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Sample records for structure tenure household

  1. The Effect of China’s New Circular Collective Forest Tenure Reform on Household Non-Timber Forest Product Production in Natural Forest Protection Project Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of China’s natural forest protection project (Protection Project in 1998 changed households’ forestry production modes in project regions, and China’s new circular collective forest tenure reform (Tenure Reform has been implemented since 2003 with the goal of motivating household forestry production and increasing household income from forests. Policymakers expect that Tenure Reform could also stimulate households to engage in non-timber forest products (NTFPs production in Protection Project regions. However, only a few studies have investigated the effect of Tenure Reform on household NTFP production in Protection Project regions. To fill this gap, we built an integrative conceptual framework and estimated a corresponding structural equation model (SEM using survey data from 932 households in Protection Project regions in southwestern China. In our research framework, there are four factors, including household characteristics, labour and social capital, forestland characteristics, and the Tenure Reform, affecting household NTFP production. The results substantiate that Tenure Reform has had a significant positive effect on household NTFP production. Additionally, household and forestland characteristics have promoted household NTFP production, but quantitatively less than Tenure Reform. This report can be used to inform the government that future investment in Tenure Reform still needs to be enhanced, and policy enforcement still needs to be strengthened.

  2. Women's Land Tenure Security and Household Human Capital: Evidence from Ethiopia's Land Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchomba, Felix M

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines the impact of Ethiopia's gendered land certification programs on household consumption of healthcare, food, education, and clothing. Ethiopia embarked on a land tenure reform program in 1998, after years of communism during which all land was nationalized. The reform began in Tigray region where land certificates were issued to household heads, who were primarily male. In a second phase carried out in 2003-2005, three other regions issued land certificates jointly to household heads and spouses, presenting variation in land tenure security by gender. Results using household panel data show that joint land certification to spouses was accompanied by increased household consumption of healthcare and homegrown food and decreased education expenditure, compared to household-head land certification. Joint land certification was also accompanied by increased consumption of women's and girls' clothing, and decreased men's clothing expenditures indicating results may be explained by a shift in the gender balance of power within households. Analysis on the incidence and duration of illness indicates that increased healthcare expenditures after joint land certification may be due to joint certification households seeking more effective treatment than head-only certification households for household members who fell ill or suffered injuries.

  3. Housing conditions of urban households with Aboriginal children in NSW Australia: tenure type matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melanie J; Williamson, Anna B; Fernando, Peter; Wright, Darryl; Redman, Sally

    2017-08-01

    Housing is a key determinant of the poor health of Aboriginal Australians. Most Aboriginal people live in cities and large towns, yet research into housing conditions has largely focused on those living in remote areas. This paper measures the prevalence of housing problems amongst participants in a study of urban Aboriginal families in New South Wales, Australia, and examines the relationship between tenure type and exposure to housing problems. Cross-sectional survey data was provided by 600 caregivers of 1406 Aboriginal children aged 0-17 years participating in Phase One of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH). Regression modelling of the associations between tenure type (own/mortgage, private rental or social housing) and housing problems was conducted, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. The majority (60%) of SEARCH households lived in social housing, 21% rented privately and 19% either owned their home outright or were paying a mortgage ("owned"). Housing problems were common, particularly structural problems, damp and mildew, vermin, crowding and unaffordability. Physical dwelling problems were most prevalent for those living in social housing, who were more likely to report three or more physical dwelling problems than those in owned (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73) or privately rented homes (PR 1.49, 1.11, 2.08). However, those in social housing were the least likely to report affordability problems. Those in private rental moved home most frequently; children in private rental were more than three times as likely to have lived in four or more homes since birth than those in owned homes (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73). Those in social housing were almost half as likely as those in private rental to have lived in four or more homes since birth (PR 0.56, 95%CI 0.14, 0.77). Crowding did not vary significantly by tenure type. The high prevalence of housing problems amongst study participants suggests that urban Aboriginal

  4. Housing conditions of urban households with Aboriginal children in NSW Australia: tenure type matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J Andersen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Housing is a key determinant of the poor health of Aboriginal Australians. Most Aboriginal people live in cities and large towns, yet research into housing conditions has largely focused on those living in remote areas. This paper measures the prevalence of housing problems amongst participants in a study of urban Aboriginal families in New South Wales, Australia, and examines the relationship between tenure type and exposure to housing problems. Methods Cross-sectional survey data was provided by 600 caregivers of 1406 Aboriginal children aged 0–17 years participating in Phase One of the Study of Environment on Aboriginal Resilience and Child Health (SEARCH. Regression modelling of the associations between tenure type (own/mortgage, private rental or social housing and housing problems was conducted, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results The majority (60% of SEARCH households lived in social housing, 21% rented privately and 19% either owned their home outright or were paying a mortgage (“owned”. Housing problems were common, particularly structural problems, damp and mildew, vermin, crowding and unaffordability. Physical dwelling problems were most prevalent for those living in social housing, who were more likely to report three or more physical dwelling problems than those in owned (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73 or privately rented homes (PR 1.49, 1.11, 2.08. However, those in social housing were the least likely to report affordability problems. Those in private rental moved home most frequently; children in private rental were more than three times as likely to have lived in four or more homes since birth than those in owned homes (PR 3.19, 95%CI 1.97, 5.73. Those in social housing were almost half as likely as those in private rental to have lived in four or more homes since birth (PR 0.56, 95%CI 0.14, 0.77. Crowding did not vary significantly by tenure type. Conclusions The high prevalence of housing

  5. Farmland Tenure Security in China: Influencing Factors of Actual and Perceived Farmland Tenure Security

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    Ren, Guangcheng; Zhu, Xueqin; Heerink, Nico; van Ierland, Ekko; Feng, Shuyi

    2017-04-01

    Tenure security plays an important role in farm households' investment, land renting and other decisions. Recent literature distinguishes between actual farmland tenure security (i.e. farm households' actual control of farmland) and perceived farmland tenure security (i.e. farm households' subjective understanding of their farmland tenure situation and expectation regarding government enforcement and equality of the law). However little is known on what factors influence the actual and perceived farmland tenure security in rural China. Theoretically, actual farmland tenure security is related to village self-governance as a major informal governance rule in rural China. Both economic efficiency and equity considerations are likely to play a role in the distribution of land and its tenure security. Household perceptions of farmland tenure security depend not only on the actual farmland tenure security in a village, but may also be affected by households' investment in and ability of changing social rules. Our study examines what factors contribute to differences in actual and perceived farmland tenure security between different villages and farm households in different regions of China. Applying probit models to the data collected from 1,485 households in 124 villages in Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning and Chongqing, we find that development of farmland rental market and degree of self-governance of a village have positive impacts, and development of labour market has a negative effect on actual farmland tenure security. Household perceptions of tenure security depend not only on actual farmland tenure security and on households' investment in and ability of changing social rules, but also on risk preferences of households. This finding has interesting policy implications for future land reforms in rural China.

  6. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  7. FS Tenure System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This system tracks candidates applying for tenure as a Foreign Service Officer (FSO). Microsoft Access database used during the Tenure boards, which is conducted...

  8. Teacher Tenure: Fog Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Walch, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Debates over the efficacy of tenure are longstanding but tenure reform is now more prominent in the public eye given recent high-profile legislative battles in states like Ohio and Wisconsin. This focus on tenure also is a natural outgrowth of the large body of research showing that differences between individual teachers can have profound effects…

  9. Land tenure in China: Legal, actual and perceived security

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    Ma, Xianlei; Heerink, N.; Feng, S.; Shi, X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the magnitudes of legal security, actual security and perceived security of farmland tenure, and the causes of currently prevailing land tenure insecurity in rural China. Two farm household surveys conducted in the northwest of Gansu province in 2010 and in the northeast of

  10. Land tenure insecurity and rural-urban migration in rural China

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    Ma Xian lei, Xianlei; Heerink, N.B.M.; Ierland, van E.C.; Shi Xiaoping, X.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of land tenure security perceptions on rural-urban migration decisions of rural households, using data collected in Minle County in Northwest China. We find that tenure security perceptions play a significant role in household migration decisions in villages without

  11. [Agrarian overpopulation and household structure in Saguenay (1881-1931)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, G

    1994-01-01

    "Our paper investigates the effect of land shortage in the Saguenay region [of Quebec, Canada,] upon the household structures, more precisely on the frequency of a) complex structures, b) celibacy, c) cohabitation with strangers (non-relatives). The data come from 28 parish censuses of the period 1881-1931. For each of these three indicators, findings show that the saturation of arable land did not entail significant changes." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  12. Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Tenure itself is not the central issue in the debate over faculty tenure; honest faculty evaluation, adequate faculty development, and termination when appropriate are the real issues as are fears that abandonment of the tenure principle would amount to abandonment of the principles of academic freedom and shared governance. (MSE)

  13. Mental symptoms and comorbid behaviours among Inuit in Greenland: the role of household crowding and household social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    on 3108 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit Health in Transition Survey. Dependent variables considered were: feelings of depression and of anxiety; binge drinking; harmful drinking; and use of marijuana. Household crowding was measured by the number of people in the house, and the social...... with higher risk of reporting feeling anxious (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.00-1.09) or depressed (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.09), but with lower risks of heavy drinking (OR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.82-0.98), use of marijuana (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.77-0.94), and marginally (p... marijuana (OR: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.98-1.81), but not of harmful drinking, were significantly higher in households composed only of adults. Although similar patterns of associations are observed, household crowding and the social structure of the household appear to influence women’s mental symptoms and comorbid...

  14. Land tenure insecurity, vulnerability to climate-induced disaster and opportunities for redress in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigere Chagutah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to climate-related disaster. Land tenure insecurity is widespread in southern Africa and manifests itself in a number of ways that accentuate vulnerability to climate change impacts. Insecure tenure is seen to heighten vulnerability against growing demand for land for residential purposes and working space in urban areas while in the rural areas insecure tenure militates against diversified livelihoods and hinders investment in appropriate technologies and uptake of sound environmental management practices. Using the focused synthesis method, this article (1 maps the intersections between land tenure insecurity and vulnerability to climate-induced disaster in southern Africa; and (2 identifies the opportunities tenure reforms hold for vulnerability reduction in a region predicted to suffer widespread impacts from climate change. The paper contends that land tenure is a critical component of the milieu of factors – economic, social, cultural, institutional, political and even psychological – that are known to shape vulnerability and determine the environment that people live in. The study finds that land tenure reforms can help to reduce vulnerability and enhance community resilience to climate change. In this regard, the article outlines how tenure reforms can help build diverse household livelihoods, improve environmental management, particularly in the rural areas, and encourage investment in robust housing and safe neighbourhoods among the urban poor – all of which are integral to the region’s response to climate change.

  15. The effects of demographic change on disease transmission and vaccine impact in a household structured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geard, Nicholas; Glass, Kathryn; McCaw, James M; McBryde, Emma S; Korb, Kevin B; Keeling, Matt J; McVernon, Jodie

    2015-12-01

    The demographic structure of populations in both more developed and less developed countries is changing: increases in life expectancy and declining fertility have led to older populations and smaller households. The implications of these demographic changes for the spread and control of infectious diseases are not fully understood. Here we use an individual based model with realistic and dynamic age and household structure to demonstrate the marked effect that demographic change has on disease transmission at the population and household level. The decline in fertility is associated with a decrease in disease incidence and an increase in the age of first infection, even in the absence of vaccination or other control measures. Although large households become rarer as fertility decreases, we show that there is a proportionate increase in incidence of disease in these households as the accumulation of susceptible clusters increases the potential for explosive outbreaks. By modelling vaccination, we provide a direct comparison of the relative importance of demographic change and vaccination on incidence of disease. We highlight the increased risks associated with unvaccinated households in a low fertility setting if vaccine behaviour is correlated with household membership. We suggest that models that do not account for future demographic change, and especially its effect on household structure, may potentially overestimate the impact of vaccination. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Coping with change: Household structure and composition in rural South Africa, 1992 – 20031

    Science.gov (United States)

    MADHAVAN, SANGEETHA; SCHATZ, ENID J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To describe household change over a 10-year period of tremendous social, political, economic and health transformation in South Africa using data from the Agincourt health and demographic surveillance system in the rural northeast of South Africa. Methods Examination of household structure and composition at three points: 1992, 1997, and 2003. These three years loosely represent conditions immediately before the elections (1992), short term post-elections (1997), and longer term (2003), and span a period of notable increase in HIV prevalence. Results Average household size decreased and the proportion headed by females increased. The within-household dependency ratios for children and elders both decreased, as did the proportion of households containing foster children. The proportion with at least one maternal orphan doubled, but was still relatively small at 5.5%. Conclusions This analysis is a starting point for future investigations aimed at explaining how HIV/AIDS and other sociocultural changes post-apartheid have impacted on household organization. The analysis shows both consistency and change in measures of household structure and composition between 1992 and 2003. The changes do not include an increase in various types of “fragile families”, such as child-headed or skipped-generation households that might be expected due to HIV/AIDS. PMID:17676508

  17. Tenured Librarians in Large University Libraries.

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    Smith, Karen F.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Based on a 1979 survey of 530 tenured librarians in 33 large academic libraries, this article examines characteristics of tenured librarians (sex, age, marital status, salary, degrees, rank, job titles), criteria and review procedures used in granting tenure, productivity before and after tenure, and mobility. Seven references are included. (EJS)

  18. Household structure, maternal characteristics and childhood mortality in rural sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; Chisumpa, Vesper H; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The household dynamics of childhood mortality in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa is less researched despite the fact that mortality rates are almost two times that of urban settings. This study aimed to investigate the influence of household structure on childhood mortality while controlling for household and maternal characteristics in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Eight countries with recent demographic and health survey data not earlier than the year 2010 were selected, two from each sub-region of sub-Saharan Africa. The outcome variables were risk of infant and child death while the main independent variables included sex of household head and household structure. Descriptive statistics were generated for all variables. Mortality rates disaggregated by sex of household head and household structure were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship between the outcome and explanatory variables in each country. The percentage of children living in female-headed households (FHHs) ranged from 5.2% in Burkina Faso to 49.1% in Namibia while those living in extended family households ranged from 27.4% in Rwanda to 59.9% in Namibia. Multivariate hazard regression showed that, in the majority of the countries, there was no significant relationship between living in FHHs and childhood mortality, but the direction and magnitude of effect varied across countries. A significant negative effect of FHHs on infant mortality was observed in Burkina Faso (HR=1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-2.48) and Zambia (HR=1.49, 95%CI: 1.02-2.17). Likewise, children in extended family households had a higher risk of child mortality in Burkina Faso (HR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.04-1.69) and Zambia (HR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.02-2.49). There was not much difference in the effect of FHHs between infancy (0-11 months) and childhood (12-59 months) in the other countries. The pooled adjusted hazard ratio (HR) showed that the risk

  19. Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    , information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal...... paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable...... concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams....

  20. Classification of European Union countries according to a household debt level and structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article were shown the results of cross-sectional and dynamic analysis of diversification of the level and structure of household debt and the problems with its repayment in the EU countries over the period 2005-2009. In the article the multidimen-sional methods of data analysis (cluster analysis – k-means method which enabled to classify the households in the EU according to the characteristics that were used describe its debt. Moreover, in order to determine the quantitative relationships between the level of household debt, and between the frequency of occurring the problem with debt repayment, the tools of correlation and regression analysis were used. In the article were shown the results of cross-sectional and dynamic analysis of diversification of the level and structure of household debt and the problems with its repayment in the EU countries over the period 2005-2009. In the article the multidimen-sional methods of data analysis (cluster analysis – k-means method which enabled to classify the households in the EU according to the characteristics that were used describe its debt. Moreover, in order to determine the quantitative relationships between the level of household debt, and between the frequency of occurring the problem with debt repayment, the tools of correlation and regression analysis were used.

  1. Bisphenol A and its structural analogues in household waste paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivnenko, K; Pedersen, G A; Eriksson, E; Astrup, T F

    2015-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large volumes. Its main use is associated with polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and thermal paper. In contrast to other applications, thermal paper contains BPA in its un-reacted form as an additive, which is subjected to migration. Receiving a significant amount of attention from the scientific community and beyond, due to its controversial endocrine-disrupting effects, the industry is attempting to substitute BPA in variety of applications. Alternative phenolic compounds have been proposed for use in thermal paper; however, information to what extent BPA alternatives have been used in paper is sparse. The aim of the present work was to quantify BPA and its alternatives (bisphenol S (BPS), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), 4-cumylphenol (HPP) and bisphenol F (BPF)) in waste paper and board from Danish households, thermal paper receipts, non-carbon copy paper and conventional printer paper. BPA was found in all waste paper samples analysed, while BPS was identified in 73% of them. Only BPB was not identified in any of the samples. BPA and BPS were found in the majority of the receipts, which contained no measurable concentrations of the remaining alternatives. Although receipts showed the highest concentrations of BPA and BPS, office paper, flyers and corrugated boxes, together with receipts, represented the major flux of the two compounds in waste paper streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Household structure vs. composition: Understanding gendered effects on educational progress in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Myroniuk, Tyler W; Kuhn, Randall; Collinson, Mark A

    2017-01-01

    Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most extant research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. First, we offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household; and second, we demonstrate the value of this approach through an analysis of educational progress for boys and girls in rural South Africa. We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6-18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. The results suggest that non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Despite the wealth of literature on household structure and children's educational outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa, the conceptual basis of these effects has not been well articulated. We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations impact education.

  3. Returns to Tenure or Seniority?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian; Portela, Miguel; Teulings, Coen

      This study documents two empirical regularities, using data for Denmark and Portugal. First, workers who are hired last, are the first to leave the firm (Last In, First Out; LIFO). Second, workers' wages rise with seniority (= a Worker's tenure relative to the tenure of her colleagues). We seek...... at the moment of separation). The LIFO rule provides a stronger bargaining position for senior workers, leading to a return to seniority in wages. Efficiency in hiring requires the workers' .bargaining power to be in line with their share in the cost of specific investment. Then, the LIFO rule is a way...

  4. Tenured and Non-Tenured School Principals in Greece: A Historical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsigianni, Eleni A.; Ifanti, Amalia A.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with the question of tenure/non-tenure of the Greek school principals and its possible impact on their role in the light of the international influences. In developing our theoretical perspective, we draw on the tenure/non-tenure discourse and the centralised bureaucratic and new public management model. After examining the…

  5. Tenure and America's Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaria, Frank

    2012-01-01

    America's colleges and universities have been moving slowly but steadily away from tenure over the past decade. The American Federation of Teachers reports that community colleges have seen a 22% increase in the number of instructional staff between 1997 and 2007. During that time, the percentage of community college faculty that were full-time…

  6. Household structure vs. composition: Understanding gendered effects on educational progress in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demographers have long been interested in the relationship between living arrangements and gendered outcomes for children in sub-Saharan Africa. Most research conflates household structure with composition and has revealed little about the pathways that link these components to gendered outcomes. Objective: We offer a conceptual approach that differentiates structure from composition with a focus on gendered processes that operate in the household in rural South Africa. Methods: We use data from the 2002 round of the Agincourt Health and Socio-Demographic Surveillance System. Our analytical sample includes 22,997 children aged 6‒18 who were neither parents themselves nor lived with a partner or partner's family. We employ ordinary least squares regression models to examine the effects of structure and composition on educational progress of girls and boys. Results: Non-nuclear structures are associated with similar negative effects for both boys and girls compared to children growing up in nuclear households. However, the presence of other kin in the absence of one or both parents results in gendered effects favouring boys. Conclusions: The absence of any gendered effects when using a household structure typology suggests that secular changes to attitudes about gender equity trump any specific gendered processes stemming from particular configurations. On the other hand, gendered effects that appear when one or both parents are absent show that traditional gender norms and/or resource constraints continue to favour boys. Contribution: We have shown the value of unpacking household structure to better understand how gender norms and gendered resource allocations are linked to an important outcome for children in sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vino, Thiripura; Singh, Gurmeet R; Davison, Belinda; Campbell, Patricia T; Lydeamore, Michael J; Robinson, Andrew; McVernon, Jodie; Tong, Steven Y C; Geard, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  8. Indigenous Australian household structure: a simple data collection tool and implications for close contact transmission of communicable diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiripura Vino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Households are an important location for the transmission of communicable diseases. Social contact between household members is typically more frequent, of greater intensity, and is more likely to involve people of different age groups than contact occurring in the general community. Understanding household structure in different populations is therefore fundamental to explaining patterns of disease transmission in these populations. Indigenous populations in Australia tend to live in larger households than non-Indigenous populations, but limited data are available on the structure of these households, and how they differ between remote and urban communities. We have developed a novel approach to the collection of household structure data, suitable for use in a variety of contexts, which provides a detailed view of age, gender, and room occupancy patterns in remote and urban Australian Indigenous households. Here we report analysis of data collected using this tool, which quantifies the extent of crowding in Indigenous households, particularly in remote areas. We use these data to generate matrices of age-specific contact rates, as used by mathematical models of infectious disease transmission. To demonstrate the impact of household structure, we use a mathematical model to simulate an influenza-like illness in different populations. Our simulations suggest that outbreaks in remote populations are likely to spread more rapidly and to a greater extent than outbreaks in non-Indigenous populations.

  9. Impact of the HIV epidemic on population and household structure: the dynamics and evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuveline, Patrick

    2004-06-01

    HIV is contracted most frequently at birth and during early adulthood. The epidemic may thus impact the demographic structure and the household structure of affected populations. This paper reviews earlier evidence of such an impact, uses demographic theory to anticipate its changes over time, and reviews the most recent evidence for indications of these changes. Modest increases in the male : female ratio are beginning to show within certain age groups only (approximately 15% among 25-34 year olds). Similarly sized increases in the proportion of 15-29 year olds relative to 30-54 year olds are observed in some age pyramids. These 'youth bulges' are expected to fade out, whereas an aging effect phases in with the fertility impact of the epidemic. In the longer run, the size of all age groups will be reduced, but relatively less so for middle-aged adults. Proportions of orphans and widows have increased in the most affected countries. Fewer remarriage probabilities for widows were observed. Resulting increases in the proportion of female-headed households should only be temporary, as female mortality is catching up with male mortality. The number of double orphans is beginning to increase, but overall, orphans continue to live predominantly with a family member, most often the grandparents if not with the surviving parent. To date, the epidemic's impact on the population and household structure has been limited by demographic (aging) and social (adaptive movements of kin across households) processes that contribute to diffuse the epidemic throughout the entire population and all households.

  10. An Overview of Innovative Tools for Land Tenure Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengoiboini, M; Richter, C.; Zevenbergen, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    Fit-for-purpose inspired approaches to land tenure recordation are being developed and implemented mainly in the form of pilot projects in various countries and application contexts. These approaches combine mobile digital technologies and flexible database structures with community based approaches

  11. Historical Changes of Land Tenure and Land Use Rights in a Local Community: A Case Study in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saykham Boutthavong

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Land-titling programs, land and forest allocation programs, and projects on state-allocated land for development and investment in Laos have been key drivers of change in land tenure. These have triggered major shifts in land use rights, from customary, to temporary, and then to permanent land use rights. This article explores how government programs to grant land use rights to individual households have affected the way people have been able to acquire and secure land tenure. For our case study, we selected the village of Napo, the target of many land tenure changes in the past four decades. We collected data from district offices, group discussions with village organizations, and interviews with selected households. The study shows how land use rights shifted over time and reveals that households obtained most of their agricultural land and forestland through a claim process. Original households were mainly land claimers, while migrants were land buyers. The process of formalization and allocation of tenure triggered inequality among households. Attention is needed in future land governance and tenure reforms in order to safeguard the land use rights of local people in an equitable manner.

  12. How long a tenure is long enough: CEOs tenure and its impact on firm’s performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Ahamed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a typical corporate setting, a CEO is analogous to the captain of a ship with ultimate authority vested in him by the board of directors, which in turn is elected by the owners (shareholders of the firm (Fama, E. F., & Jensen, M. C. 1983. During the period he heads the firm, it is expected from him to take wise decisions which benefits the firm in long/short term and the stakeholders of the firm become well off. However, the length of the tenure varies to a great degree from firm to firm. This paper attempts to find out the impacts of these different tenures on the performance of the firm per se. In addition to that it tries to unearth any possible discernible pattern in the CEO tenure over the time. It also looks if the remuneration generally increases with the number of years spent in a firm or is it attached to performance and tenure is meaningless for remuneration. Do CEOs with long tenure try to tweak with the firm’s capex (expenditure policy, existing dividend policy etc. are few of the questions attempted to be addressed in here. A change in the previously mentioned characteristics of the firm, would lead to a radical transformation in the fundamental structure of the same. Hence, the article asks if CEOs turn the firm into a completely different entity from what they took over, when given long tenure. The study utilizes data from the Compustat/Execucomp database from a period ranging back to 1990 till date. However, it also analyses data before 1990, as it was found that CEOs held their positions for considerably longer tenure before the introduction of SOX in 2002. That analysis gives a first-hand experience of the changes experienced by the firms in the event of CEO change. The findings indicate, that the CEOs take some time to settle themselves in and subsequently increase their bargaining power with the board. Subsequent to which CEOs, who enjoy longer tenure tweaks with the firm’s existing policies and practices.

  13. Tenure security, social relations and contract choice: Endogenous matching in the Chinese land rental market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianlei; Zhou, Yuepeng; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    In China, land rental transactions have increased considerably since the 1990s, but there exists a high degree of segmentation and informal features. The rental transactions between partners with close social relations and the use of informal contracts remain a common phenomenon in many regions, which strongly reduce the potential of the land rental market to enhance productivity and equity. The current literature postulates that the insecurity of land property rights may restrict land transactions between members of same social relations. Studies conducted in China show that the land rentals between partners with closer social relations prefer informal contracts because these contracts are self-enforced based on trust and reputation. However, little literature has jointly examined the effect of land tenure security and social relations on joint decisions of partner and contract choice in the Chinese land rental market. Based on household data collected in Jiangxi and Liaoning provinces in 2015, this paper aims to examine the relationship between land tenure security perceptions, social relation and land rental contract choices in China. We differentiate between formal and informal contracts of land rental activities because they have different enforcement mechanisms and thus different risk-sharing strategy. With regards to social relations, we differ among relatives, villagers living in the same village and strangers according to social distance. In order to reduce estimation bias without accounting for endogenous matching between landlords and tenants, we investigate the joint partner and contract choices in the land rental market using a nested logit framework. The paper contributes to the literature on the effect of tenure security and social relations on land rental contracts by (i) taking into account endogenous matching between landlords and tenants, and estimating the joint decisions of partner and contract choice, and (ii) examining the effect of perceived

  14. Features Of Household Lexics, Their Characteristics And Structural Analysis In The Modern English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygun Yusifova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyze the most inherent features and characteristics of household lexis in English. Special emphasis has been placed on their names of the objects used in everyday life, kitchen utensils, animal and birds. Lexical units concerning ceremonies, habits and traditions are also among the scope of the paper. Moreover, the study deals with the structural features of the units under consideration. It is believed that the thematic-semantic characterization of every-day lexis can have both pedagogical and linguistic implications, especially when dealing with comparative structures.

  15. Tenured Teachers & Technology Integration in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jerad

    2013-01-01

    This article explores teachers' technology integration in the classroom through 2 means: 1) what researchers are saying about emerging trends and best practices as well as, 2) the author's research assignment regarding the technology integration experiences of longer tenured teachers. More tenured teachers are different than their younger…

  16. Motives for choice of housing tenure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    other aspects than investment considerations influence preferences for tenure. Preferences for homeownership are to a very large degree connected to detached houses with garden and the freedom to dispose over and adapt these houses is the most important motive. Preferences for tenure vary much with life...

  17. Teacher Tenure "Ain't" the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth; Ellena, William J.

    The concept of "tenure," with all its clumsy and confusing burden of historic and current misinterpretation, will probably soon disappear. However, what tenure laws intended, and have failed to do, will almost surely be preserved in other forms of administrative procedure. To be effective, administrative procedures must be (1) clear and detailed,…

  18. Land Tenure Insecurity and Inequality in Nicaragua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broegaard, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    This article uses empirical data from a case study in rural Nicaragua to demonstrate the need for a conceptualization of tenure security as seen from the perspective of the landholder. A large group of farmers in the case study area perceive their tenure situation as being insecure despite the fact...

  19. Japan's Teachers Earn Tenure on Day One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ruth; Asanuma, Shigeru; Mori, Hisayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Teachers in Japan earn tenure on their first day of employment--not after two years of experience based on evaluations of teaching performance or student test scores. This is almost too good to be true. If tenure is so easy to attain, how do the Japanese make sure their teachers, especially novice teachers hired with little teaching experience,…

  20. Otero County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  1. Valencia County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  2. Bernalillo County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  3. Sandoval County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  4. Dona Ana County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  5. Harding County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  6. Torrance County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  7. Colfax County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  8. Quay County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  9. Los Alamos County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  10. Curry County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  11. Cibola County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  12. Rio Arriba County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  13. Lincoln County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  14. San Juan County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  15. Eddy County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  16. San Miguel County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  17. Santa Fe County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  18. Grant County Blocks, Average Household Size by Tenure (2010)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The once-a-decade decennial census was conducted in April 2010 by the U.S. Census Bureau. This count of every resident in the United States was mandated by Article...

  19. Considering land tenure in REDD+ participatory measurement, reporting, and verification: A case study from Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Elizabeth Felker

    Full Text Available Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV systems are thought to be essential for effective carbon accounting and joint REDD+ carbon, conservation, and social development goals. Community participation in MRV (PMRV has been shown to be both cost effective and accurate, as well as a method to potentially advance stakeholder empowerment and perceptions of legitimacy. Recognizing land tenure as a long-standing point of tension in REDD+ planning, we argue that its engagement also has a key role to play in developing a legitimate PMRV. Using household surveys, key informant interviews, and participatory mapping exercises, we present three 'lived' land tenure contexts in Indonesia to highlight their socially and ecologically situated natures and to consider the role of tenure pluralism in shaping PMRV. We then raise and interrogate three questions for incorporating lived land tenure contexts into a legitimate PMRV system: 1 Who holds the right to conduct PMRV activities?; 2 How are the impacts of PMRV differentially distributed within local communities?; and 3 What is the relationship between tenure security and motivation to participate in PMRV? We conclude with implementation lessons for REDD+ practitioners, including the benefits of collaborative practices, and point to critical areas for further research.

  20. Analysis of reflectivity & predictability of electricity network tariff structures for household consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Gibescu, M.; Cobben, J. F.G.

    2017-01-01

    Distribution network operators charge household consumers with a network tariff, so they can recover their network investment and operational costs. With the transition; towards a sustainable energy system, the household load is changing, through the introduction of photovoltaics and electric

  1. Personality as a Fourth Criterion for Tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1985-01-01

    A hypothetical case of denial of tenure by a public institution to a faculty member with persistent personality conflicts with colleagues is the context for a discussion of related legal issues and the results of previous court litigation. (MSE)

  2. Land Tenure as a Factor Underlying Agricultural Landscape Changes in Europe: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krčílková Š.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land tenure is generally considered to be an important factor affecting farming, landscape, and rural development. This paper reviews selected case studies to identify how land tenure influences agricultural landscape changes in Europe. We identified how land tenure information was transformed into variables, grouping these variables into general thematic categories: (1 land rights variables based on references to the type of stakeholders and duration of land occupancy, (2 land structure variables describing general land structure, and (3 behavioural variables dependent on stakeholders’ attitudes, perceptions, and personal values. Each thematic category can be defined on three spatial levels: parcel or production block, stakeholder, and landscape. The results show that the tenure factor is not frequently included into landscape-change studies. When a land tenure factor was part of a given study, it either played a minor role among other drivers of landscape change or, if it influenced significant landscape changes, it had only locally specific effects. Moreover, there were studies with contradictory results and so it is difficult to generalize specific findings. Nevertheless, land tenure is frequently discussed within landscape-change research in relation to land abandonment as well as green services and their connection with the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy.

  3. Tenure as a Fact of Academic Life: A Methodology for Managing the Performance of Tenured Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Alfred G., Jr.; Graham, Richard D.; Hall, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    Academic freedom is the right, especially of a university professor, to free speech without fear of reprisal. Experts posit three means to academic freedom: tenure, due process and professional competence. A critical issue in current post-secondary education governance and administration that relates to each of these means is post-tenure review.…

  4. The effects of social embeddedness on job performance of tenured and non-tenured profesionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emmerik, Hetty; Sanders, Karin

    2004-01-01

    This study examines how different employment relationships in academic settings, ie tenured versus non-tenured appointments, are associated with different types of job performance efforts. The social embeddedness model contends that employees' efforts to perform well depend on embeddedness in the

  5. The joint choice of tenure, dwelling type and size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Eduard; Kaplan, Sigal

    Real-estate market trends regarding housing preferences for tenure, dwelling type and size carry long term implications for cities’ spatial development and compactness. Much attention have been given to the impact of household demographics and socio-economic characteristics on joint housing choices...... not ignore the ordered nature of apartment size. To the best of our knowledge, first application of the MNL-OR model in the context of housing preferences. The model is applied to a data sample of 833 knowledge-workers in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan region in Israel. The effect of lifestyle on housing...... preferences is particularly interesting in the case of knowledge-workers due to their high income and car ownership which allow high residential mobility, and due to the importance they attribute to lifestyle. The data were collected by means of a revealed-preference web-based survey that elicited information...

