Winsor I) to a 'water in oil' droplet dispersion (Winsor II) with an intermediate bi-continuous structure (Winsor III). The author shows that the micro-emulsion structure in the inversion domain is not random, but corresponds to a cubic structure. He also shows that the interface film of the Winsor III micro-emulsion forms a minimum surface. The author highlights the structure continuity between the Winsor III micro-emulsion and a cubic liquid crystal phase [fr

  15. Using measurable dosimetric quantities to characterize the inter-structural tradeoff in inverse planning (United States)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Dong, Peng; Xing, Lei


    Traditional inverse planning relies on the use of weighting factors to balance the conflicting requirements of different structures. Manual trial-and-error determination of weighting factors has long been recognized as a time-consuming part of treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to develop an inverse planning framework that parameterizes the dosimetric tradeoff among the structures with physically meaningful quantities to simplify the search for clinically sensible plans. In this formalism, instead of using weighting factors, the permissible variation range of the prescription dose or dose volume histogram (DVH) of the involved structures are used to characterize the ‘importance’ of the structures. The inverse planning is then formulated into a convex feasibility problem, called the dosimetric variation-controlled model (DVCM), whose goal is to generate plans with dosimetric or DVH variations of the structures consistent with the pre-specified values. For simplicity, the dosimetric variation range for a structure is extracted from a library of previous cases which possess similar anatomy and prescription. A two-phase procedure (TPP) is designed to solve the model. The first phase identifies a physically feasible plan to satisfy the prescribed dosimetric variation, and the second phase automatically improves the plan in case there is room for further improvement. The proposed technique is applied to plan two prostate cases and two head-and-neck cases and the results are compared with those obtained using a conventional CVaR approach and with a moment-based optimization scheme. Our results show that the strategy is able to generate clinically sensible plans with little trial and error. In all cases, the TPP generates a very competitive plan as compared to those obtained using the alternative approaches. Particularly, in the planning of one of the head-and-neck cases, the TPP leads to a non-trivial improvement in the resultant dose distribution

  16. Structural, electronic and magnetic properties of partially inverse spinel CoFe2O4: a first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Y H; Liu, Z W; Yu, H Y; Zhong, X C; Qiu, W Q; Zeng, D C; Wen, L S; Zhao, Y J


    Partially inverse spinel CoFe 2 O 4 , which may be prepared through various heat treatments, differs remarkably from the ideal inverse spinel in many properties. The structure of partially inverse spinel CoFe 2 O 4 as well as its electronic and magnetic properties through a systemic theoretical calculation of (Co 1-x Fe x ) Tet (Co x Fe 2-x ) Oct O 4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0) have been investigated by the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) + U approach. It is found that the Co and Fe ions prefer their high spin configurations with higher spin moments at octahedral sites in all the studied cases, in line with experimental observations. The Co ions at the octahedral sites favour being far away from each other in the partial inverse spinels, which also show half metallicity at certain inversion degrees.

  17. N-Methyl Inversion and Accurate Equilibrium Structures in Alkaloids: Pseudopelletierine. (United States)

    Vallejo-López, Montserrat; Écija, Patricia; Vogt, Natalja; Demaison, Jean; Lesarri, Alberto; Basterretxea, Francisco J; Cocinero, Emilio J


    A rotational spectroscopy investigation has resolved the conformational equilibrium and structural properties of the alkaloid pseudopelletierine. Two different conformers, which originate from inversion of the N-methyl group from an axial to an equatorial position, have been unambiguously identified in the gas phase, and nine independent isotopologues have been recorded by Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in a jet expansion. Both conformers share a chair-chair configuration of the two bridged six-membered rings. The conformational equilibrium is displaced towards the axial form, with a relative population in the supersonic jet of N axial /N equatorial ≈2/1. An accurate equilibrium structure has been determined by using the semiexperimental mixed-estimation method and alternatively computed by quantum-chemical methods up to the coupled-cluster level of theory. A comparison with the N-methyl inversion equilibria in related tropanes is also presented. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Shear wave velocity structure in North America from large-scale waveform inversions of surface waves (United States)

    Alsina, D.; Woodward, R.L.; Snieder, R.K.


    A two-step nonlinear and linear inversion is carried out to map the lateral heterogeneity beneath North America using surface wave data. The lateral resolution for most areas of the model is of the order of several hundred kilometers. The most obvious feature in the tomographic images is the rapid transition between low velocities in the technically active region west of the Rocky Mountains and high velocities in the stable central and eastern shield of North America. The model also reveals smaller-scale heterogeneous velocity structures. A high-velocity anomaly is imaged beneath the state of Washington that could be explained as the subducting Juan de Fuca plate beneath the Cascades. A large low-velocity structure extends along the coast from the Mendocino to the Rivera triple junction and to the continental interior across the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Its shape changes notably with depth. This anomaly largely coincides with the part of the margin where no lithosphere is consumed since the subduction has been replaced by a transform fault. Evidence for a discontinuous subduction of the Cocos plate along the Middle American Trench is found. In central Mexico a transition is visible from low velocities across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) to high velocities beneath the Yucatan Peninsula. Two elongated low-velocity anomalies beneath the Yellowstone Plateau and the eastern Snake River Plain volcanic system and beneath central Mexico and the TMVB seem to be associated with magmatism and partial melting. Another low-velocity feature is seen at depths of approximately 200 km beneath Florida and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The inversion technique used is based on a linear surface wave scattering theory, which gives tomographic images of the relative phase velocity perturbations in four period bands ranging from 40 to 150 s. In order to find a smooth reference model a nonlinear inversion based on ray theory is first performed. After

  19. An inverse problem approach for structural damage detection - Finite element model refinement (United States)

    Zimmerman, D. C.; Kaouk, M.


    In this work, a methodology for incorporating measured modal data into an existing refined finite element model is examined with the objective of detecting and locating structural damage. This same algorithm is also useful in terms of finite element model refinement. The algorithm is based on the partial inverse problem, in that only partial spectral information is required. The technique utilizes a symmetric eigenstructure assignment algorithm to perform the partial spectral assignment. Algorithms to enhance mode shape assignability and to preserve sparsity in the updated model are developed. The sparsity preservation is of particular importance when considering damage detection in truss-like structures. Several examples are presented which highlight the key points made within the paper.

  20. Nanowires of silicon carbide and 3D SiC/C nanocomposites with inverse opal structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelchenko, G.A.; Zhokhov, A.A.; Masalov, V.M.; Kudrenko, E.A.; Tereshenko, A.N.; Steinman, E.A.; Khodos, I.I.; Zinenko, V.I.; Agafonov, Yu.A.


    Synthesis, morphology, structural and optical characteristics of SiC NWs and SiC/C nanocomposites with an inverse opal lattice have been investigated. The samples were prepared by carbothermal reduction of silica (SiC NWs) and by thermo-chemical treatment of opal matrices (SiC/C) filled with carbon compounds which was followed by silicon dioxide dissolution. It was shown that the nucleation of SiC NWs occurs at the surface of carbon fibers felt. It was observed three preferred growth direction of the NWs: [111], [110] and [112]. HRTEM studies revealed the mechanism of the wires growth direction change. SiC/C- HRTEM revealed in the structure of the composites, except for silicon carbide, graphite and amorphous carbon, spherical carbon particles containing concentric graphite shells (onion-like particles).

  1. A Novel Inversion Method of Manufacturing Flaws in the Packaging of Conformal Load-Bearing Antenna Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Li


    Full Text Available Composite material is widely used in the conformal load-bearing antenna structure (CLAS, and the manufacturing flaws in the packaging process of the CLAS will lead to the degradation of its wave-transparent property. For this problem, a novel inverse method of the flaw’s dimension by antenna-radome system’s far field data has been proposed. Two steps are included in the inversion: the first one is the inversion from the far filed data to the transmission coefficient of the CLAS’s radome; the second one is the inversion from the transmission coefficient to the flaw’s dimension. The inversion also has a good potential for the separable multilayer composite material radome. A 12.5 GHz CLAS with microstrip antenna array is used in the simulation, which indicates the effectiveness of the novel inversion method. Finally, the error analysis of the inversion method is presented by numerical simulation; the results is that the inversed error could be less than 10%, if the measurement error of far field data is less than 0.45 dB in amplitude and ±5° in phase.

  2. Crustal structure of the northern Menderes Massif, western Turkey, imaged by joint gravity and magnetic inversion (United States)

    Gessner, Klaus; Gallardo, Luis A.; Wedin, Francis; Sener, Kerim


    In western Anatolia, the Anatolide domain of the Tethyan orogen is exposed in one of the Earth's largest metamorphic core complexes, the Menderes Massif. The Menderes Massif experienced a two-stage exhumation: tectonic denudation in the footwall of a north-directed Miocene extensional detachment, followed by fragmentation by E-W and NW-SE-trending graben systems. Along the northern boundary of the core complex, the tectonic units of the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture zone overly the stage one footwall of the core complex, the northern Menderes Massif. In this study, we explore the structure of the upper crust in the northern Menderes Massif with cross-gradient joint inversion of gravity and aeromagnetic data along a series of 10-km-deep profiles. Our inversions, which are based on gravity and aeromagnetic measurements and require no geological and petrophysical constraints, reveal the salient features of the Earth's upper crust. We image the northern Menderes Massif as a relatively homogenous domain of low magnetization and medium to high density, with local anomalies related to the effect of interspersed igneous bodies and shallow basins. In contrast, both the northern and western boundaries of the northern Menderes Massif stand out as domains where dense mafic, metasedimentary and ultramafic domains with a weak magnetic signature alternate with low-density igneous complexes with high magnetization. With our technique, we are able to delineate Miocene basins and igneous complexes, and map the boundary between intermediate to mafic-dominated subduction-accretion units of the suture zone and the underlying felsic crust of the Menderes Massif. We demonstrate that joint gravity and magnetic inversion are not only capable of imaging local and regional changes in crustal composition, but can also be used to map discontinuities of geodynamic significance such as the Vardar-Izmir-Ankara suture and the West Anatolia Transfer Zone.

  3. Eddy Current Inversion Models for Estimating Dimensions of Defects in Multilayered Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Ye


    Full Text Available In eddy current nondestructive evaluation, one of the principal challenges is to determine the dimensions of defects in multilayered structures from the measured signals. It is a typical inverse problem which is generally considered to be nonlinear and ill-posed. In the paper, two effective approaches have been proposed to estimate the defect dimensions. The first one is a partial least squares (PLS regression method. The second one is a kernel partial least squares (KPLS regression method. The experimental research is carried out. In experiments, the eddy current signals responding to magnetic field changes are detected by a giant magnetoresistive (GMR sensor and preprocessed for noise elimination using a wavelet packet analysis (WPA method. Then, the proposed two approaches are used to construct the inversion models of defect dimension estimation. Finally, the estimation results are analyzed. The performance comparison between the proposed two approaches and the artificial neural network (ANN method is presented. The comparison results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed two methods. Between them, the KPLS regression method gives a better prediction performance than the PLS regression method at present.

  4. SnO2Inverse Opal Composite Film with Low Angle-dependent Structural Color and Enhanced Mechanical Strength. (United States)

    Liu, Fangfang; Shan, Bin; Zhang, Shufen; Tang, Bingtao


    Structural colors are attracting considerable attention for their advantages of environmental friendliness and resistance to fading. However, the weak mechanical strength and intrinsic iridescent color restrict their widespread application. This article describes a SnO 2 inverse opal composite film with low angle-dependent structural color and enhanced mechanical strength. In the present study, a direct template method was used to prepare SnO 2 inverse opals, which were then embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The structural colors of obtained composite films were low angle-dependent due to light scattering and high effective refractive index. Meanwhile, owing to the good physical strength of PDMS, structures of SnO 2 inverse opals were provided with effective protection. No specific wavelength shift occurred during stretching, and exhibited excellent cycling stability. All these advantages indicated potential applications in packing and decorating materials.

  5. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling (United States)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.


    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  6. On the critical behavior of the inverse susceptibility of a model of structural phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisanova, E.S.; Ivanov, S.I.


    An exactly solvable lattice model describing structural phase transitions in an anharmonic crystal with long-range interaction is considered in the neighborhoods of the quantum and classical critical points at the corresponding upper critical dimensions. In a broader neighborhood of the critical region the inverse susceptibility of the model is exactly calculated in terms of the Lambert W-function and graphically presented as a function of the deviation from the critical point and the upper critical dimension. For quantum and classical systems with real physical dimensions (chains, thin layers and three-dimensional systems) the exact results are compared with the asymptotic ones on the basis of some numerical data for their ratio. Relative errors are also provided

  7. MT data inversion and sensitivity analysis to image electrical structure of Zagros collision zone (United States)

    Layegh Haghighi, T.; Montahaei, M.; Oskooi, B.


    Magnetotelluric (MT) data from 46 stations on a 470-km-long profile across the Zagros fold-thrust belt (ZFTB) that marks the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone were inverted to derive 2-D electrical resistivity structure between Busher on the coast of Persian Gulf and Posht-e-Badam, 160 km north east of Yazd. The model includes prominent anomalies in the upper and lower crust, beneath the brittle-ductile transition depth and mostly related to the fluid distribution and sedimentary layers beneath the profile. The conductivities and dimensions of the fault zone conductors (FZCs) and high conductivity zones (HCZs) as the major conductive anomalies in a fault zone conceptual model vary significantly below the different faults accommodated in this region. The enhanced conductivity below the site Z30 correlates well with the main Zagros thrust (MZT), located at the western boundary of Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ) and known as the transition between the two continents. The depth extent of the huge conductor beneath the south west of the profile, attributed to the thick sedimentary columns of the Arabian crust, cannot be resolved due to the smearing effect of the smoothness constraint employed in the regularized inversion procedure and the sensitivity of MT data to the conductance of the subsurface. We performed different tests to determine the range of 2-D models consistent with the data. Our approach was based on synthetic studies, comprising of hypothesis testing and the use of a priori information throughout the inversion procedure as well as forward modeling. We conclude that the minimum depth extent of the conductive layer beneath the southwest of the profile can be determined as approximately deeper than 15 km and also the screening effect of the conductive overburden is highly intense in this model and prevents the deep structures from being resolved properly.

  8. Structural damage identification using piezoelectric impedance measurement with sparse inverse analysis (United States)

    Cao, Pei; Qi, Shuai; Tang, J.


    The impedance/admittance measurements of a piezoelectric transducer bonded to or embedded in a host structure can be used as damage indicator. When a credible model of the healthy structure, such as the finite element model, is available, using the impedance/admittance change information as input, it is possible to identify both the location and severity of damage. The inverse analysis, however, may be under-determined as the number of unknowns in high-frequency analysis is usually large while available input information is limited. The fundamental challenge thus is how to find a small set of solutions that cover the true damage scenario. In this research we cast the damage identification problem into a multi-objective optimization framework to tackle this challenge. With damage locations and severities as unknown variables, one of the objective functions is the difference between impedance-based model prediction in the parametric space and the actual measurements. Considering that damage occurrence generally affects only a small number of elements, we choose the sparsity of the unknown variables as another objective function, deliberately, the l 0 norm. Subsequently, a multi-objective Dividing RECTangles (DIRECT) algorithm is developed to facilitate the inverse analysis where the sparsity is further emphasized by sigmoid transformation. As a deterministic technique, this approach yields results that are repeatable and conclusive. In addition, only one algorithmic parameter, the number of function evaluations, is needed. Numerical and experimental case studies demonstrate that the proposed framework is capable of obtaining high-quality damage identification solutions with limited measurement information.

  9. Seismic velocity structure at a gas hydrate reflector, offshore western Colombia, from full waveform inversion (United States)

    Minshull, T. A.; Singh, S. C.; Westbrook, G. K.


    Seismic reflection profiles across many continental margins have imaged bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs), which have been interpreted as being formed at the base of a methane hydrate stability field. Such reflectors might arise either from an impedance contrast between high-velocity, partially hydrated sediments and water-saturated sediments or from a contrast with partially gas-saturated sediments. These alternatives may be hard to distinguish by conventional amplitude-versus-offset or waveform modeling approaches. Here, we investigate the origin of a high amplitude BSR in the accretionary wedge offshore of western Colombia by seismic waveform inversion. The inversion procedure consists of three steps: firstly, determination of root-mean-square velocities and hence estimates of the interval velocities between major reflectors by a global grid search for maximum normalized energy along elliptical trajectories in the intercept time-slowness domain; secondly, determination of accurate interval velocities between these reflectors by a Monte Carlo search for maximum energy; and thirdly, a waveform fit in the frequency-slowness domain, using differential reflectivity seismograms and a conjugate-gradient optimization algorithm to minimize the sample-by-sample waveform misfit between data and synthetic. At two locations, near a structural high, we find an approximately 30-m thick low-velocity zone beneath the BSR, with the properties of a partially gas-saturated zone, while at a third location, where the BSR amplitude is lower, we find no evidence for anomalously low velocities. The preferential development of the BSR in structures that would tend to intercept fluid flow or migrating gas and the presence of free gas beneath the BSR indicate a mechanism of BSR formation in which free methane gas migrates upward into the hydrate stability field or is carried there in advecting pore water.

  10. Geometries of inversion structures and implication for hydrocarbon prospectivity in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex, SW Barents Sea (United States)

    Zervas, Ioannis; Olakunle Omosanya, Kamaldeen; Lippard, Stephen John; Johansen, Ståle Emil; Marfo, George


    Several inversion structures have been reported in the Southwestern Barents Sea, however such structures are poorly understood in the Troms-Finnmark Fault Complex (TFFC). This study interpreted three-dimensional (3-D) seismic data mainly in the TFFC and several adjoining structural elements, such as the Harstad and Tromsø Basins, the Finnmark Platform and the Ringvassøy Loppa Fault Complex. The methods used here include detailed seismic interpretation, analysis of structural maps, and fault displacement characterization. Our results show several evidences of localized partial positive inversion, intermittent with rifting events of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The inversion structures are of Middle/Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous age and include snakehead geometries of inverted wedge structures, folds associated with extensional faults, small-scale stratigraphic inversion in a fault network and reverse drag geometries along planar to rotated fault planes. The axial planes of folds associated with extensional faults in the study area revealed two different episodes of contraction linked to either compressional or shearing movements. Causes of inversion may also include far-field stresses related to halokinesis in the Tromsø Basin and uplift of the Loppa High. Inversion structures have had an impact on hydrocarbon prospectivity and accumulation in the TFFC and surrounding basins. Our work shows that localized folds close to extensional faults positively change the geometries of traps within the Stø Fm. (reservoir) and the Hekkingen Fm. (cap rock). In contrast, folding observed in the potential source rock of the Hekkingen Fm. post-dates the timing of petroleum generation and migration. Reactivated faults in the TFFC can act as conduits for hydrocarbons or compromise the sealing integrity of the traps.

  11. An adaptive Bayesian inversion for upper mantle structure using surface waves and scattered body waves (United States)

    Eilon, Zachary; Fischer, Karen M.; Dalton, Colleen A.


    We present a methodology for 1-D imaging of upper mantle structure using a Bayesian approach that incorporates a novel combination of seismic data types and an adaptive parameterisation based on piecewise discontinuous splines. Our inversion algorithm lays the groundwork for improved seismic velocity models of the lithosphere and asthenosphere by harnessing the recent expansion of large seismic arrays and computational power alongside sophisticated data analysis. Careful processing of P- and S-wave arrivals isolates converted phases generated at velocity gradients between the mid-crust and 300 km depth. This data is allied with ambient noise and earthquake Rayleigh wave phase velocities to obtain detailed VS and VP velocity models. Synthetic tests demonstrate that converted phases are necessary to accurately constrain velocity gradients, and S-p phases are particularly important for resolving mantle structure, while surface waves are necessary for capturing absolute velocities. We apply the method to several stations in the northwest and north-central United States, finding that the imaged structure improves upon existing models by sharpening the vertical resolution of absolute velocity profiles, offering robust uncertainty estimates, and revealing mid-lithospheric velocity gradients indicative of thermochemical cratonic layering. This flexible method holds promise for increasingly detailed understanding of the upper mantle.

  12. Inverse Jacobi multiplier as a link between conservative systems and Poisson structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García, Isaac A; Hernández-Bermejo, Benito


    Some aspects of the relationship between conservativeness of a dynamical system (namely the preservation of a finite measure) and the existence of a Poisson structure for that system are analyzed. From the local point of view, due to the flow-box theorem we restrict ourselves to neighborhoods of singularities. In this sense, we characterize Poisson structures around the typical zero-Hopf singularity in dimension 3 under the assumption of having a local analytic first integral with non-vanishing first jet by connecting with the classical Poincaré center problem. From the global point of view, we connect the property of being strictly conservative (the invariant measure must be positive) with the existence of a Poisson structure depending on the phase space dimension. Finally, weak conservativeness in dimension two is introduced by the extension of inverse Jacobi multipliers as weak solutions of its defining partial differential equation and some of its applications are developed. Examples including Lotka–Volterra systems, quadratic isochronous centers, and non-smooth oscillators are provided. (paper)

  13. Crustal structure of northern Egypt from joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave dispersion velocities (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Hegazi, Mona; Gaber, Hanan; Korrat, Ibrahim


    In this study, we used a combined inversion of body wave receiver functions and surface wave dispersion measurements to provide constraints on the crustal structure of northern Egypt. The two techniques are complementary to each other: receiver functions (RFs) are sensitive to shear-wave velocity contrasts, while surface wave dispersion (SWD) measurements are sensitive to finite variations of shear-wave velocity with depth. A database of 122 teleseismic events digitally recorded by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN) stations has been used as well. To enhance the resulting RFs at each ENSN station, the H-k stacking method was applied. A joint inversion process between the resulting receiver functions and the surface wave dispersion curves was applied as well. We have produced three averaged velocity structure models for distinct geographic and tectonic provinces namely Sinai, eastern desert, and western desert from east to the west respectively. These models will deeply help in estimation the epicenter distance of earthquake, focal mechanism solutions, and earthquake hazard analysis in northern Egypt. An obvious image of the subsurface structure has been determined which shows that generally the crustal structure of northern Egypt consists of three layers covered with a sequence of sediments that differs in thickness from across the region except in the Sharm area where the sedimentary cover is absent. The obtained results indicate that crustal thickness differs from east to west and reaches its maximum value of about 36 km at Siwa station (SWA) in the western desert and its minimum value of about 28 km at Sharm station (SHR) of the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula. The Vp/Vs ratio varies between 1.71 and 2.07 in northern Egypt. Generally, the high values (1.93) of (Vp/Vs) at SWA station may reflect the well-known rich aquifer with fully saturated sediments of the Swia Oasis in the Western Desert. Moreover, the highest value (2.07) of (Vp/Vs) at

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of multi-core nanoparticles analysed using a generalised numerical inversion method (United States)

    Bender, P.; Bogart, L. K.; Posth, O.; Szczerba, W.; Rogers, S. E.; Castro, A.; Nilsson, L.; Zeng, L. J.; Sugunan, A.; Sommertune, J.; Fornara, A.; González-Alonso, D.; Barquín, L. Fernández; Johansson, C.


    The structural and magnetic properties of magnetic multi-core particles were determined by numerical inversion of small angle scattering and isothermal magnetisation data. The investigated particles consist of iron oxide nanoparticle cores (9 nm) embedded in poly(styrene) spheres (160 nm). A thorough physical characterisation of the particles included transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Their structure was ultimately disclosed by an indirect Fourier transform of static light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering data of the colloidal dispersion. The extracted pair distance distribution functions clearly indicated that the cores were mostly accumulated in the outer surface layers of the poly(styrene) spheres. To investigate the magnetic properties, the isothermal magnetisation curves of the multi-core particles (immobilised and dispersed in water) were analysed. The study stands out by applying the same numerical approach to extract the apparent moment distributions of the particles as for the indirect Fourier transform. It could be shown that the main peak of the apparent moment distributions correlated to the expected intrinsic moment distribution of the cores. Additional peaks were observed which signaled deviations of the isothermal magnetisation behavior from the non-interacting case, indicating weak dipolar interactions. PMID:28397851

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of multi-core nanoparticles analysed using a generalised numerical inversion method (United States)

    Bender, P.; Bogart, L. K.; Posth, O.; Szczerba, W.; Rogers, S. E.; Castro, A.; Nilsson, L.; Zeng, L. J.; Sugunan, A.; Sommertune, J.; Fornara, A.; González-Alonso, D.; Barquín, L. Fernández; Johansson, C.


    The structural and magnetic properties of magnetic multi-core particles were determined by numerical inversion of small angle scattering and isothermal magnetisation data. The investigated particles consist of iron oxide nanoparticle cores (9 nm) embedded in poly(styrene) spheres (160 nm). A thorough physical characterisation of the particles included transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation. Their structure was ultimately disclosed by an indirect Fourier transform of static light scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and small angle neutron scattering data of the colloidal dispersion. The extracted pair distance distribution functions clearly indicated that the cores were mostly accumulated in the outer surface layers of the poly(styrene) spheres. To investigate the magnetic properties, the isothermal magnetisation curves of the multi-core particles (immobilised and dispersed in water) were analysed. The study stands out by applying the same numerical approach to extract the apparent moment distributions of the particles as for the indirect Fourier transform. It could be shown that the main peak of the apparent moment distributions correlated to the expected intrinsic moment distribution of the cores. Additional peaks were observed which signaled deviations of the isothermal magnetisation behavior from the non-interacting case, indicating weak dipolar interactions.

  16. Towards seismic data inversion for crustal thermo-chemical structure: what thermodynamics say (United States)

    Diaferia, Giovanni; Cammarano, Fabio


    decrease in VS and an increase in VP/VS when reaching melting temperature. The ratio VS/density of the bulk crustal rock shows a narrow variability across a wide range of temperatures (400-1000 K), dry compositions and water content. We suggest that this ratio can be used as a constraint in joint-inversions of gravity and seismic data or to derive the density distribution of the crust given a VS model. Sharp impedance jumps in correspondence of main phase transitions cause relevant seismic signature (i.e. receiver functions. In particular, the transformation of -Quartz in -Quartz represents a non-negligible seismic discontinuity, marked by increases in VP and VP/VS that are larger than those generated by compositional change at the upper-middle, middle-lower crust boundaries. Since the depth of the - Quartz transition is mainly controlled by temperature, information about the local geothermal gradient is fundamental for discriminating between compositionally-induced increase in VP and VP/VS from those related to the Quartz transition. Our findings can be used as a basis for an improved and geologically-consistent joint-inversion of surface wave and receiver functions for the Italian crust. Additional constraints from gravity data on density structure will be first tested with the purely seismically-based model and then included into the joint inversion.

  17. Orphan Basin crustal structure from a dense wide-angle seismic profile - Tomographic inversion (United States)

    Watremez, Louise; Lau, K. W. Helen; Nedimović, Mladen R.; Louden, Keith E.; Karner, Garry D.


    Orphan Basin is located on the eastern margin of Canada, offshore of Newfoundland and East of Flemish Cap. It is an aborted continental rift formed by multiple episodes of rifting. The crustal structure across the basin has been determined by an earlier refraction study using 15 instruments on a 550 km long line. It shows that the continental crust was extended over an unusually wide region but did not break apart. The crustal structure of the basin thus documents stages in the formation of a magma-poor rifted margin up to crustal breakup. The OBWAVE (Orphan Basin Wide-Angle Velocity Experiment) survey was carried out to image crustal structures across the basin and better understand the processes of formation of this margin. The spacing of the 89 recording stations varies from 3 to 5 km along this 500-km-long line, which was acquired along a pre-existing reflection line. The highest resolution section corresponds to the part of the profile where the crust was expected to be the thinnest. We present the results from a joint tomography inversion of first and Moho reflected arrival times. The high data density allows us to define crustal structures with greater detail than for typical studies and to improve the understanding of the processes leading to the extreme stretching of continental crust. The final model was computed following a detailed parametric study to determine the optimal parameters controlling the ray-tracing and the inversion processes. The final model shows very good resolution. In particular, Monte Carlo standard deviations of crustal velocities and Moho depths are generally < 50 m/s and within 1 km, respectively. In comparison to the velocity models of typical seismic refraction profiles, results from the OBWAVE study show a notable improvement in the resolution of the velocity model and in the level of detail observed using the least a priori information possible. The final model allows us to determine the crustal thinning and variable structures

  18. Thermohaline structure of an inverse estuary--The Gulf of Kachchh: measurements and model simulations. (United States)

    Vethamony, P; Babu, M T; Ramanamurty, M V; Saran, A K; Joseph, Antony; Sudheesh, K; Padgaonkar, Rupali S; Jayakumar, S


    The Gulf of Kachchh (GoK) is situated in the northeastern Arabian Sea. The presence of several industries along its coastal belt makes GoK a highly sensitive coastal ecosystem. In the present study, an attempt is made for the first time to study GoK thermohaline structure and its variability, based on field measurements and model simulations. Though GoK is considered as a well-mixed system, the study reveals that only the central Gulf is well mixed. Vertical gradients in temperature and salinity fields are noticed in the eastern Gulf, where a cold and high saline tongue is observed in the subsurface layers. Salinity indicates the characteristic feature of an inverse estuary with low values (37.20 psu) near the mouth and high values (>40.0 psu) near the head of the Gulf. The model simulated temperature and salinity fields exhibit semidiurnal oscillations similar to that of field observations. Model results show cold, high saline waters advecting from the east during ebb forming a transition zone, which oscillates with tides. A high salinity tongue is seen in the bottom layer, indicating a westward flowing bottom current. The transient zone acts as an dynamic barrier, and plays a vital role in the pollutant transport.

  19. Deletions, Inversions, Duplications: Engineering of Structural Variants using CRISPR/Cas in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Kraft


    Full Text Available Structural variations (SVs contribute to the variability of our genome and are often associated with disease. Their study in model systems was hampered until now by labor-intensive genetic targeting procedures and multiple mouse crossing steps. Here we present the use of CRISPR/Cas for the fast (10 weeks and efficient generation of SVs in mice. We specifically produced deletions, inversions, and also duplications at six different genomic loci ranging from 1.1 kb to 1.6 Mb with efficiencies up to 42%. After PCR-based selection, clones were successfully used to create mice via aggregation. To test the practicability of the method, we reproduced a human 500 kb disease-associated deletion and were able to recapitulate the human phenotype in mice. Furthermore, we evaluated the regulatory potential of a large genomic interval by deleting a 1.5 Mb fragment. The method presented permits rapid in vivo modeling of genomic rearrangements.

  20. Accelerating Atomic Orbital-based Electronic Structure Calculation via Pole Expansion plus Selected Inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lin; Chen, Mohan; Yang, Chao; He, Lixin


    We describe how to apply the recently developed pole expansion plus selected inversion (PEpSI) technique to Kohn-Sham density function theory (DFT) electronic structure calculations that are based on atomic orbital discretization. We give analytic expressions for evaluating charge density, total energy, Helmholtz free energy and atomic forces without using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian. We also show how to update the chemical potential without using Kohn-Sham eigenvalues. The advantage of using PEpSI is that it has a much lower computational complexity than that associated with the matrix diagonalization procedure. We demonstrate the performance gain by comparing the timing of PEpSI with that of diagonalization on insulating and metallic nanotubes. For these quasi-1D systems, the complexity of PEpSI is linear with respect to the number of atoms. This linear scaling can be observed in our computational experiments when the number of atoms in a nanotube is larger than a few hundreds. Both the wall clock time and the memory requirement of PEpSI is modest. This makes it even possible to perform Kohn-Sham DFT calculations for 10,000-atom nanotubes on a single processor. We also show that the use of PEpSI does not lead to loss of accuracy required in a practical DFT calculation.

  1. Flame Structure and Chemiluminescence Emissions of Inverse Diffusion Flames under Sinusoidally Driven Plasma Discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Grazia De Giorgi


    Full Text Available Reduction of nitric oxides (NOx in aircraft engines and in gas turbines by lean combustion is of great interest in the design of novel combustion systems. However, the stabilization of the flame under lean conditions is a main issue. In this context, the present work investigates the effects of sinusoidal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD on a lean inverse diffusive methane/air flame in a Bunsen-type burner under different actuation conditions. The flame appearance was investigated with fixed methane loading (mass flux, but with varying inner airflow rate. High-speed flame imaging was done by using an intensified (charge-coupled device CCD camera equipped with different optical filters in order to selectively record signals from the chemiluminescent species OH*, CH*, or CO2* to evaluate the flame behavior in presence of plasma actuation. The electrical power consumption was less than 33 W. It was evident that the plasma flame enhancement was significantly influenced by the plasma discharges, particularly at high inner airflow rates. The flame structure changes drastically when the dissipated plasma power increases. The flame area decreases due to the enhancement of mixing and chemical reactions that lead to a more anchored flame on the quartz exit with a reduction of the flame length.

  2. Semiconductor inversion contact - a new heterogeneous structure with two-dimensional zero-mass electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, B.A.; Pankratov, O.A.


    Semiconductor inversion junction, presenting the contact of materials in which energy levels corresponding to band edges are mutually inverted. At that, the symmetry of wave function of conductivity band in one material coincides with the symmetry of valence band of the other and vice versa. Specificity of the inversion contact is determined by the presence of electron states independent of the transition band type, which are similar to soliton ones in one-dimensional systems. In the region of the junction the states are characterized by linear massless spectrum nondegenerate in spin. Energy spectrum of the inversion junction for semiconductors of the Pb 1-x Sn y Te x type is considered

  3. A comparative study of hole and electron inversion layer quantization in MOS structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Amit


    Full Text Available In this paper, an analytical model has been developed to study inversion layer quantization in nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Oxide p-(MOSFET. n-MOSFETs have been studied using the variation approach and the p-MOSFETs have been studied using the triangular well approach. The inversion charge density and gate capacitance analysis for both types of transistors has been done. There is a marked decrease in the inversion charge density and the capacitance of the p-MOSFET as compared to n-MOSFETs. The results are compared with the numerical results showing good agreement.

  4. Imaging subsurface density structure in Luynnier volcanic field, Saudi Arabia, using 3D gravity inversion technique (United States)

    Aboud, Essam; El-shrief, Adel; Alqahtani, Faisal; Mogren, Saad


    On 19 May, 2009, an earthquake of magnitude (M=5.4) shocked the most volcanically active recent basaltic fields, Luynnier volcanic field, northwestern Saudi Arabia. This event was the largest recorded one since long time ago. Government evacuated the surrounding residents around the epicenter for over 3 months away from any future volcanic activity. The seismic event caused damages to buildings in the village around the epicenter and resulted in surface fissure trending in NNW-SSE direction with about 8 km length. Seismologists from Saudi Geological Survey (SGS) worked out on locating the epicenter and the cause of this earthquake. They collected seismic data from Saudi Geological Surveys Station Network as well as installed broadband seismic stations around the region of the earthquake. They finally concluded that the main cause of the M=5.4 event is dike intrusion at depth of about 5 km (not reached to the surface). In the present work, we carried out detailed ground/airborne gravity survey around the surficial fissure to image the subsurface volcanic structure where about 380 gravity stations were recorded covering the main fissure in an area of 600 km2. Gravity data was analyzed using CET edge detection tools and 3D inversion technique. The results revealed that, there is a magma chamber/body beneath the surface at 5-20 km depth and the main reason for the M=5.4 earthquake is tectonic settings of the Red Sea. Additionally, the area is characterized by set of faults trending in NW direction, parallel to the Red Sea, and most of the volcanic cones were located on faults/contacts implying that, they are structurally controlled. The 8-km surficial crack is extended SE underneath the surface.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tiede, Paul [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 31 Caroline Street North, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Pfrommer, Christoph [Heidelberg Institute for Theoretical Studies, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Puchwein, Ewald [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1900 E. Kenwood Boulevard, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Lamberts, Astrid [Theoretical Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    Extended inverse Compton halos are generally anticipated around extragalactic sources of gamma rays with energies above 100 GeV. These result from inverse Compton scattered cosmic microwave background photons by a population of high-energy electron/positron pairs produced by the annihilation of the high-energy gamma rays on the infrared background. Despite the observed attenuation of the high-energy gamma rays, the halo emission has yet to be directly detected. Here, we demonstrate that in most cases these halos are expected to be highly anisotropic, distributing the upscattered gamma rays along axes defined either by the radio jets of the sources or oriented perpendicular to a global magnetic field. We present a pedagogical derivation of the angular structure in the inverse Compton halo and provide an analytic formalism that facilitates the generation of mock images. We discuss exploiting this fact for the purpose of detecting gamma-ray halos in a set of companion papers.

  6. Complete Inverse Method Using Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Structural Parameters and Excitation Identification from Output Only Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen


    Full Text Available In vibration-based structural health monitoring of existing large civil structures, it is difficult, sometimes even impossible, to measure the actual excitation applied to structures. Therefore, an identification method using output-only measurements is crucial for the practical application of structural health monitoring. This paper integrates the ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm into the framework of the complete inverse method to simultaneously identify unknown structural parameters and input time history using output-only measurements. The complete inverse method, which was previously suggested by the authors, converts physical or spatial information of the unknown input into the objective function of an optimization problem that can be solved by the ACO algorithm. ACO is a newly developed swarm computation method that has a very good performance in solving complex global continuous optimization problems. The principles and implementation procedure of the ACO algorithm are first introduced followed by an introduction of the framework of the complete inverse method. Construction of the objective function is then described in detail with an emphasis on the common situation wherein a limited number of actuators are installed on some key locations of the structure. Applicability and feasibility of the proposed method were validated by numerical examples and experimental results from a three-story building model.

  7. Spatial and temporal structure of fish assemblages in an ''inverse estuary'', the Sine Saloum system (Senegal) (United States)

    Simier, M.; Blanc, L.; Aliaume, C.; Diouf, P. S.; Albaret, J. J.


    As a consequence of the Sahelian drought, the Sine Saloum, a large estuarine system located in Senegal (West Africa), has become an "inverse estuary" since the late sixties, i.e. salinity increases upstream and reaches 100 in some places. To study the fish assemblages of such a modified system, a survey was conducted in 1992, collecting fish every two months with a purse seine at eight sites spread over the three main branches of the estuary. A total of 73 species belonging to 35 families were identified. Eight species comprised 97% of the total numbers of fish. The predominant species was a small clupeid, Sardinella maderensis, representing more than half of the total biomass and nearly 70% of the total number of fish. The spatio-temporal structure of the fish assemblages was studied using the STATIS-CoA method, which combines the multitable approach with the correspondence analysis method. Whatever the season, a strong spatial organization of fish assemblages was observed, mainly related to depth and salinity. Three types of assemblages were identified. In shallow water areas, fish assemblages were dominated by Mugilidae, Gerreidae and Cichlidae and were stable with time. In open water areas, large fluctuations in the species composition were observed, due to the occasional presence of large schools of pelagic species: in the southern area, where salinity and water transparency were the lowest, the main species were Ilisha africana, Brachydeuterus auritus and Chloroscombrus chrysurus, associated with a few Sciaenidae and Tetraodontidae, while the poorest areas were characterized by only two dominant species, S. maderensis and Scomberomorus tritor.

  8. Wrench-Slip Reversals and Structural Inversions: Cenozoic Slide-Rule Tectonics in Sundaland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.D. Tjia


    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v1i1.174Most of continental Southeast Asia, that is, Sundaland and Indosinia, achieved a relative tectonic stability by the beginning of the Cenozoic. Since then a strong tectonic activity in Sundaland has been restricted to existing regional fault zones and to regional slow, vertical crustal movements elsewhere that produced small to very large sedimentary basins. On the other hand, regional deformation of Indosinia as a consequence of ductile shearing has continued into the Paleogene. Since the Oligocene, the northern part of Sundaland and Indosinia have been extruded differentially towards southeast along the Red River, Wang Chao (or Mae Ping, or Tonle Sap, and Three Pagodas - Axial Malay fault zones. The initial cause has been attributed to hard collision between Subplate India with Megaplate Eurasia. Plate dynamics in the region have changed substantially since Mid-Miocene as to force wrench-slip reversals along the major fault zones in Sundaland as well as in Indosinia. Concomitant structural inversions are demonstrated on seismic sections. In the core of Sundaland, earlier transtensional wrenching was succeeded by transpressive strike-slip faulting that on major faults of the Malay Basin manifested in reversals of sense. From the Hinge-line fault eastward, the transtensional left wrench slip was succeeded by transpressional dextral slip, while in the region to its west the wrench-slip kinematics was an earlier transtensional right slip followed by transpressional left slip. In the Strait of Malacca and eastern margin of Sumatra, right-lateral wrenching in the Neogene has been common. In certain places it could be established a wrench-slip of transtensional character in Oligocene-Early Miocene, and the transpressional wrench movement occurred mainly during the Middle to Late Miocene. The remarkable coincidence of termination of spreading of the South China Basin in Langhian, and that of the West Philippine and Caroline

  9. Imaging earth's interior: Tomographic inversions for mantle P-wave velocity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulliam, R.J.


    A formalism is developed for the tomographic inversion of seismic travel time residuals. The travel time equations are solved both simultaneously, for velocity model terms and corrections to the source locations, and progressively, for each set of terms in succession. The methods differ primarily in their treatment of source mislocation terms. Additionally, the system of equations is solved directly, neglecting source terms. The efficacy of the algorithms is explored with synthetic data as we perform simulations of the general procedure used to produce tomographic images of Earth's mantle from global earthquake data. The patterns of seismic heterogeneity in the mantle that would be returned reliably by a tomographic inversion are investigated. We construct synthetic data sets based on real ray sampling of the mantle by introducing spherical harmonic patterns of velocity heterogeneity and perform inversions of the synthetic data.

  10. Imaging earth`s interior: Tomographic inversions for mantle P-wave velocity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulliam, Robert Jay [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    A formalism is developed for the tomographic inversion of seismic travel time residuals. The travel time equations are solved both simultaneously, for velocity model terms and corrections to the source locations, and progressively, for each set of terms in succession. The methods differ primarily in their treatment of source mislocation terms. Additionally, the system of equations is solved directly, neglecting source terms. The efficacy of the algorithms is explored with synthetic data as we perform simulations of the general procedure used to produce tomographic images of Earth`s mantle from global earthquake data. The patterns of seismic heterogeneity in the mantle that would be returned reliably by a tomographic inversion are investigated. We construct synthetic data sets based on real ray sampling of the mantle by introducing spherical harmonic patterns of velocity heterogeneity and perform inversions of the synthetic data.

  11. A regularized matrix factorization approach to induce structured sparse-low-rank solutions in the EEG inverse problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montoya-Martinez, Jair; Artes-Rodriguez, Antonio; Pontil, Massimiliano


    We consider the estimation of the Brain Electrical Sources (BES) matrix from noisy electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements, commonly named as the EEG inverse problem. We propose a new method to induce neurophysiological meaningful solutions, which takes into account the smoothness, structured...... matrix and the squared Frobenius norm of the latent source matrix. We develop an alternating optimization algorithm to solve the resulting nonsmooth-nonconvex minimization problem. We analyze the convergence of the optimization procedure, and we compare, under different synthetic scenarios...

  12. Numerical Modeling of Inverse Problems under Uncertainty for Damage Detection in Aircraft Structures (United States)


    the nature of the physics involved, from the point of view of the inverse problem, the direct model is only a “black box ” to obtain numerical...Campos, Brasil . As results directly related to this research, several publications and monographs were published and /or are being prepared, as

  13. A structured approach to forensic study of explosions: The TNO Inverse Explosion Analysis tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voort, M.M. van der; Wees, R.M.M. van; Brouwer, S.D.; Jagt-Deutekom, M.J. van der; Verreault, J.


    Forensic analysis of explosions consists of determining the point of origin, the explosive substance involved, and the charge mass. Within the EU FP7 project Hyperion, TNO developed the Inverse Explosion Analysis (TNO-IEA) tool to estimate the charge mass and point of origin based on observed damage

  14. The Inversion Layer Evolution According to the Report of Substrat Doping /Gate Doping of a MSP OS Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dib


    Full Text Available The inversion layer in the sample containing MOS structure is a very significant parameter for the operation of these components. In this question we summons it self interested in the simulation of the capacitance of MSPOS structure. We propose a numerical model, based on the resolution of the Poisson's equation. We calculate the distribution of the electrostatic potential, which enabled us to deduce characteristic C (V from it. We study the relation between the development of the inversion layer and the report NDP (gate polysilicon doping/NDS (doping of the substrate. In let us simulate curves C (V according to the doping of the substrate and the polysilicon gate. It is noted that when the report of doping (NDP/NDS is higher than (100, the gate polysilicon is regarded as a metal; when the report of doping is between (10 and (100, the gate polysilicon is in desertion and when the report of doping is lower than (10, the gate polysilicon is in inversion. Other information can be deduced from simulated curves C (V.

  15. Molecular mechanism of agonism and inverse agonism in the melanocortin receptors: Zn(2+) as a structural and functional probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Schwartz, Thue W


    Among the rhodopsin-like 7TM receptors, the MC receptors are functionally unique because their high constitutive signaling activity is regulated not only by endogenous peptide agonists-MSH peptides-but also by endogenous inverse agonists, namely, the proteins agouti and AGRP. Moreover, the metal......-ion Zn(2+) increases the signaling activity of at least the MC1 and MC4 receptors in three distinct ways: (1). by directly functioning as an agonist; (2). by potentiating the action of the endogenous agonist; and (3). by inhibiting the binding of the endogenous inverse agonist. Structurally the MC...... extracellular loop 2 is ultrashort because TM-IV basically connects directly into TM-V, whereas extracellular loop 3 appears to be held in a particular, constrained conformation by a putative, internal disulfide bridge. The interaction mode for the small and well-defined zinc-ion between a third, free Cys...

  16. Heliospheric magnetic field polarity inversions driven by radial velocity field structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Landi, S.; Hellinger, Petr; Velli, M.


    Roč. 33, č. 14 (2006), L14101/1-L14101/5 ISSN 0094-8276 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) HRPN-CT-2001-00310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : solar wind * magnetic field polarity inversions * microstreams * turbulence Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.602, year: 2006

  17. Co-crystal structure guided array synthesis of PPAR[gamma] inverse agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Ryan P.; Cobb, Jeffrey E.; Shearer, Barry G.; Lambert, Millard H.; Nolte, Robert T.; Willson, Timothy M.; Buckholz, Richard G.; Zhao, Sumin M.; Leesnitzer, Lisa M.; Iannone, Marie A.; Pearce, Kenneth H.; Billin, Andrew N.; Hoekstra, William J. (GSKNC)


    PPAR{gamma}-activating thiazolidinediones and carboxylic acids such as farglitazar exert their anti-diabetic effects in part in PPAR{gamma} rich adipose. Both pro- and anti-adipogenic PPAR{gamma} ligands promote glucose and lipid lowering in animal models of diabetes. Herein, we disclose representatives of an array of 160 farglitazar analogues with atypical inverse agonism of PPAR{gamma} in mature adipocytes.

  18. Eigenvalue based inverse model of beam for structural modification and diagnostics: examples of using

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Majkut

    Full Text Available In the work, in order to solve the inverse problem, i.e. the problem of finding values of the additional quantities (mass, elasticity, the beam inverse model was proposed. Analysis of this model allows finding such a value of additional mass (elasticity as a function of its localization so that the free vibration frequency changes to desirable value. The criteria for choice of the “proper” pair (mass - its position, including the criterion allowing changing the position of the vibration node of the second mode of the free vibrations, were given. Analysis of the influence of uncertainties in the determination of the additional quantity value and its position on the desired free vibration frequency was carried out, too. The proposed beam inverse model can be employing to identification of the beam cracks. In such a case, the input quantity is free vibration frequency measured on the damaged object. Each determined free-vibration frequency allows determining the flexibility curve for the spring modeling crack as a function of its position. The searched parameters of the crack (its depth and position are indicated by the common point of two arbitrary curves. Accuracy of crack parameters determination depends on accuracy (uncertainty of frequency measurement. Only some regions containing the searched crack parameters can be obtained in such a situation.

  19. Robust inverse scattering full waveform seismic tomography for imaging complex structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Sukmana, Indriani; Wibowo, Satryo; Deny, Agus; Kurniadi, Rizal; Widowati, Sri; Mubarok, Syahrul; Susilowati; Kaswandhi


    Seismic tomography becomes important tool recently for imaging complex subsurface. It is well known that imaging complex rich fault zone is difficult. In this paper, The application of time domain inverse scattering wave tomography to image the complex fault zone would be shown on this paper, especially an efficient time domain inverse scattering tomography and their run in cluster parallel computer which has been developed. This algorithm is purely based on scattering theory through solving Lippmann Schwienger integral by using Born's approximation. In this paper, it is shown the robustness of this algorithm especially in avoiding the inversion trapped in local minimum to reach global minimum. A large data are solved by windowing and blocking technique of memory as well as computation. Parameter of windowing computation is based on shot gather's aperture. This windowing technique reduces memory as well as computation significantly. This parallel algorithm is done by means cluster system of 120 processors from 20 nodes of AMD Phenom II. Benchmarking of this algorithm is done by means Marmoussi model which can be representative of complex rich fault area. It is shown that the proposed method can image clearly the rich fault and complex zone in Marmoussi model even though the initial model is quite far from the true model. Therefore, this method can be as one of solution to image the very complex mode.

  20. Resolvability of regional density structure and the road to direct density inversion - a principal-component approach to resolution analysis (United States)

    Płonka, Agnieszka; Fichtner, Andreas


    Lateral density variations are the source of mass transport in the Earth at all scales, acting as drivers of convective motion. However, the density structure of the Earth remains largely unknown since classic seismic observables and gravity provide only weak constraints with strong trade-offs. Current density models are therefore often based on velocity scaling, making strong assumptions on the origin of structural heterogeneities, which may not necessarily be correct. Our goal is to assess if 3D density structure may be resolvable with emerging full-waveform inversion techniques. We have previously quantified the impact of regional-scale crustal density structure on seismic waveforms with the conclusion that reasonably sized density variations within the crust can leave a strong imprint on both travel times and amplitudes, and, while this can produce significant biases in velocity and Q estimates, the seismic waveform inversion for density may become feasible. In this study we perform principal component analyses of sensitivity kernels for P velocity, S velocity, and density. This is intended to establish the extent to which these kernels are linearly independent, i.e. the extent to which the different parameters may be constrained independently. We apply the method to data from 81 events around the Iberian Penninsula, registered in total by 492 stations. The objective is to find a principal kernel which would maximize the sensitivity to density, potentially allowing for as independent as possible density resolution. We find that surface (mosty Rayleigh) waves have significant sensitivity to density, and that the trade-off with velocity is negligible. We also show the preliminary results of the inversion.

  1. An inverse analysis of weak structural plane parameters for a limestone foundation pit based on critical stability (United States)

    yan, LIU Jun; hua, SONG Xiang; Yan, LIU


    The article uses the Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua in 3 Dimensions (FLAC3D) to make an analysis of the deformation characteristics of the structural plane, which is based on a real rock foundation pit in Jinan city. It makes an inverse analysis of the strength of the surface structure and the occurrence of the parameters by Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion value criterion in the way of numerical simulation, which explores the change of stress field of x-z oblique section of pit wall and the relation between the exposed height of structural plane and the critical cohesion, the exposed height and critical inclination angle of the structure surface. We can find that when the foundation pit is in the critical stable state and the inclination angle of the structural plane is constant, the critical cohesive force of the structural plane increases with the increase of the exposed surface height. And when the foundation pit in the critical stability of the situation and the structural surface of the cohesive force is constant, the structural surface exposed height increases and the structural angle of inclination is declining. The conclusion can provide theoretical basis for the design and construction of the rock foundation pit with structural plane.

