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Sample records for strongyloides venezuelensis challenge

  1. Karyotype and reproduction mode of the rodent parasite Strongyloides venezuelensis

    OpenAIRE

    HINO, AKINA; TANAKA, TERUHISA; TAKAISHI, MAHO; FUJII, YUMIKO; PALOMARES-RIUS, JUAN E.; HASEGAWA, KOICHI; MARUYAMA, HARUHIKO; KIKUCHI, TAISEI

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode that infects rodents. Although Strongyloides species described to date are known to exhibit parthenogenetic reproduction in the parasitic stage of their life cycle and sexual reproduction in the free-living stage, we did not observe any free-living males in S. venezuelensis in our strain, suggesting that the nematode is likely to depend on parthenogenetic reproduction. We confirmed by cytological analysis that S. venezuelensis produc...

  2. Karyotype and reproduction mode of the rodent parasite Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Akina; Tanaka, Teruhisa; Takaishi, Maho; Fujii, Yumiko; Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Hasegawa, Koichi; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2014-11-01

    SUMMARY Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode that infects rodents. Although Strongyloides species described to date are known to exhibit parthenogenetic reproduction in the parasitic stage of their life cycle and sexual reproduction in the free-living stage, we did not observe any free-living males in S. venezuelensis in our strain, suggesting that the nematode is likely to depend on parthenogenetic reproduction. We confirmed by cytological analysis that S. venezuelensis produces eggs by parthenogenesis during the parasitic stage of its life cycle. Phylogenetic analysis using nearly the full length of 18S and D3 region of 28S ribosomal RNA gene suggested that S. venezuelensis is distantly related to another rodent parasite, namely Strongyloides ratti, but more closely related to a ruminant parasite, Strongyloides papillosus. Karyotype analysis revealed S. venezuelensis reproduces with mitotic parthenogenesis, and has the same number of chromosomes as S. papillosus (2n = 4), but differs from S. ratti (2n = 6) in this regard. These results, taken together, suggest that S. venezuelensis evolved its parasitism for rodents independently from S. ratti and, therefore, is likely to have a different reproductive strategy.

  3. Therapy of the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats with injectable ivermectin or levamizole

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    Rubens Campos

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available For the therapy of human strongyloidiasis, are necessary effective drugs to eliminate both larvae and adult worm parasitism, which may also be used by parenteral route, to obviate the particular conditions presented by many patients. A study based on the experimental infection by Strongyloides venezuelensis in rats was done, administering injectable ivermectin or levamizole. Both drugs were shown to be active, when used in single doses of 0.2 to 0.5 mg/kg of ivermectin, or 26 mg/kg for levamizole. Ivermectin was slightly more effective as far as larval stage of the infection is concerned, and the same happened for levamisole for the adult worm stage. Promising perspectives are visualized to improve the therapy of patients with serious disseminated infection by Strongyloides stercoralis.

  4. Viability of Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vermiculite containing the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laryssa Pinheiro Costa; Ferraz, Carolina Magri; Aguiar, Anderson Rocha; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Ribeiro, Steveen Rios; Rossi, Débora Goldner; Mendes, Luanderson Queiroz; Pereira, Fausto Edmundo Lima; Moreira, Narcisa Imaculada Brant; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro

    2017-07-01

    Strongyloidiasis is the most clinically important disease among the infections caused by geohelminths, seeing that this parasite can cause autoinfection. The use of nematophagous fungi like Duddingtonia flagrans, that have predation action on eggs and infecciososas forms of helminths, emerges as an alternative method for environmental control. For this reason, analyzing the viability of larvae and eggs of Strongyloides venezuelensis and the action of Duddingtonia flagrans AC001 in vermiculite, as well as the action of the nematophagous fungi in different growth stages, is important to elaborate and define the best culture conditions that favor the activity of the fungus. Two different growth conditions were applied: both eggs and AC001 fungi were added at the same time to the vermiculite (assay A) and the addition of eggs after the growth of the AC001 fungi in the vermiculite (assay B). To recover the L 3 larvae, the Baermann-Moraes method was applied, followed by the counting of L 3 dead and alive. At last, it was observed that the vermiculite enriched with organic material is an adequate culture medium not only for the growth of the S. venezuelensis but also for the growth of the D. flagrans fungus, being therefore, a satisfactory culture medium for tests of viability and predatory action of this fungus. It was also observed that the activity of the AC001 fungus is greater when it is growing concomitantly with the eggs, in other words, when it is in the adaptation phase.

  5. Dexamethasone Effects in the Strongyloides venezuelensis Infection in A Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Eleuza R.; Carlos, Daniela; Sorgi, Carlos A.; Ramos, Simone G.; Souza, Daniela I.; Soares, Edson G.; Costa-Cruz, Julia M.; Ueta, Marlene T.; Aronoff, David M.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids on the immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice. Balb/c mice were infected with S. venezuelensis and treated with Dexamethasone (Dexa) or vehicle. Dexa treatment increased circulating blood neutrophil numbers and inhibited eosinophil and mononuclear cell accumulation in the blood, bronchoalveolar, and peritoneal fluid compared with control animals. Moreover, Dexa decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-12 production in the lungs and circulating immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgE antibody levels while increasing the overall parasite burden in the feces and intestine. Dexa treatment enhanced the fertility of female nematodes relative to untreated and infected mice. In summary, the alterations in the immune response induced by Dexa resulted in a blunted, aberrant immune response associated with increased parasite burden. This phenomenon is similar to that observed in S. stercoralis-infected humans who are taking immunosuppressive or antiinflammatory drugs, including corticosteroids. PMID:21633034

  6. In vitro efficacy of latex and purified papain from Carica papaya against Strongyloides venezuelensis eggs and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Dayane; Levenhagen, Marcelo Arantes; Costa-Cruz, Julia Maria; Costa, Antônio Paulino da; Rodrigues, Rosângela Maria

    2017-04-03

    Latex from Carica papaya is rich in bioactive compounds, especially papain, which may help to control parasitic diseases. This study evaluated the efficacy of latex from C. papaya and purified papain against Strongyloides venezuelensis. The Egg Hatching Test (EHT) and the Larval Motility Test (LMT) using fresh and frozen latex (250mg/mL), lyophilized latex (34mg/mL), and purified papain (2.8 mg/mL) were performed. Albendazole (0.025 mg/mL) and ivermectin (316 ppm) were used as positive controls. EHT and LMT were carried out through the incubation of each solution with S. venezuelensis eggs or larvae (± 100 specimens), and results were analyzed after 48h (EHT) or 24, 48, and 72h (LMT). EHT showed that latex preparations at higher concentrations (1:10 to 1:100) resulted in partial or complete destruction of eggs and larvae inside the eggs. The result from the 1:1,000 dilution was similar to the positive control. LMT showed effectiveness in all the tested dilutions compared to negative controls. Purified papain showed a dose-dependent response in the EHT. Purified papain (2.8 mg/ mL) showed similar results to lyophilized latex at 1:1,000 in the EHT. Latex and purified papain from C. papaya were effective against S. venezuelensis eggs and larvae in vitro, suggesting their potential use as an alternative treatment for strongyloidiasis.

  7. Avaliação da atividade terapêutica do albendazol em ratos experimentalmente infectados com Strongyloides venezuelensis

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    Vicente Amato Neto

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de demarcar mais precisamente o espectro de ação do albendazol, foi estudada a atividade terapêutica desse anti-helmíntico em ratos experimentalmente infectados com Strongyloides venezuelensis, tendo sido usada, como termo de comparação, a ação do cambendazol e do mebendazol, dois outros benzimidazólicos. Os três compostos mostraram-se eficientes quando utilizadas doses únicas de 6,75, 12,5, 25 e 50 mg/kg, pois motivaram desaparecimento total das formas adultas no intestino. Com a posologia de 5 mg/kg sucederam porcentagens médias de reduções dos números de vermes de 87%, 98% e 80%, respectivamente, como decorrência do emprego do albendazol, do cambendazol e do mebendazol, traduzindo superioridade da segunda droga citada.

  8. Tratamento de ratos, experimentalmente infectados pelo Strongyloides venezuelensis, através da ivermectina administrada por via oral

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    Vicente Amato Neto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Em modelo experimental, baseado na infecção de ratos pelo Strongyloides venezuelensis, foi avaliada a atividade terapêutica de duas preparações de ivermectina, para usos veterinário e humano. Houve interesse em verificar a efetividade em relação a vermes adultos e formas larvárias. A administração dos fármacos ocorreu sempre por via oral e a posologia correspondeu à dose única de 0,2mg/kg. Considerados os vermes adultos e as formas larvárias, o produto para emprego veterinário propiciou eliminações expressas pelas porcentagens de 98,0% e 84,2%; quanto à outra preparação, as taxas situaram-se em 59,3% e 73,0%, respectivamente. O estudo revelou, então, utilidade do anti-helmíntico quando usada a via oral e, também, mostrou significativa ação sobre as formas larvárias, certamente valiosa quando vigente a modalidade disseminada da estrongiloidíase.Strongyloides venezuelensis experimental infection in rats was treated by two different oral preparations of ivermectin, 0.2mg/kg. One was a human formula used by WHO in the treatment of onchocerciasis; the other was a veterinary preparation. Adult worms and larvae were evaluated. The human formulation cleared both forms in 59.3% (adult worms and 73.0% (larvae, whereas the veterinary one cleared 98.0% and 84.2%, respectively. The antilarval action is very useful when treating systemic strongyloidiasis

  9. Strongyloides ferreirai sp.n. (Nematoda, Rhabdiasoidea parasito do roedor Kerodon rupestris (Wied. no Brasil

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    H. de Oliveira Rodrigues

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available É descrita uma nova espécie de nematóide do gênero Strongyloides Grassi, 1879, Strongyloides ferreirai sp.n. parasita do instestino delgado de Kerodon rupestris (Wied. proveniente de Floriano Peixoto, Estado do Piauí. Esta é a primeira referência deste gênero parasitando roedor caviideo no Brasil.Strongyloides ferreirai n.sp. is described and compared to the closely related species S. ratti, S. venezuelensis and S. myopotami, parasites of rodents in Brazil. The description is based on parasitic females, recovered from the small intestine of Kerodon rupestris (Wied. (Caviidae captured in Floriano Peixoto, Piauí State, Brazil.

  10. New report on the bionomics of Coquillettidia venezuelensis in temporary breeding sites (Diptera: Culicidae

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    Jeronimo Alencar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Findings of immature forms of Coquillettidia venezuelensis in temporary breeding sites, without the presence of aquatic plants or other submerged plant tissue are reported. METHODS: A systematic scooping technique to collect specimens was used at the breeding site. RESULTS: Immature forms of Coquillettidia venezuelensis, Anopheles rangeli, An. evansae and Culex sp. were collected from areas of the hydroelectric power station of São Salvador, State of Goiás. CONCLUSIONS This is a novel finding relating to the bioecology of Cq. venezuelensis, a species of medical interest that has been found naturally infected with arboviruses, including Oropouche and West Nile virus.

  11. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    in young animals. Dogs are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis while cats are infected with different species according to geographical location (Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides tumefaciens, Strongyloides planiceps and perhaps S. stercoralis). In contrast to the other species, lactogenic...... of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes....... transmission is not a primary means of infection in dogs, and S. stercoralis is the only species considered zoonotic. Strongyloides papillosus in calves has been linked to heavy fatalities under conditions of high stocking density. Strongyloides westeri and Strongyloides ransomi of horses and pigs...