  6. FACULTY DIVERSITY AND TENURE IN HIGHER EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Raheem, Jalelah

    2016-01-01

    There is a need for minority faculty in higher education due to the increase in minority high school graduates and higher education enrollees. Faculty members who are tenured have the ability to advocate for cultural equality in their institutions and serve as mentors for students. Minority faculty whose tenured process is hindered by inequality may also be unable to become a proper mentor for minority students. The purpose of this paper is to identify why faculty diversity will lead to increased student success and comfort, minority mentors, minority research, and equity advocacy, and representation from all minority groups.

  7. Securing Land Tenure, Improving Food Security and Reducing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Securing Land Tenure, Improving Food Security and Reducing Poverty in Rural ... land tenure regimes as obstacles to food security, economic integration and ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  8. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  9. Does Auditor Tenure Reduce Audit Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Junaidi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Reduced auditor independence and the rise of corporate accounting manipulations have caused trust of the users in audited financial statements to begin to decline, so users of financial statements are questioning whether public accountants are independent parties. This research issue is related to the Decree of the Minister of Finance No. 17 in 2008 about public accountant services. Giving attestation services, in the form of financial statements about an entity, are conducted by the audit firm for no longer than 6 consecutive fiscal years and by a public accountant for 3 consecutive fiscal years at the longest. The purpose of this research is to examine empirically the influence of auditor tenure on audit quality. Auditor tenure is measured as the length of the auditor-client relationship. Audit quality is measured by the propensity of auditors to issue a going-concern opinion. This study uses a sample of firms listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the 2003-2008 period. Research analysis uses logit model to measure the effect of auditor tenure on the auditors’ propensity to publish a going-concern opinion. The hypothesis which states that the length of auditor tenure influences negatively the propensity of auditors to issue a going-concern opinion is statistically supported. This research is expected to provide empirical evidence about the importance of limiting of the auditor-client relationship.

  10. Land Tenure Induced Deforestation and Environmental Degradation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Land Tenure Induced Deforestation and Environmental Degradation in Ethiopia: The Case of Arbagugu State Forest Development and Protection Project (A ... The objective of this paper is to explore the cause and impact of this overarching problem by focusing on Arbagugu State Forest Development and Protection Project, ...

  11. Tenure Security Reformand Electronic Registration: Exploring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the potential significance of updating registration practices in resolving some of the issues about tenure security in a transformative context. It deals with the importance of good governance in the context of land administration and considers its impact on intended reforms. Land registration practice as an ...

  12. Professional Tenure: Is It Really a Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C. Barry

    1980-01-01

    Dilemmas arising from a corporate lawyer's conflict between professional and organizational obligations are discussed, and the possible usefulness of attorney tenure is examined. It is concluded that strong and constructive management of the corporate legal function is preferable. Available from University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583; $3.75.…

  13. Household adjustment to flood risk: a survey of coastal residents in Texas and Florida, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Samuel D; Lee, Yoonjeong; Highfield, Wesley E

    2017-07-01

    Individual households have increasingly borne responsibility for reducing the adverse impacts of flooding on their property. Little observational research has been conducted, however, at the household level to examine the major factors contributing to the selection of a particular household adjustment. This study addresses the issue by evaluating statistically the factors influencing the adoption of various household flood hazard adjustments. The results indicate that respondents with higher-value homes or longer housing tenure are more likely to adopt structural and expensive techniques. In addition, the information source and the Community Rating System (CRS) score for the jurisdiction where the household is located have a significant bearing on household adjustment. In contrast, proximity to risk zones and risk perception yield somewhat mixed results or behave counter to assumptions in the literature. The study findings provide insights that will be of value to governments and decision-makers interested in encouraging homeowners to take protective action given increasing flood risk. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  14. Differences in self-rated health by employment contract and household structure among Japanese employees: a nationwide cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachi, Yuko; Inoue, Mariko; Nishikitani, Mariko; Yano, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the association between employment contract and self-rated health differs by household structure in a representative sample of employees in Japan. The participants were 81,441 male and 64,471 female employees aged 18-59 years who had participated in the 2010 Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions. We assessed the interactive effect of employment contract (permanent or precarious) and household structure (couple only, couple with children, single parent, single person, or other multi-person) on fair/poor health, adjusting for covariates by using logistic regression. We then calculated the relative poverty rate by employment contract and household structure. The interaction effect was significant for women (p<0.001) but not for men (p=0.413). A higher percentage of female precarious workers who lived in single-parent households (20.2%) reported fair/poor health compared with those in other types of households (10.4-13.2%), although the prevalence of fair/poor health did not differ substantially by household structure among female permanent workers. The relative poverty rates of female precarious workers who lived in single-parent households were higher compared with those of other female workers. Our results suggest that female precarious workers are not a homogeneous group and that those living in single-parent households suffer from poor health due to low income and insufficient coverage by insurance firms and family-based safety nets.

  15. Organic saffron position in the future household consumption basket and effective structures (Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Shahpouri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the importance of planning at the production level, it is necessary to identify the consumer's future behavior towards organic products. Thus, using seemingly unrelated regression and data of 2012 for 200 households in mashhad, in the present study we have tried to determine the future share of these products in the household's basket and also survey the effective factors on this share in organic saffron. The results showed that households in mashhad tend to allocate an average of 34 percent of their future consumption basket for organic saffron. The regression results illustrated that while children below 10 years old in the households, willingness to pay the price differential compared with non-organic products and organic labeling positively affected the willingness to pay for organic products, environmental concerns variables created by non-organic products had a negative effect on their willingness. Considering the research results, helping to raise people's awareness about food through different educational and advertising approaches, providing a mechanism to label organic products and assessing the strengths and weaknesses of producing and distributing the organic products are provided as suggestions.

  16. Move alone or together: The roles of household structure and characteristics in migration in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pardede, Elda

    2016-01-01

    The role of family in migration decision-making is presumed to be more pronounced in developing countries. By perceiving migration of one or more household members as a result of family strategy, some under-explored issues on migration in Indonesia are assessed in this study, namely: to what extent

  17. Three-Generation Family Households: Differences by Family Structure at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkauskas, Natasha V.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…

  18. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  19. Staying Power: The Relationship of Public School Superintendent Tenure to Leadership Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliff, Doyne Scott

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the types of leadership frames ("human resource," "structural," "political," and "symbolic") (Bolman & Deal, 1997) most often used by public school superintendents in Texas, the relationship of leadership frames to the length of superintendent tenure in a single school district, and…

  20. Spatial and temporal changes in household structure locations using high-resolution satellite imagery for population assessment: an analysis in southern Zambia, 2006-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Shields

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Satellite imagery is increasingly available at high spatial resolution and can be used for various purposes in public health research and programme implementation. Comparing a census generated from two satellite images of the same region in rural southern Zambia obtained four and a half years apart identified patterns of household locations and change over time. The length of time that a satellite image-based census is accurate determines its utility. Households were enumerated manually from satellite images obtained in 2006 and 2011 of the same area. Spatial statistics were used to describe clustering, cluster detection, and spatial variation in the location of households. A total of 3821 household locations were enumerated in 2006 and 4256 in 2011, a net change of 435 houses (11.4% increase. Comparison of the images indicated that 971 (25.4% structures were added and 536 (14.0% removed. Further analysis suggested similar household clustering in the two images and no substantial difference in concentration of households across the study area. Cluster detection analysis identified a small area where significantly more household structures were removed than expected; however, the amount of change was of limited practical significance. These findings suggest that random sampling of households for study participation would not induce geographic bias if based on a 4.5-year-old image in this region. Application of spatial statistical methods provides insights into the population distribution changes between two time periods and can be helpful in assessing the accuracy of satellite imagery.

  1. Analysis of Urban Households' Preference for Informal Access to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-02

    Oct 2, 2016 ... Keywords: Urban Households, Informal Access, Residential Land, Insecure Tenure Factors. Introduction. Informal ..... its complex system. In Minna, this central control has led to certain ill-practices by land officials who accords some form of preferential treatment to some applicants. This act on one hand is ...

  2. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  3. Being In-Between: Reflecting on Time, Space and Career during the Tenure Application Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    Part of the process of becoming a tenured faculty member is applying for tenure. This reflective essay reports on the period after the submission of tenure materials for review but before the review process for tenure is completed. This is an "in-between" space, where the race of the tenure track is no longer present, but the role of…

  4. Job Tenure in Britain : Employee Characteristics Versus Workplace Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Mumford, Karen; Smith, Peter N.

    2004-01-01

    We consider differences in current job tenure of individuals using linked employee and workplace data. This enables us to distinguish between variation in tenure associated with the characteristics of individual employees and those of the workplace in which they work. The various individual characteristics are, as a group, found to be essentially uncorrelated with the workplace effect, however, this is not true for women and non-white employees. We find that the lower tenure associated with m...

  5. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  6. How Do Households Respond to Unreliable Water Supplies? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batsirai Majuru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the Millennium Development Goal (MDG target for drinking water was met, in many developing countries water supplies are unreliable. This paper reviews how households in developing countries cope with unreliable water supplies, including coping costs, the distribution of coping costs across socio-economic groups, and effectiveness of coping strategies in meeting household water needs. Structured searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature in electronic databases and search engines, and 28 studies were selected for review, out of 1643 potentially relevant references. Studies were included if they reported on strategies to cope with unreliable household water supplies and were based on empirical research in developing countries. Common coping strategies include drilling wells, storing water, and collecting water from alternative sources. The choice of coping strategies is influenced by income, level of education, land tenure and extent of unreliability. The findings of this review highlight that low-income households bear a disproportionate coping burden, as they often engage in coping strategies such as collecting water from alternative sources, which is labour and time-intensive, and yields smaller quantities of water. Such alternative sources may be of lower water quality, and pose health risks. In the absence of dramatic improvements in the reliability of water supplies, a point of critical avenue of enquiry should be what coping strategies are effective and can be readily adopted by low income households.

  7. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  8. The Scale, Structure and Influencing Factors of Total Carbon Emissions from Households in 30 Provinces of China—Based on the Extended STIRPAT Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Household carbon emissions are important components of total carbon emissions. The consumer side of energy-saving emissions reduction is an essential factor in reducing carbon emissions. In this paper, the carbon emissions coefficient method and Consumer Lifestyle Approach (CLA were used to calculate the total carbon emissions of households in 30 provinces of China from 2006 to 2015, and based on the extended Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT model, the factors influencing the total carbon emissions of households were analyzed. The results indicated that, first, over the past ten years, the energy and products carbon emissions from China’s households have demonstrated a rapid growth trend and that regional distributions present obvious differences. Second, China’s energy carbon emissions due to household consumption primarily derived from the residents’ consumption of electricity and coal; China’s products household carbon emissions primarily derived from residents’ consumption of the high carbon emission categories: residences, food, transportation and communications. Third, in terms of influencing factors, the number of households in China plays a significant role in the total carbon emissions of China’s households. The ratio of children 0–14 years old and gender ratio (female = 100 are two factors that reflect the demographic structure, have significant effects on the total carbon emissions of China’s households, and are all positive. Gross Domestic Product (GDP per capita plays a role in boosting the total carbon emissions of China’s households. The effect of the carbon emission intensity on total household carbon emissions is positive. The industrial structure (the proportion of secondary industries’ added value to the regional GDP has curbed the growth of total carbon emissions from China’s household consumption. The results of this study provide data to support the

  9. Motives for Tenure Choice during the Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2011-01-01

    that many aspects other than investment considerations influence preferences for tenure. Preferences for homeownership are to a very large degree connected to detached houses with garden and the freedom to dispose over and adapt these houses is the most important motive. Preferences for tenure vary greatly...

  10. Land Tenure, Gender, and Globalization : Research and Analysis ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Tenure, Gender, and Globalization : Research and Analysis from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Couverture du livre Land Tenure, Gender, and Globalization : Research and Analysis from Africa. Directeur(s) : Dzodzi Tsikata et Pamela Golah. Maison(s) d'édition : Zubaan, CRDI. 29 août 2009. ISBN : 9788189884727.

  11. How Do Preservice Teachers View Tenure and Accountability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Carol C.; Dentino, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Little research has examined preservice teachers' views on tenure and accountability. This study used a 35-item survey to investigate 89 preservice teachers' attitudes toward both. Most valued tenure and recognized the importance of ensuring teacher quality. Fewer than one third saw mentoring or collaboration as ways to improve their…

  12. Land tenure security and land investments in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma Xian lei, Xianlei; Heerink, N.; Ierland, van E.C.; Berg, van den M.; Shi, X.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of perceived land tenure security in China on farmers' decisions to invest in relatively long-term land quality improvement measures, taking into account the potential endogeneity of tenure security. Design/methodology/approach – Data from

  13. Tenure and Promotion Experiences of Academic Librarians of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasco, Ione T.; Hodges, Dracine

    2012-01-01

    This study broadly examines factors impacting work-life experiences of library faculty of color within the framework of tenure policies and processes. An online survey was sent out to academic librarians of color to gauge perceptions of tenure and promotion policies and processes, professional activities and productivity, organizational climate…

  14. Households and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following facts. First, with dramatic changes in the household and family structure in every major industrialized country during the last couple of decades, today's households are very far from traditional breadwinner husband and housekeeper wife paradigm. Second, average households face significant uninsurable idiosyncratic risk and countries differ significantly on their social insurance expenditure. Third, since mid 1980s, household income inequality has been rising, generatin...

  15. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  16. Tenure, tourism and timber in Quintana Roo, Mexico: Land tenure changes in forest Ejidos after agrarian reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Barsimantov

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present and apply an analytical framework for understanding land tenure change in the wake of radical land policy modifications in Mexico’s communal tenure system. We posit that the changes in land tenure vary as a result of a complex interplay of drivers external and internal to the land tenure unit. Using interview and socio-economic data, we apply this framework to six ejidos in Quintana Roo, Mexico in order to understand the extent to which these ejidos have shifted towards private individual property as promoted in the 1992 amendment of Article 27 of the Mexican Constitution. In our case study ejidos, we conclude that external factors, including community forestry, tourism, and urbanization, have synergized with factors internal to the ejido, such as ethnicity, livelihood strategies, migration, and attitudes, leading to different trajectories in land tenure arrangements.

  17. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  19. Tenure Issues in REDD+ Pilot Project Sites in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Dokken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ has been proposed as a viable option for addressing climate change in the near term, and at relatively low cost. There is a broad consensus that clearly defined tenure rights are important for the implementation and success of REDD+, both to manage forests effectively and to protect local communities’ livelihoods. We use primary data from 23 villages in six REDD+ pilot sites in Tanzania to identify causes of deforestation and forest degradation, and tenure rights issues, at the village level prior to project implementation. Further, interviews with project proponents and examination of project documents yields insights into how the proponents plan to address tenure issues. Most villages perceive their tenure as secure and have exclusion rights, while collective action challenges are prevalent in villages experiencing deforestation and forest degradation. These findings suggest that the main tenure issues are related to internal institutional arrangements. While we find that tenure is high on the agenda for all the project proponents, they are mainly focusing on formalization and securing tenure rights from state to community level. Though we do find this to be a precondition for reducing deforestation and degradation, some of their focus should be shifted to strengthening village institutions and enhancing internal compliance.

  20. Book Review: Untitled: Securing Land Tenure in Urban and Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Untitled: Securing Land Tenure in Urban and Rural South Africa. Book Authors: Hornby D, Kingwill R, Royston L & Cousins B (Eds.) (2017 University of KwaZulu-Natal Press) ISBN: 1869143507 ...

  1. Audit firm tenure and qualified opinions: New evidence from Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep García Blandón

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2010 Green Paper on Audit Policy by the European Commission has explicitly questioned the sufficiency of audit rotation rules established by European Union Members to guarantee auditor independence. In addition, the Paper clearly states that more research is needed regarding the effects of long audit tenures on independence. In this article, we have replicated the research by Ruiz-Barbadillo, Gómez-Aguilar, and Biedma (2005 about the effects of audit firm tenure on independence with more updated data. However, unlike them, we have performed panel data estimations instead of pooled regression. Our approach allows for a better control of individual unobserved heterogeneity, thus reducing potential problems caused by omitted variable bias. While Ruiz-Barbadillo et al. reported an unexpected positive effect of tenure on the likelihood of audit qualifications, we do not show any significant effect of tenure on the opinion of the audit report. Our results are robust to various sensitivity analyses.

  2. Land tenure and the adoption of agricultural technology in Haiti:

    OpenAIRE

    Smucker, Glenn R.; White, T. Anderson; Bannister, Michael

    2000-01-01

    There has long been an active debate in Haiti - as in many other developing countries - over whether or not the customary tenure system constrains technology adoption and agricultural development, and whether cadaster and land titling should be national priorities. This paper contributes to this debate by reviewing and interpreting the body of literature and new empirical evidence concerning the relationship between land tenure and the adoption of technology in rural Haiti. The findings sugge...

  3. Assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, David; Naudet, Florian; Cristea, Ioana A; Miedema, Frank; Ioannidis, John P A; Goodman, Steven N

    2018-03-01

    Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in January 2017. Twenty-two academic leaders, funders, and scientists participated in the meeting. As background for the meeting, we completed a selective literature review of 22 key documents critiquing the current incentive system. From each document, we extracted how the authors perceived the problems of assessing science and scientists, the unintended consequences of maintaining the status quo for assessing scientists, and details of their proposed solutions. The resulting table was used as a seed for participant discussion. This resulted in six principles for assessing scientists and associated research and policy implications. We hope the content of this paper will serve as a basis for establishing best practices and redesigning the current approaches to assessing scientists by the many players involved in that process.

  4. Assessing scientists for hiring, promotion, and tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudet, Florian; Cristea, Ioana A.; Miedema, Frank; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Goodman, Steven N.

    2018-01-01

    Assessment of researchers is necessary for decisions of hiring, promotion, and tenure. A burgeoning number of scientific leaders believe the current system of faculty incentives and rewards is misaligned with the needs of society and disconnected from the evidence about the causes of the reproducibility crisis and suboptimal quality of the scientific publication record. To address this issue, particularly for the clinical and life sciences, we convened a 22-member expert panel workshop in Washington, DC, in January 2017. Twenty-two academic leaders, funders, and scientists participated in the meeting. As background for the meeting, we completed a selective literature review of 22 key documents critiquing the current incentive system. From each document, we extracted how the authors perceived the problems of assessing science and scientists, the unintended consequences of maintaining the status quo for assessing scientists, and details of their proposed solutions. The resulting table was used as a seed for participant discussion. This resulted in six principles for assessing scientists and associated research and policy implications. We hope the content of this paper will serve as a basis for establishing best practices and redesigning the current approaches to assessing scientists by the many players involved in that process. PMID:29596415

  5. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  6. Reexamining Tenure at Hampshire College for the AAHE Section on "Reexamination of Tenure: Implications of Collective Bargaining and Contracts for Service."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Der Lippe, Robert

    This paper, prepared for a panel discussion of tenure policies, describes newly established Hampshire College's adoption of a contract system, as opposed to a life-tenure system. Following the description is a consideration of possible alternatives within the contract system and of variations to tenure adopted by other campuses. At Hampshire,…

  7. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  8. THE METHODOLOGY USED TO INTERPRET CUSTOMARY LAND TENURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Pienaar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Customary land tenure is normally not based on codified or statutory sources, but stems from customary traditions and norms. When westernised courts have to interpret and adjudicate these customary traditions and norms, the normal rules of statutory interpretation cannot be followed. The court has to rely on evidence of the traditional values of land use to determine the rules connected to land tenure.Previously courts in many mixed jurisdictions relied on common or civil law legal principles to determine the nature of customary land tenure and lay down the principles to adjudicate customary land disputes among traditional communities, or between traditional and westernised communities in the same jurisdiction. Many examples of such westernised approach can be found in case law of Canada and South Africa. The interpretation of the nature of customary land tenure according to common law or civil law principles has been increasingly rejected by higher courts in South Africa and Canada, e.g. in Alexkor Ltd v The Richtersveld Community 2004 5 SA 469 (CC and Delgamuukw v British Columbia 1997 3 SCR 1010. This paper explores the methodology the courts should follow to determine what the distinctive nature of customary land tenure is. As customary land tenure is not codified or based on legislation, the court has to rely, in addition to the evidence of indigenous peoples, on the expert evidence of anthropologists and sociologists in determining the nature of aboriginal title (in Canada and indigenous land tenure (in South Africa. The court must approach the rules of evidence and interpret the evidence with a consciousness of the special nature of aboriginal claims and the evidentiary difficulties in proving a right which originates in times where there were no written records of the practices, customs and traditions engaged in. The court must not undervalue the evidence presented simply because that evidence does not conform precisely with the

  9. Estimates for Future Tenure, Satisfaction and Biographical Variables as Predictors of Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, L. K.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Findings of this study indicate that an employee's estimate of his/her future tenure with a company is a more reliable indication of actual tenure than job-satisfaction or biographical factors. (Author/RW)

  10. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  11. Returns to Tenure, Firm-Specific Human Capital and Worker Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2003-01-01

    Workers with longer job tenure are paid more, on average, than those with shorter tenure. This paper re-opens the debate about whether individual financial returns to tenure are due to firm-specific human capital accumulation or sorting according to unobserved individual productivity heterogeneity...

  12. Global Campaign to Eradicate Insecurity of Tenure by 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaren, Robin; Enemark, Stig

    2017-01-01

    The global eradication of infectious diseases through highly coordinated campaigns has been successful. Although insecurity of tenure is not a disease, its impact is devastating in terms of trapping people in poverty, displacing communities and making them homeless, and reducing food security and...

  13. Earnings Management through Goodwill Impairment: CEO and CFO tenure impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.V. Visnevskaá (Olga)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary This paper examines the relationship between the extent of goodwill impairment and the properties of CEOs and CFOs of a selection of FTSE Eurotop 100 Index companies. Prior research indicated that it is likely that CEOs tend to take earnings baths early in their tenure,

  14. Predictors of job tenure in a lumber-plywood mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Wolf

    1973-01-01

    Multiple discriminant analysis was used to identify biographic and employment history variables associated with job tenure in a lumber-plywood mill. Several variables-friends and relatives, type of housing, commuting distance, and prior work experience in the wood industry-were found to be significant.

  15. Equality and Illusion: Gender and Tenure in Art History Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Elizabeth; Morrison, Emory; Sadrozinski, Renate; Nerad, Maresi; Cerny, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Using a national survey of 508 art history Ph.D.s including data on graduate school performance and careers 10-15 years post-Ph.D., this study investigates gender, family, and academic tenure in art history, the humanities field with the highest proportion of women. Alternative hypotheses derived from three perspectives--termed here "clockwork,"…

  16. Should God Get Tenure? Essays on Religion and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, David W., Ed.

    Essays on the role of religion in higher education include: "Should God Get Tenure?" (David W. Gill); "On Being a Professor: The Case of Socrates" (Bruce R. Reichenbach); "Academic Excellence: Cliche or Humanizing Vision?" (Merold Westphal); "Religion, Science, and the Humanities in the Liberal Arts Curriculum" (H. Newton Maloney); "Tolstoy and…

  17. Effects of land tenure, geology and topography on vegetation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A national degradation audit conducted in South Africa in the late 1990s found communal land tenure to be the strongest predictor of vegetation and soil degradation, while abiotic factors such as geology, slope and aspect were also correlated with degradation scores, but of secondary importance. This study compared the ...

  18. The Methodology Used to Interpret Customary Land Tenure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many examples of such westernised approach can be found in case law of Canada and South Africa. The interpretation of the nature of customary land tenure according to common law or civil law principles has been increasingly rejected by higher courts in South Africa and Canada, e.g. in Alexkor Ltd v The Richtersveld ...

  19. Effects of land tenure, geology and topography on vegetation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared the relative importance of land tenure, geology, slope angle and solar radiation index (calculated from aspect and slope angle) in influencing plant composition, basal cover, soil erosion and shrub encroachment in adjacent communal and commercial farming areas in two grassland types in South ...

  20. State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, K.; African Studies Centre, Leiden

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this analytical bibliography is to provide an overview of the recently published social science literature on State formation, religion, and land tenure in Cameroon. The 800 entries have been arranged under the following subject headings: The Cameroon State (nation building, political

  1. The effects of tenure and promotion on surgeon productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Adam; Heslin, Martin J; Tzeng, Ching-Wei D; Chen, Herbert

    2018-07-01

    Studies investigating the impact of promotion and tenure on surgeon productivity are lacking. The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship of promotion and tenure to surgeon productivity. We reviewed data for the Department of Surgery at our institution. Relative value units (RVUs) billed per year, publications per year, and grant funding per year were used to assess productivity from 2010 to 2016. We analyzed tenure-track (TT) and non-tenure-track (NT) surgeons and compared the productivity within these groups by rank: assistant professor (ASST), associate professor (ASSOC), and full professor (FULL). Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to assess significance and relationships between the groups. A TT faculty was promoted if they produced more research, with the highest publication rates in TT FULL. TT faculty publishing rates increased from ASST to ASSOC (1 versus 2, P = 0.006) and from ASSOC to FULL (2 versus 4, P production (RVUs) was highest between TT ASSOC and NT FULL. TT faculty increased productivity between ASST and ASSOC (7023 versus 8384, P = 0.001) and decreased between ASSOC and FULL (8384 versus 6877, P production and grant funding, whereas NT FULL has the highest clinical production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Formal and informal land tenure systems in Afar region, Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    commercial agriculture, land investments and development projects. Using data obtained ... tenure systems in Afar region, 2) to analyse the dynamics in land use and land administration from ..... According to the information obtained from the .... and land administration that take into account differences in economic, socio-.

  3. Local politics of floodplain tenure in the Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, F.

    2016-01-01

    Research on community-based management system has been often grounded on monolithic institutional, social and ecological perspective with focus on the commoners as the only local actor, collective territorial rights as the only local tenure system, and the managed resource unit or ecosystem as the

  4. Household Welfare, Investment in Soil and Water Conservation and Tenure Security: Evidence from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabubo-Mariara, J.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.; Atieno, R.; Mwabu, G.

    2006-01-01

    In Kenya, conservation and sustainable utilization of the environment and natural resources form an integral part of national planning and poverty reduction efforts. However, weak environmental management practices are a major impediment to agricultural productivity growth. This study was motivated

  5. Urban Middle School Instructional Special Education: Tenured versus Non-Tenured Teachers and the Impact on Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sheryl Marie

    2010-01-01

    The Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) is used in the Cahokia Unit School District No. 187 to give insight on student academic skill level in terms of years and months. Teacher strategies and expertise in the area of education are an integral part of the educational process. Tenure status, or the years of teaching experience, is plagued with the…

  6. The natural gas - alternative decision for households consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoilova, T.; Tzaleva, E.; Boshnakova, V.

    2002-01-01

    Some expectations for households future fuel and energy consumption changes have been presented. The main reasons, motivating the households gasification implementation and its influence over the sectors energy consumption have been analysed. Some improvements of household consumption structure expectation are developed with the view to environment harmful emissions decrease. An example of household natural gas consumption structure by processes is developed. (authors)

  7. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    CHILDREN'S EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ACCRA,. GHANA ... Given equal family income and other back- ground opportunities, children ... between housing environment experienced dur- ing childhood and .... pils by evaluating parent and student responses. ..... mental health and behaviour: Structural equation ...

  8. Self-Esteem, Tenure, and Narcissistic Leader's Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Peltokangas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the associations between the narcissistic leader and performance and the moderating effect of a leader’s tenure and self-esteem. The hypothesis were studied with Pearson correlations and stepwise hierarchical multiple regression analyses (n=203. The moderating effect of leader’s tenure on the relationship between narcissism and leader performance was confirmed. The narcissistic leader’s performance tends to be positively evaluated only because the leader has held the position for a very short period. Self-esteem exhibited a very strong correlation to leader performance. The results support the view that narcissism is a personality dimension, albeit one that is not necessarily pathological. The results of this study suggest it would be wise to add Rorschach Comprehensive System (RCS to the tools available in the personnel assessment situation.

  9. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  10. Long Tenure and Punishment Effect on Corrupt Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winardi Rijadh Djatu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study implements behavioural economics and fraud auditing approach. This study looks at several factors that have been cited in previous studies as determinants of bribery. The result shows that long tenure increases the probability of corruption between civilian and public servant and penalty can be a good disincentive for corrupt behaviour but it is more effective towards the recipient instead of briber.

  11. Community Tenure Rights and REDD+: A Review of the Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Yeang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tenure rights over land, forest, and carbon have become a contentious issue within REDD+ implementation across the tropics because local communities could be excluded from REDD+ benefits if land tenure or use and access rights are not clear. This study aims to understand and assess tenure arrangements under the first REDD+ demonstration project in Cambodia, the Oddar Meanchey Com- munity Forestry REDD+ Project. In particular, the study explores the following questions: (1 How are tenure rights arranged in the Oddar Meanchey REDD+ Project? (2 Does the tenure regime recognise the rights of local communities to their land and its associated resources? (3 What kind of institu- tions are put in place to support tenure rights of local communities in the project? The author conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders and complemented the analysis by participant observation and a review of policy documents and secondary literature. The major finding of this study is that the local communities in the project are still given rights to use and access forest resources, although carbon rights belong to the government. While the government retains ownership over carbon credits, it agreed that at least 50 percent of the net revenue from the sale of carbon credits will flow to participating communities. ------ Besitzrechte an Land, Wald und CO2 sind zu einer umkämpften Angelegenheit in der REDD+ Implementierung in den Tropen geworden. Diese Studie versucht die Besitzregelungen im ersten REDD+ Demons- trationsprojekt in Kambodscha, dem Oddar Meanchey Community Forestry REDD+ Project, zu verstehen und zu bewerten. Die Untersuchung analysiert dabei insbesondere folgende Fragen: (1 Wie sind Besitzrechte im Oddar Meanchey REDD+ Projekt geregelt? (2 Erkennt das Besitzsystem die Rechte von lokalen Gemeinschaften an ihrem Land und den dazugehörigen Ressourcen an? (3 Welche Institutionen werden geschaffen, um die Besitzrechte von lokalen

  12. Stability of Household and Housing Characteristics among Farmworker Families in North Carolina: Implications for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Ip, Edward H.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Household and housing stability are important for health and well-being of individuals, particularly children. This analysis examines stability in household and housing over 2 years for North Carolina farmworker families with children. Mothers with a child aged 2–4 years in farmworker families (n=248) completed interviews over two years. Household measures included number of adults and children, moves, and spouse absence. Housing measures included tenure, persons per bedroom, and kitchen facilities. Household and housing characteristics for participants retained in the study over two years (n=221) were stable in number of persons, tenure, persons per bedroom, and kitchen facilities. Households were large with one-third having 3 or more adults, and one-quarter having 4 or more children. Most families rented houses (over 15% owned), which were crowded. Participants lost to follow-up were similar to retained participants in household characteristics, but had worse housing characteristics. Comparative research on farmworker family household composition is needed. PMID:26856879

  13. The structure of energy efficiency investment in the UK households and its average monetary and environmental savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic and behavioural variables that influence the household’s adoption of energy efficiency measures such as cavity and loft insulation and upgrades to the boiler are identified, contrary to previous literature. By extending Brechling and Smith’s (1994) and Hassett and Metcalf's (1995) models, it is shown that the application of the Energy Act 2011, which contains provisions on the Green Deal, the new Energy Company Obligation (ECO) and the private rented sector, needs to follow a tailored strategy to reach the low adoption households identified by my model. Moreover, for the current adopters of the analysed measures, average monetary and environmental adoption benefits are estimated based on Parti and Parti’s (1980) demand model. These estimates are smaller than their expected values showing an important energy efficiency gap in the sector. Particularly low cost measures can bring important savings that can help to meet the ''pay as you save'' rule (i.e., the Golden rule) of the new regulation. My model also shows that a poor state of dwelling repair can reduce the adoption benefits increasing the need of subsidies that will be financed through consumer’s energy bills. However, this can increase the number of households in fuel poverty. - Highlights: ► Analysis of socioeconomic and behavioural factors that can affect the Green Deal uptake. ► The Energy Company Obligation (ECO) needs to follow a tailored strategy. ► Average adoption benefits of cavity and loft insulation and upgrades to the boiler are estimated. ► There is an important energy efficiency gap in the UK domestic sector. ► A poor state of dwelling repair could bring financial pressure to the ECO program.

  14. Household demographic determinants of Ebola epidemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ben

    2016-03-07

    A salient characteristic of Ebola, and some other infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, is intense transmission among small groups of cohabitants and relatively limited indiscriminate transmission in the wider population. Here we consider a mathematical model for an Ebola epidemic in a population structured into households of equal size. We show that household size, a fundamental demographic unit, is a critical factor that determines the vulnerability of a community to epidemics, and the effort required to control them. Our analysis is based on the household reproduction number, but we also consider the basic reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate and final epidemic size. We show that, when other epidemiological parameters are kept the same, all of these quantifications of epidemic growth and size are increased by larger households and more intense within-household transmission. We go on to model epidemic control by case detection and isolation followed by household quarantine. We show that, if household quarantine is ineffective, the critical probability with which cases must be detected to halt an epidemic increases significantly with each increment in household size and may be a very challenging target for communities composed of large households. Effective quarantine may, however, mitigate the detrimental impact of large household sizes. We conclude that communities composed of large households are fundamentally more vulnerable to epidemics of infectious diseases primarily transmitted by close contact, and any assessment of control strategies for these epidemics should take into account the demographic structure of the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Legalising land rights. Local Practices, State Responses and Tenure Security in Africa, Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Ubink, Janine M.; Hoekema, André J.; Assies, Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    Millions of people live and work on land that they do not legally own in accordance with enforceable state law. The absence of state recognition for local property rights affects people's tenure security and impedes development. Efforts to legalise extra-legal land tenure have traditionally emphasised individual titling and registration. Disappointment with such approaches have led to a search for 'a third way' in land tenure regulation that will reconcile state perspectives with local land r...