  2. Probing numerical Laplace inversion methods for two and three-site molecular exchange between interconnected pore structures (United States)

    Silletta, Emilia V.; Franzoni, María B.; Monti, Gustavo A.; Acosta, Rodolfo H.


    Two-dimension (2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance relaxometry experiments are a powerful tool extensively used to probe the interaction among different pore structures, mostly in inorganic systems. The analysis of the collected experimental data generally consists of a 2D numerical inversion of time-domain data where T2-T2 maps are generated. Through the years, different algorithms for the numerical inversion have been proposed. In this paper, two different algorithms for numerical inversion are tested and compared under different conditions of exchange dynamics; the method based on Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithm and the fast-iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) method. By constructing a theoretical model, the algorithms were tested for a two- and three-site porous media, varying the exchange rates parameters, the pore sizes and the signal to noise ratio. In order to test the methods under realistic experimental conditions, a challenging organic system was chosen. The molecular exchange rates of water confined in hierarchical porous polymeric networks were obtained, for a two- and three-site porous media. Data processed with the BRD method was found to be accurate only under certain conditions of the exchange parameters, while data processed with the FISTA method is precise for all the studied parameters, except when SNR conditions are extreme.

  3. Probing numerical Laplace inversion methods for two and three-site molecular exchange between interconnected pore structures. (United States)

    Silletta, Emilia V; Franzoni, María B; Monti, Gustavo A; Acosta, Rodolfo H


    Two-dimension (2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance relaxometry experiments are a powerful tool extensively used to probe the interaction among different pore structures, mostly in inorganic systems. The analysis of the collected experimental data generally consists of a 2D numerical inversion of time-domain data where T 2 -T 2 maps are generated. Through the years, different algorithms for the numerical inversion have been proposed. In this paper, two different algorithms for numerical inversion are tested and compared under different conditions of exchange dynamics; the method based on Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithm and the fast-iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) method. By constructing a theoretical model, the algorithms were tested for a two- and three-site porous media, varying the exchange rates parameters, the pore sizes and the signal to noise ratio. In order to test the methods under realistic experimental conditions, a challenging organic system was chosen. The molecular exchange rates of water confined in hierarchical porous polymeric networks were obtained, for a two- and three-site porous media. Data processed with the BRD method was found to be accurate only under certain conditions of the exchange parameters, while data processed with the FISTA method is precise for all the studied parameters, except when SNR conditions are extreme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Electronic Structures of Magnetic Iron and Cobalt Thin Films on TUNGSTEN(001): a Spin-Polarized Inverse Photoemission Study (United States)

    Cai, Qing

    Electronic structure is a central question in metallic magnetism as well as in magnetic materials research. The electronic properties in a two-dimensional system such as thin films of a few atomic layers is an important issue in surface science. The epitaxial thin film preparation and morphology are of special technological interests. In this thesis, these questions are addressed. Spin-polarized inverse photoemission spectroscopy is used to study the unoccupied electron band states in magnetic thin film magnets of Fe and Co epitaxially grown on W(001) surface. The clean W(001) surface was studied by angle -resolved inverse photoemission spectroscopy and the bulk band dispersion was determined. Ultrathin Fe overlayers on W(001) show a square lateral crystal structure similar to the bcc-Fe(001) surface. The electronic structure develops into a structure that is close to that of bulk Fe at about four atomic layers. In the normal-incidence spin polarized inverse photoemission spectra, direct transitions to the majority and minority final states near the H^'_ {25} point are identified in good agreement with the theoretical calculations. One Fe monolayer, or multilayers less than four, showed behavior corresponding to a gradually reduced Curie temperature. When the film thickness is reduced, the spin-resolved spectral behavior show that the majority spin signal peak moves from near the Fermi energy to about 1.3 eV while the minority peak stays at about the same position near 1.3 eV. The results are used to examine the spatial correlation of the spin fluctuations in the system in comparison with a theoretical spectral calculation, and favors the disordered-local-moment picture in the contemporary theory of itinerant magnetism. The Co overlayer shows an overlayer structure that consists of equivalent, mutually rotated domains of distorted hexagonal lateral structure. For one atomic layer of Co in that structure, which has a nominal lateral atomic density twice that of the

  5. S-velocity structure in Cimandiri fault zone derived from neighbourhood inversion of teleseismic receiver functions (United States)

    Syuhada; Anggono, T.; Febriani, F.; Ramdhan, M.


    The availability information about realistic velocity earth model in the fault zone is crucial in order to quantify seismic hazard analysis, such as ground motion modelling, determination of earthquake locations and focal mechanism. In this report, we use teleseismic receiver function to invert the S-velocity model beneath a seismic station located in the Cimandiri fault zone using neighbourhood algorithm inversion method. The result suggests the crustal thickness beneath the station is about 32-38 km. Furthermore, low velocity layers with high Vp/Vs exists in the lower crust, which may indicate the presence of hot material ascending from the subducted slab.

  6. Ultrasonic wavefield inversion and migration in complex heterogeneous structures: 2D numerical imaging and nondestructive testing experiments. (United States)

    Nguyen, Luan T; Modrak, Ryan T


    Delaminations, cracks and other defects in engineered structures often lie close to the theoretical resolution limit for ultrasonic waves. While ultrasonic waveform tomography has succeeded in detecting such features, recovery is difficult because it requires computationally expensive high-frequency numerical wave simulations and an accurate understanding of large-scale background variations of the engineered structure. Without such knowledge, small defects may be incorrectly imaged or go undetected altogether. To reduce computational cost and improve detection of small defects, a useful approach is to divide the waveform tomography procedure into two steps: first, a low-frequency model-building step aimed at recovering background structure, and second, a high-frequency imaging step targeting defects. The first is naturally formulated as waveform inversion for wavespeed parameters and the second as time reversal migration for reflectivity. Through synthetic test cases, we show that the two-step workflow appears more promising in most cases than a single-step inversion. In particular, we find that new workflow succeeds in the challenging scenario where the defect lies along preexisting layer interface in a composite bridge deck and in related experiments involving noisy data or inaccurate source parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. An inverse method for the identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure. Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granger, S.; Perotin, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France)


    Maintaining the PWR components under reliable operating conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes, including fatigue and wear problems due to flow-induced vibration. In many practical situations, it is difficult, if not impossible, to perform direct measurements or calculations of the external forces acting on vibrating structures. Instead, vibrational responses can often be conveniently measured. This paper presents an inverse method for estimating a distributed random excitation from the measurement of the structural response at a number of discrete points. This paper is devoted to the presentation of the theoretical development. The force identification method is based on a modal model for the structure and a spatial orthonormal decomposition of the excitation field. The estimation of the Fourier coefficients of this orthonormal expansion is presented. As this problem turns out to be ill-posed, a regularization process is introduced. The minimization problem associated to this process is then formulated and its solutions is developed. (author) 17 refs.

  8. An inverse method for the identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, S.; Perotin, L.


    Maintaining the PWR components under reliable operating conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes, including fatigue and wear problems due to flow-induced vibration. In many practical situations, it is difficult, if not impossible, to perform direct measurements or calculations of the external forces acting on vibrating structures. Instead, vibrational responses can often be conveniently measured. This paper presents an inverse method for estimating a distributed random excitation from the measurement of the structural response at a number of discrete points. This paper is devoted to the presentation of the theoretical development. The force identification method is based on a modal model for the structure and a spatial orthonormal decomposition of the excitation field. The estimation of the Fourier coefficients of this orthonormal expansion is presented. As this problem turns out to be ill-posed, a regularization process is introduced. The minimization problem associated to this process is then formulated and its solutions is developed. (author)

  9. Structural Transformation in Inverse-Perovskite REPt3B (RE = Sm and Gd-Tm) Associated with Large Volume Reduction. (United States)

    Mondal, Sudipta; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, Rajarao; Avdeev, Maxim


    In this work, we report the structural phase transformation of tetragonal inverse-perovskite REPt 3 B (RE = Sm, and Gd-Tm) compounds to cubic perovskite structure, with a large volume reduction of about 9% (reduction of the c axis, ∼17%; increase in the a axis, ∼5%). The structural stability of the cubic phase, however, could only be maintained by lowering the lattice parameter of the off-stoichiometric REPt 3 B x (x magnetic transition temperatures in the tetragonal and cubic phases. The different physical properties of these two phases demonstrate the interrelationship between the crystal chemistry and the physics of the system. The synthetic route to cubic REPt 3 B x identified in this work may be utilized to prepare new ternary rare-earth intermetallics in a cubic perovksite form, which was previously found to facilitate unconventional superconductivity.

  10. The inversion layer of electric fields and electron phase-space-hole structure during two-dimensional collisionless magnetic reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lijen; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Torbert, Roy B.; Daughton, William S.


    Based on two-dimensional fully kinetic simulations that resolve the electron diffusion layer in undriven collisionless magnetic reconnection with zero guide field, this paper reports the existence and evolution of an inversion layer of bipolar electric fields, its corresponding phase-space structure (an electron-hole layer), and the implication to collisionless dissipation. The inversion electric field layer is embedded in the layer of bipolar Hall electric field and extends throughout the entire length of the electron diffusion layer. The electron phase-space hole structure spontaneously arises during the explosive growth phase when there exist significant inflows into the reconnection layer, and electrons perform meandering orbits across the layer while being cyclotron-turned toward the outflow directions. The cyclotron turning of meandering electrons by the magnetic field normal to the reconnection layer is shown to be a primary factor limiting the current density in the region where the reconnection electric field is balanced by the gradient (along the current sheet normal) of the off-diagonal electron pressure-tensor.

  11. Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Butadienylcalcium-based Heavy Grignard Reagents and a Ca4[O] Inverse Crown Ether Complex. (United States)

    Wei, Baosheng; Liu, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng


    The structure elucidation of heavy Grignard reagents (RAeX, Ae=Ca, Sr, and Ba, X=halides) has been greatly strived after, mainly because of their inaccessibility and remarkable instability. The synthesis of a series of butadienylcalcium compounds is presented, including 1-calcio-4-lithio-1,3-butadiene, 1,4-dicalcio-1,3-butadiene, and a Ca 4 [O] inverse crown ether complex, via the reaction between 1,4-dilithio-1,3-butadienes and calcium iodide in THF. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of these unprecedented heavy Grignard reagents revealed unique structural characteristics and bonding modes. Preliminary reaction chemistry was investigated. This study provides a novel class of alkenyl heavy Grignard reagents and a useful synthetic strategy for otherwise unavailable reactive organometallic compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Resolving the fine-scale velocity structure of continental hyperextension at the Deep Galicia Margin using full-waveform inversion (United States)

    Davy, R. G.; Morgan, J. V.; Minshull, T. A.; Bayrakci, G.; Bull, J. M.; Klaeschen, D.; Reston, T. J.; Sawyer, D. S.; Lymer, G.; Cresswell, D.


    Continental hyperextension during magma-poor rifting at the Deep Galicia Margin is characterized by a complex pattern of faulting, thin continental fault blocks and the serpentinization, with local exhumation, of mantle peridotites along the S-reflector, interpreted as a detachment surface. In order to understand fully the evolution of these features, it is important to image seismically the structure and to model the velocity structure to the greatest resolution possible. Traveltime tomography models have revealed the long-wavelength velocity structure of this hyperextended domain, but are often insufficient to match accurately the short-wavelength structure observed in reflection seismic imaging. Here, we demonstrate the application of 2-D time-domain acoustic full-waveform inversion (FWI) to deep-water seismic data collected at the Deep Galicia Margin, in order to attain a high-resolution velocity model of continental hyperextension. We have used several quality assurance procedures to assess the velocity model, including comparison of the observed and modeled waveforms, checkerboard tests, testing of parameter and inversion strategy and comparison with the migrated reflection image. Our final model exhibits an increase in the resolution of subsurface velocities, with particular improvement observed in the westernmost continental fault blocks, with a clear rotation of the velocity field to match steeply dipping reflectors. Across the S-reflector, there is a sharpening in the velocity contrast, with lower velocities beneath S indicative of preferential mantle serpentinization. This study supports the hypothesis that normal faulting acts to hydrate the upper-mantle peridotite, observed as a systematic decrease in seismic velocities, consistent with increased serpentinization. Our results confirm the feasibility of applying the FWI method to sparse, deep-water crustal data sets.

  13. Theory of waves in periodical structures in inverse problem and SUSY QM approach (in pictures)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhariev, B.N.; Chabanov, I.M.


    Full text: There is a significant progress in revealing the resonance mechanism of spectral gap formation on the finite energy intervals (exact coincidence of wave and fixed potential oscillation frequency in continuum energy points!). We have discovered the simple rules how the same potential can differently influence (perturb) the waves with different boundary conditions at the same energy. At the same total energy different waves can feel different 'effective potential energies' and have the same 'effective kinetic energy'. Some details of IP and SUSY QM formalism can be found in our new book S ubmissive quantum mechanics: new status of the theory in inverse and supersymmetry approach , see it in internet (free access). A short presentation of the lessons on quantum intuition will be given. The new theory reveals the elementary and universal constituents ('bricks' and building blocks) for construction (at least theoretically) of quantum systems with the given properties 'as with a children toy constructor set'. We have even understood how to solve Schroedinger spectral problems 'mentally'

  14. Inversion of high resolution 3-D shallow velocity structures in Ilan plain using local dense seismic network (United States)

    Su, P.; Chen, P.; Chang, C.


    The Ilan Plain (IP) in NE Taiwan locates at the south termination of the Okinawa Trough featuring with intense seismic activity and potential geothermal resources. In this study, we aim at inverting high resolution 3-D shallow velocity structures to better understanding the temperature and/or fluid distributions beneath IP for geothermal explorations. We apply FMTOMO (Rawlinson et al., 2006) to conduct the inversion in two phases based on data availability. In phase one, we use P and S arrival times of local earthquakes in the past (2001~2012) as mainly recorded by Taiwan Strong Motion Instrument Program (TSMIP) network run by Central Weather Bureau (CWB). The average station interval of TSMIP in IP is ~4 km and, together with high seismic activity herein, checkerboard tests indicate that anomalies of 4 cubic km can be resolved at the depth of 6 km where the resolution is optimal. Results of inversion show that while low velocity anomalies and high Vp/Vs ratio mainly distribute over the shallow depth (0~5 km) of N IP, they also correspond well to known geothermal areas in S IP, e.g., the Chingshui Geothermal Field. The main tasks of phase two are to improve the resolution of inversion for S IP to better constrain the underground areas of known geothermal sites. To this end, a temporary network of 43 Texans instruments (REFTEK 125A) was evenly deployed across S IP in Jun. 2013 and assuming the same event distributions as past, the resolution can be improved to be 2~3 cubic km for target depths in S IP. We expect that future phase-two results can provide reliable indications for geothermal explorations.

  15. High resolution imaging of lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees by full waveform inversion of shortperiod teleseismic P waves (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Monteiller, Vadim; Durochat, Clément


    Thanks to the deployment of permanent and temporary broadband arrays, coverage and data quality have dramatically improved in the last decade, especially for regional-scale studies. In addition, owing to the progress of high-performance resources and numerical simulation techniques, waveform inversion approaches nowadays become a viable alternative to classical asymptotic ray based tomographic approaches. Exploiting full waveforms in seismic tomography requires an efficient and precise method to solve the elastic wave equation in 3D inhomogeneous media. Since resolution of waveform inversion is limited by the seismic wavelength as well as the wavefield sampling density, it is crucial to exploit short-period teleseismic waves recorded by dense regional arrays. However, modeling the propagation of short-period body waves in heterogeneous media is still very challenging, even on the largest modern supercomputers. For this reason, we have developed a hybrid method that couples a global wave propagation method in a 1D Earth to a 3D spectral-element method in a regional domain. This hybrid method restricts the costly 3D computations to inside the regional domain, which dramatically decreases the computational cost, allows us to compute teleseismic wavefields down to 1s period, thus accounting for the complexities that affect the propagation of seismic waves in the regional domain. We present the first application of this new waveform inversion approach to broadband data coming from two dense transects deployed during the PYROPE experiment across the Pyrenees mountains. We obtain the first high-resolution lithospheric section of compressional and shear velocities across an orogenic belt. The tomographic model provides clear evidence for the under-thrusting of the thinned Iberian crust beneath the European plate and for the important role of rift-inherited mantle structures during the formation of the Pyrenees.

  16. Fast Nonlinear Generalized Inversion of Gravity Data with Application to the Three-Dimensional Crustal Density Structure of Sichuan Basin, Southwest China (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Meng, Xiaohong; Li, Fang


    Generalized inversion is one of the important steps in the quantitative interpretation of gravity data. With appropriate algorithm and parameters, it gives a view of the subsurface which characterizes different geological bodies. However, generalized inversion of gravity data is time consuming due to the large amount of data points and model cells adopted. Incorporating of various prior information as constraints deteriorates the above situation. In the work discussed in this paper, a method for fast nonlinear generalized inversion of gravity data is proposed. The fast multipole method is employed for forward modelling. The inversion objective function is established with weighted data misfit function along with model objective function. The total objective function is solved by a dataspace algorithm. Moreover, depth weighing factor is used to improve depth resolution of the result, and bound constraint is incorporated by a transfer function to limit the model parameters in a reliable range. The matrix inversion is accomplished by a preconditioned conjugate gradient method. With the above algorithm, equivalent density vectors can be obtained, and interpolation is performed to get the finally density model on the fine mesh in the model domain. Testing on synthetic gravity data demonstrated that the proposed method is faster than conventional generalized inversion algorithm to produce an acceptable solution for gravity inversion problem. The new developed inversion method was also applied for inversion of the gravity data collected over Sichuan basin, southwest China. The established density structure in this study helps understanding the crustal structure of Sichuan basin and provides reference for further oil and gas exploration in this area.

  17. Shot noise and electronic properties in the inversion-symmetric Weyl semimetal resonant structure (United States)

    Yang, Yanling; Bai, Chunxu; Xu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yong


    Using the transfer matrix method, the authors combine the analytical formula with numerical calculation to explore the shot noise and conductance of massless Weyl fermions in the Weyl semimetal resonant junction. By varying the barrier strength, the structure of the junction, the Fermi energy, and the crystallographic angle, the shot noise and conductance can be tuned efficiently. For a quasiperiodic superlattice, in complete contrast to the conventional junction case, the effect of the disorder strength on the shot noise and conductance depends on the competition of classical tunneling and Klein tunneling. Moreover, the delta barrier structure is also vital in determining the shot noise and conductance. In particular, a universal Fano factor has been found in a single delta potential case, whereas the resonant structure of the Fano factor perfectly matches with the number of barriers in a delta potential superlattice. These results are crucial for engineering nanoelectronic devices based on this topological semimetal material.

  18. Predicting welding distortion in a panel structure with longitudinal stiffeners using inherent deformations obtained by inverse analysis method. (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Murakawa, Hidekazu


    Welding-induced deformation not only negatively affects dimension accuracy but also degrades the performance of product. If welding deformation can be accurately predicted beforehand, the predictions will be helpful for finding effective methods to improve manufacturing accuracy. Till now, there are two kinds of finite element method (FEM) which can be used to simulate welding deformation. One is the thermal elastic plastic FEM and the other is elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory. The former only can be used to calculate welding deformation for small or medium scale welded structures due to the limitation of computing speed. On the other hand, the latter is an effective method to estimate the total welding distortion for large and complex welded structures even though it neglects the detailed welding process. When the elastic FEM is used to calculate the welding-induced deformation for a large structure, the inherent deformations in each typical joint should be obtained beforehand. In this paper, a new method based on inverse analysis was proposed to obtain the inherent deformations for weld joints. Through introducing the inherent deformations obtained by the proposed method into the elastic FEM based on inherent strain theory, we predicted the welding deformation of a panel structure with two longitudinal stiffeners. In addition, experiments were carried out to verify the simulation results.

  19. Microscopy and Chemical Inversing Techniques to Determine the Photonic Crystal Structure of Iridescent Beetle Scales in the Cerambycidae Family (United States)

    Richey, Lauren; Gardner, John; Standing, Michael; Jorgensen, Matthew; Bartl, Michael


    Photonic crystals (PCs) are periodic structures that manipulate electromagnetic waves by defining allowed and forbidden frequency bands known as photonic band gaps. Despite production of PC structures operating at infrared wavelengths, visible counterparts are difficult to fabricate because periodicities must satisfy the diffraction criteria. As part of an ongoing search for naturally occurring PCs [1], a three-dimensional array of nanoscopic spheres in the iridescent scales of the Cerambycidae insects A. elegans and G. celestis has been found. Such arrays are similar to opal gemstones and self-assembled colloidal spheres which can be chemically inverted to create a lattice-like PC. Through a chemical replication process [2], scanning electron microscopy analysis, sequential focused ion beam slicing and three-dimensional modeling, we analyzed the structural arrangement of the nanoscopic spheres. The study of naturally occurring structures and their inversing techniques into PCs allows for diversity in optical PC fabrication. [1] J.W. Galusha et al., Phys. Rev. E 77 (2008) 050904. [2] J.W. Galusha et al., J. Mater. Chem. 20 (2010) 1277.

  20. Three-dimensional band structure of LaSb and CeSb: Absence of band inversion (United States)

    Oinuma, H.; Souma, S.; Takane, D.; Nakamura, T.; Nakayama, K.; Mitsuhashi, T.; Horiba, K.; Kumigashira, H.; Yoshida, M.; Ochiai, A.; Takahashi, T.; Sato, T.


    We have performed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) of LaSb and CeSb, a candidate of topological insulators. Using soft-x-ray photons, we have accurately determined the three-dimensional bulk band structure and revealed that the band inversion at the Brillouin-zone corner, a prerequisite for realizing the topological-insulator phase, is absent in both LaSb and CeSb. Moreover, unlike the ARPES data obtained with soft-x-ray photons, those with VUV photons were found to suffer significant kz broadening. These results suggest that LaSb and CeSb are topologically trivial semimetals, and unusual Dirac-cone-like states observed with VUV photons are not of the topological origin.

  1. Thermohaline structure of an inverse estuary - The Gulf of Kachchh: Measurements and model simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Ramanamurty, M.V.; Saran, A.K.; Joseph, A.; Sudheesh, K.; Patgaonkar, R.S.; Jayakumar, S.

    K thermohaline structure and its variability, based on field measurements and model simulations. Though GoK is considered as a well-mixed system, the study reveals that only the central Gulf is well mixed. Vertical gradients in temperature and salinity fields...

  2. Implicit structural inversion of gravity data using linear programming, a validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon, A.T. van; Roy Chowdhury, K.


    In this study, a regional scale gravity data set has been inverted to infer the structure (topography) of the top of the basement underlying sub-horizontal strata. We apply our method to this real data set for further proof of concept, validation and benchmarking against results from an earlier

  3. Analysis, Control and Inverse Theory of Fluids,Waves, Materials Structures, and theirInteractions (United States)


    on a Riemannian manifold (so that also the variable coefficient case in included) by means of just one boundary observation /measurement acting on...specialization of the known optimal control or min-max game theory of parabolic problems of the literature B) Area concerning flow-structure interaction...of a perturbed wave equation coupled at the interface with a nonlinear plate. The main findings are as follows: 1. In the subsonic regime: It is

  4. Structure of the Crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokam, A K; Tabod, C T; Nyblade, A A; Julia, J; Wiens, D A; Pasyanos, M E


    Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broadband seismic stations. From the 1-D shear wave velocity models, we obtain new insights into the composition and structure of the crust and upper mantle across Cameroon. After briefly reviewing the geological framework of Cameroon, we describe the data and the joint inversion method, and then interpret variations in crustal structure found beneath Cameroon in terms of the tectonic history of the region.

  5. Inverse photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki


    Photoelectron spectroscopy is regarded as the most powerful means since it can measure almost perfectly the occupied electron state. On the other hand, inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is the technique for measuring unoccupied electron state by using the inverse process of photoelectron spectroscopy, and in principle, the similar experiment to photoelectron spectroscopy becomes feasible. The development of the experimental technology for inverse photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out energetically by many research groups so far. At present, the heightening of resolution of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of inverse photoelectron spectroscope in which light energy is variable and so on are carried out. But the inverse photoelectron spectroscope for vacuum ultraviolet region is not on the market. In this report, the principle of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy and the present state of the spectroscope are described, and the direction of the development hereafter is groped. As the experimental equipment, electron guns, light detectors and so on are explained. As the examples of the experiment, the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy of semimagnetic semiconductors and resonance inverse photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Deep structure of Pyrenees range (SW Europe) imaged by joint inversion of gravity and teleseismic delay time (United States)

    Dufréchou, G.; Tiberi, C.; Martin, R.; Bonvalot, S.; Chevrot, S.; Seoane, L.


    We present a new model of the lithosphere and asthenosphere structure down to 300 km depth beneath the Pyrenees from the joint inversion of recent gravity and teleseismic data. Unlike previous studies, crustal correction were not applied on teleseismic data in order (i) to preserve the consistency between gravity data, which are mainly sensitive to the density structure of the crust.lithosphere, and travel time data, and (ii) to avoid the introduction of biases resulting from crustal reductions. The density model down to 100 km depth is preferentially used here to discuss the lithospheric structure of the Pyrenees, whereas the asthenospheric structure from 100 km to 300 km depth is discussed from our velocity model. The absence of a high density anomaly in our model between 30-100 km depth (except the Labourd density anomaly) in the northern part of the Pyrenees seems to preclude eclogitization of the subducted Iberian crust at the scale of the entire Pyrenean range. Local eclogitization of the deep Pyrenean crust beneath the western part of the Axial Zone (West of Andorra) associated with the positive Central density anomaly is proposed. The Pyrenean lithosphere in density and velocity models appears segmented from East to West. No clear relation between the along-strike segmentation and mapped major faults is visible in our models. The Pyrenees' lithosphere segments are associated to different seismicity pattern in the Pyrenees suggesting a possible relation between the deep structure of the Pyrenees and its seismicity in the upper crust. The concentration of earthquakes localized just straight up the Central density anomaly can result of the subsidence and/or delamination of an eclogitized Pyrenean deep root. The velocity model in the asthenosphere is similar to previous studies. The absence of a high-velocity anomaly in the upper mantle and transition zone (i.e. 125 to 225 km depth) seems to preclude the presence of a detached oceanic lithosphere beneath the

  7. Structure of the Crust Beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the Joint Inversion of Rayleigh Wave Group Velocities and Receiver Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokam, Alain-Pierre K.; Tabod, Charles T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Jordi Julia; Wiens, Douglas A.; Pasyanos, Michael E.


    The joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions was carried out to investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structures beneath Cameroon. This was achieved using data from 32 broadband seismic stations installed for 2 years across Cameroon. The Moho depth estimates reveal that the Precambrian crust is variable across the country and shows some significant differences compared to other similar geologic units in East and South Africa. These differences suggest that the setting of the Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) and the eastward extension of the Benue Trough have modified the crust of the Panafrican mobile belt in Cameroon by thinning beneath the Rift area and CVL. The velocity models obtained from the joint inversion show at most stations, a layer with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s, indicating the presence of a mafic component in the lower crust, predominant beneath the Congo Craton. The lack of this layer at stations within the Panafrican mobile belt may partly explain the crustal thinning observed beneath the CVL and rift area. The significant presence of this layer beneath the Craton, results from the 2100 Ma magmatic events at the origin of the emplacement of swarms of mafic dykes in the region. The CVL stations are underlain by a crust of 35 km on average except near Mt-Cameroon where it is about 25 km. The crustal thinning observed beneath Mt. Cameroon supported by the observed positive gravity anomalies here, suggests the presence of dense astenospheric material within the lithosphere. Shear wave velocities are found to be slower in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the CVL than the nearby tectonic terrains, suggesting that the origin of the line may be an entirely mantle process through the edge-flow convection process. (author)

  8. Anopheles darlingi polytene chromosomes: revised maps including newly described inversions and evidence for population structure in Manaus. (United States)

    Cornel, Anthony J; Brisco, Katherine K; Tadei, Wanderli P; Secundino, Nágila Fc; Rafael, Miriam S; Galardo, Allan Kr; Medeiros, Jansen F; Pessoa, Felipe Ac; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Lee, Yoosook; Pimenta, Paulo Fp; Lanzaro, Gregory C


    Salivary gland polytene chromosomes of 4th instar Anopheles darlingi Root were examined from multiple locations in the Brazilian Amazon. Minor modifications were made to existing polytene photomaps. These included changes to the breakpoint positions of several previously described paracentric inversions and descriptions of four new paracentric inversions, two on the right arm of chromosome 3 and two on the left arm of chromosome 3 that were found in multiple locations. A total of 18 inversions on the X (n = 1) chromosome, chromosome 2 (n = 7) and 3 (n = 11) were scored for 83 individuals from Manaus, Macapá and Porto Velho municipalities. The frequency of 2Ra inversion karyotypes in Manaus shows significant deficiency of heterozygotes (p < 0.0009). No significant linkage disequilibrium was found between inversions on chromosome 2 and 3. We hypothesize that at least two sympatric subpopulations exist within the An. darlingi population at Manaus based on inversion frequencies.

  9. Regional velocity structure in northern California from inversion of scattered seismic surface waves (United States)

    Pollitz, Fred F.


    Seismic surface waves recorded by the Berkeley Digital Seismic Network have been analyzed in order to constrain three-dimensional lateral heterogeneity of the upper mantle under northern California. A total of 2164 seismograms from 173 teleseismic events were windowed for the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave, followed by estimation of complex amplitude spectra over the period range 16 to 100 s using a multiple-taper method. Since Rayleigh waves at shorter periods, particularly below 35 s, suffer from serious multipathing or "non-plane" wave arrivals, these amplitude spectra have been interpreted as the product of wavefront distortion along the teleseismic propagation path and seismic structure beneath the network. The amplitude spectra are first modeled in terms of non-plane incoming wavefields and structural phase velocity perturbations period by period. After corrections for Moho and surface topography, the phase velocity maps are inverted for three-dimensional shear velocity perturbations δνs down to a depth of 200 km. The δνs maps are in good agreement with the results of body studies over a broad spatial scale. The dominant signals are associated with the thermal effects of the active Gorda and fossil Farallon subducted slab stretching from Mount Shasta through the western Sierran foothills to the southern Great Valley and asthenospheric upwelling beneath the northern Coast Ranges. The southern Sierra Nevada Range is characterized by fast δνs down to ˜50 km and slow velocities between ˜60 and 120 km depth, in agreement with independent inferences of a cold crust and warm upper mantle, which may provide the buoyancy forces necessary to support the elevation of the range.

  10. New results on the resistivity structure of Merapi Volcano(Indonesia), derived from 3D restricted inversion of long-offsettransient electromagnetic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commer, Michael; Helwig, Stefan, L.; Hordt, Andreas; Scholl,Carsten; Tezkan, Bulent


    Three long-offset transient electromagnetic (LOTEM) surveyswerecarried out at the active volcano Merapi in Central Java (Indonesia)during the years 1998, 2000, and 2001. The measurements focused on thegeneral resistivity structure of the volcanic edifice at depths of 0.5-2km and the further investigation of a southside anomaly. The measurementswere insufficient for a full 3D inversion scheme, which could enable theimaging of finely discretized resistivity distributions. Therefore, astable, damped least-squares joint-inversion approach is used to optimize3D models with a limited number of parameters. The mode ls feature therealistic simulation of topography, a layered background structure, andadditional coarse 3D blocks representing conductivity anomalies.Twenty-eight LOTEM transients, comprising both horizontal and verticalcomponents of the magnetic induction time derivative, were analyzed. Inview of the few unknowns, we were able to achieve reasonable data fits.The inversion results indicate an upwelling conductor below the summit,suggesting hydrothermal activity in the central volcanic complex. Ashallow conductor due to a magma-filled chamber, at depths down to 1 kmbelow the summit, suggested by earlier seismic studies, is not indicatedby the inversion results. In conjunction with an anomalous-density model,derived from arecent gravity study, our inversion results provideinformation about the southern geological structure resulting from amajor sector collapse during the Middle Merapi period. The density modelallows to assess a porosity range andthus an estimated vertical salinityprofile to explain the high conductivities on a larger scale, extendingbeyond the foothills of Merapi.

  11. Stochastic inverse modelling of hydraulic conductivity fields taking into account independent stochastic structures: A 3D case study (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Capilla, J. E.


    SummaryMajor factors affecting groundwater flow through fractured rocks include the geometry of each fracture, its properties and the fracture-network connectivity together with the porosity and conductivity of the rock matrix. When modelling fractured rocks this is translated into attaining a characterization of the hydraulic conductivity ( K) as adequately as possible, despite its high heterogeneity. This links with the main goal of this paper, which is to present an improvement of a stochastic inverse model, named as Gradual Conditioning (GC) method, to better characterise K in a fractured rock medium by considering different K stochastic structures, belonging to independent K statistical populations (SP) of fracture families and the rock matrix, each one with its own statistical properties. The new methodology is carried out by applying independent deformations to each SP during the conditioning process for constraining stochastic simulations to data. This allows that the statistical properties of each SPs tend to be preserved during the iterative optimization process. It is worthwhile mentioning that so far, no other stochastic inverse modelling technique, with the whole capabilities implemented in the GC method, is able to work with a domain covered by several different stochastic structures taking into account the independence of different populations. The GC method is based on a procedure that gradually changes an initial K field, which is conditioned only to K data, to approximate the reproduction of other types of information, i.e., piezometric head and solute concentration data. The approach is applied to the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) in Sweden, where, since the middle nineties, many experiments have been carried out to increase confidence in alternative radionuclide transport modelling approaches. Because the description of fracture locations and the distribution of hydrodynamic parameters within them are not accurate enough, we address the

  12. 3D structural cartography based on magnetic and gravity data inversion - Case of South-West Algeria (United States)

    Hichem, Boubekri; Mohamed, Hamoudi; Abderrahmane, Bendaoud; Ivan, Priezzhev; Karim, Allek


    This article presents the results of 3D aeromagnetic and gravity data inversion across the West African Craton (WAC) in South West Algeria. Although the used data have different origins and resolutions, the performed manual and automatic interpretation for each dataset shows a good correlation with some earlier geological studies of the region, major structural aspects of the locality, as well as other new structural features. Many curved faults parallel to the suture zone indicate the presence of terranes or the metacratonization of the WAC and a related fault network of great importance with NE-SW and NW-SE directions. The mega shear zones from north to south, which are visible at the surface in the Hoggar, are also observed along the Saharan Platform. The fact that these faults are observed since the Cambro-Ordovician in all crust (including the Saharan Basins) indicates that this area, which is situated on the border of the WAC, remained active during the entire period of time.

  13. Structure of the crust beneath Cameroon, West Africa, from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and receiver functions (United States)

    Tokam, Alain-Pierre K.; Tabod, Charles T.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Julià, Jordi; Wiens, Douglas A.; Pasyanos, Michael E.


    The Cameroon Volcanic Line (CVL) consists of a linear chain of Tertiary to Recent, generally alkaline, volcanoes that do not exhibit an age progression. Here we study crustal structure beneath the CVL and adjacent regions in Cameroon using 1-D shear wave velocity models obtained from the joint inversion of Rayleigh wave group velocities and P-receiver functions for 32 broad-band seismic stations deployed between 2005 January and 2007 February. We find that (1) crustal thickness (35-39km) and velocity structure is similar beneath the CVL and the Pan African Oubanguides Belt to the south of the CVL, (2) crust is thicker (43-48km) under the northern margin of the Congo Craton and is characterized by shear wave velocities >=4.0kms-1 in its lower part and (3) crust is thinner (26-31km) under the Garoua rift and the coastal plain. In addition, a fast velocity layer (Vs of 3.6-3.8kms-1) in the upper crust is found beneath many of the seismic stations. Crustal structure beneath the CVL and the Oubanguides Belt is very similar to Pan African crustal structure in the Mozambique Belt, and therefore it appears not to have been modified significantly by the magmatic activity associated with the CVL. The crust beneath the coastal plain was probably thinned during the opening of the southern Atlantic Ocean, while the crust beneath the Garoua rift was likely thinned during the formation of the Benue Trough in the early Cretaceous. We suggest that the thickened crust and the thick mafic lower crustal layer beneath the northern margin of the Congo Craton may be relict features from a continent-continent collision along this margin during the formation of Gondwana.

  14. An Efficient Minimum Free Energy Structure-Based Search Method for Riboswitch Identification Based on Inverse RNA Folding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matan Drory Retwitzer

    Full Text Available Riboswitches are RNA genetic control elements that were originally discovered in bacteria and provide a unique mechanism of gene regulation. They work without the participation of proteins and are believed to represent ancient regulatory systems in the evolutionary timescale. One of the biggest challenges in riboswitch research is to find additional eukaryotic riboswitches since more than 20 riboswitch classes have been found in prokaryotes but only one class has been found in eukaryotes. Moreover, this single known class of eukaryotic riboswitch, namely the TPP riboswitch class, has been found in bacteria, archaea, fungi and plants but not in animals. The few examples of eukaryotic riboswitches were identified using sequence-based bioinformatics search methods such as a combination of BLAST and pattern matching techniques that incorporate base-pairing considerations. None of these approaches perform energy minimization structure predictions. There is a clear motivation to develop new bioinformatics methods, aside of the ongoing advances in covariance models, that will sample the sequence search space more flexibly using structural guidance while retaining the computational efficiency of sequence-based methods. We present a new energy minimization approach that transforms structure-based search into a sequence-based search, thereby enabling the utilization of well established sequence-based search utilities such as BLAST and FASTA. The transformation to sequence space is obtained by using an extended inverse RNA folding problem solver with sequence and structure constraints, available within RNAfbinv. Examples in applying the new method are presented for the purine and preQ1 riboswitches. The method is described in detail along with its findings in prokaryotes. Potential uses in finding novel eukaryotic riboswitches and optimizing pre-designed synthetic riboswitches based on ligand simulations are discussed. The method components are freely

  15. Joint inversion of high resolution S-wave velocity structure underneath North China Basin (United States)

    Yang, C.; Li, G.; Niu, F.


    North China basin is one of earthquake prone areas in China. Many devastating earthquakes occurred in the last century and before, such as the 1937 M7.0 Heze Earthquake in Shandong province, the 1966 M7.2 Xingtai Earthquake and 1976 Tangshan Earthquake in Hebei province. Knowing the structure of the sediment cover is of great importance to predict strong ground motion caused by earthquakes. Unconsolidated sediments are loose materials, ranging from clay to sand to gravel. Earthquakes can liquefy unconsolidated sediments, thus knowing the distribution and thickness of the unconsolidated sediments has significant implication in seismic hazard analysis of the area. Quantitative estimates of the amount of extension of the North China basin is important to understand the thinning and evolution of the eastern North China craton and the underlying mechanism. In principle, the amount of lithospheric stretching can be estimated from sediment and crustal thickness. Therefore an accurate estimate of the sediment and crustal thickness of the area is also important in understanding regional tectonics. In this study, we jointly invert the Rayleigh wave phase-velocity dispersion and Z/H ratio data to construct a 3-D S-wave velocity model beneath North China area. We use 4-year ambient noise data recorded from 249 temporary stations, and 139 earthquake events to extract Rayleigh wave Z/H ratios. The Z/H ratios obtained from ambient noise data and earthquake data show a good agreement within the overlapped periods. The phase velocity dispersion curve was estimated from the same ambient noise data. The preliminary result shows a relatively low Z/H ratio and low velocity anomaly at the shallow part of sediment basins.

  16. Deep heterogeneous structure of active faults in the Kinki region, southwest Japan: Inversion analysis of coda envelopes (United States)

    Nishigami, K.


    It is essential to estimate the deep structure of active faults related to the earthquake rupture process as well as the crustal structure related to the propagation of seismic waves, in order to improve the accuracy of estimating strong ground motion caused by future large inland earthquakes. In the Kinki region, southwest Japan, there are several active fault zones near large cities such as Osaka and Kyoto, and the evaluation of realistic strong ground motion is an important subject. We have been carrying out the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas, in the Kinki region for these purposes. In this presentation we will show the result of estimating the fault structure model of the Biwako-seigan, Hanaore, and Arima- Takatsuki fault zones. We estimated a 3-D distribution of relative scattering coefficients in the Kinki region, also in the vicinity of each active fault zone, by inversion of coda envelopes from local earthquakes. We analyzed 758 seismograms from 52 events which occurred in 2003, recorded at 50 stations of Kyoto Univ., Hi- net, and JMA. The preliminary result shows that active fault zones can be imaged as higher scattering than the surroundings. Based on previous studies of scattering properties in the crust, we consider that the relatively weaker scattering (namely more homogeneous) part on the fault plane may act as an asperity during future large earthquakes, and also that the part with relatively stronger scattering (namely more heterogeneous part) may become an initiation point of rupture. We are also studying the detailed distribution of microearthquakes, b-values, and velocity anomalies along these active fault zones. Combining these results, we will construct a possible fault model for each of the active fault zones. This study is sponsored by the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.

  17. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT


    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of inverse opal photonic crystals studied by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and small-angle neutron scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoriev, S.V.; Napolskii, K.S.; Grigoryeva, N.A.; Vasilieva, A.V.; Mistonov, A.A.; Chernyshov, D.Y.; Petukhov, A.V.; Belov, D.V.; Eliseev, A.A.; Lukashin, A.V.; Tretyakov, Y.D.; Sinitskii, A.S.; Eckerlebe, H.


    The structural and magnetic properties of nickel inverse opal photonic crystal have been studied by complementary experimental techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle and small-angle diffraction of synchrotron radiation, and polarized neutrons. The sample was fabricated by

  19. Bayesian inversion of surface wave data for discontinuities and velocity structure in the upper mantle using Neural Networks. Geologica Ultraiectina (287)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, U.


    We present a neural network approach to invert surface wave data for discontinuities and velocity structure in the upper mantle. We show how such a neural network can be trained on a set of random samples to give a continuous approximation to the inverse relation in a compact and computationally

  20. Inverse material identification in coupled acoustic-structure interaction using a modified error in constitutive equation functional (United States)

    Warner, James E.; Diaz, Manuel I.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc


    This work focuses on the identification of heterogeneous linear elastic moduli in the context of frequency-domain, coupled acoustic-structure interaction (ASI), using either solid displacement or fluid pressure measurement data. The approach postulates the inverse problem as an optimization problem where the solution is obtained by minimizing a modified error in constitutive equation (MECE) functional. The latter measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses, while incorporating the measurement data as additional quadratic error terms. We demonstrate two strategies for selecting the MECE weighting coefficient to produce regularized solutions to the ill-posed identification problem: 1) the discrepancy principle of Morozov, and 2) an error-balance approach that selects the weight parameter as the minimizer of another functional involving the ECE and the data misfit. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully recover elastic parameters in 2D and 3D ASI systems from response measurements taken in either the solid or fluid subdomains. Furthermore, both regularization strategies are shown to produce accurate reconstructions when the measurement data is polluted with noise. The discrepancy principle is shown to produce nearly optimal solutions, while the error-balance approach, although not optimal, remains effective and does not need a priori information on the noise level.

  1. A new numerical method for inverse Laplace transforms used to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, Martin M.; Durand, Loyal


    We recently derived a very accurate and fast new algorithm for numerically inverting the Laplace transforms needed to obtain gluon distributions from the proton structure function F 2 γp (x,Q 2 ). We numerically inverted the function g(s), s being the variable in Laplace space, to G(v), where v is the variable in ordinary space. We have since discovered that the algorithm does not work if g(s)→0 less rapidly than 1/s as s→∞, e.g., as 1/s β for 0 β-1 and a polynomial in v. We test the algorithm numerically for very small positive β, β=10 -6 obtaining numerical results that imitate the Dirac delta function δ(v). We also devolve the published MSTW2008LO gluon distribution at virtuality Q 2 =5 GeV 2 down to the lower virtuality Q 2 =1.69 GeV 2 . For devolution, β is negative, giving rise to inverse Laplace transforms that are distributions and not proper functions. This requires us to introduce the concept of Hadamard Finite Part integrals, which we discuss in detail. (orig.)

  2. Seismic structure beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and adjacent areas based on the tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data (United States)

    El Khrepy, Sami; Koulakov, Ivan; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Petrunin, Alexey G.


    We present the first 3-D model of seismic P and S velocities in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Gulf of Aqaba and surrounding areas based on the results of passive travel time tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed based on travel time data from ˜ 9000 regional earthquakes provided by the Egyptian National Seismological Network (ENSN), and this was complemented with data from the International Seismological Centre (ISC). The resulting P and S velocity patterns were generally consistent with each other at all depths. Beneath the northern part of the Red Sea, we observed a strong high-velocity anomaly with abrupt limits that coincide with the coastal lines. This finding may indicate the oceanic nature of the crust in the Red Sea, and it does not support the concept of gradual stretching of the continental crust. According to our results, in the middle and lower crust, the seismic anomalies beneath the Gulf of Aqaba seem to delineate a sinistral shift (˜ 100 km) in the opposite flanks of the fault zone, which is consistent with other estimates of the left-lateral displacement in the southern part of the Dead Sea Transform fault. However, no displacement structures were visible in the uppermost lithospheric mantle.

  3. Crustal shear wave velocity structure in the northeastern Tibet based on the Neighbourhood algorithm inversion of receiver functions (United States)

    Wu, Zhenbo; Xu, Tao; Liang, Chuntao; Wu, Chenglong; Liu, Zhiqiang


    The northeastern (NE) Tibet records and represents the far-field deformation response of the collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates in the Cenozoic time. Over the past two decades, studies have revealed the existence of thickened crust in the NE Tibet, but the thickening mechanism is still in debate. We deployed a passive-source seismic profile with 22 temporary broad-band seismic stations in the NE Tibet to investigate the crustal shear wave velocity structure in this region. We selected 288 teleseismic events located in the west Pacific subduction zone near Japan with similar ray path to calculate P-wave receiver functions. Neighbourhood algorithm method is applied to invert the shear wave velocity beneath stations. The inversion result shows a low-velocity zone (LVZ) is roughly confined to the Songpan-Ganzi block and Kunlun mountains and extends to the southern margin of Gonghe basin. Considering the low P-wave velocity revealed by the wide-angle reflection-refraction seismic experiment and high ratio of Vp/Vs based on H-κ grid searching of the receiver functions in this profile, LVZ may be attributed to partial melting induced by temperature change. This observation appears to be consistent with the crustal ductile deformation in this region derived from other geophysical investigations.

  4. A Fast Parallel Algorithm for Selected Inversion of Structured Sparse Matrices with Application to 2D Electronic Structure Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao; Lu, Jiangfeng; Ying, Lexing; E, Weinan


    We present an efficient parallel algorithm and its implementation for computing the diagonal of $H^-1$ where $H$ is a 2D Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian discretized on a rectangular domain using a standard second order finite difference scheme. This type of calculation can be used to obtain an accurate approximation to the diagonal of a Fermi-Dirac function of $H$ through a recently developed pole-expansion technique \\cite{LinLuYingE2009}. The diagonal elements are needed in electronic structure calculations for quantum mechanical systems \\citeHohenbergKohn1964, KohnSham 1965,DreizlerGross1990. We show how elimination tree is used to organize the parallel computation and how synchronization overhead is reduced by passing data level by level along this tree using the technique of local buffers and relative indices. We analyze the performance of our implementation by examining its load balance and communication overhead. We show that our implementation exhibits an excellent weak scaling on a large-scale high performance distributed parallel machine. When compared with standard approach for evaluating the diagonal a Fermi-Dirac function of a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian associated a 2D electron quantum dot, the new pole-expansion technique that uses our algorithm to compute the diagonal of $(H-z_i I)^-1$ for a small number of poles $z_i$ is much faster, especially when the quantum dot contains many electrons.

  5. A Fast Parallel Algorithm for Selected Inversion of Structured Sparse Matrices with Application to 2D Electronic Structure Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin; Chao Yang; Jiangfeng Lu; Lexing Ying; Weinan, E.


    We present an efficient parallel algorithm and its implementation for computing the diagonal of H -1 where H is a 2D Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian discretized on a rectangular domain using a standard second order finite difference scheme. This type of calculation can be used to obtain an accurate approximation to the diagonal of a Fermi-Dirac function of H through a recently developed pole-expansion technique LinLuYingE2009. The diagonal elements are needed in electronic structure calculations for quantum mechanical systems HohenbergKohn1964, KohnSham 1965,DreizlerGross1990. We show how elimination tree is used to organize the parallel computation and how synchronization overhead is reduced by passing data level by level along this tree using the technique of local buffers and relative indices. We analyze the performance of our implementation by examining its load balance and communication overhead. We show that our implementation exhibits an excellent weak scaling on a large-scale high performance distributed parallel machine. When compared with standard approach for evaluating the diagonal a Fermi-Dirac function of a Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian associated a 2D electron quantum dot, the new pole-expansion technique that uses our algorithm to compute the diagonal of (H-z i I) -1 for a small number of poles z i is much faster, especially when the quantum dot contains many electrons.

  6. Gravity inversion for modelling of subsurface structures associated to the volcanic evolution of La Gomera island (Canarian Archipelago, Spain) (United States)

    Montesinos, F. G.; Arnoso, J.; Luque, T.; Benavent, T.; Vieira, R.


    basic and ultramafic complex could represent uplifted fragments of the deep crust or the upper mantle under the sea floor. The Basal Complex represents the submarine growth stage (the Submarine Edifice) and the hypabyssal roots of the different growth stages recorded in the island. Next, the first subaerial edifice was built up in two main stages. The first stage is represented by a large basaltic shield, of about 22 km in diameter, whose centre would be located near Vallehermoso Caldera (at the North of island) and would probably be extended some 5 km offshore the present northern coastline. Over the second growth stage an edifice of 25 km in diameter partly capped the earlier one. The second large edifice (the Young Edifice) emitted lava flows that covered up the central and southern areas of the island whilst they only filled deep ravines already excavated on the northern flank. The fact of La Gomera having an almost circular shape has traditionally been interpreted as the result of the built up of a single large volcanic edifice. However, the study of several authors about radial swarms of basic dikes shows that the island has gradually grown southwards but, because of the slow displacement of the magmatic focus, La Gomera does not display the N-S elongated shape which would be expected. In order to obtain a better knowledge about these volcanic and tectonic processes in the island, we have achieved a gravity survey to apply inversion techniques,which provide us a model of the crustal structures. The gravity data set, from the Institute of Astronomy and Geodesy (CSIC-UCM) and the Spanish National Geographic Institute, corresponds to 192 stations distributed over the whole island, although they are strongly conditioned by the sharp topography. Also, 899 marine gravity data from US Geological Survey have been used here. The obtained Bouguer anomaly map is analysed by means of a least squares prediction calculating a mean level of uncorrelated observational noise of 1

  7. Joint Inversion Of Local And Teleseismic Data For The Crust And Mantle Structure Of The Chinese Capital Region (United States)

    Huang, J.; Zhao, D.