  12. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Stig M; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro; Matthews, Jacqueline B

    2017-03-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered in young animals. Dogs are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis while cats are infected with different species according to geographical location (Strongyloides felis, Strongyloides tumefaciens, Strongyloides planiceps and perhaps S. stercoralis). In contrast to the other species, lactogenic transmission is not a primary means of infection in dogs, and S. stercoralis is the only species considered zoonotic. Strongyloides papillosus in calves has been linked to heavy fatalities under conditions of high stocking density. Strongyloides westeri and Strongyloides ransomi of horses and pigs, respectively, cause only sporadic clinical disease. In conclusion, these infections are generally of low relative importance in livestock and equines, most likely due to extensive use of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintics and/or improved hygiene. Future prevalence studies need to include molecular typing of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes.

  13. Importance of both innate immunity and acquired immunity for rapid expulsion of S. venezuelensis.

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    Koubun eYasuda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this review, we described the relevant roles of endogenous IL-33 for accumulation of ILC2 and eosinophils even in the lungs of Rag2-/- mice. ATII cells express IL-33 in their nucleus and infection with S.venezuelensis induces IL-33 production by increasing the number of ATII cells possibly by the action of chitin. IL-33 from ATII cells induces ILC2 proliferation and at the same time activates them to produce IL-5 and IL-13, which in combination induce lung eosinophilic inflammation, aiding to expel infected worms in the lungs. In the second part, we showed that, although AID-/- mice normally develop Th2 cells and intestinal mastocytosis after infection with S.venezuelensis, they need adoptive transfers of immune sera from S.venezuelensis-infected mice to obtain the capacity to promptly expel S.venezuelensis. Thus, intestinal nematode infection induces various Th2 immune responses (eg., Th2 cell, ILC2, goblet cell hyperplasia, intestinal mastocytosis, smooth muscle cell contraction, local and systemic eosinophilia and high serum level of IgE and IgG1. However, all of them are not necessary for rapid expulsion of intestinal nematodes. Instead, some combinations of Th2 immune responses are essentially required.

  14. Strongyloides stercoralis seroprevalence in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Thai, Pham Quang; Trang, Nghiem Nguyen Minh; Jäger, Julia; Fox, Annette; Horby, Peter; Phuong, Hoang Vu Mai; Anh, Dang Duc; Mai, LE Thi Quynh; VAN Doorn, H Rogier; Nadjm, Behzad

    2017-11-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the roundworm Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30-100 million people worldwide. Many Southeast-Asian countries report a high prevalence of S. stercoralis infection, but there are little data from Vietnam. Here, we evaluated the seroprevalence of S. stercoralis related to geography, sex and age in Vietnam through serological testing of anonymized sera. Sera (n = 1710, 1340 adults and 270 children) from an anonymized age-stratified serum bank from four regions in Vietnam between 2012 and 2013 were tested using a commercial Strongyloides ratti immunoglobulin G ELISA. Seroreactivity was found in 29·1% (390/1340) of adults and 5·5% (15/270) of children. Male adults were more frequently seroreactive than females (33·3% vs. 24·9%, P = 0·001). The rural central highlands had the highest seroprevalence (42·4% of adults). Seroreactivity in the other regions was 29·9% (Hue) and 26·0% and 18·2% in the large urban centres of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, respectively. We conclude that seroprevalence of S. stercoralis was high in the Vietnamese adult population, especially in rural areas.

  15. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in kidney transplant recipients

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    Baha A Abdalhamid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis is an uncommon infection in Saudi Arabia. It can establish latency and cause an autoinfection in humans that lasts for years. The infection can get reactivated during immunosuppression and can result in a life-threatening Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome. We present three cases of renal transplant recipients who developed Strongyloides infection following transplantation. A bronchoalveolar lavage specimen, a duodenal biopsy and/or a stool specimen from these patients revealed evidence of S. stercoralis larvae. The first two patients received kidneys from the same deceased donor, a native of Bangladesh, an area that is highly endemic for S. stercoralis. The data suggest that the first two cases might be donor derived. High-risk donors and recipients should be screened for Strongyloides infection to initiate treatment before transplantation thus reducing morbidity and mortality.

  16. incidence of strongyloides stercoralis infectionn in ungogo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Gillard, 1999). Strongyloides stercoralis is a common intestinal parasite of man. Most of the ..... Host factors such as malnutrition and undernutrition with their resultant effects on cellular immune response or the ability of the immune system.

  17. Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Emericella venezuelensis is a new species, differing from two other species with stellate ascospores, E. variecolor and E. pluriseminata, by triangular flaps on the convex sides of the ascospores, and further from E. variecolor by producing an Aspergillus anamorph only on unconventional growth....... venezuelensis makes this species an attractive model organism for the study of the regulation of this important type of carcinogenic mycotoxins in combination with the knowledge on sterigmatocystin production by E. nidulans, soon to be whole genome sequenced. The isolates were also analyzed cladistically using...... partial sequences of the beta-tubulin gene. Since three species of Emericella have stellate ascospores, and the type material of E. variecolor is equivocal, this species is epitypified with CBS 598.65. Emericella species normally do not appear to cause problems for food safety, as they are most often...

  18. Strongyloides Hyperinfection Syndrome Combined with Cytomegalovirus Infection

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    Fatehi Elnour Elzein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mortality in Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome (SHS is alarmingly high. This is particularly common in bone marrow, renal, and other solid organ transplant (SOT patients, where figures may reach up to 50–85%. Immunosuppressives, principally corticosteroids, are the primary triggering factor. In general, the clinical features of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection are nonspecific; therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and starting appropriate therapy. Although recurrent Gram-negative sepsis and meningitis have been previously reported, the combination of both cytomegalovirus (CMV and strongyloidiasis had rarely been associated. We here describe a patient who survived SHS with recurrent Escherichia coli (E. coli urosepsis and CMV infection.

  19. Validation of DESS as a DNA Preservation Method for the Detection of Strongyloides spp. in Canine Feces

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    Meruyert Beknazarova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis is a gastrointestinal parasitic nematode with a life cycle that includes free-living and parasitic forms. For both clinical (diagnostic and environmental evaluation, it is important that we can detect Strongyloides spp. in both human and non-human fecal samples. Real-time PCR is the most feasible method for detecting the parasite in both clinical and environmental samples that have been preserved. However, one of the biggest challenges with PCR detection is DNA degradation during the postage time from rural and remote areas to the laboratory. This study included a laboratory assessment and field validation of DESS (dimethyl sulfoxide, disodium EDTA, and saturated NaCl preservation of Strongyloides spp. DNA in fecal samples. The laboratory study investigated the capacity of 1:1 and 1:3 sample to DESS ratios to preserve Strongyloides ratti in spike canine feces. It was found that both ratios of DESS significantly prevented DNA degradation compared to the untreated sample. This method was then validated by applying it to the field-collected canine feces and detecting Strongyloides DNA using PCR. A total of 37 canine feces samples were collected and preserved in the 1:3 ratio (sample: DESS and of these, 17 were positive for Strongyloides spp. The study shows that both 1:1 and 1:3 sample to DESS ratios were able to preserve the Strongyloides spp. DNA in canine feces samples stored at room temperature for up to 56 days. This DESS preservation method presents the most applicable and feasible method for the Strongyloides DNA preservation in field-collected feces.

  20. Extensive polymorphism and chromosomal characteristics of ribosomal DNA in the characid fish Triportheus venezuelensis (Characiformes, Characidae

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype and chromosomal characteristics of the characid fish Triportheus venezuelensis were investigated using differential staining techniques (C-banding, Ag-NOR staining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. The diploid chromosome number (2n = 52, karyotype composition and sex chromosome determination system of the ZZ/ZW type were the same as previously described in other species of the genus Triportheus. However, extensive variation regarding nucleolus organizer regions (NOR different from other species was observed. 18S rDNA sequences were distributed on nine chromosome pairs, but the number of chromosomes with Ag-NORs was usually lower, reaching a maximum of four chromosomes. When sequential staining experiments were performed, it was demonstrated that: 1. active NORs usually corresponded to segments with 18S rDNA genes identified in FISH experiments; 2. several 18S rDNA sequences were not silver-stained, suggesting that they do not correspond to active NORs; and 3. some chromosomes with silver-stained regions did not display any 18S rDNA signals. These findings characterize an extensive polymorphism associated with the NOR-bearing chromosomes of T. venezuelensis and emphasize the importance of combining traditional and molecular techniques in chromosome studies.

  1. Transgenesis in the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinshe; Shao, Hongguang; Junio, Ariel; Nolan, Thomas J; Massey, Holman C; Pearce, Edward J; Viney, Mark E; Lok, James B

    2011-10-01

    Strongyloides and related genera are advantageous subjects for transgenesis in parasitic nematodes, primarily by gonadal microinjection as has been used with Caenorhabditis elegans. Transgenesis has been achieved in Strongyloides stercoralis and in Parastrongyloides trichosuri, but both of these lack well-adapted, conventional laboratory hosts in which to derive transgenic lines. By contrast, Strongyloides ratti develops in laboratory rats with high efficiency and offers the added advantages of robust genomic and transcriptomic databases and substantial volumes of genetic, developmental and immunological data. Therefore, we evaluated methodology for transgenesis in S. stercoralis as a means of transforming S. ratti. S. stercoralis-based GFP reporter constructs were expressed in a proportion of F1 transgenic S. ratti following gonadal microinjection into parental free-living females. Frequencies of transgene expression in S. ratti, ranged from 3.7% for pAJ09 to 6.8% for pAJ20; respective frequencies for these constructs in S. stercoralis were 5.6% and 33.5%. Anatomical patterns of transgene expression were virtually identical in S. ratti and S. stercoralis. This is the first report of transgenesis in S. ratti, an important model organism for biological investigations of parasitic nematodes. Availability of the rat as a well-adapted laboratory host will facilitate derivation of transgenic lines of this parasite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A coproantigen diagnostic test for Strongyloides infection.

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    Alex M Sykes

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnosis of infection with the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis is hampered by the low concentration of larvae in stool, rendering parasitological diagnosis insensitive. Even if the more sensitive agar plate culture method is used repeated stool sampling is necessary to achieve satisfactory sensitivity. In this manuscript we describe the development of a coproantigen ELISA for diagnosis of infection. Polyclonal rabbit antiserum was raised against Strongyloides ratti excretory/secretory (E/S antigen and utilized to develop an antigen capture ELISA. The assay enabled detection of subpatent rodent S. ratti and human S. stercoralis infection. No cross-reactivity was observed with purified E/S from Schistosoma japonicum, the hookworms Ancylostoma caninum, A. ceylanicum, nor with fecal samples collected from rodents harboring Trichuris muris or S. mansoni infection. Strongyloides coproantigens that appear stable when frozen as formalin-extracted fecal supernatants stored at -20 °C remained positive up to 270 days of storage, whereas supernatants stored at 4 °C tested negative. These results indicate that diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis by detection of coproantigen is an approach worthy of further development.

  3. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in a Finnish kennel

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    Saari Seppo AM

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis is a parasite of dog, cat and primates that occurs worldwide being most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries. The adult parasitic worm is about 2 mm long and slender. It possesses both parasitic and free-living lifecycles. The parasitic worms are females. Strongyloides stercoralis infects the host via percutaneous, peroral or transmammary transmission in addition to autoinfection. Clinical disease varies from inapparent to severe enteritis and pneumonia. The diagnosis is based on demonstration of larvae in fresh faeces, which is best made by Baermann technique. Case presentation Strongyloides stercoralis infection was diagnosed in autopsy in a 10-week-old puppy born and raised in a Finnish kennel. Prior to its sudden death, the puppy had suffered from gastrointestinal disturbance for three weeks. Subsequent sampling of the dogs in the kennel revealed that three adult dogs in the kennel were also infected. Conclusion The present case shows that S. stercoralis can complete its life cycle and cause disease in dogs also in Northern Europe. Infection can be maintained also in a temperate climate and may become a chronic problem in a kennel environment. Infection may be underdiagnosed as Baermann technique is not routinely performed in small animal practice.