  16. Under-reported income of Russian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Murashov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed paper, an attempt is made to estimate the proportion of unstated income for Russian households based on micro data. An overview of microeconomic approaches to estimating the scale of under-reported income is provided. These approaches are weakly represented in the national literature, so their strengths and weaknesses are also analyzed. A theoretical model of household consumer behavior is described that allows the size of under-reported income to be estimated. The structure of household incomes and expenditures is studied based on an RLMS sample for 2012. The model is estimated using household subsamples based on the type of household and household income. The estimation technique utilizes regression variables and random effects. The resulting subsample estimates were applied to the general population and compared with those obtained by other researchers using alternative methods and other data. A comparison is made to estimates of under-reported income developed for British households.

  17. Returns to Tenure, Firm-Specific Human Capital and Worker Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2003-01-01

    Workers with longer job tenure are paid more, on average, than those with shorter tenure. This paper re-opens the debate about whether individual financial returns to tenure are due to firm-specific human capital accumulation or sorting according to unobserved individual productivity heterogeneity...... firms to distinguish between firm-specific human capital and worker heterogeneity. Although the proportion of tenure returns due to firm-specific human capital is smaller than that found in the US, it has increased from 10% in 1980 to 30% in 1998 in Denmark. This change coincides with decentralisation...

  18. A Review of Tenure for Black, Latino, and Native American Faculty in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Zedeena E; Rodríguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M

    2017-01-01

    Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Knowledge, the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Education Resources Information Center for articles relating to URMM faculty and tenure. Articles published in the last 20 years, in English, that discussed recruitment or retention of women, URMM faculty, and tenure in academic medicine, and were of high quality based on data were included in the study. Narrative reviews, opinion, editorials, and letters to the editor were excluded. Of the 1038 articles we reviewed, 23 met the criteria for inclusion. Tenure was associated with leadership, higher salaries, and comfort in the work environment. URMM faculty comprised the lowest percentage of tenured faculty in academic medicine, with the highest percentage pertaining to white men. More research needs to be done to determine whether tenure status can improve the number of URMM faculty in academic medicine. Tenure may provide URMM faculty the benefits that they need to progress in their careers and remain in academic medicine.

  19. Enhancing marketing recruitment strategies: administrator tenure and nursing expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunby, Norris White

    2005-01-01

    When recruiting nurses, long-term care facilities require an ability to identify salient organizational characteristics that are attractive to potential nursing services candidates vis-à-vis their competitors. The findings of this study suggest that information on administrative tenure can be utilized to attract applicants by appealing to criteria within their high-involvement job search activities. High-involvement applicants proactively seek recruitment content that provides essential job attributes that match their needs and skills and are more apt to be a higher quality candidate. Based upon the study's findings, managers are offered marketing strategy recommendations for tailoring recruiting messages that appeal to high-involvement job seekers.

  20. Recent trend in family households in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Guo, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examined trends in household size and age structure in Beijing, China, in 1995. Data were reliably obtained from the 1% sample survey of China. Findings indicate that the average size of a family household was 3.15 persons, that is, 0.050 persons fewer than the 3.20 from the 1990 Census. Children aged 0-14 years in each household averaged 0.04 fewer children during 1990-95. 80% of the decline in household size was due to decreases in the number of children. The percentage of single-family and single-person households declined. Three-person households were the only size group that increased (23.2-40.7%). The household headship (HH) rate for males increased dramatically between the ages of 20 and 30 years and stabilized after 35 years. The HH rate for women grew slowly and continuously until age 50 years and then stabilized. The gender gap in HH appeared at an early age and remained thereafter. The HH rate declined at older ages. The HH rate in Beijing, compared to the national rate, suggests relative gender equity in Beijing. As a child ages, the percentage of three-generation households declines and the percentage of two-generation households rises. As a child becomes an adult, the percentages of single-person households and single-couple households increase. Single-couple households decreased among the middle-aged. 67.4% of the elderly lived in two- or three-generation households. 31.4% of elderly lived in single-person/couple households. The percentage of elderly living with their children declined by 2 points during 1990-95.

  1. The Land Act (1998) and Land Tenure Reform in Uganda | Okuku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Land Act (1998), which aims at reforming land tenure relations in Uganda, is therefore one of the most far-reaching legislation enacted by the National Resistance Movement (NRM) government. The new tenure system aims at supporting agricultural development through the functioning of a land market, establishing ...

  2. Strategies for Professors Who Service the University to Earn Tenure and Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Tenure and promotion are great aspirations for college professors. They are indicators of success in the professions. Universities stipulate in their official documents and numerous higher education publications specify what professors must achieve in order to earn tenure and promotion; which almost always cite effectiveness in teaching, research,…

  3. Tenure and Promotion Experiences of Music Teacher Educators: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Kristen; Conway, Colleen M.; Millican, J. Si

    2018-01-01

    To examine music education faculty members' promotion and tenure experiences, we interviewed (N = 9) and surveyed (N = 124) music teacher educators (MTEs) who were pretenure or tenured within the past 3 years. Findings highlighted MTE's perceptions of evaluative criteria and standards, mentoring programs and experiences, professional identity, and…

  4. Advancing Engaged Scholarship in Promotion and Tenure: A Roadmap and Call for Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Eatman, Timothy; Petersen, Saul

    2015-01-01

    Despite the precipitous increase in nontenure-track faculty appointments, the promotion and tenure process continues to operate as a central "motivational and cultural force in the academic lives" of many faculty members. As a part of larger reward systems, the promotion and tenure process reflects institutional values, aspirations,…

  5. Organization Tenure as a Moderator of the Job Satisfaction-Job Performance Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dwight R.; Niebuhr, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    Examined organization tenure as a moderator of the job satisfaction-job performance relationship with technical employees (N=116) in a medium-sized industrial firm. Results provided support for a moderating influence of organization tenure on the relationship between job performance and overall satisfaction, satisfaction with work, and…

  6. Balancing Parenthood and Academia: Work/Family Stress as Influenced by Gender and Tenure Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Laughlin, Elizabeth M.; Bischoff, Lisa G.

    2005-01-01

    The present research investigated the influence of gender and tenure status in academicians' experiences of balancing parenthood and an academic career. Men (n = 85) and women (n = 179) employed full-time in tenure-track academic positions with at least one child younger than the age of 16 responded via the Internet to a 36-item questionnaire…

  7. Academic Bullying: A Barrier to Tenure and Promotion for African-American Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Kimberly N.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the problem of retention of African American faculty due to tenure and promotion issues. The author outlines obstacles that African American face in the workplace while seeking tenure and promotion in academia. A case example is presented that illuminates how these stressors manifest in the academic setting and recommendations…

  8. Promoting the Inclusion of Tenure Earning Black Women in Academe: Lessons for Leaders in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Reynolds, Rema; Jones, Tamara Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    This narrative work highlights one Black female faculty participant's experience of the Sisters of the Academy (SOTA) Research Boot Camp. She shares the benefits of the initiative, as well as how the program influenced her research and writing productivity as a faculty member. SOTA leadership supports Black female tenure-track and tenured faculty…

  9. The relative importance of community forests, government forests, and private forests for household-level incomes in the Middle Hills of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oli, Bishwa Nath; Treue, Thorsten; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the household-level economic importance of income from forests under different tenure arrangements, data were collected from 304 stratified randomly sampled households within 10 villages with community forest user groups in Tanahun District, Western Nepal. We observed that forest...... realisation of community forestry's poverty reduction and income equalizing potential requires modifications of rules that govern forest extraction and pricing at community forest user group level....

  10. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  11. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of

  12. Pre-Tenured Faculty Job Satisfaction: An Examination of Personal Fit, Institutional Fit and Faculty Work-Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awando, Maxwell

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore job satisfaction among pre-tenured faculty. More specifically I was interested in examining demographic and personal fit factors, fit with the norms and values of the institution among pre-tenured faculty in different institutional types. The sample for the study included all pre-tenured faculty members who…

  13. Tenure-Track Science Faculty and the 'Open Access Citation Effect'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Christopher Doty

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The observation that open access (OA articles receive more citations than subscription-based articles is known as the OA citation effect (OACE. Implicit in many OACE studies is the belief that authors are heavily invested in the number of citations their articles receive. This study seeks to determine what influence the OACE has on the decision-making process of tenure-track science faculty when they consider where to submit a manuscript for publication. METHODS Fifteen tenure-track faculty members in the Departments of Biology and Chemistry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill participated in semi-structured interviews employing a variation of the critical incident tecnique. RESULTS Seven of the fifteen faculty members said they would consider making a future article freely-available based on the OACE. Due to dramatically different expectations with respect to the size of the OACE, however, only one of them is likely to seriously consider the OACE when deciding where to submit their next manuscript for publication. DISCUSSION Journal reputation and audience, and the quality of the editorial and review process are the most important factors in deciding where to submit a manuscript for publication. Once a subset of journals has satisfied these criteria, financial and access issues compete with the OACE in making a final decision. CONCLUSION In order to increase the number of OA materials, librarians should continue to emphasize depositing pre- and post-prints in disciplinary and institutional repositories and retaining the author rights prior to publication in order to make it possible to do so.

  14. Enhancing forest tenure reforms through more responsive regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Larson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest tenure reforms have offered new opportunities for communities to obtain formal rights to forests and forest benefits, but at the same time a variety of limitations are placed on livelihood options. This article draws on several case studies of reforms in Africa, Asia and Latin America to analyse the regulations accompanying reforms. It identifies three types of regulations, namely rules that limit areas available to local communities; rules that delineate conservation areas and impose related limits on use; and bureaucratic requirements for permits and management plans, which restrict the commercial use and marketing of valuable forest products. It discusses problems with these regulations, and proposes a simple framework for identifying ways to promote regulations that work for forest conservation but are more responsive to the needs of communities and forests.

  15. Indigenous land tenure and tropical forest management in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.H. (The World Bank, Environment Department, Washington DC (United States)); Wali, A. (University of Maryland, College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Department of Anthropology, College Park, MD (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Indigenous peoples have received much attention as potential resource managers of threatened tropical forest ecosystems. Using data from Latin America, this article argues that fundamental changes need to take place in the legal recognition and demarcation of indigenous territories in order for this potential to be fulfilled. A comparison is made between different national land-tenure models for forest-dwelling indigenous peoples and a new model proposed by Latin American indigenous organizations. This comparison suggests that not only do indigenous peoples need to be provided with some degree of control over their territories and resources, but there needs to be a new type of partnership among indigenous peoples, the scientific community, national governments and international development agencies for the management of tropical forests. 37 refs, 3 tabs

  16. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...

  17. Time to Tenure in Spanish Universities: An Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Menéndez, Luis; Cruz-Castro, Laura; Alva, Kenedy

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how institutional incentives and mechanisms for assigning recognition shape access to a permanent job is important. This study, based on data from questionnaire survey responses and publications of 1,257 university science, biomedical and engineering faculty in Spain, attempts to understand the timing of getting a permanent position and the relevant factors that account for this transition, in the context of dilemmas between mobility and permanence faced by organizations. Using event history analysis, the paper looks at the time to promotion and the effects of some relevant covariates associated to academic performance, social embeddedness and mobility. We find that research productivity contributes to career acceleration, but that other variables are also significantly associated to a faster transition. Factors associated to the social elements of academic life also play a role in reducing the time from PhD graduation to tenure. However, mobility significantly increases the duration of the non-tenure stage. In contrast with previous findings, the role of sex is minor. The variations in the length of time to promotion across different scientific domains is confirmed, with faster career advancement for those in the Engineering and Technological Sciences compared with academics in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Results show clear effects of seniority, and rewards to loyalty, in addition to some measurements of performance and quality of the university granting the PhD, as key elements speeding up career advancement. Findings suggest the existence of a system based on granting early permanent jobs to those that combine social embeddedness and team integration with some good credentials regarding past and potential future performance, rather than high levels of mobility. PMID:24116199

  18. Time to tenure in Spanish universities: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Menéndez, Luis; Cruz-Castro, Laura; Alva, Kenedy

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how institutional incentives and mechanisms for assigning recognition shape access to a permanent job is important. This study, based on data from questionnaire survey responses and publications of 1,257 university science, biomedical and engineering faculty in Spain, attempts to understand the timing of getting a permanent position and the relevant factors that account for this transition, in the context of dilemmas between mobility and permanence faced by organizations. Using event history analysis, the paper looks at the time to promotion and the effects of some relevant covariates associated to academic performance, social embeddedness and mobility. We find that research productivity contributes to career acceleration, but that other variables are also significantly associated to a faster transition. Factors associated to the social elements of academic life also play a role in reducing the time from PhD graduation to tenure. However, mobility significantly increases the duration of the non-tenure stage. In contrast with previous findings, the role of sex is minor. The variations in the length of time to promotion across different scientific domains is confirmed, with faster career advancement for those in the Engineering and Technological Sciences compared with academics in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Results show clear effects of seniority, and rewards to loyalty, in addition to some measurements of performance and quality of the university granting the PhD, as key elements speeding up career advancement. Findings suggest the existence of a system based on granting early permanent jobs to those that combine social embeddedness and team integration with some good credentials regarding past and potential future performance, rather than high levels of mobility.

  19. Time to tenure in Spanish universities: an event history analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sanz-Menéndez

    Full Text Available Understanding how institutional incentives and mechanisms for assigning recognition shape access to a permanent job is important. This study, based on data from questionnaire survey responses and publications of 1,257 university science, biomedical and engineering faculty in Spain, attempts to understand the timing of getting a permanent position and the relevant factors that account for this transition, in the context of dilemmas between mobility and permanence faced by organizations. Using event history analysis, the paper looks at the time to promotion and the effects of some relevant covariates associated to academic performance, social embeddedness and mobility. We find that research productivity contributes to career acceleration, but that other variables are also significantly associated to a faster transition. Factors associated to the social elements of academic life also play a role in reducing the time from PhD graduation to tenure. However, mobility significantly increases the duration of the non-tenure stage. In contrast with previous findings, the role of sex is minor. The variations in the length of time to promotion across different scientific domains is confirmed, with faster career advancement for those in the Engineering and Technological Sciences compared with academics in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Results show clear effects of seniority, and rewards to loyalty, in addition to some measurements of performance and quality of the university granting the PhD, as key elements speeding up career advancement. Findings suggest the existence of a system based on granting early permanent jobs to those that combine social embeddedness and team integration with some good credentials regarding past and potential future performance, rather than high levels of mobility.

  20. The Association of Level of Internet Use with Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in South Korean Adolescents: A Focus on Family Structure and Household Economic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Yoon; Park, Eun-Cheol; Han, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Seung Ju; Chun, Sung-Youn; Park, Sohee

    2016-04-01

    To examine the association between the level of Internet addiction and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in South Korean adolescents, focusing on the roles of family structure and household economic status. Data from 221 265 middle and high school students taken from the 2008-2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey were used in this study. To identify factors associated with suicidal ideation/attempts, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. The level of Internet use was measured using the simplified Korean Internet Addiction Self-assessment Tool. Compared with mild users of the Internet, high-risk users and potential-risk users were more likely to report suicidal ideation (nonuser, odds ratio [OR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05 to 1.15; potential risk, OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.36 to 1.63; high risk OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.10) or attempts (nonuser, OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.42; potential risk, OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38; high risk, OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.71 to 2.14). The nonuser group also had a slightly higher risk of suicidal ideation/attempts compared with mild users. This association appeared to vary by perceived economic status and family structure. Our study suggests that it is important to attend to adolescents who are at high risk for Internet addiction, especially when they do not have parents, have stepparents, or perceive their economic status as either very low or very high. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Optimal Policies for Random and Periodic Garbage Collections with Tenuring Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xufeng; Nakamura, Syouji; Nakagawa, Toshio

    It is an important problem to determine the tenuring threshold to meet the pause time goal for a generational garbage collector. From such viewpoint, this paper proposes two stochastic models based on the working schemes of a generational garbage collector: One is random collection which occurs at a nonhomogeneous Poisson process and the other is periodic collection which occurs at periodic times. Since the cost suffered for minor collection increases, as the amount of surviving objects accumulates, tenuring minor collection should be made at some tenuring threshold. Using the techniques of cumulative processes and reliability theory, expected cost rates with tenuring threshold are obtained, and optimal policies which minimize them are discussed analytically and computed numerically.

  2. effect of tenure security on livelihood activities of women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KANETH

    1989-05-03

    May 3, 1989 ... Keywords: tenure security, livelihood activities and rural women. INTRODUCTION .... sale to buy farming inputs or other things they cannot produce. Also about 20% of the .... Internet Insiders, USA: McGraw Hill. Quan Julian ...

  3. Case Study: A Peek behind the Curtain of Tenure and Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie; Schiller, Nancy A.; Herreid, Ky F.; Wright, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes a survey that looks at the system for tenure and promotion.

  4. Recognising land rights for conservation? tenure reforms in the Northern Sierra Madre, The Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan van der Ploeg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The legalisation of the customary land rights of rural communities is currently actively promoted as a strategy for conserving biodiversity. There is, however, little empirical information on the conservation outcomes of these tenure reforms. In this paper, we describe four conservation projects that specifically aimed to formalise land rights in the Philippines, a country widely seen as a model for the devolution of control over natural resources to rural communities. We demonstrate that these legalistic interventions are based on flawed assumptions, on: 1 the capacity of the state to enforce tenure; 2 the characteristics of customary land rights; and 3 the causal links between legal entitlements and sustainable natural resource management. As a result, these state-led tenure reforms actually aggravate tenure insecurity on the ground, and ultimately fail to improve natural resource management.

  5. N EX MIN TION OF TENURE SECURITY FOR URB N CROP F ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-03-30

    Mar 30, 2015 ... The study examined issues surrounding tenure security of land for urban crop farming and ... Data collected were .... and hybrid laws. ... providing vital food and income to a large ... (SAP) era, many of the companies and.

  6. Socio-ecological costs of Amazon nut and timber production at community household forests in the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Marlene; Mohren, Frits; Ascarrunz, Nataly; Dressler, Wolfram; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2017-01-01

    The Bolivian Amazon holds a complex configuration of people and forested landscapes in which communities hold secure tenure rights over a rich ecosystem offering a range of livelihood income opportunities. A large share of this income is derived from Amazon nut (Bertholletia excelsa). Many communities also have long-standing experience with community timber management plans. However, livelihood needs and desires for better living conditions may continue to place these resources under considerable stress as income needs and opportunities intensify and diversify. We aim to identify the socioeconomic and biophysical factors determining the income from forests, husbandry, off-farm and two keystone forest products (i.e., Amazon nut and timber) in the Bolivian Amazon region. We used structural equation modelling tools to account for the complex inter-relationships between socioeconomic and biophysical factors in predicting each source of income. The potential exists to increase incomes from existing livelihood activities in ways that reduce dependency upon forest resources. For example, changes in off-farm income sources can act to increase or decrease forest incomes. Market accessibility, social, financial, and natural and physical assets determined the amount of income community households could derive from Amazon nut and timber. Factors related to community households' local ecological knowledge, such as the number of non-timber forest products harvested and the number of management practices applied to enhance Amazon nut production, defined the amount of income these households could derive from Amazon nut and timber, respectively. The (inter) relationships found among socioeconomic and biophysical factors over income shed light on ways to improve forest-dependent livelihoods in the Bolivian Amazon. We believe that our analysis could be applicable to other contexts throughout the tropics as well.

  7. Investment inefficiency and the adoption of eco-innovations: The case of household energy efficiency technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Rainey, Ivan; Ashton, John K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors determining household adoption of energy efficiency eco-innovations. We do so by testing hypotheses grounded in diffusion and finance theory and the literature on the barriers to energy efficiency. Using two large surveys of UK households, we explore the adoption of nine technologies. Our results indicate ‘investment inefficiency’ amongst household adopters occurs for two reasons. First, contrary to notions of rational choice, we find a negative relationship between the investment return of technologies and their level of diffusion. Second, we show adopters of these technologies display characteristics broadly consistent with diffusion theory, contradicting the prediction of finance theory that investment return, not individual characteristics, should drive adoption. We also find that policy has played a role in inducing the diffusion of these technologies and that tenure and spill-over effects are important in adoption. Finally, adoption is motivated more by a desire to save money than by environmental concern. We conclude by giving examples of how our research can lead to better policy timing and targeting. -- Highlights: •We explore the factors driving household adoption of energy efficiency technologies. •We employ two high quality nationally representative cross sectional surveys. •There is a negative relationship between investment return and level of diffusion. •Adopters display characteristics broadly consistent with diffusion theory. •Policy interventions, tenure effects and spill-over effects also influence adoption

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROJECT OF LAND TENURE IN THE STAVROPOL TERRITORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vyacheslavovna Pismennaya

    2016-12-01

    development of agribusiness. The main tasks of the agricultural production of enterprises should be as follows: the correction of specialization and location of livestock production in view of the natural resource base of the landscape; the increase in the share of green fodders from pastures and hayfields; the use of farming technologies adaptive to the climatic conditions that enhance the productivity of agricultural lands and efficiency of the spent material and technical resources; the conservation of degraded agricultural lands followed by grassing, etc. [4–6]. Such an approach will, on the one hand, prevent the manifestation of the adverse natural processes, and, on the other, ensure the environmental sustainability of the territory and the dynamic development of agribusiness, the economic competitiveness of the Russian market and the possibility of import substitution [7]. The aim of the “pilot” draft is to create land tenure with optimal structure and balance. Therefore, agro-ecological evaluation of «Dubovskiy» potential is done to take proper measures to optimize territorial organization of land tenure. The formation of land tenure model will trigger similar actions in 26 districts of Stavropol territory.

  9. Pengaruh Struktur Corporate Governance, Audit Tenure Dan Ukuran Kantor Akuntan Publik (Kap) Terhadap Integritas Laporan Keuangan

    OpenAIRE

    Qoyyimah, Sofia Dinil; Kholmi, Masiyah; Harventy, Gina

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of this research to know influence of corporate governance, audit tenure, and KAP size tointegrity of financial statement. The method of analysis used is logistic regression analysis. Theresearch sample consisted of 14 state-owned companies listed in BEI 2011-2014.the results ofthe study show that the integrity of financial statements can not be controlled with corporategovernance, audit tenure and KAP size.

  10. Significant Value Found in Mentoring Programs for Novice Tenure-Track Academic Librarians

    OpenAIRE

    Saori Wendy Herman, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-01-01

    A Review of: Goodsett, M., & Walsh, A. (2015). Building a strong foundation: Mentoring programs for novice tenure-track librarians in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 76(7), 914-933. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.914 Objective – To examine the effectiveness of mentoring programs for novice tenure-track academic librarians, and to identify critical elements that define a successful mentoring program in various academic library settings. Design – Survey questionn...

  11. Ministers of Health: short-term tenure for long-term goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Marcos Bosi; Azevedo, Rafael Teixeira

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare investments should consider short and long-term demands. The objectives here were to compare the average tenures of ministers of health in Brazil and in another 22 countries and to evaluate the relationship between ministers' tenures and a number of indicators. Descriptive study conducted at Centro Paulista de Economia da Saúde (CPES). Twenty-two countries with the highest Human Development Indices (HDIs) and Brazil were included. The number of ministers over the past 20 years was investigated through each country's Ministry of Health website. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compare the number of ministers in each country with that country's indicators. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare ministers' tenures in Brazil and other countries. The mean tenure (standard deviation, SD) of Brazilian ministers of health was 15 (12) months, a period that is statistically significantly shorter than the mean tenure of 33 (18) months in the other 22 countries (P < 0.05). There was a moderate and statistically significant positive correlation between the number of ministers and mortality rates for several conditions. The number of ministers also presented moderate and statistically significant negative correlations with per capita total healthcare expenditure (r = -0.567) and with per capita government healthcare expenditure (r = -0.530). On average, ministers of health have extremely short tenures. There is an urgent need to think and plan healthcare systems from a long-term perspective.

  12. Employee age and tenure within organizations: relationship to workplace satisfaction and workplace climate perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teclaw, Robert; Osatuke, Katerine; Fishman, Jonathan; Moore, Scott C; Dyrenforth, Sue

    2014-01-01

    This study estimated the relative influence of age/generation and tenure on job satisfaction and workplace climate perceptions. Data from the 2004, 2008, and 2012 Veterans Health Administration All Employee Survey (sample sizes >100 000) were examined in general linear models, with demographic characteristics simultaneously included as independent variables. Ten dependent variables represented a broad range of employee attitudes. Age/generation and tenure effects were compared through partial η(2) (95% confidence interval), P value of F statistic, and overall model R(2). Demographic variables taken together were only weakly related to employee attitudes, accounting for less than 10% of the variance. Consistently across survey years, for all dependent variables, age and age-squared had very weak to no effects, whereas tenure and tenure-squared had meaningfully greater partial η(2) values. Except for 1 independent variable in 1 year, none of the partial η(2) confidence intervals for age and age-squared overlapped those of tenure and tenure-squared. Much has been made in the popular and professional press of the importance of generational differences in workplace attitudes. Empirical studies have been contradictory and therefore inconclusive. The findings reported here suggest that age/generational differences might not influence employee perceptions to the extent that human resource and management practitioners have been led to believe.

  13. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  14. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  15. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  16. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  17. The Importance of Attaining Security of Land Tenure to Poverty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The possession of land right also typically ensures a baseline of shelter and food supply and allows people to turn latent assets into live capital through entrepreneurial activity. Once secure in their land rights, rural households invest to increase productivity. Moreover, the use of land as a primary investment vehicle allows ...

  18. Determinants of a City Manager’s Tenure in Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie G. Mani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Appointed officials in municipalities influence policy decisions and the distribution of services that affect everyday life. So stability or turnover of appointed officials is likely to affect efficiency and effectiveness of critical services like police protection, fire fighting and prevention, land use regulation, and public utilities. Seeking to explain the relationship between four groups of variables and appointed officials’ long or short terms in office, quantitative data collected from a random sample of appointed municipal officials in North Carolina were analyzed using hierarchical logistic regression. Tenure in office divided at median years in office was the dichotomous dependent variable. Four groups of independent variables related to the person, the job, the city, and election systems were entered hierarchically in four logistic regression models. Qualitative data collected from the same appointed officials further explain the results of the quantitative analysis. Results show that competence in formulating and implementing budgets and city government experience lead to longer terms in office, higher education leads to shorter terms in office, and political variables have no significant effect on appointed officials’ job security in North Carolina. This is useful information for city managers setting long-term career goals, citizens judging local governments’ service delivery, and elected officials making decisions about appointments and terminations.

  19. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  20. Thorny Tenure Case at Case Western Leads to Sex-Bias Charges: A Scientist with a Strong Publication Record Was Twice Denied Tenure, and Her Data Were Seized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Describes the case of a woman biology teacher who was denied tenure at Case Western Reserve University. Critics see her as a researcher who couldn't get along with students and who is blaming her problems on others. Supporters of the gender discrimination suit she is expected to file say that the Biology Department has a pattern of discrimination…

  1. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  2. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  3. A comparative study of behavioural, physical and mental health status between term-limited and tenure-tracking employees in a population of Japanese male researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, M; Yano, E

    2006-04-01

    Traditional lifelong employment systems have been changing rapidly in Japan. The aim of this study was to assess the health impacts of term-limited employment systems that have recently been introduced into Japanese academic institutes. Cross-sectional. A total of 514 male researchers (275 term limited and 239 tenure track) were compared in terms of behavioural, physical and mental status at annual health examinations. At these examinations, working hours and health-related lifestyles were examined using a self-completed questionnaire. Clinical structured interviews of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) were used to detect major depression. The term-limited researchers tended to work longer hours (Pbreakfast less regularly (P0.05) between the two groups, fatigue was more prevalent (P=0.027) in the term-limited researchers than in the tenure-track researchers, adjusting for the effects of age. Compared with colleagues working in the same laboratories, the term-limited researchers worked longer hours, irrespective of fatigue, whereas only the fatigued tenure-track researchers worked longer hours. In the total sample, the fatigued researchers tended to belong to laboratories where their colleagues, on average, worked longer hours, compared with the non-fatigued researchers. These results imply that the term-limited researchers suffered more from fatigue, due to longer working hours, than their colleagues, and that organized, rather than personal, interventions with respect to the working environment may be effective in reducing overload in such workplaces.

  4. Socioeconomic Factors Influencing Customary Marine Tenure in the Indo-Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Cinner

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available For generations communities in the Western Pacific have employed a range of resource management techniques (including periodic reef closures, gear restrictions, entry limitations, and the protection of spawning aggregations to limit marine resource use. Localized control over marine resources, commonly known as customary marine tenure (CMT, is the legal and cultural foundation for many of these practices. Because of their perceived potential to meet both conservation and community goals, these traditional resource management techniques are being revitalized by communities, governments, and NGOs as an integral part of national and regional marine conservation plans in the Pacific. However, the viability of conservation strategies built on a foundation of marine tenure may be in question, as it remains unclear whether marine tenure systems will be able to withstand the profound social and economic changes sweeping the Pacific region. Numerous studies have suggested that changes in marine tenure are attributed to social and economic factors, however, specific relationships between socioeconomic conditions and marine tenure are still not well understood. This paper examines the social and economic characteristics of 21 coastal communities in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia, and explores the characteristics of the communities that employ exclusive marine tenure to answer the following questions: Which socioeconomic factors are related to the presence of CMT regimes? How might socioeconomic factors influence the ability of communities to employ or maintain CMT regimes? Distance to market, immigration, dependence on fishing, and conflicts were found to be related to the presence of highly exclusive marine tenure systems. Exploring these relationships will help conservation practitioners better understand how future social changes may influence the foundation of conservation and development projects.

  5. Questão fundiária em áreas protegidas: Uma experiência no Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca (PEPB, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil / Land tenure in protected areas: a case study in the State Park of Pedra Branca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Yu Iwama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The land tenure has been a challenge for the management of protected areas in Brazil, mainly those located in urban areas, such as the ‘Pedra Branca’ State Park (PEPB in the west of Rio de Janeiro city. To ensure an adequate management of UC, this paper presents a land tenure analysis for support the Management Plan of PEPB. Based on the secondary data and application of structured questionnaires (316 interviews, representing 29% of the total estimated housing on the land tenure in areas inside/around of PEPB boundaries, seeking for some key elements to support the management of PEPB. This survey identified six zones (Z with some types of occupation in the study area. The results showed that there are diversified occupations, such as residents with high, medium and low income, including ‘favelas’, subsistence agricultures and temporary residents. This work pointed out to a complexity related to the land tenure in protected areas and highlights the required elements: (i systematic data survey for the complete registration of properties in PEPB; (ii organization of a multi-interdisciplinary working groups to solve land tenure problems, (iii implementation of environmental education and communication programs, seeking explanation on the PEPB conservation as a factor of improving the quality of life, (iv agreements between the residents of the Park and policy makers to minimize the conflicts caused by the land tenure in PEPB.

  6. The tenure gap in electoral participation: Instrumental motivation or selection bias? Comparing homeowners and tenants across four housing regimes

    OpenAIRE

    André, S.C.H.; Dewilde, C.L.; Luijkx, R.

    2017-01-01

    Integrating housing tenure in Instrumental Motivation Theory predicts a tenure gap in electoral participation, as homeowners would be more motivated to vote compared with tenants. The empirical question is whether this effect is causal or rather due to selection into different housing tenures. This question is tackled using coarsened exact matching (CEM) on data for 19 countries, allowing us to better control for endogeneity. Even then, homeowners are found to vote more often than tenants. Th...

  7. Pre-tenured Faculty Job Satisfaction: An Examination of Personal Fit, Institutional Fit and Faculty Work-life

    OpenAIRE

    Awando, Maxwell Omondi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore job satisfaction among pre-tenured faculty. More specifically I was interested in examining demographic and personal fit factors, fit with the norms and values of the institution among pre-tenured faculty in different institutional types. The sample for the study included all pre-tenured faculty members who completed the COACHE 2009- 2010 job satisfaction survey. The COACHE survey was administered to pre-tenured faculty at 149 four-year colleges and uni...

  8. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  9. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  10. Audit tenure and financial reporting in Oman: Does rotation affect the quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Rabea Baatwah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an empirical result concerning the quality of audit under a rotation policy in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC. Currently, countries from GCC tend to require the audit firms of public companies to be rotated within four or five consecutive years. This policy received worldwide criticisms which asserted it deteriorates the quality of financial reports – instead of increasing their quality. To achieve this purpose, we use 573 observations from companies listed in the Omani capital market implementing audit firm rotation because Oman is the leading country in GCC. Using discretionary accruals and modified audit opinion to proxy financial reporting quality, we find that audit firm tenure is not significantly associated with low quality financial reports. We also found that audit partner tenure is not positively and significantly associated with high discretionary accruals while it is positively and significantly associated with modified audit opinion. We classify our audit tenure into short and long tenure and find similar findings. Additionally and contrary to previous findings in Oman, we report that audit committee characteristics such as independence, size, financial expertise and number of meetings are not associated with high quality financial reports. Thus, our study contains several contributions to audit tenure debates in general and corporate governance practices in GCC in particular

  11. EFFECT OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY AMONG CASSAVA PRODUCING HOUSEHOLDS IN IKWUANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated factors affecting commercialization of cassava producing household in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic characteristics of cassava household; determine commercialization index and analyzed factors that influence commercialization among cassava producing households. The study employed purposive sampling technique in the selection of 120 respondents from one local government area (LGA based on characteristics of interest, nearness and other related features. The selection was done from 6 communities at the rate of 20 respondents per community. Analytically, descriptive statistics, household commercialization index (HCI, and multiple regression analysis were used. The results showed that the mean age of the cassava producing household was about 40 years with a mean farming experience of 14 years. They are mostly married with an average of 5 persons per households. The result further revealed that only a few households (less than 2% have very high commercialization orientation, which exposes the level of farming in the area. With respect to determinants of factors that influence commercialization, value of output, farm size, sex, nearness to market, membership of cooperative and farming experience were significant and found to exhibit varying degree. The study therefore recommends that support policies that sustain and improve the productivity among farming household especially land tenure policy issues, greater incentives policies for farmers in the rural areas; linkages between farm households and the markets; increase access and exchange of information on markets.