    The Chinese Capital (Beijing) region is located in the intersection of the Yanshan and Taihangshan uplifts in North China. It is one of the regions with the strongest continental earthquakes in the world such as the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (M 7.8) which killed 240,000 people. Hence the determination of the crust and mantle structure of this region is very important for understanding the regional tectonics and for the reduction of earthquake hazards. Since October 2001 a new digital seismic network with 107 stations has been installed in this region, which is the most advanced and densest regional digital seismic network in mainland China. In this study we used 48750 P-wave arrival times from 2973 local events and 12249 travel time residuals from 234 teleseismic events recorded by this new digital seismic network. We adopted the local and teleseismic joint inversion approach by Zhao et al. [1994] and obtained a high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model of the crust and mantle down to a depth of 1000 km. The resolution is 50 km in the horizontal direction, and in depth it is 4-17 km in the crust and 30-50 km in the mantle. The complex morphology of the Conrad and Moho discontinuities was taken into account in the tomographic inversions. Our 3-D velocity model provides new insights into the geological structure and tectonics of this region. The velocity images of the upper crust reflect well the surface geological, topographic and lithological features. In the North China Basin, the depression and uplift areas are imaged as slow and fast velocity belts oriented in NE-SW direction. The trend of velocity anomalies is the same as that of major faults and tectonics. Paleozoic strata and Pre-Cambrian basement rocks outcrop widely in the Taihangshan and Yanshan uplift areas, which exhibit strong and broad high-velocity(high-V) anomalies in our tomographic images, while the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity(low-V) anomalies

  8. Defining the diverse spectrum of inversions, complex structural variation, and chromothripsis in the morbid human genome. (United States)

    Collins, Ryan L; Brand, Harrison; Redin, Claire E; Hanscom, Carrie; Antolik, Caroline; Stone, Matthew R; Glessner, Joseph T; Mason, Tamara; Pregno, Giulia; Dorrani, Naghmeh; Mandrile, Giorgia; Giachino, Daniela; Perrin, Danielle; Walsh, Cole; Cipicchio, Michelle; Costello, Maura; Stortchevoi, Alexei; An, Joon-Yong; Currall, Benjamin B; Seabra, Catarina M; Ragavendran, Ashok; Margolin, Lauren; Martinez-Agosto, Julian A; Lucente, Diane; Levy, Brynn; Sanders, Stephan J; Wapner, Ronald J; Quintero-Rivera, Fabiola; Kloosterman, Wigard; Talkowski, Michael E


    Structural variation (SV) influences genome organization and contributes to human disease. However, the complete mutational spectrum of SV has not been routinely captured in disease association studies. We sequenced 689 participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental abnormalities to construct a genome-wide map of large SV. Using long-insert jumping libraries at 105X mean physical coverage and linked-read whole-genome sequencing from 10X Genomics, we document seven major SV classes at ~5 kb SV resolution. Our results encompass 11,735 distinct large SV sites, 38.1% of which are novel and 16.8% of which are balanced or complex. We characterize 16 recurrent subclasses of complex SV (cxSV), revealing that: (1) cxSV are larger and rarer than canonical SV; (2) each genome harbors 14 large cxSV on average; (3) 84.4% of large cxSVs involve inversion; and (4) most large cxSV (93.8%) have not been delineated in previous studies. Rare SVs are more likely to disrupt coding and regulatory non-coding loci, particularly when truncating constrained and disease-associated genes. We also identify multiple cases of catastrophic chromosomal rearrangements known as chromoanagenesis, including somatic chromoanasynthesis, and extreme balanced germline chromothripsis events involving up to 65 breakpoints and 60.6 Mb across four chromosomes, further defining rare categories of extreme cxSV. These data provide a foundational map of large SV in the morbid human genome and demonstrate a previously underappreciated abundance and diversity of cxSV that should be considered in genomic studies of human disease.

  9. Upper Crustal Shear Structure of NE Wyoming Inverted by Regional Surface Waves From Mining Explosions-Comparison of Niching Genetic Algorithms and Least-Squares Inversion (United States)

    Zhou, R.; Stump, B. W.


    Surface-wave dispersion analysis of regional seismograms from mining explosion is used to extract shallow subsurface structural models. Seismograms along a number of azimuths were recorded at near-regional distances from mining explosions in Northeast Wyoming. The group velocities of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave were determined by using the Multiple Filter Analysis (MFA) and refined by Phase Matched Filtering (PMF) technique. The surface wave dispersion curves covered the period range of 2 to 12 sec and the group-velocities range from 1.3 to 2.9 km/sec. Besides least-squares inversion, a niching genetic algorithm (NGA) was introduced for crustal shear-wave velocity inversion. Niching methods are techniques specifically to maintain diversity and promote the formation and maintenance of stable sub-populations in the tradition genetic algorithm. This methodology identifies multiple candidate solutions when applied to both multimodal optimization and classification problems. Considering the nonuniqueness of inversion problem, the capacity of NGA is explored to retrieve classes of S-wave velocity structural profiles from the dispersion curves. Synthetic tests illustrate the range of nonuniqueness in linear surface wave inversion problems. Application of this new technique to regional surface wave observations from the Powder River Basin provides classes of models from which the one that is most consistent with geologic constraints can be chosen.

  10. WE-AB-209-02: A New Inverse Planning Framework with Principle-Based Modeling of Inter-Structural Dosimetric Tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H; Dong, P; Xing, L


    Purpose: Traditional radiotherapy inverse planning relies on the weighting factors to phenomenologically balance the conflicting criteria for different structures. The resulting manual trial-and-error determination of the weights has long been recognized as the most time-consuming part of treatment planning. The purpose of this work is to develop an inverse planning framework that parameterizes the inter-structural dosimetric tradeoff among with physically more meaningful quantities to simplify the search for a clinically sensible plan. Methods: A permissible dosimetric uncertainty is introduced for each of the structures to balance their conflicting dosimetric requirements. The inverse planning is then formulated as a convex feasibility problem, which aims to generate plans with acceptable dosimetric uncertainties. A sequential procedure (SP) is derived to decompose the model into three submodels to constrain the uncertainty in the planning target volume (PTV), the critical structures, and all other structures to spare, sequentially. The proposed technique is applied to plan a liver case and a head-and-neck case and compared with a conventional approach. Results: Our results show that the strategy is able to generate clinically sensible plans with little trial-and-error. In the case of liver IMRT, the fractional volumes to liver and heart above 20Gy are found to be 22% and 10%, respectively, which are 15.1% and 33.3% lower than that of the counterpart conventional plan while maintaining the same PTV coverage. The planning of the head and neck IMRT show the same level of success, with the DVHs for all organs at risk and PTV very competitive to a counterpart plan. Conclusion: A new inverse planning framework has been established. With physically more meaningful modeling of the inter-structural tradeoff, the technique enables us to substantially reduce the need for trial-and-error adjustment of the model parameters and opens new opportunities of incorporating prior

  11. Characterizing Arctic mixed-phase cloud structure and its relationship with humidity and temperature inversion using ARM NSA observations (United States)

    Qiu, Shaoyue; Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Li, J.-L. F.


    In this study, the characteristics of the Arctic mixed-phase cloud (AMC) have been investigated using data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement North Slope Alaska site from October 2006 to September 2009. AMC has an annual occurrence frequency of 42.3%, which includes 18.7% of single-layered AMCs and 23.6% for multiple layers. Two cloud base heights (CBHs) are defined from ceilometer and micropulse lidar (MPL) measurements. For single-layered AMC, the ceilometer-derived CBH represents the base of the liquid-dominant layer near the cloud top, while MPL-derived CBH represents base of the lower ice-dominant layer. The annual mean CBHs from ceilometer and MPL measurements are 1.0 km and 0.6 km, respectively, with the largest difference ( 1.0 km) occurring from December to March and the smallest difference in September. The humidity inversion occurrence decreases with increasing humidity inversion intensity (stronger in summer than in winter). During the winter months, AMC occurrences increase from 15% to 35% when the inversion intensity increases from 0.1 to 0.9 g/kg. On the contrary, despite a higher frequency of strong humidity inversion in summer, AMC occurrences are nearly invariant for different inversion intensities. On average, humidity and temperature inversion frequencies of occurrence above an AMC are 5 and 8 times, respectively, as high as those below an AMC. The strong inversion occurrences for both humidity and temperature above an AMC provide the moisture sources from above for the formation and maintenance of AMCs. This result helps to reconcile the persistency of AMCs even when the Arctic surface is covered by snow and ice.

  12. Rift Structure in Eastern Papua New Guinea From the Joint Inversion of Receiver Functions and Seismic Noise (United States)

    Abers, G. A.; Obrebski, M. J.; Jin, G.; Eilon, Z.


    The recent CDPapua seismic array in the active D'Entrecasteaux-Woodlark Rift provides insights into how continental crust accommodates large extension. Here, >100 km of extension has occurred in the last 4-6 Ma, exhuming rocks from 100 km depth. To better understand the modes of deformation of the crust, we analyze shear wave velocity (Vs) distribution for a set of temporary land and ocean bottom broadband stations. We resolve the depth of the main velocity contrasts using receiver function (RF) analysis, alleviating the intrinsic trade-off between depth and velocity intrinsic by joint inversion with dispersion constraints (10 - 100 s) from earthquake surface waves and ambient noise. A transdimensional Bayesian scheme explores the model space (Vs in each layer, number of interfaces and their respective depths), minimizing the number of layers required to fit the observations given their noise level. Preliminary results suggest that the Moho is sharp in most places, with a depth of 28-38 km and 20-27 km below the Papuan Peninsula and the highly-extended D'Entracasteaux Islands, respectively. The mid-lower crust of these regions appears to be similar and consistent with felsic compositions, 3.25≤Vs≤3.5 km/s, and may represent the Owen-Stanley Metamorphic Belt or underlying continental rocks. A fast layer (3.75≤Vs≤4 km/s) is observed below the Papuan Peninsula in the 20-30 km depth range and may indicate more mafic lower crust. In contrast, faster velocities between 10 and 20km depth are modeled below the Goodenough Basin (3.75≤Vs≤4 km/s) and the Trobriand Basin (3.5≤Vs≤3.75 km/s) where rocks of the Papuan Ultramafic Belt have been suggested, although these results partly depend upon complicated signals from ocean-bottom seismometers. Well-located seismicity shows that active fault systems generally follow the boundaries between regions of different crustal velocity structure. Overall these results confirm a continental velocity structure for the

  13. Seismic and thermal structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Antarctica from inversion of multiple seismic datasets (United States)

    Wiens, D.; Shen, W.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Aster, R. C.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Dalziel, I.; Hansen, S. E.; Heeszel, D.; Huerta, A. D.; Nyblade, A.; Stephen, R. A.; Wilson, T. J.; Winberry, J. P.; Stern, T. A.


    Since the last decade of the 20th century, over 200 broadband seismic stations have been deployed across Antarctica (e.g., temporary networks such as TAMSEIS, AGAP/GAMSEIS, POLENET/ANET, TAMNNET and RIS/DRIS by U.S. geoscientists as well as stations deployed by Japan, Britain, China, Norway, and other countries). In this presentation, we discuss our recent efforts to build reference crustal and uppermost mantle shear velocity (Vs) and thermal models for continental Antarctica based on those seismic arrays. By combing the high resolution Rayleigh wave dispersion maps derived from both ambient noise and teleseismic earthquakes, together with P receiver function waveforms, we develop a 3-D Vs model for the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Central and West Antarctica to a depth of 200 km. Additionally, using this 3-D seismic model to constrain the crustal structure, we re-invert for the upper mantle thermal structure using the surface wave data within a thermodynamic framework and construct a 3-D thermal model for the Antarctic lithosphere. The final product, a high resolution thermal model together with associated uncertainty estimates from the Monte Carlo inversion, allows us to derive lithospheric thickness and surface heat flux maps for much of the continent. West Antarctica shows a much thinner lithosphere ( 50-90 km) than East Antarctica ( 130-230 km), with a sharp transition along the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). A variety of geological features, including a slower/hotter but highly heterogeneous West Antarctica and a much faster/colder East Antarctic craton, are present in the 3-D seismic/thermal models. Notably, slow seismic velocities observed in the uppermost mantle beneath the southern TAM are interpreted as a signature of lithospheric foundering and replacement with hot asthenosphere. The high resolution image of these features from the 3-D models helps further investigation of the dynamic state of Antarctica's lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere

  14. Correlation between the Palaeozoic structures from West Iberian and Grand Banks margins using inversion of magnetic anomalies (United States)

    Silva, Elsa A.; Miranda, J. M.; Luis, J. F.; Galdeano, A.


    The Ibero-Armorican Arc (IAA) is a huge geological structure of Pre-Cambrian origin, tightened during hercynian times and deeply affected by the opening of the Atlantic Ocean and the Bay of Biscay. Its remnants now lie in Iberia, north-western France and the Canadian Grand Banks margins. The qualitative correlation between these three blocks has been attempted by several authors (e.g. Lefort, J.P., 1980. Un 'Fit' structural de l'Atlantique Nord: arguments geologiques pour correler les marqueurs geophysiques reconnus sur les deux marges. Mar. Geol. 37, 355-369; Lefort, J.P., 1983. A new geophysical criterion to correlate the Acadian and Hercynian orogenies of Western Europe and Eastern America. Mem. Geol. Soc. Am. 158, 3-18; Galdeano, A., Miranda, J.M., Matte, P., Mouge, P., Rossignol, C., 1990. Aeromagnetic data: A tool for studying the Variscan arc of Western Europe and its correlation with transatlantic structures. Tectonophysics 177, 293-305) using magnetic anomalies, mainly because they seem to preserve the hercynian zonation, in spite of the strong thermal and mechanical processes that took place during rifting and ocean spreading. In this paper, we present a new contribution to the study of the IAA structure based on the processing of a compilation of magnetic data from Iberia and Grand Banks margins. To interpret the magnetic signature, a Fourier-domain-based inversion technique was applied, considering a layer with a constant thickness of 10 km, and taking into account only the induced field. The digital terrain model was derived from ETOPO5 (ETOPO5, 1986. Relief map of the earth's surface. EOS 67, 121) and TerrainBase (TerrainBase, 1995. In: Row III, L.W., Hastings, D.A., Dunbar, P.K. (Eds.), Worldwide Digital Terrain Data, Documentation Manual, CD-ROM Release 1.0. GEODAS-NGDC Key to Geophysical Records. Documentation N. 30, April) databases. The pseudo-susceptibility distribution obtained was repositioned for the 156.5 Ma epoch, using the Srivastava and

  15. Four dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) impacts on WRF performance in simulating inversion layer structure and distributions of CMAQ-simulated winter ozone concentrations in Uintah Basin (United States)

    Tran, Trang; Tran, Huy; Mansfield, Marc; Lyman, Seth; Crosman, Erik


    Four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) was applied in WRF-CMAQ model sensitivity tests to study the impact of observational and analysis nudging on model performance in simulating inversion layers and O3 concentration distributions within the Uintah Basin, Utah, U.S.A. in winter 2013. Observational nudging substantially improved WRF model performance in simulating surface wind fields, correcting a 10 °C warm surface temperature bias, correcting overestimation of the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) and correcting underestimation of inversion strengths produced by regular WRF model physics without nudging. However, the combined effects of poor performance of WRF meteorological model physical parameterization schemes in simulating low clouds, and warm and moist biases in the temperature and moisture initialization and subsequent simulation fields, likely amplified the overestimation of warm clouds during inversion days when observational nudging was applied, impacting the resulting O3 photochemical formation in the chemistry model. To reduce the impact of a moist bias in the simulations on warm cloud formation, nudging with the analysis water mixing ratio above the planetary boundary layer (PBL) was applied. However, due to poor analysis vertical temperature profiles, applying analysis nudging also increased the errors in the modeled inversion layer vertical structure compared to observational nudging. Combining both observational and analysis nudging methods resulted in unrealistically extreme stratified stability that trapped pollutants at the lowest elevations at the center of the Uintah Basin and yielded the worst WRF performance in simulating inversion layer structure among the four sensitivity tests. The results of this study illustrate the importance of carefully considering the representativeness and quality of the observational and model analysis data sets when applying nudging techniques within stable PBLs, and the need to evaluate model results

  16. High-heat geodynamic setting during the Palaeozoic evolution of the Mount Painter Province, SA, Australia: evidence from combined field structural geology and potential-field inversions (United States)

    Armit, R. J.; Ailleres, L.; Betts, P. G.; Schaefer, B. F.; Blaikie, T. N.


    A method for subsurface recognition of blind geological bodies is presented using combined surface constraints and 3-D structural modelling that incorporates constraints from detailed mapping, and potential-field inversion modelling. This method is applied to the Mount Painter Province and demonstrates that addition of low density material is required to reconcile the gravity signature of the region. This method may be an effective way to construct 3-D models in regions of excellent structural control, and can be used to assess the validity of surface structures with 3-D architecture. Combined geological and potential-field constrained inversion modelling of the Mount Painter Province was conducted to assess the validity of the geological models of the region. Magnetic susceptibility constrained stochastic property inversions indicates that the northeast to southwest structural trend of the relatively magnetic meta-sedimentary rocks of the Radium Creek Group in the Mount Painter Inlier is reconcilable with the similar, northeast to southwest trending positive magnetic anomalies in the region. Radium Creek Group packages are the major contributor of the total magnetic response of the region. However field mapping and the results of initial density constrained stochastic property inversion modelling do not correlate with a large residual negative gravity anomaly central to the region. Further density constrained inversion modelling indicates that an additional large body of relatively low density material is needed within the model space to account for this negative density anomaly. Through sensitivity analysis of multiple geometrical and varied potential-field property inversions, the best-fitting model records a reduction in gravity rms misfit from 21.9 to 1.69 mGal, representing a reduction from 56 to 4.5 per cent in respect to the total dynamic range of 37.5 mGal of the residual anomaly. This best-fitting model incorporates a volumetrically significant source

  17. On the Structure and Adjustment of Inversion-Capped Neutral Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flows: Large-Eddy Simulation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Grønnegaard; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Kelly, Mark C.


    A range of large-eddy simulations, with differing free atmosphere stratification and zero or slightly positive surface heat flux, is investigated to improve understanding of the neutral and near-neutral, inversion-capped, horizontally homogeneous, barotropic atmospheric boundary layer with emphas...

  18. Two-dimensional joint inversion of Magnetotelluric and local earthquake data: Discussion on the contribution to the solution of deep subsurface structures (United States)

    Demirci, İsmail; Dikmen, Ünal; Candansayar, M. Emin


    Joint inversion of data sets collected by using several geophysical exploration methods has gained importance and associated algorithms have been developed. To explore the deep subsurface structures, Magnetotelluric and local earthquake tomography algorithms are generally used individually. Due to the usage of natural resources in both methods, it is not possible to increase data quality and resolution of model parameters. For this reason, the solution of the deep structures with the individual usage of the methods cannot be fully attained. In this paper, we firstly focused on the effects of both Magnetotelluric and local earthquake data sets on the solution of deep structures and discussed the results on the basis of the resolving power of the methods. The presence of deep-focus seismic sources increase the resolution of deep structures. Moreover, conductivity distribution of relatively shallow structures can be solved with high resolution by using MT algorithm. Therefore, we developed a new joint inversion algorithm based on the cross gradient function in order to jointly invert Magnetotelluric and local earthquake data sets. In the study, we added a new regularization parameter into the second term of the parameter correction vector of Gallardo and Meju (2003). The new regularization parameter is enhancing the stability of the algorithm and controls the contribution of the cross gradient term in the solution. The results show that even in cases where resistivity and velocity boundaries are different, both methods influence each other positively. In addition, the region of common structural boundaries of the models are clearly mapped compared with original models. Furthermore, deep structures are identified satisfactorily even with using the minimum number of seismic sources. In this paper, in order to understand the future studies, we discussed joint inversion of Magnetotelluric and local earthquake data sets only in two-dimensional space. In the light of these

  19. Cenozoic structural inversion from transtension to transpression in Yingxiong Range, western Qaidam Basin: New insights into strike-slip superimposition controlled by Altyn Tagh and Eastern Kunlun Faults (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Zhang, Daowei; Jolivet, Marc; Yu, Xiangjiang; Du, Wei; Liu, Runchao; Guo, Zhaojie


    A Cenozoic structural inversion event from transtension to transpression involving salt tectonics has been uncovered in the Yingxiong Range, the western Qaidam Basin. Seismic reflection data show that there are two common structural styles in the Yingxiong Range: (1) the positive flower structure; (2) the thrust-controlled fold at shallow depth and the positive inverted flower structure at deep levels, which are separated by a salt layer in the upper Xiaganchaigou Formation. The Yingxiong Range experienced a first stage of transtension in the Eocene, induced by the Altyn Tagh Fault, and a second stage of transpression from the early Miocene to present, jointly controlled by the Altyn Tagh and Eastern Kunlun Faults. The Eocene transtension produced numerous NW-striking right-stepping en-échelon transtensional normal faults or fractures in the Yingxiong Range. At the same time, evaporites and mudstone were deposited in the vicinity of these faults. In the early Miocene, the Eocene transtensional normal faults were reactivated in a reverse sense, and the thrust-controlled folds at shallow depth started to form simultaneously. With transpression enhanced in the late Cenozoic, positive flower structures directly formed in places without evaporites. The Cenozoic transtension to transpression inversion of the Yingxiong Range is the result of strike-slip superimposition controlled by the Altyn Tagh and Eastern Kunlun Faults in time and space.

  20. Pseudo waveform inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Chang Soo; Park, Keun Pil [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Jung Hee; Hyun, Byung Koo; Shin, Sung Ryul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The seismic reflection exploration technique which is one of the geophysical methods for oil exploration became effectively to image the subsurface structure with rapid development of computer. However, the imagining of subsurface based on the conventional data processing is almost impossible to obtain the information on physical properties of the subsurface such as velocity and density. Since seismic data are implicitly function of velocities of subsurface, it is necessary to develop the inversion method that can delineate the velocity structure using seismic topography and waveform inversion. As a tool to perform seismic inversion, seismic forward modeling program using ray tracing should be developed. In this study, we have developed the algorithm that calculate the travel time of the complex geologic structure using shooting ray tracing by subdividing the geologic model into blocky structure having the constant velocity. With the travel time calculation, the partial derivatives of travel time can be calculated efficiently without difficulties. Since the current ray tracing technique has a limitation to calculate the travel times for extremely complex geologic model, our aim in the future is to develop the powerful ray tracer using the finite element technique. After applying the pseudo waveform inversion to the seismic data of Korea offshore, we can obtain the subsurface velocity model and use the result in bring up the quality of the seismic data processing. If conventional seismic data processing and seismic interpretation are linked with this inversion technique, the high quality of seismic data processing can be expected to image the structure of the subsurface. Future research area is to develop the powerful ray tracer of ray tracing which can calculate the travel times for the extremely complex geologic model. (author). 39 refs., 32 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Semiautomatic approaches to account for 3-D distortion of the electric field from local, near-surface structures in 3-D resistivity inversions of 3-D regional magnetotelluric data (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.


    This report summarizes the results of three-dimensional (3-D) resistivity inversion simulations that were performed to account for local 3-D distortion of the electric field in the presence of 3-D regional structure, without any a priori information on the actual 3-D distribution of the known subsurface geology. The methodology used a 3-D geologic model to create a 3-D resistivity forward (“known”) model that depicted the subsurface resistivity structure expected for the input geologic configuration. The calculated magnetotelluric response of the modeled resistivity structure was assumed to represent observed magnetotelluric data and was subsequently used as input into a 3-D resistivity inverse model that used an iterative 3-D algorithm to estimate 3-D distortions without any a priori geologic information. A publicly available inversion code, WSINV3DMT, was used for all of the simulated inversions, initially using the default parameters, and subsequently using adjusted inversion parameters. A semiautomatic approach of accounting for the static shift using various selections of the highest frequencies and initial models was also tested. The resulting 3-D resistivity inversion simulation was compared to the “known” model and the results evaluated. The inversion approach that produced the lowest misfit to the various local 3-D distortions was an inversion that employed an initial model volume resistivity that was nearest to the maximum resistivities in the near-surface layer.

  2. An inverse analysis reveals limitations of the soil-CO2 profile method to calculate CO2 production and efflux for well-structured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Corre


    Full Text Available Soil respiration is the second largest flux in the global carbon cycle, yet the underlying below-ground process, carbon dioxide (CO2 production, is not well understood because it can not be measured in the field. CO2 production has frequently been calculated from the vertical CO2 diffusive flux divergence, known as "soil-CO2 profile method". This relatively simple model requires knowledge of soil CO2 concentration profiles and soil diffusive properties. Application of the method for a tropical lowland forest soil in Panama gave inconsistent results when using diffusion coefficients (D calculated based on relationships with soil porosity and moisture ("physically modeled" D. Our objective was to investigate whether these inconsistencies were related to (1 the applied interpolation and solution methods and/or (2 uncertainties in the physically modeled profile of D. First, we show that the calculated CO2 production strongly depends on the function used to interpolate between measured CO2 concentrations. Secondly, using an inverse analysis of the soil-CO2 profile method, we deduce which D would be required to explain the observed CO2 concentrations, assuming the model perception is valid. In the top soil, this inversely modeled D closely resembled the physically modeled D. In the deep soil, however, the inversely modeled D increased sharply while the physically modeled D did not. When imposing a constraint during the fit parameter optimization, a solution could be found where this deviation between the physically and inversely modeled D disappeared. A radon (Rn mass balance model, in which diffusion was calculated based on the physically modeled or constrained inversely modeled D, simulated observed Rn profiles reasonably well. However, the CO2 concentrations which corresponded to the constrained inversely modeled D were too small compared to the measurements. We suggest that, in well-structured soils, a missing description of steady state CO2

  3. Stochastic velocity inversion of seismic reflection/refraction traveltime data for rift structure of the southwest Barents Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Stephen A.; Faleide, Jan Inge; Hauser, Juerg


    reflection profiles. We utilize layer-based raytracing in a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion to determine a probabilistic velocity model constraining the sedimentary rocks, crystalline crust, and uppermost mantle in a complex tectonic regime. The profile images a wide range of crustal types and ages...... with the amount of overlap derived from published plate reconstructions. Local β factors approach 3, where Bjørnøya Basin reaches a depth of more than 13 km. Volcanics, carbonates, salt, diagenesis and metamorphism make deep sedimentary basin fill difficult to distinguish from original, pre-rift crystalline crust...

  4. Effects of three-dimensional crustal structure and smoothing constraint on earthquake slip inversions: Case study of the Mw6.3 2009 L'Aquila earthquake

    KAUST Repository

    Gallovič, František


    Earthquake slip inversions aiming to retrieve kinematic rupture characteristics typically assume 1-D velocity models and a flat Earth surface. However, heterogeneous nature of the crust and presence of rough topography lead to seismic scattering and other wave propagation phenomena, introducing complex 3-D effects on ground motions. Here we investigate how the use of imprecise Green\\'s functions - achieved by including 3-D velocity perturbations and topography - affect slip-inversion results. We create sets of synthetic seismograms, including 3-D heterogeneous Earth structure and topography, and then invert these synthetics using Green\\'s functions computed for a horizontally layered 1-D Earth model. We apply a linear inversion, regularized by smoothing and positivity constraint, and examine in detail how smoothing effects perturb the solution. Among others, our tests and resolution analyses demonstrate how imprecise Green\\'s functions introduce artificial slip rate multiples especially at shallow depths and that the timing of the peak slip rate is hardly affected by the chosen smoothing. The investigation is extended to recordings of the 2009 Mw6.3 L\\'Aquila earthquake, considering both strong motion and high-rate GPS stations. We interpret the inversion results taking into account the lessons learned from the synthetic tests. The retrieved slip model resembles previously published solutions using geodetic data, showing a large-slip asperity southeast of the hypocenter. In agreement with other studies, we find evidence for fast but subshear rupture propagation in updip direction, followed by a delayed propagation along strike. We conjecture that rupture was partially inhibited by a deep localized velocity-strengthening patch that subsequently experienced afterslip.

  5. Three-dimensional Inversion of High Resolution Ground-penetrating Radar for the Stochastic Structure of Velocity Heterogeneity of a Fluvial Aquifer (United States)

    Lindsay, K. M.; Irving, J.; Bradford, J. H.


    Knowledge of the spatial correlation structure of the hydraulic properties in the shallow subsurface is critical for the detailed characterization of near surface aquifers and realistic simulation of flow and transport processes. While the vertical correlation structure is often well constrained by borehole analysis, the lateral correlation structure is often poorly estimated, due to unreliable interpolation between sparsely spaced boreholes and methods that only capture bulk aquifer properties (e.g. pump tests, slug injections). Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) velocity measurements are highly sensitive to changes in water content. In the saturated zone, water content is equivalent to porosity, making ground-penetrating radar a promising tool for extraction of lateral correlation lengths of important hydrologic properties in the near surface. Previous work has shown that there is a simple relationship relating the 2D autocorrelation of a GPR reflection image and the underlying velocity field, allowing for a Monte Carlo inversion strategy to generate sets of parameters describing the autocorrelation of the velocity field, that are consistent with recorded GPR reflection data. We extend this method to the three-dimensional case and apply it to a realistic synthetic GPR dataset. Results obtained from applying this inversion strategy to the 3-D case are similar to the results from previous work done on the 2-D case, and indicate that the inverse solution is non-unique. Multiple combinations of vertical and lateral correlation parameters describing the velocity heterogeneity can generate GPR reflection images with the same 3-D autocorrelations. Despite the non-uniqueness, the aspect ratios of the extracted parameter pairs are the same, indicating that the aspect ratios of the velocity heterogeneity can be reliably extracted. We are currently applying this method to a densely sampled GPR dataset collected at the Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS). The BHRS is an

  6. Dependence of local electronic structure in p-type GaN on crystal polarity and presence of inversion domain boundaries


    Zhou, X; Yu, E T; Green, D S; Speck, J S


    Scanning probe techniques including scanning capacitance microscopy, scanning capacitance spectroscopy, scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy, and atomic force microscopy have been used to assess structure and local electronic properties of Ga-face and N-face p-type GaN and of inversion domain boundaries in p-type GaN. Epitaxial layers of p-type GaN were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy, and by adjustment of the Ga:N flux ratio samples containing both Ga-face and N-face material were obtained...

  7. Resolving the fine-scale deformation structure of continental hyperextension at the deep Galicia rift margin using seismic full waveform inversion. (United States)

    Davy, R. G.; Morgan, J. V.; Minshull, T. A.; Bull, J. M.; Bayrakci, G.


    Hyperextension of the continental crust during ultra-slow, magma-poor rifting is accommodated by a series of complex fault geometries, preceding continental breakup. At such margins there exists a discrepancy between the extension observed along these fault systems and the total observed thinning of the continental lithosphere, with several competing hypotheses on the responsible mechanism. Despite this, it is agreed that a significant amount of the observed discrepancy is the result of unaccounted sub-seismic fault structure. In order to seismically image these fine scale structures it is imperative to develop accurate and well resolved velocity models of the subsurface, for the purpose of migrating reflection seismic images. Velocity models with the required resolution are unattainable using classic travel time tomography. However, seismic full waveform inversion could provide a suitable alternative to produce the required velocity models, with the method having the ability to resolve velocity structure up to an order of magnitude greater than that of travel time tomography. In this study we apply acoustic full waveform inversion to a 2D wide-angle seismic data set, collected at the hyperextended domain of the deep Galicia rift margin. Despite the challenging environment and dataset, our results show promising increases in the resolution of existing velocity models, particularly in correlation to the normal faulting associated with highly deformed continental fault blocks in the distal hyperextended domain.

  8. One dimensional P wave velocity structure of the crust beneath west Java and accurate hypocentre locations from local earthquake inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardiyono; Santosa, Bagus Jaya


    A one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and station corrections for the West Java zone were computed by inverting P-wave arrival times recorded on a local seismic network of 14 stations. A total of 61 local events with a minimum of 6 P-phases, rms 0.56 s and a maximum gap of 299° were selected. Comparison with previous earthquake locations shows an improvement for the relocated earthquakes. Tests were carried out to verify the robustness of inversion results in order to corroborate the conclusions drawn out from our reasearch. The obtained minimum 1-D velocity model can be used to improve routine earthquake locations and represents a further step toward more detailed seismotectonic studies in this area of West Java.

  9. One dimensional P wave velocity structure of the crust beneath west Java and accurate hypocentre locations from local earthquake inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supardiyono; Santosa, Bagus Jaya [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Surabaya, Surabaya (Indonesia) and Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya (Indonesia); Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya (Indonesia)


    A one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and station corrections for the West Java zone were computed by inverting P-wave arrival times recorded on a local seismic network of 14 stations. A total of 61 local events with a minimum of 6 P-phases, rms 0.56 s and a maximum gap of 299 Degree-Sign were selected. Comparison with previous earthquake locations shows an improvement for the relocated earthquakes. Tests were carried out to verify the robustness of inversion results in order to corroborate the conclusions drawn out from our reasearch. The obtained minimum 1-D velocity model can be used to improve routine earthquake locations and represents a further step toward more detailed seismotectonic studies in this area of West Java.

  10. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus


    For non-linear inverse problems, the mathematical structure of the mapping from model parameters to data is usually unknown or partly unknown. Absence of information about the mathematical structure of this function prevents us from presenting an analytical solution, so our solution depends on our...... ability to produce efficient search algorithms. Such algorithms may be completely problem-independent (which is the case for the so-called 'meta-heuristics' or 'blind-search' algorithms), or they may be designed with the structure of the concrete problem in mind. We show that pure meta...

  11. Channelling versus inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gale, A.S.; Surlyk, Finn; Anderskouv, Kresten


    Evidence from regional stratigraphical patterns in Santonian−Campanian chalk is used to infer the presence of a very broad channel system (5 km across) with a depth of at least 50 m, running NNW−SSE across the eastern Isle of Wight; only the western part of the channel wall and fill is exposed. W......−Campanian chalks in the eastern Isle of Wight, involving penecontemporaneous tectonic inversion of the underlying basement structure, are rejected....

  12. Competing effect of spin-orbit torque terms on perpendicular magnetization switching in structures with multiple inversion asymmetries


    Yu, Guoqiang; Akyol, Mustafa; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Li, Xiang; He, Congli; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Alzate, Juan G.; Lang, Murong; Wong, Kin L.; Khalili Amiri, Pedram; Wang, Kang L.


    Current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in structurally asymmetric multilayers have been used to efficiently manipulate magnetization. In a structure with vertical symmetry breaking, a damping-like SOT can deterministically switch a perpendicular magnet, provided an in-plane magnetic field is applied. Recently, it has been further demonstrated that the in-plane magnetic field can be eliminated by introducing a new type of perpendicular field-like SOT via incorporating a lateral structural a...

  13. Markov Chain Monte Carlo inversion of temperature and salinity structure of an internal solitary wave packet from marine seismic data (United States)

    Tang, Qunshu; Hobbs, Richard; Zheng, Chan; Biescas, Berta; Caiado, Camila


    Marine seismic reflection technique is used to observe the strong ocean dynamic process of nonlinear internal solitary waves (ISWs or solitons) in the near-surface water. Analysis of ISWs is problematical because of their transient nature and limitations of classical physical oceanography methods. This work explores a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach to recover the temperature and salinity of ISW field using the seismic reflectivity data and in situ hydrographic data. The MCMC approach is designed to directly sample the posterior probability distributions of temperature and salinity which are the solutions of the system under investigation. The principle improvement is the capability of incorporating uncertainties in observations and prior models which then provide quantified uncertainties in the output model parameters. We tested the MCMC approach on two acoustic reflectivity data sets one synthesized from a CTD cast and the other derived from multichannel seismic reflections. This method finds the solutions faithfully within the significantly narrowed confidence intervals from the provided priors. Combined with a low frequency initial model interpreted from seismic horizons of ISWs, the MCMC method is used to compute the finescale temperature, salinity, acoustic velocity, and density of ISW field. The statistically derived results are equivalent to the conventional linearized inversion method. However, the former provides us the quantified uncertainties of the temperature and salinity along the whole section whilst the latter does not. These results are the first time ISWs have been mapped with sufficient detail for further analysis of their dynamic properties.

  14. Inverse problem studies of biochemical systems with structure identification of S-systems by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm. (United States)

    Sarode, Ketan Dinkar; Kumar, V Ravi; Kulkarni, B D


    An efficient inverse problem approach for parameter estimation, state and structure identification from dynamic data by embedding training functions in a genetic algorithm methodology (ETFGA) is proposed for nonlinear dynamical biosystems using S-system canonical models. Use of multiple shooting and decomposition approach as training functions has been shown for handling of noisy datasets and computational efficiency in studying the inverse problem. The advantages of the methodology are brought out systematically by studying it for three biochemical model systems of interest. By studying a small-scale gene regulatory system described by a S-system model, the first example demonstrates the use of ETFGA for the multifold aims of the inverse problem. The estimation of a large number of parameters with simultaneous state and network identification is shown by training a generalized S-system canonical model with noisy datasets. The results of this study bring out the superior performance of ETFGA on comparison with other metaheuristic approaches. The second example studies the regulation of cAMP oscillations in Dictyostelium cells now assuming limited availability of noisy data. Here, flexibility of the approach to incorporate partial system information in the identification process is shown and its effect on accuracy and predictive ability of the estimated model are studied. The third example studies the phenomenological toy model of the regulation of circadian oscillations in Drosophila that follows rate laws different from S-system power-law. For the limited noisy data, using a priori information about properties of the system, we could estimate an alternate S-system model that showed robust oscillatory behavior with predictive abilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neutron structural characterization, inversion degree and transport properties of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel prepared by the hydroxide route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagua, A.; Lescano, Gabriela M. [Departamento de Química, Laboratorio de Fisicoquímica Inorgánica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, INQUISUR, 8000 Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Alonso, J.A., E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Martínez-Coronado, R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Fernández-Díaz, M.T. [Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156X, Grenoble F-38042 (France); Morán, E. [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Graphical abstract: A pure specimen has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. This spinel, studied by NPD, shows an important inversion degree, λ = 0.80. A bond-valence study shows that the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected 3+ and 2+ values, respectively. The mixed valence Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} accounts for a hopping mechanism between adjacent octahedral sites, leading to a significant conductivity. Highlights: ► A low-temperature hydroxide route allowed preparing almost pure specimens of NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}. ► NPD essential to determine inversion degree; contrasting Ni and Mn for neutrons. ► Bond valence establishes valence state of octahedral and tetrahedral Ni and Mn ions. ► Thermal analysis, transport measurements complement characterization of this oxide. ► A structure–properties relationship is established. -- Abstract: The title compound has been synthesized by the hydroxide route. The crystal structure has been investigated at room temperature from high-resolution neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data. It crystallizes in a cubic spinel structure, space group Fd3{sup ¯}m, Z = 8, with a = 8.3940(2) Å at 295 K. The crystallographic formula is (Ni{sub 0.202(1)}Mn{sub 0.798(1)}){sub 8a}(Ni{sub 0.790(1)}Mn{sub 1.210(1)}){sub 16d}O{sub 4} where 8a and 16d stand for the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel structure, respectively. There is a significant inversion degree of the spinel structure, λ = 0.80. In fact, the variable parameter for the oxygen position, u = 0.2636(4), is far from that expected (u = 0.25) for normal spinels. From a bond-valence study, it seems that the valence distribution in NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel is not as trivial as expected (Ni{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 3+}), but clearly the tetrahedral Mn ions are divalent whereas the octahedral Mn and Ni are slightly oxidized from the expected +3 and +2 values, respectively. The mixed valence observed at

  16. Codimension zero laminations are inverse limits


    Lozano Rojo, Álvaro


    The aim of the paper is to investigate the relation between inverse limit of branched manifolds and codimension zero laminations. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for such an inverse limit to be a lamination. We also show that codimension zero laminations are inverse limits of branched manifolds. The inverse limit structure allows us to show that equicontinuous codimension zero laminations preserves a distance function on transversals.

  17. Upper-crustal velocity structure along 150 km of the Mendeleev Ridge from tomographic inversion of long-offset refraction data collected during HLY0602 (United States)

    Vermeesch, P. M.; van Avendonk, H. J.; Lawver, L. A.


    In the summer of 2006 we acquired a unique seismic refraction data set on the Chukchi Borderlands and Mendeleev Ridge utilizing USCGC Healy and two helicopters. The array on the Mendeleev Ridge consisted of 14 instrument sites with 12 km spacing between instruments. On every site we deployed a Sea-Ice Seismometer (S- IS) especially designed for this experiment in the ice-covered part of the Arctic Ocean. Each S-IS contained a vertical component geophone that was buried in the ice and a hydrophone that was hanging from the ice edge in the water. From the 14 instrument sites, 10 contained useful data with refracted crustal arrivals up to offsets of 40 km. Because of extensive drifting of the receivers (40 km in 5 days and containing numerous loops), and because of the irregular geometry of airgun shots due to the problems of sailing through ice-covered seas, a 3D ray-shooting code was developed to calculate ray paths within a 3D velocity model that extends along 150 km in the X- direction and along 35 km in the Y-direction. Using the velocity model proposed by Lebedeva-Ivanova et al. (2006) we observe that the maximum depth of our calculated ray paths is 11 km below sealevel. Using all the available data, the Root Mean Square (RMS) difference between observed and calculated travel-times is of the order of 500 ms. Initially a simple 1D travel-time inversion was developed to constrain the velocity structure of the basement underneath a layer of water (3D) and a layer of sediment (1D). This inversion was carried out on 2 pairs of receivers: one pair in the NNE and one more towards the SSW part of the line. Inversion of S-IS 45N-42 (NNE) results in a model with a velocity of 5.5 km s-1 at the top of the basement, slowly increasing to a velocity of 5.7 km s-1 at 3 km below the top of the basement (RMS = 117 ms). Inversion of S-IS 49-45S (SSW) results in a model with a velocity of 4.8 km s-1 at the top of the basement, increasing to a velocity of 5.9 km s-1 at 3 km below

  18. The Inverse Kinematic Problem Solution for the Slider-crank Mechanism-based Parallel Structure Manipulator with Three Degrees of Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Romanov


    Full Text Available The paper discusses a mechanism, which is a modification of the parallel kinematics mechanisms with three degrees of freedom (DOF based on the slider-crank mechanism. The mechanism comprises a lower fixed and an upper movable platforms. The upper platform is connected to the lower one by six movable elements. Three of these elements are rods attached to the bases by means of spherical joints and three other ones have a slider-crank structure.An approach based on the mathematical modeling methods to solve an inverse kinematics is presented. The inverse kinematics problem was formulated as follows: to determine the value of crank angles, allowing us to achieve a specified position of the upper platform in space. To check the correctness of the solution was made an experimental unit. Also a set of required sensors and control boards were defined and an experiment design was provided. The paper presents comparison results of measurements with the calculated values of the generalized coordinates and draws appropriate conclusions. One of the distinctive features of the proposed approach is that the motor rotation angles are used as the generalized coordinates. So the paper formulates the possibilities to use the constructed model for the further development of control systems on its basis.

  19. Joint inversion of ambient noise surface wave and gravity data to image the upper crustal structure of the Tanlu fault zone to the southeast of Hefei, China (United States)

    Wang, K.; Gu, N.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, G.


    The Tanlu fault is a major fault located in the eastern China, which stretches 2400 km long from Tancheng in the north to Lujiang in the south. It is generally believed that the Tanlu fault zone was formed in Proterozoic era and underwent a series of complicated processes since then. To understand the upper crustal structure around the southern segment of the Tanlu fault zone, in 2017 we deployed 53 short period seismic stations around the fault zone to the southeast of Hefei, capital city of Anhui province. The temporary array continuously recorded the data for about one month from 17 March to 26 April 2017. The seismic array spans an area of about 30km x 30Km with an average station spacing of about 5-6km. The vertical component data were used for extracting Rayleigh wave phase and group velocity dispersion data for the period of 0.2 to 5 seconds. To improve imaging the upper crustal structure of the fault zone, we jointly inverted the surface wave dispersion data and the gravity data because they have complementary strengths. To combine surface wave dispersion data and gravity observations into a single inversion framework, we used an empirical relationship between seismic velocity and density of Maceira and Ammon (2009). By finding the optimal relative weighting between two data types, we are able to find a shear wave velocity (Vs) model that fits both data types. The joint inversion can resolve the upper crustal fault zone structure down to about 7 km in depth. The Vs model shows that in this region the Tanlu fault is associated with high velocity anomalies, corresponding well to the Feidong complex seen on the surface. This indicates that the Tanlu fault zone may provide a channel for the intrusion of hot materials.

  20. P and S velocity structure of the crust and the upper mantle beneath central Java from local tomography inversion (United States)

    Koulakov, I.; Bohm, M.; Asch, G.; Lühr, B.-G.; Manzanares, A.; Brotopuspito, K. S.; Fauzi, Pak; Purbawinata, M. A.; Puspito, N. T.; Ratdomopurbo, A.; Kopp, H.; Rabbel, W.; Shevkunova, E.


    Here we present the results of local source tomographic inversion beneath central Java. The data set was collected by a temporary seismic network. More than 100 stations were operated for almost half a year. About 13,000 P and S arrival times from 292 events were used to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs models of the crust and the mantle wedge beneath central Java. Source location and determination of the 3-D velocity models were performed simultaneously based on a new iterative tomographic algorithm, LOTOS-06. Final event locations clearly image the shape of the subduction zone beneath central Java. The dipping angle of the slab increases gradually from almost horizontal to about 70°. A double seismic zone is observed in the slab between 80 and 150 km depth. The most striking feature of the resulting P and S models is a pronounced low-velocity anomaly in the crust, just north of the volcanic arc (Merapi-Lawu anomaly (MLA)). An algorithm for estimation of the amplitude value, which is presented in the paper, shows that the difference between the fore arc and MLA velocities at a depth of 10 km reaches 30% and 36% in P and S models, respectively. The value of the Vp/Vs ratio inside the MLA is more than 1.9. This shows a probable high content of fluids and partial melts within the crust. In the upper mantle we observe an inclined low-velocity anomaly which links the cluster of seismicity at 100 km depth with MLA. This anomaly might reflect ascending paths of fluids released from the slab. The reliability of all these patterns was tested thoroughly.

  1. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasco, D.W.


    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly one dimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons

  2. Intersections, ideals, and inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, D.W.


    Techniques from computational algebra provide a framework for treating large classes of inverse problems. In particular, the discretization of many types of integral equations and of partial differential equations with undetermined coefficients lead to systems of polynomial equations. The structure of the solution set of such equations may be examined using algebraic techniques.. For example, the existence and dimensionality of the solution set may be determined. Furthermore, it is possible to bound the total number of solutions. The approach is illustrated by a numerical application to the inverse problem associated with the Helmholtz equation. The algebraic methods are used in the inversion of a set of transverse electric (TE) mode magnetotelluric data from Antarctica. The existence of solutions is demonstrated and the number of solutions is found to be finite, bounded from above at 50. The best fitting structure is dominantly onedimensional with a low crustal resistivity of about 2 ohm-m. Such a low value is compatible with studies suggesting lower surface wave velocities than found in typical stable cratons.

  3. Design and synthesis of novel ROR inverse agonists with a dibenzosilole scaffold as a hydrophobic core structure. (United States)

    Toyama, Hirozumi; Nakamura, Masaharu; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Fujii, Shinya


    Molecular structure calculations indicated that the dibenzosilole skeleton could be well superposed on phenanthridinone, which is a structural component of ligands of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors (RORs). Therefore, we designed, synthesized and biologically evaluated a series of novel ROR ligands based on the dibenzosilole scaffold as a hydrophobic core structure. Dibenzosilole derivatives bearing a hexafluoro-2-hydroxypropyl group on the benzene ring exhibited significant ROR-inhibitory activity, comparable to that of the lead phenanthridinone derivative 5. Our results indicate that the dibenzosilole skeleton would be a useful scaffold for developing novel biologically active compounds, and that cis-amide structure can be replaced by an alkylsilyl functionality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Propriétés thermiques et morphologiques de la couronne solaire : estimation de la robustesse des diagnostics par mesure d'émission différentielle (DEM) et reconstructions tomographiques des pôles


    Guennou, Chloé


    Progress in our understanding of the solar corona properties is highly dependant of the emipirical or semi-empirical determination of the plasma fundamental parameters, such as magnetic field, density and temperature. However, there is no direct measurements of such quantities; the integration along the line of sight considerably complicates the interpretations of the observations, due to the superimposition of structures with different properties. To avoid this ambiguity, there exist several...

  5. Study of structural phase transformation and hysteresis behavior of inverse-spinel α-ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method (United States)

    Dabagh, Shadab; Chaudhary, Kashif; Haider, Zuhaib; Ali, Jalil


    Substitution of cobalt (Co2+) ions in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) with copper (Cu2+) and aluminum (Al3+) ions allows variations in their electric and magnetic properties which can be optimized for specific applications. In this article, synthesis of inverse-spinel Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) nanoparticles by substituting Cu2+ and Al3+ ions in CoFe2O4 via co-precipitation method is reported. By controlling copper and aluminum (Cu-Al) substituent ratio, the magnetic moment and coercivity of synthesized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is optimized. The role of substituents on the structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline ferrite is investigated. The Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x≤ 0.8) nanoparticles with crystallite size in the range of 23.1-26.5 nm are observed, 26.5 nm for x = 0.0-23.1 nm for x = 0.8. The inverse-spinel structure of synthesized Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) nano-particles is confirmed by characteristic vibrational bands at tetrahedral and octahedral sites using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A decreases in coercive field and magnetic moment is observed as Cu-Al contents are increased (x = 0.0-0.8). The positive anisotropy of synthesized particles Co1-xCuxFe2-xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8) is obtained in the range 1.96 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.0 to 0.29 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.8.

  6. Modeling of Sensor Placement Strategy for Shape Sensing and Structural Health Monitoring of a Wing-Shaped Sandwich Panel Using Inverse Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Kefal


    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of sensor density and alignment for three-dimensional shape sensing of an airplane-wing-shaped thick panel subjected to three different loading conditions, i.e., bending, torsion, and membrane loads. For shape sensing analysis of the panel, the Inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM was used together with the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT, in order to enable accurate predictions for transverse deflection and through-the-thickness variation of interfacial displacements. In this study, the iFEM-RZT algorithm is implemented by utilizing a novel three-node C°-continuous inverse-shell element, known as i3-RZT. The discrete strain data is generated numerically through performing a high-fidelity finite element analysis on the wing-shaped panel. This numerical strain data represents experimental strain readings obtained from surface patched strain gauges or embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. Three different sensor placement configurations with varying density and alignment of strain data were examined and their corresponding displacement contours were compared with those of reference solutions. The results indicate that a sparse distribution of FBG sensors (uniaxial strain measurements, aligned in only the longitudinal direction, is sufficient for predicting accurate full-field membrane and bending responses (deformed shapes of the panel, including a true zigzag representation of interfacial displacements. On the other hand, a sparse deployment of strain rosettes (triaxial strain measurements is essentially enough to produce torsion shapes that are as accurate as those of predicted by a dense sensor placement configuration. Hence, the potential applicability and practical aspects of i3-RZT/iFEM methodology is proven for three-dimensional shape-sensing of future aerospace structures.

  7. Modeling of Sensor Placement Strategy for Shape Sensing and Structural Health Monitoring of a Wing-Shaped Sandwich Panel Using Inverse Finite Element Method. (United States)

    Kefal, Adnan; Yildiz, Mehmet


    This paper investigated the effect of sensor density and alignment for three-dimensional shape sensing of an airplane-wing-shaped thick panel subjected to three different loading conditions, i.e., bending, torsion, and membrane loads. For shape sensing analysis of the panel, the Inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) was used together with the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT), in order to enable accurate predictions for transverse deflection and through-the-thickness variation of interfacial displacements. In this study, the iFEM-RZT algorithm is implemented by utilizing a novel three-node C°-continuous inverse-shell element, known as i3-RZT. The discrete strain data is generated numerically through performing a high-fidelity finite element analysis on the wing-shaped panel. This numerical strain data represents experimental strain readings obtained from surface patched strain gauges or embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Three different sensor placement configurations with varying density and alignment of strain data were examined and their corresponding displacement contours were compared with those of reference solutions. The results indicate that a sparse distribution of FBG sensors (uniaxial strain measurements), aligned in only the longitudinal direction, is sufficient for predicting accurate full-field membrane and bending responses (deformed shapes) of the panel, including a true zigzag representation of interfacial displacements. On the other hand, a sparse deployment of strain rosettes (triaxial strain measurements) is essentially enough to produce torsion shapes that are as accurate as those of predicted by a dense sensor placement configuration. Hence, the potential applicability and practical aspects of i3-RZT/iFEM methodology is proven for three-dimensional shape-sensing of future aerospace structures.