  4. Intraspecies geographical variability in the South American tigra mariposa (Bothrops venezuelensis Sandner 1952) snake venom activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, María E; Padrón, Vanessa; Ramos, María I; Sánchez, Elda E; Guerrero, Belsy; García, Alberto; Uzcátegui, Néstor L; Navarrete, Luis F; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis

    2018-03-15

    Bothrops venezuelensis snake venoms, from five localities in the North-Central Venezuelan regions, showed biochemical and haemostatic differences. In this study, bioactivities of B. venezuelensis venoms from different regions (Aragua state; Waraira Repano (Capital District); Baruta, La Boyera and Lagunetica (Miranda state)) were compared using both natural and synthetic substrates. The protein contents of these venoms were Lagunetica 89%, La Boyera 79%, Baruta 71%, Waraira Repano 68% and Aragua 64%. Toxic activities effects were: Intraperitoneal LD 50 s: Aragua-14 mg/kg; Waraira Repano-6.4 mg/kg; Baruta: 8.3 mg/kg; La Boyera-4.4 mg/kg; Lagunetica-16.2 mg/kg. The MHD results: Aragua-21.4 μg/mouse; Waraira Repano-2.5 μg/mouse; Baruta-1.2 μg/mouse; La Boyera-1.4 μg/mouse and Lagunetica-12 μg/mouse. The hide powder azure results: Aragua-1.24 U/mg; La Boyera-2.26 U/mg; Baruta-2.83 U/mg; Lagunetica-3.28 U/mg and Waraira Repano-5.77 U/mg. Esterase specific activity on BAEE results: Waraira Repano-666.66 U/mg; La Boyera-805.5 U/mg; Baruta-900.00 U/mg; Lagunetica-922.19 U/mg and Aragua-1960.67 U/mg. Casein zymography showed digestion bands in the molecular weight above 100 and at 66.2 and 21.5 kDa. Analysis of casein degradation by SDS-PAGE showed two different degradation patterns. Fibrinolytic activity (mm 2 /μg) on fibrin plates results: Aragua-6.07; Lagunetica-27.6; Waraira Repano-35.7; La Boyera-44.27 and Baruta-45.63. In the fibrinogenolytic assay, the five venoms completely degraded the α chain after 1 min of incubation. None of the venoms completely degraded the β and γ chains after 24 h incubation. The research indicated that venoms of B. venezuelensis of different geographic areas in Venezuela exhibit variances in composition and component concentrations; except the Aragua venom, all of them had high proteolytic activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Detection of Strongyloides ratti in Faecal Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A PCR method targeting the small subunit of the rRNA gene was performed in this study for the detection of DNA from Strongyloides ratti (an animal model of S. stercoralis) in faecal samples of wild Brown rats, Rattus norvegicus. Results: Strongyloides ratti was detected in 34.2 % of collected rats by different ...

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis-hyperinfectie bij een harttransplantatiepatiënt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalfs, A.S.; Van Hattem, S.; Schuttelaar, M.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    A heart transplantation patient with asymptomatic reticular petechiae and purpura on thighs and buttocks is described. Gastrointestinal manifestations preceded the skin manifestations. The symptoms were caused by a Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection, transmitted to the patient via the donor

  7. Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Alcoholic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia C. A. Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The course of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is usually asymptomatic with a low discharge of rhabditoid larva in feces. However, the deleterious effects of alcohol consumption seem to enhance the susceptibility to infection, as shown by a fivefold higher strongyloidiasis frequency in alcoholics than in nonalcoholics. Moreover, the association between S. stercoralis infection and alcoholism presents a risk for hyperinfection and severe strongyloidiasis. There are several possible mechanisms for the disruption of the host-parasite equilibrium in ethanol-addicted patients with chronic strongyloidiasis. One explanation is that chronic ethanol intake stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis to produce excessive levels of endogenous cortisol, which in turn can lead to a deficiency in type 2 T helper cells (Th2 protective response, and also to mimic the parasite hormone ecdysone, which promotes the transformation of rhabditiform larvae to filariform larvae, leading to autoinfection. Therefore, when untreated, alcoholic patients are continuously infected by this autoinfection mechanism. Thus, the early diagnosis of strongyloidiasis and treatment can prevent serious forms of hyperinfection in ethanol abusers.

  8. Strongyloides stercoralis: Global Distribution and Risk Factors.

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    Fabian Schär

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The soil-transmitted threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the most neglected among the so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. We reviewed studies of the last 20 years on S. stercoralis's global prevalence in general populations and risk groups. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published between January 1989 and October 2011. Articles presenting information on infection prevalence were included. A Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out to obtain country-specific prevalence estimates and to compare disease odds ratios in different risk groups taking into account the sensitivities of the diagnostic methods applied. A total of 354 studies from 78 countries were included for the prevalence calculations, 194 (62.4% were community-based studies, 121 (34.2% were hospital-based studies and 39 (11.0% were studies on refugees and immigrants. World maps with country data are provided. In numerous African, Asian and South-American resource-poor countries, information on S. stercoralis is lacking. The meta-analysis showed an association between HIV-infection/alcoholism and S. stercoralis infection (OR: 2.17 BCI: 1.18-4.01; OR: 6.69; BCI: 1.47-33.8, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show high infection prevalence rates in the general population in selected countries and geographical regions. S. stercoralis infection is prominent in several risk groups. Adequate information on the prevalence is still lacking from many countries. However, current information underscore that S. stercoralis must not be neglected. Further assessments in socio-economic and ecological settings are needed and integration into global helminth control is warranted.

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis: Global Distribution and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Fabian; Trostdorf, Ulf; Giardina, Federica; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Vounatsou, Penelope; Odermatt, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The soil-transmitted threadworm, Strongyloides stercoralis, is one of the most neglected among the so-called neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). We reviewed studies of the last 20 years on S. stercoralis's global prevalence in general populations and risk groups. A literature search was performed in PubMed for articles published between January 1989 and October 2011. Articles presenting information on infection prevalence were included. A Bayesian meta-analysis was carried out to obtain country-specific prevalence estimates and to compare disease odds ratios in different risk groups taking into account the sensitivities of the diagnostic methods applied. A total of 354 studies from 78 countries were included for the prevalence calculations, 194 (62.4%) were community-based studies, 121 (34.2%) were hospital-based studies and 39 (11.0%) were studies on refugees and immigrants. World maps with country data are provided. In numerous African, Asian and South-American resource-poor countries, information on S. stercoralis is lacking. The meta-analysis showed an association between HIV-infection/alcoholism and S. stercoralis infection (OR: 2.17 BCI: 1.18-4.01; OR: 6.69; BCI: 1.47-33.8), respectively. Our findings show high infection prevalence rates in the general population in selected countries and geographical regions. S. stercoralis infection is prominent in several risk groups. Adequate information on the prevalence is still lacking from many countries. However, current information underscore that S. stercoralis must not be neglected. Further assessments in socio-economic and ecological settings are needed and integration into global helminth control is warranted.

  10. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in former Far East prisoners of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, G V; Bell, D R

    1979-01-01

    Out of 602 consecutive people who had been prisoners of war in the Far East and were screened for tropical diseases, 88 (15%) were found to have Strongyloides stercoralis infection a mean period of 30 years after their return from the tropics. The classical strongyloid creeping eruption was the most common symptom (84%), while gastrointestinal disturbances were rare (5%). Thiabendazole was highly effective in eradicating the infection. Strongyloidiasis is an important condition, as when the host is immunosuppressed fatal hyperinfection may occur. Many undiagnosed cases of strongyloidiasis must exist among former prisoners of war, and it is thus important to identify and treat these patients. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:497706

  11. Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in HIV seropositive patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A contemporary surge in diarrhoeal illnesses due to parasitic infestations is believed to be a synergy between endemicity and HIV seropositivity. Aim: To determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation among HIV seropositive patients at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital.

  12. Real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis-associated meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir, Eyal; Grossman, Tamar; Ciobotaro, Pnina; Attali, Malka; Barkan, Daniel; Bardenstein, Rita; Zimhony, Oren

    2016-03-01

    Four immunocompromised patients, immigrants from Ethiopia, presented with diverse clinical manifestations of meningitis associated with Strongyloides stercoralis dissemination as determined by identification of intestinal larvae. The cerebrospinal fluid of 3 patients was tested by a validated (for stool) real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and was found positive, establishing this association. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hiperinfecção por Strongyloides stercoralis: relato de caso autopsiado Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection: autopsy case report

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    Moema Gonçalves Pinheiro Veloso

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Infecção assintomática por Strongyloides stercoralis pode resultar em doença potencialmente fatal em pacientes imunodeprimidos. Os autores relatam caso de hiperinfecção por Strongyloides stercoralis descoberto à autópsia, enfatizando aspectos clinicopatológicos, em homem de 55 anos, em tratamento para mieloma múltiplo. Apresentava, havia um dia, cefaléia intensa, dor abdominal e oligúria desenvolvendo insuficiência respiratória aguda e choque séptico. Devido à dificuldade no diagnóstico, o tratamento empírico antes do início da terapia imunossupressora pode ser a melhor estratégia para prevenir a hiperinfecção pelo verme.Asymptomatic infection due to Strongyloides stercoralis may result in potentially fatal disease in immunodepressed patients. A case of Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection discovered at autopsy in a 55-year-old man who had been undergoing treatment for multiple myeloma is reported, emphasizing the clinical and pathological findings. One day earlier, he presented severe headache, abdominal pain and oliguria, from which he developed acute respiratory failure and septic shock. Because of difficulty in reaching this diagnosis, empirical treatment before starting immunosuppressive therapy may be the best strategy for preventing hyperinfection by this worm.

  14. Hiper-infecção por Strongyloides Stercoralis: relato de caso Strongyloides Stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome: case report

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    Cristian Chassot Benincasa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: O Strongyloides stercoralis é um agente comum de infecção do trato gastrintestinal. Em pacientes imunodeprimidos este nematódeo pode causar hiper-infecção, com manifestações pulmonares e sepse por germes gram-negativos. O objetivo deste relato foi apresentar um caso com evolução letal e ressaltar a importância do diagnóstico e do tratamento precoce. RELATO DO CASO: Paciente do sexo masculino, 60 anos, com diagnóstico de tumor de timo, submetido a tratamento cirúrgico, radioterapia e quimioterapia. Foi consultado na emergência relatando queixa de diarréia e dispnéia, sendo admitido na UTI após apresentar quadro de insuficiência respiratória aguda hipoxêmica e choque refratário, evoluindo para óbito. No aspirado traqueal, foi identificado larvas de Strongyloides stercoralis. CONCLUSÕES: A estrongiloidíase, apesar de tratar-se de infecção parasitária freqüentemente leve, em pacientes imunodeprimidos pode apresentar-se de forma grave e disseminada. Deve-se suspeitar deste agente em pacientes que vivem em áreas endêmicas, sendo o diagnóstico estabelecido através da pesquisa da larva do Strongyloides stercoralis na secreção traqueal e nas fezes.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Strongyloides Stercoralis is a common cause of gastrointestinal infection. This nematode can produce an overwhelming hyperinfection syndrome, especially in the immunocompromised patient. Typically, patients present with pulmonary symptoms, but subsequently they can acquire Gram-negative sepsis. The objective of this report is to describe a lethal case and call attention to the importance of early diagnosis and treatment. CASE REPORT: Male patient, 60 year-old with diagnosis of timoma, treated with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the past. He presented to the emergency room complaining of diarrhea and dyspnea, and then transferred to the ICU after development of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure and refractory

  15. CASE REPORT: Disseminated Tuberculosis with Strongyloides stercoralis Infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Case History: We are presenting a case of seven year old male with disseminated tuberculosis and infection with Strongyloides stercoralis (S.stercoralis The patient had severe hypoproteinemia and anasarca. S.stercoralis is a helminthic infection. Infection is acquired by walking bare foot on contaminated soil. After infection the filariform larvae invade the venous circulation and reach the intestine via respiratory system. Hyperinfection with this parasite leads to steatorrhea, oedema of duodenum, protein losing enteropathy,especially in immunocompromised individual. The patient had disseminated tuberculosis leading to decreased immunity which made the patient susceptible to hyperinfection with strongyloides. The patient responded dramatically to Ivermectin and anti tuberculartreatment. Timely intervention with appropriate drugs may prove to be lifesaving in such condition.