  12. Information content of household-stratified epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kinyanjui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.

  13. Information content of household-stratified epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanjui, T M; Pellis, L; House, T

    2016-09-01

    Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Do social networks influence small-scale fishermen's enforcement of sea tenure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Stevens

    Full Text Available Resource systems with enforced rules and strong monitoring systems typically have more predictable resource abundance, which can confer economic and social benefits to local communities. Co-management regimes demonstrate better social and ecological outcomes, but require an active role by community members in management activities, such as monitoring and enforcement. Previous work has emphasized understanding what makes fishermen comply with rules. This research takes a different approach to understand what influences an individual to enforce rules, particularly sea tenure. We conducted interviews and used multiple regression and Akaike's Information Criteria model selection to evaluate the effect of social networks, food security, recent catch success, fisherman's age and personal gear investment on individual's enforcement of sea tenure. We found that fishermen's enforcement of sea tenure declined between the two time periods measured and that social networks, age, food security, and changes in gear investment explained enforcement behavior across three different communities on Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast, an area undergoing rapid globalization.

  15. [Temporary employment and health: a multivariate analysis of occupational injury risk by job tenure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Antonella; Giraudo, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    To study the relationship between job tenure and injury risk, controlling for individual factors and company characteristics. Analysis of incidence and injury risk by job tenure, controlling for gender, age, nationality, economic activity, firm size. Sample of 7% of Italian workers registered in the INPS (National Institute of Social Insurance) database. Private sector employees who worked as blue collars or apprentices. First-time occupational injuries, all occupational injuries, serious occupational injuries. Our findings show an increase in injury risk among those who start a new job and an inverse relationship between job tenure and injury risk. Multivariate analysis confirm these results. Recommendations for improving this situation include the adoption of organizational models that provide periods of mentoring from colleagues already in the company and the assignment to simple and not much hazardous tasks. The economic crisis may exacerbate this problem: it is important for Italy to improve the systems of monitoring relations between temporary employment and health.

  16. The Environmental Effect of Land Use in the Tenure Systems in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Grega

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the land tenure system in Ghana and its impact on the environment. The main forms of land tenure systems are explained and the positive and negative impacts of each of these forms on the environment analysed. Specific attention is devoted to deforestation and soil depletion. The complex problems of land acquisition in Ghana, and the inherent insecurity effects on farming, which is considered to be the most important economic activity in the rural areas are examined. The analyses and the result proved that the insecurity of land tenure system has a direct relationship with the environment. Cross-sectional data analyses establishes that traditional forms of land acquisitions, ownership and land use form part of the main causes of environmental degradation in Ghana.

  17. Debilitating lung disease among surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldin, Cara N; Reed, William R; Joy, Gerald J; Colinet, Jay F; Rider, James P; Petsonk, Edward L; Abraham, Jerrold L; Wolfe, Anita L; Storey, Eileen; Laney, A Scott

    2015-01-01

    To characterize exposure histories and respiratory disease among surface coal miners identified with progressive massive fibrosis from a 2010 to 2011 pneumoconiosis survey. Job history, tenure, and radiograph interpretations were verified. Previous radiographs were reviewed when available. Telephone follow-up sought additional work and medical history information. Among eight miners who worked as drill operators or blasters for most of their tenure (median, 35.5 years), two reported poor dust control practices, working in visible dust clouds as recently as 2012. Chest radiographs progressed to progressive massive fibrosis in as few as 11 years. One miner's lung biopsy demonstrated fibrosis and interstitial accumulation of macrophages containing abundant silica, aluminum silicate, and titanium dust particles. Overexposure to respirable silica resulted in progressive massive fibrosis among current surface coal miners with no underground mining tenure. Inadequate dust control during drilling/blasting is likely an important etiologic factor.

  18. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thogersen, John; Gronhoj, Alice

    2010-01-01

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: →A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. →Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. →Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. →Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. →Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  19. Electricity saving in households-A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thogersen, John, E-mail: jbt@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark); Gronhoj, Alice, E-mail: alg@asb.d [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. - Research highlights: {yields}A combination of survey and meter reading data is used to analyze energy saving in households. {yields}Up to two adults from each household answered the questionnaire. {yields}Dyadic data analysis is used to investigate interactions between household members. {yields}Both structural and motivational factors account for households' electricity consumption. {yields}Electricity saving efforts depends on internalized norms, self-efficacy and social interaction.

  20. Effect of social mobility in family financial situation and housing tenure on mental health conditions among South Australian adults: results from a population health surveillance system, 2009 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Grande, Eleonora; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Wu, Jing; Shi, Zumin; Goldney, Robert D; Taylor, Anne W

    2015-07-17

    To assess the association of socioeconomic position (SEP), measured by family financial situation and housing tenure in childhood and adulthood, with mental health conditions in adulthood. Representative cross-sectional population data were collected using a risk factor surveillance system in South Australia, Australia. Each month, a random sample were selected from the Electronic White Pages. Participants aged 25 years and above (n = 10429) were asked about doctor diagnosed anxiety, stress or depression, suicidal ideation, psychological distress, demographic and socioeconomic factors using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Social mobility measures were derived from housing status and perceived financial situation during adulthood and at 10 years of age. The prevalence of psychological distress was 8.1 %, current diagnosed mental health condition was 14.8 % and suicidal ideation was 4.3 %. Upward mobility in family financial situation and housing tenure was experienced by 28.6 % and 19.3 %, of respondents respectively. Downward mobility was experienced by 9.4 % for housing tenure and 11.3 % for family financial situation. In the multivariable analysis, after adjusting for age, sex, childhood family structure and adult education, downward social mobility and stable low SEP (both childhood and adulthood), in terms of both housing tenure and financial situation, were positively associated with all three mental health conditions. People with low SEP in adulthood had poor mental health outcomes regardless of their socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. Policies to improve SEP have the potential to reduce mental health conditions in the population.

  1. Auditor tenure and auditor change: does mandatory auditor rotation improve audit quality?

    OpenAIRE

    M. Cameran; A. Prencipe; M. Trombetta

    2009-01-01

    We test the effects of auditor tenure and auditor change on audit quality in a unique mandatory audit firm rotation environment, where the rotation rule has been effective for more than 20 years. We first study the effect of audit tenure on audit quality. Our results show that audit quality—measured in terms of earnings management—tends to improve rather than worsen over time. We also examine the effects of voluntary auditor change vs. those resulting from mandatory auditor changes. Our resul...

  2. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  3. Library School Programs and the Successful Training of Academic Librarians to Meet Promotion and Tenure Requirements in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Rickey D.; Kneip, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This article relates an investigation of tenure and promotion practices for librarians at academic institutions. The study employed two surveys. The first survey determined the level of impact on promotion and tenure by recent publication in two top-tier peer-reviewed journals: "College & Research Libraries" and "Journal of…

  4. WWC Review of the Report "Are Tenure Track Professors Better Teachers?" What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The study reviewed here examined whether taking a course with a tenure track professor versus a non-tenure track professor for first-term freshman-level courses (e.g., introductory economics) had an impact on students' future enrollment and performance in classes in the same subject. Data from 15,662 students who entered Northwestern University,…

  5. The Glass Ceiling Is Made of Concrete: The Barriers to Promotion and Tenure of Women in American Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Mary; Andel, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to survey the literature in American higher education on the tenure and promotion of women and to suggest future problems that women may encounter as the American population grays. Anecdotally, women are not tenured and promoted in the same percentages of men in similar fields. In the social and natural sciences,…

  6. Human Capital or Cultural Taxation: What Accounts for Differences in Tenure and Promotion of Racialized and Female Faculty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesingha, Rochelle; Ramos, Howard

    2017-01-01

    Achieving tenure and promotion are significant milestones in the career of a university faculty member. However, research indicates that racialized and female faculty do not achieve tenure and promotion at the same rate as their non-racialized and male counterparts. Using new survey data on faculty in eight Canadian universities, this article…

  7. Financial accounting as a method of household finance capacity valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Untanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents existing household finance capacity investigations. Comparison conducting allowed to determinate collisions and flaws of previous works. That substantiates to find a new approach in household finance capacity valuation necessity. The article contains theoretical research of household finance fundamental categories. In particular, it notes significant difference between domestic and foreign experience of household finance determination. Although emphasizing key similarities allows identifying household finance capacity composition. Moreover, the article provides a public and corporate finance sectors experience, which contains a huge knowledge of finance capacity investigations. Used research allows classify finance capacity not only as a resource valuation, but also as an economic entity’s ability to generate financial result. In terms of resource valuation, the paper suggests assessing both financial resources in classical meaning and any other property, which participating household economic activity and could be evaluated. The author’s position in terms of household finance capacity valuation is suggested. A broad definition of finance capacity causes applying conceptually different approach in this paper. Thus, comparative analysis method is suggested to substantiate household and corporate firm similarities. Used method allows forming household financial accounting, which leads to clear determination of household finance capacity composition and structure. Specificity forming household financial accounting is considered. An author’s position in regards existing contradictions with early research is suggested.

  8. Household energy consumption in the UK: A highly geographically and socio-economically disaggregated model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druckman, A.; Jackson, T.

    2008-01-01

    Devising policies for a low carbon society requires a careful understanding of energy consumption in different types of households. In this paper, we explore patterns of UK household energy use and associated carbon emissions at national level and also at high levels of socio-economic and geographical disaggregation. In particular, we examine specific neighbourhoods with contrasting levels of deprivation, and typical 'types' (segments) of UK households based on socio-economic characteristics. Results support the hypothesis that different segments have widely differing patterns of consumption. We show that household energy use and associated carbon emissions are both strongly, but not solely, related to income levels. Other factors, such as the type of dwelling, tenure, household composition and rural/urban location are also extremely important. The methodology described in this paper can be used in various ways to inform policy-making. For example, results can help in targeting energy efficiency measures; trends from time series results will form a useful basis for scenario building; and the methodology may be used to model expected outcomes of possible policy options, such as personal carbon trading or a progressive tax regime on household energy consumption

  9. UK Household Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James; Smith, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the composition of household portfolios, using both aggregate and micro-data. Among the key findings are that: Most household wealth is held in the form of housing and pensions. Over time, there has been a shift away from housing towards financial assets, driven largely by the growth in life and pension funds. Liquid financial wealth (excluding life and pension funds) is not predominantly held in risky form. By far the most commonly held asset is an ...

  10. The use of income information of census enumeration area as a proxy for the household income in a household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Fabio S; Vasconcellos, Mauricio Tl; Anjos, Luiz A

    2009-09-22

    Some of the Census Enumeration Areas' (CEA) information may help planning the sample of population studies but it can also be used for some analyses that require information that is more difficult to obtain at the individual or household level, such as income. This paper verifies if the income information of CEA can be used as a proxy for household income in a household survey. A population-based survey conducted from January to December 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Uniform semi-association models were adjusted in order to obtain information about the agreement/disagreement structure of data. The distribution of nutritional status categories of the population of Niterói according to income quintiles was performed using both CEA- and household-level income measures and then compared using Wald statistics for homogeneity. Body mass index was calculated using body mass and stature data measured in the households and then used to define nutritional status categories according to the World Health Organization. All estimates and statistics were calculated accounting for the structural information of the sample design and a significance level lower than 5% was adopted. The classification of households in the quintiles of household income was associated with the classification of these households in the quintiles of CEA income. The distribution of the nutritional status categories in all income quintiles did not differ significantly according to the source of income information (household or CEA) used in the definition of quintiles. The structure of agreement/disagreement between quintiles of the household's monthly per capita income and quintiles of the head-of-household's mean nominal monthly income of the CEA, as well as the results produced by these measures when they were associated with the nutritional status of the population, showed that the CEA's income information can be used when income

  11. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  12. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...... domestic animals and for light workshop activities....

  13. Reporting 1998 - households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Jostein

    1998-01-01

    The report summarises the results from an investigation among households in the seven counties which participates in the project ''Sustainable local communities'' - Fredrikstad, Flora, Hurum, Kristiansand, Roeros, Stavanger and Steigen. The study contained the fields of environmental involvement and motivation, transportation, energy utilisation, purchases, waste management and communication with the local project leadership

  14. Rural household income mobility in transitional China: Evidence from China Household Income Project

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Sui

    2015-01-01

    Based on China Household Income Project rural data, this paper aims to study the changes of rural household income mobility in transitional China. The results show that with the economic reform and development, income mobility between 2007 and 2009 was much stronger than before. Regarding the structure of income mobility, the 'exchange mobility' is generally the major source, followed by the 'growth mobility'. The comparison with income inequality indicated that the low degree of mobility is ...

  15. Union Security Provisions, Academic Freedom and Tenure: The Implications of Chicago Teachers Union v. Hudson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olswang, Steven G.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between faculty union mandatory membership provisions in a collective bargaining agreement and the rights of faculty protected by tenure and academic freedom are examined, and college options and considerations in negotiating contracts under collective bargaining laws are discussed. (MSE)

  16. PENGARUH AUDIT TENURE TERHADAP FRAUDULENT FINANCIAL REPORTING DENGAN PENDEKATAN AKRUAL DISKRESIONER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nelly Nur apandi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe audit tenure, fraudulent fianncial repoting, and the effect audit tenure on fraudulent fianncial reporting with discretionary accrual approach. This research used 83 samples of companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange period 2009-2010. Samples was collected by used puposive sample method. The hypothesis tested by simple linear regression analysis. The results of this study indicate that audit tenure for three consecutive years (2009-2011 there were 16 companies that have changed auditors every year, 36 companies that perform audit engagements with the same auditor for 2 years, and 31 companies that perform audit engagements with the same auditor for 3 years.While, the results of descriptive analysis showed that the fraudulent financial reporting has a minimum value is -0.7940, maximum values is 0.3670, and an average of fraudulent financial reporting at 83 companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange is -0.010622. Financial reporting fraud rate indicates a value of less than zero (-0.010622, which indicates that there are indications of fraud in the form of earnings management with minimazation income, which lowers the level of income reported earnings. The results of hypothesis showed that the audit tenure has no effect on fraudulent financial reporting.

  17. Deficits, Declines, and Dismissals: Faculty Tenure and Fiscal Exigency. Current Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Stinson W.; And Others

    Tenured faculty can be dismissed for reasons of financial exigency. If the employment contract provides a specific definition of fiscal exigency and the processes to be used in effecting retrenchment, then those terms govern in lieu of constitutional due process. In the absence of such guidance, courts are willing to allow dismissal for reasons of…

  18. How Do Young Tenured Professors Benefit from a Mentor? Effects on Management, Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weijden, Inge; Belder, Rosalie; van Arensbergen, Pleun; van den Besselaar, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Do young tenured professors who receive mentorship differ from those without mentorship in terms of motivation, scholarly performance, and group management practice? We conducted a survey among research group leaders in the biomedical and health sciences in the Netherlands, to study the effects of mentorship. Our results show that mentorship…

  19. Land use and land tenure in Mongolia: A brief history and current issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria E. Fernandez-Gimenez

    2006-01-01

    This essay argues that an awareness of the historical relationships among land use, land tenure, and the political economy of Mongolia is essential to understanding current pastoral land use patterns and policies in Mongolia. Although pastoral land use patterns have altered over time in response to the changing political economy, mobility and flexibility remain...

  20. Who Publishes in Top-Tier Library Science Journals? An Analysis by Faculty Status and Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Quinn; Smart, Elizabeth; Smith, Sara D.; Reed, Megan

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the status and background of authors publishing in high-impact library science journals. Twenty-three high-impact journals were selected in this study by both quantitative and qualitative measures, while the analysis of author background focuses on whether the author holds a faculty status position with a tenure track. This…

  1. Alleged Death Threats, a Hunger Strike, and a Department at Risk Over a Tenure Decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a tenure controversy within the Indiana University department of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures that has involved possible death threats, a hunger strike, and controversy over the department's continued existence. For now the professor, an expert on Islamic philosophy, remains at the institution, other faculty have left, and…

  2. Lessons Learned about Post-Tenure Review from the AAHE Peer Review of Teaching Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes use of a strategy adapted from the American Association for Higher Education's Peer Review of Teaching Project, the "reflective memo," to provide backward and forward view of post-tenure reviews in the chemistry department of the University of Wisconsin (Madison). The approach served as a guide in review of research, teaching,…

  3. Factors Contributing to Job Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction among Non-Tenure-Track Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltman, Jean; Bergom, Inger; Hollenshead, Carol; Miller, Jeanne; August, Louise

    2012-01-01

    While scholars have investigated the recent influx of non-tenure-track faculty (NTTF), few have talked extensively with NTTF to understand their perspectives. Using Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, we present focus group findings about job satisfaction of NTTF at 12 research universities. We highlight policies supporting teaching, job…

  4. Effect of tenure security on livelihood activities of women farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On perceived effect of non-tenure security on livelihood activities, 17% percent of the respondents stated inability to use land for collateral, 25% complained about fragmentation of land, 23% complained about their inability of planting long duration crops, 20% complained about farming system being difficult to change, while ...

  5. Forging a Research Pathway: Perspectives of Two Post-Tenure Female Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Laureen J.; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an auto-ethnographic exploration of two post-tenure female faculty member's experiences developing their programs of research. Self-reflection was used to explore the factors that have helped or hindered the development of their research program, and the continued challenges they faced as female faculty. Composite themes were…

  6. The Hidden Professoriate. Credentialism, Professionalism, and the Tenure Crisis. Contributions in Sociology, Number 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Arthur S., Ed.

    The paradoxical state of academe's attempt to crowd individuals into institutions of higher education at a time when jobs for them are evaporating has created a conflict within the academic personnel community for non-tenured faculty struggling to survive. Case studies representing actual experiences of some individuals directly involved in the…

  7. Building a Strong Foundation: Mentoring Programs for Novice Tenure-Track Librarians in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsett, Mandi; Walsh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, new librarians graduate to face a world of changing technology and new ways of interacting with information. The anxiety of this shifting environment is compounded for tenure-track librarians who must also meet scholarship and instruction requirements that may be unfamiliar to them. One way that librarians can navigate the transition…

  8. Property rights in a very poor country : tenure insecurity and investment in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Dercon, Stefan; Gautam, Madhur

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides evidence from one of the poorest countries of the world that the property rights matter for efficiency, investment, and growth. With all land state-owned, the threat of land redistribution never appears far off the agenda. Land rental and leasing have been made legal, but transfer rights remain restricted and the perception of continuing tenure insecurity remains quite ...

  9. Effects of team tenure and leadership in self-managing teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, J.I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This study seeks to identify the relationship between leader behaviour and the effectiveness of the members of a self-managing team (SMT) in terms of perceived individual performance and emotional exhaustion. In particular, it aims to examine the moderating role of individual team tenure.

  10. Evaluating Faculty for Promotion and Tenure. The Jossey Bass Higher Education Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard I.

    Practical recommendations are offered for implementing an effective faculty evaluation system, based on the idea that quality promotion and tenure decisions are impossible without one. Weaknesses of current systems are described, including casual approaches and inadequate attention to decision making. Eight characteristics of effective systems are…

  11. An Examination of Tenure Security for Urban Crop Farming in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined issues surrounding tenure security of land for urban crop farming and identified constraints that must be dealt with in order to facilitate land accessibility and productivity of urban crop farmers in the Lagos metropolis. 475 respondents of seven communities were selected through simple random sampling ...

  12. 29 CFR 1625.11 - Exemption for employees serving under a contract of unlimited tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for employees serving under a contract of unlimited tenure. 1625.11 Section 1625.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT... within the exemption can lawfully be forced to retire on account of age at age 70 (see paragraph (a)(1...

  13. The Effects of Tenure and Task Orientation on Air Force Program Manager’s Role Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-16

    Force Systems Command (AFSC) Manuals called the 虇 series’- that, in detail, pre- scribed the Air Force form of project management—program...related jobs. These jobs are con- ducive to low tenure policies because organizacional dis- ruption is minimal when individuals rotate. Other jobs

  14. Promotion beyond Tenure: Unpacking Racism and Sexism in the Experiences of Black Womyn Professors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croom, Natasha N.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined seven Black womyn full professors' experiences of promotion beyond tenure. Using a critical race feminist theoretical framework, findings suggest that a meritocratic ideology undergirds a dominant narrative about the Professor rank. However, racism and sexism mediated the participants' opportunities to access the status and…

  15. Making Meaning of Experience: Navigating the Transformation from Graduate Student to Tenure-Track Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Pamela K.; Benson, Sheila; Hayes, Monie

    2015-01-01

    This article is about three adult authors who are making meaning of their experiences as early career, tenure-track professors. All former secondary English language arts instructors who are responsible for preparing future secondary English teachers, the authors use Mezirow's transformative learning theory lens to examine their trajectories from…

  16. Straddling Cultures, Identities, and Inconsistencies: Voices of Pre-Tenure Faculty of Color in Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Melissa A.; Welton, Anjalé D.

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the notions of biculturalism, or double consciousness, and hybridity, this qualitative study explored how 12 pre-tenure faculty of color (FOC) in the field of educational leadership working at universities in the United States negotiated their self-identified cultural identities within their predominantly White departments. Results…

  17. How Tenure in Higher Education Relates to Faculty Productivity and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjounes, Cindy Kay

    2016-01-01

    Some public university systems are considering abolishing tenure as a cost-saving mechanism, but little is known about how this change may impact organizational outcomes related to faculty retention and research productivity. Using Almendarez' human capital theory, the purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study was to explore how tenure…

  18. Leadership and organizational tenure diversity as determinants of project team effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Poel, Frouke M.; Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Zee, Karen I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reveals how leadership effectiveness in project teams is dependent on the level of organizational tenure diversity. Data from 34 project teams showed that transformational leadership is related to organizational commitment, creative behavior, and job satisfaction, but only in teams

  19. Non-Tenure Track Faculty and Learning Communities: Bridging the Divide to Enhance Teaching Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, MaryJo D.; Dean, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Institutions of higher education are increasingly hiring non-tenure track faculty members (NTTF) to help meet the demands of the institutional teaching mission. Research suggests NTTF experience inadequate working conditions that hinder performance and negatively impact the quality of undergraduate education. Given the growing number of NTTF…

  20. Affective Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behavior: Linear and Non-linear Moderating Effects of Organizational Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing a meta-analytical approach for testing moderating effects, the current study investigated organizational tenure as a moderator in the relation between affective organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). We observed that, across 40 studies (N = 11,416 respondents), the effect size for the relation between…

  1. Leadership and Organizational Tenure Diversity as Determinants of Project Team Effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Poel, Frouke M.; Stoker, Janka I.; Van der Zee, Karen I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reveals how leadership effectiveness in project teams is dependent on the level of organizational tenure diversity. Data from 34 project teams showed that transformational leadership is related to organizational commitment, creative behavior, and job satisfaction, but only in teams

  2. Does land tenure security matter for investment in soil and water conservation? Evidence from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabubo-Mariara, J.; Linderhof, V.G.M.; Kruseman, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of tenure security and other factors on investment in soil and water conservation (SWC) in Kenya. Factor analysis, step-wise regression and reduced form model approaches are used to explain the willingness, likelihood and intensity of adoption of SWC investments.

  3. Beliefs about Post-Tenure Review; the Influence of Autonomy, Collegiality, Career Stage, and Institutional Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Kerry Ann

    2004-01-01

    This article draws upon the literature on academic culture and the academic profession to provide a context for beliefs about post-tenure review. Schein's (1992) theory of organizational culture and Kuh & Whitt's (1988) application of cultural theory to higher education settings divides culture into a conceptual hierarchy comprised of three…

  4. Tips for Constructing a Promotion and Tenure Dossier that Documents Engaged Scholarship Endeavors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of the community engagement movement in higher education over the past 2 decades has resulted in more faculty member interest and practice in engaged scholarship. As more institutions value this work, faculty members are looking for ways to enhance the effectiveness of their engaged scholarship dossiers for promotion and tenure. This…

  5. Academic Freedom and Tenure: Macomb County Community College (Michigan): A Report on a Disciplinary Suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAUP Bulletin, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The report of the AAUP Committee A on Academic Freedom and Tenure regarding the one-year disciplinary suspension of Professor Richard William Rosenbaum for taking four days of unauthorized leave of absence is presented. Procedural and substantive issues of the grievance procedures are reviewed. (LBH)

  6. Evolving workplace flexibility for U.S. medical school tenure-track faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunton, Sarah A; Corrice, April M

    2011-04-01

    The academic workplace has seen dramatic changes in recent decades, including growing faculty workloads, an increasingly demographically diverse faculty population, and changing expectations about workplace climate. Despite these significant changes, a typical medical faculty's career trajectory is often still quite linear and follows decades-old tenure policies. The authors describe the existence of flexible faculty policies related to tenure at U.S. medical schools to understand better the ways in which institutions are responding. Data primarily reflect responses from faculty affairs leaders at medical schools accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education to a 2008 faculty personnel policies survey. These data are supplemented with results from the same survey fielded in previous years. The number of medical schools that have lengthened their probationary periods for faculty has increased over time, and, in 2008, nearly half of the institutions offered a probationary period length of eight years or more to faculty. Over three-fourths of the schools in 2008 had a tenure-clock-stopping policy available, and a third had a policy allowing faculty to work less than full-time while remaining on a tenure-eligible track. Findings suggest that many medical schools have made progress in making policy additions and modifications that acknowledge the changing academic workplace culture by adding flexibility to traditional tenure policies. Despite those efforts, significant opportunities remain for continued adoption of flexible policies so that faculty can achieve productive academic careers while balancing work, life, and family, and institutions can continue to recruit and retain high-quality faculty members. © by the Association of American Medical Colleges.

  7. 9708 INTRAHOUSEHOLD ALLOCATION, HOUSEHOLD HEADSHIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    agricultural production, education, healthcare and other household needs [17]. ... to various assets within the household depends on age, gender and power ..... Omilola B Patterns and Trends of Child and Maternal Nutrition Inequalities in.

  8. Child work in households with a person living with HIV/AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    AIDS (PLWHA) compared to non-PLWHA households using the 2010/2011 ..... clients to participate in the study face to face structured interview. ... contact details for easy contact. .... Note that household religion can also fall under.

  9. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  10. Intensity Of Agricultural Labour Use By Gender In Rural Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the intensity of agricultural labour use by gender and its determinants in rural households of Imo State. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 60 male and 60 female headed households, and analysed using means, frequency distribution, percentages and ordinary least squares multiple regression model.

  11. Household Gender and Resource Relations: Women in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper argues that although women were the major producers of income generating crops in Uganda's dominant peasant households, they were marginalised from major decisions and control of the resources. Household and meso-level marketing structures and institutions were within patriarchal power relations, and ...

  12. Recent advances of pyrethroids for household use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujihara, Kazuya; Mori, Tatsuya; Matsuo, Noritada

    2012-01-01

    Development of pyrethroids for household use and recent advances in the syntheses of (1R)-trans-chrysanthemic acid, the acid moiety of most of the household pyrethroids, are reviewed. As another important acid moiety, we discovered norchrysanthemic acid to have a significant vapor action at room temperature when esterified with fluorobenzyl alcohols. In particular, 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-methoxymethylbenzyl (1R)-trans-norchrysanthemate (metofluthrin) exhibits the highest potency in mosquito coil formulations as well as the vapor action at room temperature against various mosquitoes. Structure-activity relationships of norchrysanthemic acid esters and synthetic studies of norchrysanthemic acid are discussed.

  13. Staple Food Self-Sufficiency of Farmers Household Level in The Great Solo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsono

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of food security level of household is a novelty of measurement standards which usually includes regional and national levels. With household approach is expected to provide the basis of sharp food policy formulation. The purpose of this study are to identify the condition of self-sufficiency in staple foods, and to find the main factors affecting the dynamics of self-sufficiency in staple foods on farm household level in Great Solo. Using primary data from 50 farmers in the sample and secondary data in Great Solo (Surakarta city, Boyolali, Sukoharjo, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Sragen and Klaten). Compiled panel data were analyzed with linear probability regression models to produce a good model. The results showed that farm households in Great Solo has a surplus of staple food (rice) with an average consumption rate of 96.8 kg/capita/year. This number is lower than the national rate of 136.7 kg/capita/year. The main factors affecting the level of food self-sufficiency in the farmer household level are: rice production, rice consumption, land tenure, and number of family members. Key recommendations from this study are; improvement scale of the land cultivation for rice farming and non-rice diversification consumption.

  14. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Brink

    Full Text Available It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR, the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul

  15. Sustainability and Long Term-Tenure: Lion Trophy Hunting in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Henry; Smith, Robert J; Skinner, Kirsten; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa. However, there are concerns that current hunting levels are unsustainable. The lion hunting industry in Tanzania is run by the private sector, although the government leases each hunting block to companies, enforces hunting regulation, and allocates them a species-specific annual quota per block. The length of these leases varies and theories surrounding property rights and tenure suggest hunting levels would be less sustainable in blocks experiencing a high turnover of short-term leases. We explored this issue using lion data collected from 1996 to 2008 in the Selous Game Reserve (SGR), the most important trophy hunting destination in Tanzania. We found that blocks in SGR with the highest lion hunting offtake were also those that experienced the steepest declines in trophy offtake. In addition, we found this high hunting offtake and the resultant offtake decline tended to be in blocks under short-term tenure. In contrast, lion hunting levels in blocks under long-term tenure matched more closely the recommended sustainable offtake of 0.92 lions per 1000 km2. However, annual financial returns were higher from blocks under short-term tenure, providing $133 per km2 of government revenue as compared to $62 per km2 from long-term tenure blocks. Our results provide evidence for the importance of property rights in conservation, and support calls for an overhaul of the system in

  16. Experience counts: The chief justice, management tenure, and strategic behavior on the U.S. Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Daniel Ura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop and test a theoretical account of the effect of management tenure on the strategic behavior of the chief justice of the United States. Substantial evidence from literatures on learning models and public management indicate that tenure (length of service is positively related to management performance in public organizations. This suggests that the chief justice’s tenure in office should be positively related to efficiency in the use of the chief justice’s formal powers. We assess this hypothesis by replicating and extending Johnson et al.’s study of chief justice Burger’s conference voting behavior. The data support our management tenure hypothesis, showing that Burger used greater discretion in reserving his conference vote over time as he became more adept at discriminating between circumstances when the tactic was strategically valuable and when it was not.

  17. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  18. Living with students: Lessons learned while pursuing tenure, administration, and raising a family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Michael; Callahan, Janet; Harrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    An emerging promising practice in many universities has been the development of faculty-in-residence programs, in which university faculty members and their family moved into university student residences, sharing common living spaces with students. This case study is centered on two faculty-in-residence living in university residence halls. One was an assistant professor pursuing tenure while raising a young child, while the second was a tenured full professor and associate dean raising two teens. This case study offers the post-experience conclusions of these two faculty-in-residence individuals, noting the benefits and challenges each experienced while living -and working closely with these students outside of the university classroom, all while striving for an optimal balance in managing professional and familial obligations.

  19. PENGARUH UKURAN KAP DAN AUDITOR TENURE TERHADAP VALUE RELEVANCE DARI NILAI WAJAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Hidayat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the value relevance of fair value and whether the value relevance of fair value measured at quoted active market is higher than value measured at valuation techniques. We also examine whether the value relevance offair value with valuation techniques improves if auditor tenure is longer or financial statements are audited by a Big Four Firm. Hypothesis testing was conducted by a panel data based on model of Ohlson (1995. Using a sample of 147 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2008-2011, resulting the general conclusion that fair value has value relevance, where the value relevance of fair value measured at quoted active market is higher than the valuation technique. Value relevance of fair value measured at valuation techniques will increase as auditor tenure increases or financial statements were audited by a Big Four Firm.

  20. Optimal fossil-fuel taxation with backstop technologies and tenure risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, Jon [World Bank, Development Economics Group, Washington DC 20433 (United States); Department of Economics, University of Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    The paper derives the global welfare-optimizing time path for a tax on fossil fuels causing a negative stock externality (climate change), under increasing marginal extraction cost, and in the presence of an unlimited backstop resource causing no externality. In a basic competitive case, the optimal tax equals the Pigou rate, equivalent to the present discounted value of marginal damage costs. We consider two separate types of tenure insecurity for resource owners, and their impact on the tax implementing the optimal policy. When insecure control is with respect to future ownership to the resource, competitive extraction is higher than otherwise, and the efficiency-implementing tax exceeds the Pigou rate. When tenure insecurity instead implies possible expropriation ('holdup') of investment in extraction capacity, it deters extraction, and the optimal tax is lower than the Pigou rate. (author)

  1. Differences in production, carbon stocks and biodiversity outcomes of land tenure regimes in the Argentine Dry Chaco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, Sofía; Grau, H. Ricardo; Gasparri, Néstor Ignacio; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Baumann, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Rising global demand for agricultural products results in agricultural expansion and intensification, with substantial environmental trade-offs. The South American Dry Chaco contains some of the fastest expanding agricultural frontiers worldwide, and includes diverse forms of land management, mainly associated with different land tenure regimes; which in turn are segregated along environmental gradients (mostly rainfall). Yet, how these regimes impact the environment and how trade-offs between production and environmental outcomes varies remains poorly understood. Here, we assessed how biodiversity, biomass stocks, and agricultural production, measured in meat-equivalents, differ among land tenure regimes in the Dry Chaco. We calculated a land-use outcome index (LUO) that combines indices comparing actual vs. potential values of ‘preservation of biodiversity’ (PI), ‘standing biomass’ (BI) and ‘meat production’ (MI). We found land-use outcomes to vary substantially among land-tenure regimes. Protected areas showed a biodiversity index of 0.75, similar to that of large and medium-sized farms (0.72 in both farming systems), and higher than in the other tenure regimes. Biomass index was similar among land tenure regimes, whereas we found the highest median meat production index on indigenous lands (MI = 0.35). Land-use outcomes, however, varied more across different environmental conditions than across land tenure regimes. Our results suggest that in the Argentine Dry Chaco, there is no single land tenure regime that better minimizes the trade-offs between production and environmental outcomes. A useful approach to manage these trade-offs would be to develop geographically explicit guidelines for land-use zoning, identifying the land tenure regimes more appropriate for each zone.