  8. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.


    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  9. Fuzzy Inverse Compactness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halis Aygün


    Full Text Available We introduce definitions of fuzzy inverse compactness, fuzzy inverse countable compactness, and fuzzy inverse Lindelöfness on arbitrary -fuzzy sets in -fuzzy topological spaces. We prove that the proposed definitions are good extensions of the corresponding concepts in ordinary topology and obtain different characterizations of fuzzy inverse compactness.

  10. Testing earthquake source inversion methodologies

    KAUST Repository

    Page, Morgan T.


    Source Inversion Validation Workshop; Palm Springs, California, 11-12 September 2010; Nowadays earthquake source inversions are routinely performed after large earthquakes and represent a key connection between recorded seismic and geodetic data and the complex rupture process at depth. The resulting earthquake source models quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of ruptures. They are also used to provide a rapid assessment of the severity of an earthquake and to estimate losses. However, because of uncertainties in the data, assumed fault geometry and velocity structure, and chosen rupture parameterization, it is not clear which features of these source models are robust. Improved understanding of the uncertainty and reliability of earthquake source inversions will allow the scientific community to use the robust features of kinematic inversions to more thoroughly investigate the complexity of the rupture process and to better constrain other earthquakerelated computations, such as ground motion simulations and static stress change calculations.

  11. Parameter estimation and inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Aster, Richard C; Thurber, Clifford H


    Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems primarily serves as a textbook for advanced undergraduate and introductory graduate courses. Class notes have been developed and reside on the World Wide Web for faciliting use and feedback by teaching colleagues. The authors'' treatment promotes an understanding of fundamental and practical issus associated with parameter fitting and inverse problems including basic theory of inverse problems, statistical issues, computational issues, and an understanding of how to analyze the success and limitations of solutions to these probles. The text is also a practical resource for general students and professional researchers, where techniques and concepts can be readily picked up on a chapter-by-chapter basis.Parameter Estimation and Inverse Problems is structured around a course at New Mexico Tech and is designed to be accessible to typical graduate students in the physical sciences who may not have an extensive mathematical background. It is accompanied by a Web site that...

  12. Mean shear flow in recirculating turbulent urban convection and the plume-puff eddy structure below stably stratified inversion layers (United States)

    Fan, Yifan; Hunt, Julian; Yin, Shi; Li, Yuguo


    The mean and random components of the velocity field at very low wind speeds in a convective boundary layer (CBL) over a wide urban area are dominated by large eddy structures—either turbulent plumes or puffs. In the mixed layer at either side of the edges of urban areas, local mean recirculating flows are generated by sharp horizontal temperature gradients. These recirculation regions also control the mean shear profile and the bent-over plumes across the mixed layer, extending from the edge to the center of the urban area. A simplified physical model was proposed to calculate the mean flow speed at the edges of urban areas. Water tank experiments were carried out to study the mean recirculating flow and turbulent plume structures. The mean speed at urban edges was measured by the particle image velocimetry (PIV), and the plume structures were visualized by the thermalchromic liquid crystal (TLC) sheets. The horizontal velocity calculated by the physical model at the urban edge agrees well with that measured in the water tank experiments, with a root mean square of 0.03. The experiments also show that the pattern of the mean flow over the urban area changes significantly if the shape of the heated area changes or if the form of the heated urban area becomes sub-divided, for example by the creation of nearby but separated "satellite cities." The convective flow over the square urban area is characterized as the diagonal inflow at the lower level and the side outflow at the upper level. The outflow of the small city can be drawn into the inflow region of the large city in the "satellite city" case. A conceptual analysis shows how these changes significantly affect the patterns of dispersion of pollutants in different types of urban areas.

  13. 3D inverse-opal structured Li4Ti5O12 Anode for fast Li-Ion storage capabilities (United States)

    Kim, Dahye; Quang, Nguyen Duc; Hien, Truong Thi; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Kim, Chunjoong; Kim, Dojin


    Since the demand for high power Li-ion batteries (LIBs) is increasing, spinel-structured lithium titanate, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), as the anode material has attracted great attention because of its excellent cycle retention, good thermal stability, high rate capability, and so on. However, LTO shows relatively low conductivity due to empty 3 d orbital of Ti4+ state. Nanoscale architectures can shorten electron conduction path, thus such low electronic conductivity can be overcome while Li+ can be easily accessed due to large surface area. Herein, three dimensional bicontinuous LTO electrodes were prepared via close-packed self-assembly with polystyrene (PS) spheres followed by removal of them, which leads to no blockage of Li+ ion transportation pathways as well as fast electron conduction. 3D bicontinuous LTO electrodes showed high-rate lithium storage capability (103 mAh/g at 20 C), which is promising as the power sources that require rapid electrochemical response.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Full-Field Reconstruction of Structural Deformations and Loads from Measured Strain Data on a Wing Using the Inverse Finite Element Method (United States)

    Miller, Eric J.; Manalo, Russel; Tessler, Alexander


    A study was undertaken to investigate the measurement of wing deformation and internal loads using measured strain data. Future aerospace vehicle research depends on the ability to accurately measure the deformation and internal loads during ground testing and in flight. The approach uses the inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM). The iFEM is a robust, computationally efficient method that is well suited for real-time measurement of real-time structural deformation and loads. The method has been validated in previous work, but has yet to be applied to a large-scale test article. This work is in preparation for an upcoming loads test of a half-span test wing in the Flight Loads Laboratory at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). The method has been implemented into an efficient MATLAB® (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, Massachusetts) code for testing different sensor configurations. This report discusses formulation and implementation along with the preliminary results from a representative aerospace structure. The end goal is to investigate the modeling and sensor placement approach so that the best practices can be applied to future aerospace projects.

  15. Study of structural phase transformation and hysteresis behavior of inverse-spinel α-ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by co-precipitation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Dabagh


    Full Text Available Substitution of cobalt (Co2+ ions in cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4 with copper (Cu2+ and aluminum (Al3+ ions allows variations in their electric and magnetic properties which can be optimized for specific applications. In this article, synthesis of inverse-spinel Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 nanoparticles by substituting Cu2+ and Al3+ ions in CoFe2O4 via co-precipitation method is reported. By controlling copper and aluminum (Cu-Al substituent ratio, the magnetic moment and coercivity of synthesized cobalt ferrite nanoparticles is optimized. The role of substituents on the structure, particle size, morphology, and magnetic properties of nano-crystalline ferrite is investigated. The Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x≤ 0.8 nanoparticles with crystallite size in the range of 23.1–26.5 nm are observed, 26.5 nm for x = 0.0–23.1 nm for x = 0.8. The inverse-spinel structure of synthesized Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 nano-particles is confirmed by characteristic vibrational bands at tetrahedral and octahedral sites using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A decreases in coercive field and magnetic moment is observed as Cu-Al contents are increased (x = 0.0–0.8. The positive anisotropy of synthesized particles Co1−xCuxFe2−xAlxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.8 is obtained in the range 1.96 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.0 to 0.29 × 105 J/m3 for x = 0.8. Keywords: Co-precipitation method, XRD, Spinel ferrites, VSM, TEM

  16. Imaging the lithospheric structure of the Central Andes from the joint inversion of multiple seismic data sets (United States)

    Ward, Kevin Michael

    A lingering question in Cordilleran tectonics is how high plateaus form in the absence of continental collision. The type example of an active Cordilleran high plateau is found in the Central Andes of Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile. Along this section of the South American Cordillera, tectonics are primarily driven by subduction of the oceanic Nazca Plate beneath the continental South American Plate. Extending over 1,800 km along the active continental margin, the Central Andean Plateau (CAP) reaches a maximum width of around 400 km with several peaks in excess of 6 km. Numerous morphotectonic subdivisions of the CAP highlight the complex along-strike variability of the Plateau providing a natural laboratory for investigating the relative contribution of tectonic processes involved in building and maintaining Cordilleran high plateaus. The scale of this problem extends far beyond the scope of any one geoscientific discipline requiring a multidisciplinary approach. Our contribution to this scientific problem and the focus of the work presented in this dissertation is to better understand the current lithospheric and uppermost mantle structure along the CAP. This is achieved by integrating recent advances in seismic imaging techniques with a growing availability of high-quality seismic data into three distinct studies across the South American continent. In the first study, we present a shear-wave velocity model for the crust below the Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex (APVC). The target of this study is to constrain the crustal volume of a large magma reservoir inferred to exist below the APVC. When combined with geological and petrological constraints, the large-volume magma reservoir imaged in this study suggests a significant magmatic contribution to the growth of the Plateau in excess of one kilometer over the last ten million years. In addition to the tectonic contributions of this work, we introduce a new method of jointly inverting surface-wave dispersion

  17. Can we trace the eastern Gondwanan margin in Australia? New perspectives from transdimensional inversion of ambient noise for 3D shear velocity structure (United States)

    Pilia, S.; Rawlinson, N.; Direen, N. G.


    Although the notion of Rodinia is quite well accepted in the geoscience community, the location and nature of the eastern continental margin of the Gondwana fragment in Australia is still vague and remains one of the most hotly debated topics in Australian geology. Moreover, most post-Rodinian reconstructions models choose not to tackle the ';Tasmanian challenge', and focus only on the tectonic evolution of mainland southeast Australia, thereby conveniently ignoring the wider tectonic implications of Tasmania's complex geological history. One of the chief limitations of the tectonic reconstructions in this region is a lack of information on Paleozoic (possibly Proterozoic) basement structures. Vast Mesozoic-Cainozoic sedimentary and volcanic cover sequences obscure older outcrops and limit the power of direct observational techniques. In response to these challenges, our effort is focused on ambient seismic noise for imaging 3D crustal shear velocity structure using surface waves, which is capable of illuminating basement structure beneath younger cover. The data used in this study is sourced from the WOMBAT transportable seismic array, which is compounded by around 650 stations spanning the majority of southeastern Australia, including Tasmania and several islands in Bass Strait. To produce the highest quality Green's functions, careful processing of the data has been performed, after which group velocity dispersion measurements have been carried out using a frequency-time analysis method on the symmetric component of the empirical Green's functions (EGFs). Group dispersion measurements from the EGFs have been inverted using a novel hierarchical, transdimensional, Bayesian algorithm to obtain Rayleigh-wave group velocity maps at different periods from 2 to 30 s. The new approach has several advantages in that the number and distribution of model parameters are implicitly controlled by the data, in which the noise is treated as unknown in the inversion. This

  18. Inverse Mapping Structures onto Transparency (United States)

    Ferris, Kim F.; Sun, Xin; Whitney, Paul A.


    Composite materials have continued to make a number of improvements in physical properties (mechanical moduli), but lag behind in optical responses such as transparency. The hybrid nature of the composite material, particle and host matrix, divides light scattering issues into particle size regimes, where the particle size d >> lambda and approximations such as anomalous dispersion have proven useful, and dceramic-polymer composite as a case example, we have used black box optimization methods to examine the practical bounds for each regime and to assess design rules. These guidelines suggest limitations for particle morphologies and the optical properties of the component materials.

  19. Optimization for nonlinear inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, G.; Brandmayr, E.; Pinat, T.; Panza, G.F.


    The nonlinear inversion of geophysical data in general does not yield a unique solution, but a single model, representing the investigated field, is preferred for an easy geological interpretation of the observations. The analyzed region is constituted by a number of sub-regions where the multi-valued nonlinear inversion is applied, which leads to a multi-valued solution. Therefore, combining the values of the solution in each sub-region, many acceptable models are obtained for the entire region and this complicates the geological interpretation of geophysical investigations. In this paper are presented new methodologies, capable to select one model, among all acceptable ones, that satisfies different criteria of smoothness in the explored space of solutions. In this work we focus on the non-linear inversion of surface waves dispersion curves, which gives structural models of shear-wave velocity versus depth, but the basic concepts have a general validity. (author)

  20. Superconductivity in Pb inverse opal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Ali E.; Lee, Sergey B.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Baughman, Ray H.


    Type-II superconducting behavior was observed in highly periodic three-dimensional lead inverse opal prepared by infiltration of melted Pb in blue (D = 160 nm), green (D = 220 nm) and red (D = 300 nm) opals and followed by the extraction of the SiO 2 spheres by chemical etching. The onset of a broad phase transition (ΔT = 0.3 K) was shifted from T c = 7.196 K for bulk Pb to T c = 7.325 K. The upper critical field H c2 (3150 Oe) measured from high-field hysteresis loops exceeds the critical field for bulk lead (803 Oe) fourfold. Two well resolved peaks observed in the hysteresis loops were ascribed to flux penetration into the cylindrical void space that can be found in inverse opal structure and into the periodic structure of Pb nanoparticles. The red inverse opal shows pronounced oscillations of magnetic moment in the mixed state at low temperatures, T 0.9T c has been observed for all of the samples studied. The magnetic field periodicity of resistivity modulation is in good agreement with the lattice parameter of the inverse opal structure. We attribute the failure to observe pronounced modulation in magneto-resistive measurement to difficulties in the precision orientation of the sample along the magnetic field

  1. An Inverse Problem Study: Credit Risk Ratings as a Determinant of Corporate Governance and Capital Structure in Emerging Markets: Evidence from Chinese Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ManYing Kang


    Full Text Available Credit risk rating is shown to be a relevant determinant in order to estimate good corporate governance and to self-optimize capital structure. The conclusion is argued from a study on a selected (and justified sample of (182 companies listed on the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SHSE and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE and which use the same Shanghai Brilliance Credit Rating & Investors Service Company (SBCR assessment criteria, for their credit ratings, from 2010 to 2015. Practically, 3 debt ratios are examined in terms of 11 characteristic variables. Moreover, any relationship between credit rating and corporate governance can be thought to be an interesting finding. The relationship we find between credit rating and leverage is not as evident as that found by other researchers for different countries; it is significantly positively related to the outside director, firm size, tangible assets and firm age, and CEO and chairman office plurality. However, leverage is found to be negatively correlated with board size, profitability, growth opportunity, and non-debt tax shield. Credit rating is positively associated with leverage, but in a less significant way. CEO-Board chairship duality is insignificantly related to leverage. The non-debt tax shield is significantly correlated with leverage. The correlation coefficient between CEO duality and auditor is positive but weakly significant, but seems not consistent with expectations. Finally, profitability cause could be regarded as an interesting finding. Indeed, there is an inverse correlation between profitability and total debt (Notice that the result supports the pecking order theory. In conclusion, it appears that credit rating has less effect on the so listed large Chinese companies than in other countries. Nevertheless, the perspective of assessing credit risk rating by relevant agencies is indubitably a recommended time dependent leverage determinant.

  2. Crustal structure across the NE Tibetan Plateau and Ordos Block from the joint inversion of receiver functions and Rayleigh-wave dispersions (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Xingchen; Zhang, Ruiqing; Wu, Qingju; Ding, Zhifeng


    We investigated the crustal structure at 34 stations using the H-κ stacking method and jointly inverting receiver functions with Rayleigh-wave phase and group velocities. These seismic stations are distributed along a profile extending across the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane, Qinling-Qilian terranes and southwestern Ordos Basin. Our results reveal the variation in crustal thickness across this profile. We found thick crust beneath the Songpan-Ganzi Terrane (47-59 km) that decreases to 45-47 km in the west Qinling and Qilian terranes, and reaches its local minimum beneath the southwestern Ordos Block (43-51 km) at an average crustal thickness of 46.7 ± 2.5 km. A low-velocity zone in the upper crust was found beneath most of the stations in NE Tibet, which may be indicative of partial melt or a weak detachment layer. Our observations of low to moderate Vp/Vs (1.67-1.79) represent a felsic to intermediate crustal composition. The shear velocity models estimated from joint inversions also reveal substantial lateral variations in velocity beneath the profile, which is mainly reflected in the lower crustal velocities. For the Ordos Block, the average shear wave velocities below 20 km are 3.8 km/s, indicating an intermediate-to-felsic lower crust. The thick NE Tibet crust is characterized by slow shear wave velocities (3.3-3.6 km/s) below 20 km and lacks high-velocity material (Vs ≥ 4.0 km/s) in the lower crust, which may be attributed to mafic lower crustal delamination or/and the thickening of the upper and middle crust.

  3. Dual roles of a flouride-doped SnO2/TiO2 bilayer based on inverse opal/nanoparticle structure for water oxidation (United States)

    Yun, Gun; Balamurugan, Maheswari; Ahn, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kang, Soon Hyung; Lim, Dong-Ha


    Fluorine-doped tin dioxide (FTO) inverse opals (IOs) were fabricated on a template of polystyrene (PS) beads (diameter = 400 nm (±20 nm)) by using a spin-coating method. The concentration of the FTO precursor, in particular, the 1.0 M FTO concentration solution significantly influenced the morphology of the IO film. The FTO nanoparticles upon the FTO IO film were sparsely formed relative to these formed from the 0.5 M FTO solution. To compensate for the large band gap ( E g = 3.8 eV) of FTO in the photoelectrochemical (PEC) reaction, we deposited a photoactive TiO2 shell on the FTO IO film by using the sol-gel method. The morphological change and the crystalline properties of the FTO IO and TiO2-coated FTO IO (hereafter referred to as FTO IO/TiO2) films, were investigated with field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The PEC behaviors of the samples were tested in a 0.1 M KOH solution under one sun illumination (100 mW/cm2 with an AM 1.5 filter). The highest PEC performance was obtained with the 1.0 M FTO IO/TiO2 film, which produced a photocurrent density (Jsc) of 3.28 mA/cm2 at 1.23 V (vs. normal hydrogen electrode (NHE), as briefly expressed to 1.23 VNHE) compared to 2.42 mA/cm2 at 1.23 VNHE with the 0.5 M FTO IO/TiO2 film. The approximately 30% enhanced performance of the 1.0 M FTO IO/TiO2 film was mainly attributed to the peculiar structure comprised of the FTO nanoparticle layer and IO films to form a bilayer structure, providing a much larger surface area, as well as complete coverage of the photoactive TiO2 nanoparticles through the FTO IO skeleton in the proper band alignment to boost the charge separation/transfer phenomenon, finally resulting in the enhanced PEC activity.

  4. Crystal structure of the inverse crown ether tetrakis[μ2-bis(trimethylsilylamido]-μ4-oxido-dicobalt(IIdisodium, [Co2Na2{μ2-N(SiMe32}4](μ4-O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B. Hansen


    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co2Na2{μ2-N(SiMe32}4](μ4-O, (I, represents a new entry in the class of inverse crown ethers. In the molecule, each Co atom is formally in the oxidation state +II. The structure contains one half of a unique molecule per asymmetric unit with the central μ4-oxido ligand residing on an inversion center, leading to a planar coordination to the Na and Co atoms. In the crystal, bulky trimethylsilyl substituents prevent additional interactions with cobalt. However, weak intermolecular Na...H3C—Si interactions form an infinite chain along [010]. The structure is isotypic with its Mg, Mn and Zn analogues.

  5. 2-Phenylimidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones: structure-activity relationships and characterization of potent and selective inverse agonists at Human A3 adenosine receptors. (United States)

    Ozola, Vita; Thorand, Mark; Diekmann, Martina; Qurishi, Ramatullah; Schumacher, Britta; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Müller, Christa E


    Structure-activity relationships of 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones as ligands for human A(3) adenosine receptors (ARs) were investigated. An ethyl group in the 8-position of the imidazoline ring of 4-methyl-2-phenyl-imidazopurinone leading to chiral compounds was found to increase affinity for human A(3) ARs by several thousand-fold. Propyl substitution instead of methyl at N4 decreased A(3) affinity but increased A(1) affinity leading to potent A(1)-selective AR antagonists. The most potent A(1) antagonist of the present series was (S)-8-ethyl-2-phenyl-4-propyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (S-3) exhibiting a K(i) value of 7.4 nM at rat A(1) ARs and greater than 100-fold selectivity versus rat A(2A) and human A(3) ARs. At human A(1) ARs 2-phenylimidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones were generally less potent and therefore less A(1)-selective (S-3: K(i)=98 nM). 2-, 3-, or 4-Mono-chlorination of the 2-phenyl ring reduced A(3) affinity but led to an increase in affinity for A(1) ARs, whereas di- (3,4-dichloro) or polychlorination (2,3,5-trichloro) increased A(3) affinity. The most potent and selective A(3) antagonist of the present series was the trichlorophenyl derivative (R)-8-ethyl-4-methyl-2-(2,3,5-trichlorophenyl)-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-one (R-8) exhibiting a subnanomolar K(i) value at human A(3) ARs and greater than 800-fold selectivity versus the other AR subtypes. Methylation of 4-alkyl-2-phenyl-substituted imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones led exclusively to the N9-methyl derivatives, which exhibited largely reduced AR affinities as compared to the unmethylated compounds. [35S]GTP gamma S binding studies of the most potent 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i]purin-5-ones at membranes of Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing the human A(3) AR revealed that the compounds were inverse agonists at A(3) receptors under standard test conditions. Due to their high A(3) affinity, selectivity, and relatively high water-solubility, 2-phenyl-imidazo[2,1-i

  6. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of the first nonpeptidergic inverse agonists for the human cytomegalovirus encoded chemokine receptor US28

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, Janneke W; Casarosa, Paola; Menge, Wiro M P B; Kuusisto, Leena M S; van der Goot, Henk; Smit, Martine J; de Esch, Iwan J P; Leurs, Rob


    US28 is a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) encoded G-protein-coupled receptor that signals in a constitutively active manner. Recently, we identified 1 [5-(4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidin-1-yl)-2,2-diphenylpentanenitrile] as the first reported nonpeptidergic inverse agonist for a viral-encoded

  7. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....

  8. Inverse logarithmic potential problem

    CERN Document Server

    Cherednichenko, V G


    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  9. Convex blind image deconvolution with inverse filtering (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Guang; Li, Fang; Zeng, Tieyong


    Blind image deconvolution is the process of estimating both the original image and the blur kernel from the degraded image with only partial or no information about degradation and the imaging system. It is a bilinear ill-posed inverse problem corresponding to the direct problem of convolution. Regularization methods are used to handle the ill-posedness of blind deconvolution and get meaningful solutions. In this paper, we investigate a convex regularized inverse filtering method for blind deconvolution of images. We assume that the support region of the blur object is known, as has been done in a few existing works. By studying the inverse filters of signal and image restoration problems, we observe the oscillation structure of the inverse filters. Inspired by the oscillation structure of the inverse filters, we propose to use the star norm to regularize the inverse filter. Meanwhile, we use the total variation to regularize the resulting image obtained by convolving the inverse filter with the degraded image. The proposed minimization model is shown to be convex. We employ the first-order primal-dual method for the solution of the proposed minimization model. Numerical examples for blind image restoration are given to show that the proposed method outperforms some existing methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity (SSIM), visual quality and time consumption.

  10. 1-D DC Resistivity Inversion Using Singular Value Decomposition and Levenberg-Marquardt’s Inversion Schemes (United States)

    Heriyanto, M.; Srigutomo, W.


    Exploration of natural or energy resources requires geophysical survey to determine the subsurface structure, such as DC resistivity method. In this research, field and synthetic data were used using Schlumberger configuration. One-dimensional (1-D) DC resistivity inversion was carried out using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) techniques to obtain layered resistivity structure. We have developed software to perform both inversion methods accompanied by a user-friendly interface. Both of the methods were compared one another to determine the number of iteration, robust to noise, elapsed time of computation, and inversion results. SVD inversion generated faster process and better results than LM did. The inversion showed both of these methods were appropriate to interpret subsurface resistivity structure.

  11. Simultaneous inversion of hypocentral parameters and structure velocity of the central region of Madagascar as a premise for the mitigation of seismic hazard in Antananarivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rambolamanana, G.; Panza, G.F.; Suhadole, P.


    A layered velocity model is obtained using the arrival-time data of P- and S-waves from local earthquakes for the Central Region of Madagascar. A damped least squares method is applied in the inversion of the data. The data used are 770 P-wave arrival times for 154 events which have epicenters in the region inside the Malagasy network operated by the Institut et Observatoire de Geophysique d'Antananarivo (IOGA). These data are jointly used in the inversion for the earthquake hypocenters and P- and S-wave velocity models. S-waves are not used in the first step of the inversion, since its used lead to large location errors. If the error on the phase reading for the P-wave is about 0.1 s, for S-wave this error is much bigger. The reference average model used here is a variant of the model given by RAKOTONDRAINIBE (1977). (author). 24 refs, 9 figs, 8 tabs

  12. Ureaplasma antigenic variation beyond MBA phase variation: DNA inversions generating chimeric structures and switching in expression of the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim


    Phase variation of the major ureaplasma surface membrane protein, the multiple-banded antigen (MBA), with its counterpart, the UU376 protein, was recently discussed as a result of DNA inversion occurring at specific inverted repeats. Two similar inverted repeats to the ones within the mba locus were found in the genome of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3; one within the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172 and another in the adjacent intergenic spacer region. In this report, we demonstrate on both genomic and protein level that DNA inversion at these inverted repeats leads to alternating expression between UU172 and the neighbouring conserved hypothetical ORF UU171. Sequence analysis of this phase-variable 'UU172 element' from both U. parvum and U. urealyticum strains revealed that it is highly conserved among both species and that it also includes the orthologue of UU144. A third inverted repeat region in UU144 is proposed to serve as an additional potential inversion site from which chimeric genes can evolve. Our results indicate that site-specific recombination events in the genome of U. parvum serovar 3 are dynamic and frequent, leading to a broad spectrum of antigenic variation by which the organism may evade host immune responses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.


    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  14. Determining Crust and Upper Mantle Structure by Bayesian Joint Inversion of Receiver Functions and Surface Wave Dispersion at a Single Station: Preparation for Data from the InSight Mission (United States)

    Jia, M.; Panning, M. P.; Lekic, V.; Gao, C.


    The InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) mission will deploy a geophysical station on Mars in 2018. Using seismology to explore the interior structure of the Mars is one of the main targets, and as part of the mission, we will use 3-component seismic data to constrain the crust and upper mantle structure including P and S wave velocities and densities underneath the station. We will apply a reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm in the transdimensional hierarchical Bayesian inversion framework, in which the number of parameters in the model space and the noise level of the observed data are also treated as unknowns in the inversion process. Bayesian based methods produce an ensemble of models which can be analyzed to quantify uncertainties and trade-offs of the model parameters. In order to get better resolution, we will simultaneously invert three different types of seismic data: receiver functions, surface wave dispersion (SWD), and ZH ratios. Because the InSight mission will only deliver a single seismic station to Mars, and both the source location and the interior structure will be unknown, we will jointly invert the ray parameter in our approach. In preparation for this work, we first verify our approach by using a set of synthetic data. We find that SWD can constrain the absolute value of velocities while receiver functions constrain the discontinuities. By joint inversion, the velocity structure in the crust and upper mantle is well recovered. Then, we apply our approach to real data from an earth-based seismic station BFO located in Black Forest Observatory in Germany, as already used in a demonstration study for single station location methods. From the comparison of the results, our hierarchical treatment shows its advantage over the conventional method in which the noise level of observed data is fixed as a prior.

  15. Multiparameter Optimization for Electromagnetic Inversion Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elkattan


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic (EM methods have been extensively used in geophysical investigations such as mineral and hydrocarbon exploration as well as in geological mapping and structural studies. In this paper, we developed an inversion methodology for Electromagnetic data to determine physical parameters of a set of horizontal layers. We conducted Forward model using transmission line method. In the inversion part, we solved multi parameter optimization problem where, the parameters are conductivity, dielectric constant, and permeability of each layer. The optimization problem was solved by simulated annealing approach. The inversion methodology was tested using a set of models representing common geological formations.

  16. Sharp spatially constrained inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vignoli, Giulio G.; Fiandaca, Gianluca G.; Christiansen, Anders Vest C A.V.C.


    We present sharp reconstruction of multi-layer models using a spatially constrained inversion with minimum gradient support regularization. In particular, its application to airborne electromagnetic data is discussed. Airborne surveys produce extremely large datasets, traditionally inverted...... by using smoothly varying 1D models. Smoothness is a result of the regularization constraints applied to address the inversion ill-posedness. The standard Occam-type regularized multi-layer inversion produces results where boundaries between layers are smeared. The sharp regularization overcomes...... inversions are compared against classical smooth results and available boreholes. With the focusing approach, the obtained blocky results agree with the underlying geology and allow for easier interpretation by the end-user....

  17. Inverse planning IMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.-C.


    The lecture addressed the following topics: Optimizing radiotherapy dose distribution; IMRT contributes to optimization of energy deposition; Inverse vs direct planning; Main steps of IMRT; Background of inverse planning; General principle of inverse planning; The 3 main components of IMRT inverse planning; The simplest cost function (deviation from prescribed dose); The driving variable : the beamlet intensity; Minimizing a 'cost function' (or 'objective function') - the walker (or skier) analogy; Application to IMRT optimization (the gradient method); The gradient method - discussion; The simulated annealing method; The optimization criteria - discussion; Hard and soft constraints; Dose volume constraints; Typical user interface for definition of optimization criteria; Biological constraints (Equivalent Uniform Dose); The result of the optimization process; Semi-automatic solutions for IMRT; Generalisation of the optimization problem; Driving and driven variables used in RT optimization; Towards multi-criteria optimization; and Conclusions for the optimization phase. (P.A.)

  18. Submucous Myoma Induces Uterine Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Li Chen


    Conclusion: Nonpuerperal inversion of the uterus is rarely encountered by gynecologists. Diagnosis of uterine inversion is often not easy and imaging studies might be helpful. Surgical treatment is the method of choice in nonpuerperal uterine inversion.

  19. 1-D DC Resistivity Inversion Using Singular Value Decomposition and Levenberg-Marquardt’s Inversion Schemes


    Heriyanto, Mohammad; Srigutomo, Wahyu


    Exploration of natural or energy resources requires geophysical survey to determine the subsurface structure, such as DC resistivity method. In this research, field and synthetic data were used using Schlumberger configuration. One-dimensional (1-D) DC resistivity inversion was carried out using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) techniques to obtain layered resistivity structure. We have developed software to perform both inversion met...

  20. Optimization of radiotherapy to target volumes with concave outlines: target-dose homogenization and selective sparing of critical structures by constrained matrix inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colle, C.; Van den Berge, D.; De Wagter, C.; Fortan, L.; Van Duyse, B.; De Neve, W.


    The design of 3D-conformal dose distributions for targets with concave outlines is a technical challenge in conformal radiotherapy. For these targets, it is impossible to find beam incidences for which the target volume can be isolated from the tissues at risk. Commonly occurring examples are most thyroid cancers and the targets located at the lower neck and upper mediastinal levels related to some head and neck. A solution to this problem was developed, using beam intensity modulation executed with a multileaf collimator by applying a static beam-segmentation technique. The method includes the definition of beam incidences and beam segments of specific shape as well as the calculation of segment weights. Tests on Sherouse`s GRATISTM planning system allowed to escalate the dose to these targets to 65-70 Gy without exceeding spinal cord tolerance. Further optimization by constrained matrix inversion was investigated to explore the possibility of further dose escalation.

  1. Inverse scale space decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marie Foged; Benning, Martin; Schönlieb, Carola-Bibiane


    We investigate the inverse scale space flow as a decomposition method for decomposing data into generalised singular vectors. We show that the inverse scale space flow, based on convex and even and positively one-homogeneous regularisation functionals, can decompose data represented...... by the application of a forward operator to a linear combination of generalised singular vectors into its individual singular vectors. We verify that for this decomposition to hold true, two additional conditions on the singular vectors are sufficient: orthogonality in the data space and inclusion of partial sums...... of the subgradients of the singular vectors in the subdifferential of the regularisation functional at zero. We also address the converse question of when the inverse scale space flow returns a generalised singular vector given that the initial data is arbitrary (and therefore not necessarily in the range...

  2. Inverse design of multicomponent assemblies (United States)

    Piñeros, William D.; Lindquist, Beth A.; Jadrich, Ryan B.; Truskett, Thomas M.


    Inverse design can be a useful strategy for discovering interactions that drive particles to spontaneously self-assemble into a desired structure. Here, we extend an inverse design methodology—relative entropy optimization—to determine isotropic interactions that promote assembly of targeted multicomponent phases, and we apply this extension to design interactions for a variety of binary crystals ranging from compact triangular and square architectures to highly open structures with dodecagonal and octadecagonal motifs. We compare the resulting optimized (self- and cross) interactions for the binary assemblies to those obtained from optimization of analogous single-component systems. This comparison reveals that self-interactions act as a "primer" to position particles at approximately correct coordination shell distances, while cross interactions act as the "binder" that refines and locks the system into the desired configuration. For simpler binary targets, it is possible to successfully design self-assembling systems while restricting one of these interaction types to be a hard-core-like potential. However, optimization of both self- and cross interaction types appears necessary to design for assembly of more complex or open structures.

  3. Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hase


    Full Text Available Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4 emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.

  4. Atmospheric inverse modeling via sparse reconstruction (United States)

    Hase, Nils; Miller, Scot M.; Maaß, Peter; Notholt, Justus; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten


    Many applications in atmospheric science involve ill-posed inverse problems. A crucial component of many inverse problems is the proper formulation of a priori knowledge about the unknown parameters. In most cases, this knowledge is expressed as a Gaussian prior. This formulation often performs well at capturing smoothed, large-scale processes but is often ill equipped to capture localized structures like large point sources or localized hot spots. Over the last decade, scientists from a diverse array of applied mathematics and engineering fields have developed sparse reconstruction techniques to identify localized structures. In this study, we present a new regularization approach for ill-posed inverse problems in atmospheric science. It is based on Tikhonov regularization with sparsity constraint and allows bounds on the parameters. We enforce sparsity using a dictionary representation system. We analyze its performance in an atmospheric inverse modeling scenario by estimating anthropogenic US methane (CH4) emissions from simulated atmospheric measurements. Different measures indicate that our sparse reconstruction approach is better able to capture large point sources or localized hot spots than other methods commonly used in atmospheric inversions. It captures the overall signal equally well but adds details on the grid scale. This feature can be of value for any inverse problem with point or spatially discrete sources. We show an example for source estimation of synthetic methane emissions from the Barnett shale formation.

  5. Frnakenstein: multiple target inverse RNA folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyngsø Rune B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA secondary structure prediction, or folding, is a classic problem in bioinformatics: given a sequence of nucleotides, the aim is to predict the base pairs formed in its three dimensional conformation. The inverse problem of designing a sequence folding into a particular target structure has only more recently received notable interest. With a growing appreciation and understanding of the functional and structural properties of RNA motifs, and a growing interest in utilising biomolecules in nano-scale designs, the interest in the inverse RNA folding problem is bound to increase. However, whereas the RNA folding problem from an algorithmic viewpoint has an elegant and efficient solution, the inverse RNA folding problem appears to be hard. Results In this paper we present a genetic algorithm approach to solve the inverse folding problem. The main aims of the development was to address the hitherto mostly ignored extension of solving the inverse folding problem, the multi-target inverse folding problem, while simultaneously designing a method with superior performance when measured on the quality of designed sequences. The genetic algorithm has been implemented as a Python program called Frnakenstein. It was benchmarked against four existing methods and several data sets totalling 769 real and predicted single structure targets, and on 292 two structure targets. It performed as well as or better at finding sequences which folded in silico into the target structure than all existing methods, without the heavy bias towards CG base pairs that was observed for all other top performing methods. On the two structure targets it also performed well, generating a perfect design for about 80% of the targets. Conclusions Our method illustrates that successful designs for the inverse RNA folding problem does not necessarily have to rely on heavy biases in base pair and unpaired base distributions. The design problem seems to become more

  6. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  7. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus


    due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  8. Locative Inversion in English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, H.


    This article aims at reformulating in more current terms Hoekstra and Mulder’s (1990) analysis of the Locative Inversion (LI) construction. The new proposal is crucially based on the assumption that Small Clause (SC) predicates agree with their external argument in phi-features, which may be

  9. Basement blocks and basin inversion structures mapped using reprocessed Gulfrex 2D seismic data, Caribbean-South American oblique collisional zone (United States)

    Escalona, A.; Sena, A.; Mann, P.


    We have reprocessed and reinterpreted more than 10,000 km of "Gulfrex" multi-channel 2D seismic reflection lines collected by Gulf Oil Corporation in 1972 along the northern margin of South America (offshore Venezuela and Trinidad). These digital data were donated to the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics and represent the largest single, digital reflection survey of the region. Reprocessing of these data included: format correction, filtering, post-stack multiple suppression, and fk migration. Reprocessed data were loaded and interpreted on a workstation. The data straddle a 2,000,000 km2 zone of Paleocene-Recent, time-transgressive, oblique collision between the Caribbean arc system and the passive continental margin of northern South America. Free-air, satellite gravity data shows the remarkable 1000-km-scale continuity of four basement ridges between the uncollided part of the Caribbean arc system (NS-trending Lesser Antilles arc) and the EW-trending collisional area north of Venezuela. The basement ridges involved in the Venezuelan collisional zone include: 1) Aruba-Bonaire-Curacao ridge that can be traced as a continuous feature to the Aves ridge remnant arc of the Lesser Antilles; 2) the partially inverted Blanquilla-Bonaire basin that can be traced into the Grenada back-arc basin; 3) Margarita-Los Testigos platform that can be traced to the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc; and 4) foreland basins and fold-thrust belts of eastern Venezuela (Serrania del Interior and Maturin basin) that can be traced to the Tobago forearc basin and Barbados accretionary prism. Gulfrex data document the progressive change of basinal fault systems from NS-striking normal faults formed in extensional, Lesser Antilles intra-arc settings to rotated and inverted, NE and EW-striking normal faults deformed in the collisional area north of Venezuela. Age of initial shortening of basinal areas and inversion of normal faults setting does not follow the simple, expected pattern of

  10. Bayesian seismic AVO inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buland, Arild


    A new linearized AVO inversion technique is developed in a Bayesian framework. The objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. Distributions for other elastic parameters can also be assessed, for example acoustic impedance, shear impedance and P-wave to S-wave velocity ratio. The inversion algorithm is based on the convolutional model and a linearized weak contrast approximation of the Zoeppritz equation. The solution is represented by a Gaussian posterior distribution with explicit expressions for the posterior expectation and covariance, hence exact prediction intervals for the inverted parameters can be computed under the specified model. The explicit analytical form of the posterior distribution provides a computationally fast inversion method. Tests on synthetic data show that all inverted parameters were almost perfectly retrieved when the noise approached zero. With realistic noise levels, acoustic impedance was the best determined parameter, while the inversion provided practically no information about the density. The inversion algorithm has also been tested on a real 3-D dataset from the Sleipner Field. The results show good agreement with well logs but the uncertainty is high. The stochastic model includes uncertainties of both the elastic parameters, the wavelet and the seismic and well log data. The posterior distribution is explored by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation using the Gibbs sampler algorithm. The inversion algorithm has been tested on a seismic line from the Heidrun Field with two wells located on the line. The uncertainty of the estimated wavelet is low. In the Heidrun examples the effect of including uncertainty of the wavelet and the noise level was marginal with respect to the AVO inversion results. We have developed a 3-D linearized AVO inversion method with spatially coupled model parameters where the objective is to obtain posterior distributions for P-wave velocity, S

  11. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos


    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  12. Bayesian inversion of refraction seismic traveltime data (United States)

    Ryberg, T.; Haberland, Ch


    We apply a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (McMC) formalism to the inversion of refraction seismic, traveltime data sets to derive 2-D velocity models below linear arrays (i.e. profiles) of sources and seismic receivers. Typical refraction data sets, especially when using the far-offset observations, are known as having experimental geometries which are very poor, highly ill-posed and far from being ideal. As a consequence, the structural resolution quickly degrades with depth. Conventional inversion techniques, based on regularization, potentially suffer from the choice of appropriate inversion parameters (i.e. number and distribution of cells, starting velocity models, damping and smoothing constraints, data noise level, etc.) and only local model space exploration. McMC techniques are used for exhaustive sampling of the model space without the need of prior knowledge (or assumptions) of inversion parameters, resulting in a large number of models fitting the observations. Statistical analysis of these models allows to derive an average (reference) solution and its standard deviation, thus providing uncertainty estimates of the inversion result. The highly non-linear character of the inversion problem, mainly caused by the experiment geometry, does not allow to derive a reference solution and error map by a simply averaging procedure. We present a modified averaging technique, which excludes parts of the prior distribution in the posterior values due to poor ray coverage, thus providing reliable estimates of inversion model properties even in those parts of the models. The model is discretized by a set of Voronoi polygons (with constant slowness cells) or a triangulated mesh (with interpolation within the triangles). Forward traveltime calculations are performed by a fast, finite-difference-based eikonal solver. The method is applied to a data set from a refraction seismic survey from Northern Namibia and compared to conventional tomography. An inversion test

  13. Electrochemically driven emulsion inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johans, Christoffer; Kontturi, Kyoesti


    It is shown that emulsions stabilized by ionic surfactants can be inverted by controlling the electrical potential across the oil-water interface. The potential dependent partitioning of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was studied by cyclic voltammetry at the 1,2-dichlorobenzene|water interface. In the emulsion the potential control was achieved by using a potential-determining salt. The inversion of a 1,2-dichlorobenzene-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by SDS was followed by conductometry as a function of added tetrapropylammonium chloride. A sudden drop in conductivity was observed, indicating the change of the continuous phase from water to 1,2-dichlorobenzene, i.e. a water-in-1,2-dichlorobenzene emulsion was formed. The inversion potential is well in accordance with that predicted by the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation if the interfacial potential is appropriately accounted for

  14. Inverse transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.


    A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Structural analysis of the Gachsar sub-zone in central Alborz range; constrain for inversion tectonics followed by the range transverse faulting (United States)

    Yassaghi, A.; Naeimi, A.


    Analysis of the Gachsar structural sub-zone has been carried out to constrain structural evolution of the central Alborz range situated in the central Alpine Himalayan orogenic system. The sub-zone bounded by the northward-dipping Kandovan Fault to the north and the southward-dipping Taleghan Fault to the south is transversely cut by several sinistral faults. The Kandovan Fault that controls development of the Eocene rocks in its footwall from the Paleozoic-Mesozoic units in the fault hanging wall is interpreted as an inverted basin-bounding fault. Structural evidences include the presence of a thin-skinned imbricate thrust system propagated from a detachment zone that acts as a footwall shortcut thrust, development of large synclines in the fault footwall as well as back thrusts and pop-up structures on the fault hanging wall. Kinematics of the inverted Kandovan Fault and its accompanying structures constrain the N-S shortening direction proposed for the Alborz range until Late Miocene. The transverse sinistral faults that are in acute angle of 15° to a major magnetic lineament, which represents a basement fault, are interpreted to develop as synthetic Riedel shears on the cover sequences during reactivation of the basement fault. This overprinting of the transverse faults on the earlier inverted extensional fault occurs since the Late Miocene when the south Caspian basin block attained a SSW movement relative to the central Iran. Therefore, recent deformation in the range is a result of the basement transverse-fault reactivation.

  16. Identification of bicyclic hexafluoroisopropyl alcohol sulfonamides as retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor gamma (RORγ/RORc) inverse agonists. Employing structure-based drug design to improve pregnane X receptor (PXR) selectivity. (United States)

    Gong, Hua; Weinstein, David S; Lu, Zhonghui; Duan, James J-W; Stachura, Sylwia; Haque, Lauren; Karmakar, Ananta; Hemagiri, Hemalatha; Raut, Dhanya Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Khan, Javed; Camac, Dan; Sack, John S; Pudzianowski, Andrew; Wu, Dauh-Rurng; Yarde, Melissa; Shen, Ding-Ren; Borowski, Virna; Xie, Jenny H; Sun, Huadong; D'Arienzo, Celia; Dabros, Marta; Galella, Michael A; Wang, Faye; Weigelt, Carolyn A; Zhao, Qihong; Foster, William; Somerville, John E; Salter-Cid, Luisa M; Barrish, Joel C; Carter, Percy H; Dhar, T G Murali


    We disclose the optimization of a high throughput screening hit to yield benzothiazine and tetrahydroquinoline sulfonamides as potent RORγt inverse agonists. However, a majority of these compounds showed potent activity against pregnane X receptor (PXR) and modest activity against liver X receptor α (LXRα). Structure-based drug design (SBDD) led to the identification of benzothiazine and tetrahydroquinoline sulfonamide analogs which completely dialed out LXRα activity and were less potent at PXR. Pharmacodynamic (PD) data for compound 35 in an IL-23 induced IL-17 mouse model is discussed along with the implications of a high Y max in the PXR assay for long term preclinical pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten


    In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block...

  18. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...

  19. Tectonic inversion in the Wandel Sea Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennevig, Kristian; Guarnieri, Pierpaolo; Stemmerik, Lars


    Sheet and an upper Hondal Elv Thrust Sheet separated by a subhorizontal fault: the Central Detachment. The style of deformation and the structures described are interpreted as the result of Paleocene-Eocene N-S directed compression resulting in basin inversion with strike-slip faults only having minor...

  20. Effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist FG7142 on the structure of anxiety-related behavior of male Wistar rats tested in hole board. (United States)

    Casarrubea, Maurizio; Faulisi, Fabiana; Pensabene, Massimiliano; Mendola, Claudio; Dell'Utri, Riccardo; Cardaci, Maurizio; Santangelo, Andrea; Crescimanno, Giuseppe


    Little is known about the structural characteristics of the behavior of rats with enhanced anxiety level. To fill this gap, a study was undertaken where effects of an anxiogenic drug were examined on behavioral structure of rats tested in hole board. This study investigates effects of increased anxiety level on the structure of the behavior of rats tested in hole board METHODS: Different doses of FG7142 (1, 4, 8 mg/kg IP), a potent anxiety-inducing drug, were administered to three groups of male Wistar rats. A further group was administered saline. Experiments were recorded through a digital camera. Quantitative and multivariate approaches were applied. Percent distributions and durations showed increases of immobile sniffing, rearing, head dip, and edge sniff and a significant reduction of grooming activities and of walking. In addition, a decrease of head dip/edge sniff ratio was detected. Transition matrices evidenced that FG7142 provoked evident modifications of behavioral structure mainly of general exploration of environment and focused exploration of the hole. Finally, adjusted residuals showed a reduced effectiveness of FG7142 on transitions from head dip to edge sniff; on the contrary, transitions from edge sniff to head dip underwent evident dose-dependent changes. Present study provides a useful tool to analyze behavioral responses to different anxiety conditions. Accordingly, it is demonstrated that a condition of increased anxiety deeply modifies the structure of male Wistar rat's behavior in hole board. In addition, our results suggest that evaluation of head dip/edge sniff ratio can be considered a reliable index to appraise effects of pharmacological manipulation of anxiety and related behavioral elements.

  1. Inverse Geochemical Reaction Path Modelling and the Impact of Climate Change on Hydrologic Structure in Snowmelt-Dominated Catchments in the Southwestern USA (United States)

    Driscoll, J. M.; Meixner, T.; Molotch, N. P.; Sickman, J. O.; Williams, M. W.; McIntosh, J. C.; Brooks, P. D.


    Snowmelt from alpine catchments provides 70-80% of the American Southwest's water resources. Climate change threatens to alter the timing and duration of snowmelt in high elevation catchments, which may also impact the quantity and the quality of these water resources. Modelling of these systems provides a robust theoretical framework to process the information extracted from the sparse physical measurement available in these sites due to their remote locations. Mass-balance inverse geochemical models (via PHREEQC, developed by the USGS) were applied to two snowmelt-dominated catchments; Green Lake 4 (GL4) in the Rockies and Emerald Lake (EMD) in the Sierra Nevada. Both catchments primarily consist of granite and granodiorite with a similar bulk geochemistry. The inputs for the models were the initial (snowpack) and final (catchment output) hydrochemistry and a catchment-specific suite of mineral weathering reactions. Models were run for wet and dry snow years, for early and late time periods (defined hydrologically as 1/2 of the total volume for the year). Multiple model solutions were reduced to a representative suite of reactions by choosing the model solution with the fewest phases and least overall phase change. The dominant weathering reactions (those which contributed the most solutes) were plagioclase for GL4 and albite for EMD. Results for GL4 show overall more plagioclase weathering during the dry year (214.2g) than wet year (89.9g). Both wet and dry years show more weathering in the early time periods (63% and 56%, respectively). These results show that the snowpack and outlet are chemically more similar during wet years than dry years. A possible hypothesis to explain this difference is a change in contribution from subsurface storage; during the wet year the saturated catchment reduces contact with surface materials that would result in mineral weathering reactions by some combination of reduced infiltration and decreased subsurface transit time. By

  2. Oil core microcapsules by inverse gelation technique. (United States)

    Martins, Evandro; Renard, Denis; Davy, Joëlle; Marquis, Mélanie; Poncelet, Denis


    A promising technique for oil encapsulation in Ca-alginate capsules by inverse gelation was proposed by Abang et al. This method consists of emulsifying calcium chloride solution in oil and then adding it dropwise in an alginate solution to produce Ca-alginate capsules. Spherical capsules with diameters around 3 mm were produced by this technique, however the production of smaller capsules was not demonstrated. The objective of this study is to propose a new method of oil encapsulation in a Ca-alginate membrane by inverse gelation. The optimisation of the method leads to microcapsules with diameters around 500 μm. In a search of microcapsules with improved diffusion characteristics, the size reduction is an essential factor to broaden the applications in food, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals areas. This work contributes to a better understanding of the inverse gelation technique and allows the production of microcapsules with a well-defined shell-core structure.

  3. Fuzzy logic guided inverse treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hui; Yin Fangfang; Guan Huaiqun; Kim, Jae Ho


    A fuzzy logic technique was applied to optimize the weighting factors in the objective function of an inverse treatment planning system for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Based on this technique, the optimization of weighting factors is guided by the fuzzy rules while the intensity spectrum is optimized by a fast-monotonic-descent method. The resultant fuzzy logic guided inverse planning system is capable of finding the optimal combination of weighting factors for different anatomical structures involved in treatment planning. This system was tested using one simulated (but clinically relevant) case and one clinical case. The results indicate that the optimal balance between the target dose and the critical organ dose is achieved by a refined combination of weighting factors. With the help of fuzzy inference, the efficiency and effectiveness of inverse planning for IMRT are substantially improved

  4. Inverse problems in linear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, K.


    Inverse problems for a class of linear kinetic equations are investigated. The aim is to identify the scattering kernel of a transport equation (corresponding to the structure of a background medium) by observing the 'albedo' part of the solution operator for the corresponding direct initial boundary value problem. This means to get information on some integral operator in an integrodifferential equation through on overdetermined boundary value problem. We first derive a constructive method for solving direct halfspace problems and prove a new factorization theorem for the solutions. Using this result we investigate stationary inverse problems with respect to well posedness (e.g. reduce them to classical ill-posed problems, such as integral equations of first kind). In the time-dependent case we show that a quite general inverse problem is well posed and solve it constructively. (orig.)