  16. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Complicating Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection

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    Ming-Ju Tsai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is endemic in tropic and subtropic areas, but is currently seldom encountered in developed area like Taiwan. We present an elder man with acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection. There was no significant clue initially for diagnosing this patient as having S. stercoralis hyperinfection. Neither peripheral eosinophilia nor significant hemoptysis was noted. Bronchoscopy played a critical role to define the unexpected cause of his progressive pulmonary infiltrates. The correct diagnosis was soon made by recognition of the worm in bronchioloalveolar lavage cytology, and specific treatment was initiated promptly. For a septic patient with progressive pulmonary infiltrates, bronchoscopic studies including cytology may be necessary for defining the cause. Hyperinfection strongyloidiasis should be considered as a cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome in immunocompromised patient, especially with the presence of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms.

  17. Tratamiento de Strongyloides stercoralis con ivermectina y tiabendazole

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    Pedro Huapaya

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la experiencia del uso de ivermectina y tiabendazole en pacientes atendidos en el Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrión"- UNMSM. Material y Métodos: Durante los años 2001 y 2002, se administró ivermectina 0,2 mg/kg en dosis única a 22 pacientes (Grupo 1 o tiabendazole 25 mg/kg por 3 días a 20 pacientes (Grupo 2 con diagnóstico de Strongyloides stercoralis en heces. Se efectuó controles entre 20 y 40 días después de administrado el tratamiento. Resultados: El promedio de edades fue 21,8 años (DE 22,6 para el grupo 1 y de 33,5 años (DE 14,2 para el grupo 2. Hubo 12 varones (54,5% en el grupo 1 y 7 (35% en el grupo 2. Ivermectina fue 100% eficaz, mientras que tiabendazole lo fue en 95%; sólo un caso requirió un segundo ciclo debido a la alta carga parasitaria inicial; el siguiente control fue negativo. Los síntomas más frecuentes fueron diarreas (71,4%, dolor cólico (61,9% y dolor epigástrico (47,6%. Todos los pacientes manifestaron mejoría clínica luego del tratamiento. Sólo 2 casos (10% del grupo 2 manifestaron leve sensación nauseosa durante el primer día del tratamiento, que remitió por completo al segundo día. Conclusiones: Ambos medicamentos ratifican su eficacia y seguridad para ser utilizados en el tratamiento de Strongyloides stercoralis; es necesario disponer de ellos en el petitorio nacional.

  18. Disseminated Paracoccidioidomycosis (Simulating Metastatic Lung Cancer) and Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfestation in a Steroid-Treated Patient▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall Bello, Aline Gehlen; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; de Mattos Oliveira, Flávio; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis, initially suggestive of metastatic lung cancer. The infection was associated with strongyloides hyperinfestation as a result of iatrogenic hypercorticoidism. Examination of a smear prepared from aspirated tracheobronchial secretion and stained by Grocott-methenamine-silver revealed structures consistent with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Strongyloides stercoralis. At autopsy, the central nervous system and pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis, as well as pulmonary strongyloidiasis, were confirmed, without evidence of malignant cells. PMID:21430109

  19. Immunological responses elicited by different infection regimes with Strongyloides ratti.

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    Steve Paterson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infections are a ubiquitous feature of vertebrate life. In nature, such nematode infections are acquired by continued exposure to infective stages over a prolonged period of time. By contrast, experimental laboratory infections are typically induced by the administration of a single (and often large dose of infective stages. Previous work has shown that the size of an infection dose can have significant effects on anti-nematode immune responses. Here we investigated the effect of different infection regimes of Strongyloides ratti, comparing single and repeated dose infections, on the host immune response that was elicited. We considered and compared infections of the same size, but administered in different ways. We considered infection size in two ways: the maximum dose of worms administered and the cumulative worm exposure time. We found that both infection regimes resulted in Th2-type immune response, characterised by IL4 and IL13 produced by S. ratti stimulated mesenteric lymph node cells, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and intestinal rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII production. We observed some small quantitative immunological differences between different infection regimes, in which the concentration of IL4, IL13, anti-S. ratti IgG(1 and IgG(2a and RMCPII were affected. However, these differences were quantitatively relatively modest compared with the temporal dynamics of the anti-S. ratti immune response as a whole.

  20. Mortalidade em potros associada ao parasitismo por Strongyloides westeri

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    Ricardo B. Lucena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available É descrito um surto da infecção por Strongyloides westeri em potros. Cinco de seis potros recém desmamados desenvolveram diarreia, perda de peso, hipoalbuminemia e anemia. Grande número de ovos de nematódeos foi detectado nas fezes de dois desses potros. Três potros morreram naturalmente e um quarto foi eutanasiado in extremis. Os achados de necropsia em três potros consistiam de edema subcutâneo, ascite, hidrotórax e petéquias na mucosa do duodeno. Histologicamente, as alterações eram restritas à mucosa do duodeno e caracterizadas por atrofia das vilosidades e infiltrado inflamatório linfoplasmocítico na lamina propria. Múltiplas pequenas cavidades preenchidas por parasitas nematódeos e ovos embrionados ocorriam na ponta das vilosidades duodenais. Com base na epidemiologia, nas características morfológicas dos nematódeos e nos achados de necropsia no três potros necropsiados, um diagnóstico de infecção por S. westeri foi feito.

  1. Strongyloides seroprevalence before and after an ivermectin mass drug administration in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.

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    Therese M Kearns

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides seroprevalence is hyper-endemic in many Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, ranging from 35-60%. We report the impact on Strongyloides seroprevalence after two oral ivermectin mass drug administrations (MDAs delivered 12 months apart in a remote Australian Aboriginal community.Utilizing a before and after study design, we measured Strongyloides seroprevalence through population census with sequential MDAs at baseline and month 12. Surveys at months 6 and 18 determined changes in serostatus. Serodiagnosis was undertaken by ELISA that used sonicated Strongyloides ratti antigen to detect anti-Strongyloides IgG. Non-pregnant participants weighing ≥15 kg were administered a single 200 μg/kg ivermectin dose, repeated after 10-42 days if Strongyloides and/or scabies was diagnosed; others followed a standard alternative algorithm. A questionnaire on clinical symptoms was administered to identify adverse events from treatment and self-reported symptoms associated with serostatus.We surveyed 1013 participants at the baseline population census and 1060 (n = 700 from baseline cohort and 360 new entrants at month 12. Strongyloides seroprevalence fell from 21% (175/818 at baseline to 5% at month 6. For participants from the baseline cohort this reduction was sustained at month 12 (34/618, 6%, falling to 2% at month 18 after the second MDA. For new entrants to the cohort at month 12, seroprevalence reduced from 25% (75/297 to 7% at month 18. Strongyloides positive seroconversions for the baseline cohort six months after each MDA were 2.5% (4/157 at month 6 and 1% at month 18, whilst failure to serorevert remained unchanged at 18%. At 12 months, eosinophilia was identified in 59% of baseline seropositive participants and 89% of seropositive new entrants, compared with 47%baseline seronegative participants and 51% seronegative new entrants. Seropositivity was not correlated with haemoglobin or any self-reported clinical

  2. Corticosteroid-induced asthma: a manifestation of limited hyperinfection syndrome due to Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, P; Gil, C; Estrellas, B; Middleton, J R

    1995-09-01

    Inadequate therapeutic response to parenteral corticosteroids in patients with acute bronchial asthma is infrequent. We report four patients whose bronchial asthma symptoms worsened after treatment with parenteral corticosteroids. All had larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis in the stool. The new attack or the exacerbation of asthma appeared to be precipitated by systemic corticosteroid administration. The paradoxic therapeutic response of asthma to glucocorticoides was the major pulmonary manifestation of Strongyloides superinfection; there was no evidence of other organ involvement. Individuals with new onset of bronchial asthma or worsening of asthmatic episodes concurrent with the use of systemic corticosteroids should have thorough investigation for possible superinfection due to Strongyloides stercoralis. This is particularly important for patients who have resided in areas where intestinal helminthic infections are endemic. Discontinuance of steroid therapy or reduction in dosage of parenteral steroids appears necessary. Treatment with thiabendazole appears to be effective in patients with limited hyperinfection syndrome.

  3. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis on Mekong islands in southern Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonghachack, Youthanavanh; Sayasone, Somphou; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Taisayavong, Keoka; Akkavong, Kongsap; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a neglected helminth infection potentially that can lead to systemic infection in immunocompromised individuals. In Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR, Laos), information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce. We assessed S. stercoralis infection and associated risk factors and symptoms on the Mekong islands in Southern Laos. Baermann and Kato-Katz techniques were performed on two stool samples from each individual to detect S. stercoralis larvae and concomitant helminth infections. Among 729 individuals, 41.0% were infected with S. stercoralis. Men were at higher risk than women (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.45-2.67). Urticaria and body itching was associated with S. stercoralis infection (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.42-4.05). Infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (72.2%), Schistosoma mekongi (12.8%), and hookworm (56.1%) were very common. Few infections with Trichuris trichiura (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3%) and Taenia spp. (0.3%) were detected. The majority of helminth infections were of light intensity, with prevalences of 80.4%, 92.9%, 64.5%, 100% and 100%, for O. viverrini, hookworm, S. mekongi, T. trichiura and A. lumbricoides, respectively. Nevertheless, heavy infection intensities were observed for O. viverrini (1.0%), S. mekongi (14.0%) and hookworm (2.9%). S. stercoralis is highly endemic on the islands of Khong district, Champasack province, Southern Laos. The national helminth control programme should take action to control this helminth infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Strongyloides stercoralis disseminated infection and schistosomiasis in an AIDS patient

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    Rodrigo Martins Brandão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome is classically associated with impaired host response and implies in an overburden of larvae in its usual cycle. It has been recognized as a severe and potentially fatal condition in immunocompromised individuals, especially those using oral corticosteroids. Infection with Schistosoma mansoni not only increases the susceptibility to HIV infection, but also promotes progression to disease. The association of the most severe forms of strongyloidiasis and AIDS is scarcely described, even more when S. mansoni is also associated. The authors describe a case of a 34-year-old previously healthy male, admitted to the emergency department with a history of hematemesis associated with dyspnea, hemoptysis, and fever. He referred homosexual relations for 6 years. Physical examination showed an ill-looking patient, and was remarkable for tachycardia, tachypnea, diaphoresis, and pulse oximetry of 70% in room air. Lungs examination revealed the presence of rales in the left base. Chest radiography showed a diffuse and bilateral reticulo-nodular pattern. HIV serology was positive. Empirical antimicrobial therapy and corticosteroids were initiated. On the third day of hospitalization, petechiae appeared over the periumbilical area, but no further investigation was undertaken because the patient died soon after. The autopsy findings were compatible with S. stercoralis disseminated infection, a hepatic intestinal chronic form of schistosomiasis, and septic shock as the primary cause of death. The authors call attention to this infrequent association.