  2. It is our land. Human rights and land tenure reform in Namaqualand, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wisborg, Poul

    2006-01-01

    ‘It is our land’: Human rights and land tenure reform in Namaqualand, South Africa Secure access to resources is a universal condition of human well-being and is of considerable concern in contemporary human rights discourse, though often neglected in policy and practice. In this respect the South African constitutional guarantees and policies concerning land reform are of wide interest. The main goal of this study is to contribute to the theoretical and empirical understanding of la...

  3. Domestic and Foreign Consequences of China's Land Tenure Reform on Collective Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Zhang; Joseph Buongiorno; Shu-shuai Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Some of the long-term consequences of China’s collective forests tenure reform were projected with the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM). The reform had a positive effect on the wood supply and demand balance. By 2020 the reform led to a 14 to 36 percent decrease of China’s imports of industrial roundwood. Concurrently, the rest of the world produced less, but...

  4. Changing the academic culture: valuing patents and commercialization toward tenure and career advancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Gharib, Morteza; Harker, Patrick T; Kaler, Eric W; Marchase, Richard B; Sands, Timothy D; Arshadi, Nasser; Sarkar, Sudeep

    2014-05-06

    There is national and international recognition of the importance of innovation, technology transfer, and entrepreneurship for sustained economic revival. With the decline of industrial research laboratories in the United States, research universities are being asked to play a central role in our knowledge-centered economy by the technology transfer of their discoveries, innovations, and inventions. In response to this challenge, innovation ecologies at and around universities are starting to change. However, the change has been slow and limited. The authors believe this can be attributed partially to a lack of change in incentives for the central stakeholder, the faculty member. The authors have taken the position that universities should expand their criteria to treat patents, licensing, and commercialization activity by faculty as an important consideration for merit, tenure, and career advancement, along with publishing, teaching, and service. This position is placed in a historical context with a look at the history of tenure in the United States, patents, and licensing at universities, the current status of university tenure and career advancement processes, and models for the future.

  5. Auditor Tenure and Stock Price Volatility: TheModerating Role of Auditor Industry Specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Jorjani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The present study aims to investigate the relationship between auditor tenure and stock return volatility and to study the moderating effect of auditor’s industry specialization on this relationship in the firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE. Design/methodology/approach A sample of 95 companies listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange during the period 2011 to 2015 was selected and two hypotheses were formulated and analyzed using multivariate regression and econometric models. Findings The results of the study indicate that with the increase of auditor tenure, the volatility of stock returns is reduced. However, the results showed that the use of auditors specializing in the client's industry does not affect the relationship between the length of auditor tenure and the volatility of stock returns. Originality/value The findings of current study not only extend the extant theoretical literature concerning the stock price volatility in developing countries including emerging capital market of Iran, but also help investors, capital market and audit profession regulators to make informed decisions.

  6. Examining job tenure and lost-time claim rates in Ontario, Canada, over a 10-year period, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassaei, Sara; Breslin, F Curtis; Shen, Min; Smith, Peter M

    2013-03-01

    We sought to examine the association between job tenure and lost-time claim rates over a 10-year period in Ontario, Canada. Data were obtained from workers' compensation records and labour force survey data from 1999 to 2008. Claim rates were calculated for gender, age, industry, occupation, year and job tenure group. A multivariate analysis and examination of effect modification were performed. Differences in injury event and source of injury were also examined by job tenure. Lost-time claim rates were significantly higher for workers with shorter job tenure, regardless of other factors. Claim rates for new workers differed by gender, age and industry, but remained relatively constant at an elevated rate over the observed time period. This study is the first to examine lost-time claim rates by job tenure over a time period during which overall claim rates generally declined. Claim rates did not show a convergence by job tenure. Findings highlight that new workers are still at elevated risk, and suggest the need for improved training, reducing exposures among new workers, promoting permanent employment, and monitoring work injury trends and risk factors.

  7. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...... for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  8. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  9. assessment of expenditure on food in nigerian urban households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... through a structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, food security index, multiple linear regression and logit regression were employed to analyze data. ... It is a situation where households are not at risk of losing access.

  10. Parents' Decision on Child Labour and School Attendance: Evidence from Iranian Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz Haddad, GholamReza

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of a household's collective decision processes, this study presents a structural empirical model to test the hypothesis that child labour is compelled by household's poverty and parent's bargaining power against one another. To this end, a measure for mother's intra-household bargaining power is developed. I use Iranian…

  11. Which Households Use Banks? Evidence from the Transition Economies (Replaced by EBC DP 2011-024)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses survey data for 29,000 households from 29 transition economies to explore how the use of banking services is related to household characteristics, bank ownership structure and the development of the financial infrastructure. At the household level we find that the holding of a bank

  12. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel M Blake

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies.We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies.Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is required to assess if costs can be reduced and to what extent the approach

  13. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  14. HOUSEHOLD NUCLEATION, DEPENDENCY AND CHILD HEALTH OUTCOMES IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annim, Samuel Kobina; Awusabo-Asare, Kofi; Amo-Adjei, Joshua

    2015-09-01

    This study uses three key anthropometric measures of nutritional status among children (stunting, wasting and underweight) to explore the dual effects of household composition and dependency on nutritional outcomes of under-five children in Ghana. The objective is to examine changes in household living arrangements of under-five children to explore the interaction of dependency and nucleation on child health outcomes. The concept of nucleation refers to the changing structure and composition of household living arrangements, from highly extended with its associated socioeconomic system of production and reproduction, social behaviour and values, towards single-family households - especially the nuclear family, containing a husband and wife and their children alone. A negative relationship between levels of dependency, as measured by the number of children in the household, and child health outcomes is premised on the grounds that high dependency depletes resources, both tangible and intangible, to the disadvantage of young children. Data were drawn from the last four rounds of the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHSs), from 1993 to 2008, for the first objective - to explore changes in household composition. For the second objective, the study used data from the 2008 GDHS. The results show that, over time, households in Ghana have been changing towards nucleation. The main finding is that in households with the same number of dependent children, in nucleated households children under age 5 have better health outcomes compared with children under age 5 in non-nucleated households. The results also indicate that the effect of dependency on child health outcomes is mediated by household nucleation and wealth status and that, as such, high levels of dependency do not necessarily translate into negative health outcomes for children under age 5, based on anthropometric measures.

  15. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity ...

  16. Awareness of Stress-Reduction Interventions on Work Attitudes: The Impact of Tenure and Staff Group in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA) and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees' reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1) perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2) job satisfaction for employees with 0-19 years of tenure; (3) trust in senior management for employees with 6-19 years of tenure; and (4) affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6-10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20-38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual issues in organizational

  17. Awareness of stress-reduction interventions on work attitudes: the impact of tenure and staff group in Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees’ reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1 perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2 job satisfaction for employees with 0–19 years of tenure; (3 trust in senior management for employees with 6–19 years of tenure; and (4 affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6–10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20–38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual

  18. The use of income information of census enumeration area as a proxy for the household income in a household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Mauricio TL

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some of the Census Enumeration Areas' (CEA information may help planning the sample of population studies but it can also be used for some analyses that require information that is more difficult to obtain at the individual or household level, such as income. This paper verifies if the income information of CEA can be used as a proxy for household income in a household survey. Methods A population-based survey conducted from January to December 2003 obtained data from a probabilistic sample of 1,734 households of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Uniform semi-association models were adjusted in order to obtain information about the agreement/disagreement structure of data. The distribution of nutritional status categories of the population of Niterói according to income quintiles was performed using both CEA- and household-level income measures and then compared using Wald statistics for homogeneity. Body mass index was calculated using body mass and stature data measured in the households and then used to define nutritional status categories according to the World Health Organization. All estimates and statistics were calculated accounting for the structural information of the sample design and a significance level lower than 5% was adopted. Results The classification of households in the quintiles of household income was associated with the classification of these households in the quintiles of CEA income. The distribution of the nutritional status categories in all income quintiles did not differ significantly according to the source of income information (household or CEA used in the definition of quintiles. Conclusion The structure of agreement/disagreement between quintiles of the household's monthly per capita income and quintiles of the head-of-household's mean nominal monthly income of the CEA, as well as the results produced by these measures when they were associated with the nutritional status of the population

  19. Significant Value Found in Mentoring Programs for Novice Tenure-Track Academic Librarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Wendy Herman, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Goodsett, M., & Walsh, A. (2015. Building a strong foundation: Mentoring programs for novice tenure-track librarians in academic libraries. College & Research Libraries, 76(7, 914-933. http://dx.doi.org/10.5860/crl.76.7.914 Objective – To examine the effectiveness of mentoring programs for novice tenure-track academic librarians, and to identify critical elements that define a successful mentoring program in various academic library settings. Design – Survey questionnaire with a voluntary phone interview. Setting – Academic libraries in the United States of America. Subjects – 283 librarians participated in a survey questionnaire. Researchers conducted additional interviews with 6 out of the 12 librarians who had volunteered on the survey questionnaire and who met the inclusion criteria. Methods – Researchers recruited participants through two professional e-mail lists: the Information Literacy Instruction Discussion List (ILI-L listserv and the American Library Association’s New Members Round Table (NMRT listserv. Interested participants completed a secured online survey that was hosted using SurveyMonkey. The researchers then coded and analyzed the collected survey data using the same software. At the end of the online survey, participants were given the opportunity to volunteer for an additional interview. Potential interviewees were selected if mentoring programs were available for tenure- track librarians at their institutions. Once selected, researchers contacted potential interviewees and conducted interviews. The interviews were transcribed, the data anonymized, and original recordings deleted. Researchers coded the anonymized interview data to identify common themes.

  20. Household costs of leprosy reactions (ENL in rural India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL is a common immune-mediated complication of lepromatous (LL and borderline lepromatous (BL leprosy. Most patients experience chronic or multiple acute ENL over many years during an economically active period of their lives. Understanding the economic burden of ENL is essential to provide effective patient support, yet this area has not been investigated.Ninety-one patients with LL or BL leprosy attending a leprosy hospital in Purulia district of West Bengal, India, were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Cases (n = 53 were identified as those who had one or more episodes of ENL within the last 3 years. Controls (n = 38 had LL or BL leprosy but no history of ENL. Data were collected on household income, direct and indirect costs, and coping strategies.The total household cost was Rs 1543 per month or 27.9% (IQR 13.2-52.6 of monthly household income for cases, and Rs 237 per month or 4.9% (IQR 1.7-13.4 of monthly household income for controls. Indirect costs accounted for 65% of total household costs for cases. Direct costs accounted for the remaining 35% of household costs, and resulted almost entirely from treatment-seeking in the private sector. Total household costs exceeded 40% of household income for 37.7% of cases (n = 20 and 2.6% of controls (n = 1 [1 USD = 59 INR].Households affected by ENL face significant economic burden and are at risk of being pushed further into poverty. Health policy should acknowledge the importance of private sector provision and the significant contribution to total household costs of lost productivity (indirect cost. Further work is needed to explore this area and identify solutions.

  1. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of ... In order to improve households' food security status in both rural and urban areas, ... as reduction in household size through birth control, and increase in household ...

  3. Mixed tenure communities as a policy instrument for educational outcomes in a deprived urban context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Oonagh; Kearns, Ade; Gray, Linsay; Bond, Lyndal; Henderson, Marion

    2016-05-03

    This article considers mixed community strategies, enacted through planning and regeneration policies, as a policy approach to the improvement of educational outcomes in schools. Analysis is undertaken of educational outcomes across secondary schools in Glasgow. The level of owner occupation in the catchment is positively associated with both examination results at S4 and positive destinations post-school, particularly at the more deprived end of the school spectrum. The results suggest that tenure mix may be both directly and indirectly related to school performance, with neighbourhood context effects not being entirely mediated through the school context.

  4. Effect of land tenure and stakeholders attitudes on optimization of conservation practices in agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemonti, A. D.; Babbar-Sebens, M.; Luzar, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    Modeled watershed management plans have become valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of conservation practices on hydrologic processes in watersheds. In multi-objective optimization approaches, several studies have focused on maximizing physical, ecological, or economic benefits of practices in a specific location, without considering the relationship between social systems and social attitudes on the overall optimality of the practice at that location. For example, objectives that have been commonly used in spatial optimization of practices are economic costs, sediment loads, nutrient loads and pesticide loads. Though the benefits derived from these objectives are generally oriented towards community preferences, they do not represent attitudes of landowners who might operate their land differently than their neighbors (e.g. farm their own land or rent the land to someone else) and might have different social/personal drivers that motivate them to adopt the practices. In addition, a distribution of such landowners could exist in the watershed, leading to spatially varying preferences to practices. In this study we evaluated the effect of three different land tenure types on the spatial-optimization of conservation practices. To perform the optimization, we used a uniform distribution of land tenure type and a spatially varying distribution of land tenure type. Our results show that for a typical Midwestern agricultural watershed, the most optimal solutions (i.e. highest benefits for minimum economic costs) found were for a uniform distribution of landowners who operate their own land. When a different land-tenure was used for the watershed, the optimized alternatives did not change significantly for nitrates reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but were attained at economic costs much higher than the costs of the landowner who farms her/his own land. For example, landowners who rent to cash-renters would have to spend ~120

  5. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  6. Taxation, Risk-Taking, and Household Portfolio Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Poterba

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of research on how taxation affects household decisions with respect to portfolio structure and asset trading. It discusses long-standing issues, such as the impact of differential taxation of income flows from stocks and bonds on the incentives for households to invest in these assets, and the effect of capital gains taxation on asset sales. It also addresses a range of emerging issues, such as the impact of taxation on the behavior of mutual funds and...

  7. Determinants of household choice of breakfast cereals: healthy or unhealthy?

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Alla A.; Binkley, James K.

    2005-01-01

    We studied consumer demand for more and less healthy breakfast cereals. Using ACNielsen Homescan database and USDA food nutrition data, we developed three cereal nutrition indexes for each household in the data. In addition to the standard demographic characteristics of households and prices, we included variables representing differences between private labels and national brands. We found that the structure of the industry, through its effect on the product mix produced, affects consumer ch...

  8. INDIGENOUS HOUSEHOLDS, REMITTANCES AND LIFE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio César Cruz Islas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Mexican migration to other countries, primarily United States, is a phenomenon that has been studied from different approaches. It is an important flow of people who, for decades, has left Mexico in search of employment opportunities and higher income. This is due to the weakness of opportunities structure present in Mexico, predominantly in rural areas, as well as budget constraints that prevent households to improve their living conditions. Remittances from other countries, in turn, are an alternative for families to address the lack of employment opportunities and income in their homeland, as well as life-deficit conditions. To see how remittances impact on living conditions of indigenous population, in this paper we analyze living conditions of indigenous households.

  9. Family life course transitions and rural household economy during China's market reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feinian; Korinek, Kim

    2010-11-01

    This article investigates the effect of family life course transitions on labor allocation strategies in rural Chinese households. We highlight three types of economic activity that involve reallocation of household labor oriented toward a more diversified, nonfarm rural economy: involvement in wage employment, household entrepreneurship, and/or multiple activities that span economic sectors. With the use of data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS 1997, 2000, and 2004), our longitudinal analyses of rural household economic activity point to the significance of household demography, life course transitions, and local economic structures as factors facilitating household labor reallocation. First, as expected, a relatively youthful household structure is conducive to innovative economic behavior. Second, household entrances and exits are significant, but their impacts are not equal. Life events such as births, deaths, marriage, or leaving home for school or employment affect household economy in distinctive ways. Finally, the reallocations of household labor undertaken by households are shaped by local economic structures: in particular, the extent of village-level entrepreneurial activity, off-farm employment, and out-migration.

  10. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  11. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  12. Revenue impact on the demand of Slovak households for meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economical crisis was felt in the differences in the incomes of the households and their food consumption. In the paper are analyzed the changing patterns in the structure of demand for meat and the impact on total expenditure on meat and meat products in the households of employees, households of self-employed persons and households of pensioners. When examining the sensitivity of demand to changes in consumer meat prices in different social groups of households was estimated own-price elasticity of demand, as well as cross-price elasticity.

  13. HOUSEHOLD SAVINGS AS A SOURCE OF INVESTMENT RESOURCES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nosova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The approaches of scientists in definition of the household savings, the motives of their creation and the role they perform are identified; the role of household savings in the economy is described; the importance of household saving transformation from unorganized to organized forms is analyzed; the size of saving in financial and nonfinancial forms, its dynamics and structure are characterized; comparison between household savings and main macroeconomic indicators is conducted; ways of investment of households savings are discussed; the dynamics of deposits in banks and credit unions, the participation of households in collective investment schemes (private and corporate investment funds is characterized; the dynamics of household deposits in national and foreign currencies is shown; the dynamics of nominal value of investment fund’s securities, that have been placed among resident individuals are characterized; the dynamics of deposit accounts and the number of credit unions members are described; the comparative characteristics of different ways to invest money is given; the reasons of unorganized savings existence are marked; barriers to convert savings into investments and the ways of overcoming them are identified.

  14. Sale of electricity to households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)

  15. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  16. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  17. Role of forest income in rural household livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misbahuzzaman, Khaled; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    as Village Common Forests (VCFs), which provide valuable resources for community use. An investigation was made of the role of forest income in livelihoods of selected VCF communities in Bandarban and Rangamati districts of the CHTs. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were employed to examine...... the household livelihood system of the respondents selected at random from 7 villages. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal and structured quarterly surveys. The contribution of all forest-related income was found to be much smaller (11.59 %) than that of agricultural income (77.......02 %) in average total household income. However, VCFs provide bamboos, which are the largest source of household forest income. Moreover, they harbour rich native tree diversity which is vital for maintaining perennial water sources upon which most household livelihood activities depend. Therefore, it seems...

  18. Electricity saving in households. A social cognitive approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoegersen, John; Groenhoej, Alice [Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences, Department of Marketing, Haslegaardsvej 10, DK-8210 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2010-12-15

    We propose a conceptual framework for understanding the (lack of) energy saving efforts of private households based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory. Results from applying this framework on a sample of Danish private electricity consumers are presented and it is concluded (a) that households' electricity consumption depends on both structural and motivational factors, (b) that their electricity saving effort depends on the strength of their internalized norms or self-expectations and on self-efficacy related factors, and (c) that there are predictable patterns of interaction among household members that influence their electricity consumption. The results suggest two approaches to promote electricity saving in households: (1) to change the socio-structural environment to be more facilitating for energy saving and empower householders to be more effective in their striving towards this goal through improved feedback about their household's electricity consumption and (2) social norms marketing, communicating social expectations and others' successful electricity saving achievements. (author)

  19. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Merlino Valentina; Danielle, Borra; Tibor, Verduna; Stefano, Massaglia

    2017-10-31

    Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0-18 years). A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B) have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A). Alternatively, the households with children (subset A) have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  20. Stochastic Production Frontier Models to Explore Constraints on Household Travel Expenditures Considering Household Income Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofyan M. Saleh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the variation of household travel expenditure frontiers (HTEFs prior to CC reform in Jakarta. This study incorporates the variation of household income classes into the modeling of HTEFs and investigates the degree to which various determinants influence levels of HTEF. The HTEF is defined as an unseen maximum (capacity amount of money that a certain income class is willing to dedicate to their travel. A stochastic production frontier is applied to model and explore upper bound household travel expenditure (HTE. Using a comprehensive household travel survey (HTS in Jakarta in 2004, the observed HTE spending in a month is treated as an exogenous variable. The estimation results obtained using three proposed models, for low, medium and high income classes, show that HTEFs are significantly associated with life stage structure attributes, socio-demographics and life environment factors such as professional activity engagements, which is disclosed to be varied across income classes. Finding further reveals that considerable differences in average of HTEFs across models. This finding calls for the formulation of policies that consider the needs to be addressed for low and medium income groups in order to promote more equity policy thereby leading to more acceptable CC reform.

  1. Household Behavior with Respect to Meat Consumption: Differences between Households with and without Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlino Valentina Maria

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumers around the world are increasingly paying attention to product quality and safety, and are starting to reduce their meat consumption, especially with regard to red meat. This trend is prevalent in households with children who prefer health-certified meat products. Our study compares meat consumption habits in households with and without children or adolescences (0–18 years. A structured questionnaire was distributed to 401 retail purchasers at 12 different points of sales of meat in the Piedmont region in northwest Italy. Socio-demographic variables and quantitative-qualitative meat consumption habits of retail purchasers were investigated. One part of the questionnaire analyzed the relative importance of 12 meat choice purchasing attributes by employing the Best-Worst scaling methodology, a type of choice experiment. Our research found that households without children (subset B have higher weekly meat consumption habits than those with children (subset A. Alternatively, the households with children (subset A have a diet characterized by a greater variety of protein sources, such as legumes and fish. Both of the considered subsets preferred trusted butchers for meat buying, with supermarkets as a second choice. However, only consumers of subset A bought meat from farm butchers. Our team performed a consumer analysis to identify meat consumption patterns in the two considered subsets. Simultaneously, a Best-Worst analysis evidenced several choice attributes with different relevance for the two investigated samples segmentation in three clusters of purchase.

  2. "I Expect to Be Engaged as an Equal": Collegiality Expectations of Full-Time, Non-Tenure-Track Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleman, Nathan F.; Haviland, Don

    2017-01-01

    Nationally, non-tenure-track faculty (NTTF) represent the new majority. Efforts to move the full-time NTTF role from expendable labor to sustainable professional position have led to improvements in policy and working conditions at many institutions. Still, the profession broadly has just begun to grapple with the implications of this shifting…

  3. Interest Congruency as a Moderator of the Relationships between Job Tenure and Job Satisfaction and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Kenneth; Wiener, Yoash

    1977-01-01

    In a sample of 54 middle managers, significant moderator effects were found for the mental health indices of self-esteem, life-satisfaction, and overall mental health and for satisfaction with supervision. These indices correlated positively with job tenure for high congruency individuals. For low congruency individuals, the obtained correlations…

  4. Statutory Requirements of Teacher Contract Laws: A Comparison of the 50 States' Continuing Contract and Teacher Tenure Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkom, Kris Van

    This publication summarizes and compares legal provisions covering teacher tenure and contracts for each of the 50 states. The report is organized in three sections. Section 1 presents a summary comparison of the provisions of Washington's teacher contract law with corresponding statutory requirements of the other 49 states. Section 2 identifies…

  5. Assessing the Potential of Using Value-Added Estimates of Teacher Job Performance for Making Tenure Decisions. Working Paper 31

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Hansen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Reforming teacher tenure is an idea that appears to be gaining traction with the underlying assumption being that one can infer to a reasonable degree how well a teacher will perform over her career based on estimates of her early-career effectiveness. Here we explore the potential for using value-added models to estimate performance and inform…

  6. The Role of Person-Environment Fit in the Job Satisfaction and Tenure Intentions of African American Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heather Z.; O'Brien, Karen M.

    2006-01-01

    In light of speculation that the determinants of job satisfaction and tenure for African American employees may not be adequately captured by the theory of work adjustment (TWA; Dawis & Lofquist, 1984), in the present study the authors tested assumptions of the TWA with an African American sample by (a) examining the strength of fit-satisfaction…

  7. Tenure Track Policy Increases Representation of Women in Senior Academic Positions, but Is Insufficient to Achieve Gender Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.M.; Jacobs, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Underrepresentation of women in senior positions is a persistent problem in universities worldwide, and a wide range of strategies to combat this situation is currently being contemplated. One such strategy is the introduction of a tenure track system, in which decisions to promote scientific staff

  8. To Curl up or Relax? That Is the Question: Tenured Black Female Faculty Navigation of Black Hair Expression in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    One area of identity that challenges dominant ideals of professional, neat, or appropriate appearance is Black hair. Although Black hair expression is frequent in media, politics, and pop culture, there still remains a perceived stigma surrounding its presence in positions and environments (e.g. tenure positions or predominantly White…

  9. Boreal Forest Carbon Sequestration Strategies : a Case Study of the Little Red River Cree First Nation Land Tenures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krcmar, E.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, creation of carbon offset and emission reduction credits are examined from the perspective of the Little Red River Cree Nation (LRRCN), a forest tenure holder in northern Alberta. Carbon credits are produced under three scenarios: (1) carbon uptake in forest ecosystems, with

  10. Enact, Discard, and Transform: A Critical Race Feminist Perspective on Professional Socialization among Tenured Black Female Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulé, Venice Thandi

    2014-01-01

    Through an analysis informed by critical race feminism, this paper examines the intersection of professional socialization and agency among tenured Black female faculty at Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Professional socialization entails the transmission and reproduction of professional norms. However, within PWIs, professional…

  11. African American Female Professors' Strategies for Successful Attainment of Tenure and Promotion at Predominately White Institutions: It Can Happen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brandolyn; Hwang, Eunjin; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    In their pursuit of tenure and promotion, African American female faculty members continue to prevail over workplace adversities such as ridicule, marginalization, alienation, isolation, and lack of information. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the lived experiences of five African American female professors who successfully navigated…

  12. The erosion of academic tenure in the U.S. and its ties to public neoliberal anti-intellectualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia R. Dominguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the erosion of tenure in the U.S. academy and its connections to the spread of neoliberal capitalist ideology in U.S. colleges and universities. It also explores how this affects anthropology departments since only a small part of anthropology is ever considered part of the STEM fields.

  13. Tenured Teacher Dismissal in New York: Education Law § 3020-a "Disciplinary Procedures and Penalties." Working Paper 2014-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Katharine B.

    2014-01-01

    The two recently-filed New York lawsuits claiming that teacher tenure laws violate children's constitutional right to a "sound basic education" are finally dragging the long-obscure Section 3020-a of the state's Education Law into the spotlight. This attention is badly overdue because for decades § 3020-a has impeded efforts to ensure a…

  14. Which Households Use Banks? Evidence from the Transition Economies (Replaced by CentER DP 2011-089)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Brown, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses survey data for 29,000 households from 29 transition economies to explore how the use of banking services is related to household characteristics, bank ownership structure and the development of the financial infrastructure. At the household level we find that the holding of a bank

  15. Household consumption of electricity in Brazil between 1985 and 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villareal, Maria José Charfuelan; Moreira, João Manoel Losada

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the electricity consumption in Brazilian residences between 1985 and 2013 through linear regressions. The explanatory variables considered were the number of households, effective consumption of families as a proxy for family income, and electricity tariff for households. To deal with the power generation crisis of 2001 we have introduced a dummy variable in the form of a step function. With such explanatory variables, we were able to account for the reduction of household electricity consumption caused by the policies conducted in 2001 and their permanent consequences. The regression presented coefficient of determination of 0.9892, and the several statistic tests conducted assured the existence of long-term relation between the electricity consumption in residences and the explanatory variables. The obtained elasticities for the household consumption of electricity with respect to number of residences, family income and residential tariff of electricity were 1.534±0.095, 0.189±0.049, and −0.230±0.060, respectively. These results allowed understanding the evolution over time of the household consumption of electricity in Brazil. They suggest that the electric sector in Brazil should pursue an active policy to manage demand of residential electricity using tariffs as a means to control it. - Highlights: •Brazilian residential electricity sector. •Special Features and structure of the residential electricity consumption. •Representation and modeling of electrical energy consumption. •Elasticities consumption-tariff; consumption-income; consumption- households.

  16. Household electricity and gas consumption for heating homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Seob Kim, Chang; Lee, Jongsu

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption has been drastically changed because of energy source depletion, price fluctuations, development and penetration of alternative energy sources, and government policies. Household energy sources are interrelated, and energy price and household characteristics, such as income level and dwelling size, affect the usage. To supply energy consistently and achieve a balance between production and consumption, stakeholders must understand consumer energy-consumption behavior. Therefore, this study identifies household heating energy usage patterns and the substitutive and/or complementary relationships between electricity and gas. Based on a multiple discrete-continuous extreme value model, household utility structure is identified from data on gas-heating usage. Results show greater utility and the smallest satiation values for gas boilers than for electric heaters and electric heating beds. The effects of consumer socioeconomic and environmental characteristics on the choice of heating energy sources were analyzed. Also, for further comparison, the respondents were split into high and low categories for income, heating degree days, dwelling size, and gas usage. Gas was found to be the most economical heating choice for households. - Research highlights: → This study investigates household electricity and gas consumption behavior for heating. → It also studied the relationship between two energy sources. → A research framework is suggested by combining the CDA and the MDCEV models. → It provides quantitative data that might be used for designing efficient energy policies.

  17. Analyzing the Investment Behaviour of Households at the Microlevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepeyko Tetyana I.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the characteristics of the investment behaviour of households at the microlevel. Essence of the investment behavior of of households was considered, substantiating that it differs in relation to the social indicators of households as well as to their income and costs. In order to analyze the investment behavior of households at the microlevel, it was proposed to conduct an expert survey of economic agents (staff of enterprises, private entrepreneurs, etc.. Using the hierarchy analysis method, it has been substantiated that the most appropriate method for the selected criteria (minimizing the time and cost of the survey, improving the truthfulness and completeness of the responses is the anonymous respondent survey. To implement this method, a list of questions was proposed that would allow to analyze the social indicators of households, structure of their incomes and costs. On the basis of the survey conducted at the enterprises of Kharkiv region, the main prerequisites for a possible improvement of the microlevel investment behavior of households have been identified.

  18. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  19. Family Issues in Multigenerational Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Leslie L; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied issues faced by multigenerational families and their implications for family therapy. Major factors in multigenerational households included dependency, sibling relationships, depression, and demanding and egocentric behavior. Factors to consider during family therapy include respite care, age, interdependence, dignity, provision of care,…

  20. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  1. Inflation differentials among Czech households

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Hait, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-84 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : households * inflation * inflation differentials Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016

  2. ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY AMONG SMALLHOLDER FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN ARID AREAS OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, , D; Bukar , U; Umar , J; Abdulsalam , B; Dahiru , B

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The study assessed food security situation among smallholder farming househ Borno State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting 200 household respondents. Data were collected with the use of interview scheduled and structured questionnaires. Result revealed that 91% of the respondents were male, 59% were full time farmers and 33% of the households had farming experience of 11 household respondents were food secure. Logit result indicates that the...

  3. The Impact of Occupational Status on Household Chore Hours among Dual Earner Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Omori

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on the who does what about routine chores in the household have tended to neglect the occupational structure and its influence on the amount of time spent on housework. Using NSFH data, it is found that married couples' household chore hours vary by their occupational status: couples in higher status occupations spend significantly fewer hours on household chores as compared to their counterparts in lower status occupations.

  4. Gender Policies in Entrepreneurship Development: An Intra-Household Market Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoola, Josephine Bosede

    2006-01-01

    The universal implementation of women empowerment programmes has received analytical attention within the economic theory context . A two-commodity structure of the customary household economy was conceptualized, and analysed under the usual assumptions to describe the nature of the intra-household market for women entrepreneurship. The low-income household system produces two hypothetical commodities namely, Women Entrepreneurship (WE) and Non-Entrepreneurial Works (NEW) which form the main ...

  5. Influence of household biogas digester use on household energy consumption in a semi-arid rural region of northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Wenguang; Niu, Hewen; Chen, Jinsong; Du, Jun; Wu, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Rural household energy mainly derives from available biomass resources. ► Household energy consumption structure experiencing substantial transformation. ► Biogas energy plays an important roles in rural household energy consumption. ► Biogas digester construction has a profound implication for applied energy. -- Abstract: A comprehensive investigation was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of newly installed biogas digesters in saving biomass resources and addressing energy squandering. Compared with traditional coal-based or firewood dominated energy consumption, the biogas digesters economize on energy resources due to higher heat efficiency. Furthermore, since crop residues of straw and other domestic animal and human excreta are effectively recycled and reused as anaerobic fermentation materials of biogas digesters, greenhouse gas emissions are significantly reduced by converting the previous extensive combustion of such into a sustainable and highly efficient practice in the rural region. The results in this study show that total energy consumption is 412 kgce (kgce: 1 kg standard coal. 1 kgce = 29.31 MJ) in Xiyang Township in 2009. The construction of biogas digesters significantly contributes to the transformation of rural household energy consumption structure, though biogas as a renewable energy only accounts for 6.31% of the total household energy consumption. Per capita rural household energy consumption is 393.07 kgce in household with biogas digesters and 437.60 kgce in household without biogas digesters. In addition, application of biogas dregs, slurry, and marsh liquid to the agricultural crops have greatly reduced the expenditure of buying chemical fertilizers. The average commercial fertilizer per mu (0.067 ha) in rural households using biogas digesters is 12.43 kg and the cost per mu is 29.53 yuan (1 yuan = 0.1523 dollar), while rural households without biogas digesters use 25.22 kg of commercial fertilizers and cost 59

  6. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  7. Measuring household consumption and waste in unmetered, intermittent piped water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Woelfle-Erskine, Cleo; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of household water consumption are extremely difficult in intermittent water supply (IWS) regimes in low- and middle-income countries, where water is delivered for short durations, taps are shared, metering is limited, and household storage infrastructure varies widely. Nonetheless, consumption estimates are necessary for utilities to improve water delivery. We estimated household water use in Hubli-Dharwad, India, with a mixed-methods approach combining (limited) metered data, storage container inventories, and structured observations. We developed a typology of household water access according to infrastructure conditions based on the presence of an overhead storage tank and a shared tap. For households with overhead tanks, container measurements and metered data produced statistically similar consumption volumes; for households without overhead tanks, stored volumes underestimated consumption because of significant water use directly from the tap during delivery periods. Households that shared taps consumed much less water than those that did not. We used our water use calculations to estimate waste at the household level and in the distribution system. Very few households used 135 L/person/d, the Government of India design standard for urban systems. Most wasted little water even when unmetered, however, unaccounted-for water in the neighborhood distribution systems was around 50%. Thus, conservation efforts should target loss reduction in the network rather than at households.