  5. Inverse Kinematic Analysis Of A Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Arif Sen


    Full Text Available This paper presents an inverse kinematics program of a quadruped robot. The kinematics analysis is main problem in the manipulators and robots. Dynamic and kinematic structures of quadruped robots are very complex compared to industrial and wheeled robots. In this study inverse kinematics solutions for a quadruped robot with 3 degrees of freedom on each leg are presented. Denavit-Hartenberg D-H method are used for the forward kinematic. The inverse kinematic equations obtained by the geometrical and mathematical methods are coded in MATLAB. And thus a program is obtained that calculate the legs joint angles corresponding to desired various orientations of robot and endpoints of legs. Also the program provides the body orientations of robot in graphical form. The angular positions of joints obtained corresponding to desired different orientations of robot and endpoints of legs are given in this study.

  6. The effect of pressure on the structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of the Mn{sub 2}RuGe inverse Heusler alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ting, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Sun, Xiao-Wei [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Tian, Jun-Hong [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wei, Xiao-Ping; Wan, Gui-Xin [School of Mathematics and Physics, Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Ma, Qin, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Non-ferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China); College of Material Science and Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050 (China)


    In the frame of density functional theory, first-principles calculations based on generalized gradient approximation and quasi-harmonic Debye approximation model in which the phononic effects are taken into account have been carried out to investigate the structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of full-Heusler alloy Mn{sub 2}RuGe in CuHg{sub 2}Ti-type structure in the pressure range of 0–50 GPa. Present calculations predict that Mn{sub 2}RuGe is a ferrimagnet with an optimized lattice parameter of 5.854 Å. The calculated total magnetic moment of 2.01 μ{sub B} per formula unit is very close to integer value and agree well with the Slater-Pauling rule, where the partial spin moments of Mn (A) and Mn (B) which mainly contribute to the total magnetic moment are 2.66 μ{sub B} and −0.90 μ{sub B}, respectively. In the study of the energy band structures and density of states, Mn{sub 2}RuGe exhibits half-metallicity with an indirect gap of 0.235 eV in the spin-down channels, and the shifting of bands towards higher energies in spin-down channel under high pressure. Meanwhile, the high-pressure thermodynamic properties of Mn{sub 2}RuGe, such as the pressure-volume-temperature relationship, bulk modulus, thermal expansivity, heat capacity, Debye temperature, and Grüneisen parameter are evaluated systematically in the temperature range of 0–900 K. This set of data is considered as the useful information to understand the high-pressure and high-temperature properties for the Mn{sub 2}RuZ-type Heusler alloy family.

  7. The effect of pressure on the structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of the Mn2RuGe inverse Heusler alloy (United States)

    Song, Ting; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Tian, Jun-Hong; Wei, Xiao-Ping; Wan, Gui-Xin; Ma, Qin


    In the frame of density functional theory, first-principles calculations based on generalized gradient approximation and quasi-harmonic Debye approximation model in which the phononic effects are taken into account have been carried out to investigate the structural, electronic, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of full-Heusler alloy Mn2RuGe in CuHg2Ti-type structure in the pressure range of 0-50 GPa. Present calculations predict that Mn2RuGe is a ferrimagnet with an optimized lattice parameter of 5.854 Å. The calculated total magnetic moment of 2.01 μB per formula unit is very close to integer value and agree well with the Slater-Pauling rule, where the partial spin moments of Mn (A) and Mn (B) which mainly contribute to the total magnetic moment are 2.66 μB and -0.90 μB, respectively. In the study of the energy band structures and density of states, Mn2RuGe exhibits half-metallicity with an indirect gap of 0.235 eV in the spin-down channels, and the shifting of bands towards higher energies in spin-down channel under high pressure. Meanwhile, the high-pressure thermodynamic properties of Mn2RuGe, such as the pressure-volume-temperature relationship, bulk modulus, thermal expansivity, heat capacity, Debye temperature, and Grüneisen parameter are evaluated systematically in the temperature range of 0-900 K. This set of data is considered as the useful information to understand the high-pressure and high-temperature properties for the Mn2RuZ-type Heusler alloy family.

  8. Bayesian ISOLA: new tool for automated centroid moment tensor inversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vackář, J.; Burjánek, Jan; Gallovič, F.; Zahradník, J.; Clinton, J.


    Roč. 210, č. 2 (2017), s. 693-705 ISSN 0956-540X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : inverse theory * waveform inversion * computational seismology * earthquake source observations * seismic noise Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology Impact factor: 2.414, year: 2016

  9. Synthesis and photonic bandgap characterization of polymer inverse opals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguez, H.; Meseguer, F.; Lopez, C. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales; Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Centro Tecnologico de Ondas; Lopez-Tejeira, F.; Sanchez-Dehesa, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada


    Polymer inverse opals with long-range order have been fabricated and their photonic crystal behavior examined. Good agreement between band structure calculations and experiment is found. It is envisaged that these inverse opals could be used for the modification of the electronic properties of incorporated luminescent materials and as matrices for the synthesis of spherical colloidal particles. (orig.)

  10. Joint inversion of seismic and gravity data for imaging seismic velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath Utah, United States (United States)

    Syracuse, E. M.; Zhang, H.; Maceira, M.


    We present a method for using any combination of body wave arrival time measurements, surface wave dispersion observations, and gravity data to simultaneously invert for three-dimensional P- and S-wave velocity models. The simultaneous use of disparate data types takes advantage of the differing sensitivities of each data type, resulting in a comprehensive and higher resolution three-dimensional geophysical model. In a case study for Utah, we combine body wave first arrivals mainly from the USArray Transportable Array, Rayleigh wave group and phase velocity dispersion data, and Bouguer gravity anomalies to invert for crustal and upper mantle structure of the region. Results show clear delineations, visible in both P- and S-wave velocities, between the three main tectonic provinces in the region. Without the inclusion of the surface wave and gravity constraints, these delineations are less clear, particularly for S-wave velocities. Indeed, checkerboard tests confirm that the inclusion of the additional datasets dramatically improves S-wave velocity recovery, with more subtle improvements to P-wave velocity recovery, demonstrating the strength of the method in successfully recovering seismic velocity structure from multiple types of constraints.

  11. Electrical Resistivity Structure of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico, USA: Results From 3D Inversion of Modern and Legacy Magnetotelluric Data Collected by Industry and the Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE). (United States)

    Feucht, D. W.; Bedrosian, P.; Jiracek, G. R.; Pellerin, L.; Nettleton, C. E.


    The Valles caldera, in north-central New Mexico, USA, is a 20-km wide topographic depression in the Jemez Mountains volcanic complex that formed during two massive ignimbrite eruptions 1.65 and 1.26 Ma. Post-collapse volcanic activity in the caldera includes the rise of a 1 km high resurgent dome, periodic eruptions of the Valles rhyolite along ring fractures, and the presence of a geothermal reservoir beneath the western caldera with temperatures in excess of 300°C at a mere 2 km depth. We present an electrical resistivity model of the upper crust from three-dimensional (3D) inversion of broadband (100 Hz to 600 s) magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in and around the Valles caldera. The Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience (SAGE) has been acquiring geophysical data in the northern Rio Grande rift for more than three decades (1983-2017). Included in that vast dataset are over 60 broadband magnetotelluric soundings that have recently been cataloged, geo-located, and digitized for use in modern geophysical processing and modeling. The resistivity models presented here were produced by inverting a subset of SAGE MT data along with 30 broadband MT soundings acquired by the Unocal Corporation in 1983 for geothermal exploration of the caldera. We use the 3D inversion algorithm ModEM (Egbert and Kelbert, 2012) to invert full impedance tensors and tipper functions from >30 MT stations for the electrical resistivity structure beneath the caldera. Our preferred model reveals the geometry and electrical properties of (1) the conductive caldera fill, (2) the resistive crystalline basement, and (3) an enigmatic mid-crustal conductor related to magmatic activity that post-dates caldera formation.

  12. Shear wave velocity structure in the lithosphere and asthenosphere across the Southern California continent and Pacific plate margin using inversion of Rayleigh wave data from the ALBACORE project. (United States)

    Price, A. C.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Kohler, M. D.; Rathnayaka, S.; Escobar, L., Sr.


    The North American and Pacific plate boundary is a unique example of past subduction of an oceanic spreading center which has involved oceanic plate capture and inception of a continental transform boundary that juxtaposes continental and oceanic lithosphere on a single plate. The amphibious ALBACORE seismic project (Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment) deployed 34 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) on 15-35 Ma seafloor and offers a unique opportunity to compare the LAB in continental and oceanic lithosphere in one seismic study. Rayleigh waves were recorded simultaneously by our offshore array and 82 CISN network land stations from 2010-2011. Here we predict phase velocities for a starting shear wave velocity model for each of 5 regions in our study area and compare to observed phase velocities from our array in a least-squares sense that produces the best fit 1-D shear wave velocity structure for each region. Preliminary results for the deep ocean (seafloor 25-32 Ma) indicates high velocities reaching 4.5 km/s at depths of 50 km associated with the lithosphere for seafloor 25-32 Ma. A negative velocity gradient is observed below this which reaches a minimum of 4.0 km/s at 160 km depth. The mid-ocean region (age 13-25 Ma) indicates a slightly lower magnitude and shallower LVZ. The Inner Borderland displays the highest lithospheric velocities offshore reaching 4.8 km/s at 40 km depth indicating underplating. The base of the LVZ in the Borderland increases sharply from 4.0 km/s to 4.5 km/s at 80-150 km depth indicating partial melt and compositional changes. The LVZ displays a very gradual positive velocity gradient in all other regions such as the deep seafloor and continent reaching 4.5 km/s at 300 km depth. The deep ocean, Borderlands, and continental region each have unique lithospheric velocities, LAB depths, and LVZ character that indicate stark differences in mantle structure that occur on a

  13. Elastic Wavespeed Images of Northern Chile Subduction Zone from the Joint Inversion of Body and Surface Waves: Structure of the Andean Forearc and the Double Seismic Zone (United States)

    Comte, D.; Carrizo, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Peyrat, S.; Arriaza, R.; Chi, R. K.; Baeza, S.


    Partly in anticipation of an imminent megathrust earthquake, a significant amount of seismic data has been collected over the past several years in northern Chile by local deployments of seismometers. In this study we generate elastic wavespeed images of the crust and upper mantle using a combination of body wave arrival times and surface wave dispersion curves. The body wave data set consists of 130000 P and 108000 S wave arrival times generated by 12000 earthquakes recorded locally over a period of 25 years by networks comprising about 360 stations. The surface wave data set consists of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves determined from ambient noise recorded by 60 broad band stations from three different networks over a period of three years. Transit time biases due to an uneven distribution of noise were estimated using a technique based on that of Yao and van der Hilst (2009) and found to be as high as 5% for some station pairs. We jointly invert the body and surface wave observations to both improve the overall resolution of the crustal images and reduce the trade-off between shallow and deep structures in the images of the subducted slab. Of particular interest in these images are three regions of anomalous Vp/Vs: (1) An extensive zone of low Vp/Vs (1.68) correlates with trench-parallel magmatic belts emplaced in the upper continental crust. In the region of the coast and continental slope, low Vp/Vs corresponds to batholithic structures in the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc. Between the central depression and Domeyko Cordillera, low Vp/Vs correlates with the distribution of magmatic arcs of Paleocene-Oligocene and Eocene-Oligocene age. Low Vp/Vs also correlates with the location of the Mejillones Peninsula. (2) A region of high Vp/Vs occurs in what is most likely the serpentinized wedge of the subduction zone. (3) An additional zone of low Vp/Vs is located in the middle of the double seismic zone at depths of 90-110 km. This region may exist all along the

  14. Electronic structure in the bulk and at the surface of lanthanide materials. A detailed study with X-ray emission and inverse photoemission

    CERN Document Server

    Huebinger, F


    LaTe. With measurements of the O3-XE in the Lanthanum-Chalcogenides we could demonstrate the transfer of s-like valence electrons from the Lanthanum atom to the Chalcogen atom. Furthermore, the binding energy of the state at the Lanthanum atom was determined. The surface core-level shift is smaller by 25 % in the Chalcogenides than in La-metal. We also describe a theoretical model, which qualitatively explains the observed larger shifts of the core-level binding energy in PE than in IPE from Lanthan-Chalcogenides. This dissertation is concerned with the occupied and unoccupied electronic structure of lanthanide materials. With surface sensitive electron-excited x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) we could experimentally determine a surface and bulk partial density of states (p-DOS) for the metals Lanthanum, Lutetium and Samarium. From calculations of the O3-XE transition probability we anticipate a three times higher probability for s-like than for d-like electrons to fill the 5p3/2-hole; this was confirmed exp...

  15. Inverse plasma equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, H.R.; Dory, R.A.; Holmes, J.A.


    We illustrate in some detail a 2D inverse-equilibrium solver that was constructed to analyze tokamak configurations and stellarators (the latter in the context of the average method). To ensure that the method is suitable not only to determine equilibria, but also to provide appropriately represented data for existing stability codes, it is important to be able to control the Jacobian, tilde J is identical to delta(R,Z)/delta(rho, theta). The form chosen is tilde J = J 0 (rho)R/sup l/rho where rho is a flux surface label, and l is an integer. The initial implementation is for a fixed conducting-wall boundary, but the technique can be extended to a free-boundary model

  16. Mesoscale inversion of carbon sources and sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauvaux, T.


    Inverse methods at large scales are used to infer the spatial variability of carbon sources and sinks over the continents but their uncertainties remain large. Atmospheric concentrations integrate the surface flux variability but atmospheric transport models at low resolution are not able to simulate properly the local atmospheric dynamics at the measurement sites. However, the inverse estimates are more representative of the large spatial heterogeneity of the ecosystems compared to direct flux measurements. Top-down and bottom-up methods that aim at quantifying the carbon exchanges between the surface and the atmosphere correspond to different scales and are not easily comparable. During this phD, a mesoscale inverse system was developed to correct carbon fluxes at 8 km resolution. The high resolution transport model MesoNH was used to simulate accurately the variability of the atmospheric concentrations, which allowed us to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved fluxes. All the measurements used here were observed during the intensive regional campaign CERES of May and June 2005, during which several instrumented towers measured CO 2 concentrations and fluxes in the South West of France. Airborne measurements allowed us to observe concentrations at high altitude but also CO 2 surface fluxes over large parts of the domain. First, the capacity of the inverse system to correct the CO 2 fluxes was estimated using pseudo-data experiments. The largest fraction of the concentration variability was attributed to regional surface fluxes over an area of about 300 km around the site locations depending on the meteorological conditions. Second, an ensemble of simulations allowed us to define the spatial and temporal structures of the transport errors. Finally, the inverse fluxes at 8 km resolution were compared to direct flux measurements. The inverse system has been validated in space and time and showed an improvement of the first guess fluxes from a vegetation model

  17. Holocaust inversion and contemporary antisemitism.


    Klaff, Lesley D


    One of the cruellest aspects of the new antisemitism is its perverse use of the Holocaust as a stick to beat 'the Jews'. This article explains the phenomenon of 'Holocaust Inversion', which involves an 'inversion of reality' (the Israelis are cast as the 'new' Nazis and the Palestinians as the 'new' Jews) and an 'inversion of morality' (the Holocaust is presented as a moral lesson for, or even a moral indictment of, 'the Jews'). Holocaust inversion is a form of soft-core Holocaust denial, yet...

  18. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A linear time method to decide if any inverse maximum flow (denoted General Inverse Maximum Flow problems (IMFG)) problem has solution is deduced. If IMFG does not have solution, methods to transform IMFG into a feasible problem are presented. The methods consist of modifying as little as possible the restrictions to ...

  19. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    199–209. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems. ADRIAN DEACONU. ∗ and ELEONOR CIUREA. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Iuliu Maniu st. 50,. Romania.

  20. Inverse problem in hydrogeology (United States)

    Carrera, Jesús; Alcolea, Andrés; Medina, Agustín; Hidalgo, Juan; Slooten, Luit J.


    The state of the groundwater inverse problem is synthesized. Emphasis is placed on aquifer characterization, where modelers have to deal with conceptual model uncertainty (notably spatial and temporal variability), scale dependence, many types of unknown parameters (transmissivity, recharge, boundary conditions, etc.), nonlinearity, and often low sensitivity of state variables (typically heads and concentrations) to aquifer properties. Because of these difficulties, calibration cannot be separated from the modeling process, as it is sometimes done in other fields. Instead, it should be viewed as one step in the process of understanding aquifer behavior. In fact, it is shown that actual parameter estimation methods do not differ from each other in the essence, though they may differ in the computational details. It is argued that there is ample room for improvement in groundwater inversion: development of user-friendly codes, accommodation of variability through geostatistics, incorporation of geological information and different types of data (temperature, occurrence and concentration of isotopes, age, etc.), proper accounting of uncertainty, etc. Despite this, even with existing codes, automatic calibration facilitates enormously the task of modeling. Therefore, it is contended that its use should become standard practice. L'état du problème inverse des eaux souterraines est synthétisé. L'accent est placé sur la caractérisation de l'aquifère, où les modélisateurs doivent jouer avec l'incertitude des modèles conceptuels (notamment la variabilité spatiale et temporelle), les facteurs d'échelle, plusieurs inconnues sur différents paramètres (transmissivité, recharge, conditions aux limites, etc.), la non linéarité, et souvent la sensibilité de plusieurs variables d'état (charges hydrauliques, concentrations) des propriétés de l'aquifère. A cause de ces difficultés, le calibrage ne peut êtreséparé du processus de modélisation, comme c'est le

  1. Face inversion increases attractiveness. (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A


    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Multiples waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Dongliang


    To increase the illumination of the subsurface and to eliminate the dependency of FWI on the source wavelet, we propose multiples waveform inversion (MWI) that transforms each hydrophone into a virtual point source with a time history equal to that of the recorded data. These virtual sources are used to numerically generate downgoing wavefields that are correlated with the backprojected surface-related multiples to give the migration image. Since the recorded data are treated as the virtual sources, knowledge of the source wavelet is not required, and the subsurface illumination is greatly enhanced because the entire free surface acts as an extended source compared to the radiation pattern of a traditional point source. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model show that the convergence rate and the spatial resolution of MWI is, respectively, faster and more accurate then FWI. The potential pitfall with this method is that the multiples undergo more than one roundtrip to the surface, which increases attenuation and reduces spatial resolution. This can lead to less resolved tomograms compared to conventional FWI. The possible solution is to combine both FWI and MWI in inverting for the subsurface velocity distribution.

  3. Coin tossing and Laplace inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 5 May 1999; revised 3 April 2000. Abstract. An analysis of exchangeable sequences of coin tossings leads to inversion formulae for Laplace transforms of probability measures. Keywords. Laplace inversion; moment problem; exchangeable probabilities. 1. Introduction. There is an intimate relationship between ...

  4. Inverse problems for Maxwell's equations

    CERN Document Server

    Romanov, V G


    The Inverse and Ill-Posed Problems Series is a series of monographs publishing postgraduate level information on inverse and ill-posed problems for an international readership of professional scientists and researchers. The series aims to publish works which involve both theory and applications in, e.g., physics, medicine, geophysics, acoustics, electrodynamics, tomography, and ecology.

  5. Modelling and inversion of local magnetic anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesnel, Y; Langlais, B; Sotin, C; Galdéano, A


    We present a method—named as MILMA for modelling and inversion of local magnetic anomalies—that combines forward and inverse modelling of aeromagnetic data to characterize both magnetization properties and location of unconstrained local sources. Parameters of simple-shape magnetized bodies (cylinder, prism or sphere) are first adjusted by trial and error to predict the signal. Their parameters provide a priori information for inversion of the measurements. Here, a generalized nonlinear approach with a least-squares criterion is adopted to seek the best parameters of the sphere (dipole). This inversion step allows the model to be more objectively adjusted to fit the magnetic signal. The validity of the MILMA method is demonstrated through synthetic and real cases using aeromagnetic measurements. Tests with synthetic data reveal accurate results in terms of depth source, whatever be the number of sources. The MILMA method is then used with real measurements to constrain the properties of the magnetized units of the Champtoceaux complex (France). The resulting parameters correlate with the crustal structure and properties revealed by other geological and geophysical surveys in the same area. The MILMA method can therefore be used to investigate the properties of poorly constrained lithospheric magnetized sources

  6. Algebraic properties of generalized inverses

    CERN Document Server

    Cvetković‐Ilić, Dragana S


    This book addresses selected topics in the theory of generalized inverses. Following a discussion of the “reverse order law” problem and certain problems involving completions of operator matrices, it subsequently presents a specific approach to solving the problem of the reverse order law for {1} -generalized inverses. Particular emphasis is placed on the existence of Drazin invertible completions of an upper triangular operator matrix; on the invertibility and different types of generalized invertibility of a linear combination of operators on Hilbert spaces and Banach algebra elements; on the problem of finding representations of the Drazin inverse of a 2x2 block matrix; and on selected additive results and algebraic properties for the Drazin inverse. In addition to the clarity of its content, the book discusses the relevant open problems for each topic discussed. Comments on the latest references on generalized inverses are also included. Accordingly, the book will be useful for graduate students, Ph...

  7. Geostatistical regularization operators for geophysical inverse problems on irregular meshes (United States)

    Jordi, C.; Doetsch, J.; Günther, T.; Schmelzbach, C.; Robertsson, J. OA


    Irregular meshes allow to include complicated subsurface structures into geophysical modelling and inverse problems. The non-uniqueness of these inverse problems requires appropriate regularization that can incorporate a priori information. However, defining regularization operators for irregular discretizations is not trivial. Different schemes for calculating smoothness operators on irregular meshes have been proposed. In contrast to classical regularization constraints that are only defined using the nearest neighbours of a cell, geostatistical operators include a larger neighbourhood around a particular cell. A correlation model defines the extent of the neighbourhood and allows to incorporate information about geological structures. We propose an approach to calculate geostatistical operators for inverse problems on irregular meshes by eigendecomposition of a covariance matrix that contains the a priori geological information. Using our approach, the calculation of the operator matrix becomes tractable for 3-D inverse problems on irregular meshes. We tested the performance of the geostatistical regularization operators and compared them against the results of anisotropic smoothing in inversions of 2-D surface synthetic electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data as well as in the inversion of a realistic 3-D cross-well synthetic ERT scenario. The inversions of 2-D ERT and seismic traveltime field data with geostatistical regularization provide results that are in good accordance with the expected geology and thus facilitate their interpretation. In particular, for layered structures the geostatistical regularization provides geologically more plausible results compared to the anisotropic smoothness constraints.

  8. Software product for inversion of 3D seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bown, J.


    ISIS3D Seismic Inversion removes the effect of the wavelet from seismic data, and in so doing determines model for the subsurface variation of a real physical parameter, acoustic impedance. The displays based on the results produced by ISIS3D allow improved lithologic interpretation for reservoir delineation. ISIS3D assists the interpreter with respect to: Resolution of thin layers; Variations in lithology; Porosity variations within a reservoir; and Structural interpretation. The ISIS inversion process is divided into four fundamental steps: Calibration of the well logs and derivation of acoustic impedance and reflectivity logs; Determination of the optimal wavelet for the seismic inversion algorithm; Construction of a prior acoustic impedance model for use by the seismic inversion algorithm; and Globally optimised, multi-trace seismic inversion. (EG)

  9. A rainbow inverse problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvez V.


    Full Text Available We consider the radiative transfer equation (RTE with reflection in a three-dimensional domain, infinite in two dimensions, and prove an existence result. Then, we study the inverse problem of retrieving the optical parameters from boundary measurements, with help of existing results by Choulli and Stefanov. This theoretical analysis is the framework of an attempt to model the color of the skin. For this purpose, a code has been developed to solve the RTE and to study the sensitivity of the measurements made by biophysicists with respect to the physiological parameters responsible for the optical properties of this complex, multi-layered material. On étudie l’équation du transfert radiatif (ETR dans un domaine tridimensionnel infini dans deux directions, et on prouve un résultat d’existence. On s’intéresse ensuite à la reconstruction des paramètres optiques à partir de mesures faites au bord, en s’appuyant sur des résultats de Choulli et Stefanov. Cette analyse sert de cadre théorique à un travail de modélisation de la couleur de la peau. Dans cette perspective, un code à été développé pour résoudre l’ETR et étudier la sensibilité des mesures effectuées par les biophysiciens par rapport aux paramètres physiologiques tenus pour responsables des propriétés optiques de ce complexe matériau multicouche.

  10. An Iterative Travel Time Inversion and Waveform Modeling Method to Determine the Crust Structure and Focal Mechanism: Case Study of 2015 Alxa Left Banner Ms5.8 Earthquake (United States)

    Song, C.; Ge, Z.


    The boundary region between Alxa Block and Ordos Block is an area of stress concentration with strong seismicity and frequent small earthquakes. However, the knowledge of this area is limited since only a few seismic stations were deployed in this area. The 2015 Ms5.8 Alxa Left Banner Earthquake on April 15 is the largest one occurred in the surroundings since the 1976 Ms6.2 Bayinmuren Earthquake. Abundant stations built in the northern part of Chinese North-South Seismic Belt recorded this event sequence well within short distance, which provides us a great opportunity to carry out studies. We use these data to obtain a mean 1-D layered velocity structure via iterative inversion based on both travel time and waveform misfits. Then we use the travel time difference between data and synthetic seismograms to relocate the epicenter. Finally we invert the best double-couple focal mechanism and centroid depths of the source. As the result, the source is located at (39.7027° N, 106.4207° E) with a depth of 18 km and Mw 5.28. Nodal plane Ⅰ has strike 86°, dip angle 90° and slip angle -3°, while plane Ⅱ has strike 176°, dip angle 87° and slip angle 180°. Considering the dynamic structure of regional fault zone, we believe this earthquake is caused by a nearly pure left-lateral strike-slip fault with nodal plane Ⅰ being the fault plane. The seismogenic structure is likely to be an E-W striking buried fault nearby. There develops several groups of NE, NEE and E-W striking faults in Jilantai tectonic zone, parts of which have been verified by geophysical investigations. But we still know little about the dynamic nature of them. From our study, the corresponding fault of this event may indicate all groups of faults with same E-W strike has the common character of large-dip left-lateral strike-slip. Moreover, there may be some buried faults being newly born or not found yet. These results could be an important supplement to the future research of seismicity and

  11. Dynamic Inversion of Intraslab Intermediate Depth Earthquakes (United States)

    Madariaga, R. I.; Ruiz, S.


    We perform kinematic and dynamic inversions of the 24 July 2008 (Mw=6.8) Iwate northern Japan and 16 December 2007 (Mw 6.8) Michilla, Chile earthquakes using near field strong motion digital data. The data were filtered between 0.02 - 1 Hz. The rupture process is simulated with elliptical patches because we are looking for the average properties of the seismic rupture. The direct dynamic simulation problem was solved by a combination of finite difference modeling on a 32 km3 grid with 200 m spacing, and propagation from source to recorders using the AXITRA spectral program. For both earthquakes we used layered models of the structure. The Neighborhood algorithm and Monte Carlo methods are used to obtain the best fitting solutions and to explore the solution space. The optimum solutions are found comparing observed and synthetic records using an L2 norm. Both kinematic and dynamic inversions fit the observed data with misfits lower than 0.3. For both earthquakes, kinematic inversion shows strong trade-off between rupture velocity and maximum slip although the seismic moment remains invariant. Rupture velocities vary between sub-shear speeds to almost Rayleigh wave speeds. In the dynamic inversions 10 seismic source parameters were inverted for the Michilla earthquake and 8 parameters for the Iwate event, among them stress, friction and geometrical parameters. For the Iwate event the properties of the initial asperity at the source were not inverted because they could not be resolved by the data. In the dynamic inversion we observed a strong trade off among the friction law parameters. The best dynamic models form a family of that shares similar values of seismic moment and kappa (the ratio of released strain energy to energy release rate for friction). Kinematic and dynamic inversions in the 0.02 - 1 Hz frequency range form a set of non-unique solutions controlled by specific combinations of seismic source parameters. We discuss the origin of the non-uniqueness of

  12. Inversion twinning in troilite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skála, Roman; Císařová, I.; Drábek, M.


    Roč. 91, 5-6 (2006), s. 917-921 ISSN 0003-004X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/02/1101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : troilite * absolute structure * crystallography * iron monosulfide * iron meteorites Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.977, year: 2006

  13. Limits to Nonlinear Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosegaard, Klaus


    ability to produce efficient search algorithms. Such algorithms may be completely problem-independent (which is the case for the so-called 'meta-heuristics' or 'blind-search' algorithms), or they may be designed with the structure of the concrete problem in mind. We show that pure meta...

  14. Bayesian Approach to Inverse Problems

    CERN Document Server


    Many scientific, medical or engineering problems raise the issue of recovering some physical quantities from indirect measurements; for instance, detecting or quantifying flaws or cracks within a material from acoustic or electromagnetic measurements at its surface is an essential problem of non-destructive evaluation. The concept of inverse problems precisely originates from the idea of inverting the laws of physics to recover a quantity of interest from measurable data.Unfortunately, most inverse problems are ill-posed, which means that precise and stable solutions are not easy to devise. Regularization is the key concept to solve inverse problems.The goal of this book is to deal with inverse problems and regularized solutions using the Bayesian statistical tools, with a particular view to signal and image estimation

  15. Statistical perspectives on inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Emil

    of the interior of an object from electrical boundary measurements. One part of this thesis concerns statistical approaches for solving, possibly non-linear, inverse problems. Thus inverse problems are recasted in a form suitable for statistical inference. In particular, a Bayesian approach for regularisation...... problem is given in terms of probability distributions. Posterior inference is obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and new, powerful simulation techniques based on e.g. coupled Markov chains and simulated tempering is developed to improve the computational efficiency of the overall simulation......Inverse problems arise in many scientific disciplines and pertain to situations where inference is to be made about a particular phenomenon from indirect measurements. A typical example, arising in diffusion tomography, is the inverse boundary value problem for non-invasive reconstruction...

  16. Optimized nonlinear inversion of surface-wave dispersion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raykova, Reneta B.


    A new code for inversion of surface wave dispersion data is developed to obtain Earth’s crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. The author developed Optimized Non–Linear Inversion ( ONLI ) software, based on Monte-Carlo search. The values of S–wave velocity VS and thickness h for a number of horizontal homogeneous layers are parameterized. Velocity of P–wave VP and density ρ of relevant layers are calculated by empirical or theoretical relations. ONLI explores parameters space in two modes, selective and full search, and the main innovation of software is evaluation of tested models. Theoretical dispersion curves are calculated if tested model satisfied specific conditions only, reducing considerably the computation time. A number of tests explored impact of parameterization and proved the ability of ONLI approach to deal successfully with non–uniqueness of inversion problem. Key words: Earth’s structure, surface–wave dispersion, non–linear inversion, software

  17. Computation of inverse magnetic cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.


    Inverse cascades of magnetic quantities for turbulent incompressible magnetohydrodynamics are reviewed, for two and three dimensions. The theory is extended to the Strauss equations, a description intermediate between two and three dimensions appropriate to tokamak magnetofluids. Consideration of the absolute equilibrium Gibbs ensemble for the system leads to a prediction of an inverse cascade of magnetic helicity, which may manifest itself as a major disruption. An agenda for computational investigation of this conjecture is proposed

  18. Thermal measurements and inverse techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Orlande, Helcio RB; Maillet, Denis; Cotta, Renato M


    With its uncommon presentation of instructional material regarding mathematical modeling, measurements, and solution of inverse problems, Thermal Measurements and Inverse Techniques is a one-stop reference for those dealing with various aspects of heat transfer. Progress in mathematical modeling of complex industrial and environmental systems has enabled numerical simulations of most physical phenomena. In addition, recent advances in thermal instrumentation and heat transfer modeling have improved experimental procedures and indirect measurements for heat transfer research of both natural phe

  19. Coin tossing and Laplace inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of a probability measure " on Е0Y 1К via the obvious change of variables e└t И xX An inversion formula for " in terms of its moments yields an inversion formula for # in terms of the values of its Laplace transform at n И 0Y 1Y 2Y ... and vice versa. In our discussion we allow " (respectively #) to have positive mass at 0 ...

  20. Inverse Systems - Nanoporous Solids (United States)

    Patarin, J.; Spalla, O.; di Renzo, F.

    Many natural materials are characterised by an inorganic framework, generally negatively charged, containing cavities, cages, or tunnels in which inorganic (charge-balancing) cations and/or water molecules are occluded. Among these materials, the zeolites form one large family of crystalline porous materials (from the Greek zein meaning 'to boil' and lithos meaning 'stone'). Pore sizes in these aluminosilicates are generally of nanometric order. Because of their specific properties, the synthesis of zeolites, and more generally, zeolitic materials (zeolites and related solids) has considerably increased over the last few years. Indeed, applications are many and varied. They are relevant not only to the chemical industry (or more precisely, the petrochemical industry), but also to our everyday lives (phosphate-free washing powders, double-glazing insulation, and many others). By virtue of their porous structure and the mobility of the cations and water molecules occluded within their porous structures, these materials can be used as highly selective cation exchangers and adsorbents.

  1. EDITORIAL: Inverse Problems in Engineering (United States)

    West, Robert M.; Lesnic, Daniel


    Presented here are 11 noteworthy papers selected from the Fifth International Conference on Inverse Problems in Engineering: Theory and Practice held in Cambridge, UK during 11-15 July 2005. The papers have been peer-reviewed to the usual high standards of this journal and the contributions of reviewers are much appreciated. The conference featured a good balance of the fundamental mathematical concepts of inverse problems with a diverse range of important and interesting applications, which are represented here by the selected papers. Aspects of finite-element modelling and the performance of inverse algorithms are investigated by Autrique et al and Leduc et al. Statistical aspects are considered by Emery et al and Watzenig et al with regard to Bayesian parameter estimation and inversion using particle filters. Electrostatic applications are demonstrated by van Berkel and Lionheart and also Nakatani et al. Contributions to the applications of electrical techniques and specifically electrical tomographies are provided by Wakatsuki and Kagawa, Kim et al and Kortschak et al. Aspects of inversion in optical tomography are investigated by Wright et al and Douiri et al. The authors are representative of the worldwide interest in inverse problems relating to engineering applications and their efforts in producing these excellent papers will be appreciated by many readers of this journal.

  2. RFDR with Adiabatic Inversion Pulses: Application to Internuclear Distance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppert, Joerg; Ohlenschlaeger, Oliver; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai


    In the context of the structural characterisation of biomolecular systems via MAS solid state NMR, the potential utility of homonuclear dipolar recoupling with adiabatic inversion pulses has been assessed via numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The results obtained suggest that it is possible to obtain reliable estimates of internuclear distances via an analysis of the initial cross-peak intensity buildup curves generated from two-dimensional adiabatic inversion pulse driven longitudinal magnetisation exchange experiments

  3. ipw: An R Package for Inverse Probability Weighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald B. Geskus


    Full Text Available We describe the R package ipw for estimating inverse probability weights. We show how to use the package to fit marginal structural models through inverse probability weighting, to estimate causal effects. Our package can be used with data from a point treatment situation as well as with a time-varying exposure and time-varying confounders. It can be used with binomial, categorical, ordinal and continuous exposure variables.

  4. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  5. Developments in inverse photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheils, W.; Leckey, R.C.G.; Riley, J.D.


    In the 1950's and 1960's, Photoemission Spectroscopy (PES) established itself as the major technique for the study of the occupied electronic energy levels of solids. During this period the field divided into two branches: X-ray Photoemission Spectroscopy (XPS) for photon energies greater than ∼l000eV, and Ultra-violet Photoemission Spectroscopy (UPS) for photon energies below ∼100eV. By the 1970's XPS and UPS had become mature techniques. Like XPS, BIS (at x-ray energies) does not have the momentum-resolving ability of UPS that has contributed much to the understanding of the occupied band structures of solids. BIS moved into a new energy regime in 1977 when Dose employed a Geiger-Mueller tube to obtain density of unoccupied states data from a tantalum sample at a photon energy of ∼9.7eV. At similar energies, the technique has since become known as Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy (IPS), in acknowledgment of its complementary relationship to UPS and to distinguish it from the higher energy BIS. Drawing on decades of UPS expertise, IPS has quickly moved into areas of interest where UPS has been applied; metals, semiconductors, layer compounds, adsorbates, ferromagnets, and superconductors. At La Trobe University an IPS facility has been constructed. This presentation reports on developments in the experimental and analytical techniques of IPS that have been made there. The results of a study of the unoccupied bulk and surface bands of GaAs are presented

  6. SISYPHUS: A high performance seismic inversion factory (United States)

    Gokhberg, Alexey; Simutė, Saulė; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas


    In the recent years the massively parallel high performance computers became the standard instruments for solving the forward and inverse problems in seismology. The respective software packages dedicated to forward and inverse waveform modelling specially designed for such computers (SPECFEM3D, SES3D) became mature and widely available. These packages achieve significant computational performance and provide researchers with an opportunity to solve problems of bigger size at higher resolution within a shorter time. However, a typical seismic inversion process contains various activities that are beyond the common solver functionality. They include management of information on seismic events and stations, 3D models, observed and synthetic seismograms, pre-processing of the observed signals, computation of misfits and adjoint sources, minimization of misfits, and process workflow management. These activities are time consuming, seldom sufficiently automated, and therefore represent a bottleneck that can substantially offset performance benefits provided by even the most powerful modern supercomputers. Furthermore, a typical system architecture of modern supercomputing platforms is oriented towards the maximum computational performance and provides limited standard facilities for automation of the supporting activities. We present a prototype solution that automates all aspects of the seismic inversion process and is tuned for the modern massively parallel high performance computing systems. We address several major aspects of the solution architecture, which include (1) design of an inversion state database for tracing all relevant aspects of the entire solution process, (2) design of an extensible workflow management framework, (3) integration with wave propagation solvers, (4) integration with optimization packages, (5) computation of misfits and adjoint sources, and (6) process monitoring. The inversion state database represents a hierarchical structure with

  7. An inverse approach for elucidating dendritic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen


    Full Text Available We outline an inverse approach for investigating dendritic function-structure relationships by optimizing dendritic trees for a-priori chosen computational functions. The inverse approach can be applied in two different ways. First, we can use it as a `hypothesis generator' in which we optimize dendrites for a function of general interest. The optimization yields an artificial dendrite that is subsequently compared to real neurons. This comparison potentially allows us to propose hypotheses about the function of real neurons. In this way, we investigated dendrites that optimally perform input-order detection. Second, we can use it as a `function confirmation' by optimizing dendrites for functions hypothesized to be performed by classes of neurons. If the optimized, artificial, dendrites resemble the dendrites of real neurons the artificial dendrites corroborate the hypothesized function of the real neuron. Moreover, properties of the artificial dendrites can lead to predictions about yet unmeasured properties. In this way, we investigated wide-field motion integration performed by the VS cells of the fly visual system. In outlining the inverse approach and two applications, we also elaborate on the nature of dendritic function. We furthermore discuss the role of optimality in assigning functions to dendrites and point out interesting future directions.

  8. Silicon MIS/inversion-layer solar cells (United States)

    Olsen, L. C.


    Silicon Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor/Inversion-Layer (MIS-IL) solar cells were investigated as an approach to low cost terrestrial photovoltaics. Considerable progress was made concerning the development of procedures for SiO deposition for inversion-layer formation, the characterization of the fixed charge in deposited SiO layers, surface state density at the Si-SiO interface, fabrication and characterization of MIS-IL solar cells. Improvements were also made in the theory of MIS-IL solar cells, and utilized to calculate cell performance for a range of insulator charge and base resistivities. Inversion layer formation was studied in several ways. MOS devices was analyzed to determine the magnitude of the net positive charge, Q/sub POS/, vensus surface potential, Psi/sub S/. In situ sheet resistance measurements was made to determine the charge distribution within the deposited SiO layer. Finally, estimates of Q/sub POS/ obtained by comparing experimental results for MIS-IL cells and theory are compared with values of Q/sub POS/ determined for MOS structures fabricated simultaneously with the solar cells. Cell fabrication procedures emphasized low temperature processing.

  9. Computationally efficient Bayesian inference for inverse problems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzouk, Youssef M.; Najm, Habib N.; Rahn, Larry A.


    Bayesian statistics provides a foundation for inference from noisy and incomplete data, a natural mechanism for regularization in the form of prior information, and a quantitative assessment of uncertainty in the inferred results. Inverse problems - representing indirect estimation of model parameters, inputs, or structural components - can be fruitfully cast in this framework. Complex and computationally intensive forward models arising in physical applications, however, can render a Bayesian approach prohibitive. This difficulty is compounded by high-dimensional model spaces, as when the unknown is a spatiotemporal field. We present new algorithmic developments for Bayesian inference in this context, showing strong connections with the forward propagation of uncertainty. In particular, we introduce a stochastic spectral formulation that dramatically accelerates the Bayesian solution of inverse problems via rapid evaluation of a surrogate posterior. We also explore dimensionality reduction for the inference of spatiotemporal fields, using truncated spectral representations of Gaussian process priors. These new approaches are demonstrated on scalar transport problems arising in contaminant source inversion and in the inference of inhomogeneous material or transport properties. We also present a Bayesian framework for parameter estimation in stochastic models, where intrinsic stochasticity may be intermingled with observational noise. Evaluation of a likelihood function may not be analytically tractable in these cases, and thus several alternative Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) schemes, operating on the product space of the observations and the parameters, are introduced.

  10. Design and Implementation of Forward and Inverse Gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The implementation of a tool to perform two-dimensional forward and inverse gravity data modeling that can be used to interpret the subsurface geologic structure is presented in this article. The approach subdivides the subsurface into regular shape prisms and reconstructs the geologic structures by assigning variable ...

  11. Variability in the combustion-derived fraction of urban humidity in Salt Lake City winter estimated from stable water vapor isotopes and its relationship to atmospheric stability and inversion structure (United States)

    Fiorella, R.; Bares, R.; Lin, J. C.; Strong, C.; Bowen, G. J.


    Water released from the combustion of fossil fuels, while a negligible part of the global hydrological cycle, may be a significant contributor to urban humidity as fossil fuel emissions are strongly concentrated in space and time. The fraction of urban humidity comprised of combustion-derived vapor (CDV) cannot be observed through humidity measurements alone. However, the distinct stable isotopic composition of CDV, which arises from the reaction of 18O-enriched atmospheric O2 with 2H-depleted organic molecules, represents a promising method to apportion observed humidity between CDV and advected vapor. We apply stable water vapor isotopes to investigate variability in CDV amount and its relationship to atmospheric conditions in Salt Lake City, Utah. The Salt Lake Valley experiences several periods of atmospheric stratification during winter known as cold air pools, during which concentrations of CDV and pollutants can be markedly elevated due to reduced atmospheric mixing. Therefore, the SLV during winter is an ideal place to investigate variability in CDV fraction across a spectrum of boundary layer conditions, ranging from well-mixed to very stable. We present water vapor isotope data from four winters (2013-2017) from the top of a 30 m building on the University of Utah (U of U) Campus. Additionally, we present water vapor isotope data from the summit of Hidden Peak from the 2016-2017 winter, 25 km SE and 2000 m above the U of U site. The Hidden Peak site is consistently above the cold air pool emplaced in the SLV during stable events. We find the expression of the CDV signal in the valley is related to the atmospheric structure of the cold air pools in the SLV, and that the fraction of CDV inferred in the valley is likely related to the mixing height within the cold air pool. Furthermore, we find that patterns between the Hidden Peak and U of U sites during inversion events may record the large-scale atmospheric dynamics promoting emplacement of the cold air

  12. Deep controls on intraplate basin inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.B.; Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian


    favourably orientated with respect to pre-existing structures in the lithosphere. Furthermore, stresses derived from lithospheric potential energy variations as well as those from plate boundary forces must be taken into account in order to explain intraplate seismicity and deformation such as basin......Basin inversion is an intermediate-scale manifestation of continental intraplate deformation, which produces earthquake activity in the interior of continents. The sedimentary basins of central Europe, inverted in the Late Cretaceous– Paleocene, represent a classic example of this phenomenon...

  13. Inverse comptonization vs. thermal synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Laros, J.G.


    There are currently two radiation mechanisms being considered for gamma-ray bursts: thermal synchrotron and inverse comptonization. They are mutually exclusive since thermal synchrotron requires a magnetic field of approx. 10 12 Gauss whereas inverse comptonization cannot produce a monotonic spectrum if the field is larger than 10 11 and is too inefficient relative to thermal synchrotron unless the field is less than 10 9 Gauss. Neither mechanism can explain completely the observed characteristics of gamma-ray bursts. However, we conclude that thermal synchrotron is more consistent with the observations if the sources are approx. 40 kpc away whereas inverse comptonization is more consistent if they are approx. 300 pc away. Unfortunately, the source distance is still not known and, thus, the radiation mechanism is still uncertain

  14. Inverse comorbidity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Laursen, Bjarne


    discovery rate and investigated each of eight pre-specified comorbidity categories: psychiatric, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, lung, and autoimmune comorbidities, diabetes, cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Results A total of 8947 MS-cases and 44,735 controls were eligible for inclusion. We found...... This study showed a decreased risk of cancers and pulmonary diseases after onset of MS. Identification of inverse comorbidity and of its underlying mechanisms may provide important new entry points into the understanding of MS.......Background Inverse comorbidity is disease occurring at lower rates than expected among persons with a given index disease. The objective was to identify inverse comorbidity in MS. Methods We performed a combined case-control and cohort study in a total nationwide cohort of cases with clinical onset...

  15. Inverse photoemission of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel, P.; Morrall, P.; Tull, S.J.


    Understanding the itinerant-localised bonding role of the 5f electrons in the light actinides will afford an insight into their unusual physical and chemical properties. In recent years, the combination of core and valance band electron spectroscopies with theoretic modelling have already made significant progress in this area. However, information of the unoccupied density of states is still scarce. When compared to the forward photoemission techniques, measurements of the unoccupied states suffer from significantly less sensitivity and lower resolution. In this paper, we report on our experimental apparatus, which is designed to measure the inverse photoemission spectra of the light actinides. Inverse photoemission spectra of UO 2 and UO 2.2 along with the corresponding core and valance electron spectra are presented in this paper. UO 2 has been reported previously, although through its inclusion here it allows us to compare and contrast results from our experimental apparatus to the previous Bremsstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy investigations

  16. Inverse source problems in elastodynamics (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Hu, Guanghui; Kian, Yavar; Yin, Tao


    We are concerned with time-dependent inverse source problems in elastodynamics. The source term is supposed to be the product of a spatial function and a temporal function with compact support. We present frequency-domain and time-domain approaches to show uniqueness in determining the spatial function from wave fields on a large sphere over a finite time interval. The stability estimate of the temporal function from the data of one receiver and the uniqueness result using partial boundary data are proved. Our arguments rely heavily on the use of the Fourier transform, which motivates inversion schemes that can be easily implemented. A Landweber iterative algorithm for recovering the spatial function and a non-iterative inversion scheme based on the uniqueness proof for recovering the temporal function are proposed. Numerical examples are demonstrated in both two and three dimensions.

  17. Physically-based Canopy Reflectance Model Inversion of Vegetation Biophysical-Structural Information from Terra-MODIS Imagery in Boreal and Mountainous Terrain for Ecosystem, Climate and Carbon Models using the BIOPHYS-MFM Algorithm (United States)

    Peddle, D. R.; Hall, F.


    The BIOPHYS algorithm provides innovative and flexible methods for the inversion of canopy reflectance models (CRM) to derive essential biophysical structural information (BSI) for quantifying vegetation state and disturbance, and for input to ecosystem, climate and carbon models. Based on spectral, angular, temporal and scene geometry inputs that can be provided or automatically derived, the BIOPHYS Multiple-Forward Mode (MFM) approach generates look-up tables (LUTs) that comprise reflectance data, structural inputs over specified or computed ranges, and the associated CRM output from forward mode runs. Image pixel and model LUT spectral values are then matched. The corresponding BSI retrieved from the LUT matches is output as the BSI results. BIOPHYS-MFM has been extensively used with agencies in Canada and the USA over the past decade (Peddle et al 2000-09; Soenen et al 2005-09; Gamon et al 2004; Cihlar et al 2003), such as CCRS, CFS, AICWR, NASA LEDAPS, BOREAS and MODIS Science Teams, and for the North American Carbon Program. The algorithm generates BSI products such as land cover, biomass, stand volume, stem density, height, crown closure, leaf area index (LAI) and branch area, crown dimension, productivity, topographic correction, structural change from harvest, forest fires and mountain pine beetle damage, and water / hydrology applications. BIOPHYS-MFM has been applied in different locations in Canada (six provinces from Newfoundland to British Columbia) and USA (NASA COVER, MODIS and LEDAPS sites) using 7 different CRM models and a variety of imagery (e.g. MODIS, Landsat, SPOT, IKONOS, airborne MSV, MMR, casi, Probe-1, AISA). In this paper we summarise the BIOPHYS-MFM algorithm and results from Terra-MODIS imagery from MODIS validation sites at Kananaskis Alberta in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, and from the Boreal Ecosystem Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) in Saskatchewan Canada. At the montane Rocky Mountain site, BIOPHYS-MFM density estimates were within

  18. Perspectives on Geoacoustic Inversion of Ocean Bottom Reflectivity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ross Chapman


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on acoustic reflectivity of the ocean bottom, and describes inversion of reflection data from an experiment designed to study the physical properties and structure of the ocean bottom. The formalism of Bayesian inference is reviewed briefly to establish an understanding of the approach for inversion that is in widespread use. A Bayesian inversion of ocean bottom reflection coefficient versus angle data to estimate geoacoustic model parameters of young oceanic crust is presented. The data were obtained in an experiment to study the variation of sound speed in crustal basalt with age of the crust at deep water sites in the Pacific Ocean where the sediment deposits overlying the basalt are very thin. The inversion results show that sound speed of both compressional and shear waves is increasing with crustal age over the track of the experiment where age increased from 40 to 70 million years.

  19. The effect of genomic inversions on estimation of population genetic parameters from SNP data. (United States)

    Seich Al Basatena, Nafisa-Katrin; Hoggart, Clive J; Coin, Lachlan J; O'Reilly, Paul F


    In recent years it has emerged that structural variants have a substantial impact on genomic variation. Inversion polymorphisms represent a significant class of structural variant, and despite the challenges in their detection, data on inversions in the human genome are increasing rapidly. Statistical methods for inferring parameters such as the recombination rate and the selection coefficient have generally been developed without accounting for the presence of inversions. Here we exploit new software for simulating inversions in population genetic data, invertFREGENE, to assess the potential impact of inversions on such methods. Using data simulated by invertFREGENE, as well as real data from several sources, we test whether large inversions have a disruptive effect on widely applied population genetics methods for inferring recombination rates, for detecting selection, and for controlling for population structure in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We find that recombination rates estimated by LDhat are biased downward at inversion loci relative to the true contemporary recombination rates at the loci but that recombination hotspots are not falsely inferred at inversion breakpoints as may have been expected. We find that the integrated haplotype score (iHS) method for detecting selection appears robust to the presence of inversions. Finally, we observe a strong bias in the genome-wide results of principal components analysis (PCA), used to control for population structure in GWAS, in the presence of even a single large inversion, confirming the necessity to thin SNPs by linkage disequilibrium at large physical distances to obtain unbiased results.