  5. HIPERINFECCIÓN POR STRONGYLOIDES EN ANCIANO CON EPOC

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    Análida Elizabeth Pinilla Roa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un hombre de 81 años natural de zona rural, agricultor, recolector de café 50 años atrás y jardinero por 22 años en Bogotá. Consultó por dolor abdominal de 10 días de evolución, localizado hacia mesogastrio y epigastrio. Además, disnea, tos productiva. Antecedentes: enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica, cor pulmonale, fumador de 25 paquetes /año, había recibido prednisona oral y beclometasona inhalada en diversas ocasiones incluso en la última hospitalización. En el examen físico presentó signos de desnutrición, taquicardia, taquipnea; estertores en base del hemitórax derecho; abdomen: blando, depresible con dolor a la palpación profunda en epigastrio e hipocondrio derecho. Ingresó con síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica por taquicardia, taquipnea, leucocitosis 37.600 y eosinofilia 52-60%, Ig E: 180 UI/ ml. Se evidenciaron larvas rabditiformes de Strongyloides stercoralis en esputo y materia fecal. La radiografía de tórax mostró derrame pleural derecho, la ecografía hepática fue normal, la endoscopia de vías digestivas altas evidenció gastritis y duodenitis. Se inició tratamiento con ivermectina 200 mg/Kg/dosis, con seguimiento clínico y de laboratorio con evolución clínica satisfactoria.

  6. Microarray analysis of gender- and parasite-specific gene transcription in Strongyloides ratti

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, Helen; Mello, Luciane V.; Fang, Yongxiang; Wit, Ernst; Thompson, Fiona J.; Viney, Mark E.; Paterson, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which parasitic nematodes reproduce and have adapted to life within a host are unclear. In the present study, microarray analysis was used to explore differential transcription among the different stages and sexes of Strongyloides ratti, a parasitic nematode of brown

  7. Late onset of Strongyloides stercoralis meningitis in a retired Belgian miner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pypen, Y; Oris, E; Meeuwissen, J; Vander Laenen, M; Van Gompel, F; Coppens, G

    2015-12-01

    We report a rare case of Strongyloides stercoralis meningitis in an immunocompromised patient treated for a lung carcinoma. Despite his Belgian origin, he was infected with S. stercoralis due to his former work as a miner. Although mostly prevalent in (sub)tropical areas, there are temperate regions where this nematode can occur.

  8. Distribution of human Oesophagostomum bifurcum, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in northern Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yelifari, L.; Bloch, P.; Magnussen, P.

    2005-01-01

    with a global positioning system (GPS). The prevalence of Oesophagostomum, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in a study population of 20 250 people was determined by microscopic examination of larvae in stool cultures. The overall prevalence was 10.2, 50.6 and 11.6% for the three nematodes...

  9. Strongyloides spp Distribution on Orangutans in Tanjung Putting National Park, Care Center in Pangkalanbun, and Sebangau National Park

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    Wisnu Nurcahyo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides spp is a parasitic nematode in livestock, primate and human which is  considered asa danger zoonotic disease. Therefore, study about parasite distribution is very important in order to find outgenetic diversity among orangutan in quarantine, zoo and nature, as an effort to explore infection patternand life cycle of Strongyloides spp on orangutan. Amount of 326 orangutan feces were taken from threedifferent habitat of orangutan in Central Borneo, Tanjung Puting National Park, Orangutan Care Centerand Sebangau National Park. Samples which were collected from Tanjung Puting, Care Center and Sebangauwere 75, 80 and 171 respectively. Those samples were transported to the Parasitology laboratory in Facultyof Veterinary Medicine, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta for examination and detection.  Prevalence ofstrongyloides in Tanjung Putting, Sebangau and Orangutan Care Center were 24%, 14,6% and 13,3%respectively. Among positive samples of Strongyloides, 62,5% were from male orangutans, while 37,5% werefrom female orangutans. Strongyloides in pre adult and baby orangutan were 91,6% and 4,2% respectively.Meanwhile, Strongyloides in adult orangutan were very rare. Orangutan habitat in Sebangau National Parkis an ideal habitat for orangutan, supported by the watery condition of peat land, so that Strongyloides re-infection become difficult. Some factors may have important role in Strongyloidoses, such as behavior,physical condition, nutrition, age, body weight, sex, immunity and social status of orangutan.

  10. Strongyloides stercoralis infection in an HIV positive patient--a case report from RIMS, Imphal, Manipur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhrambam, Pratita Devi; Rebachandra, H; Singh, Ng Brajachand; Singh, Th Nabakumar

    2010-09-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis, a nematode parasite in human with free living and autoinfective cycles, is often an asymptomatic infection of the upper small intestine. If the host becomes immunocompromised, autoinfection may increase the intestinal worm burden and lead to disseminated strongyloidiasis. We report a case of a 33 year old male HIV positive patient admitted on 2/6/08 in male medical ward, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal, Manipur with complaints of loose stools, pain abdomen, nausea, vomiting, generalized weakness, loss of appetite and loss of weight for past one month with fever off and on. Stool examination reveals larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. The patient was successfully treated with Ivermectin 200 microgm/kg daily for 2 days.

  11. Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome after simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Galiano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most cases of strongyloidiasis associated with solid organ transplantation have been due to the reactivation of a latent infection in the recipient as a result of the immunosuppressive therapy; however, donor-derived infections are becoming increasingly frequent. The case of a patient who nearly died of a Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection after receiving simultaneous kidney/pancreas transplants is described herein. No specific parasitological tests were performed pre-transplantation, despite the fact that both the recipient and the donor originated from endemic areas. Serological analysis of the donor's serum performed retrospectively revealed the origin of the infection, which if it had been done beforehand would have prevented the serious complications. Current practice guidelines need to be updated to incorporate immunological and molecular techniques for the rapid screening of Strongyloides prior to transplantation, and empirical treatment with ivermectin should be applied systematically when there is the slightest risk of infection in the donor or recipient.

  12. First-Glance Diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis Autoinfection by Stool Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Sing, Andreas; Leitritz, Lorenz; Bogner, Johannes R.; Heesemann, Jürgen

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of autoinfection due to Strongyloides stercoralis in a 27-year-old Ethiopian AIDS patient living in Germany for nearly 3 years. This case was diagnosed on the basis of a single-view field in microscopy of a freshly obtained formalin-fixed stool specimen showing both rhabditiform and filariform larvae. The diagnosis of autoinfection by microscopy is discussed in detail.

  13. E. coli Meningitis Presenting in a Patient with Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis

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    Juliana B. Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spontaneous Escherichia coli meningitis is an infrequent condition in adults and is associated with some predisposing factors, including severe Strongyloides stercoralis (SS infections. Case Presentation. A 43-year-old Hispanic man, with history of travelling to the jungle regions of Peru and Brazil two decades ago, and who received prednisone due to Bell’s palsy for three weeks before admission, presented to the Emergency Department with diarrhea, fever, and hematochezia. A week after admission he developed drowsiness, meningeal signs, abdominal distension, and constipation. A cerebrospinal fluid culture showed extended spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli. A colonoscopy was performed and showed pancolitis. Three days after the procedure the patient became unstable and developed peritoneal signs. He underwent a laparotomy, which ended up in a total colectomy and partial proctectomy due to toxic megacolon. Three days later the patient died in the intensive care unit due to septic shock. Autopsy was performed and microscopic examination revealed the presence of multiple Strongyloides larvae throughout the body. Conclusion. Strongyloides stercoralis infection should be excluded in adults with spontaneous E. coli meningitis, especially, if gastrointestinal symptoms and history of travelling to an endemic area are present. Even with a proper diagnosis and management, disseminated strongyloidiasis has a poor prognosis.

  14. Cryptosporidium and Strongyloides stercoralis infections among people with and without HIV infection and efficiency of diagnostic methods for Strongyloides in Yirgalem Hospital, southern Ethiopia

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    Medhin Girmay

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidiosis and strongyloidiasis have been reported to be associated with HIV/AIDS. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Strongyloides stercoralis infections among people with and without HIV infection and also assess the efficient methods for detection of Strongyloides. Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yirgalem Hospital, southern Ethiopia from March, 2007 to October, 2007. Demographic data and stool samples were collected from 384 individuals (192 from each HIV serogroup. Samples were processed using the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique for detection of Cryptosporidium species. Stool samples were also processed using the direct saline mount, the formol-ether and the water-emergence techniques for diagnosis of S. stercoralis. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and S. stercoralis among HIV infected individuals was 25% and 12.0%, respectively. HIV positive individuals had significantly higher rate of infection with Cryptosporidium (OR = 15.7; 95% CI 5.5 to 44.5 and S. stercoralis (OR = 6.4; 95% CI 2.2 to 18.9. Among the three diagnostic methods, the larvae of S. stercoralis were more efficiently detected by the water-emergence technique. Conclusions In this study, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and S. stercoralis infections was significantly higher among people with HIV/AIDS. Educating HIV infected individuals to prevent acquisition of Cryptosporidium infection and screening for S. stercoralis using the water-emergence technique is likely to be helpful.

  15. Hiperinfestação por Strongyloides Stercoralis - doi:10.5020/18061230.2006.p118

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    Tânia Maria Cavalcante Maia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A estrongiloidíase é uma helmintíase predominantemente intestinal causada pelo Strongyloides stercoralis, sendo o homem seu hospedeiro definitivo, além da principal fonte de infecção. Este trabalho objetivou relatar um caso de identificação laboratorial de larva de Strongyloides stercolaris no líquido ascítico de um paciente do sexo masculino, 49 anos, agricultor, etilista há mais de 30 anos, encaminhado ao Hospital Universitário Walter Cantídio, por estar evoluindo com episódios de icterícia associada a aumento do volume abdominal diagnosticado como ascite, vômito, diarréia pastosa e diminuição do volume urinário. No internamento, foi iniciada medicação profilática para Peritonite Bacteriana Espontânea (PBE, bem como reposição de vitaminas, hidratação venosa e diuréticos, sem sucesso terapêutico. A partir de achados no líquido ascítico de presença de larvas de Strongyloides stercolaris em atividade, o quadro foi interpretado como estrongiloidíase disseminada em paciente imunocomprometido por hepatopatia avançada e alcoólica. O paciente evoluiu com quadro de choque caracterizado por hipotensão e hipotermia, tendo chegado a fazer uso de drogas vasoativas de forma não responsiva. O quadro evoluiu para óbito. Os autores chamam a atenção para a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento precoce da estrongiloidíase, principalmente em pacientes imunodeprimidos.

  16. Eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis in an HIV-positive patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Dennis Baroni; Friedrisch, Bruno Kras; Fontanive Junior, Vilmar; da Rocha, Vívian Wünderlich

    2012-03-27

    A 29 year old female HIV-positive patient presented in emergency with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain, fever, tenderness and positive Blumberg sign. Laboratorial tests revealed eosinophilia, anaemia and leukocytosis. She underwent exploratory laparotomy followed by appendectomy. The pathological analysis of the appendix revealed acute appendicitis, accentuated eosinophilia and infestation by Strongyloides stercoralis and Enterobius vermicularis. She did well after surgery and adequate treatment. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of eosinophilic acute appendicitis caused by these two parasitic worms reported in the medical literature.