  8. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  9. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  10. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...... in the special case of a two-person household, and we present graphics illustrating how differences between the two persons affect the controls....

  11. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  12. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household concept...

  13. Size of households and income disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, S

    1981-01-01

    The author examines "the relation between differentials in size of households, (preponderantly family households including one-person units) and disparities in income per household, per person, or per some version of consuming unit." The analysis is based on data for the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Thailand. excerpt

  14. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  15. Intrahousehold allocation, household headship and nutrition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to establish whether there is a significant difference in nutritional status of children in male-headed households, de jure female-headed households and de facto female-headed households. The study uses a sample of 199 children aged 6 to 60 months, of mothers in reproductive age, derived from 499 ...

  16. Household Complexity and Change among Children in the United States, 1984 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L. Perkins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on family instability typically measures changes in coresident parents, but children also experience changes among other household members. The likelihood of experiencing these changes differs by race and ethnicity, family structure, and cohort. Analyses of the Survey of Income and Program Participation show that the cumulative proportion of children who gain or lose a household member is much higher than the proportion of children whose father or mother leaves the household. The share of children who experience a change in household composition involving a nonparent, nonsibling relative is greater among blacks and Hispanics than among whites and greater among children in single-parent families than in two-parent families. Overall, fewer children in the 1990s and 2000s experienced changes in household composition than in the 1980s. This study advances a broader definition of family instability by including others present in children’s households, better incorporating the changes in developmental environments children experience.

  17. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed roles of household members in kolanut production and marketing in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 80 kolanut farmers. Data were collected from the respondents using structured interview schedule. Data were presented and analyzed using frequency counts, ...

  18. Farm Household Survival Strategies and Diversification on Marginal Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meert, H.; Van Huylenbroeck, G.; Vernimmen, T.; Bourgeois, M.; van Hecke, E.

    2005-01-01

    On marginal farms, and in agriculture in general, sustainability is largely guaranteed by a broad range of survival strategies, closely interlinked and embedded in the household structure of typical family farms. This paper reports results of a socio-economic study carried out among Belgian farmers, focusing specifically on the opportunities…

  19. Role Of Indigenous Knowledge In Enhancing Household Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaires, personal interviews and group discussions. The finding showed that many people depend on the use of indigenous knowledge practices in sustaining subsistence farming and enhancing household food security. Majority of farmers mulch their crops using local ...

  20. Ecological anthropology of households in East Madura, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, W.G.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is the result of diachronic and comparative anthropological study of rural households in Northeast Madura, Indonesia, carried out on eight separate visits between August 1985 and March 2009. The aim is to bring time-structured data to bear on key questions regarding

  1. Dutch workers and time pressure : household and workplace characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, Tanja van der

    2007-01-01

    Balancing work with family life has become one of the most important issues for families nowadays. In this article I study the varying degrees of success of governance structures in households and firms in dealing with competing time claims. Using Dutch data from firms, employees and their spouses

  2. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  3. Rooftop Solar Technical Potential for Low-to-Moderate Income Households in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mooney, Meghan E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-17

    This report presents a first-of-kind assessment of the technical potential of rooftop solar for low and moderate-income households, as well as providing insight on the distribution of solar potential by tenure, income, and other building characteristics. We find that a substantial fraction of the national rooftop solar potential is located on LMI buildings and, for all incomes, a substantial fraction on multi-family and renter-occupied buildings. We also find that rooftop solar can significantly contribute to long-term penetration targets established by the U.S. DOE, though to do so requires deployment on multi-family and renter-occupied buildings. Traditional deployment models have insufficiently enabled access to solar for these income groups and building types. Without innovation either in regulatory, market, or policy factors, a large fraction of the U.S. potential is unlikely to be addressed, as well as leading to inequalities in solar access. Ironically, potential electric bill savings from rooftop solar would have the greatest material impact on the lives of low-income households as compared to their high-income counterparts.

  4. Family ties: the multilevel effects of households and kinship on the networks of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Jeremy

    2018-04-01

    Among social mammals, humans uniquely organize themselves into communities of households that are centred around enduring, predominantly monogamous unions of men and women. As a consequence of this social organization, individuals maintain social relationships both within and across households, and potentially there is conflict among household members about which social ties to prioritize or de-emphasize. Extending the logic of structural balance theory, I predict that there will be considerable overlap in the social networks of individual household members, resulting in a pattern of group-level reciprocity. To test this prediction, I advance the Group-Structured Social Relations Model, a generalized linear mixed model that tests for group-level effects in the inter-household social networks of individuals. The empirical data stem from social support interviews conducted in a community of indigenous Nicaraguan horticulturalists, and model results show high group-level reciprocity among households. Although support networks are organized around kinship, covariates that test predictions of kin selection models do not receive strong support, potentially because most kin-directed altruism occurs within households, not between households. In addition, the models show that households with high genetic relatedness in part from children born to adulterous relationships are less likely to assist each other.

  5. Determinants of longer job tenure among home care aides: what makes some stay on the job while others leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sandra S; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Wardamasky, Sara; Ashley, Alison

    2014-03-01

    An inadequate supply of direct care workers and a high turnover rate in the workforce has resulted in a "care gap" in our long-term care system. As people are increasingly choosing community-based care, retention of home care workers is particularly important. The mixed-method study described herein explored determinants of longer job tenure for home care aides (n = 261). Study participants were followed for 18 months, completing two mail surveys and one telephone interview each. Predictors of longer job tenure included older age, living rurally, lower physical function, higher wages, a greater sense of autonomy on the job, and less frequent feelings of personal accomplishment. Thematic analysis of telephone interviews revealed long-term stayers to be less concerned about low wages and inconsistent hours than those who left their jobs within a year; both groups of workers reported high levels of job satisfaction. Policy implications of study findings are discussed.

  6. Parenting Practices and Child Adjustment in Different Types of Households: A Study of African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 867 African American households to investigate differences in parenting practices and child outcomes by type of household. Results indicate that mothers provide similar levels of parenting regardless of family structure. Secondary caregivers, however, show a great deal of variation in quality of parenting. Fathers and…

  7. Simple Methods for Production of Nanoscale Metal Oxide Films from Household Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Baliss, Michelle S.; Hinman, Jordan J.; Ziegenhorn, John W.; Andrews, Mark J.; Stevenson, Keith J.

    2013-01-01

    Production of thin metal oxide films was recently explored as part of an outreach program with a goal of producing nanoscale structures with household items. Household items coated with various metals or titanium compounds can be heated to produce colorful films with nanoscale thicknesses. As part of a materials chemistry laboratory experiment…

  8. Measuring consumption in households. Interpretations and strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole [Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-12-01

    The paper discusses the connection between environmental awareness and metering data on household consumption (electricity, heating, water), and it is based on recent Danish studies. It is discussed, how families' understanding of environmental awareness and environmental practices relates to their overall household consumption. The paper indicates that residents' environmental practices in everyday life are often overshadowed by consumption practices in other areas, and that such practices are often rooted in quite different rationales than environmental awareness. These findings are seen as an example of what Pierre Bourdieu calls the 'economy of symbolic goods', offering an explanation for why some symbolic actions apparently play a larger role than other, more environmentally serious consumption practices. From this, it is argued that the social structures underlying consumption and green behaviour should be recognised in the formulation of environmental policies, and that instead of using sustainable practices such as 'environmental awareness' as a sales argument, more reflexive strategies that take consumers' preferences into account should be considered. (author)

  9. The implications of new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets for sustainable forest management and forest certification in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan; Innes, John L

    2013-11-15

    This study examines issues existing in the southern collective forests in China, particularly prior to the implementation of new forest tenure reforms, such as continued illegal logging and timber theft, inadequate availability of finance and inconsistent forest-related policies. Such problems are believed to be hindering the adoption of sustainable forest management (SFM) and forest certification by forest farmers in China. Two strategies were introduced by the Chinese government with the purpose of addressing these issues, namely forest tenure reforms and their associated supporting mechanism, forestry property markets. Through two case studies in southern China, we investigated the effectiveness of the two strategies as well as their implications for the adoption of SFM and forest certification. The two cases were Yong'an in Fujian province and Tonggu in Jiangxi province. Personal interviews with open-ended questions were conducted with small-scale forest farmers who had already benefited from the two strategies as well as market officers working for the two selected forestry property markets. The study identified eight issues constraining the potential adoption of SFM and certification in China, including limited finance, poorly developed infrastructure and transport systems, insecure forest tenures, inconsistent forest policies, low levels of awareness, illegal forest management practices, lack of local cooperative organizations, and inadequate knowledge and technical transfer. We found that the new forest tenure reforms and forestry property markets had generally fulfilled their original objectives and had the capacity to assist in addressing many of the issues facing forests prior to the reforms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. FURTHER INVESTIGATION INTO THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN QUIT RATES AND THE WAGE-TENURE PROFILE IN JAPANESE MANUFACTURING

    OpenAIRE

    太田, 聰一; OHKUSA, Yasushi

    1996-01-01

    We examine the relationship between actual quit rates and the slope of wage-tenure profile. The results obtained clarify that there is a negative relationship between these series when we use the definition with monetary units. Conversely, the slope defined in terms of growth is found to be positively correlated with the quit rate. As the theory predicts a negative relationship between these variables, it seems reasonable to conclude from the results that the definition of the slope in moneta...

  11. Promotion and Tenure: Application of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, and Scholarship of Engagement Criteria to Health Professions Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa J. Register

    2018-03-01

    Discussion: More research on the application of the scholarship of discovery, the scholarship of integration, and the scholarship of application is needed in health professions education to further guide faculty and administrators. Investigation into the discrepancy in rank within tenured faculty in educations is an area that would bring insight into current challenges and barriers, allowing educational researchers the ability to research and develop effective strategies.

  12. Labour Mobility and Housing: The Impact of Housing Tenure and Housing Affordability on Labour Migration in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2012), s. 489-504 ISSN 0042-0980 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : housing * housing policy * housing tenure Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.493, year: 2012 http://usj.sagepub.com/content/early/2011/05/20/0042098011405693

  13. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios......, determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles...

  14. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  15. Drivers of fishing at the household scale in Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Dacks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs sustain millions of people worldwide, yet in recent years, social, environmental, and climate change have caused major declines in coral reef fisheries. Small-scale coral reef fisheries research has largely focused on community-level drivers of fishing, ignoring the heterogeneities that exist within communities. We used social-ecological indicators from 20 coastal villages in Fiji to identify potential fine-scale, context-appropriate drivers of estimated household fish catch. Indicators were developed based on a review of the literature, discussions with local experts, and a pilot study. Using structural equation models, we found that importance of fishing to income, household fish consumption, livelihood diversity, travel time to market, and coral reef area all positively affect estimated household-level fish catch. Our results contrast with findings from other larger scale studies by identifying that households further from markets had higher fishing frequency. We highlight the role of middlemen in these small-scale fisheries, who have been largely overlooked as drivers of fisheries catch. Our findings emphasize the need for household-level analyses to better understand the complexities in coral reef social-ecological systems to more effectively manage small-scale fisheries in communities.

  16. The convergence of HIV/AIDS and customary tenure on women's access to land in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Kabanga, Lucky; Nichols, Sue

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the convergence of HIV/AIDS and the social processes through which women access customary land in rural Malawi. Data were collected from focus group discussions with women in patrilineal and matrilineal communities. Women's land tenure is primarily determined through kinship group membership, customary inheritance practices and location of residence. In patrilineal communities, land is inherited through the male lineage and women access land through relationships with male members who are the rightful heirs. Conversely in matrilineal matrilocal communities, women as daughters directly inherit the land. This research found that in patrilineal communities, HIV/AIDS, gendered inequalities embedded in customary inheritance practices and resource shortages combine to affect women's access to land. HIV/AIDS may cause the termination of a woman's relationship with the access individual due to stigma or the individual's death. Termination of such relationships increases tenure insecurity for women accessing land in a community where they do not have inheritance rights. In contrast to the patrilineal patrilocal experience, research on matrilineal matrilocal communities demonstrates that where women are the inheritors of the land and have robust land tenure rights, they are not at risk of losing their access to land due to HIV/AIDS.

  17. Things I Wish They Had Told Me: Advice From a Newly Tenured Faculty Member From a Small, Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Peter

    2002-04-01

    I followed a relatively unique path to tenure. I knew I wanted to teach at a small, liberal arts college, so I chose to “post-doc” as a visiting faculty member instead of doing research. I continued to do research as I taught, but teaching was the main focus. I feel that the path that I followed, the opportunities for research and having found tremendously effective mentors in my three years as a visiting faculty member put me in the perfect position to find the job I wanted. I am now in the fourth year of my first tenure-track job, and find myself with tenure. Randolph-Macon Woman’s College is a nationally ranked liberal arts college in central VA with 720 students. The Department of Physics and Astronomy offers both a BA and a BS in physics, and in struggling to stay alive with only two faculty members, I have actually managed to keep going with a few research and grant opportunities. I hope that my experiences will strike a chord with some of the audience, and my experiences can help others to decide what is and what is not important to them in the finding and holding of a faculty job. Other topics that could be covered include juggling responsibilities, seeking grants, dealing with colleagues, interacting with students, and learning to teach.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF COMPANY SIZE, COMPANY RISK AND AUDITOR’S REPUTATION ON TENURE: AN ARTIFICIAL ROTATION TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to empirically examine the effects of firms’ size, firms’ risk, and auditors’ reputations on tenure in an artificial rotation. The phenomenon of artificial auditor (audit firm rotations in Indonesia is an interesting topic, deserving further study. Artificial auditor rotations indicate a condition in which, conceptually, there has been a change of auditor that makes the relationship between the auditor and the client end, but in effect, the relationship is still going on. Regulations for mandatory auditor rotations causes audit firms or their partners to cheat the system by changing the name of their firm, or partners, to allow them to continue auditing the same client. This research samples 110 companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2000 and 2010, which were obtained using a purposive sampling method. The results of a statistical test indicate that a company’s size significantly influences the tenure. The variables of firms’ risk and auditors’ reputations do not have significant effects on tenure, statistically. This research is expected to contribute both theoretically and practically, especially to the regulations on auditors’ rotations. Auditing quality is an important factor that must be maintained by the auditor profession, to maintain the independence of auditors. In the auditing practices in Indonesia, regulators should consider the artificial rotation phenomenon that occurs in Indonesia, so the practice of auditing can run better.

  19. Legitimacy of forest rights: The underpinnings of the forest tenure reform in the protected areas of petén, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Monterroso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, forests across the world have undergone a significant process of recognition and transference of tenure rights to local communities or individuals, referred to here as forest tenure reforms. Among developing regions, Latin America has seen the most important recognition and transference of these tenure rights to forest dwelling and forest dependent communities. This paper examines the process in Guatemala, where the state has recognised and transferred rights to organised local groups-establishing a community concession system in the multiple use zone of the Maya Biosphere Reserve. We analyse the evolution of claims over forest uses, and focus on the legitimacy elements underpinning the process of a claim becoming a right. The results indicate that in order to sustain this forest tenure reform process over time, it is important to understand how tenure arrangements are transferred and distributed among rights-receivers, and how this process is influenced by the elements that underpin legitimation as well as those that define authority. Understanding the underpinnings of the legitimacy behind forest tenure reforms is central to identifying ways in which these processes can work, and also becomes important for developing more sound policy frameworks that fill gaps and resolve incongruence in governmental systems for forest management.

  20. First experiences with High Resolution Imagery Based Adjudication Approach for Social Tenure Domain Model in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Lengoiboni, M.; Deininger, K.; Burns, T.

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, great progress has been made with rural land certification in Ethiopia. This process, however, has been mainly confined to the so called first phase certificates. These certificates do identify the land holding households (with name etc. and photographs), but

  1. U.S. publication trends in social and administrative pharmacy: implications for promotion and tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangethe, Anne; Franic, Duska M; Huang, Ming-Yi; Huston, Sally; Williams, Chakita

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus on the preferred approach to assess journal quality. Procedures previously used include journal acceptance or rejection policies, impact factors, number of subscribers, citation counts, whether the articles were refereed or not, and journals cited in books within the discipline. This study built on the work of previous authors by using a novel approach to assess journal quality in social and administrative pharmacy (SAdP). To determine U.S. SAdP faculty perceptions of prestigious journals for their research, SAdP faculty perceptions of prestigious journals by their promotion and tenure (P&T) committees, and current research trends in SAdP. A census of U.S. colleges and schools of pharmacy was conducted using an e-mailed survey and an open-ended approach requiring respondents to list their preferred journals. Seventy-nine SAdP faculty reported that the 5 most prestigious journals were JAMA, New England Journal of Medicine, Health Affairs, Health Services Research, and Medical Care. These journals were selected because respondents wished to seek broad readership. Results of this study can be used as a guide by U.S. SAdP faculty and P&T committees to assess the quality of publications by pharmacy administration faculty with the caveat being that pharmacy versus nonpharmacy journals will be chosen based on the fit of the article with the audience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Disclosure of diagnosis of multiple sclerosis in the workplace positively affects employment status and job tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Brown, A K; Van Dijk, P A; Simmons, R D; Bourne, M P; Cooper, B K

    2014-06-01

    For many employees with multiple sclerosis (MS), disclosure of their diagnosis at work is seen as a high-risk strategy that might lead to diminished perceptions of their capabilities by supervisors and colleagues, if not outright discrimination. The consequence of this mistrust surrounding the disclosure process is that employees with MS may leave it until too late to effectively manage symptoms at work. The objective of this paper is to statistically evaluate the relationship between disclosure of diagnosis at work and maintenance of employment. Three annual, large-sample self-report surveys of MS patients prospectively examined the relationship between disclosure of diagnosis at work and employment status. A total of 1438 people responded to all three surveys. Of employed persons in 2010 (n = 946), 673 also responded to the 2012 survey. Of these 673 respondents 564 were still employed. People who had disclosed their MS status to an employer were more likely to remain in employment in Year 3. The effect of disclosure in predicting employment status remained after controlling for age, gender, hours worked and level of disability. This study provides the first empirical support for the positive role of disclosure in maintaining employment status, measured both as job retention and tenure in current employment. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. Stolypin’s Agrarian Reform in Kyiv Province: Antecedents and Consequences for Peasant Land Tenure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ihnatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the state of the Ukrainian peasantry tenure in the province of Kyiv. After the reforms of the Russian government in 1861. The majority of the peasants received small plots of land. The reform was carried out with the intention to preserve the estates of the landlords. Attention is drawn to the fact that in the early twentieth century, the plight of the peasants led to their active participation in the revolutionary events of 1905. Analyzes the attempts of the government and landowners to solve the peasant question of handing over land to rent. But this approach to the Kiev province was ineffective. Therefore, the Russian government is trying to address this issue at the legislative level. November 9, 1906 a law was passed that abolished the peasant community and allowed it to strengthen private property. But in the province of Kyiv, these actions of the Russian government have been ineffective. Land hunger of the peasants remained a major problem, because the allocation of the farm required a certain amount of land. Therefore, most of the peasants were forced to sell their land and migrate.

  4. The end of mass homeownership? Changes in labour markets and housing tenure opportunities across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arundel, Rowan; Doling, John

    2017-01-01

    With continued economic growth and expanding mortgage markets, until recently the pattern across advanced economies was of growing homeownership sectors. The Great Financial Crisis (GFC) has however, undercut this growth resulting in the contraction of homeownership access in many countries and the revival of private renting. This paper argues that these tenure changes are not solely a consequence of the GFC, and therefore, reversible once long-term growth returns. Rather, they are the consequences of more fundamental changes especially in labour markets. The very financialisation that fuelled the growth of homeownership has also led to a hollowing out of well-paid, secure jobs-exactly those that fit best with the taking of housing loans. We examine longer-term declines in labour market security across Europe from before the GFC, identifying an underlying correlation between deteriorated labour market conditions and homeownership access for young adults. While variations exist across European countries, there is evidence of common trends. We argue that the GFC both accelerated pre-existing labour insecurity dynamics and brought an end to offsetting such dynamics through the expansion of credit access with the likelihood of a return to an era of widespread homeownership growth starkly decreased.

  5. Streamlining Appointment, Promotion, and Tenure Procedures to Promote Early-Career Faculty Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon B; Hollerbach, Ann; Donato, Annemarie Sipkes; Edlund, Barbara J; Atz, Teresa; Kelechi, Teresa J

    2016-01-01

    A critical component of the progression of a successful academic career is being promoted in rank. Early-career faculty are required to have an understanding of appointment, promotion, and tenure (APT) guidelines, but many factors often impede this understanding, thwarting a smooth and planned promotion pathway for professional advancement. This article outlines the steps taken by an APT committee to improve the promotion process from instructor to assistant professor. Six sigma's DMAIC improvement model was selected as the guiding operational framework to remove variation in the promotion process. After faculty handbook revisions were made, several checklists developed, and a process review rubric was implemented; recently promoted faculty were surveyed on satisfaction with the process. Faculty opinions captured in the survey suggest increased transparency in the process and perceived support offered by the APT committee. Positive outcomes include a strengthened faculty support framework, streamlined promotion processes, and improved faculty satisfaction. Changes to the APT processes resulted in an unambiguous and standardized pathway for successful promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  7. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Key Words: Labor productivity, Land productivity; Rural household income, Rural ... household labor ratio of rural household farmers, given fixed level of inputs ... because households are rarely practicing dominated by a subsistence.

  8. Excellence in teaching for promotion and tenure in animal and dairy sciences at doctoral/research universities: a faculty perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattiaux, M A; Moore, J A; Rastani, R R; Crump, P M

    2010-07-01

    In this study, animal or dairy sciences faculty from doctoral/research universities were surveyed to clarify teaching performance expectations for the purpose of promotion and tenure of assistant professors. A survey tool including 15 evaluation criteria was available online and at the registration desk of the 2005 Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science. The analyzed data set included 47 faculty (41 tenured and 6 tenure-track) with a substantial teaching responsibility from 27 different departments in 25 states. Four criteria were perceived as currently overemphasized: student evaluation of the instructor, student evaluation of the course, authoring peer-reviewed publications, and authoring an undergraduate textbook or book chapter. Nevertheless, more than 50% of respondents reported that these criteria should be used. One criterion emerged as being currently underemphasized: documentation of personal assessment of one's own teaching by preparing a portfolio. The lack of consensus for the remaining 10 items may have reflected substantial differences in institutional practices. The significance of overemphasis or underemphasis of certain criteria varied substantially depending on the respondent's perceived institutional mission. When asked about recognition within their department, 68% of respondents indicated that efforts in teaching improvement were properly rewarded. Respondents doubted the meaningfulness and appropriateness of student ratings tools as currently used. Results also suggested that animal and dairy science faculty placed a higher value on criteria recognizing excellence in teaching based on intradepartmental recognition (e.g., interactions with close-up peers and students) rather than recognition within a broader community of scholars as evidenced by authorship or success in generating funding for teaching. Proposed improvements in the evaluation of teaching for promotion and tenure

  9. Validation of the Malaysian Coping Strategy Instrument to measure household food insecurity in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Jalil, Rohana Abdul; Taib, Mohd Nasir Mohd; Kandiah, Mirnalini; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu

    2011-12-01

    Food insecurity occurs whenever people are not able to access enough food at all times for an active and healthy life or when adequate and safe food acquired by socially acceptable ways is not available. To validate the Malaysian Coping Strategy Instrument (MCSI) to measure household food insecurity in Kelantan, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 301 nonpregnant, nonlactating Malay women, aged between 19 and 49 years, living in rural and urban areas. The respondents were interviewed with the use of a structured questionnaire to obtain information on their demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, household food security, and dietary intake. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics (household size, number of children, number of children attending school, household income, and per capita income) were significantly associated with household food-security status in rural and urban areas. Energy intake, fat intake, percentage of energy from fat, and number of servings of meat,fish, or poultry and legumes were significantly associated with household food-security status in rural areas. The dietary diversity score was significantly associated with household food-security status in rural and urban areas. Validating the MCSI in other areas of Malaysia as well as in similar settings elsewhere in the world before it is used to measure household food insecurity in the population is strongly recommended. In this study, the MCSI was found to be a reliable and valid measure of household food insecurity based on criterion-related validity, particularly in terms of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and dietary diversity.

  10. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  11. Household carbon dioxide emissions from peasants and herdsmen in northwestern arid-alpine regions, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jiansheng; Zeng, Jingjing; Li, Yan; Wang, Qin; Maraseni, Tek; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Clarke-Sather, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed household CO 2 emissions (related to the consumption of necessary and luxury goods and services) of peasants and herdsmen households in arid-alpine regions in Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia provinces, China. We also explored whether agriculture types, family income and family size have played any role in household CO 2 emissions. In order to address these issues, we: (i) developed assessment indicators for household emissions; (ii) conducted semi-structured questionnaire household surveys; and (iii) employed input-output analysis (IOA). The results showed that, the average household CO 2 emission per capita is 1.43 tons (t) CO 2 ; the proportion of subsistence emissions (related to the consumption of necessary goods and services) accounts for 93.24%, whereas luxury emissions (generated due to consumption of specific goods and services that are consumed only when household income improves) only account for 6.76%t. Moreover, household CO 2 emissions increase with family income and family size, but per capita emissions are inversely related to family size. The highest average household emissions were found in the alpine agricultural and pastoral region (6.18 t CO 2 ), followed by the irrigated agricultural region (6.07 t CO 2 ) and the rain-fed agricultural region (5.34 t CO 2 ). In consideration of insignificant amount of household emissions from these poor and vulnerable groups of the society, this study suggests to follow the principle of fairness while making energy conservation, emission reduction and adaptation policies. - Highlights: ► Per capita emissions decrease as the household size increases. ► The subsistence emissions accounts for 93.24% of the total emissions. ► If heating related emissions are excluded, household emissions are negligible. ► The reduction of emissions below current levels is almost impossible. ► Poor and vulnerable groups should be given special consideration

  12. Classification of the Relationship between Household Welfare and Ecosystem Reliance in the Miyun Reservoir Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchun Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Household welfare is inseparable from the environment because of its dependence on ecosystems and their services. However, linking household welfare and ecosystems in order to inform differentiated household livelihood development in spatially heterogeneous regions is still a great challenge. Based on a field survey of 1754 households, we grouped the relationships between household welfare (defined by total income and ecosystem reliance (expressed by an index of dependence on ecosystem services in the Watershed of Miyun Reservoir, the only source of surface water for domestic use in Beijing, China. The relationships can be grouped into four types: high welfare and high dependency; low welfare and low dependency; high welfare and low dependence; and low welfare and high dependency. Family structure, households’ education and skill level, and the proximity to Beijing have significant impacts on household welfare, while the quantity of natural capital and eco-compensation fund significantly contribute to the ecosystem dependence. Maintaining suitable family size and age structure, improving education and skill levels, and strengthening payment for ecosystem services within low welfare households would be effective approaches to their welfare improvement. The above classification can help design tailored policy and management options to promote sustainable livelihoods based on different household subgroups.

  13. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  14. Incomes and expenses of the households

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław Gorczyca

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the statistical spectrum of the incomes and expenses of the Polish households leads to the conclusion that the disposable incomes only slightly surpass the expenses of the households and, for a significant part of the households, are lower. There is a growing economic polarization of the society whose considerable part lives on incomes below the social minimum and even below the minimum of existence. The society, as a whole, only to a small extent enjoys the fruits of the econo...

  15. Models of consumer behavior of households depending on the income level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnikova A.S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available the consumer behavior of households is defined by a complex of internal and external factors: income of the population, motives and incentives of behavior, behavioral norms and personal preferences. As the example of structure analysis of the income and expenses of households of Sverdlovsk region during research models of consumer behavior of households are allocated, characteristics and structure of the population depending on their welfare are allocated. Author's approach allows forecasting of the consumer market, proceeding from the socio-economic factors forming the level of the population income in the region.

  16. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  17. Householder transformations and optimal linear combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Smiley, W., III

    1974-01-01

    Several theorems related to the Householder transformation and separability criteria are proven. Orthogonal transformations, topology, divergence, mathematical matrices, and group theory are discussed.

  18. Transformation of the Housing Market in Tokyo since the Late 1990s: Housing Purchases by Single-person Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kubo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to clarify the correlation between the transformation of the Japanese housing market and the increasing number of single-person households in Japan, with a special focus on the supply of compact condominiums. In order to achieve the abovementioned purpose, the changes in the Japanese housing market and diversification of the Japanese household structure are described. Finally, the features of the supply strategies of condominium suppliers, which reflect the diversification of the household structure and increasing need for condominiums by single-person households in central Tokyo, are examined.

  19. Household solid waste characteristics and management in Chittagong, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujauddin, Mohammad; Huda, S.M.S.; Hoque, A.T.M. Rafiqul

    2008-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a multidimensional challenge faced by urban authorities, especially in developing countries like Bangladesh. We investigated per capita waste generation by residents, its composition, and the households' attitudes towards waste management at Rahman Nagar Residential Area, Chittagong, Bangladesh. The study involved a structured questionnaire and encompassed 75 households from five different socioeconomic groups (SEGs): low (LSEG), lower middle (LMSEG), middle (MSEG), upper middle (UMSEG) and high (HSEG). Wastes, collected from all of the groups of households, were segregated and weighed. Waste generation was 1.3 kg/household/day and 0.25 kg/person/day. Household solid waste (HSW) was comprised of nine categories of wastes with vegetable/food waste being the largest component (62%). Vegetable/food waste generation increased from the HSEG (47%) to the LSEG (88%). By weight, 66% of the waste was compostable in nature. The generation of HSW was positively correlated with family size (r xy = 0.236, p xy = 0.244, p xy = 0.671, p < 0.01) of the households. Municipal authorities are usually the responsible agencies for solid waste collection and disposal, but the magnitude of the problem is well beyond the ability of any municipal government to tackle. Hence dwellers were found to take the service from the local waste management initiative. Of the respondents, an impressive 44% were willing to pay US$0.3 to US$0.4 per month to waste collectors and it is recommended that service charge be based on the volume of waste generated by households. Almost a quarter (22.7%) of the respondents preferred 12-1 pm as the time period for their waste to be collected. This study adequately shows that household solid waste can be converted from burden to resource through segregation at the source, since people are aware of their role in this direction provided a mechanism to assist them in this pursuit exists and the burden is distributed according to the

  20. House prices and household mobility in the Netherlands : Empirical analyses of financial characteristics of the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegmans, J.W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation studies the role of financial household characteristics in the determination of house prices and household mobility in the Dutch owner-occupied housing market. We investigate how various financial characteristics -- in particular income, wealth, housing equity, and prospective

  1. Exploring family home food environments: Household resources needed to utilise weekly deliveries of free fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Sophie A; Mainvil, Louise A; Coveney, John D

    2017-04-01

    An adapted ethnographic approach was used to explore household factors that influence family fruit and vegetable consumption when access and cost barriers are removed. 'Structural' barriers, such as food affordability and accessibility, are likely to influence fruit and vegetable consumption in disadvantaged households, but households may require additional resources (human and social) to increase consumption. Five low-income and five high-income households with children (N = 39 individuals) were observed in their home environment for three months. Including both advantaged and disadvantaged families allowed exploration of socioeconomic factors influencing these households. Each household received a free box of fresh fruit and vegetables each week for 10-12 weeks, delivered to their home, and were home-visited twice a week by a researcher (40+ hours per household). An inductive analysis of rich observational and discussion data revealed themes describing factors influencing household fruit and vegetable consumption. Household food cultures were dynamic and influenced by available resources. Even when free produce was delivered to homes, these households required human resource (personal drivers influenced by early life exposure and household dynamics) and external social networks to make use of them. When household finances and/or labour were limited, there was greater dependence on external organisations for tangible support. Even when structural barriers were removed, disadvantaged families needed a range of resources across the life course to improve eating behaviours, including sufficient, motivated and skilled labour and harmonious family relationships. Strategies targeting these households must consider structural, social, cultural and intra-familial influences on food choice. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  2. If you pick up the children, I'll do the groceries: spatial differences in between-partner interactions in out-of-home household activities

    OpenAIRE

    Schwanen, T.; Ettema, D.F.; Timmermans, Harry

    2007-01-01

    While many studies have been conducted about the allocation of household duties within households, little is known about the impact of land use and accessibility on the distribution of out-of- home household tasks between spouses and about men's participation in such activities. This paper addresses this impact, while controlling for the impact of household structure, life cycle, employment status and hours, access to transport systems, and interactions among activities in persons' activity s...