  20. Inverse methods in hydrologic optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard R. Gordon


    Full Text Available Methods for solving the hydrologic-optics inverse problem, i.e., estimating the inherent optical properties of a water body based solely on measurements of the apparent optical properties, are reviewed in detail. A new method is developed for the inverse problem in water bodies in which fluorescence is important. It is shown that in principle, given profiles of the spectra of up- and downwelling irradiance, estimation of the coefficient of inelastic scattering from any wave band to any other wave band can be effected.

  1. Inverse Interval Matrix: A Survey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří; Farhadsefat, R.


    Roč. 22, - (2011), s. 704-719 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interval matrix * inverse interval matrix * NP-hardness * enclosure * unit midpoint * inverse sign stability * nonnegative invertibility * absolute value equation * algorithm Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.808, year: 2010

  2. Size Estimates in Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Di Cristo, Michele


    Detection of inclusions or obstacles inside a body by boundary measurements is an inverse problems very useful in practical applications. When only finite numbers of measurements are available, we try to detect some information on the embedded object such as its size. In this talk we review some recent results on several inverse problems. The idea is to provide constructive upper and lower estimates of the area/volume of the unknown defect in terms of a quantity related to the work that can be expressed with the available boundary data.

  3. -Dimensional Fractional Lagrange's Inversion Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam


    Full Text Available Using Riemann-Liouville fractional differential operator, a fractional extension of the Lagrange inversion theorem and related formulas are developed. The required basic definitions, lemmas, and theorems in the fractional calculus are presented. A fractional form of Lagrange's expansion for one implicitly defined independent variable is obtained. Then, a fractional version of Lagrange's expansion in more than one unknown function is generalized. For extending the treatment in higher dimensions, some relevant vectors and tensors definitions and notations are presented. A fractional Taylor expansion of a function of -dimensional polyadics is derived. A fractional -dimensional Lagrange inversion theorem is proved.

  4. Surface wave waveform inversions for local shear-wave velocities under eastern Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passier, M.L.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Snieder, R.K.


    The waveform inversion method developed by Kushnir et al. [1989] and expanded by Passier and Snieder [1995b] yields estimates of structure along short interstation paths and of average velocity gradients. In contrast, 3D tomographic inversions yield local estimates of the earth structure by

  5. Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann


    Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes

  6. Statistical and Computational Inverse Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaipio, Jari


    Develops the statistical approach to inverse problems with an emphasis on modeling and computations. The book discusses the measurement noise modeling and Bayesian estimation, and uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to explore the probability distributions. It is for researchers and advanced students in applied mathematics.

  7. Coin Tossing and Laplace Inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analysis of exchangeable sequences of coin tossings leads to inversion formulae for Laplace transforms of probability measures. Author Affiliations. J C Gupta1 2. Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi 110 016, India; 32, Mirdha Tola, Budaun 243 601, India. Dates. Manuscript received: 5 May 1999; Manuscript revised: 3 ...

  8. Givental Graphs and Inversion Symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Barkovskiy, P.; Shadrin, S.; Spitz, L.


    Inversion symmetry is a very non-trivial discrete symmetry of Frobenius manifolds. It was obtained by Dubrovin from one of the elementary Schlesinger transformations of a special ODE associated to a Frobenius manifold. In this paper, we review the Givental group action on Frobenius manifolds in

  9. Wave-equation dispersion inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jing


    We present the theory for wave-equation inversion of dispersion curves, where the misfit function is the sum of the squared differences between the wavenumbers along the predicted and observed dispersion curves. The dispersion curves are obtained from Rayleigh waves recorded by vertical-component geophones. Similar to wave-equation traveltime tomography, the complicated surface wave arrivals in traces are skeletonized as simpler data, namely the picked dispersion curves in the phase-velocity and frequency domains. Solutions to the elastic wave equation and an iterative optimization method are then used to invert these curves for 2-D or 3-D S-wave velocity models. This procedure, denoted as wave-equation dispersion inversion (WD), does not require the assumption of a layered model and is significantly less prone to the cycle-skipping problems of full waveform inversion. The synthetic and field data examples demonstrate that WD can approximately reconstruct the S-wave velocity distributions in laterally heterogeneous media if the dispersion curves can be identified and picked. The WD method is easily extended to anisotropic data and the inversion of dispersion curves associated with Love waves.

  10. Adjoint modeling for acoustic inversion (United States)

    Hursky, Paul; Porter, Michael B.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Hodgkiss, W. S.; Kuperman, W. A.


    The use of adjoint modeling for acoustic inversion is investigated. An adjoint model is derived from a linearized forward propagation model to propagate data-model misfit at the observation points back through the medium to the medium perturbations not being accounted for in the model. This adjoint model can be used to aid in inverting for these unaccounted medium perturbations. Adjoint methods are being applied to a variety of inversion problems, but have not drawn much attention from the underwater acoustic community. This paper presents an application of adjoint methods to acoustic inversion. Inversions are demonstrated in simulation for both range-independent and range-dependent sound speed profiles using the adjoint of a parabolic equation model. Sensitivity and error analyses are discussed showing how the adjoint model enables calculations to be performed in the space of observations, rather than the often much larger space of model parameters. Using an adjoint model enables directions of steepest descent in the model parameters (what we invert for) to be calculated using far fewer modeling runs than if a forward model only were used.

  11. Inverse spin Hall effect in Pt/(Ga,Mn)As (United States)

    Nakayama, H.; Chen, L.; Chang, H. W.; Ohno, H.; Matsukura, F.


    We investigate dc voltages under ferromagnetic resonance in a Pt/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer structure. A part of the observed dc voltage is shown to originate from the inverse spin Hall effect. The sign of the inverse spin Hall voltage is the same as that in Py/Pt bilayer structure, even though the stacking order of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers is opposite to each other. The spin mixing conductance at the Pt/(Ga,Mn)As interface is determined to be of the order of 1019 m-2, which is about ten times greater than that of (Ga,Mn)As/p-GaAs.

  12. Workflows for Full Waveform Inversions (United States)

    Boehm, Christian; Krischer, Lion; Afanasiev, Michael; van Driel, Martin; May, Dave A.; Rietmann, Max; Fichtner, Andreas


    Despite many theoretical advances and the increasing availability of high-performance computing clusters, full seismic waveform inversions still face considerable challenges regarding data and workflow management. While the community has access to solvers which can harness modern heterogeneous computing architectures, the computational bottleneck has fallen to these often manpower-bounded issues that need to be overcome to facilitate further progress. Modern inversions involve huge amounts of data and require a tight integration between numerical PDE solvers, data acquisition and processing systems, nonlinear optimization libraries, and job orchestration frameworks. To this end we created a set of libraries and applications revolving around Salvus (, a novel software package designed to solve large-scale full waveform inverse problems. This presentation focuses on solving passive source seismic full waveform inversions from local to global scales with Salvus. We discuss (i) design choices for the aforementioned components required for full waveform modeling and inversion, (ii) their implementation in the Salvus framework, and (iii) how it is all tied together by a usable workflow system. We combine state-of-the-art algorithms ranging from high-order finite-element solutions of the wave equation to quasi-Newton optimization algorithms using trust-region methods that can handle inexact derivatives. All is steered by an automated interactive graph-based workflow framework capable of orchestrating all necessary pieces. This naturally facilitates the creation of new Earth models and hopefully sparks new scientific insights. Additionally, and even more importantly, it enhances reproducibility and reliability of the final results.

  13. Quantifying uncertainties of seismic Bayesian inversion of Northern Great Plains (United States)

    Gao, C.; Lekic, V.


    Elastic waves excited by earthquakes are the fundamental observations of the seismological studies. Seismologists measure information such as travel time, amplitude, and polarization to infer the properties of earthquake source, seismic wave propagation, and subsurface structure. Across numerous applications, seismic imaging has been able to take advantage of complimentary seismic observables to constrain profiles and lateral variations of Earth's elastic properties. Moreover, seismic imaging plays a unique role in multidisciplinary studies of geoscience by providing direct constraints on the unreachable interior of the Earth. Accurate quantification of uncertainties of inferences made from seismic observations is of paramount importance for interpreting seismic images and testing geological hypotheses. However, such quantification remains challenging and subjective due to the non-linearity and non-uniqueness of geophysical inverse problem. In this project, we apply a reverse jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (rjMcMC) algorithm for a transdimensional Bayesian inversion of continental lithosphere structure. Such inversion allows us to quantify the uncertainties of inversion results by inverting for an ensemble solution. It also yields an adaptive parameterization that enables simultaneous inversion of different elastic properties without imposing strong prior information on the relationship between them. We present retrieved profiles of shear velocity (Vs) and radial anisotropy in Northern Great Plains using measurements from USArray stations. We use both seismic surface wave dispersion and receiver function data due to their complementary constraints of lithosphere structure. Furthermore, we analyze the uncertainties of both individual and joint inversion of those two data types to quantify the benefit of doing joint inversion. As an application, we infer the variation of Moho depths and crustal layering across the northern Great Plains.

  14. Ultrafast magnetic vortex core switching driven by the topological inverse Faraday effect. (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Ohe, Jun-ichiro; Tatara, Gen


    We present a theoretical discovery of an unconventional mechanism of inverse Faraday effect which acts selectively on topological magnetic structures. The effect, topological inverse Faraday effect, is induced by the spin Berry's phase of the magnetic structure when a circularly polarized light is applied. Thus a spin-orbit interaction is not necessary unlike that in the conventional inverse Faraday effect. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that topological inverse Faraday effect realizes ultrafast switching of a magnetic vortex within a switching time of 150 ps without magnetic field.

  15. Inverse Kinematics Solution and Verification of 4-DOF Hydraulic Manipulator (United States)

    Chao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Chuanqing; Li, Huaying


    Aimed at four degree of freedom (DOF) hydraulic manipulator, an inverse kinematics solution is proposed from Cartesian space to drive space based on geometrical method. To the structural and diver characteristics of the manipulator, a forward kinematics is conducted by using D-H method. The position and orientation of manipulator’s end-effector can be obtained under the kinematics constraint. By analyzing the structure, the solution of inverse kinematics of manipulator can be obtained, and the conversion between drive space and joint space can be got through the sport’s mechanism kinematics. In order to meet the need of motion planning and control of the manipulator, the inverse kinematics and conversion are validated based on simulation.

  16. Towards full waveform ambient noise inversion (United States)

    Sager, Korbinian; Ermert, Laura; Boehm, Christian; Fichtner, Andreas


    In this work we investigate fundamentals of a method—referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion—that improves the resolution of tomographic images by extracting waveform information from interstation correlation functions that cannot be used without knowing the distribution of noise sources. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. This involves the following steps: (1) We introduce an operator-based formulation of the forward problem of computing correlation functions. It is valid for arbitrary distributions of noise sources in both space and frequency, and for any type of medium, including 3-D elastic, heterogeneous and attenuating media. In addition, the formulation allows us to keep the derivations independent of time and frequency domain and it facilitates the application of adjoint techniques, which we use to derive efficient expressions to compute first and also second derivatives. The latter are essential for a resolution analysis that accounts for intra- and interparameter trade-offs. (2) In a forward modelling study we investigate the effect of noise sources and structure on different observables. Traveltimes are hardly affected by heterogeneous noise source distributions. On the other hand, the amplitude asymmetry of correlations is at least to first order insensitive to unmodelled Earth structure. Energy and waveform differences are sensitive to both structure and the distribution of noise sources. (3) We design and implement an appropriate inversion scheme, where the extraction of waveform information is successively increased. We demonstrate that full waveform ambient noise inversion has the potential to go beyond ambient noise tomography based on Green function retrieval and to refine noise source location, which is essential for a better understanding of noise generation. Inherent trade-offs between source and structure

  17. Analysis of RAE-1 inversion (United States)

    Hedland, D. A.; Degonia, P. K.


    The RAE-1 spacecraft inversion performed October 31, 1972 is described based upon the in-orbit dynamical data in conjunction with results obtained from previously developed computer simulation models. The computer simulations used are predictive of the satellite dynamics, including boom flexing, and are applicable during boom deployment and retraction, inter-phase coast periods, and post-deployment operations. Attitude data, as well as boom tip data, were analyzed in order to obtain a detailed description of the dynamical behavior of the spacecraft during and after the inversion. Runs were made using the computer model and the results were analyzed and compared with the real time data. Close agreement between the actual recorded spacecraft attitude and the computer simulation results was obtained.

  18. Validation of OSIRIS Ozone Inversions (United States)

    Gudnason, P.; Evans, W. F.; von Savigny, C.; Sioris, C.; Halley, C.; Degenstein, D.; Llewellyn, E. J.; Petelina, S.; Gattinger, R. L.; Odin Team


    The OSIRIS instrument onboard the Odin satellite, that was launched on February 20, 2001, is a combined optical spectrograph and infrared imager that obtains profil sets of atmospheric spectra from 280 to 800 nm when Odin scans the terrestrial limb. It has been possible to make a preliminary analysis of the ozone profiles using the Chappuis absorption feature. Three algorithms have been developed for ozone profile inversions from these limb spectra sets. We have dubbed these the Gattinger, Von Savigny-Flittner and DOAS methods. These are being evaluated against POAM and other satellite data. Based on performance, one of these will be selected for the operational algorithm. The infrared imager data have been used by Degenstein with the tomographic inversion procedure to derive ozone concentrations above 60 km. This paper will present some of these initial observations and indicate the best algorithm potential of OSIRIS to make spectacular advances in the study of terrestrial ozone.

  19. Appraisal of geodynamic inversion results: a data mining approach (United States)

    Baumann, T. S.


    Bayesian sampling based inversions require many thousands or even millions of forward models, depending on how nonlinear or non-unique the inverse problem is, and how many unknowns are involved. The result of such a probabilistic inversion is not a single `best-fit' model, but rather a probability distribution that is represented by the entire model ensemble. Often, a geophysical inverse problem is non-unique, and the corresponding posterior distribution is multimodal, meaning that the distribution consists of clusters with similar models that represent the observations equally well. In these cases, we would like to visualize the characteristic model properties within each of these clusters of models. However, even for a moderate number of inversion parameters, a manual appraisal for a large number of models is not feasible. This poses the question whether it is possible to extract end-member models that represent each of the best-fit regions including their uncertainties. Here, I show how a machine learning tool can be used to characterize end-member models, including their uncertainties, from a complete model ensemble that represents a posterior probability distribution. The model ensemble used here results from a nonlinear geodynamic inverse problem, where rheological properties of the lithosphere are constrained from multiple geophysical observations. It is demonstrated that by taking vertical cross-sections through the effective viscosity structure of each of the models, the entire model ensemble can be classified into four end-member model categories that have a similar effective viscosity structure. These classification results are helpful to explore the non-uniqueness of the inverse problem and can be used to compute representative data fits for each of the end-member models. Conversely, these insights also reveal how new observational constraints could reduce the non-uniqueness. The method is not limited to geodynamic applications and a generalized MATLAB

  20. Inverse problem in transformation optics


    Novitsky, Andrey V.


    The straightforward method of transformation optics implies that one starts from the coordinate transformation and determines the Jacobian matrix, the fields and material parameters of the cloak. However, the coordinate transformation appears as an optional function: it is not necessary to know it. We offer the solution of some sort of inverse problem: starting from the fields in the invisibility cloak we directly derive the permittivity and permeability tensors of the cloaking shell. This ap...

  1. Fourier reconstruction with sparse inversions


    Zwartjes, P.M.


    In seismic exploration an image of the subsurface is generated from seismic data through various data processing algorithms. When the data is not acquired on an equidistantly spaced grid, artifacts may result in the final image. Fourier reconstruction is an interpolation technique that can reduce these artifacts by generating uniformly sampled data from such non-uniformly sampled data. The method works by estimating via least-squares inversion the Fourier coefficients that describe the non-un...

  2. The Inverse of Banded Matrices (United States)


    for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite ...numbers of summed or subtracted terms in computing the inverse of a term of an upper (lower) triangular matrix are the generalized order-k Fibonacci ... Fibonacci numbers are the usual Fibonacci numbers, that is, f 2m = Fm (mth Fibonacci number). When also k = 3, c1 = c2 = c3 = 1, then the generalized order-3

  3. Inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakulin, V.N.


    Considered is the operation of a typical magnetron mass spectrometer with an internal ion source and that of an inverse magnetron mass spectrometer with an external ion source. It is found that for discrimination of the same mass using the inverse design of mass spectrometers it is possible to employ either r 2 /r 1 times lesser magnetic fields at equal accelerating source-collector voltages, or r 2 /r 1 higher accelerating voltages at equal magnetic fields, as compared to the typical design (r 1 and r 2 being radii of the internal and external electrodes of the analyser, respectively). The design of an inverse-magnetron mass spectrometer is described. The mass analyzer is formed by a cylindrical electrode of 3 mm diameter and a coaxial tubular cylinder of 55 mm diameter. External to the analyzer is an ionizing chamber at the pressure of up to 5x10 -6 torr. The magnetic field along the chamber axis produced by a solenoid was 300 Oe. At the accelerating voltage of 100 V and mass 28, the spectrometer has a resolution of 30 at a half-peak height

  4. Inverse problems for difference equations with quadratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inverse problems for difference equations with quadratic Eigenparameter dependent boundary conditions. Sonja Currie, Anne D. Love. Abstract. This paper inductively investigates an inverse problem for difference boundary value problems with boundary conditions that depend quadratically on the eigenparameter.

  5. Approaching the Island of Inversion: 34P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, P.C.; Hoffman, C.R.; Wiedeking, M.; Allmond, J.M.; Bernstein, L.A.; Burke, J.T.; Bleuel, D.L.; Clark, R.M.; Fallon, P.; Goldblum, B.L.; Hinners, T.A.; Jeppesen, H.B.; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, I.Y.; Lesher, S.R.; Machiavelli, A.O.; McMahan, M.A.; Morris, D.; Perry, M.; Phair, L.; Scielzo, N.D.; Tabor, S.L.; Tripathi, Vandana; Volya, A.


    Yrast states in 34P were investigated using the 18O(18O,pn) reaction at energies of 20, 24, 25, 30, and 44 MeV at Florida State University and at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The level scheme was expanded, ray angular distributions were measured, and lifetimes were inferred with the Doppler-shift attenuation method by detecting decay protons in coincidence with one or more rays. The results provide a clearer picture of the evolution of structure approaching the 'Island of Inversion', particularly how the 1 and 2 particle-hole (ph) states fall in energy with increasing neutro number approaching inversion. However, the agreement of the lowest few states with pure sd shell model predictions shows that the level scheme of 34P is not itself inverted. Rather, the accumulated evidence indicates that the 1-ph states start at 2.3 MeV. A good candidate for the lowest 2-ph state lies at 6236 keV, just below the neutron separation energy of 6291 keV. Shell model calculations made using a small modification of the WBP interaction reproduce the negative-parity, 1-ph states rather well.

  6. Eigenvectors phase correction in inverse modal problem (United States)

    Qiao, Guandong; Rahmatalla, Salam


    The solution of the inverse modal problem for the spatial parameters of mechanical and structural systems is heavily dependent on the quality of the modal parameters obtained from the experiments. While experimental and environmental noises will always exist during modal testing, the resulting modal parameters are expected to be corrupted with different levels of noise. A novel methodology is presented in this work to mitigate the errors in the eigenvectors when solving the inverse modal problem for the spatial parameters. The phases of the eigenvector component were utilized as design variables within an optimization problem that minimizes the difference between the calculated and experimental transfer functions. The equation of motion in terms of the modal and spatial parameters was used as a constraint in the optimization problem. Constraints that reserve the positive and semi-positive definiteness and the inter-connectivity of the spatial matrices were implemented using semi-definite programming. Numerical examples utilizing noisy eigenvectors with augmented Gaussian white noise of 1%, 5%, and 10% were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed method is superior when compared with a known method in the literature.

  7. Flexible Aircraft Gust Load Alleviation with Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; van Kampen, E.; Chu, Q.; De Breuker, R.


    In this paper, an Incremental Nonlinear Dynamic Inversion (INDI) controller is
    developed for the flexible aircraft gust load alleviation (GLA) problem. First, a flexible aircraft model captures both inertia and aerodynamic coupling effects between flight dynamics and structural vibration

  8. Sound source reconstruction using inverse boundary element calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo


    Whereas standard boundary element calculations focus on the forward problem of computing the radiated acoustic field from a vibrating structure, the aim in this work is to reverse the process, i.e., to determine vibration from acoustic field data. This inverse problem is brought on a form suited ...

  9. Sound source reconstruction using inverse boundary element calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuhmacher, Andreas; Hald, Jørgen; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo


    Whereas standard boundary element calculations focus on the forward problem of computing the radiated acoustic field from a vibrating structure, the aim of the present work is to reverse the process, i.e., to determine vibration from acoustic field data. This inverse problem is brought on a form ...

  10. Fast computation of the inverse CMH model (United States)

    Patel, Umesh D.; Della Torre, Edward


    A fast computational method based on differential equation approach for inverse Della Torre, Oti, Kádár (DOK) model has been extended for the inverse Complete Moving Hysteresis (CMH) model. A cobweb technique for calculating the inverse CMH model is also presented. The two techniques differ from the point of view of flexibility, accuracy, and computation time. Simulation results of the inverse computation for both methods are presented.





    En este articulo se revisan los instrumentos de inversion indirecta inmobiliaria en Espana, desde la creacion en 1992 de los Fondos y Sociedades de Inversion inmobiliaria (FII y SII) hasta la creacion de la primera Sociedad de inversion del mercado inmobiliario (SOCIMI) en 2013. Se analizan las caracteristicas de los mismos y asimismo los motivos por los cuales estas figuras de inversion no han tenido mucha demanda hasta el momento, en comparacion con los REITs (Real Estate Investment Trusts)...

  12. Inversion: A Most Useful Kind of Transformation. (United States)

    Dubrovsky, Vladimir


    The transformation assigning to every point its inverse with respect to a circle with given radius and center is called an inversion. Discusses inversion with respect to points, circles, angles, distances, space, and the parallel postulate. Exercises related to these topics are included. (MDH)

  13. INFO-RNA--a fast approach to inverse RNA folding. (United States)

    Busch, Anke; Backofen, Rolf


    The structure of RNA molecules is often crucial for their function. Therefore, secondary structure prediction has gained much interest. Here, we consider the inverse RNA folding problem, which means designing RNA sequences that fold into a given structure. We introduce a new algorithm for the inverse folding problem (INFO-RNA) that consists of two parts; a dynamic programming method for good initial sequences and a following improved stochastic local search that uses an effective neighbor selection method. During the initialization, we design a sequence that among all sequences adopts the given structure with the lowest possible energy. For the selection of neighbors during the search, we use a kind of look-ahead of one selection step applying an additional energy-based criterion. Afterwards, the pre-ordered neighbors are tested using the actual optimization criterion of minimizing the structure distance between the target structure and the mfe structure of the considered neighbor. We compared our algorithm to RNAinverse and RNA-SSD for artificial and biological test sets. Using INFO-RNA, we performed better than RNAinverse and in most cases, we gained better results than RNA-SSD, the probably best inverse RNA folding tool on the market.

  14. Coupled channels Marchenko inversion for nucleon-nucleon potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlhoff, H.; Geramb, H.V. von


    Marchenko inversion is used to determine local energy independent but channel dependent potential matrices from optimum sets of experimental phase shifts. 3 SD 1 and 3 PF 2 channels of nucleon-nucleon systems contain in their off-diagonal potential matrices explicitly the tensor force for T = 0 and 1 isospin. We obtain, together with single channels, complete sets of quantitative nucleon-nucleon potential results which are ready for application in nuclear structure and reaction analyses. The historic coupled channels inversion result of Newton and Fulton is revisited. (orig.)

  15. Inverse problem in transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey


    . We offer the solution of some sort of inverse problem: starting from the fields in the invisibility cloak we directly derive the permittivity and permeability tensors of the cloaking shell. This approach can be useful for finding material parameters for the specified electromagnetic fields......The straightforward method of transformation optics implies that one starts from the coordinate transformation and determines the Jacobian matrix, the fields and material parameters of the cloak. However, the coordinate transformation appears as an optional function: it is not necessary to know it...... in the cloaking shell without knowing the coordinate transformation....

  16. Iterative optimization in inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Charles L


    Iterative Optimization in Inverse Problems brings together a number of important iterative algorithms for medical imaging, optimization, and statistical estimation. It incorporates recent work that has not appeared in other books and draws on the author's considerable research in the field, including his recently developed class of SUMMA algorithms. Related to sequential unconstrained minimization methods, the SUMMA class includes a wide range of iterative algorithms well known to researchers in various areas, such as statistics and image processing. Organizing the topics from general to more

  17. Full waveform inversion using envelope-based global correlation norm (United States)

    Oh, Ju-Won; Alkhalifah, Tariq


    To increase the feasibility of full waveform inversion on real data, we suggest a new objective function, which is defined as the global correlation of the envelopes of modeled and observed data. The envelope-based global correlation norm has the advantage of the envelope inversion that generates artificial low-frequency information, which provides the possibility to recover long-wavelength structure in an early stage. In addition, the envelope-based global correlation norm maintains the advantage of the global correlation norm, which reduces the sensitivity of the misfit to amplitude errors so that the performance of inversion on real data can be enhanced when the exact source wavelet is not available and more complex physics are ignored.

  18. Global-scale Full Waveform Ambient Noise Inversion (United States)

    Sager, K.; Ermert, L. A.; Boehm, C.; Krischer, L.; Afanasiev, M.; Fichtner, A.


    In earthquake tomography, modern tomographic methods exploit waveforms for the benefit of improved resolution. However, these techniques cannot be applied to noise correlation functions without knowing the distribution of noise sources. To overcome this limitation, we develop a method - referred to as full waveform ambient noise inversion - that is valid for arbitrary noise source distributions in both space and frequency, accounts for 3D heterogeneous and attenuating media and the full seismic wave propagation physics. The fundamental idea is to drop the principle of Green function retrieval, which is the basis for current noise tomographic studies, and to establish correlation functions as self-consistent observables in seismology. Based on a synthetic study in 2D, investigating the prerequisites for a joint inversion for noise sources and Earth structure, we extend the open-source waveform modelling and inversion package Salvus ( It allows us to compute correlation functions in 3D media with heterogeneous noise sources at the surface and the corresponding sensitivity kernels for the distribution of noise sources and Earth structure. We present sensitivity kernels for different cross-correlation time lags and various noise source distributions, and study the effect of 3D heterogeneous Earth structure. For a validation of full waveform ambient noise inversion, we apply it to a global dataset focusing on the Earth's hum period band.

  19. 3D stochastic inversion and joint inversion of potential fields for multi scale parameters (United States)

    Shamsipour, Pejman

    In this thesis we present the development of new techniques for the interpretation of potential field (gravity and magnetic data), which are the most widespread economic geophysical methods used for oil and mineral exploration. These new techniques help to address the long-standing issue with the interpretation of potential fields, namely the intrinsic non-uniqueness inversion of these types of data. The thesis takes the form of three papers (four including Appendix), which have been published, or soon to be published, in respected international journals. The purpose of the thesis is to introduce new methods based on 3D stochastical approaches for: 1) Inversion of potential field data (magnetic), 2) Multiscale Inversion using surface and borehole data and 3) Joint inversion of geophysical potential field data. We first present a stochastic inversion method based on a geostatistical approach to recover 3D susceptibility models from magnetic data. The aim of applying geostatistics is to provide quantitative descriptions of natural variables distributed in space or in time and space. We evaluate the uncertainty on the parameter model by using geostatistical unconditional simulations. The realizations are post-conditioned by cokriging to observation data. In order to avoid the natural tendency of the estimated structure to lay near the surface, depth weighting is included in the cokriging system. Then, we introduce algorithm for multiscale inversion, the presented algorithm has the capability of inverting data on multiple supports. The method involves four main steps: i. upscaling of borehole parameters (It could be density or susceptibility) to block parameters, ii. selection of block to use as constraints based on a threshold on kriging variance, iii. inversion of observation data with selected block densities as constraints, and iv. downscaling of inverted parameters to small prisms. Two modes of application are presented: estimation and simulation. Finally, a novel

  20. Neural learning of robot inverse kinematics transformations (United States)

    Gupta, M. M.


    The accuracy of a robot arm is determined by its ability to move in a given particular task space to specific Cartesian positions that are not necessarily pretaught. As a consequence, the inverse kinematics is an important problem as it must be solved in real-time in order to position the end-effector at an appropriate Cartesian location. However, it is a difficult and challenging problem for it involves the determination whether or not at least one mathematical set of robot joint angle values exists that will produce a desired coordinate configuration. The mathematical solutions should be checked against the physical constraints associated with the manipulator. Many times, a solution many not be physically realizable in a constrained environment. The advent of artificial neural networks has made it possible to obtain general learning schemes which can be used to arrive at feasible solutions to inverse kinematics problem in a constrained environment independent of a robotic structure. In this paper, we present such a learning scheme using a dynamic neural processor (DNP). This neural model functionally mimics the subpopulation of biological neurons. For analytical simplicity, only two subpopulations of neurons, namely excitatory and inhibitory, are assumed to coexist. The DNP is a neural network structure consisting of two dynamic neural units coupled as excitatory and inhibitory neurons. It is demonstrated in this study that the DNP would avoid time consuming numerical calculations and provide, more or less, instant recall of the learned associations. The learning and adaptive nature of this neural approach is demonstrated for two- and three-linked robots.

  1. Spectral inversion of frequency-domain IP data obtained in Haenam, South Korea (United States)

    Kim, B.; Nam, M. J.; Son, J. S.


    Spectral induced polarization (SIP) method using a range of source frequencies have been performed for not only exploring minerals resources, but also engineering or environmental application. SIP interpretation first makes inversion of individual frequency data to obtain complex resistivity structures, which will further analyzed employing Cole-Cole model to explain the frequency-dependent characteristics. However, due to the difficulty in fitting Cole-Cole model, there is a movement to interpret complex resistivity structure inverted only from a single frequency data: that is so-called "complex resistivity survey". Further, simultaneous inversion of multi-frequency SIP data, rather than making a single frequency SIP data, has been studied to improve ambiguity and artefacts of independent single frequency inversion in obtaining a complex resistivity structure, even though the dispersion characteristics of complex resistivity with respect to source frequency. Employing the simultaneous inversion method, this study makes inversion of field SIP data obtained over epithermal mineralized area, Haenam, in the southernmost tip of South Korea. The area has a polarizable structure because of extensive hydrothermal alteration, gold-silver deposits. After the inversion, we compare between inversion results considering multi-frequency data and single frequency data set to evaluate the performance of simultaneous inversion of multi-frequency SIP data.

  2. A new optimization approach for source-encoding full-waveform inversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, P.P.; Keers, H.; Herrmann, F.J.; Mulder, W.A.


    Waveform inversion is the method of choice for determining a highly heterogeneous subsurface structure. However, conventional waveform inversion requires that the wavefield for each source is computed separately. This makes it very expensive for realistic 3D seismic surveys. Source-encoding waveform

  3. Revealing stacking sequences in inverse opals by microradian X-ray diffraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinitskii, A.; Abramova, V.; Grigorieva, N.; Grigoriev, S.; Snigirev, A.; Byelov, D.; Petukhov, A.V.


    We present the results of the structural analysis of inverse opal photonic crystals by microradian X-ray diffraction. Inverse opals based on different oxide materials (TiO2, SiO2 and Fe2O3) were fabricated by templating polystyrene colloidal crystal films grown by the vertical deposition technique.

  4. Solving Inverse Kinematics – A New Approach to the Extended Jacobian Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šoch


    Full Text Available This paper presents a brief summary of current numerical algorithms for solving the Inverse Kinematics problem. Then a new approach based on the Extended Jacobian technique is compared with the current Jacobian Inversion method. The presented method is intended for use in the field of computer graphics for animation of articulated structures

  5. Single and sequential inversions of radiomagnetotelluric and transient electromagnetic data (United States)

    Pratama, Ridho Nanda; Widodo


    The Volvi basin is an alluvial valley located 45 km northeast of the city of Thessaloniki in Northern Greece. It is a neotectonic graben (6 km wide) structure with increasing seismic activity where the large 1978 Thessaloniki earthquake occurred. Hence, near surface Electromagnetic (EM) which are Radiomagnetotelluric (RMT) and Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) measurements are carried out to understand the location of the local active fault and the top of the basement structure of the research area. The sequential Inversion of both data was performed to get detailed information of subsurface structure. Whereas RMT data is sensitive to describe in shallow structure, while the deeper structure is related to TEM data. We derived the sequential inversion scheme from the second order of Marquardt algorithm using singular value decomposition (SVD). The sequential model has been improved the resolution of the single model which has more than 0.9 on the importance value. Single and sequential inversions of RMT and TEM give a consistent result in which both identify the fault structure indication.

  6. LHC Report: 2 inverse femtobarns!

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC Team


    The LHC is enjoying a confluence of twos. This morning (Friday 5 August) we passed 2 inverse femtobarns delivered in 2011; the peak luminosity is now just over 2 x1033 cm-2s-1; and recently fill 2000 was in for nearly 22 hours and delivered around 90 inverse picobarns, almost twice 2010's total.   In order to increase the luminosity we can increase of number of bunches, increase the number of particles per bunch, or decrease the transverse beam size at the interaction point. The beam size can be tackled in two ways: either reduce the size of the injected bunches or squeeze harder with the quadrupole magnets situated on either side of the experiments. Having increased the number of bunches to 1380, the maximum possible with a 50 ns bunch spacing, a one day meeting in Crozet decided to explore the other possibilities. The size of the beams coming from the injectors has been reduced to the minimum possible. This has brought an increase in the peak luminosity of about 50% and the 2 x 1033 cm...

  7. Inverse problems in systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engl, Heinz W; Lu, James; Müller, Stefan; Flamm, Christoph; Schuster, Peter; Kügler, Philipp


    Systems biology is a new discipline built upon the premise that an understanding of how cells and organisms carry out their functions cannot be gained by looking at cellular components in isolation. Instead, consideration of the interplay between the parts of systems is indispensable for analyzing, modeling, and predicting systems' behavior. Studying biological processes under this premise, systems biology combines experimental techniques and computational methods in order to construct predictive models. Both in building and utilizing models of biological systems, inverse problems arise at several occasions, for example, (i) when experimental time series and steady state data are used to construct biochemical reaction networks, (ii) when model parameters are identified that capture underlying mechanisms or (iii) when desired qualitative behavior such as bistability or limit cycle oscillations is engineered by proper choices of parameter combinations. In this paper we review principles of the modeling process in systems biology and illustrate the ill-posedness and regularization of parameter identification problems in that context. Furthermore, we discuss the methodology of qualitative inverse problems and demonstrate how sparsity enforcing regularization allows the determination of key reaction mechanisms underlying the qualitative behavior. (topical review)

  8. A MATLAB based 3D modeling and inversion code for MT data (United States)

    Singh, Arun; Dehiya, Rahul; Gupta, Pravin K.; Israil, M.


    The development of a MATLAB based computer code, AP3DMT, for modeling and inversion of 3D Magnetotelluric (MT) data is presented. The code comprises two independent components: grid generator code and modeling/inversion code. The grid generator code performs model discretization and acts as an interface by generating various I/O files. The inversion code performs core computations in modular form - forward modeling, data functionals, sensitivity computations and regularization. These modules can be readily extended to other similar inverse problems like Controlled-Source EM (CSEM). The modular structure of the code provides a framework useful for implementation of new applications and inversion algorithms. The use of MATLAB and its libraries makes it more compact and user friendly. The code has been validated on several published models. To demonstrate its versatility and capabilities the results of inversion for two complex models are presented.

  9. Inverse problems and inverse scattering of plane waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh Roy, Dilip N


    The purpose of this text is to present the theory and mathematics of inverse scattering, in a simple way, to the many researchers and professionals who use it in their everyday research. While applications range across a broad spectrum of disciplines, examples in this text will focus primarly, but not exclusively, on acoustics. The text will be especially valuable for those applied workers who would like to delve more deeply into the fundamentally mathematical character of the subject matter.Practitioners in this field comprise applied physicists, engineers, and technologists, whereas the theory is almost entirely in the domain of abstract mathematics. This gulf between the two, if bridged, can only lead to improvement in the level of scholarship in this highly important discipline. This is the book''s primary focus.

  10. Statistical Inversion of Seismic Noise Inversion statistique du bruit sismique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler P. M.


    Full Text Available A systematic investigation of wave propagation in random media is presented. Spectral analysis, inversion of codas and attenuation of the direct wave front are studied for synthetic data obtained in isotropic or anisotropic, 2D or 3D media. A coda inversion process is developed and checked on two sets of real data. In both cases, it is possible to compare the correlation lengths obtained by inversion to characteristic lengths measured on seismic logs, for the full scale seismic survey, or on a thin section, for the laboratory experiment. These two experiments prove the feasibility and the efficiency of the statistical inversion of codas. Correct characteristic lengths can be obtained which cannot be determined by another method. Le problème de la géophysique est la recherche d'informations concernant le sous-sol, dans des signaux sismiques enregistrés en surface ou dans des puits. Ces informations sont habituellement recherchées sous forme déterministe, c'est-à-dire sous la forme de la donnée en chaque point d'une valeur du paramètre étudié. Notre point de vue est différent puisque notre objectif est de déduire certaines propriétés statistiques du milieu, supposé hétérogène, à partir des sismogrammes enregistrés après propagation. Il apparaît alors deux moyens de remplir l'objectif fixé. Le premier est l'analyse spectrale des codas ; cette analyse permet de déterminer les tailles moyennes des hétérogénéités du sous-sol. La deuxième possibilité est l'étude de l'atténuation du front direct de l'onde, qui conduit aussi à la connaissance des longueurs caractéristiques du sous-sol ; contrairement à la première méthode, elle ne semble pas pouvoir être transposée efficacement à des cas réels. Dans la première partie, on teste numériquement la proportionnalité entre le facteur de rétrodiffraction, relié aux propriétés statistiques du milieu, et le spectre des codas. Les distributions de vitesse, à valeur

  11. Solution for Ill-Posed Inverse Kinematics of Robot Arm by Network Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Ogawa


    Full Text Available In the context of controlling a robot arm with multiple joints, the method of estimating the joint angles from the given end-effector coordinates is called inverse kinematics, which is a type of inverse problems. Network inversion has been proposed as a method for solving inverse problems by using a multilayer neural network. In this paper, network inversion is introduced as a method to solve the inverse kinematics problem of a robot arm with multiple joints, where the joint angles are estimated from the given end-effector coordinates. In general, inverse problems are affected by ill-posedness, which implies that the existence, uniqueness, and stability of their solutions are not guaranteed. In this paper, we show the effectiveness of applying network inversion with regularization, by which ill-posedness can be reduced, to the ill-posed inverse kinematics of an actual robot arm with multiple joints.

  12. Experimental characterization of methane inverse diffusion flame

    KAUST Repository

    Elbaz, Ayman M.


    This article presents 10-kHz images of OH-PLIF simultaneously with 2-D PIV measurements in an inverse methane diffusion flame. Under a constant fuel flow rate, the central air jet Re was varied, leading to air to fuel velocity ratio, Vr, to vary from 8.3 to 66.5. Starting from Vr = 20.7, the flame is commonly characterized by three distinct zones. The length of the lower fuel entrainment region is inversely proportional to Vr. The flames investigated resemble a string shear layer confining this zone, and converging into the second distinct region, the flame neck zone. The third region is the rest of the flame, which spreads in a jet-like manner. The inverse diffusion flames exhibit varying degrees of partial premixing, depending upon on the velocity ratio Vr, and this region of partial premixing evolves into a well-mixed reaction zone along the flame centerline. The OH distribution correlated with the changes in the mean characteristics of the flow through reduction in the local Reynolds number due to heat release. The existence of a flame suppresses or laminarizes the turbulence at early axial locations and promotes fluctuations at the flame tip for flames with Vr < 49.8. In addition, the flame jet width can be correlated to the OH distribution. In upstream regions of the flames, the breaks in OH are counterbalanced by flame closures and are governed by edge flame propagation. These local extinctions were found to occur at locations where large flow structures were impinging on the flame and are associated with a locally higher strain rate or correlated to the local high strain rates at the flame hole edges without this flow impinging. Another contributor to re-ignition was found to be growing flame kernels. As the flames approach global blow-off, these kernels become the main mechanism for re-ignition further downstream of the flames. At low Vr, laminarization within the early regions of the flame provides an effective shield, preventing the jet flow from

  13. Inverse problem in neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Lin; Felcher, G.P.; Chen, Sow-Hsin


    Reflectance and transmittance of neutrons from a thin film deposited on a bulk substrate are derived from solution of Schroedinger wave equation in the material medium with an optical potential. A closed-form solution for the complex reflectance and transmittance is obtained in an approximation where the curvature of the scattering length density profile in the film is small. This closed-form solution reduces to all the known approximations in various limiting cases and is shown to be more accurate than the existing approximations. The closed-form solution of the reflectance is used as a starting point for an inversion algorithm whereby the reflectance data are inverted by a matrix iteration scheme to obtain the scattering length density distribution in the film. A preliminary test showed that the inverted profile is accurate for the linear scattering length density distribution but falls short in the case of an exponential distribution. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Wake Vortex Inverse Model User's Guide (United States)

    Lai, David; Delisi, Donald


    NorthWest Research Associates (NWRA) has developed an inverse model for inverting landing aircraft vortex data. The data used for the inversion are the time evolution of the lateral transport position and vertical position of both the port and starboard vortices. The inverse model performs iterative forward model runs using various estimates of vortex parameters, vertical crosswind profiles, and vortex circulation as a function of wake age. Forward model predictions of lateral transport and altitude are then compared with the observed data. Differences between the data and model predictions guide the choice of vortex parameter values, crosswind profile and circulation evolution in the next iteration. Iterations are performed until a user-defined criterion is satisfied. Currently, the inverse model is set to stop when the improvement in the rms deviation between the data and model predictions is less than 1 percent for two consecutive iterations. The forward model used in this inverse model is a modified version of the Shear-APA model. A detailed description of this forward model, the inverse model, and its validation are presented in a different report (Lai, Mellman, Robins, and Delisi, 2007). This document is a User's Guide for the Wake Vortex Inverse Model. Section 2 presents an overview of the inverse model program. Execution of the inverse model is described in Section 3. When executing the inverse model, a user is requested to provide the name of an input file which contains the inverse model parameters, the various datasets, and directories needed for the inversion. A detailed description of the list of parameters in the inversion input file is presented in Section 4. A user has an option to save the inversion results of each lidar track in a mat-file (a condensed data file in Matlab format). These saved mat-files can be used for post-inversion analysis. A description of the contents of the saved files is given in Section 5. An example of an inversion input

  15. Sensitivity analysis of distributed volcanic source inversion (United States)

    Cannavo', Flavio; Camacho, Antonio G.; González, Pablo J.; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Fernández, José


    A recently proposed algorithm (Camacho et al., 2011) claims to rapidly estimate magmatic sources from surface geodetic data without any a priori assumption about source geometry. The algorithm takes the advantages of fast calculation from the analytical models and adds the capability to model free-shape distributed sources. Assuming homogenous elastic conditions, the approach can determine general geometrical configurations of pressured and/or density source and/or sliding structures corresponding to prescribed values of anomalous density, pressure and slip. These source bodies are described as aggregation of elemental point sources for pressure, density and slip, and they fit the whole data (keeping some 3D regularity conditions). Although some examples and applications have been already presented to demonstrate the ability of the algorithm in reconstructing a magma pressure source (e.g. Camacho et al., 2011,Cannavò et al., 2015), a systematic analysis of sensitivity and reliability of the algorithm is still lacking. In this explorative work we present results from a large statistical test designed to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the methodology by assessing its sensitivity to the free and constrained parameters involved in inversions. In particular, besides the source parameters, we focused on the ground deformation network topology, and noise in measurements. The proposed analysis can be used for a better interpretation of the algorithm results in real-case applications. Camacho, A. G., González, P. J., Fernández, J. & Berrino, G. (2011) Simultaneous inversion of surface deformation and gravity changes by means of extended bodies with a free geometry: Application to deforming calderas. J. Geophys. Res. 116. Cannavò F., Camacho A.G., González P.J., Mattia M., Puglisi G., Fernández J. (2015) Real Time Tracking of Magmatic Intrusions by means of Ground Deformation Modeling during Volcanic Crises, Scientific Reports, 5 (10970) doi:10.1038/srep

  16. Accommodating chromosome inversions in linkage analysis. (United States)

    Chen, Gary K; Slaten, Erin; Ophoff, Roel A; Lange, Kenneth


    This work develops a population-genetics model for polymorphic chromosome inversions. The model precisely describes how an inversion changes the nature of and approach to linkage equilibrium. The work also describes algorithms and software for allele-frequency estimation and linkage analysis in the presence of an inversion. The linkage algorithms implemented in the software package Mendel estimate recombination parameters and calculate the posterior probability that each pedigree member carries the inversion. Application of Mendel to eight Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain pedigrees in a region containing a common inversion on 8p23 illustrates its potential for providing more-precise estimates of the location of an unmapped marker or trait gene. Our expanded cytogenetic analysis of these families further identifies inversion carriers and increases the evidence of linkage.

  17. Optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Wiak, Sławomir


    From 12 to 14 September 2002, the Academy of Humanities and Economics (AHE) hosted the workshop "Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism". After this bi-annual event, a large number of papers were assembled and combined in this book. During the workshop recent developments and applications in optimization and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields were discussed. The contributions selected for the present volume cover a wide spectrum of inverse and optimal electromagnetic methodologies, ranging from theoretical to practical applications. A number of new optimal and inverse methodologies were proposed. There are contributions related to dedicated software. Optimization and Inverse Problems in Electromagnetism consists of three thematic chapters, covering: -General papers (survey of specific aspects of optimization and inverse problems in electromagnetism), -Methodologies, -Industrial Applications. The book can be useful to students of electrical and electronics engineering, computer sci...

  18. Identifiability Scaling Laws in Bilinear Inverse Problems


    Choudhary, Sunav; Mitra, Urbashi


    A number of ill-posed inverse problems in signal processing, like blind deconvolution, matrix factorization, dictionary learning and blind source separation share the common characteristic of being bilinear inverse problems (BIPs), i.e. the observation model is a function of two variables and conditioned on one variable being known, the observation is a linear function of the other variable. A key issue that arises for such inverse problems is that of identifiability, i.e. whether the observa...

  19. Lectures on the inverse scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.E.


    In a series of six lectures an elementary introduction to the theory of inverse scattering is given. The first four lectures contain a detailed theory of solitons in the framework of the KdV equation, together with the inverse scattering theory of the one-dimensional Schroedinger equation. In the fifth lecture the dressing method is described, while the sixth lecture gives a brief review of the equations soluble by the inverse scattering method. (author)

  20. Inverse kinematics of OWI-535 robotic arm




    The thesis aims to calculate the inverse kinematics for the OWI-535 robotic arm. The calculation of the inverse kinematics determines the joint parameters that provide the right pose of the end effector. The pose consists of the position and orientation, however, we will focus only on the second one. Due to arm limitations, we have created our own type of the calculation of the inverse kinematics. At first we have derived it only theoretically, and then we have transferred the derivation into...

  1. Automatic Flight Controller With Model Inversion (United States)

    Meyer, George; Smith, G. Allan


    Automatic digital electronic control system based on inverse-model-follower concept being developed for proposed vertical-attitude-takeoff-and-landing airplane. Inverse-model-follower control places inverse mathematical model of dynamics of controlled plant in series with control actuators of controlled plant so response of combination of model and plant to command is unity. System includes feedback to compensate for uncertainties in mathematical model and disturbances imposed from without.

  2. Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion (United States)

    Debski, Wojciech


    Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.

  3. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the continued development of a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and...

  4. Directional genomic hybridization for chromosomal inversion discovery and detection. (United States)

    Ray, F Andrew; Zimmerman, Erin; Robinson, Bruce; Cornforth, Michael N; Bedford, Joel S; Goodwin, Edwin H; Bailey, Susan M


    Chromosomal rearrangements are a source of structural variation within the genome that figure prominently in human disease, where the importance of translocations and deletions is well recognized. In principle, inversions-reversals in the orientation of DNA sequences within a chromosome-should have similar detrimental potential. However, the study of inversions has been hampered by traditional approaches used for their detection, which are not particularly robust. Even with significant advances in whole genome approaches, changes in the absolute orientation of DNA remain difficult to detect routinely. Consequently, our understanding of inversions is still surprisingly limited, as is our appreciation for their frequency and involvement in human disease. Here, we introduce the directional genomic hybridization methodology of chromatid painting-a whole new way of looking at structural features of the genome-that can be employed with high resolution on a cell-by-cell basis, and demonstrate its basic capabilities for genome-wide discovery and targeted detection of inversions. Bioinformatics enabled development of sequence- and strand-specific directional probe sets, which when coupled with single-stranded hybridization, greatly improved the resolution and ease of inversion detection. We highlight examples of the far-ranging applicability of this cytogenomics-based approach, which include confirmation of the alignment of the human genome database and evidence that individuals themselves share similar sequence directionality, as well as use in comparative and evolutionary studies for any species whose genome has been sequenced. In addition to applications related to basic mechanistic studies, the information obtainable with strand-specific hybridization strategies may ultimately enable novel gene discovery, thereby benefitting the diagnosis and treatment of a variety of human disease states and disorders including cancer, autism, and idiopathic infertility.

  5. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation (United States)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun


    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  6. 2D Inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM) (United States)

    Bortolozo, Cassiano Antonio; Luís Porsani, Jorge; Acácio Monteiro dos Santos, Fernando


    A new methodology was developed for 2D inversion of Transient Electromagnetic Method (TEM). The methodology consists in the elaboration of a set of routines in Matlab code for modeling and inversion of TEM data and the determination of the most efficient field array for the problem. In this research, the 2D TEM modeling uses the finite differences discretization. To solve the inversion problem, were applied an algorithm based on Marquardt technique, also known as Ridge Regression. The algorithm is stable and efficient and it is widely used in geoelectrical inversion problems. The main advantage of 1D survey is the rapid data acquisition in a large area, but in regions with two-dimensional structures or that need more details, is essential to use two-dimensional interpretation methodologies. For an efficient field acquisition we used in an innovative form the fixed-loop array, with a square transmitter loop (200m x 200m) and 25m spacing between the sounding points. The TEM surveys were conducted only inside the transmitter loop, in order to not deal with negative apparent resistivity values. Although it is possible to model the negative values, it makes the inversion convergence more difficult. Therefore the methodology described above has been developed in order to achieve maximum optimization of data acquisition. Since it is necessary only one transmitter loop disposition in the surface for each series of soundings inside the loop. The algorithms were tested with synthetic data and the results were essential to the interpretation of the results with real data and will be useful in future situations. With the inversion of the real data acquired over the Paraná Sedimentary Basin (PSB) was successful realized a 2D TEM inversion. The results indicate a robust geoelectrical characterization for the sedimentary and crystalline aquifers in the PSB. Therefore, using a new and relevant approach for 2D TEM inversion, this research effectively contributed to map the most

  7. Inverse problems and uncertainty quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ)— the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) model—are strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  8. Package inspection using inverse diffraction (United States)

    McAulay, Alastair D.


    More efficient cost-effective hand-held methods of inspecting packages without opening them are in demand for security. Recent new work in TeraHertz sources,1 millimeter waves, presents new possibilities. Millimeter waves pass through cardboard and styrofoam, common packing materials, and also pass through most materials except those with high conductivity like metals which block light and are easily spotted. Estimating refractive index along the path of the beam through the package from observations of the beam passing out of the package provides the necessary information to inspect the package and is a nonlinear problem. So we use a generalized linear inverse technique that we first developed for finding oil by reflection in geophysics.2 The computation assumes parallel slices in the packet of homogeneous material for which the refractive index is estimated. A beam is propagated through this model in a forward computation. The output is compared with the actual observations for the package and an update computed for the refractive indices. The loop is repeated until convergence. The approach can be modified for a reflection system or to include estimation of absorption.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.; Martínez González, M. J.; Socas-Navarro, H.; Viticchié, B.; Orozco Suárez, D.