  17. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection in an HIV-Infected Patient Successfully Treated with Subcutaneous Ivermectin

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    Paolo Antonio Grossi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A 39-year-old Ethiopian HIV-positive man with peripheral T-cell lymphoma developed Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection. The patient was initially treated with oral ivermectin for three weeks without response, most likely due to malabsorption because of concomitant paralytic ileus. Given the persistence of larvae in the body fluids, the worsening respiratory status and clinical malabsorption, veterinary parenteral formulation of ivermectin was administered. The very high plasma concentration of ivermectin achieved in the patient after parenteral administration led to a rapid improvement in his clinical condition and rapid disappearance of the parasite from biological samples, without any adverse reaction.

  18. Fulminant gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in an AIDS patient

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    Valdes Roberto Bollela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis is an endemic nematode to tropical and subtropical regions of the globe. The parasite is capable of autoinfection, which is limited by an intact immune response. In immunocompromised hosts, hyperinfection and dissemination can occur and have a high index of mortality. A hyperinfection syndrome with dissemination is frequently associated with corticosteroid administration and other conditions (malignancies and organ transplantation. Interestingly, although strongyloidiasis is common among AIDS patients in endemic areas, the hyperinfection syndrome is rarely noted. We report here on a rare manifestation of fulminant gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to hyperinfection of strongyloidiasis in a female drug-abusing, alcoholic HIV/AIDS patient.

  19. Henoch-Schönlein purpura associated with Strongyloides stercoralis infection

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    Janković Sveta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP is a small blood vessel vasculitis, which usually manifests during childhood. The exact cause of the disease is unknown. Case report. We reported a 14-year-old girl who had been admitted to our clinic due to the appearance of red macules on her extremities and face, vomiting, and pain in the abdomen and joints. The patient was initially diagnosed with Henoch- Schönlein purpura. At the end of the fourth week of illness, larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis were detected in stool samples. The patient was therefore treated with mebendazole, after which all symptoms permanently withdrew. About a month later laboratory examinations were repeated demonstrating increasing signs of renal damage. Kidney biopsy was performed, showing mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis with crescents and IgA and C3 positive staining in the mesangium. Upon reviewing the clinical presentation, biochemically demonstrated progressive renal damage and biopsy results, the patient was diagnosed with HSP nephritis. Conclusion. The time course of the disease and present knowledge concerning the pathogenic mechanisms of HSP suggest that Strongyloides stercoralis infection could have caused HSP in the presented patient, which was complicated by nephritis.

  20. Serological and molecular detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection among an Orang Asli community in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Arine Fadzlun; Hadip, Faizah; Ngui, Romano; Lim, Yvonne A L; Mahmud, Rohela

    2013-08-01

    Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection particularly in asymptomatic individuals is often hampered due to the lack of standard diagnostic tools. In this study, the use of serological and molecular approaches were investigated for the detection of S. stercoralis infection among an Orang Asli (indigenous) community following a preliminary detection by microscopic examination of faecal samples. Out of 54 individuals studied, 17/54 (31.5%) were detected to be positive for S. stercoralis infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), compared to 0/54 (0%) by faecal examination. Further confirmation performed by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from faecal samples of these 17 individuals yielded 3/17 (17.6%) positives for S. stercoralis DNA amplification. No amplification was seen with the other 37 faecal samples, which were negative by microscopy and ELISA. As the high ELISA positive results were suspected to be false-positives, ELISA is not recommended for use as a detection tool but may be beneficial for evaluating the effectiveness of anti-Strongyloides drugs. The present finding indicated that PCR should be considered as an alternative diagnostic tool for the detection of S. stercoralis infection.

  1. Strongyloides stercoralis in common vegetables and herbs in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeehaida, M; Zairi, N Z; Rahmah, N; Maimunah, A; Madihah, B

    2011-04-01

    Transmission of soil-transmitted helminthes infection is by faecal oral route, and is influenced by food preference. Kelantanese love to consume ulam which are raw vegetables and herbs. Some of the herbs grow on grounds with high humidity and are abundant near drainage areas, these are also places with higher likelihood of harbouring viable parasite ova. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of soiltransmitted helminthes in vegetables, herbs and fruits found in our local setting. The results by microscopy showed that there was no helminthes ovum or protozoan parasite in the samples. However, Strongyloides stercoralis rhabdatiform larvae were identified in water samples used to wash pegaga, kesum and water spinach, and the number of larvae observed were 152, 9 and 16 respectively. Analysis by real-time PCR confirmed the microscopic observation of this helminth. This study highlighted that vegetables and herbs are likely sources of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. Thus vegetable sellers as well as the food handlers are the two important groups who are at high risk of acquiring the infection.

  2. Severe gastroduodenitis in a young man secondary to a hyperinfection for strongyloides stercolaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbelaez, Victor; Angarita, Oscar; Gomez, Martin; Sprockel John; Mejia, Marcela

    2007-01-01

    Patient that arrived to the emergency room with intense upper abdominal pain associated to abdominal distension, nausea and emesis of alimentary content, symptoms that begun five months before The patient referred some episodes of liquid diarrhea (neither mucous nor bloody), hyporexia, asthenia and adynamia that became progressive until limitation of his physical activity, taking him to prostration in bed and caquexia. The day before the consult he presents with melanemesis and vomit with total intolerance to the oral intake, associated to diarrheic dark stools which took him to the emergency room. During the diagnostic evaluation a severe gastroduodenitis due to a Strongyloides infection is evidenced, which is documented by gastric and duodenal biopsies. The patient also has an associated infection of HTLV-1 virus. With the diagnosis of a strongyloides hyperinfection, a treatment with ivermectine is started, with complete resolution of the symptoms. After showing the case in detail, we make a review of the literature about the treatment of this parasitic infection and its association with HTLV-1

  3. Transgenesis in Strongyloides and related parasitic nematodes: historical perspectives, current functional genomic applications and progress towards gene disruption and editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, J B; Shao, H; Massey, H C; Li, X

    2017-03-01

    Transgenesis for Strongyloides and Parastrongyloides was accomplished in 2006 and is based on techniques derived for Caenorhabditis elegans over two decades earlier. Adaptation of these techniques has been possible because Strongyloides and related parasite genera carry out at least one generation of free-living development, with adult males and females residing in soil contaminated by feces from an infected host. Transgenesis in this group of parasites is accomplished by microinjecting DNA constructs into the syncytia of the distal gonads of free-living females. In Strongyloides stercoralis, plasmid-encoded transgenes are expressed in promoter-regulated fashion in the F1 generation following gene transfer but are silenced subsequently. Stable inheritance and expression of transgenes in S. stercoralis requires their integration into the genome, and stable lines have been derived from integrants created using the piggyBac transposon system. More direct investigations of gene function involving expression of mutant transgene constructs designed to alter intracellular trafficking and developmental regulation have shed light on the function of the insulin-regulated transcription factor Ss-DAF-16. Transgenesis in Strongyloides and Parastrongyloides opens the possibility of powerful new methods for genome editing and transcriptional manipulation in this group of parasites. Proof of principle for one of these, CRISPR/Cas9, is presented in this review.

  4. High prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis among school children in rural Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinz, Dominik; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2010-04-01

    Two cross-sectional surveys were carried out in rural Côte d'Ivoire, the first in 5 primary schools in the Lake Taabo area, and the second in the primary school of Azaguié-Institute de Recherche sur les Fruits et Agrumes. Overall, 251 school children were screened for Strongyloides stercoralis by using either the Baermann method, or the Koga agar plate method, or both techniques. The prevalence of S. stercoralis at the unit of the school ranged between 4.0 and 48%. Because S. stercoralis is a neglected nematode, yet an important parasite from a public health perspective, surveys should consider the use of appropriate diagnostic methods to further our understanding of the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis and to better target control interventions.

  5. Review of some features of the biology of Strongyloides westeri with emphasis on the life cycle

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    Lyons E.T.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of several aspects of the biology of Strongyloides westeri, especially on the life cycle, are presented. The main reason is because of the potential renewed importance of these parasites since the recently recognized increase in their prevalence in horse foals. Indications are that the first and main source of enteric infections in foals maturing to adults in their small intestines is from parasitic third stage larvae (L3 passing to them in milk of their dams. It appears that a lesser source of infection is from free-living L3 which, when they are ingested with food or penetrate the skin, can mature in foals. In conclusion, the source of enteric infections of adult S. westeri in foals is mainly from parasitic L3 that they ingest in milk of their dams.

  6. Strongyloides stercoralis daf-2 encodes a divergent ortholog of Caenorhabditis elegans DAF-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Holman C; Ranjit, Najju; Stoltzfus, Jonathan D; Lok, James B

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesise that developmental arrest in infectious larvae of parasitic nematodes is regulated by signalling pathways homologous to Caenorhabditis elegans DAF (dauer formation) pathways. Alignment of Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss) DAF-2 with DAF-2 of C. elegans and homologs of other species shows that most structural motifs in these insulin-like receptors are conserved. However, the catalytic domain of Ss-DAF-2 contains two substitutions (Q1242 and Q1256), that would result in constitutive dauer formation in C. elegans or diabetes in vertebrate animals. Ss-daf-2 also shows two alternately spliced isoforms, the constitutively expressed Ss-daf-2a, and Ss-daf-2b, which is only expressed in stages leading to parasitism. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH in Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection

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    Deepshikha Nag Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis is a soil transmitted intestinal roundworm that has a unique ability to multiply within the human host and reinfect the human carrier by a process of autoinfection. By this property, S. stercoralis can persist as an occult infection for many decades. In situations of immunosuppression or other permissive gastrointestinal conditions, there occurs a massive increase in parasite multiplication. The parasites penetrate through the intestinal mucosa and are carried in circulation and can cause multisystem involvement. We report a case of a 76-year-old Columbian male who presented with intractable vomiting and hyponatremia who was then diagnosed to have syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. The patient′s symptoms improved after treatment with two doses of ivermectin and his serum sodium levels returned to normal. S. stercoralis infection should be suspected in patients from endemic regions who present with gastrointestinal symptoms and unexplained hyponatremia.

  8. [Duodenal Linphoma asociated to Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Two types of HTLV-1 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Miranda, Julissa; Guzmán Rojas, Patricia; Espinoza-Ríos, Jorge; Mejía Cordero, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Infection by the Human T- Lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-1) causes Adult T cell Leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL), being the duodenal involvement rare. Commonly, patients co-infected with HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis are seen due to the lack of TH2 response found on these patients. We describe a 48-year- old woman, from the jungle of Peru, with a family history of HTLV-1 infection, who presented with a History of chronic diarrhea and weight loss. HTLV-1 infection with ATLL and strongyloidiasis were diagnosed. Ivermectin treatment and chemotherapy were initiated, being stabilized, and discharged. We report this case because of the unusual coexistence in the duodenum of ATLL and strongyloidiasis.

  9. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and bronchial asthma: a case report

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    Yildiz Levent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted intestinal nematode that has been estimated to infect at least 60 million people, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. Strongyloides infection has been described in immunosupressed patients with lymphoma, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus etc. Our case who has rheumatoid arthritis (RA and bronchial asthma was treated with low dose steroids and methotrexate. Methods A 68 year old woman has bronchial asthma for 55 years and also diagnosed RA 7 years ago. She received immunusupressive agents including methotrexate and steroids. On admission at hospital, she was on deflazacort 5 mg/day and methotrexate 15 mg/week. On her physical examination, she was afebrile, had rhonchi and mild epigastric tenderness. She had joint deformities at metacarpophalengeal joints and phalanges but no active arthritis finding. Results Oesophagogastroduodenoscopy was performed and it showed hemorrhagic focus at bulbus. Gastric biopsy obtained and showed evidence of S.Stercoralis infection. Stool and sputum parasitological examinations were also all positive for S.stercoralis larvae. Chest radiography result had no pathologic finding. Albendazole 400 mg/day was started for 23 days. After the ivermectin was retrieved, patient was treated with oral ivermectin 200 μg once a day for 3 days. On her outpatient control at 15th day, stool and sputum samples were all negative for parasites. Conclusion S.stercoralis may cause mortal diseases in patients. Immunosupression frequently causes disseminated infections. Many infected patients are completely asymptomatic. Although it is important to detect latent S. stercoralis infections before administering chemotherapy or before the onset of immunosuppression in patients at risk, a specific and sensitive diagnostic test is lacking. In immunosupressed patients, to detect S.stercoralis might help to have the patient survived and constitute the exact therapy.