  3. Proposal for refining business rules for petroleum and natural gas tenure in Alberta 1999 : attachment to Mineral Rights Information Bulletin 99-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The position taken by Alberta Energy regarding petroleum and natural gas tenure is discussed. In September 1995, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Tenure Review Advisory Committee was established with representation from the Ministry of Energy and five industry associations. Since then, the Committee has published 10 proposals for industry review. The review resulted in the Mines and Minerals Amendment Act 1997, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Tenure Regulation, the Mines and Minerals Administration Regulation and the Crown Minerals Registration Regulation. The Alberta Department of Energy is committed to introducing further changes where necessary. Some of these changes are described in this proposal. They are: (1) changes to the mission of the the Department of Energy, (2) changes to the mission of the Mineral Operations Division, (3) changes to petroleum and natural gas tenure philosophies, (4) petroleum and natural gas licence administration, (5) petroleum and natural gas tenure regulations, (6) off-location wells, (7) continuations based on the Energy and Utilities Board's (EUB) approved projects, (8) changes to offset notices within the EUB approved projects, (9) serving notices on diagonally cornering spacing units, (10) offset compensation, (11) changes to applications where minister disagrees, (12) trespassing, and (13) water injection, water disposal, waster source and observation wells

  4. Household Role in Coping with Precarious Work. Evidence from Qualitative Research in Urban Romania and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preoteasa Ana Maria D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative comparative study that looked at the meaning of ‘precarious work’ in households situated in the position of ‘precarious prosperity’ in Switzerland and Romania in 2013. The aim of this research is to explore the experiences of individuals with precarious work and to embed them into their household and national structural contexts. Employment patterns in the two countries are similar in terms of uncertainty and instability, yet vary in many other aspects. While in Romania insecurity is due mainly to the very low incomes, in Switzerland it stems from nonstandard contracts. The research shows that for households of precarious prosperity, precarious work is both a strategy to cope with uncertainty and instability and a circumstance leading to precariousness. The analysis explores qualitatively the meaning that individuals living in households of precarious prosperity attribute to their employment situation as contextualized by the interplay between household and individual situation.

  5. Determinants of edible oil choice by households in Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Gurrappa Naidu; Suryaprakash, Satrasala

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the major determinants that influence the choice of edible oils by households across geographical zones in Tamil Nadu state, India. The primary data from 1,000 sample households were collected using a structured pre-tested questionnaire. Multinomial logit model was fitted for determining the factors. The results revealed that education, income, and households with a history of health problems were the important determinants that influenced the choice of low-saturated-fat oils, whereas the larger size households and weaker section households preferred low-priced palm oil. Income and education levels in Tamil Nadu state surged ahead in recent years. In consonance to these changes the nontraditional low-saturated fat containing sunflower oil demand will increase in many folds in coming years. Hence, besides traditional oils, sunflower oil production has to be stepped up on "mission mode" through appropriate production programs to meet the present and future edible oil demand domestically.

  6. Household biomass energy choice and its policy implications on improving rural livelihoods in Sichuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Qiu; Yang, Haoran; Liu, Tianbiao; Zhang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    It is widely known that a switch from traditional biomass energy to modern clean, safe and efficient energy could improve local rural livelihoods by enhancing the access to ‘high quality’ energy and reducing the negative impacts of traditional biomass energy on health, environment and living standards. Hence, in this paper, we used alternative-specific conditional logit model (ASCLM) to examine the rural household energy choice behaviors in Sichuan Province of China from the perspective of revealed and stated preferences. The results show that the fuel switching in our study region is not a simple unidirectional process from traditional biomass energy to modern fuels as incomes improve. Household energy choice behaviors could be not only affected by energy-specific characteristics such as fuel price, smoky level and safety risk, but also influenced by household-specific factors such as income level, age and educational level of the decision maker, household demographic structure, number of people frequently eating at home, distance to the nearest biomass collecting spot and household location, suggesting that government should attach more importance to simultaneously improve energy quality, control energy price and enhance household socio-economic status. - Highlights: •McFadden's choice model was applied to analyze household energy choice in Sichuan. •We examined household revealed and stated preferences for different fuels. •Household fuel switching is not a simple or unidirectional process. •Households prefer to use fuel with lower cost, higher safety and lower indoor pollution. •Household fuel choice is affected by interactions among multiple factors.

  7. National Alcohol Survey of households in Trinidad and Tobago (NASHTT: Alcohol use in households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Maharaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.

  8. Essays on household time allocation decisions in a collective household model

    OpenAIRE

    Silvennoinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    This thesis considers the consequences of traditional division of labour in households in a setting where spouses are allowed to have distinct preferences. This approach leads to different results compared to the traditional unitary approach and is better equipped to take into consideration gender related issues of household decision making. The thesis consists of three theoretical essays where the household production theory is applied in the collective household model. The first essay ...

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEPTIONS OF THE CAUSES OFPOVERTY AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.C.J. Grobler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As pioneered by Feagin (1972, the literature on the theories of poverty focuses onindividualistic, structural and fatalistic causes of poverty. The individualisticperception blames individuals themselves for their poverty situation. In contrast,the structural perception of poverty blames society for poverty, while the fatalisticperception views poverty asmerely bad luck. Evenalthoughvariouspeople havedifferent perceptions of the causes of poverty, these viewstypically fall into oneof these three categories. People tend to ascribe to these perceptions mostlybecause of their ontological and cosmological views of life, which are influencedby household characteristics. The purpose of this study was to investigate thehousehold characteristics that determine perceptions of household heads withregard to the causes of poverty. Indexes on individualistic, structural and fatalisticperceptions were calculated for each household and used as dependent variables inan Ordinary Least Squares (OLS regression model. The study found that ahousehold head’syears of schooling, grant recipients and food insecurity werestrong predictors of thestructural perception while as regardstheindividualisticperception, the study reporteda positive strong relationship with theage of thehead ofa household, the number of years ofschoolingreceived by the head of thehouseholdwhereas there wasa negative significant relationship withfood insecure households, and also withfemale heads of household. Fatalisticperceptions were stronglypredicted by food insecurity, grant recipients and yearsof schooling of the head of household. The implications of the results are thatpolicy makers need to first understand the perceptions of the poor before comingup with mitigating programmes as the perceptions might influencetheeffectiveness of the interventions.

  10. Migrant workers in Italy: an analysis of injury risk taking into account occupational characteristics and job tenure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Giraudo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC, and workers born in high income countries (HIC, taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of occupational safety among migrants, the study focuses on Moroccans, the largest community in Italy in the years of the analysis. Methods Using the Work History Italian Panel-Salute integrated database, only contracts of employment in the private sector, starting in the period between 2000 and 2005 and held by men, were selected. The analysis focused on economic sectors with an important foreign component: engineering, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage. Injury rates were calculated using a definition of serious occupational injuries based on the type of injury. Incidence rate ratios (IRR were calculated using a Poisson distribution for panel data taking into account time-dependent variables. Results Injury rates among SMPC workers were higher than for HIC workers in engineering (15.61 ‰ py vs. 8.92 ‰ py, but there were no significant differences in construction (11.21 vs. 10.09, transportation and storage (7.82 vs. 7.23 and the wholesale and retail sectors (4.06 vs. 4.67. Injury rates for Moroccans were higher than for both HIC and total migrant workers in all economic sectors considered. The multivariate analysis revealed an interaction effect of job tenure among both

  11. Migrant workers in Italy: an analysis of injury risk taking into account occupational characteristics and job tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Massimiliano; Bena, Antonella; Costa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-22

    Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities) has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC), and workers born in high income countries (HIC), taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of occupational safety among migrants, the study focuses on Moroccans, the largest community in Italy in the years of the analysis. Using the Work History Italian Panel-Salute integrated database, only contracts of employment in the private sector, starting in the period between 2000 and 2005 and held by men, were selected. The analysis focused on economic sectors with an important foreign component: engineering, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage. Injury rates were calculated using a definition of serious occupational injuries based on the type of injury. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using a Poisson distribution for panel data taking into account time-dependent variables. Injury rates among SMPC workers were higher than for HIC workers in engineering (15.61 ‰ py vs. 8.92 ‰ py), but there were no significant differences in construction (11.21 vs. 10.09), transportation and storage (7.82 vs. 7.23) and the wholesale and retail sectors (4.06 vs. 4.67). Injury rates for Moroccans were higher than for both HIC and total migrant workers in all economic sectors considered. The multivariate analysis revealed an interaction effect of job tenure among both SMPC and Moroccan workers in the construction

  12. Households and food security: lessons from food secure households in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, Silvia; Douxchamps, Sabine; Kristjanson, Patti; Förch, Wiebke; Radeny, Maren; Mutie, Lanetta; Quiros, F.C.; Herrero, M.; Ndungu, Anthony; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background
    What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions

  13. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Wesley R

    2012-05-01

    inexpensive staple foods and dishes, and conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women’s gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. Conclusions This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

  14. Cultural repertoires and food-related household technology within colonia households under conditions of material hardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Wesley R; Sharkey, Joseph R; Johnson, Cassandra M; St John, Julie

    2012-05-15

    conventional and innovative technological practices. These repertoires expressed the creative agency of women colonia residents. Food-related practices were constrained by climate, animal and insect pests, women's gender roles, limitations in neighborhood and household infrastructure, and economic and material resources. This research points to the importance of socioeconomic and structural factors such as gender roles, economic poverty and material hardship as constraints on food choice and food-related behavior. In turn, it emphasizes the innovative practices employed by women residents of colonias to prepare meals under these constraints.

  15. Refinement of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale: Recommendation for a 14-item EBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.

  16. Estimating Natural Environmental Characteristics of Subsidized Households: A Case Study of Austin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jae Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the traditional public housing program, the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC program has been regarded as a better tool to ensure the quality of housing structure for subsidized households and the mixing of incomes in neighborhoods. Previous studies related to LIHTC developments have solely focused on the relationships between subsidized households and socioeconomic environments, such as income, race, poverty, etc. Beyond the socioeconomic environments where subsidized households are located, there is a limited understanding about whether subsidized households experience healthier natural environments in their neighborhoods. This study aims to investigate whether LIHTC-subsidized housing neighborhoods provide adequate natural environments to the subsidized households in Austin, Texas, compared to the public housing households. We employ comparison t-tests and binomial logistic regression models. The results show that LIHTC households are significantly exposed to unhealthy natural environmental settings such as a lack of green vegetation and steep slopes while no statistical evidence is reported for public housing neighborhoods. Findings from this study may help policymakers and planners improve their understanding of whether subsidized housing developments offer better natural environments for disadvantaged populations and help them develop effective environmental intervention strategies to improve the quality of life of subsidized households.

  17. Urban Household Carbon Emission and Contributing Factors in the Yangtze River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Tan, Yan; Chen, Shuang; Yang, Guishan; Su, Weizhong

    2015-01-01

    Carbon reduction at the household level is an integral part of carbon mitigation. This study analyses the characteristics, effects, contributing factors and policies for urban household carbon emissions in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Primary data was collected through structured questionnaire surveys in three cities in the region – Nanjing, Ningbo, and Changzhou in 2011. The survey data was first used to estimate the magnitude of household carbon emissions in different urban contexts. It then examined how, and to what extent, each set of demographic, economic, behavioral/cognitive and spatial factors influence carbon emissions at the household level. The average of urban household carbon emissions in the region was estimated to be 5.96 tonnes CO2 in 2010. Energy consumption, daily commuting, garbage disposal and long-distance travel accounted for 51.2%, 21.3%, 16.0% and 11.5% of the total emission, respectively. Regulating rapidly growing car-holdings of urban households, stabilizing population growth, and transiting residents’ low-carbon awareness to household behavior in energy saving and other spheres of consumption in the context of rapid population aging and the growing middle income class are suggested as critical measures for carbon mitigation among urban households in the Yangtze River Delta. PMID:25884853

  18. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  19. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2 tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of biowaste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland.

  20. Household fuels, direct combustion, public perception, fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-10

    Jul 10, 2005 ... household energy needs and should b e c onsidered as a v ia b le alternativ e sour c e o f energy w hen energy p olic ... consumption is dominated by industries and house- ..... support the predictions of household economics,.

  1. Steps to design a household energy game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are

  2. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  3. Households' willingness to pay for public housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.; van der Vlist, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of price controls, nonmarket housing allocation mechanisms such as queueing prevent households from revealing their marginal willingness to pay for housing through market prices. We derive the households' marginal willingness to pay using the intuitive idea that the length of the

  4. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses on-site supplementary household water sources with a focus on groundwater abstraction, rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse as available non-potable water sources to residential consumers. An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources ...

  5. Religion, economic attitudes, and household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the differences in economic attitudes and financial decisions between religious and non-religious households. Using Dutch survey data, we find that religious households consider themselves more trusting, and have a stronger bequest motive and a longer planning horizon. Furthermore,

  6. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  7. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  8. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher

  9. Formal demography of families and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; van Imhoff, E.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Family and household demography’ differs from traditional demography in that it explicitly recognizes and studies relationships between individuals. Formal demography focuses on the definition and measurement of families and households, and modeling of types, number, and composition of families and

  10. Development And Evaluation Of A Prototype Household Wooden Silo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prototype household wooden silo with 8 kg capacity for storing shelled maize was designed, constructed and evaluated for performance. The structure was rectangular in shape, of total height of 0.6 m and width of 0.3 m, with a conical top inclined at an angle of 30 º with 0.1 m height and 0.3 m width. The silo had a top ...

  11. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants....... The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  12. Capitalization of Local Products through Agro- Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In every household there are many family activities that provide the necessary income or living foods. Some activities are related to cultivation of land, others for breeding other means services provided by the vilagers. The products of the own household must cover 40% of meals offered to tourists. These products are produced by the householder work in their household, the tourist having the opportunity to observe how the products are produced and participate effectively in this production. Specific rural household products can be recovered through tourism by both indirect and direct ways. Both variants can generate increased profitability and interest of the tourist business activity and impose a sense of satisfaction for quality benefit, issues that may be, in turn, assumptions favorable to the extension of this work.

  13. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO 2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO 2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  14. [Characterization of Mexican households with food insecurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics associated with food insecurity (FI) in Mexican households. The study included information about 40 809 households from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. The Latin American and Caribbean Scale Food Safety (ELCSA) was used to categorize households in terms of food insecurity. Classification and regression trees were used to identify the most significant characteristics in households with high prevalence of FI. The characteristics associated with higher prevalence of FI in homes were: lowest quintiles of welfare status, lack of education or walking or moving disability of household head, and not receiving money from social programmes, pension or remittances. Monitoring of the factors that favor the presence of FI is required to detect social groups being excluded from the right to food.

  15. Household medical waste disposal policy in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Berman, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar; Schwartzberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown. In Israel, there is no legislation regarding household medical waste collection and disposal. Furthermore, only less than 14 % of Israelis return unused medications to Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) pharmacies. In this study, we investigated world-wide approaches and programs for household medical waste collection and disposal. In many countries around the world there are programs for household medical waste collection. In many countries there is legislation to address the issue of household medical waste, and this waste is collected in hospitals, clinics, law enforcement agencies and pharmacies. Furthermore, in many countries, medication producers and pharmacies pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste, following the "polluter pays" principle. Several approaches and methods should be considered in Israel: (a) legislation and regulation to enable a variety of institutes to collect household medical waste (b) implementing the "polluter pays" principle and enforcing medical products manufactures to pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste. (c) Raising awareness of patients, pharmacists, and other medical health providers regarding the health and environmental risks in accumulation of drugs and throwing them to the garbage, sink or toilet. (d) Adding specific instructions regarding disposal of the drug, in the

  16. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  17. Electricity curtailment behaviors in Greek households: Different behaviors, different predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botetzagias, Iosif; Malesios, Chrisovaladis; Poulou, Dimitra

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the self-reported energy (electricity) curtailment behaviors of Greek households (N=285). • We find that the curtailment behaviors are distinct and should be studied/analyzed separately. • ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ are statistically significant predictors of most behaviors. • The demographic/structural and the psychological predictors contribute significantly explain the variance of the behaviors. • The cluster of moral predictors does not contribute statistically significantly to the explained variance. - Abstract: This paper argues that electricity ‘curtailment’ behaviors (i.e. frequent and/or low cost or free energy saving behaviors) in households are distinct from one another and they thus should be analyzed and promoted. We test this claim with data from telephone interviews with Greek households in the capital city of Athens (N=285), analyzing the impact of a number of demographical/structural, psychological (based on the Theory of Planned Behavior) and moral (based on norms’ activation) predictors though hierarchical binary logistic regression modeling. We find that that each electricity curtailment behavior depends on a different mix of predictors with ‘Age’, ‘Gender’ and ‘Perceived Behavioral Control’ being statistically significant for most behaviors. Overall, the psychological and the demographical/structural clusters of variables substantially contribute to the explained variance of electricity curtailment behaviors. The moral cluster's contribution is not statistically significant since moral concerns are largely interwoven in the psychological constructs

  18. Household food security and infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owais, Aatekah; Kleinbaum, David G; Suchdev, Parminder S; Faruque, Asg; Das, Sumon K; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-07-01

    To determine the association between household food security and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Prospective, cohort study using structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 and 9 months after delivery. We used two indicators of household food security at 3-months' follow-up: maternal Food Composition Score (FCS), calculated via the World Food Programme method, and an HHFS index created from an eleven-item food security questionnaire. Infant feeding practices were characterized using WHO definitions. Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj, Bangladesh. Mother-child dyads (n 2073) who completed the 9-months' follow-up. Complementary feeding was initiated at age ≤4 months for 7 %, at 5-6 months for 49 % and at ≥7 months for 44 % of infants. Based on 24 h dietary recall, 98 % of infants were still breast-feeding at age 9 months, and 16 % received ≥4 food groups and ≥4 meals (minimally acceptable diet) in addition to breast milk. Mothers' diet was more diverse than infants'. The odds of receiving a minimally acceptable diet for infants living in most food-secure households were three times those for infants living in least food-secure households (adjusted OR=3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·3). Socio-economic status, maternal age, literacy, parity and infant sex were not associated with infant diet. HHFS and maternal FCS were significant predictors of subsequent infant feeding practices. Nevertheless, even the more food-secure households had poor infant diet. Interventions aimed at improving infant nutritional status need to focus on both complementary food provision and education.

  19. Household pathway selection of energy consumption during urbanization process in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling; Cai, Hongbo; Luo, Zhichao; Li, Aijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy consumption patterns have long-term impacts on energy demand. • We explore determinants and structure of household energy consumption. • Tobit and OLS models are adopted to explore factors influencing energy expenditure. • Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated using scenario analysis. - Abstract: China’s growing energy demand is driven by urbanization. Facing the problem of energy scarcity, residential energy consumption is a crucial area of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Household energy consumption patterns, which are characterized by effects of “path lock-in”, have long-term impacts on China’s energy demand. Based on the survey data, this paper explores factors that influence household energy consumption and analyzes the structure of residential energy consumption in China. Based on the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA), this paper applies the Tobit and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) models to investigate impacts of variables of “the tiered pricing for household electricity (TPHE)”, “solar energy usage”, “automobile ownership”, “rural or urban areas”, “household income” and “city scale” on the residential energy expenditure. In addition, household energy consumption is estimated under different scenarios including improving the utilization of solar energy, rise in energy prices and the increase in automobile ownership. Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated by simulating different models for urban development. Policy recommendations are suggested for China’s urban development strategy, new energy development and household pathway selection of energy consumption

  20. Water supply in households and conditions for tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenović Kosovka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global structural change, together with "the green revolution", caused the economic growth to be based on the service sector today, instead on the traditional economic sectors. The main focus of this paper is on the factors that affect the decisions of households in Serbia to participate in the tourism industry in the context of the sustainable development. In particular, a significant portion of the analysis is devoted to the constraints that can be induced by inadequate drinking water supply and its quality in households. These factors can be considered the main limitations to those households that decide to provide accommodation and food services to the tourists in their local touristreceiver communities. The empirical analysis is based on survey data that describe conditions in the households, whereas the econometric framework is employed in order to determine structural relationships. The null hypothesis that drinking water supply and quality do not affect the likelihood of the household participating in the tourism industry is tested and accepted based on the probit model estimates. The difference between the public urban and local water supply systems that provide drinking water to the households is statistically confirmed, but it does not affect the likelihood of the household participating in the tourism industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-47009 i br. OI- 179015

  1. Does personality influence job acquisition and tenure in people with severe mental illness enrolled in supported employment programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Guillaume; Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc

    2017-06-01

    When employment difficulties in people with severe mental illness (SMI) occur, it could be partly linked to issues not specific to SMI, such as personality traits or problems. Despite the fact that personality has a marked influence on almost every aspect of work behavior, it has scarcely been investigated in the context of employment for people with SMI. We aimed to evaluate if personality was more predictive than clinical variables of different competitive work outcomes, namely acquisition of competitive employment, delay to acquisition and job tenure. A sample of 82 people with a SMI enrolled in supported employment programs (SEP) was recruited and asked to complete various questionnaires and interviews. Statistical analyses included logistic regressions and survival analyses (Cox regressions). Prior employment, personality problems and negative symptoms are significantly related to acquisition of a competitive employment and to delay to acquisition whereas the conscientiousness personality trait was predictive of job tenure. Our results point out the relevance of personality traits and problems as predictors of work outcomes in people with SMI registered in SEP. Future studies should recruit larger samples and also investigate these links with other factors related to work outcomes.

  2. Incarceration and Household Asset Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schneider, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A considerable literature documents the deleterious economic consequences of incarceration. However, little is known about the consequences of incarceration for household assets-a distinct indicator of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to the survival of low-income families-or about the spillover economic consequences of incarceration for families. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how incarceration is associated with asset ownership among formerly incarcerated men and their romantic partners. Results, which pay careful attention to the social forces that select individuals into incarceration, show that incarceration is negatively associated with ownership of a bank account, vehicle, and home among men and that these consequences for asset ownership extend to the romantic partners of these men. These associations are concentrated among men who previously held assets. Results also show that post-incarceration changes in romantic relationships are an important pathway by which even short-term incarceration depletes assets.

  3. Household production and consumption over the life cycle: National Time Transfer Accounts in 14 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Vargha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While the importance of unpaid household labour is recognised in total economic output, little is known about the demographics of household production and consumption. Objective: Our goal is to give a comprehensive estimation on the value of household production and its consumption by age and gender and analyse nonmarket economic transfers in 14 European countries based on publicly available harmonised data. Methods: We introduce a novel imputation method of harmonised European time use (HETUS data to the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC in order to assign time spent on home production to consumers in households and estimate time transfers. Moreover, monetary values are attributed to household production activities using data on earnings from the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES. Results: We show that the nonmarket economic life cycle of men differs from that of women. The gender gap in household production is not evenly distributed over the life cycle. Women of working age contribute the most in net terms, while the main beneficiaries of household goods and services are children and to a lesser extent adult men. These patterns are similar across countries, with variations in the gender- and age-specific levels of home production and consumption. Conclusions: In Europe, in the national economy, intergenerational flows are important in sustaining both childhood and old age. In contrast, in the household economy, intergenerational transfers flow mostly towards children. Contribution: We add a new focus to the research on household production: While keeping the gender aspect, we demonstrate the importance of the life cycle component in household production.

  4. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  7. Determinants of Vulnerability to Livelihood Insecurity at Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Household Economic Approach of measuring vulnerability. The Household ... external and internal sides as proposed by Conway and Chambers (1989): ... education and occupation of the household head, dependency ratio, exposure.

  8. households' choices of healthcare services in the north west region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    model. Households' characteristics such as sex and age of household heads, marital status of household heads and .... Based Financing (PBF) of healthcare in the North .... return from this capital in both market and non- ... Healthy Life Style.

  9. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results demonstrate a need for environmentalists to make household location decisions that reflect their environmental attitudes and future research to address how interactions between education level, environmental attitudes, population aging, and household location choices influence biodiversity

  10. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving. Analysis of the research literature suggests that previous financial literacy efforts have yielded mixed results. Evidence suggests that interventions provided for employees in the workplace have helped increase household saving, but estimates of the magnitude of the impact vary widely. For financial education initiatives targeted to other groups, the evidence is much more ambiguous, suggesting a need for more econometrically rigorous evaluations.

  11. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  12. Household energy demand. Empirical studies concerning Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J; Lundin, A

    1978-06-01

    This paper investigates the effects of energy policy on households in Sweden and provides the material necessary for evaluation of current and proposed energy-conservation measures. Emphasis is placed on the impact of enery taxation or price changes on household demand for electricity, heating oil, and gasoline and the consequences of such measures for income distribution. The results of the Swedish studies of household demand for heating oil and gasoline indicate that price changes can have a considerable long run impact on fuel utilization. In the short run, price responsiveness is notably reduced, but it is nevertheless of consequence for energy demand.

  13. Individual and Household Willingness to Pay for Public Goods

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether willingness to pay (WTP) for the benefits generated by a public good should be elicited on an individual or on a household basis is addressed. Differences between individual and household WTP may arise when members of the household are mutually altruistic. It is shown that, for general specifications of altruism, household WTP is less than the sum of household members' individual WTP. Implications for the choice between household and individual measures of WTP are conside...

  14. Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

    2013-04-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO 2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO 2 . This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO 2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO 2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO 2 emissions. CO 2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO 2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO 2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO 2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an

  15. Associations of individual, household and environmental characteristics with carbon dioxide emissions from motorised passenger travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Christian; Goodman, Anna; Rutter, Harry; Song, Yena; Ogilvie, David

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motorised travel are hypothesised to be associated with individual, household, spatial and other environmental factors. Little robust evidence exists on who contributes most (and least) to travel CO2 and, in particular, the factors influencing commuting, business, shopping and social travel CO2. This paper examines whether and how demographic, socio-economic and other personal and environmental characteristics are associated with land-based passenger transport and associated CO2 emissions. Primary data were collected from 3474 adults using a newly developed survey instrument in the iConnect study in the UK. The participants reported their past-week travel activity and vehicle characteristics from which CO2 emissions were derived using an adapted travel emissions profiling method. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine what characteristics predicted higher CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from motorised travel were distributed highly unequally, with the top fifth of participants producing more than two fifth of emissions. Car travel dominated overall CO2 emissions, making up 90% of the total. The strongest independent predictors of CO2 emissions were owning at least one car, being in full-time employment and having a home-work distance of more than 10 km. Income, education and tenure were also strong univariable predictors of CO2 emissions, but seemed to be further back on the causal pathway than having a car. Male gender, late-middle age, living in a rural area and having access to a bicycle also showed significant but weaker associations with emissions production. The findings may help inform the development of climate change mitigation policies for the transport sector. Targeting individuals and households with high car ownership, focussing on providing viable alternatives to commuting by car, and supporting planning and other policies that reduce commuting distances may provide an equitable and

  16. Measuring Individual Skills in Household Waste Recycling: Implications for Citizens' Education and Communication in Six Urban Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafaro, Paola; Bacciu, Anna; Caggianelli, Ilaria; Castaldi, Viviana; Fucci, Eleonora; Ritondale, Deborah; Trabalzini, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the analysis of six urban contexts in which a practical tool measuring individual skills concerning household waste recycling was tested. The tool is a structured questionnaire including a simulation task that assesses respondents' abilities to sort household waste adequately in a given context/municipality. Results indicate…

  17. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  18. Assessing the Impacts of Non-Ricardian Households in an Estimated New Keynesian DSGE Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo Marto

    2014-01-01

    Using Bayesian maximum likelihood and data for Portugal, I estimate a New Keynesian DSGE model allowing for the presence of non-Ricardian households and test the stability of the model's prediction when the fraction of liquidity-constrained households changes. In particular, I assess the impacts on: (i) the model parameters posterior distributions; (ii) the impulse responses to six types of structural shocks; and (iii) the sources of fluctuations in output, inflation and the nominal interest ...

  19. Tax News: The Response of Household Spending to Changes in Expected Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz Kueng

    2014-01-01

    Although theoretical models of household behavior often emphasize fiscal foresight, empirical studies of household consumption have yet to document the role of news about tax changes. Using novel high-frequency bond data, I develop a model of the term structure of municipal yield spreads as a function of future top income tax rates and a risk premium. Testing the model using the presidential elections of 1992 and 2000 as two quasi-natural experiments shows that financial markets forecast futu...

  20. The management of household hazardous waste in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, R J; Gronow, J R; Voulvoulis, N

    2009-01-01

    Waste legislation in the United Kingdom (UK) implements European Union (EU) Directives and Regulations. However, the term used to refer to hazardous waste generated in household or municipal situations, household hazardous waste (HHW), does not occur in UK, or EU, legislation. The EU's Hazardous Waste Directive and European Waste Catalogue are the principal legislation influencing HHW, although the waste categories described are difficult to interpret. Other legislation also have impacts on HHW definition and disposal, some of which will alter current HHW disposal practices, leading to a variety of potential consequences. This paper discusses the issues affecting the management of HHW in the UK, including the apparent absence of a HHW-specific regulatory structure. Policy and regulatory measures that influence HHW management before disposal and after disposal are considered, with particular emphasis placed on disposal to landfill.

  1. Adolescents' food preferences in china: do household living arrangements matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Suo

    2011-01-01

    Family circumstance has long been considered one important factor that shapes children's eating habits including preferences for particular foods. However, less scholarly efforts have been devoted to understanding children's food preferences in extended family households. Drawn on data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) 2006 (n = 662), this exploratory study compares food preferences of adolescents living in extended families with those residing in nuclear families. T-test results show that adolescents living in extended families (n = 202) had unhealthier food preferences compared with those living in nuclear families (n = 460). They showed more liking for fast food, salted snack food, and sugared drinks, and less liking for vegetables and fruits. Regression results present that controlling for other relevant variables, household structure was significantly associated with adolescents' food preferences (p China.

  2. Climate Change, Household Vulnerability and Smart Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marina

    The cost benefits analysis was the main technique used to evaluate alternative adaptation strategies. .... Figure 7 Different vulnerability levels of households from Lambani and Alice . ...... practices and the maintenance of surface residues.

  3. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  4. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  5. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  6. Community mobilization and household level waste management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A baseline household survey was conducted and entomological and sociological surveys were carried out .... Research methods ... including the objectives and the methodology were .... tained both quantitative and qualitative assessments.

  7. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  8. FOOD DEMAND PATTERNS IN GHANAIAN URBAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard SAKYIAMAH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed food consumption patterns in Ghanaian urban households by comparing food commodity budget shares and estimating price and expenditure elasticities for eleven food commodity groups across different income groups. The Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS was applied to the data. Demand for most of the food commodity groups was found to be elastic. The study concluded that generally, across income groups, food commodities respond negatively to changes in food prices and that cereals/bread, roots/tubers, vegetables, meat and fish will remain an important component of urban household food expenditure. Generally, household demographic characteristics such as age, gender and household size had significant effects on urban food demand patterns.

  9. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  10. Building and household X-factors and energy consumption at the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiri, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects

  11. Analysis of rice policy based on presidential instruction on household food security: simultaneous equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this research is to analyze the impacts of rice policy on the household food security. The research used cross section data, were collected from 74 respondent as determined by purposive sampling in Sei Rejo villages, the Sub District of Sei Rampah, Serdang Bedagai District in the Province of North Sumatera. Rice policy model specification uses the simultaneous equations consisting of 6 structural equations and 6 identity equations which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that the effectiveness of government purchase price of dried harvest paddy gave a positive impact on paddy planted area and lead to an increase paddy production and an increase of the rice production gave a positive impact on household rice availability and household rice surplus, and the increase of household rice surplus gave the quantity of Raskin decrease, whereas the increase of fertilizers gave a negative impact on paddy planted area and lead to decrease paddy production and to decrease in rice production was followed by an decrease in household rice availability and household rice surplus, and the decrease of household rice surplus gave the quantity of Raskin increase.

  12. Macroeconomic Expectations of Households and Professional Forecasters

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher D Carroll

    2002-01-01

    Economists have long emphasized the importance of expectations in determining macroeconomic outcomes Yet there has been almost no recent effort to model actual empirical expectations data; instead macroeconomists usually simply assume expectations are rational This paper shows that while empirical household expectations are not rational in the usual sense expectational dynamics are well captured by a model in which households' views derive from news reports of the views of professional foreca...

  13. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  14. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Mabsout, Ramzi; Staveren, Irene

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher female incomes lead to higher bargaining power, which in turn tends to increase women’s relative wellbeing (Quisumbing, 2003). For assets, the empirical literature comes up with similar results, indic...

  15. The influence of quality of work life on employee job satisfaction, job commitment and tenure intention in the small and medium enterprise sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A major reason for advocating for quality of work life has been the promise that it creates a win-win situation: improved employee satisfaction and welfare, hence increased productivity, longer employee tenure and consequently increased company profitability. Nevertheless, in the context of small to medium enterprises (SMEs, scant attention has been given to the empirical investigation into the influence of the quality of work life on employee tenure intention in Southern Africa. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap by examining the influence of SME employees’ perceptions of the quality of work life on their tenure intention and the mediating role of job satisfaction and job commitment in this relationship as far as Zimbabwe is concerned. Five hypotheses were posited and sample data of 282 were collected from Harare, Zimbabwe’s biggest city, to empirically test these hypotheses. The results of this study showed that, in the SME context, quality of work life positively and significantly influences employee job satisfaction, job commitment and consequently tenure intention. The managerial implications of the findings are discussed and limitations and future research directions are indicated.

  16. The joint choice of tenure, dwelling type, size and location: the effect of home-oriented versus culture-oriented lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Kaplan, Sigal

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates knowledge-workers’ housing preferences in terms of tenure, dwelling type, location and size. The analysis is conducted by applying a joint multinomial-logit ordered-response model to the housing choices of knowledgeworkers residing in the Tel-Aviv metropolitan region and w...