    Inferring magnetic and thermodynamic information from spectropolarimetric observations relies on the assumption of a parameterized model atmosphere whose parameters are tuned by comparison with observations. Often, the choice of the underlying atmospheric model is based on subjective reasons. In other cases, complex models are chosen based on objective reasons (for instance, the necessity to explain asymmetries in the Stokes profiles) but it is not clear what degree of complexity is needed. The lack of an objective way of comparing models has, sometimes, led to opposing views of the solar magnetism because the inferred physical scenarios are essentially different. We present the first quantitative model comparison based on the computation of the Bayesian evidence ratios for spectropolarimetric observations. Our results show that there is not a single model appropriate for all profiles simultaneously. Data with moderate signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) favor models without gradients along the line of sight. If the observations show clear circular and linear polarization signals above the noise level, models with gradients along the line are preferred. As a general rule, observations with large S/Ns favor more complex models. We demonstrate that the evidence ratios correlate well with simple proxies. Therefore, we propose to calculate these proxies when carrying out standard least-squares inversions to allow for model comparison in the future.

  10. Inverse Problems and Uncertainty Quantification

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander


    In a Bayesian setting, inverse problems and uncertainty quantification (UQ) - the propagation of uncertainty through a computational (forward) modelare strongly connected. In the form of conditional expectation the Bayesian update becomes computationally attractive. This is especially the case as together with a functional or spectral approach for the forward UQ there is no need for time- consuming and slowly convergent Monte Carlo sampling. The developed sampling- free non-linear Bayesian update is derived from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. This formulation in general calls for further discretisa- tion to make the computation possible, and we choose a polynomial approximation. After giving details on the actual computation in the framework of functional or spectral approximations, we demonstrate the workings of the algorithm on a number of examples of increasing complexity. At last, we compare the linear and quadratic Bayesian update on the small but taxing example of the chaotic Lorenz 84 model, where we experiment with the influence of different observation or measurement operators on the update.

  11. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, C.


    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab

  12. Single-well moment tensor inversion of tensile microseismic events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grechka, V.; Li, Z.; Howell, B.; Vavryčuk, Václav


    Roč. 81, č. 6 (2016), KS219-KS229 ISSN 0016-8033 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/12/1491; GA ČR(CZ) GC16-19751J Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : microseismic events * moment tensor inversion * mathematical formulation Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  13. Reducing non-uniqueness in seismic inverse problems


    Bernauer, Moritz


    The scientific investigation of the solid Earth's complex processes, including their interactions with the oceans and the atmosphere, is an interdisciplinary field in which seismology has one key role. Major contributions of modern seismology are (1) the development of high-resolution tomographic images of the Earth's structure and (2) the investigation of earthquake source processes. In both disciplines the challenge lies in solving a seismic inverse problem, i.e. in obtaining inform...

  14. A general purpose tomographic program with combined inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Wenbin; Dong Jiafu; Li Fanzhu


    A general tomographic program has been developed by combining the Bessel expansion with the Zernicke expansion. It is useful for studying of the magnetic island structure of the tearing mode and in reconstructing the density profiles of impurities in tokamak plasmas. This combined method have the advantages of both expansions, i.e. there will be no spurious images in the edge and it will be of high inverse precision in the center of plasma

  15. Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm and inverse driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Thomas


    Inverse interpretation is a semantics based, non-standard interpretation of programs. Given a program and a value, an inverse interpreter finds all or one of the inputs, that would yield the given value as output with normal forward evaluation. The Reverse Universal Resolving Algorithm is a new v...

  16. Third Harmonic Imaging using a Pulse Inversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim; Du, Yigang; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The pulse inversion (PI) technique can be utilized to separate and enhance harmonic components of a waveform for tissue harmonic imaging. While most ultrasound systems can perform pulse inversion, only few image the 3rd harmonic component. PI pulse subtraction can isolate and enhance the 3rd...

  17. Metaheuristic optimization of acoustic inverse problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leijen, A.V.; Rothkrantz, L.; Groen, F.


    Swift solving of geoacoustic inverse problems strongly depends on the application of a global optimization scheme. Given a particular inverse problem, this work aims to answer the questions how to select an appropriate metaheuristic search strategy, and how to configure it for optimal performance.

  18. Inverse Filtering Techniques in Speech Analysis | Nwachuku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inverse filtering' has been applied. The unifying features of these techniques are presented, namely: 1. a basis in the source-filter theory of speech production, 2. the use of a network whose transfer function is the inverse of the transfer function of ...

  19. Equilibrium cluster fluids: pair interactions via inverse design. (United States)

    Jadrich, R B; Bollinger, J A; Lindquist, B A; Truskett, T M


    Inverse methods of statistical mechanics are becoming productive tools in the design of materials with specific microstructures or properties. While initial studies have focused on solid-state design targets (e.g., assembly of colloidal superlattices), one can alternatively design fluid states with desired morphologies. This work addresses the latter and demonstrates how a simple iterative Boltzmann inversion strategy can be used to determine the isotropic pair potential that reproduces the radial distribution function of a fluid of amorphous clusters with prescribed size. The inverse designed pair potential of this "ideal" cluster fluid, with its broad attractive well and narrow repulsive barrier at larger separations, is qualitatively different from the so-called SALR form most commonly associated with equilibrium cluster formation in colloids, which features short-range attractive (SA) and long-range repulsive (LR) contributions. These differences reflect alternative mechanisms for promoting cluster formation with an isotropic pair potential, and they in turn produce structured fluids with qualitatively different static and dynamic properties. Specifically, equilibrium simulations show that the amorphous clusters resulting from the inverse designed potentials display more uniformity in size and shape, and they also show greater spatial and temporal resolution than those resulting from SALR interactions.

  20. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.


    The increasing demand for high performance as well as low standby power devices has been the main reason for the aggressive scaling of conventional CMOS transistors. Current devices are at the 32nm technology node. However, due to physical limitations as well as increase in short-channel effects, leakage, power dissipation, this scaling trend cannot continue and will eventually hit a barrier. In order to overcome this, alternate device topologies have to be considered altogether. Extensive research on ultra thin body double gate FETs and gate all around nanowire FETs has shown a lot of promise. Under strong inversion, these devices have demonstrated increased performance over their bulk counterparts. This is mainly attributed to full carrier inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors) which also like the above, relies on complete inversion of carriers in the body/bulk. Using dual gates; an outer and an inner gate, full-volume inversion is possible with benefits such as enhanced drive currents, high Ion/Ioff ratios and reduced short channel effects.

  1. Full waveform inversion for time-distance helioseismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanasoge, Shravan M.; Tromp, Jeroen


    Inferring interior properties of the Sun from photospheric measurements of the seismic wavefield constitutes the helioseismic inverse problem. Deviations in seismic measurements (such as wave travel times) from their fiducial values estimated for a given model of the solar interior imply that the model is inaccurate. Contemporary inversions in local helioseismology assume that properties of the solar interior are linearly related to measured travel-time deviations. It is widely known, however, that this assumption is invalid for sunspots and active regions and is likely for supergranular flows. Here, we introduce nonlinear optimization, executed iteratively, as a means of inverting for the subsurface structure of large-amplitude perturbations. Defining the penalty functional as the L 2 norm of wave travel-time deviations, we compute the total misfit gradient of this functional with respect to the relevant model parameters at each iteration around the corresponding model. The model is successively improved using either steepest descent, conjugate gradient, or the quasi-Newton limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. Performing nonlinear iterations requires privileging pixels (such as those in the near field of the scatterer), a practice that is not compliant with the standard assumption of translational invariance. Measurements for these inversions, although similar in principle to those used in time-distance helioseismology, require some retooling. For the sake of simplicity in illustrating the method, we consider a two-dimensional inverse problem with only a sound-speed perturbation.

  2. Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime


    The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.

  3. Fast wavelet based sparse approximate inverse preconditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, W.L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Incomplete LU factorization is a robust preconditioner for both general and PDE problems but unfortunately not easy to parallelize. Recent study of Huckle and Grote and Chow and Saad showed that sparse approximate inverse could be a potential alternative while readily parallelizable. However, for special class of matrix A that comes from elliptic PDE problems, their preconditioners are not optimal in the sense that independent of mesh size. A reason may be that no good sparse approximate inverse exists for the dense inverse matrix. Our observation is that for this kind of matrices, its inverse entries typically have piecewise smooth changes. We can take advantage of this fact and use wavelet compression techniques to construct a better sparse approximate inverse preconditioner. We shall show numerically that our approach is effective for this kind of matrices.

  4. Solving inverse problems of optical microlithography (United States)

    Granik, Yuri


    The direct problem of microlithography is to simulate printing features on the wafer under given mask, imaging system, and process characteristics. The goal of inverse problems is to find the best mask and/or imaging system and/or process to print the given wafer features. In this study we will describe and compare solutions of inverse mask problems. Pixel-based inverse problem of mask optimization (or "layout inversion") is harder than inverse source problem, especially for partially-coherent systems. It can be stated as a non-linear constrained minimization problem over complex domain, with large number of variables. We compare method of Nashold projections, variations of Fienap phase-retrieval algorithms, coherent approximation with deconvolution, local variations, and descent searches. We propose electrical field caching technique to substantially speedup the searching algorithms. We demonstrate applications of phase-shifted masks, assist features, and maskless printing.

  5. Recurrent Neural Network for Computing Outer Inverse. (United States)

    Živković, Ivan S; Stanimirović, Predrag S; Wei, Yimin


    Two linear recurrent neural networks for generating outer inverses with prescribed range and null space are defined. Each of the proposed recurrent neural networks is based on the matrix-valued differential equation, a generalization of dynamic equations proposed earlier for the nonsingular matrix inversion, the Moore-Penrose inversion, as well as the Drazin inversion, under the condition of zero initial state. The application of the first approach is conditioned by the properties of the spectrum of a certain matrix; the second approach eliminates this drawback, though at the cost of increasing the number of matrix operations. The cases corresponding to the most common generalized inverses are defined. The conditions that ensure stability of the proposed neural network are presented. Illustrative examples present the results of numerical simulations.

  6. Forward modeling. Route to electromagnetic inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, R.; Walker, P. [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada)


    Inversion of electromagnetic data is a topical subject in the literature, and much time has been devoted to understanding the convergence properties of various inverse methods. The relative lack of success of electromagnetic inversion techniques is partly attributable to the difficulties in the kernel forward modeling software. These difficulties come in two broad classes: (1) Completeness and robustness, and (2) convergence, execution time and model simplicity. If such problems exist in the forward modeling kernel, it was demonstrated that inversion can fail to generate reasonable results. It was suggested that classical inversion techniques, which are based on minimizing a norm of the error between data and the simulated data, will only be successful when these difficulties in forward modeling kernels are properly dealt with. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Stochastic Gabor reflectivity and acoustic impedance inversion (United States)

    Hariri Naghadeh, Diako; Morley, Christopher Keith; Ferguson, Angus John


    To delineate subsurface lithology to estimate petrophysical properties of a reservoir, it is possible to use acoustic impedance (AI) which is the result of seismic inversion. To change amplitude to AI, removal of wavelet effects from the seismic signal in order to get a reflection series, and subsequently transforming those reflections to AI, is vital. To carry out seismic inversion correctly it is important to not assume that the seismic signal is stationary. However, all stationary deconvolution methods are designed following that assumption. To increase temporal resolution and interpretation ability, amplitude compensation and phase correction are inevitable. Those are pitfalls of stationary reflectivity inversion. Although stationary reflectivity inversion methods are trying to estimate reflectivity series, because of incorrect assumptions their estimations will not be correct, but may be useful. Trying to convert those reflection series to AI, also merging with the low frequency initial model, can help us. The aim of this study was to apply non-stationary deconvolution to eliminate time variant wavelet effects from the signal and to convert the estimated reflection series to the absolute AI by getting bias from well logs. To carry out this aim, stochastic Gabor inversion in the time domain was used. The Gabor transform derived the signal’s time–frequency analysis and estimated wavelet properties from different windows. Dealing with different time windows gave an ability to create a time-variant kernel matrix, which was used to remove matrix effects from seismic data. The result was a reflection series that does not follow the stationary assumption. The subsequent step was to convert those reflections to AI using well information. Synthetic and real data sets were used to show the ability of the introduced method. The results highlight that the time cost to get seismic inversion is negligible related to general Gabor inversion in the frequency domain. Also

  8. Shear-Velocity Structure and Azimuthal and Radial Anisotropy Beneath the Kaapvaal Craton From Bayesian Inversion of Surface-Wave Data: Inferences for the Architecture and Early Evolution of Cratons (United States)

    Lebedev, S.; Ravenna, M.; Adam, J.


    Seismic anisotropy provides essential information on the deformation of the lithosphere. Knowledge of anisotropy also allows us to isolate the isotropic-average seismic velocities, relatable to the lithospheric temperature and composition. We use Rayleigh and Love-wave phase velocities and their azimuthal anisotropy measured in broad period ranges across the footprint of the Southern Africa Seismic Experiment (SASE), from the Kaapvaal Craton to the Limpopo Belt. We invert the data using our recently developed, fully non-linear Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and determine, for the first time, both the isotropic-average S velocity and its radial and azimuthal anisotropy as a function of depth from the upper crust down to the asthenosphere. The probabilistic inversion provides a way to quantify non-uniqueness, using direct parameter-space sampling, and assess model uncertainties. The high-velocity anomaly indicative of the cold cratonic lithosphere bottoms at 200-250 km beneath the central and western Kaapvaal Craton, underlain by a low-velocity zone. Beneath northern Kaapvaal and Limpopo, by contrast, high velocities extend down to 300-350 km. Although this does not require a lithosphere that has maintained this thickness over a geologically long time, the data does require the mantle to be anomalously cold down to 300-350 km. Interestingly, topography correlates with the thickness of this high-velocity layer, with lower elevations where the lid is thicker. Radial shear-wave anisotropy is in the 2-5 percent range (Vsh > Vsv) from the lower crust down to 200 km, below which depth it decreases gradually. Radial variations in the amplitude of radial anisotropy show no clear relationship with those in the amplitude of azimuthal anisotropy or isotropic-average Vs anomalies. Azimuthal anisotropy changes the fast-propagation direction near the base of the lithosphere (200-300 km depth), from the laterally varying fast azimuths in the lower lithosphere to a spatially

  9. 2D data-space cross-gradient joint inversion of MT, gravity and magnetic data (United States)

    Pak, Yong-Chol; Li, Tonglin; Kim, Gang-Sop


    We have developed a data-space multiple cross-gradient joint inversion algorithm, and validated it through synthetic tests and applied it to magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and magnetic datasets acquired along a 95 km profile in Benxi-Ji'an area of northeastern China. To begin, we discuss a generalized cross-gradient joint inversion for multiple datasets and model parameters sets, and formulate it in data space. The Lagrange multiplier required for the structural coupling in the data-space method is determined using an iterative solver to avoid calculation of the inverse matrix in solving the large system of equations. Next, using model-space and data-space methods, we inverted the synthetic data and field data. Based on our result, the joint inversion in data-space not only delineates geological bodies more clearly than the separate inversion, but also yields nearly equal results with the one in model-space while consuming much less memory.

  10. The α-chymotrypsin and its hydrophobic derivatives in inverse micelles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitre, Franck


    The α-chymotrypsin is among the most used enzymes, notably and particularly in medicine for therapeutic treatments as well as in biochemistry to determine the amine acid sequence of proteins. This research thesis addresses the study of interactions between a micro-emulsion system and an enzymatic system, and more particularly the behaviour of α-chymotrypsin in AOT inverse micelles. After a brief description of the inverse micellar system and of previously obtained results on the solubilisation of α-chymotrypsin in inverse micelles, the author reports the study of the inverse micellar phase in presence of α-chymotrypsin at the vicinity of the maximum solubility. Various techniques are used for this purpose: UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, conductometry, and X ray scattering. Then, the author describes the chemical modification of α-chymotrypsin, and reports the study of structural as well as reaction modifications introduced during the solubilisation of α-chymotrypsin modified in inverse micelles [fr

  11. Synthesis of Polypyrrole Inverse Opal in [bmim]PF6- Containing Acetonitrile and the Application of the Inverse Opal in Cell Prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yan


    Full Text Available Most primary cells use Zn or Li as the anode, a metallic oxide as the cathode, and an acidic or alkaline solution or moist past as the electrolytic solution. In this paper, highly ordered polypyrrole (PPy inverse opals have been successfully synthesized in the acetonitrile solution containing [bmim]PF6. PPy films were prepared under the same experimental conditions. Cyclic voltammograms of the PPy film and the PPy inverse opal in neutral phosphate buffer solution (PBS were recorded. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique was used to investigate the structural surface of the PPy films and the PPy inverse opals. It is found that the PF6- anions kept dedoping from the PPy films during the potential scanning process, resulting in the electrochemical inactivity. Although PF6- anions also kept dedoping from the PPy inverse opals, the PO43- anions from PBS could dope into the inverse opal, explaining why the PPy inverse opals kept their electrochemical activity. An environmental friendly cell prototype was constructed, using the PPy inverse opal as the anode. The electrolytes in both the cathodic and anodic half-cells were neutral PBSs. The open-circuit potential of the cell prototype reached 0.487 V and showed a stable output over several hundred hours.

  12. Transdimensional, hierarchical, Bayesian inversion of ambient seismic noise: Australia (United States)

    Crowder, E.; Rawlinson, N.; Cornwell, D. G.


    We present models of crustal velocity structure in southeastern Australia using a novel, transdimensional and hierarchical, Bayesian inversion approach. The inversion is applied to long-time ambient noise cross-correlations. The study area of SE Australia is thought to represent the eastern margin of Gondwana. Conflicting tectonic models have been proposed to explain the formation of eastern Gondwana and the enigmatic geological relationships in Bass Strait, which separates Tasmania and the mainland. A geologically complex area of crustal accretion, Bass Strait may contain part of an exotic continental block entrained in colliding crusts. Ambient noise data recorded by an array of 24 seismometers is used to produce a high resolution, 3D shear wave velocity model of Bass Strait. Phase velocity maps in the period range 2-30 s are produced and subsequently inverted for 3D shear wave velocity structure. The transdimensional, hierarchical Bayesian, inversion technique is used. This technique proves far superior to linearised inversion. The inversion model is dynamically parameterised during the process, implicitly controlled by the data, and noise is treated as an inversion unknown. The resulting shear wave velocity model shows three sedimentary basins in Bass Strait constrained by slow shear velocities (2.4-2.9 km/s) at 2-10 km depth. These failed rift basins from the breakup of Australia-Antartica appear to be overlying thinned crust, where typical mantle velocities of 3.8-4.0 km/s occur at depths greater than 20 km. High shear wave velocities ( 3.7-3.8 km/s) in our new model also match well with regions of high magnetic and gravity anomalies. Furthermore, we use both Rayleigh and Love wave phase data to to construct Vsv and Vsh maps. These are used to estimate crustal radial anisotropy in the Bass Strait. We interpret that structures delineated by our velocity models support the presence and extent of the exotic Precambrian micro-continent (the Selwyn Block) that was

  13. Influence of inherited structures on the growth of basement-cored ranges, basin inversion and foreland basin development in the Central Andes, from apatite fission-track and apatite Helium thermochronology. (United States)

    Zapata, S.; Sobel, E. R.; Del Papa, C.; Jelinek, A. R.; Muruaga, C.


    The Central Andes in NW of Argentina is part of a long-lived subduction zone, active since the Paleozoic. This region experienced several tectonic cycles; each of which created an unique set of structures and may have reactivated preexisting structures. These inherited structures may exert a first-order control over the different foreland deformational styles observed along the strike in the Central Andes. Our study area is located between 26°S and 28°S on the transition between the broken foreland (Santa Barbara system), which expresses a combination of thin-skin and thick-skin styles, and the Sierras Pampeanas, which is deform in a thick-skin style. The Cumbres Calchaquies range and the associated Choromoro Basin are located in the northern part of the study area, and are the southern expression of the Santa Barbara system. Published thermochronology data suggest that the rocks from the basement experienced Late Cretaceous and Late Miocene exhumation; the associated sedimentary rocks within the Choromoro basin experienced Paleogene and Late Miocene deformational phases. In contrast, the Sierra Aconquija range, located immediately south on the transition to the Sierras Pampeanas (thick skin) foreland basin, exhibit larger amounts of Miocene exhumation and lack of Cretaceous exhumation; the associated sedimentary rocks from the Tucuman basin have not been deformed since the Cretaceous. Our goal is to understand the evolution of the structural blocks and the structures responsible for the along strike changes in foreland basin deformational styles and their relation with inherited structures from previous tectonic cycles. We are obtaining new apatite U-Th/He and fission track data to reconstruct the thermal history of the basement, accompanied by U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy to constrain the evolution of the associated sedimentary basins. Preliminary results combined with published data suggest that inherited structures within the study area have evolved

  14. Recent Applications and Advances of Numerical Modeling and Wavefield Inversion in Nondestructive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Marklein


    Full Text Available This paper presents recent advances and future challenges of the application of different linear and nonlinear inversion algorithms in acoustics, electromagnetics, and elastodynamics. The presented material can be understood as an extension of our previous work on this topic. The inversion methods considered in this presentation vary from linear schemes, like the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR applied electromagnetics and the Synthetic Aperture Focussing Technique (SAFT as its counterpart in ultrasonics, and the linearized Diffraction Tomography (DT, to nonlinear schemes, like the Contrast Source Inversion (CSI combined with different regularization approaches. Inversion results of the above mentioned inversion schemes are presented and compared for instance for time-domain ultrasonic data from the Fraunhofer-Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP, Saarbrücken, Germany. Convenient tools for nondestructive evaluation of solids can be electromagnetic and/or elastodynamic waves; since their governing equations, including acoustics, exhibit strong structural similarities, the same inversion concepts apply. In particular, the heuristic SAFT algorithm can be and has been utilized for all kinds of waves, once a scalar approximation can be justified. Relating SAFT to inverse scattering in terms of diffraction tomography, it turns out that linearization is the most stringent inherent approximation. A comparison of the inversion results using the linear time-domain inversion scheme SAFT and well tested nonlinear frequency-domain inversion schemes demonstrates the considerable potential to extend and improve the ultrasonic imaging technique SAFT while consulting the mathematics of wavefield inversion, yet, in particular if the underlying effort is considered, the relatively simple and effective SAFT algorithm works surprisingly well. Since SAFT is a widely accepted imaging tool in ultrasonic NDE it seems worthwhile to check its formal restrictions and

  15. Recent Applications and Advances of Numerical Modeling and Wavefield Inversion in Nondestructive Testing (United States)

    Marklein, R.; Langenberg, K. J.; Mayer, K.; Miao, J.; Shlivinski, A.; Zimmer, A.; Müller, W.; Schmitz, V.; Kohl, C.; Mletzko, U.


    This paper presents recent advances and future challenges of the application of different linear and nonlinear inversion algorithms in acoustics, electromagnetics, and elastodynamics. The presented material can be understood as an extension of our previous work on this topic. The inversion methods considered in this presentation vary from linear schemes, like the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applied electromagnetics and the Synthetic Aperture Focussing Technique (SAFT) as its counterpart in ultrasonics, and the linearized Diffraction Tomography (DT), to nonlinear schemes, like the Contrast Source Inversion (CSI) combined with different regularization approaches. Inversion results of the above mentioned inversion schemes are presented and compared for instance for time-domain ultrasonic data from the Fraunhofer-Institute for Nondestructive Testing (IZFP, Saarbrücken, Germany). Convenient tools for nondestructive evaluation of solids can be electromagnetic and/or elastodynamic waves; since their governing equations, including acoustics, exhibit strong structural similarities, the same inversion concepts apply. In particular, the heuristic SAFT algorithm can be and has been utilized for all kinds of waves, once a scalar approximation can be justified. Relating SAFT to inverse scattering in terms of diffraction tomography, it turns out that linearization is the most stringent inherent approximation. A comparison of the inversion results using the linear time-domain inversion scheme SAFT and well tested nonlinear frequency-domain inversion schemes demonstrates the considerable potential to extend and improve the ultrasonic imaging technique SAFT while consulting the mathematics of wavefield inversion, yet, in particular if the underlying effort is considered, the relatively simple and effective SAFT algorithm works surprisingly well. Since SAFT is a widely accepted imaging tool in ultrasonic NDE it seems worthwhile to check its formal restrictions and assumptions

  16. Inverse Stochastic Resonance in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Buchin


    Full Text Available Purkinje neurons play an important role in cerebellar computation since their axons are the only projection from the cerebellar cortex to deeper cerebellar structures. They have complex internal dynamics, which allow them to fire spontaneously, display bistability, and also to be involved in network phenomena such as high frequency oscillations and travelling waves. Purkinje cells exhibit type II excitability, which can be revealed by a discontinuity in their f-I curves. We show that this excitability mechanism allows Purkinje cells to be efficiently inhibited by noise of a particular variance, a phenomenon known as inverse stochastic resonance (ISR. While ISR has been described in theoretical models of single neurons, here we provide the first experimental evidence for this effect. We find that an adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model fitted to the basic Purkinje cell characteristics using a modified dynamic IV method displays ISR and bistability between the resting state and a repetitive activity limit cycle. ISR allows the Purkinje cell to operate in different functional regimes: the all-or-none toggle or the linear filter mode, depending on the variance of the synaptic input. We propose that synaptic noise allows Purkinje cells to quickly switch between these functional regimes. Using mutual information analysis, we demonstrate that ISR can lead to a locally optimal information transfer between the input and output spike train of the Purkinje cell. These results provide the first experimental evidence for ISR and suggest a functional role for ISR in cerebellar information processing.

  17. 3-D cross-gradient joint inversion of seismic refraction and DC resistivity data (United States)

    Shi, Zhanjie; Hobbs, Richard W.; Moorkamp, Max; Tian, Gang; Jiang, Lu


    We present a 3-D cross-gradient joint inversion algorithm for seismic refraction and DC resistivity data. The structural similarity between seismic slowness and resistivity models is enforced by a cross-gradient term in the objective function that also includes misfit and regularization terms. A limited memory quasi-Newton approach is used to perform the optimization of the objective function. To validate the proposed methodology and its implementation, tests were performed on a typical archaeological geophysical synthetic model. The results show that the inversion model and physical parameters estimated by our joint inversion method are more consistent with the true model than those from single inversion algorithm. Moreover, our approach appears to be more robust in conditions of noise. Finally, the 3-D cross-gradient joint inversion algorithm was applied to the field data from Lin_an ancient city site in Hangzhou of China. The 3-D cross-gradient joint inversion models are consistent with the archaeological excavation results of the ancient city wall remains. However, by single inversion, seismic slowness model does not show the anomaly of city wall remains and resistivity model does not fit well with the archaeological excavation results. Through these comparisons, we conclude that the proposed algorithm can be used to jointly invert 3-D seismic refraction and DC resistivity data to reduce the uncertainty brought by single inversion scheme.

  18. 3rd Annual Workshop on Inverse Problem

    CERN Document Server


    This proceeding volume is based on papers presented on the Third Annual Workshop on Inverse Problems which was organized by the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, and took place in May 2013 in Stockholm. The purpose of this workshop was to present new analytical developments and numerical techniques for solution of inverse problems for a wide range of applications in acoustics, electromagnetics, optical fibers, medical imaging, geophysics, etc. The contributions in this volume reflect these themes and will be beneficial to researchers who are working in the area of applied inverse problems.

  19. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.


    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented

  20. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.


    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  1. Population inversion in a stationary recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, M.


    Population inversion, which occurs in a recombining plasma when a stationary He plasma is brought into contact with a neutral gas, is examined. With hydrogen as a contact gas, noticeable inversion between low-lying levels of H as been found. The overpopulation density is of the order of 10 8 cm -3 , which is much higher then that (approx. =10 5 cm -3 ) obtained previously with He as a contact gas. Relations between these experimental results and the conditions for population inversion are discussed with the CR model

  2. Inverse design methods for radiative transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daun, K.J.; Howell, J.R.


    Radiant enclosures used in industrial processes have traditionally been designed by trial-and-error, a technique that usually demands considerable time to find a solution of limited quality. As an alternative, designers have recently adopted optimization and inverse methodologies to solve design problems involving radiative transfer; the optimization methodology solves the inverse problem implicitly by transforming it into a multivariable minimization problem, while the inverse design methodology solves the problem explicitly using regularization. This paper presents the details of both methodologies, and demonstrates them by solving for the optimal heater settings in an industrially relevant radiant enclosure design problem

  3. The factorization method for inverse problems

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsch, Andreas


    The factorization method is a relatively new method for solving certain types of inverse scattering problems and problems in tomography. Aimed at students and researchers in Applied Mathematics, Physics and Engineering, this text introduces the reader to this promising approach for solving important classes of inverse problems. The wide applicability of this method is discussed by choosing typical examples, such as inverse scattering problems for the scalar Helmholtz equation, ascattering problem for Maxwell's equation, and a problem in impedance and optical tomography. The last section of the

  4. Geoacoustic inversion using combustive sound source signals. (United States)

    Potty, Gopu R; Miller, James H; Wilson, Preston S; Lynch, James F; Newhall, Arthur


    Combustive sound source (CSS) data collected on single hydrophone receiving units, in water depths ranging from 65 to 110 m, during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment clearly show modal dispersion effects and are suitable for modal geoacoustic inversions. CSS shots were set off at 26 m depth in 100 m of water. The inversions performed are based on an iterative scheme using dispersion-based short time Fourier transform in which each time-frequency tiling is adaptively rotated in the time-frequency plane, depending on the local wave dispersion. Results of the inversions are found to compare favorably to local core data.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Inverse Problems. Activities for Undergraduates (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro


    This book is a valuable introduction to inverse problems. In particular, from the educational point of view, the author addresses the questions of what constitutes an inverse problem and how and why we should study them. Such an approach has been eagerly awaited for a long time. Professor Groetsch, of the University of Cincinnati, is a world-renowned specialist in inverse problems, in particular the theory of regularization. Moreover, he has made a remarkable contribution to educational activities in the field of inverse problems, which was the subject of his previous book (Groetsch C W 1993 Inverse Problems in the Mathematical Sciences (Braunschweig: Vieweg)). For this reason, he is one of the most qualified to write an introductory book on inverse problems. Without question, inverse problems are important, necessary and appear in various aspects. So it is crucial to introduce students to exercises in inverse problems. However, there are not many introductory books which are directly accessible by students in the first two undergraduate years. As a consequence, students often encounter diverse concrete inverse problems before becoming aware of their general principles. The main purpose of this book is to present activities to allow first-year undergraduates to learn inverse theory. To my knowledge, this book is a rare attempt to do this and, in my opinion, a great success. The author emphasizes that it is very important to teach inverse theory in the early years. He writes; `If students consider only the direct problem, they are not looking at the problem from all sides .... The habit of always looking at problems from the direct point of view is intellectually limiting ...' (page 21). The book is very carefully organized so that teachers will be able to use it as a textbook. After an introduction in chapter 1, sucessive chapters deal with inverse problems in precalculus, calculus, differential equations and linear algebra. In order to let one gain some insight

  6. Analysis of Inverse Kinamtics of an Anthropomorphic Robotic hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Parida


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new method for solving the inverse kinematics of the fingers of an anthropomorphic hand is proposed. Solution of inverse kinematic equations is a complex problem, the complexity comes from the nonlinearity of joint space and Cartesian space mapping and having multiple solutions.This is a typical problem in robotics that needs to be solved to control the fingers of an anthropomorphic robotic hand to perform tasks it is designated to do. With more complex structures operating in a 3-dimensional space deducing a mathematical soluation for the inverse kinematics may prove challenging. In this paper, using the ability of ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System to learn from training data, it is possible to create ANFIS network, an implementation of a representative fuzzy inference system using ANFIS structure, with limited mathematical representation of the system. The main advantages of this method with respect to the other methods are implementation is easy, very fast and shorter computation time and better response with acceptable error.

  7. Patterning hierarchy in direct and inverse opal crystals. (United States)

    Mishchenko, Lidiya; Hatton, Benjamin; Kolle, Mathias; Aizenberg, Joanna


    Biological strategies for bottom-up synthesis of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials within topographic templates have recently become an attractive approach for fabricating complex synthetic structures. Inspired by these strategies, herein the synthesis of multi-layered, hierarchical inverse colloidal crystal films formed directly on topographically patterned substrates via evaporative deposition, or "co-assembly", of polymeric spheres with a silicate sol-gel precursor solution and subsequent removal of the colloidal template, is described. The response of this growing composite colloid-silica system to artificially imposed 3D spatial constraints of various geometries is systematically studied, and compared with that of direct colloidal crystal assembly on the same template. Substrates designed with arrays of rectangular, triangular, and hexagonal prisms and cylinders are shown to control crystallographic domain nucleation and orientation of the direct and inverse opals. With this bottom-up topographical approach, it is demonstrated that the system can be manipulated to either form large patterned single crystals, or crystals with a fine-tuned extent of disorder, and to nucleate distinct colloidal domains of a defined size, location, and orientation in a wide range of length-scales. The resulting ordered, quasi-ordered, and disordered colloidal crystal films show distinct optical properties. Therefore, this method provides a means of controlling bottom-up synthesis of complex, hierarchical direct and inverse opal structures designed for altering optical properties and increased functionality. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. invertFREGENE: software for simulating inversions in population genetic data. (United States)

    O'Reilly, Paul F; Coin, Lachlan J M; Hoggart, Clive J


    Inversions are a common form of structural variation, which may have a marked effect on the genome and methods to infer quantities of interest such as those relating to population structure and natural selection. However, due to the challenge in detecting inversions, little is presently known about their impact. Software to simulate inversions could be used to provide a better understanding of how to detect and account for them; but while there are several software packages for simulating population genetic data, none incorporate inversion polymorphisms. Here, we describe a software package, modified from the forward-in-time simulator FREGENE, which simulates the evolution of an inversion polymorphism, of specified length, location, frequency and age, in a population of sequences. We describe previously unreported signatures of inversions in SNP data observed in invertFREGENE results and a known inversion in humans. C++ source code and user manual are available for download from under the GPL licence.; Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. Anisotropic magnetotelluric inversion using a mutual information constraint (United States)

    Mandolesi, E.; Jones, A. G.


    In recent years, several authors pointed that the electrical conductivity of many subsurface structures cannot be described properly by a scalar field. With the development of field devices and techniques, data quality improved to the point that the anisotropy in conductivity of rocks (microscopic anisotropy) and tectonic structures (macroscopic anisotropy) cannot be neglected. Therefore a correct use of high quality data has to include electrical anisotropy and a correct interpretation of anisotropic data characterizes directly a non-negligible part of the subsurface. In this work we test an inversion routine that takes advantage of the classic Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm to invert magnetotelluric (MT) data generated from a bi-dimensional (2D) anisotropic domain. The LM method is routinely used in inverse problems due its performance and robustness. In non-linear inverse problems -such the MT problem- the LM method provides a spectacular compromise betwee quick and secure convergence at the price of the explicit computation and storage of the sensitivity matrix. Regularization in inverse MT problems has been used extensively, due to the necessity to constrain model space and to reduce the ill-posedness of the anisotropic MT problem, which makes MT inversions extremely challenging. In order to reduce non-uniqueness of the MT problem and to reach a model compatible with other different tomographic results from the same target region, we used a mutual information (MI) based constraint. MI is a basic quantity in information theory that can be used to define a metric between images, and it is routinely used in fields as computer vision, image registration and medical tomography, to cite some applications. We -thus- inverted for the model that best fits the anisotropic data and that is the closest -in a MI sense- to a tomographic model of the target area. The advantage of this technique is that the tomographic model of the studied region may be produced by any

  10. Magnetic catalysis and inverse magnetic catalysis in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.


    We investigate the effects of strong magnetic fields on the QCD phase structure at vanishing density by solving the gluon and quark gap equations. The chiral crossover temperature as well as the chiral condensate is computed. For asymptotically large magnetic fields we find magnetic catalysis, while we find inverse magnetic catalysis for intermediate magnetic fields. Moreover, for large magnetic fields the chiral phase transition for massless quarks turns into a crossover. The underlying mechanisms are then investigated analytically within a few simplifications of the full numerical analysis. We find that a combination of gluon screening effects and the weakening of the strong coupling is responsible for the phenomenon of inverse catalysis seen in lattice studies. In turn, the magnetic catalysis at large magnetic field is already indicated by simple arguments based on dimensionality. (author)

  11. Application of the kernel method to the inverse geosounding problem. (United States)

    Hidalgo, Hugo; Sosa León, Sonia; Gómez-Treviño, Enrique


    Determining the layered structure of the earth demands the solution of a variety of inverse problems; in the case of electromagnetic soundings at low induction numbers, the problem is linear, for the measurements may be represented as a linear functional of the electrical conductivity distribution. In this paper, an application of the support vector (SV) regression technique to the inversion of electromagnetic data is presented. We take advantage of the regularizing properties of the SV learning algorithm and use it as a modeling technique with synthetic and field data. The SV method presents better recovery of synthetic models than Tikhonov's regularization. As the SV formulation is solved in the space of the data, which has a small dimension in this application, a smaller problem than that considered with Tikhonov's regularization is produced. For field data, the SV formulation develops models similar to those obtained via linear programming techniques, but with the added characteristic of robustness.

  12. Non-cavitating propeller noise modeling and inversion (United States)

    Kim, Dongho; Lee, Keunhwa; Seong, Woojae


    Marine propeller is the dominant exciter of the hull surface above it causing high level of noise and vibration in the ship structure. Recent successful developments have led to non-cavitating propeller designs and thus present focus is the non-cavitating characteristics of propeller such as hydrodynamic noise and its induced hull excitation. In this paper, analytic source model of propeller non-cavitating noise, described by longitudinal quadrupoles and dipoles, is suggested based on the propeller hydrodynamics. To find the source unknown parameters, the multi-parameter inversion technique is adopted using the pressure data obtained from the model scale experiment and pressure field replicas calculated by boundary element method. The inversion results show that the proposed source model is appropriate in modeling non-cavitating propeller noise. The result of this study can be utilized in the prediction of propeller non-cavitating noise and hull excitation at various stages in design and analysis.

  13. A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Fang


    Full Text Available The smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method is usually expected to be an efficient numerical tool for calculating the fluid-structure interactions in compressors; however, an endogenetic restriction is the problem of low-order consistency. A high-order SPH method by introducing inverse kernels, which is quite easy to be implemented but efficient, is proposed for solving this restriction. The basic inverse method and the special treatment near boundary are introduced with also the discussion of the combination of the Least-Square (LS and Moving-Least-Square (MLS methods. Then detailed analysis in spectral space is presented for people to better understand this method. Finally we show three test examples to verify the method behavior.

  14. Imaging lower mantle heterogeneities by asymptotic waveform inversion (United States)

    Ko, J. Y. T.; Zhan, Z.


    Tomographic images from full waveform inversions (FWI) are starting to reveal fine details of Earth structures. However, the constructions of mesh and kernels for broadband waveforms based on full numerical methods are still computationally expensive, and choices of initial models are critical. Here we propose an asymptotic waveform inversion (AWI) technique based on an asymptotic forward method, which are much faster than full numerical methods. While the asymptotic approach does not work for full seismograms or arbitrarily complex medium, it demonstrates high accuracy for important seismic phases (e.g., P and S) for typical/enhanced velocity anomalies considered in Earth's middle and lower mantle. This allows us to use, instead of gradient-based optimization, direct/Monte Carlo search of the model space and provides more realistic uncertainty estimates. This new AWI method can be applied to image subducted slabs and large low shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in lower mantle with broadband waveforms.

  15. Tunable Intrinsic Plasmons due to Band Inversion in Topological Materials (United States)

    Zhang, Furu; Zhou, Jianhui; Xiao, Di; Yao, Yugui


    Band inversion has led to rich physical effects in both topological insulators and topological semimetals. It has been found that the inverted band structure with the Mexican-hat dispersion could enhance the interband correlation leading to a strong intrinsic plasmon excitation. Its frequency ranges from several meV to tens of meV and can be effectively tuned by the external fields. The electron-hole asymmetric term splits the peak of the plasmon excitation into double peaks. The fate and properties of this plasmon excitation can also act as a probe to characterize the topological phases even in lightly doped systems. We numerically demonstrate the impact of band inversion on plasmon excitations in magnetically doped thin films of three-dimensional strong topological insulators, V- or Cr-doped (Bi ,Sb )2Te3 , which support the quantum anomalous Hall states. Our work thus sheds some new light on the potential applications of topological materials in plasmonics.

  16. Sensitivity analyses of acoustic impedance inversion with full-waveform inversion (United States)

    Yao, Gang; da Silva, Nuno V.; Wu, Di


    Acoustic impedance estimation has a significant importance to seismic exploration. In this paper, we use full-waveform inversion to recover the impedance from seismic data, and analyze the sensitivity of the acoustic impedance with respect to the source-receiver offset of seismic data and to the initial velocity model. We parameterize the acoustic wave equation with velocity and impedance, and demonstrate three key aspects of acoustic impedance inversion. First, short-offset data are most suitable for acoustic impedance inversion. Second, acoustic impedance inversion is more compatible with the data generated by density contrasts than velocity contrasts. Finally, acoustic impedance inversion requires the starting velocity model to be very accurate for achieving a high-quality inversion. Based upon these observations, we propose a workflow for acoustic impedance inversion as: (1) building a background velocity model with travel-time tomography or reflection waveform inversion; (2) recovering the intermediate wavelength components of the velocity model with full-waveform inversion constrained by Gardner’s relation; (3) inverting the high-resolution acoustic impedance model with short-offset data through full-waveform inversion. We verify this workflow by the synthetic tests based on the Marmousi model.

  17. Inversion satellites of isolated Perl vortex in thin film of magnetic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Lomtev, A I


    The electrodynamics equation is derived for the magnetic field of the Perl isolated vortex, moving by the arbitrary law in the ultrafine magnetic conductor and true for every type of the magnetic ordering in the magnetic subsystem. The magnetic structure of the Perl isolated oscillating vortex in the magnetic conductor fine film is studied. It is shown that the oscillations process and the magnetic subsystem essentially renorm the vortex field as compared to the Perl decision. The new events of the inversion satellite (the inversion forerunners in the front of the vortex and the inversion traces behind it) are forecasted, which may be actually observed in the magnetic optical experiments

  18. X-ray investigation of lateral hetero-structures of inversion domains in LiNbO{sub 3}, KTiOPO{sub 4} and KTiOAsO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyford, Thomas S. [Panalytical Research, The Sussex Innovation Centre, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom); Collins, Stephen P., E-mail: [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Diamond House, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Fewster, Paul F. [Panalytical Research, The Sussex Innovation Centre, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom); Thomas, Pamela A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Panalytical Research, The Sussex Innovation Centre, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9SB (United Kingdom)


    Periodically-poled ferroelectric crystals are studied by observing their superlattice (grating) diffraction profiles with high-resolution X-ray diffraction. In order to successfully model the data, the effects of strain, and sample and beam coherence, must be taken into account. In this paper periodically domain-inverted (PDI) ferroelectric crystals are studied using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. Rocking curves and reciprocal-space maps of the principal symmetric Bragg reflections in LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) (Λ = 5 µm), KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) (Λ = 9 µm) and KTiOAsO{sub 4} (KTA) (Λ = 39 µm) are presented. For all the samples strong satellite reflections were observed as a consequence of the PDI structure. Analysis of the satellites showed that they were caused by a combination of coherent and incoherent scattering between the adjacent domains. Whilst the satellites contained phase information regarding the structure of the domain wall, this information could not be rigorously extracted without a priori knowledge of the twinning mechanism. Analysis of the profiles reveals strain distributions of Δd/d = 1.6 × 10{sup −4} and 2.0 × 10{sup −4} perpendicular to domain walls in KTP and LN samples, respectively, and lateral correlation lengths of 63 µm (KTP), 194 µm (KTA) and 10 µm (LN). The decay of crystal truncation rods in LN and KTP was found to support the occurrence of surface corrugations.

  19. Full traveltime inversion in source domain

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Lu


    This paper presents a new method of source-domain full traveltime inversion (FTI). The objective of this study is automatically building near-surface velocity using the early arrivals of seismic data. This method can generate the inverted velocity that can kinetically best match the reconstructed plane-wave source of early arrivals with true source in source domain. It does not require picking first arrivals for tomography, which is one of the most challenging aspects of ray-based tomographic inversion. Besides, this method does not need estimate the source wavelet, which is a necessity for receiver-domain wave-equation velocity inversion. Furthermore, we applied our method on one synthetic dataset; the results show our method could generate a reasonable background velocity even when shingling first arrivals exist and could provide a good initial velocity for the conventional full waveform inversion (FWI).

  20. n-Colour self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    colour self-inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence ...

  1. Inverse Doppler Effects in Broadband Acoustic Metamaterials. (United States)

    Zhai, S L; Zhao, X P; Liu, S; Shen, F L; Li, L L; Luo, C R


    The Doppler effect refers to the change in frequency of a wave source as a consequence of the relative motion between the source and an observer. Veselago theoretically predicted that materials with negative refractions can induce inverse Doppler effects. With the development of metamaterials, inverse Doppler effects have been extensively investigated. However, the ideal material parameters prescribed by these metamaterial design approaches are complex and also challenging to obtain experimentally. Here, we demonstrated a method of designing and experimentally characterising arbitrary broadband acoustic metamaterials. These omni-directional, double-negative, acoustic metamaterials are constructed with 'flute-like' acoustic meta-cluster sets with seven double meta-molecules; these metamaterials also overcome the limitations of broadband negative bulk modulus and mass density to provide a region of negative refraction and inverse Doppler effects. It was also shown that inverse Doppler effects can be detected in a flute, which has been popular for thousands of years in Asia and Europe.

  2. n-Colour self-inverse compositions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inverse composition. This introduces four new sequences which satisfy the same recurrence relation with different initial conditions like the famous Fibonacci and Lucas sequences. For these new sequences explicit formulas, recurrence relations ...

  3. Parametric optimization of inverse trapezoid oleophobic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli, Andrea; Bøggild, Peter; Okkels, Fridolin


    In this paper, we introduce a comprehensive and versatile approach to the parametric shape optimization of oleophobic surfaces. We evaluate the performance of inverse trapezoid microstructures in terms of three objective parameters: apparent contact angle, maximum sustainable hydrostatic pressure...

  4. An inverse method for radiation transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favorite, J. A. (Jeffrey A.); Sanchez, R. (Richard)


    Adjoint functions have been used with forward functions to compute gradients in implicit (iterative) solution methods for inverse problems in optical tomography, geoscience, thermal science, and other fields, but only once has this approach been used for inverse solutions to the Boltzmann transport equation. In this paper, this approach is used to develop an inverse method that requires only angle-independent flux measurements, rather than angle-dependent measurements as was done previously. The method is applied to a simplified form of the transport equation that does not include scattering. The resulting procedure uses measured values of gamma-ray fluxes of discrete, characteristic energies to determine interface locations in a multilayer shield. The method was implemented with a Newton-Raphson optimization algorithm, and it worked very well in numerical one-dimensional spherical test cases. A more sophisticated optimization method would better exploit the potential of the inverse method.

  5. The inverse square law of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, A.H.


    The inverse square law of gravitation is very well established over the distances of celestial mechanics, while in electrostatics the law has been shown to be followed to very high precision. However, it is only within the last century that any laboratory experiments have been made to test the inverse square law for gravitation, and all but one has been carried out in the last ten years. At the same time, there has been considerable interest in the possibility of deviations from the inverse square law, either because of a possible bearing on unified theories of forces, including gravitation or, most recently, because of a possible additional fifth force of nature. In this article the various lines of evidence for the inverse square law are summarized, with emphasis upon the recent laboratory experiments. (author)

  6. Effect of particle size on degree of inversion in ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, M.; Butt, N.M.


    Ferrites with the spinel structure are important materials because of their structural, magnetic and electrical properties. The suitability of these materials depends on both the intrinsic behavior of the material and the effects of the grain size. Moessbauer spectroscopy was employed to investigate the cation distribution and degree of inversion in bulk and nano sized particles of CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/, MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ ferrites. The Moessbauer spectra of all bulk ferrites showed complete magnetic behavior, whereas nanoparticle ferrites showed combination of ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic components. Moreover, the cation distribution in nanoparticle materials was also found to be different to that of their bulk counterparts indicating the particle size dependency. The inversion of Cu and Ni ions in bulk sample was greater than that of nanoparticles; whereas the inversion of Mn ions was less in bulk material as compared to the nanoparticles. Hence the degree of inversion decreased in CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ and NiFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ samples whereas, it increased in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ as the particle size decreased and thus showed the anomalous behavior in this case. The nanoparticle samples also showed paramagnetic behaviour due to superparamagnetism and this effect is more prominent in MnFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/. Moessbauer spectra of bulk and nanoparticles CuFe/sub 2/O/sub 4/ is shown. (Orig./A.B.)

  7. An Inversion Recovery NMR Kinetics Experiment


    Williams, Travis J.; Kershaw, Allan D.; Li, Vincent; Wu, Xinping


    A convenient laboratory experiment is described in which NMR magnetization transfer by inversion recovery is used to measure the kinetics and thermochemistry of amide bond rotation. The experiment utilizes Varian spectrometers with the VNMRJ 2.3 software, but can be easily adapted to any NMR platform. The procedures and sample data sets in this article will enable instructors to use inversion recovery as a laboratory activity in applied NMR classes and provide research students with a conveni...

  8. Population inversion in recombining hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukane, Utaro; Yokota, Toshiaki; Oda, Toshiatsu.


    The collisional-radiative model is applied to a recombining hydrogen plasma in order to investigate the plasma condition in which the population inversion between the energy levels of hydrogen can be generated. The population inversion is expected in a plasma where the three body recombination has a large contribution to the recombining processes and the effective recombination rate is beyond a certain value for a given electron density and temperature. Calculated results are presented in figures and tables. (author)

  9. Approximation of Bayesian Inverse Problems for PDEs


    Cotter, S. L.; Dashti, M.; Stuart, A. M.


    Inverse problems are often ill posed, with solutions that depend sensitively on data.n any numerical approach to the solution of such problems, regularization of some form is needed to counteract the resulting instability. This paper is based on an approach to regularization, employing a Bayesian formulation of the problem, which leads to a notion of well posedness for inverse problems, at the level of probability measures. The stability which results from this well posedness may be used as t...

  10. On the Inversion of the Lidar Equation (United States)


    sectitns briefly review the major inversion methods to date and a fourth section describes the development of the modified inversion method. All four...can be seeu when It is understood ’in terms of its ,physical significance. Equation 17 states that the normalized integrated backscatter has a limit. In...still give significant errors. 4.0 VALIDATION OF AGILE In this chapter, evidence of the success of AGILE will be reviewed and compared with Klett’s

  11. Inverse regression for ridge recovery II: Numerics


    Glaws, Andrew; Constantine, Paul G.; Cook, R. Dennis


    We investigate the application of sufficient dimension reduction (SDR) to a noiseless data set derived from a deterministic function of several variables. In this context, SDR provides a framework for ridge recovery. In this second part, we explore the numerical subtleties associated with using two inverse regression methods---sliced inverse regression (SIR) and sliced average variance estimation (SAVE)---for ridge recovery. This includes a detailed numerical analysis of the eigenvalues of th...