  10. Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection Syndrome Presenting as Severe, Recurrent Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Leading to a Diagnosis of Cushing Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Brittany; Chi, Nai-Wen; Hansen, Lawrence A.; Lee, Roland R.; U, Hoi-Sang; Savides, Thomas J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old male immigrant from Ethiopia presented for consultation after 3 years of hematochezia/melena requiring > 25 units of blood transfusions. Physical examination revealed severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness, central obesity, proptosis, and abdominal striae, accompanied by eosinophilia, elevated hemoglobin A1c, elevated 24-hour urinary cortisol, lack of suppression of 8 am cortisol levels by 1 mg dexamethasone, and inappropriately elevated random adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level. Histopathological examination of gastrointestinal biopsies showed large numbers of Strongyloides stercoralis, indicating Strongyloides hyperinfection. Treatment with 2 days of ivermectin led to resolution of gastrointestinal bleeding. This syndrome was due to chronic immunosuppression from a pituitary ACTH (corticotroph) microadenoma, of which resection led to gradual normalization of urine cortisol, improved glycemic control, resolution of eosinophilia, and no recurrence of infection. PMID:26195463

  11. Morphogenesis of Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae requires the DAF-16 ortholog FKTF-1.

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    Michelle L Castelletto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on metabolic and morphological similarities between infective third-stage larvae of parasitic nematodes and dauer larvae of Caenorhabditis elegans, it is hypothesized that similar genetic mechanisms control the development of these forms. In the parasite Strongyloides stercoralis, FKTF-1 is an ortholog of DAF-16, a forkhead transcription factor that regulates dauer larval development in C. elegans. Using transgenesis, we investigated the role of FKTF-1 in S. stercoralis' infective larval development. In first-stage larvae, GFP-tagged recombinant FKTF-1b localizes to the pharynx and hypodermis, tissues remodeled in infective larvae. Activating and inactivating mutations at predicted AKT phosphorylation sites on FKTF-1b give constitutive cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the protein, respectively, indicating that its post-translational regulation is similar to other FOXO-class transcription factors. Mutant constructs designed to interfere with endogenous FKTF-1b function altered the intestinal and pharyngeal development of the larvae and resulted in some transgenic larvae failing to arrest in the infective stage. Our findings indicate that FKTF-1b is required for proper morphogenesis of S. stercoralis infective larvae and support the overall hypothesis of similar regulation of dauer development in C. elegans and the formation of infective larvae in parasitic nematodes.

  12. Trends in Strongyloides stercoralis Faecal Larvae Detections in the Northern Territory, Australia: 2002 to 2012

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    Johanna K. Mayer-Coverdale

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth (STH endemic to tropical and subtropical areas. We reviewed the temporal detection trends in patients with S. stercoralis larvae present in faecal samples, in Northern Territory (NT Government Health facilities, between 2002 and 2012. This was a retrospective observational study of consecutive patients with microbiologically confirmed detection of S. stercoralis in faeces. The presence of anaemia, eosinophilia, polyparasitism, and geographic and demographic data, were included in the assessment. S. stercoralis larvae were present in 389 of 22,892 faecal samples (1.7% collected across the NT over 11 years, examined by microscopy after formol ethyl acetate concentration. 97.7% of detections were in Indigenous patients. Detections, by number, occurred in a biphasic age distribution. Detections per number of faecal samples collected, were highest in the 0–5 year age group. Anaemia was present in 44.8%, and eosinophilia in 49.9% of patients. Eosinophilia was present in 65.5% of the ≤5 age group, compared to 40.8% of >5 year age (p < 0.0001. Polyparasitism was present in 31.4% of patients. There was an overall downward trend in larvae detections from 2.64% to 0.99% detections/number of faecal samples year between 2002 and 2012, consistent with the trends observed for other local STHs. S. stercoralis remains an important NT-wide pathogen.

  13. Microarray-Based Analysis of Differential Gene Expression between Infective and Noninfective Larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Roshan; Varma, Sudhir; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Myers, Timothy G.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Abraham, David; Lok, James B.; Nutman, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences between noninfective first-stage (L1) and infective third-stage (L3i) larvae of parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis at the molecular level are relatively uncharacterized. DNA microarrays were developed and utilized for this purpose. Methods and Findings Oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the array were designed to bind 3,571 putative mRNA transcripts predicted by analysis of 11,335 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) obtained as part of the Nematode EST project. RNA obtained from S. stercoralis L3i and L1 was co-hybridized to each array after labeling the individual samples with different fluorescent tags. Bioinformatic predictions of gene function were developed using a novel cDNA Annotation System software. We identified 935 differentially expressed genes (469 L3i-biased; 466 L1-biased) having two-fold expression differences or greater and microarray signals with a p valuemicroarray tool for the examination of S. stercoralis biology has been developed and provides new and valuable insights regarding differences between infective and noninfective S. stercoralis larvae. Potential therapeutic and vaccine targets were identified for further study. PMID:21572524

  14. Strongyloides ratti: implication of mast cell-mediated expulsion through FcεRI-independent mechanisms

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    Watanabe K.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine whether FcεRI-dependent degranulation of intestinal mast cells is required for expulsion of intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti, CD45 exon6-deficient (CD45-/- mice were inoculated with S. ratti. In CD45-/- mice, egg excretion in feces persisted for more than 30 days following S. ratti larvae inoculation, whereas in wild-type (CD45+/+ mice, the eggs completely disappeared by day 20 post-infection. The number of intestinal mucosal mast cells, which are known effector cells for the expulsion of S. ratti, was 75% lower in CD45-/- mice compared with that in CD45+/+ mice. Adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells from CD45+/+ mice into CD45-/- mice reduced the duration of S. ratti infection to comparable levels observed in CD45+/+ mice, with concomitant increases in intestinal mucosal mast cells. These results showed that CD45 is not involved in the effector function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against S. ratti infection. Since FcεRI-dependent degranulation of mast cells is completely impaired in these CD45 knockout mice, we conclude that FcεRIdependent degranulation is not required in the protective function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against primary infection of S. ratti.

  15. Normal serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts exhibited during Strongyloides stercoralis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiarakawa, Miwa; Hirata, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Teruhisa; Parrott, Gretchen; Kinjo, Tetsu; Naka, Hidekatsu; Hokama, Akira; Fujita, Jiro

    2017-02-01

    Infections with parasites, such as Strongyloides stercoralis, typically cause elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils; however, co-infection with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) can cause lower levels of serum IgE during S. stercoralis infection. We conducted this study to determine whether serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts could also be related to other patient characteristics or symptoms. Between 1991 and 2014, we measured and compared the symptoms of 237 patients and evaluated serum IgE levels and eosinophil counts of 199 patients who were infected with S. stercoralis at the Ryukyu University Hospital and the Nishizaki Hospital. Medical records were reviewed and blood samples were taken before treatment with the anthelminthic, ivermectin, 2weeks following the first dosage, and 2weeks following the second dosage. Commonly reported symptoms included abdominal pain, diarrhea, and general fatigue. Serum IgE levels were found to be normal in patients co-infected with HTLV-1. Additionally, females and patients younger than 70years old exhibited normal serum IgE levels when infected with S. stercoralis. No factor included in our analysis was found to affect eosinophil counts. Serum IgE levels can remain within the normal range for some patients infected with S. stercoralis. Therefore, physicians should not eliminate S. stercoralis infection from the differential diagnosis solely according to findings of normal or low IgE levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does Strongyloides stercoralis infection protect against type 2 diabetes in humans? Evidence from Australian Aboriginal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Russell; Esterman, Adrian; Giacomin, Paul; Loukas, Alex; McDermott, Robyn

    2015-03-01

    To explore the relationship between infection with Strongyloides stercoralis and the likelihood of having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cross-sectional survey of 259 Aboriginal adults living in a remote community in northern Australia during 2013. Prior infection with S. stercoralis was determined by ELISA testing on serum. Main outcomes were eosinophil count, T2DM diagnosis, HbA1c, BMI, fasting lipids, Hb, blood pressure. Ninety two participants (36%) had prior infection with S. stercoralis and 131 (51%) had T2DM. Those with previous S. stercoralis infection (ELISA titre ≥0.3) were 61% less likely to have a diagnosis of T2DM than those uninfected, adjusted for age, triglycerides, blood pressure and BMI using propensity score (adjusted OR=0.39, 0.23-0.67, P=0.001). In this remote community where prevalence of both S. stercoralis and T2DM is very high, infection with S. stercoralis appears to be associated with a significantly reduced risk of T2DM in adults. A plausible immunological mechanism has been identified in animal models. If confirmed, this result may have practical implications for the prevention of T2DM and associated metabolic disorders in humans. This finding should be explored further with larger longitudinal studies in transitional populations where the risk of both conditions is high. No external funding was required for this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strongyloides stercoralis hyper-infection syndrome in HIV+/AIDS patients in Iran.

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    Meamar, A R; Rezaian, M; Mohraz, M; Hadighi, R; Kia, E B

    2007-08-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is an intestinal nematode in humans, distributed through tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In most individuals, the infection has a chronic nature due to auto-infection at the low level. Accelerated auto-infection, mainly after an alteration in immune status, can cause a syndrome of severe hyper-infection or potentially fatal disseminated strongyloidiasis. Due to the increasing numbers of immunocompromised patients in Iran, strongyloidiasis is an emerging public health concern in the country. In the current study, which was carried out between 2003 and 2005, for the investigation on strongyloidiasis in HIV(+)/AIDS patients, a total of 781 patients were examined by agar plate culture, formalin ether concentration, and direct smear preparation of stool samples. According to the results, 2 out of 781 HIV( + )/AIDS patients were found infected with S. stercoralis, but both patients were at the progressive stage of AIDS and showing severe hyper-infection syndrome. In both cases, numerous rhabditiform and filariform larvae were found in fresh stool direct smears, and rapid and intensive development of parasite in agar plate cultures. In conclusion, in the progressive stages of AIDS, as a result of immunosuppression conditions or in the context of chemotherapy, S. stercoralis is capable of inducing overwhelming infection.

  18. Changes in the viability of Strongyloides ransomi larvae (Nematoda, Rhabditida under the influence of synthetic flavourings

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    A. A. Boyko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common nematodes of pigs globally is Strongyloides ransomi Schwartz and Alicata 1930. It usually causes aggravation of physiological indicators of its hosts and damage to their immune system. Also it is a good modelling object for the evaluation of the antiparasitic activity of new antihelminthic drugs. We conducted laboratory experiments to assess the effect of flavouring additives with flower odour (benzaldehyde, citral, D-limonene and β-ionone upon the viability of S. ransomi larvae. The mortality rate was calculated for 24 hours exposure at four concentrations of each substance (10, 1, 0.1 и 0.01 g/l with eight replications. The lowest LD50 values were obtained for citral (97 mg/l and benzaldehyde (142 mg/l. These substances are recommended for further evaluation of their antihelminthic effect in experiments using laboratory animals. Unlike other substances, the effect of β-ionone and D-limonene even at a concentration of 10 g/l after 24 hours caused the death of <50% of S. ransomi larvae. The study of flavouring additives with flowery odour, which are permitted to be used in food for humans and also to be used in cosmetics, is a promising field for research aimed at the development of new antiparasitic drugs.