  17. Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? An Examination of Calling, Congruence, Job Design and Personality as Predictors of Job Satisfaction and Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nillsen, C.; Earl, J. K.; Elizondo, F.; Wadlington, P. L.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether congruence, calling, job characteristics or personality were better predictors of job satisfaction and tenure. The sample consisted of 1968 employees across four different job roles: sales engineers (N = 309), graphic designers (N = 383), teachers (N = 481) and clergy (N = 795). Data was collected as part of a selection…

  18. Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses domestic energy use and energy behaviour. It shows some improvement in domestic energy consumption and adoption of good energy practice. The survey conducted indicated that 35% of homes could improve their energy efficiency by improved tank insulation. In the last 5 years condensing boilers have been installed only in 3% of homes, indicating that householders are unaware of their advantages. Although 88% of surveyed homes had purchased a major appliance in the last 2 years, only 16% had any idea of the energy rating of their new appliances. Use of energy saving light bulbs is predominant in kitchens compared to other rooms. 70–80% of householders undertook some kind of day-to-day energy efficiency measures. 20–35% of householders would like to invest in energy-saving measures but found cost to be a key barrier. Approximately 84% of those surveyed were unaware of the energy rating of their household appliances. Price and brand were the most important factors determining the purchase of a new appliance. Significant energy-saving could be achieved by providing appropriate information to the general public regarding temperature control, efficiency of appliances and energy-saving heating systems. - Highlights: ▶ Good practice in household energy use is being adopted but actual use is rising. ▶ Cost is dominant in energy related decisions purchasing of household appliances. ▶ Energy behaviour is improving but level of awareness needs more work.

  19. Income differentiation of households in the CR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic has recently experienced phases of economic growth and periods of economic crisis, this fact affects the standard of living and household behaviour and affects the formation of life-style. This paper deals with the income situation of households. The main source of data is EU SILC survey from the years 2005 to 2008.The result of the enquiry and processing of primary data is information about the average income per household member, the poverty level and the number of households at risk of poverty. For the formulation of income differentiation is used Gini coefficient. Attention is paid to factors that affect income inequality (the number of household members, social group, age. Information, about the income situation of households, is amended by following indicators of material deprivation. The paper also analyses the impact of social transfers on income inequality. The analysis and subsequent solving of the problem of income inequality may be contributed with further analysis of empirical data of this type.

  20. Household energy requirement and value patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vringer, Kees; Aalbers, Theo; Blok, Kornelis

    2007-01-01

    For an effective consumer energy policy, it is important to know why some households require more energy than others. The aim of the study described here was to examine whether there is a relationship between the total household energy requirement, on one hand, and value patterns, the motivation to save energy or the problem perception of climate change, on the other. To examine these relationships, we held a consumer survey among 2304 respondent households. We did not find significant differences in the energy requirement of groups of households with different value patterns, taking into account the differences in the socio-economic situation of households. Only for the 'motivation to save energy' we did find that the least motivated group requires 10 GJ more energy than the average and most motivated groups; this is about 4% of the total household energy requirement. This means that a self-regulating energy policy, solely based on the fact that a strategy of internalising environmental responsibility will not be effective in saving energy. There are indications that a social dilemma is one of the reasons why people's consumption patterns do not conform to their value patterns, problem perception or motivation to save energy

  1. Sanitation investments in Ghana: An ethnographic investigation of the role of tenure security, land ownership and livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Awunyo-Akaba

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ghana’s low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district close to Accra, Ghana’s capital. Methods Qualitative data was gathered for this comparative ethnographic study over seven months, (June, 2011-January, 2012 using an average of 43 (bi-weekly participant observation per community and 56 in-depth interviews. Detailed observational data from study communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. Results This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated with people’s willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged by the increasing appropriation of their land for commercial enterprises and for governmental development projects. Interview responses suggest that increasing migrant population and the high demand for housing in the face of limited available space has resulted in general unwillingness and inability to establish private sanitation facilities in the communities. The increasing population has also created high demand for cheap accommodation, pushing tenants to accept informal tenancy agreements that provided for poor sanitation facilities. In addition, poor knowledge of tenancy rights leaves tenants in no position to demand sanitation improvements and therefore landlords feel no obligation or motivation to provide and maintain domestic

  2. Sanitation investments in Ghana: An ethnographic investigation of the role of tenure security, land ownership and livelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awunyo-Akaba, Y; Awunyo-Akaba, J; Gyapong, M; Senah, K; Konradsen, F; Rheinländer, T

    2016-07-18

    Ghana's low investment in household sanitation is evident from the low rates of improved sanitation. This study analysed how land ownership, tenancy security and livelihood patterns are related to sanitation investments in three adjacent rural and peri-urban communities in a district close to Accra, Ghana's capital. Qualitative data was gathered for this comparative ethnographic study over seven months, (June, 2011-January, 2012) using an average of 43 (bi-weekly) participant observation per community and 56 in-depth interviews. Detailed observational data from study communities were triangulated with multiple interview material and contextual knowledge on social structures, history of settlement, land use, livelihoods, and access to and perceptions about sanitation. This study shows that the history of settlement and land ownership issues are highly correlated with people's willingness and ability to invest in household sanitation across all communities. The status of being a stranger i.e. migrant in the area left some populations without rights over the land they occupied and with low incentives to invest in sanitation, while indigenous communities were challenged by the increasing appropriation of their land for commercial enterprises and for governmental development projects. Interview responses suggest that increasing migrant population and the high demand for housing in the face of limited available space has resulted in general unwillingness and inability to establish private sanitation facilities in the communities. The increasing population has also created high demand for cheap accommodation, pushing tenants to accept informal tenancy agreements that provided for poor sanitation facilities. In addition, poor knowledge of tenancy rights leaves tenants in no position to demand sanitation improvements and therefore landlords feel no obligation or motivation to provide and maintain domestic sanitation facilities. The study states that poor land rights, the

  3. Estimating household food waste in Denmark:case study of single family households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    and determine potential improvements. In Denmark, although many sorting campaigns involving household waste has been conducted, little attention has been placed on food waste. Comparison of recent studies made for examples in Austria, and the UK suggests that quantity and material composition of food waste vary...... waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Furthermore, avoidable vegetable and animal food waste were the primary source of household food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste suggesting the amount...

  4. Associations of women's position in the household and food insecurity with family planning use in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Raj, Anita; Prata, Ndola; Weiser, Sheri D

    2017-01-01

    Women in Nepal have low status, especially younger women in co-resident households. Nepal also faces high levels of household food insecurity and malnutrition, and stagnation in uptake of modern family planning methods. This study aims to understand if household structure and food insecurity interact to influence family planning use in Nepal. Using data on married, non-pregnant women aged 15-49 with at least one child from the Nepal 2011 Demographic and Health Survey (N = 7,460), we explore the relationship between women's position in the household, food insecurity as a moderator, and family planning use, using multi-variable logistic regressions. We adjust for household and individual factors, including other status-related variables. In adjusted models, living in a food insecure household and co-residing with in-laws either with no other daughter-in-laws or as the eldest or youngest daughter-in-law (compared to not-co-residing with in-laws) are all associated with lower odds of family planning use. In the interaction model, younger-sisters-in-law and women co-residing with no sisters-in-law in food insecure households have the lowest odds of family planning use. This study shows that household position is associated with family planning use in Nepal, and that food insecurity modifies these associations-highlighting the importance of considering both factors in understanding reproductive health care use in Nepal. Policies and programs should focus on the multiple pathways through which food insecurity impacts women's reproductive health, including focusing on women with the lowest status in households.

  5. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  6. Does Academic Blogging Enhance Promotion and Tenure? A Survey of US and Canadian Medicine and Pediatric Department Chairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Christian Blake; Nair, Vinay; Varma, Manu; Adams, Martha; Jhaveri, Kenar D; Sparks, Matthew A

    2016-06-23

    Electronic educational (e-learning) technology usage continues to grow. Many medical journals operate companion blogs (an application of e-learning technology) that enable rapid dissemination of scientific knowledge and discourse. Faculty members participating in promotion and tenure academic tracks spend valuable time and effort contributing, editing, and directing these medical journal blogs. We sought to understand whether chairs of medicine and pediatric departments acknowledge blog authorship as academic achievement. The authors surveyed 267 chairs of US and Canadian medicine and pediatric departments regarding their attitudes toward the role of faculty participation in e-learning and blogging in the promotion and tenure process. The survey completion rate was 22.8% (61/267). A majority of respondents (87%, 53/61) viewed educational scholarship as either important or very important for promotion. However, only 23% (14/61) perceived importance to faculty effort in producing content for journal-based blogs. If faculty were to participate in blog authorship, 72% (44/61) of surveyed chairs favored involvement in a journal-based versus a society-based or a personal (nonaffiliated) blog. We identified a "favorable group" of chairs (19/59, 32%), who rated leadership roles in e-learning tools as important or very important, and an "unfavorable group" of chairs (40/59, 68%), who rated leadership roles in e-learning tools as somewhat important or not important. The favorable group were more likely to be aware of faculty bloggers within their departments (58%, 11/19 vs 25%, 10/40), viewed serving on editorial boards of e-learning tools more favorably (79%, 15/19 vs 31%, 12/39), and were more likely to value effort spent contributing to journal-based blogs (53%, 10/19 vs 10%, 4/40). Our findings demonstrate that although the majority of department chairs value educational scholarship, only a minority perceive value in faculty blogging effort.

  7. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  8. Financial accounting as a method of household finance capacity valuation

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Untanov

    2017-01-01

    The article presents existing household finance capacity investigations. Comparison conducting allowed to determinate collisions and flaws of previous works. That substantiates to find a new approach in household finance capacity valuation necessity. The article contains theoretical research of household finance fundamental categories. In particular, it notes significant difference between domestic and foreign experience of household finance determination. Although emphasizing key similaritie...

  9. Household Transmission of Vibrio cholerae in Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Sugimoto

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae infections cluster in households. This study's objective was to quantify the relative contribution of direct, within-household exposure (for example, via contamination of household food, water, or surfaces to endemic cholera transmission. Quantifying the relative contribution of direct exposure is important for planning effective prevention and control measures.Symptom histories and multiple blood and fecal specimens were prospectively collected from household members of hospital-ascertained cholera cases in Bangladesh from 2001-2006. We estimated the probabilities of cholera transmission through 1 direct exposure within the household and 2 contact with community-based sources of infection. The natural history of cholera infection and covariate effects on transmission were considered. Significant direct transmission (p-value<0.0001 occurred among 1414 members of 364 households. Fecal shedding of O1 El Tor Ogawa was associated with a 4.9% (95% confidence interval: 0.9%-22.8% risk of infection among household contacts through direct exposure during an 11-day infectious period (mean length. The estimated 11-day risk of O1 El Tor Ogawa infection through exposure to community-based sources was 2.5% (0.8%-8.0%. The corresponding estimated risks for O1 El Tor Inaba and O139 infection were 3.7% (0.7%-16.6% and 8.2% (2.1%-27.1% through direct exposure, and 3.4% (1.7%-6.7% and 2.0% (0.5%-7.3% through community-based exposure. Children under 5 years-old were at elevated risk of infection. Limitations of the study may have led to an underestimation of the true risk of cholera infection. For instance, available covariate data may have incompletely characterized levels of pre-existing immunity to cholera infection. Transmission via direct exposure occurring outside of the household was not considered.Direct exposure contributes substantially to endemic transmission of symptomatic cholera in an urban setting. We provide the first estimate of

  10. Household activity-travel behavior : implementation of within-household interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggraini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the importance of households as a decision making unit has been recognized in seminal work in activity-based analysis of transport demand, most comprehensivemodels have relied on individual activity-travel patterns. The transformation of thesemodels to household level models and the

  11. Household vulnerability to climate change: examining perceptions of households of flood risks in Georgetown and Paramaribo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnekamp, F.; Koedam, A.; Baud, I.S.A.

    2011-01-01

    The article examines household perceptions of flooding as part of climate change in two low elevation coastal zone cities in the Caribbean. The research examines differences in vulnerability of households as the combined results of socio-economic inequalities in entitlements and exposure to natural

  12. HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE IN RESPONSE TO NATURAL DISASTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sulistyaningrum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural disasters have increased in their frequency, and the intensity of their destruction over the last ten years in Indonesia. Households usually respond to these difficulties by cutting their consump-tion, especially for non-essential goods. Arguably natural disasters are exogenous events, so this paper uses the exogenous variation from natural disasters as a natural experiment design to estimate the effect of disasters on household expenditure. When a certain group is exposed to the causal variable of interest, such as a disaster, and other groups are not, the Difference In Difference model (DID can be used for estimation. Using a micro level survey data set from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS which covers approximately 83 percent of the Indonesian population within the survey area, this paper examines the effects of natural disasters on household expenditure. This paper also examines whether there are any different impacts from different types of disasters. The finding is there are no significant effects of disasters on total household expenditure for households living in disaster regions, whether they are affected directly or not by the disaster.

  13. Household projections by the headship rates method: The case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Petar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The headship rates method (HRM of household projections based on the share of household heads in the total population of the same demographic characteristics (age, sex, nationality, marital status, etc. is the most commonly used method, especially by statistical institutes and planning institutions. The specific rates of household heads by age are calculated by dividing the number of household holders of a certain age with the total number of residents of the appropriate age. The future number of households is then simply projected on the basis of population projections by age and assumptions about the future changes of HR. The HRM is based on the projection of the future age structure of the population. In that sense, the choice of methods of population projection, as well as the method of projecting HR-s have determining impact on the outcome of household projections. Given the methodological inconsistency typical for official population projections in Serbia and significant differences in addressing uncertainty of the future population change between deterministic and probabilistic approach in making population projections, the decision to use a probabilistic projection of the population of Serbia as the basis for calculating the future number of house-holds and their structure according to the age of the household head proved to be a logical choice. However, as the basic aim of this article is to show the simple method of household projections, the above-mentioned stochastic projection is used in utterly deterministic manner. The median of the prediction interval of the population distributed across age is interpreted as the most probable future, or as a prognosis. The HR-s based on the age structure estimates and estimated number of households by age of the household head from Household budget survey (HBS are used for the purpose of HR projecting so that the number of observations would be large enough for calculating inclination parameters

  14. Exploring the link between household debt and income inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasianos, Apostolos; Raza, Hamid; Kinsella, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between household debt and income inequality in the USA, allowing for asymmetry, using data over the period 1913–2008. We find evidence of an asymmetric cointegration between household debt and inequality for different regimes. Our results indicate household debt...... only responds to positive changes in income inequality, while there is no evidence of falling inequality significantly affecting household debt. The presence of this asymmetry provides further empirical insights into the emerging literature on household debt and inequality....

  15. Stock Market Expectations of Dutch Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Michael; van Rooij, Maarten; Winter, Joachim

    2011-04-01

    Despite its importance for the analysis of life-cycle behavior and, in particular, retirement planning, stock ownership by private households is poorly understood. Among other approaches to investigate this puzzle, recent research has started to elicit private households' expectations of stock market returns. This paper reports findings from a study that collected data over a two-year period both on households' stock market expectations (subjective probabilities of gains or losses) and on whether they own stocks. We document substantial heterogeneity in financial market expectations. Expectations are correlated with stock ownership. Over the two years of our data, stock market prices increased, and expectations of future stock market price changes also increased, lending support to the view that expectations are influenced by recent stock gains or losses.

  16. Electricity savings in households with everyday IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Kaj; Larsen, Anders; leth, Søren

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted where 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control...... groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation....... The estimated effects of the feedback on consumption of electricity are estimated to be in the range of 2-3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective...

  17. Household food waste in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gaiani, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    such as climate change and unjust distribution of food resources, needs to be based on an appreciative and relational understanding of nature and food and not only on economic and moralizing arguments. This is done by drawing on an ecocentric perspective where food is seen as one of the areas where new narratives......This study focuses on food waste generated by households in four Nordic countries: Finland, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. Based on existing literature we present (A) comparable data on amounts and monetary value of food waste; (B) explanations for food waste at household level; (C) a number...... of public and private initiatives at national levels aiming to reduce food waste; and (D) a discussion of ethical issues related to food waste with a focus on possible contributions from ecocentric ethics. We argue that reduction of food waste at household level, which has an impact on issues...

  18. Household's use of information and communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    of theories of domestication of technologies, it is argued that aspects such as consumers' creativity in technology use and their non-adaption are relevant aspects to include in policy and regulation discussions on how to limit the escalating electricity consumption from household ICT use.......Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said...... and done about possible initiatives to curb this increase. This paper presents results of a research project focusing on how dynamics of consumption influence household energy consumption on ICT. Results of the project include scenarios on how electricity consumption on ICT is expected to grow, suggesting...

  19. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  20. Household batteries: Evaluation of collection methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeberger, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    While it is difficult to prove that a specific material is causing contamination in a landfill, tests have been conducted at waste-to-energy facilities that indicate that household batteries contribute significant amounts of heavy metals to both air emissions and ash residue. Hennepin County, MN, used a dual approach for developing and implementing a special household battery collection. Alternative collection methods were examined; test collections were conducted. The second phase examined operating and disposal policy issues. This report describes the results of the grant project, moving from a broad examination of the construction and content of batteries, to a description of the pilot collection programs, and ending with a discussion of variables affecting the cost and operation of a comprehensive battery collection program. Three out-of-state companies (PA, NY) were found that accept spent batteries; difficulties in reclaiming household batteries are discussed.

  1. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  2. Childbirth in aristocratic households of Heian Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on childbirth in Japan's aristocratic households during the Heian period (794-1185). Drawing on various sources, including court diaries, visual sources, literary records, and Japan's first medical collection, with its assortment of gynaecological and obstetric prescriptions, as well as Buddhist and other ritual texts, this short excursion into the cultural history of childbirth offers an insight into how childbirth was experienced and managed in Heian Japan. In particular, it addresses the variety of ideas, knowledge systems and professionals involved in framing and supporting the process of childbirth in elite households. In so doing, it casts light on the complex background of early Japanese medicine and healthcare for women.

  3. Energy consumption characteristics of Guatemalan households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansilla, C.; Moscoso, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    The sectoral consumption pattern in Guatemala has shown that the residential sector is the major energy consumer. It accounts for 68.9 per cent of total consumption, followed by the transportation sector with 16.6 per cent, and the industrial sector with 9.3 per cent. Because of the importance of the household sector in the national energy balance, the Energy Planning Project carried out a nationwide household survey in 1985 to estimate energy-use patterns. This paper focusses on the findings from the analysis of the 2,500 forms completed during that survey. 4 figs, 1 tab

  4. Individual welfare analysis for collective households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherchye, Laurens; Cosaert, Sam; de Rock, Bram

    We propose novel tools for the analysis of individual welfare on the basis of aggregate household demand behavior. The method assumes a collective model of household consumption with the public and private nature of goods specified by the empirical analyst. A main distinguishing feature of our......-to-pay for public consumption (i.e. Lindahl prices). The method is easy to use in practice and yields informative empirical results, which we demonstrate through a simulation analysis and an empirical application to labor supply data....

  5. Household and Small Business Across the Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Stame

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Households, which are seen as income pooling units (Wallerstein, Martin, Dickinson 1982, play a crucial role in the world-system analysis. Individuals enjoy income that accrues to their households, a unit embedded in a network of different social relationships among people, kin or not kin, living under the same roof or sharing some important living function. Thus, social relations are seen as ways of obtaining different types of income (wages, rent, pro?t, social exchange, gifts and ways of ensuring different welfare services.

  6. Optimal taxation with household production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Richter, Wolfram F.; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    2000-01-01

    on consumer services even if such services are complements to leisure. Second, we find that when services and other goods are equally substitutable for leisure, so that uniform commodity taxation would be optimal in the absence of home production, the optimal tax structure will certainly involve a relatively......This paper suggests that the optimal tax system should favour market-produced services which are close substitutes for home-produced services. First, we modify the classical Corlett-Hague rule for optimal commodity taxation by showing that it may be optimal to impose a relatively low tax rate...... low tax rate on consumer services...

  7. Assessing the effect of marine reserves on household food security in Kenyan coral reef fishing communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S Darling

    Full Text Available Measuring the success or failure of natural resource management is a key challenge to evaluate the impact of conservation for ecological, economic and social outcomes. Marine reserves are a popular tool for managing coastal ecosystems and resources yet surprisingly few studies have quantified the social-economic impacts of marine reserves on food security despite the critical importance of this outcome for fisheries management in developing countries. Here, I conducted semi-structured household surveys with 113 women heads-of-households to investigate the influence of two old, well-enforced, no-take marine reserves on food security in four coastal fishing communities in Kenya, East Africa. Multi-model information-theoretic inference and matching methods found that marine reserves did not influence household food security, as measured by protein consumption, diet diversity and food coping strategies. Instead, food security was strongly influenced by fishing livelihoods and household wealth: fishing families and wealthier households were more food secure than non-fishing and poorer households. These findings highlight the importance of complex social and economic landscapes of livelihoods, urbanization, power and gender dynamics that can drive the outcomes of marine conservation and management.

  8. Towards sustainable solid waste management: Investigating household participation in solid waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, A. M.; Ho, C. S.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the readiness of Iskandar Malaysia community to accept solid waste recycling. The research is based on quantitative research design and descriptive survey of the households at Iskandar Malaysia using the stratified sampling method for a sample of 670. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that covered two basic principles; a) recycling knowledge; b) willingness to recycle. Data was analysed using the SPSS to carry out statistical analysis. The finding shows households' knowledge towards the solid waste recycling is good and positive. However, finding also shows that respondents have incomprehensive knowledge on the method of disposal as more than 50% of householders only recycle papers and textiles. Most of the households agreed to participate in the activities of the separation of waste if the facility will be made available at their kerbside. Therefore, it is recommended that government should provide more in-depth knowledge by intensifying the awareness of the households in the recycling programs. In term of urban planning and management, the location of recycling facility can be analysing by using GIS. This is important to understand the catchment area of each neighbourhood or precinct to ensure effective household participation.

  9. Patterns in household-level engagement with climate change in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohensky, Erin L.; Smajgl, Alex; Brewer, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Understanding how individuals engage with climate change is critical for developing successful climate adaptation policies. Indonesia ranks among the world's top CO2 emitters, affirming its relevance to the global climate change policy arena, yet the dynamics of climate change engagement in Indonesia may differ from developed countries from which much research on this issue derives. We surveyed 6,310 households in two Indonesian regions to investigate patterns in four steps of engagement: observation, risk perception, reactive action (in response to present climate change) and proactive action (in anticipation of future climate change). We show that 89.5% of households exhibited a pattern whereby taking each of these steps in sequence implied taking all steps that precede it. Exceptions occurred in urban areas, where households were more likely to take action without having observed climate change or perceiving risks. In rural areas, households were more likely to observe climate change without taking action. These variations suggest a potentially nonlinear relationship between steps of engagement. We distinguish three types of household requiring adaptation support, and stress that Indonesian climate policy should shift emphasis from raising awareness to identifying broader institutional structures and processes to facilitate household engagement.

  10. The effects of improved maize technology on household welfare in Buruku, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Audu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the welfare effects of improved maize technology in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study also examined the determinants of the adoption of improved maize technology. Structured questionnaires were used in collecting the primary data for the study. A multi-stage random technique was used in selecting 125 farm households for the study. The Logit and ordinary least square (OLS models were used in analyzing the data. The OLS results show that adoption of improved maize varieties is positively and significantly related to household welfare and thus has contributed to moving farm households out of poverty. Other variables found to be statistically significant in explaining household welfare are education, household size, and landholding. The Logit results show that age, household size, off-farm income, and education were found to be significant in influencing farmers’ adoption decisions. Some robustness checks were performed with different specifications of the Logit and OLS models as well as re-estimation with propensity matching score approach. Overall, the results are robust to different specifications.

  11. Household hazardous waste quantification, characterization and management in China's cities: a case study of Suzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Binxian; Zhu, Weimo; Wang, Haikun; Zhang, Rongrong; Liu, Miaomiao; Chen, Yangqing; Wu, Yi; Yang, Xiayu; He, Sheng; Cheng, Rong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-11-01

    A four-stage systematic tracking survey of 240 households was conducted from the summer of 2011 to the spring of 2012 in a Chinese city of Suzhou to determine the characteristics of household hazardous waste (HHW) generated by the city. Factor analysis and a regression model were used to study the major driving forces of HHW generation. The results indicate that the rate of HHW generation was 6.16 (0.16-31.74, 95% CI) g/person/day, which accounted for 2.23% of the household solid waste stream. The major waste categories contributing to total HHW were home cleaning products (21.33%), medicines (17.67%) and personal care products (15.19%). Packaging and containers (one-way) and products (single-use) accounted for over 80% of total HHW generation, implying a considerable potential to mitigate HHW generation by changing the packaging design and materials used by manufacturing enterprises. Strong correlations were observed between HHW generation (g/person/day) and the driving forces group of "household structure" and "consumer preferences" (among which the educational level of the household financial manager has the greatest impact). Furthermore, the HHW generation stream in Suzhou suggested the influence of another set of variables, such as local customs and culture, consumption patterns, and urban residential life-style. This study emphasizes that HHW should be categorized at its source (residential households) as an important step toward controlling the HHW hazards of Chinese cities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Household air pollution (HAP), microenvironment and child health: Strategies for mitigating HAP exposure in urban Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ipsita; Pedit, Joseph; Handa, Sudhanshu; Jagger, Pamela

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking and heating with solid fuels is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Children under five are particularly at risk for acute lower respiratory infection. We use baseline data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating a household energy intervention in Gisenyi, Rwanda to investigate the role of the microenvironment as a determinant of children’s HAP-related health symptoms. Our sample includes 529 households, with 694 children under five. We examine the association between likelihood of HAP-related health symptom prevalence and characteristics of the microenvironment including: dwelling and cooking area structure; distance to nearest road; and tree cover. We find that children residing in groups of enclosed dwellings, in households that cook indoors, and in households proximate to tree cover, are significantly more likely to experience symptoms of respiratory infection, illness with cough and difficulty breathing. On the other hand, children in households with cemented floors and ventilation holes in the cooking area, are significantly less likely to experience the same symptoms. Our findings suggest that in addition to promoting increased access to clean cooking technologies, there are important infrastructure and microenvironment-related interventions that mitigate HAP exposure.

  13. A novel household water insecurity scale: Procedures and psychometric analysis among postpartum women in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Godfred O; Collins, Shalean M; Mbullo, Patrick; Wekesa, Pauline; Onono, Maricianah; Neilands, Torsten B; Young, Sera L

    2018-01-01

    Our ability to measure household-level food insecurity has revealed its critical role in a range of physical, psychosocial, and health outcomes. Currently, there is no analogous, standardized instrument for quantifying household-level water insecurity, which prevents us from understanding both its prevalence and consequences. Therefore, our objectives were to develop and validate a household water insecurity scale appropriate for use in our cohort in western Kenya. We used a range of qualitative techniques to develop a preliminary set of 29 household water insecurity questions and administered those questions at 15 and 18 months postpartum, concurrent with a suite of other survey modules. These data were complemented by data on quantity of water used and stored, and microbiological quality. Inter-item and item-total correlations were performed to reduce scale items to 20. Exploratory factor and parallel analyses were used to determine the latent factor structure; a unidimensional scale was hypothesized and tested using confirmatory factor and bifactor analyses, along with multiple statistical fit indices. Reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha and the coefficient of stability, which produced a coefficient alpha of 0.97 at 15 and 18 months postpartum and a coefficient of stability of 0.62. Predictive, convergent and discriminant validity of the final household water insecurity scale were supported based on relationships with food insecurity, perceived stress, per capita household water use, and time and money spent acquiring water. The resultant scale is a valid and reliable instrument. It can be used in this setting to test a range of hypotheses about the role of household water insecurity in numerous physical and psychosocial health outcomes, to identify the households most vulnerable to water insecurity, and to evaluate the effects of water-related interventions. To extend its applicability, we encourage efforts to develop a cross-culturally valid scale

  14. Household expenditures on pneumonia and diarrhoea treatment in Ethiopia: a facility-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memirie, Solomon Tessema; Metaferia, Zewdu Sisay; Norheim, Ole F; Levin, Carol E; Verguet, Stéphane; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-pocket (OOP) medical payments can lead to catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment. We quantified household OOP expenditure for treatment of childhood pneumonia and diarrhoea and its impact on poverty for different socioeconomic groups in Ethiopia. This study employs a mix of retrospective and prospective primary household data collection for direct medical and non-medical costs (2013 US$). Data from 345 pneumonia and 341 diarrhoea cases (0-59 months of age) were collected retrospectively through exit interviews from 35 purposively sampled health facilities in Ethiopia. Prospective 2-week follow-up interviews were conducted at the household level using a structured questionnaire. The mean total medical expenditures per outpatient visit were US$8 for pneumonia and US$6 for diarrhoea, while the mean for inpatient visits was US$64 for severe pneumonia and US$79 for severe diarrhoea. The mean associated direct non-medical costs (mainly transport costs) were US$2, US$2, US$13 and US$20 respectively. 7% and 6% of the households with a case of severe pneumonia and severe diarrhoea, respectively, were pushed below the extreme poverty threshold of purchasing power parity (PPP) US$1.25 per day. Wealthier and urban households had higher OOP payments, but poorer and rural households were more likely to be impoverished due to medical payments. Households in Ethiopia incur considerable costs for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia with catastrophic consequences and impoverishment. The present circumstances call for revisiting the existing health financing strategy for high-priority services that places a substantial burden of payment on households at the point of care.

  15. Household lifestyle, energy related practices and perceptions of energy efficiency: Evidence from Kitwe, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilias Makashini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa is noted for not only constant power shortages but also poor access to electricity. In Zambia, for example, 75% of the population does not have access to electricity. This is partly because although Zambia has one of the lowest energy tariffs in Southern Africa, when compared with household monthly income, the resource is still reasonably unaffordable. Therefore, there is need to find innovative ways of reducing energy cost. Recent studies have indicated that there are patterns that show that there is a relationship between households' lifestyles and energy consumption. This means that understanding household lifestyles and how that impacts on energy use would be crucial in helping occupants to change their behaviours. This would result in the minimisation of energy consumption and thus a reduction in energy bills. However, there is a dearth of scholarly literature about households' lifestyles and their impacts on energy consumption in most developing countries including Zambia. This study investigates the perceptions of different lifestyles on household energy consumption and knowledge about energy efficiency in the city of Kitwe, the second largest city in Zambia. Motivation and barriers to energy efficiency have also been investigated. To achieve this, a mixed research approach was adopted. Firstly, a quantitative closed structured questionnaire instrument was used to collect data from 59 households in Kitwe. Secondly, mini-focus group discussions (average size of 5 ― brought about by the curiosity of residents and hence the contribution as families per household ― were undertaken in the informal settlement. The major findings are that households are generally motivated to implement energy saving strategies like covering pots when cooking, switching off lights in rooms that are not in use and that more information is needed as lack of knowledge and ‘landlord control' were identified as some of the barriers to energy

  16. [Agro-household livelihood vulnerability and influence factors of ethnic villages under different geomorphology backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen Wen; Liu, Xiao Peng; Pei, Yin Bao; An, Qiong; Li, Yong Hong

    2016-04-22

    The vulnerability and influence factors of agro-household livelihood in Haiyuan County, Ningxia were empirically analyzed utilizing set pair analysis and obstacle degree model, based on field survey data of impoverished agro-households in 2014. Results showed that vulnerability of agro-household livelihood in Haiyuan County was high in general while it exhibited geomorphological and ethnical differences. Vulnerability of agro-households livelihood in plain areas, valleys and intermountain depression areas were lower than that in earth-rock areas, loess ridge areas and moderately high mountain landform areas. Moreover, vulnerability of agro-household livelihood was higher in mixed Hui and Han ethnic villages than in mono Hui or Han ethnic villages. The villagers' lacking of necessities and the stress of sensitive external geographical environment were considered to be the fundamental reasons of vulnerability of agro-household livelihood. The unreasonable livelihood structure and the unvariant livelihood strategy caused the long-term accumulation of livelihood vulnerabi-lity. The nature of the local environment, which was not easy to change, decreased the accessibility of poverty alleviation resources. Building a clear village water rights allocation system, the implementation of counterpart-assistance to educate impoverished families, increasing investment in improving the diversities of means of living, developing the chains of comprehensive commodity market among villages, were necessary to improve the response capability of agro-household livelihood. The management of vulnerability of agro-household livelihood should put the 'Extending Roads to Every Village Project' on a more prominent position in the 'Extending Radio and TV Broadcasting Coverage to Every Village Project'. Furthermore, the combination of meteorological disaster prevention and insurance enterprise disaster reduction should be sought, and the agricultural production insurance system should be

  17. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12 tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food...... waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434 ± 18 kg per household per year, of which 183...... ± 10 kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80 ± 6 kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103 ± 9 kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results...

  18. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  19. Household portfolios and implicit risk aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.; Miniaci, R.

    2008-01-01

    We derive from a sample of US households the distribution of the risk aversion implicit in their portfolio choice. Our estimate minimizes the distance between the certainty equivalent return generated with observed portfolios and portfolios that are optimal in a mean-variance framework. Taking into

  20. Prospects and Constraints of Household Irrigation Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraints and prospects of hand dug wells related to household irrigation were assessed in Hayelom watershed (~1045 ha), by evaluating groundwater suitability for irrigation, soil quality and impact of intervention. 181 hand dug wells have come into existence in the watershed due to intervention and benefiting about ...