  12. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion with variational regularization. (United States)

    Milovic, Carlos; Bilgic, Berkin; Zhao, Bo; Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Tejos, Cristian


    Quantitative susceptibility mapping can be performed through the minimization of a function consisting of data fidelity and regularization terms. For data consistency, a Gaussian-phase noise distribution is often assumed, which breaks down when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A previously proposed alternative is to use a nonlinear data fidelity term, which reduces streaking artifacts, mitigates noise amplification, and results in more accurate susceptibility estimates. We hereby present a novel algorithm that solves the nonlinear functional while achieving computation speeds comparable to those for a linear formulation. We developed a nonlinear quantitative susceptibility mapping algorithm (fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion) based on the variable splitting and alternating direction method of multipliers, in which the problem is split into simpler subproblems with closed-form solutions and a decoupled nonlinear inversion hereby solved with a Newton-Raphson iterative procedure. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion performance was assessed using numerical phantom and in vivo experiments, and was compared against the nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion method. Fast nonlinear susceptibility inversion achieves similar accuracy to nonlinear morphology-enabled dipole inversion but with significantly improved computational efficiency. The proposed method enables accurate reconstructions in a fraction of the time required by state-of-the-art quantitative susceptibility mapping methods. Magn Reson Med, 2018. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Bayesian Inversion of Seabed Scattering Data (Special Research Award in Ocean Acoustics) (United States)


    numerically using global optimization and Markov-chain Monte Carlo ( MCMC ) sampling algorithms. One of the goals of this work is to carry out inversions...on formulating the posterior probability density (PPD) of the model parameters of interest, which combines both data and prior information.6,7 The...density, attenuation, and layering structure) via inversion will be investigated in terms of posterior parameter uncertainty distributions, which

  14. An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos


    Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function and by constraining the 1 norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Building Subsurface Velocity Models with Sharp Interfaces Using Interface-Guided Seismic Full-Waveform Inversion (United States)

    Lin, Youzuo; Huang, Lianjie


    Reverse-time migration has the potential to image complex subsurface structures, including steeply-dipping fault zones, but the method requires an accurate velocity model. Acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion is a promising tool for high-resolution velocity model building. Because of the ill-posedness of acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion, it is a great challenge to obtain accurate velocity models containing sharp interfaces. To improve velocity model building, we develop an acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion method with an interface-guided modified total-variation regularization scheme to improve the inversion accuracy and robustness, particularly for models with sharp interfaces and steeply-dipping fault zones with widths much smaller than the seismic wavelength. The new regularization scheme incorporates interface information into seismic full-waveform inversion. The interface information of subsurface interfaces is obtained iteratively using migration imaging during waveform inversion. Seismic migration is robust for subsurface imaging. Our new acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion takes advantage of the robustness of migration imaging to improve velocity estimation. We use synthetic seismic data for a complex model containing sharp interfaces and several steeply-dipping fault zones to validate the improved capability of our new acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion method. Our inversion results are much better than those produced without using interface-guided regularization. Acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion with an interface-guided modified total-variation regularization scheme has the potential to accurately build subsurface velocity models with sharp interfaces and/or steep fault zones.

  16. A New Approach for Inversion of Large Random Matrices in Massive MIMO Systems (United States)

    Anjum, Muhammad Ali Raza; Ahmed, Muhammad Mansoor


    We report a novel approach for inversion of large random matrices in massive Multiple-Input Multiple Output (MIMO) systems. It is based on the concept of inverse vectors in which an inverse vector is defined for each column of the principal matrix. Such an inverse vector has to satisfy two constraints. Firstly, it has to be in the null-space of all the remaining columns. We call it the null-space problem. Secondly, it has to form a projection of value equal to one in the direction of selected column. We term it as the normalization problem. The process essentially decomposes the inversion problem and distributes it over columns. Each column can be thought of as a node in the network or a particle in a swarm seeking its own solution, the inverse vector, which lightens the computational load on it. Another benefit of this approach is its applicability to all three cases pertaining to a linear system: the fully-determined, the over-determined, and the under-determined case. It eliminates the need of forming the generalized inverse for the last two cases by providing a new way to solve the least squares problem and the Moore and Penrose's pseudoinverse problem. The approach makes no assumption regarding the size, structure or sparsity of the matrix. This makes it fully applicable to much in vogue large random matrices arising in massive MIMO systems. Also, the null-space problem opens the door for a plethora of methods available in literature for null-space computation to enter the realm of matrix inversion. There is even a flexibility of finding an exact or approximate inverse depending on the null-space method employed. We employ the Householder's null-space method for exact solution and present a complete exposition of the new approach. A detailed comparison with well-established matrix inversion methods in literature is also given. PMID:24733148

  17. Seismic velocity and crustal thickness inversions: Moon and Mars (United States)

    Drilleau, Melanie; Blanchette-Guertin, Jean-François; Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonné, Philippe; Wieczorek, Mark


    We present results from new inversions of seismic data arrival times acquired by the Apollo active and passive experiments. Markov chain Monte Carlo inversions are used to constrain (i) 1-D lunar crustal and upper mantle velocity models and (ii) 3-D lateral crustal thickness models under the Apollo stations and the artificial and natural impact sites. A full 3-D model of the lunar crustal thickness is then obtained using the GRAIL gravimetric data, anchored by the crustal thicknesses under each Apollo station and impact site. To avoid the use of any seismic reference model, a Bayesian inversion technique is implemented. The advantage of such an approach is to obtain robust probability density functions of interior structure parameters governed by uncertainties on the seismic data arrival times. 1-D seismic velocities are parameterized using C1-Bézier curves, which allow the exploration of both smoothly varying models and first-order discontinuities. The parameters of the inversion include the seismic velocities of P and S waves as a function of depth, the thickness of the crust under each Apollo station and impact epicentre. The forward problem consists in a ray tracing method enabling both the relocation of the natural impact epicenters, and the computation of time corrections associated to the surface topography and the crustal thickness variations under the stations and impact sites. The results show geology-related differences between the different sites, which are due to contrasts in megaregolith thickness and to shallow subsurface composition and structure. Some of the finer structural elements might be difficult to constrain and might fall within the uncertainties of the dataset. However, we use the more precise LROC-located epicentral locations for the lunar modules and Saturn-IV upper stage artificial impacts, reducing some of the uncertainties observed in past studies. In the framework of the NASA InSight/SEIS mission to Mars, the method developed in

  18. Chromatid Painting for Chromosomal Inversion Detection, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a novel approach to the detection of chromosomal inversions. Transmissible chromosome aberrations (translocations and inversions) have profound genetic...

  19. Inverse Problems in Economic Measurements (United States)

    Shananin, A. A.


    The problem of economic measurements is discussed. The system of economic indices must reflect the economic relations and mechanisms existing in society. An achievement of the XX century is the development of a system of national accounts and the gross domestic product index. However, the gross domestic product index, which is related to the Hamilton-Pontryagin function in extensive economic growth models, turns out to be inadequate under the conditions of structural changes. New problems of integral geometry related to production models that take into account the substitution of production factors are considered.

  20. Cannabidiol, a novel inverse agonist for GPR12. (United States)

    Brown, Kevin J; Laun, Alyssa S; Song, Zhao-Hui


    GPR12 is a constitutively active, G s protein-coupled receptor that currently has no confirmed endogenous ligands. GPR12 may be involved in physiological processes such as maintenance of oocyte meiotic arrest and brain development, as well as pathological conditions such as metastatic cancer. In this study, the potential effects of various classes of cannabinoids on GPR12 were tested using a cAMP accumulation assay. Our data demonstrate that cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, acted as an inverse agonist to inhibit cAMP accumulation stimulated by the constitutively active GPR12. Thus, GPR12 is a novel molecular target for CBD. The structure-activity relationship studies of CBD indicate that both the free hydroxyl and the pentyl side chain are crucial for the effects of CBD on GPR12. Furthermore, studies using cholera toxin, which blocks G s protein and pertussis toxin, which blocks G i protein, revealed that G s , but not G i is involved in the inverse agonism of CBD on GPR12. CBD is a promising novel therapeutic agent for cancer, and GPR12 has been shown to alter viscoelasticity of metastatic cancer cells. Since we have demonstrated that CBD is an inverse agonist for GPR12, this provides novel mechanism of action for CBD, and an initial chemical scaffold upon which highly potent and efficacious agents acting on GPR12 may be developed with the ultimate goal of blocking cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Probabilistic inverse design for self-assembling materials (United States)

    Jadrich, R. B.; Lindquist, B. A.; Truskett, T. M.


    One emerging approach for the fabrication of complex architectures on the nanoscale is to utilize particles customized to intrinsically self-assemble into a desired structure. Inverse methods of statistical mechanics have proven particularly effective for the discovery of interparticle interactions suitable for this aim. Here we evaluate the generality and robustness of a recently introduced inverse design strategy [B. A. Lindquist et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 111101 (2016)] by applying this simulation-based machine learning method to optimize for interparticle interactions that self-assemble particles into a variety of complex microstructures as follows: cluster fluids, porous mesophases, and crystalline lattices. Using the method, we discover isotropic pair interactions that lead to the self-assembly of each of the desired morphologies, including several types of potentials that were not previously understood to be capable of stabilizing such systems. One such pair potential led to the assembly of the highly asymmetric truncated trihexagonal lattice and another produced a fluid containing spherical voids, or pores, of designed size via purely repulsive interactions. Through these examples, we demonstrate several advantages inherent to this particular design approach including the use of a parametrized functional form for the optimized interparticle interactions, the ability to constrain the range of said parameters, and compatibility of the inverse design strategy with a variety of simulation protocols (e.g., positional restraints).

  2. 2D acoustic-elastic coupled waveform inversion in the Laplace domain

    KAUST Repository

    Bae, Hoseuk


    Although waveform inversion has been intensively studied in an effort to properly delineate the Earth\\'s structures since the early 1980s, most of the time- and frequency-domain waveform inversion algorithms still have critical limitations in their applications to field data. This may be attributed to the highly non-linear objective function and the unreliable low-frequency components. To overcome the weaknesses of conventional waveform inversion algorithms, the acoustic Laplace-domain waveform inversion has been proposed. The Laplace-domain waveform inversion has been known to provide a long-wavelength velocity model even for field data, which may be because it employs the zero-frequency component of the damped wavefield and a well-behaved logarithmic objective function. However, its applications have been confined to 2D acoustic media.We extend the Laplace-domain waveform inversion algorithm to a 2D acoustic-elastic coupled medium, which is encountered in marine exploration environments. In 2D acoustic-elastic coupled media, the Laplace-domain pressures behave differently from those of 2D acoustic media, although the overall features are similar to each other. The main differences are that the pressure wavefields for acoustic-elastic coupled media show negative values even for simple geological structures unlike in acoustic media, when the Laplace damping constant is small and the water depth is shallow. The negative values may result from more complicated wave propagation in elastic media and at fluid-solid interfaces.Our Laplace-domain waveform inversion algorithm is also based on the finite-element method and logarithmic wavefields. To compute gradient direction, we apply the back-propagation technique. Under the assumption that density is fixed, P- and S-wave velocity models are inverted from the pressure data. We applied our inversion algorithm to the SEG/EAGE salt model and the numerical results showed that the Laplace-domain waveform inversion

  3. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain


    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  4. Non-contrast-enhanced pulmonary vein MRI with a spatially selective slab inversion preparation sequence. (United States)

    Hu, Peng; Chuang, Michael L; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Goepfert, Lois A; Rofsky, Neil M; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza


    We propose a non-contrast-enhanced, three-dimensional, free-breathing, electrocardiogram-gated, gradient recalled echo sequence with a slab-selective inversion for pulmonary vein (PV) MRI. A sagittal inversion slab was applied prior to data acquisition to suppress structures adjacent to the left atrium (LA) and PVs, thereby improving the conspicuity of the PV and LA. Compared with other MR angiography methods using an inversion pulse, the proposed method does not require signal subtraction and the inversion slab is not parallel to the imaging slab. The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated in healthy subjects. The inversion slab thickness and inversion time were optimized to be 60 mm and 500 ms, respectively. Compared to conventional gradient recalled echo imaging without inversion, the proposed technique significantly increased the contrast-to-noise ratios between the LA and the right atrium by 20-fold (P slab (P > 0.3). The proposed technique greatly enhances the conspicuity of the PVs and LA without significant loss of signal-to-noise ratio.

  5. Fast Linear Algebra Applications in Stochastic Inversion and Data Assimilation (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Ambikasaran, S.; Saibaba, A.; Li, J. Y.; Darve, E. F.


    Inverse problems and data assimilation problems arise frequently in earth-science applications, such as hydraulic tomography, cross-well seismic travel-time tomography, electrical resistivity tomography, contaminant source identification, assimilation of weather data, etc. A common feature amongst inverse problems is that the parameters we are interested in estimating are hard to measure directly, and a crucial component of inverse modeling is using sparse data to evaluate many model parameters. To quantify uncertainty, stochastic methods such as the geostatistical approach to inverse problems and Kalman filtering are often used. The algorithms for the implementation of these methods were originally developed for small-size problems and their cost of implementation increases quickly with the size of the problem, which is usually defined by the number of observations and the number of unknowns. From a practical standpoint, it is critical to develop computational algorithms in linear algebra for which the computational effort, both in terms of storage and computational time, increases roughly linearly with the size of the problem. This is in contrast, for example, with matrix-vector products (resp. LU factorization) that scale quadratically (resp. cubically). This objective is achieved by tailoring methods to the structure of problems. We present an overview of the challenges and general approaches available for reducing computational cost and then present applications focusing on algorithms that use the hierarchical matrix approach. The hierarchical method reduces matrix vector products involving the dense covariance matrix from O(m2) to O(m log m), where m is the number of unknowns. We illustrate the performance of our algorithm on a few applications, such as monitoring CO2 concentrations using crosswell seismic tomography.

  6. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klammer, D.


    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  7. QCD-instantons and conformal inversion symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klammer, D.


    Instantons are an essential and non-perturbative part of Quantum Chromodynamics, the theory of strong interactions. One of the most relevant quantities in the instanton calculus is the instanton-size distribution, which can be described on the one hand within the framework of instanton perturbation theory and on the other hand investigated numerically by means of lattice computations. A rapid onset of a drastic discrepancy between these respective results indicates that the underlying physics is not yet well understood. In this work we investigate the appealing possibility of a symmetry under conformal inversion of space-time leading to this deviation. The motivation being that the lattice data seem to be invariant under an inversion of the instanton size. Since the instanton solution of a given size turns into an anti-instanton solution having an inverted size under conformal inversion of space-time, we ask in a first investigation, whether this property is transferred to the quantum level. In order to introduce a new scale, which is indicated by the lattice data and corresponds to the average instanton size as inversion radius, we project the instanton calculus onto the four-dimensional surface of a five-dimensional sphere via stereographic projection. The radius of this sphere is associated with the average instanton size. The result for the instanton size-distribution projected onto the sphere agrees surprisingly well with the lattice data at qualitative level. The resulting symmetry under an inversion of the instanton size is almost perfect. (orig.)

  8. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok


    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  9. RUMBLE Technical Report on Inversion Models (United States)

    Simons, Dick G.; Ainslie, Michael A.; Muller, Simonette H. E.; Boek, Wilco


    The performance of long range low frequency active sonar (LFAS) systems in shallow water is very sensitive to the properties of the sea bed, because of the impact of these on propagation, reverberation and (to a lesser extent) ambient noise. Direct measurement of sea bed parameters using cores or grab samples is impractical for covering a wide area, and instead we consider the possibility of using the LFAS system itself to measure its operating environment. The advantages of this approach are that it exploits existing (or planned) equipment and potentially offers a wide coverage. Geo-acoustic inversion methods are reviewed, with particular consideration for the problems associated with inversion of reverberation data. Three global optimisation methods are described, known as "simulated annealing", "genetic algorithms" and "differential evolution". The Levenberg-Marquardt and downhill simplex local methods are also described. The advantages and disadvantages of each individual method, as well as some hybrid combinations, are discussed in the context of geo-acoustic inversion. A new inversion method has been developed that exploits both the shape and height of the reverberation vs time curve to obtain information about the sea bed reflection loss and scattering strength separately. Tests on synthetic reverberation data show that the inversion method is able to extract parameters representing reflection loss and scattering strength, but cannot always unambiguously separate the effects of sediment sound speed and attenuation. The method is robust to small mismatches in water depth, sonar depth, sediment sound speed gradient and wind speed.

  10. Full wave-field reflection coefficient inversion. (United States)

    Dettmer, Jan; Dosso, Stan E; Holland, Charles W


    This paper develops a Bayesian inversion for recovering multilayer geoacoustic (velocity, density, attenuation) profiles from a full wave-field (spherical-wave) seabed reflection response. The reflection data originate from acoustic time series windowed for a single bottom interaction, which are processed to yield reflection coefficient data as a function of frequency and angle. Replica data for inversion are computed using a wave number-integration model to calculate the full complex acoustic pressure field, which is processed to produce a commensurate seabed response function. To address the high computational cost of calculating short range acoustic fields, the inversion algorithms are parallelized and frequency averaging is replaced by range averaging in the forward model. The posterior probability density is interpreted in terms of optimal parameter estimates, marginal distributions, and credibility intervals. Inversion results for the full wave-field seabed response are compared to those obtained using plane-wave reflection coefficients. A realistic synthetic study indicates that the plane-wave assumption can fail, producing erroneous results with misleading uncertainty bounds, whereas excellent results are obtained with the full-wave reflection inversion.

  11. Multiscattering inversion for low-model wavenumbers

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    A successful full-waveform inversion implementation updates the low-wavenumber model components first for a proper description of the wavefield propagation and slowly adds the high wavenumber potentially scattering parts of the model. The low-wavenumber components can be extracted from the transmission parts of the recorded wavefield emanating directly from the source or the transmission parts from the single- or double-scattered wavefield computed from a predicted scatter field acting as secondary sources.We use a combined inversion of data modeled from the source and those corresponding to single and double scattering to update the velocity model and the component of the velocity (perturbation) responsible for the single and double scattering. The combined inversion helps us access most of the potential model wavenumber information that may be embedded in the data. A scattering-angle filter is used to divide the gradient of the combined inversion, so initially the high-wavenumber (low-scattering-angle) components of the gradient are directed to the perturbation model and the low-wavenumber (highscattering- angle) components are directed to the velocity model. As our background velocity matures, the scatteringangle divide is slowly lowered to allow for more of the higher wavenumbers to contribute the velocity model. Synthetic examples including the Marmousi model are used to demonstrate the additional illumination and improved velocity inversion obtained when including multiscattered energy. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  12. Alternating minimisation for glottal inverse filtering (United States)

    Rodrigo Bleyer, Ismael; Lybeck, Lasse; Auvinen, Harri; Airaksinen, Manu; Alku, Paavo; Siltanen, Samuli


    A new method is proposed for solving the glottal inverse filtering (GIF) problem. The goal of GIF is to separate an acoustical speech signal into two parts: the glottal airflow excitation and the vocal tract filter. To recover such information one has to deal with a blind deconvolution problem. This ill-posed inverse problem is solved under a deterministic setting, considering unknowns on both sides of the underlying operator equation. A stable reconstruction is obtained using a double regularization strategy, alternating between fixing either the glottal source signal or the vocal tract filter. This enables not only splitting the nonlinear and nonconvex problem into two linear and convex problems, but also allows the use of the best parameters and constraints to recover each variable at a time. This new technique, called alternating minimization glottal inverse filtering (AM-GIF), is compared with two other approaches: Markov chain Monte Carlo glottal inverse filtering (MCMC-GIF), and iterative adaptive inverse filtering (IAIF), using synthetic speech signals. The recent MCMC-GIF has good reconstruction quality but high computational cost. The state-of-the-art IAIF method is computationally fast but its accuracy deteriorates, particularly for speech signals of high fundamental frequency (F0). The results show the competitive performance of the new method: With high F0, the reconstruction quality is better than that of IAIF and close to MCMC-GIF while reducing the computational complexity by two orders of magnitude.

  13. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion (United States)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  14. FOREWORD: 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP2014) (United States)


    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific contributions presented during the 4th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2014 ( This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 23, 2014. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011 (, and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012 and May 2013, (, ( The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) Workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the

  15. FOREWORD: 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (United States)

    Vourc'h, Eric; Rodet, Thomas


    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to the scientific research presented during the 5th International Workshop on New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems, NCMIP 2015 ( This workshop took place at Ecole Normale Supérieure de Cachan, on May 29, 2015. The prior editions of NCMIP also took place in Cachan, France, firstly within the scope of ValueTools Conference, in May 2011, and secondly at the initiative of Institut Farman, in May 2012, May 2013 and May 2014. The New Computational Methods for Inverse Problems (NCMIP) workshop focused on recent advances in the resolution of inverse problems. Indeed, inverse problems appear in numerous scientific areas such as geophysics, biological and medical imaging, material and structure characterization, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering, and finances. The resolution of inverse problems consists of estimating the parameters of the observed system or structure from data collected by an instrumental sensing or imaging device. Its success firstly requires the collection of relevant observation data. It also requires accurate models describing the physical interactions between the instrumental device and the observed system, as well as the intrinsic properties of the solution itself. Finally, it requires the design of robust, accurate and efficient inversion algorithms. Advanced sensor arrays and imaging devices provide high rate and high volume data; in this context, the efficient resolution of the inverse problem requires the joint development of new models and inversion methods, taking computational and implementation aspects into account. During this one-day workshop, researchers had the opportunity to bring to light and share new techniques and results in the field of inverse problems. The topics of the workshop were: algorithms and computational aspects of inversion, Bayesian estimation, Kernel methods, learning methods

  16. Interplay of Nitrogen-Atom Inversion and Conformational Inversion in Enantiomerization of 1H-1-Benzazepines. (United States)

    Ramig, Keith; Subramaniam, Gopal; Karimi, Sasan; Szalda, David J; Ko, Allen; Lam, Aaron; Li, Jeffrey; Coaderaj, Ani; Cavdar, Leyla; Bogdan, Lukasz; Kwon, Kitae; Greer, Edyta M


    A series of 2,4-disubstituted 1H-1-benzazepines, 2a-d, 4, and 6, were studied, varying both the substituents at C2 and C4 and at the nitrogen atom. The conformational inversion (ring-flip) and nitrogen-atom inversion (N-inversion) energetics were studied by variable-temperature NMR spectroscopy and computations. The steric bulk of the nitrogen-atom substituent was found to affect both the conformation of the azepine ring and the geometry around the nitrogen atom. Also affected were the Gibbs free energy barriers for the ring-flip and the N-inversion. When the nitrogen-atom substituent was alkyl, as in 2a-c, the geometry of the nitrogen atom was nearly planar and the azepine ring was highly puckered; the result was a relatively high-energy barrier to ring-flip and a low barrier to N-inversion. Conversely, when the nitrogen-atom substituent was a hydrogen atom, as in 2d, 4, and 6, the nitrogen atom was significantly pyramidalized and the azepine ring was less puckered; the result here was a relatively high energy barrier to N-inversion and a low barrier to ring-flip. In these N-unsubstituted compounds, it was found computationally that the lowest-energy stereodynamic process was ring-flip coupled with N-inversion, as N-inversion alone had a much higher energy barrier.

  17. AIDA - from Airborne Data Inversion to In-Depth Analysis (United States)

    Meyer, U.; Goetze, H.; Schroeder, M.; Boerner, R.; Tezkan, B.; Winsemann, J.; Siemon, B.; Alvers, M.; Stoll, J. B.


    The rising competition in land use especially between water economy, agriculture, forestry, building material economy and other industries often leads to irreversible deterioration in the water and soil system (as salinization and degradation) which results in a long term damage of natural resources. A sustainable exploitation of the near subsurface by industry, economy and private households is a fundamental demand of a modern society. To fulfill this demand, a sound and comprehensive knowledge on structures and processes of the near subsurface is an important prerequisite. A spatial survey of the usable underground by aerogeophysical means and a subsequent ground geophysics survey targeted at special locations will deliver essential contributions within short time that make it possible to gain the needed additional knowledge. The complementary use of airborne and ground geophysics as well as the validation, assimilation and improvement of current findings by geological and hydrogeological investigations and plausibility tests leads to the following key questions: a) Which new and/or improved automatic algorithms (joint inversion, data assimilation and such) are useful to describe the structural setting of the usable subsurface by user specific characteristics as i.e. water volume, layer thicknesses, porosities etc.? b) What are the physical relations of the measured parameters (as electrical conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities, densities, etc.)? c) How can we deduce characteristics or parameters from the observations which describe near subsurface structures as ground water systems, their charge, discharge and recharge, vulnerabilities and other quantities? d) How plausible and realistic are the numerically obtained results in relation to user specific questions and parameters? e) Is it possible to compile material flux balances that describe spatial and time dependent impacts of environmental changes on aquifers and soils by repeated airborne surveys? In

  18. Seismic Attenuation Inversion with t* Using tstarTomog.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, Leiph


    Seismic attenuation is defined as the loss of the seismic wave amplitude as the wave propagates excluding losses strictly due to geometric spreading. Information gleaned from seismic waves can be utilized to solve for the attenuation properties of the earth. One method of solving for earth attenuation properties is called t*. This report will start by introducing the basic theory behind t* and delve into inverse theory as it pertains to how the algorithm called tstarTomog inverts for attenuation properties using t* observations. This report also describes how to use the tstarTomog package to go from observed data to a 3-D model of attenuation structure in the earth.

  19. Inverse design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andkjær, Jacob Anders; Johansen, Villads Egede; Friis, Kasper Storgaard


    We propose an inverse design methodology for systematic design of nanostructured surfaces for color effects. The methodology is based on a 2D topology optimization formulation based on frequency-domain finite element simulations for E and/or H polarized waves. The goal of the optimization...... is to maximize color intensity in prescribed direction(s) for a prescribed color (RGB) vector. Results indicate that nanostructured surfaces with any desirable color vector can be generated; that complex structures can generate more intense colors than simple layerings; that angle independent colorings can...

  20. Computer modeling of inversion layer MOS solar cells and arrays (United States)

    Ho, Fat Duen


    A two dimensional numerical model of the inversion layer metal insulator semiconductor (IL/MIS) solar cell is proposed by using the finite element method. The two-dimensional current flow in the device is taken into account in this model. The electrostatic potential distribution, the electron concentration distribution, and the hole concentration distribution for different terminal voltages are simulated. The results of simple calculation are presented. The existing problems for this model are addressed. Future work is proposed. The MIS structures are studied and some of the results are reported.

  1. Recurrent DNA inversion rearrangements in the human genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, Margarita; Morales, Lucía; Gonzaga-Jauregui, Claudia


    Several lines of evidence suggest that reiterated sequences in the human genome are targets for nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR), which facilitates genomic rearrangements. We have used a PCR-based approach to identify breakpoint regions of rearranged structures in the human genome...... to human genomic variation is discussed........ In particular, we have identified intrachromosomal identical repeats that are located in reverse orientation, which may lead to chromosomal inversions. A bioinformatic workflow pathway to select appropriate regions for analysis was developed. Three such regions overlapping with known human genes, located...

  2. Anisotropic parameter inversion in VTI media using diffraction data

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin


    Diffracted waves contain useful information regarding the subsurface geometry and velocity. They are particularly valuable for anisotropic media as they inherently possess a wide range of dips necessary to resolve angular dependence of velocity. Using this property of diffraction data to our vantage, we develop an algorithm to invert for effective η model, assuming no prior knowledge of it. The obtained effective η model is then converted to interval η model using Dix-type inversion formula. The effectiveness of this approach is tested on the VTI Marmousi model, which yields good structural match even for a highly complex media such as the Marmousi model.

  3. Surface Vibration Reconstruction using Inverse Numerical Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martinus


    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of inverse numerical acoustics to reconstruct the surface vibration of a noise source. Inverse numerical acoustics is mainly used for source identification. This approach uses the measured sound pressure at a set of field points and the Helmholtz integral equation to reconstruct the normal surface velocity. The number of sound pressure measurements is considerably less than the number of surface vibration nodes. An overview of inverse numerical acoustics is presented and compared with other holography techniques such as nearfield acoustical holography and the Helmholtz equation least squares method. In order to obtain an acceptable reproduction of the surface vibration, several critical factors such as the field point selection and the effect of experimental errors have to be handled properly. Other practical considerations such as the use of few measured velocities and regularization techniques will also be presented. Examples will include a diesel engine, a transmission housing and an engine cover.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.


    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively

  5. Applications of inverse and algebraic scattering theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, K.


    Inverse scattering theories, algebraic scattering theory and exactly solvable scattering potentials are diverse ways by which scattering potentials can be defined from S-functions specified by fits to fixed energy, quantal scattering data. Applications have been made in nuclear (heavy ion and nucleon-nucleus scattering), atomic and molecular (electron scattering from simple molecules) systems. Three inverse scattering approaches are considered in detail; the semiclassical WKB and fully quantal Lipperheide-Fiedeldey method, than algebraic scattering theory is applied to heavy ion scattering and finally the exactly solvable Ginocchio potentials. Some nuclear results are ambiguous but the atomic and molecular inversion potentials are in good agreement with postulated forms. 21 refs., 12 figs

  6. Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Roger M. [Department of Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]. E-mail:; Nauta, Maarten [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Havelaar, Arie H. [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fels, Ine van der [Microbiological Laboratory for Health Protection RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)


    We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism.

  7. Inverse osmotic process for radioactive laundry waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebara, Katsuya; Takahashi, Sankichi; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Yusa, Hideo; Hyakutake, Hiroshi.


    Purpose: To effectively recover the processing amount reduced in a continuous treatment. Method: Laundry waste containing radioactive substances discharged from a nuclear power plant is processed in an inverse osmotic process while adding starch digesting enzymes such as amylase and takadiastase, as well as soft spherical bodies such as sponge balls of a particle diameter capable of flowing in the flow of the liquid wastes along the inverse osmotic membrane pipe and having such a softness and roundness as not to damage the inverse osmotic membrane. This process can remove the floating materials such as thread dusts or hairs deposited on the membrane surface by the action of the soft elastic balls and remove paste or the like through decomposition by the digesting enzymes. Consequently, effective recovery can be attained for the reduced processing amount. (Furukawa, Y.)

  8. Probabilistic inversion for chicken processing lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.; Nauta, Maarten; Havelaar, Arie H.; Fels, Ine van der


    We discuss an application of probabilistic inversion techniques to a model of campylobacter transmission in chicken processing lines. Such techniques are indicated when we wish to quantify a model which is new and perhaps unfamiliar to the expert community. In this case there are no measurements for estimating model parameters, and experts are typically unable to give a considered judgment. In such cases, experts are asked to quantify their uncertainty regarding variables which can be predicted by the model. The experts' distributions (after combination) are then pulled back onto the parameter space of the model, a process termed 'probabilistic inversion'. This study illustrates two such techniques, iterative proportional fitting (IPF) and PARmeter fitting for uncertain models (PARFUM). In addition, we illustrate how expert judgement on predicted observable quantities in combination with probabilistic inversion may be used for model validation and/or model criticism

  9. Variability in surface inversion characteristics over India in winter ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 120; Issue 1. Variability in surface inversion ... Decadal variations in inversion strength show weak inversion frequencies decreasing from the 1st to the 3rd decade while moderate/strong inversions occur more frequently at most stations. Frequencies of very strong ...

  10. Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques (United States)

    Backus, George E.


    By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

  11. Seeing the World Topsy-Turvy: The Primary Role of Kinematics in Biological Motion Inversion Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Anne Fitzgerald


    Full Text Available Physical inversion of whole or partial human body representations typically has catastrophic consequences on the observer's ability to perform visual processing tasks. Explanations usually focus on the effects of inversion on the visual system's ability to exploit configural or structural relationships, but more recently have also implicated motion or kinematic cue processing. Here, we systematically tested the role of both on perceptions of sex from upright and inverted point-light walkers. Our data suggest that inversion results in systematic degradations of the processing of kinematic cues. Specifically and intriguingly, they reveal sex-based kinematic differences: Kinematics characteristic of females generally are resistant to inversion effects, while those of males drive systematic sex misperceptions. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Forward modeling and inversion of tensor CSAMT in 3D anisotropic media (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wang, Kun-Peng; Tan, Han-Dong


    Tensor controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotellurics (CSAMT) can yield information about electric and magnetic fields owing to its multi-transmitter configuration compared with the common scalar CSAMT. The most current theories, numerical simulations, and inversion of tensor CSAMT are based on far-field measurements and the assumption that underground media have isotropic resistivity. We adopt a three-dimensional (3D) staggered-grid finite difference numerical simulation method to analyze the resistivity in axial anisotropic and isotropic media. We further adopt the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (LBFGS) method to perform 3D tensor CSAMT axial anisotropic inversion. The inversion results suggest that when the underground structure is anisotropic, the isotropic inversion will introduce errors to the interpretation.

  13. Fast 3D inversion of gravity data using solution space priorconditioned lanczos bidiagonalization (United States)

    Rezaie, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Kalateh, Ali Nejati


    Inversion of gravity data is one of the most important steps in the quantitative interpretation of practical data. Inversion is a mathematical technique that automatically constructs a subsurface geophysical model from measured data, incorporating some priori information. Inversion of gravity data is time consuming because of increase in data and model parameters. Some efforts have been made to deal with this problem, one of them is using fast algorithms for solving system of equations in inverse problem. Lanczos bidiagonalization method is a fast algorithm that works based on Krylov subspace iterations and projection method, but cannot always provide a good basis for a projection method. So in this study, we combined the Krylov method with a regularization method applied to the low-dimensional projected problem. To achieve the goal, the orthonormal basis vectors of the discrete cosine transform (DCT) were used to build the low-dimensional subspace. The forward operator matrix replaced with a matrix of lower dimension, thus, the required memory and running time of the inverse modeling is decreased by using the proposed algorithm. It is shown that this algorithm can be appropriate to solve a Tikhonov cost function for inversion of gravity data. The proposed method has been applied on a noise-corrupted synthetic data and field gravity data (Mobrun gravity data) to demonstrate its reliability for three dimensional (3D) gravity inversion. The obtained results of 3D inversion both synthetic and field gravity data (Mobrun gravity data) indicate the proposed inversion algorithm could produce density models consistent with true structures.

  14. Vector continued fractions using a generalized inverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydock, Roger; Nex, C M M; Wexler, Geoffrey


    A real vector space combined with an inverse (involution) for vectors is sufficient to define a vector continued fraction whose parameters consist of vector shifts and changes of scale. The choice of sign for different components of the vector inverse permits construction of vector analogues of the Jacobi continued fraction. These vector Jacobi fractions are related to vector and scalar-valued polynomial functions of the vectors, which satisfy recurrence relations similar to those of orthogonal polynomials. The vector Jacobi fraction has strong convergence properties which are demonstrated analytically, and illustrated numerically

  15. Direct and Inverse problems in Electrocardiography (United States)

    Boulakia, M.; Fernández, M. A.; Gerbeau, J. F.; Zemzemi, N.


    We present numerical results related to the direct and the inverse problems in electrocardiography. The electrical activity of the heart is described by the bidomain equations. The electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded in different points on the body surface are obtained by coupling the bidomain equation to a Laplace equation in the torso. The simulated ECGs are quite satisfactory. As regards the inverse problem, our goal is to estimate the parameters of the bidomain-torso model. Here we present some preliminary results of a parameter estimation for the torso model.

  16. Kinetic equation solution by inverse kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas, G.


    We propose a computer program (CAMU) which permits to solve the inverse kinetic equation. The CAMU code is written in HPL language for a HP 982 A microcomputer with a peripheral interface HP 9876 A ''thermal graphic printer''. The CAMU code solves the inverse kinetic equation by taking as data entry the output of the ionization chambers and integrating the equation with the help of the Simpson method. With this program we calculate the evolution of the reactivity in time for a given disturbance

  17. Inverse statistical approach in heartbeat time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadi, H; Shirazi, A H; Mani, Ali R; Jafari, G R


    We present an investigation on heart cycle time series, using inverse statistical analysis, a concept borrowed from studying turbulence. Using this approach, we studied the distribution of the exit times needed to achieve a predefined level of heart rate alteration. Such analysis uncovers the most likely waiting time needed to reach a certain change in the rate of heart beat. This analysis showed a significant difference between the raw data and shuffled data, when the heart rate accelerates or decelerates to a rare event. We also report that inverse statistical analysis can distinguish between the electrocardiograms taken from healthy volunteers and patients with heart failure

  18. Molecular seismology: an inverse problem in nanobiology. (United States)

    Hinow, Peter; Boczko, Erik M


    The density profile of an elastic fiber like DNA will change in space and time as ligands associate with it. This observation affords a new direction in single molecule studies provided that density profiles can be measured in space and time. In fact, this is precisely the objective of seismology, where the mathematics of inverse problems have been employed with success. We argue that inverse problems in elastic media can be directly applied to biophysical problems of fiber-ligand association, and demonstrate that robust algorithms exist to perform density reconstruction in the condensed phase.

  19. The Inverse Perspective in Byzantine Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Urmă


    Full Text Available The inverse perspective is a method of representing spatial depth used only in Byzantine painting. It is different from Renaissance perspective (a method of realistic, conventional, subjective, subject to a single point of view. The inverse perspective, with two-dimensional axonometric representations, is more complex, offering multiple possibilities of symbolization. Various theories have considered either optical-geometric aspect or artistic-cultural aspect as the main factors that generated it. But they have not led to a unified conclusion. This study highlights the common elements of these theories, bringing together the two issues and providing a philosophical-religious interpretation.

  20. Direct and inverse scattering for viscoelastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammicht, E.; Corones, J.P.; Krueger, R.J.


    A time domain approach to direct and inverse scattering problems for one-dimensional viscoelastic media is presented. Such media can be characterized as having a constitutive relation between stress and strain which involves the past history of the strain through a memory function, the relaxation modulus. In the approach in this article, the relaxation modulus of a material is shown to be related to the reflection properties of the material. This relation provides a constructive algorithm for direct and inverse scattering problems. A numerical implementation of this algorithm is tested on several problems involving realistic relaxation moduli

  1. Seismic amplitude processing and inversion (United States)

    Dev, Ashwani


    Hydrocarbon exploration requires reliable seismic amplitudes to identify oil and gas reservoirs. Erroneous seismic amplitude processing can potentially generate large economic losses. Correct seismic amplitude processing is pre-requisite for any amplitude dependent analysis. The accuracy of the subsurface image and estimation of the elastic properties of subsurface sediments depends upon the reliability of the amplitudes. Geophone groups are wavenumber filters that change the seismic amplitudes because of a wavenumber dependent information loss. Numerically defined filters deconvolve the recording group response from horizontal and the vertical component seismic data recorded with groups of uniform and non-uniform geophone sensitivity, different group lengths and spacing, and noise. The filtering effect of an array increases as the group length increases, and only the wavenumber range defined by the group interval can be correctly compensated for the group effect. A rigorous, explicit spatial antialias filter is designed and applied by removing the energy above the first Nyquist wavenumber in the horizontal slowness-frequency domain. The filter removes the spatially aliased frequencies selectively at each slowness. The aliased energy is dispersive and present at both small and large horizontal slownesses. The filter can be explicitly applied to regularly spaced or irregularly spaced traces and is independent of any event linearity assumption. An integrative interpretation approach defines the effect of the structural setting on gas hydrate and free-gas accumulation at a site at the East Casey fault zone in the Gulf of Mexico. At a well location, hydrates are interpreted as fracture fillings with maximum saturation ˜30% of the available pore space. Two low acoustic impedance (Ip) free-gas features terminating at the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) are interpreted from the 3D seismic data and the derived Ip volumes. The 2D Ip profile shows a contrast in BSR

  2. Effect of inversion layer at iron pyrite surface on photovoltaic device (United States)

    Uchiyama, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu


    Iron pyrite has great potential as a thin-film solar cell material because it has high optical absorption, low cost, and is earth-abundant. However, previously reported iron pyrite solar cells showed poor photovoltaic characteristics. Here, we have numerically simulated its photovoltaic characteristics and band structures by utilizing a two-dimensional (2D) device simulator, ATLAS, to evaluate the effects of an inversion layer at the surface and a high density of deep donor defect states in the bulk. We found that previous device structures did not consider the inversion layer at the surface region of iron pyrite, which made it difficult to obtain the conversion efficiency. Therefore, we remodeled the device structure and suggested that removing the inversion layer and reducing the density of deep donor defect states would lead to a high conversion efficiency of iron pyrite solar cells.

  3. Anisotropic wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Shihang


    The wave-equation traveltime and waveform inversion (WTW) methodology is developed to invert for anisotropic parameters in a vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) meidum. The simultaneous inversion of anisotropic parameters v0, ε and δ is initially performed using the wave-equation traveltime inversion (WT) method. The WT tomograms are then used as starting background models for VTI full waveform inversion. Preliminary numerical tests on synthetic data demonstrate the feasibility of this method for multi-parameter inversion.

  4. Inverse and Ill-posed Problems Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kabanikhin, S I


    The text demonstrates the methods for proving the existence (if et all) and finding of inverse and ill-posed problems solutions in linear algebra, integral and operator equations, integral geometry, spectral inverse problems, and inverse scattering problems. It is given comprehensive background material for linear ill-posed problems and for coefficient inverse problems for hyperbolic, parabolic, and elliptic equations. A lot of examples for inverse problems from physics, geophysics, biology, medicine, and other areas of application of mathematics are included.

  5. Inverse Kinematics with Closed Form Solution for Denso Robot Manipulator


    Prasetia, Ikhsan Eka; Agustinah, Trihastuti


    In this paper, the forward kinematics and inverse kinematics used on the Denso robot manipulator which has a 6-DOF. The forward kinematics will result in the desired position by end-effector, while inverse kinematics produce angel on each joint. Inverse kinematics problem are very difficult, therefor to obtain the solution of inverse kinematics using closed form solution with geometry approach. The simulation result obtained from forward kinematics and inverse kinematics is determining desire...

  6. Lithological and Surface Geometry Joint Inversions Using Multi-Objective Global Optimization Methods (United States)

    Lelièvre, Peter; Bijani, Rodrigo; Farquharson, Colin


    Geologists' interpretations about the Earth typically involve distinct rock units with contacts (interfaces) between them. In contrast, standard minimum-structure geophysical inversions are performed on meshes of space-filling cells (typically prisms or tetrahedra) and recover smoothly varying physical property distributions that are inconsistent with typical geological interpretations. There are several approaches through which mesh-based minimum-structure geophysical inversion can help recover models with some of the desired characteristics. However, a more effective strategy may be to consider two fundamentally different types of inversions: lithological and surface geometry inversions. A major advantage of these two inversion approaches is that joint inversion of multiple types of geophysical data is greatly simplified. In a lithological inversion, the subsurface is discretized into a mesh and each cell contains a particular rock type. A lithological model must be translated to a physical property model before geophysical data simulation. Each lithology may map to discrete property values or there may be some a priori probability density function associated with the mapping. Through this mapping, lithological inverse problems limit the parameter domain and consequently reduce the non-uniqueness from that presented by standard mesh-based inversions that allow physical property values on continuous ranges. Furthermore, joint inversion is greatly simplified because no additional mathematical coupling measure is required in the objective function to link multiple physical property models. In a surface geometry inversion, the model comprises wireframe surfaces representing contacts between rock units. This parameterization is then fully consistent with Earth models built by geologists, which in 3D typically comprise wireframe contact surfaces of tessellated triangles. As for the lithological case, the physical properties of the units lying between the contact

  7. The Trouble with Inversion: an Examination of Science Sexual Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston, Rebekah


    Full Text Available Although some are excited about the possibility of using current scientific research into the biological causes of sexual orientation to ground rights claims, I argue that basing rights claims on this research is unwise because this research, specifically the hormonal, genetic, and structural research, is organized around the inversion assumption, a conceptual scheme within which some aspect of the biology of gay men and lesbians is thought to be inverted along sex lines.While there are many reasons to worry about the use of the inversion assumption, I focus on problems that arise from a further set of claims that must be assumed in order to make the use of the inversion assumption coherent. This further set of assumptions includes the claims (1 that heterosexuality is the standard state and that (2 this standard state is sexually-dimorphic and (3 deterministic. I argue that this set of assumptions is problematic because it results in ideological consequences that are both sexist and heterosexist. Plusieurs militants et militantes croient que la découverte d’un siège biologique de l’homosexualité permettra aux personnes homosexuelles de revendiquer leurs droits. Cependant, nous estimons qu’il est problématique de fonder ces revendications sur des recherches reposant sur certaines hypothèses qui sont implicites. En particulier, la notion d’inversion (inversion assumption joue un rôle clef dans ces recherches. Ce qui veut dire que le schème conceptuel qui cadre cette recherche scientifique suppose que certains traits des hommes et des femmes homosexuelles sont inversés. Donc, les mâles homosexuels jouent le rôle de la femelle et les lesbiennes prennent celui du mâle dans la relation de couple. Pour que ce schème soit cohérent, plusieurs autres suppositions doivent être prises pour acquises et nous discutons trois d’entre-elles. En premier lieu, on suppose que l’hétérosexualité est la norme de base; deuxièmement que

  8. Bayesian inverse problems for functions and applications to fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotter, S L; Dashti, M; Robinson, J C; Stuart, A M


    Lagrangian observations—observations of passive tracers advected by the flow—is then a model for data arising in oceanography. The methodology which we describe herein may be applied to many other inverse problems in which it is of interest to find, given observations, an infinite-dimensional object, such as the initial condition for a PDE. A similar approach might be adopted, for example, to determine an appropriate mathematical setting for the inverse problem of determining an unknown tensor arising in a constitutive law for a PDE, given observations of the solution. The paper is structured so that the abstract theory can be read independently of the particular problems in fluid mechanics which are subsequently studied by application of the theory

  9. Introduction to inverse problems for differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hasanov Hasanoğlu, Alemdar


    This book presents a systematic exposition of the main ideas and methods in treating inverse problems for PDEs arising in basic mathematical models, though it makes no claim to being exhaustive. Mathematical models of most physical phenomena are governed by initial and boundary value problems for PDEs, and inverse problems governed by these equations arise naturally in nearly all branches of science and engineering. The book’s content, especially in the Introduction and Part I, is self-contained and is intended to also be accessible for beginning graduate students, whose mathematical background includes only basic courses in advanced calculus, PDEs and functional analysis. Further, the book can be used as the backbone for a lecture course on inverse and ill-posed problems for partial differential equations. In turn, the second part of the book consists of six nearly-independent chapters. The choice of these chapters was motivated by the fact that the inverse coefficient and source problems considered here a...

  10. Seismic Waveform Inversion by Stochastic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan van Leeuwen


    Full Text Available We explore the use of stochastic optimization methods for seismic waveform inversion. The basic principle of such methods is to randomly draw a batch of realizations of a given misfit function and goes back to the 1950s. The ultimate goal of such an approach is to dramatically reduce the computational cost involved in evaluating the misfit. Following earlier work, we introduce the stochasticity in waveform inversion problem in a rigorous way via a technique called randomized trace estimation. We then review theoretical results that underlie recent developments in the use of stochastic methods for waveform inversion. We present numerical experiments to illustrate the behavior of different types of stochastic optimization methods and investigate the sensitivity to the batch size and the noise level in the data. We find that it is possible to reproduce results that are qualitatively similar to the solution of the full problem with modest batch sizes, even on noisy data. Each iteration of the corresponding stochastic methods requires an order of magnitude fewer PDE solves than a comparable deterministic method applied to the full problem, which may lead to an order of magnitude speedup for waveform inversion in practice.

  11. Uterine inversion complicating traditional termination of pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion services remain cladenstine and unsafe in most parts of Africa. This is a case of a mid-trimester abortion induced by traditional methods which resulted in uterine inversion, a previously unreported complication of induced abortion. Until abortion services are accessible and safe on the continent, morbidity and ...

  12. Homogeneity of common cosmopolitan inversion frequencies in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 84; Issue 2 ... Research Article Volume 84 Issue 2 August 2005 pp 173-178 ... To understand the genetic properties of Asian D. melanogaster populations, we initiated a population genetic study of chromosome inversion polymorphisms in hitherto unanalysed population ...

  13. Improving Variational Autoencoders with Inverse Autoregressive Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, D.; Salimans, T.; Josefowicz, R.; Chen, X.; Sutskever, I.; Welling, M.; Lee, D.D.; von Luxburg, U.; Garnett, R.; Sugiyama, M.; Guyon, I.


    The framework of normalizing flows provides a general strategy for flexible variational inference of posteriors over latent variables. We propose a new type of normalizing flow, inverse autoregressive flow (IAF), that, in contrast to earlier published flows, scales well to high-dimensional latent

  14. ILIGRA : An Efficient Inverse Line Graph Algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Trajanovski, S.; Van Mieghem, P.


    This paper presents a new and efficient algorithm, ILIGRA, for inverse line graph construction. Given a line graph H, ILIGRA constructs its root graph G with the time complexity being linear in the number of nodes in H. If ILIGRA does not know whether the given graph H is a line graph, it firstly

  15. Solving Direct and Inverse Heat Conduction Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Taler, Jan


    Presents a solution for direct and inverse heat conduction problems. This work discusses the theoretical basis for the heat transfer process in the first part. It presents selected theoretical and numerical problems in the form of exercises with their subsequent solutions in the second part

  16. Inverse scattering with supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baye, Daniel; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc


    The application of supersymmetric quantum mechanics to the inverse scattering problem is reviewed. The main difference with standard treatments of the inverse problem lies in the simple and natural extension to potentials with singularities at the origin and with a Coulomb behaviour at infinity. The most general form of potentials which are phase-equivalent to a given potential is discussed. The use of singular potentials allows adding or removing states from the bound spectrum without contradicting the Levinson theorem. Physical applications of phase-equivalent potentials in nuclear reactions and in three-body systems are described. Derivation of a potential from the phase shift at fixed orbital momentum can also be performed with the supersymmetric inversion by using a Bargmann-type approximation of the scattering matrix or phase shift. A unique singular potential without bound states can be obtained from any phase shift. A limited number of bound states depending on the singularity can then be added. This inversion procedure is illustrated with nucleon-nucleon scattering

  17. Seismic processing in the inverse data space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.


    Until now, seismic processing has been carried out by applying inverse filters in the forward data space. Because the acquired data of a seismic survey is always discrete, seismic measurements in the forward data space can be arranged conveniently in a data matrix (P). Each column in the data matrix

  18. Inversion layer thermopower in high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, S.M.; Jonson, M.


    The authors calculate the thermopower of an ideal two-dimensional electron gas (inversion layer) in a quantising magnetic field. They find that the thermopower is a universal function of the reduced temperature which has a novel dependence on the chemical potential.

  19. Inverse Problem for a Curved Quantum Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Cardoulis


    Full Text Available We consider the Dirichlet Laplacian operator −Δ on a curved quantum guide in ℝ  n(n=2,3 with an asymptotically straight reference curve. We give uniqueness results for the inverse problem associated to the reconstruction of the curvature by using either observations of spectral data or a boot-strapping method.

  20. Neural Network Learning as an Inverse Problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůrková, Věra


    Roč. 13, č. 5 (2005), s. 551-559 ISSN 1367-0751 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1ET100300517 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : learning from data * generalization * empirical error functional * inverse problem * evaluation operator * kernel methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2005