  19. Atividade predatória dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium e Artrobotrys robusta sobre larvas infectantes de Strongyloides stercoralis Predatory activity of the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans, Monacrosporium thaumasium and Arthrobotrys robusta on Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae

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    Fabio Ribeiro Braga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Strongyloides stercoralis é um nematoide que infecta grande parte da população mundial. MÉTODOS: O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a capacidade predatória dos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001, Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34 e Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31 sobre larvas infectantes (L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis em condições laboratoriais no meio ágar-água 2%. RESULTADOS: Ao final do experimento, os percentuais de redução de L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis observados foram de: 83,7% (AC001; 75,5% (NF34 e 73,2% (I-31. CONCLUSÕES: Os fungos nematófagos foram capazes de capturar e destruir in vitro as L3, podendo ser utilizados como controladores biológicos de Strongyloides stercoralis.INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode that infects much of the population worldwide. METHODS: This study aimed to compare the ability of predatory nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001, Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34 and Arthrobotrys robusta (I-31 on infective larvae (L3 of Strongyloides stercoralis in laboratory conditions on 2% water-agar. RESULTS: At the end of the experiment, the percentage reductions in Strongyloides stercoralis L3 were 83.7% (AC001, 75.5% (NF34 and 73.2% (I-31. CONCLUSIONS: The nematophagous fungi were able to capture and destroy the L3 in vitro and may be used as biological controls of Strongyloides stercoralis.

  20. Cryo-Microtome sections of coproculture larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides ratti as antigen sources for the immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis

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    Julia Maria COSTA-CRUZ

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Cryo-microtome sections of larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis and S. ratti respectively obtained from human and rat feces cultures, were used as antigens. Fluoresceinate conjugates against human IgG were employed at the ideal titer of 10 for S. stercoralis and 100 for S. ratti. The sensitivity of the indirect immunofluorescence reaction (IIF was 94.4% and 92.5% and the specificity 94.2% and 97.1% for the two specific larval antigens, respectively. Sera from 123 persons (54 from carriers of S. stercoralis infections and 69 from controls were submitted to the reaction. The titers of different sera varied from 20 to 2560. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.85 p £ 0.001 between the antibodies from the two species of larval antigens. We conclude that both antigens may be used in the IIF reaction for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Due to the feasibility of safe and low-cost mass production of S. ratti larvae in the laboratory with a considerable economy of conjugate, their utilization in the serum diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis is recommendedComparou-se o emprego de cortes em congelação de larvas de S. stercoralis e de S. ratti como fonte de antígenos na reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIF para o diagnóstico da estrongiloidíase humana. Os antígenos foram obtidos de coproculturas de fezes humanas e de ratos, respectivamente. Soros de 123 indivíduos foram analisados sendo 54 de pacientes com estrongiloidíase e 69 controles. Empregou-se conjugado anti IgG humano marcado com fluoresceína nos títulos ideais de 10 para S. stercoralis e 100 para S. ratti. A sensibilidade da RIF foi de 94,4% e 92,5% e a especificidade de 94,2% e 97,1% respectivamente para os antígenos de S. stercoralis e S. ratti. Para os 2 antígenos os títulos dos soros variaram de 20 a 2560. Houve correlação linear significativa (r = 0,85 p £ 0,001 entre os títulos de anticorpos para os 2 antígenos. Concluiu-se que os 2 ant

  1. Strongyloides stercoralis-infected dogs as a model for human disseminated strongyloidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.

    1989-01-01

    The route of migration of Strongyloides stercoralis third-stage infective larvae was explored in primary and autogenous infections in the dog. Larvae was radiolabeled by one of two means: (1) by culture of the free-living L3 stage in a nutrient medium, deficient in methionine, supplemented with [ 75 Se]Selenomethionine, and (2) by feeding of [ 75 Se]Selenomethionine-labeled bacteria to microbiverous L1 and L2 stages. Third-stage labeled larvae were then injected into 10-day-old pups either subcutaneously, to study primary migration, or into the distal ileum, to study autogenous migration. At intervals after infection pups were killed and whole body compressed organ autoradiography done on individual tissues to determine organ-specific larval transit sites. Autoradiographic recoveries were analyzed in the context of a series of mathematical models designed to test migratory route hypotheses. Postulated routes of migration for primary infections included (1) the Null Hypothesis or Scramble Route in which larvae migrate to the intestines by any available route, (2) the Classical Pulmonary Route in which larvae migrate sequentially from skin, to blood, to lungs, to the trachea, esophagus and intestines, and (3) the Head Migration Route in which larvae move from caudal to cranial sites within the skin and muscle before entering the intestines. Postulated routes for autoinfective migration reiterated 1 and 2 above. Least squares comparisons, of calculated models to observed autoradiographic distributions, led us to conclude that there was no reason to reject the simplest assumption that larvae move by any available route to the definitive site in both forms of migration. Sampling through tracheostomy sites in 14 pups for larval migrants confirmed this conclusion

  2. Spatial distribution of soil-transmitted helminths, including Strongyloides stercoralis, among children in Zanzibar

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    Stefanie Knopp

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2% was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0% in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6% and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%. A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar.

  3. Genetics, chromatin diminution, and sex chromosome evolution in the parasitic nematode genus Strongyloides.

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    Nemetschke, Linda; Eberhardt, Alexander G; Hertzberg, Hubertus; Streit, Adrian

    2010-10-12

    When chromatin diminution occurs during a cell division a portion of the chromatin is eliminated, resulting in daughter cells with a smaller amount of genetic material. In the parasitic roundworms Ascaris and Parascaris, chromatin diminution creates a genetic difference between the soma and the germline. However, the function of chromatin diminution remains a mystery, because the vast majority of the eliminated DNA is noncoding. Within the parasitic roundworm genus Strongyloides, S. stercoralis (in man) and S. ratti (in rat) employ XX/XO sex determination, but the situation in S. papillosus (in sheep) is different but controversial. We demonstrate genetically that S. papillosus employs sex-specific chromatin diminution to eliminate an internal portion of one of the two homologs of one chromosome pair in males. Contrary to ascarids, the eliminated DNA in S. papillosus contains a large number of genes. We demonstrate that the region undergoing diminution is homologous to the X chromosome of the closely related S. ratti. The flanking regions, which are not diminished, are homologous to the S. ratti autosome number I. Furthermore, we found that the diminished chromosome is not incorporated into sperm, resulting in a male-specific transmission ratio distortion. Our data indicate that on the evolutionary path to S. papillosus, the X chromosome fused with an autosome. Chromatin diminution serves to functionally restore an XX/XO sex-determining system. A consequence of the fusion and the process that copes with it is a transmission ratio distortion in males for certain loci. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic Strongyloides stercoralis infection in former British Far East prisoners of war.

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    Gill, G V; Welch, E; Bailey, J W; Bell, D R; Beeching, N J

    2004-12-01

    Chronic infections with the nematode worm Strongyloides stercoralis can occur in former WWII Far East prisoners of war (FEPOWs). The condition may be asymptomatic, but frequently causes a characteristic urticarial 'larva currens' rash. Under conditions of immunosuppression (particularly systemic corticosteroid treatment) potentially fatal dissemination of larvae ('hyperinfection') may occur. To review our total experience of strongyloidiasis in former FEPOWs, and investigate its prevalence, characteristics and risk factors. Retrospective case series. We reviewed 2072 records of all FEPOWs seen at the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, 1968-2002. Cases with strongyloidiasis were compared with non-infected controls. There were 248 (12%) with strongyloidiasis. Diagnostic features included larva currens rash (70%), eosinophilia (66%), positive faecal culture (30%), positive faecal microscopy (26%), and positive serology (64%). Mean (+/-SD) age of cases was 65 +/- 7 years, and as expected, their blood eosinophil counts were significantly higher than controls (775 vs. 238 x 10(6)/l, p < 0.001). Captivity on the Thai-Burma Railway (vs. elsewhere) was significantly associated with strongyloidiasis (78% cases vs. 40% controls, OR 4.19, CI 2.70-6.81, p < 0.001). In terms of prevalence, strongyloidiasis occurred in 166/1032 men imprisoned on the Burma Railway (16.1%). Malaria (88% vs. 69%, p < 0.001) and tropical ulcer (53% vs. 42%, p < 0.02) were more common amongst cases than controls, probably because these diseases were very common on the Burma Railway. S. stercoralis infection is common amongst ex-FEPOWs, particularly those from the Thai-Burma Railway project. It is usually characterized by a 'larva currens' rash and marked eosinophilia. The condition is eminently treatable, and continued diagnostic surveillance is needed, if cases of potentially fatal hyperinfection are to be avoided.

  5. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  6. Influence of water infusion of medicinal plants on larvae of Strongyloides papillosus (Nematoda, Strongyloididae

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    A. A. Boyko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common nematodes of ruminants is Strongyloides papillosus (Wedl, 1856. Disease caused by these parasites brings economic losses to livestock operations. Therefore it is necessary to control their numbers. The eggs and three larval stages of S. papillosus live in the environment, while the fourth, fifth and mature individuals live in host organisms. Control of these parasites is necessary at all stages of development, including the free-living stage. An experiment on changes in the number strongiloids under the influence of environmental factors was carried out using aqueous extracts of medicinal plants. In the laboratory experiment we researched the effect on the survival of invasive and noninvasive types of S. papillosus larvae of 24 hours exposure at different doses to Artemisia absinthium Linnaeus, 1753, Artemisia annua Linnaeus, 1753, Echinacea purpurea (Linnaeus, 1753 Moench, 1794, Matricaria chamomilla Linnaeus, 1753, Tanacetum vulgare Linnaeus, 1753, Salvia sclarea Linnaeus, 1753, Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch, 1824, Petroselinum crispum (Miller, 1768 Nyman ex A.W. Hill, 1925. The death of 50% of S. papillosus invasive larvae was registered at 464 ± 192 mg/l concentration of aqueous extract of S. sclarea inflorescences. The greatest effect up-on the non-invasive larvae was caused by aqueous extracts of inflorescences of S. sclarea, M. chamomilla and seeds of P. crispum: at concentrations of 327 ± 186, 384 ± 155 and 935 ± 218 mg/l, respectively, 50% of non-invasive larvae died. According to the results of the research, we suggest further study of the nematocidal activity of combinations, contained in the aboveground parts, of clary sage (S. sclarea, camomile (M. chamomilla and seeds of parsley (P. crispum, and also experimental usage of these species in the fodder compound for cattle, sheep, goats and pigs on experimental farms.

  7. Pelodera (syn. Rhabditis strongyloides as a cause of dermatitis – a report of 11 dogs from Finland

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    Nikander Sven E

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelodera (Rhabditis strongyloides is a small saprophytic nematode that lives in decaying organic matter. On rare occasions, it can invade the mammalian skin, causing a pruritic, erythematous, alopecic and crusting dermatitis on skin sites that come into contact with the ground. Diagnosis of the disease is based on case history (a dog living outdoors on damp straw bedding with characteristic skin lesions and on the demonstration of typical larvae in skin scrapings or biopsy. Pelodera (rhabditic dermatitis cases have been reported mainly from Central European countries and the United States. Case presentation During 1975–1999, we verified 11 canine cases of Pelodera dermatitis in Finland. The cases were confirmed by identifying Pelodera larvae in scrapings. Biopsies for histopathology were obtained from three cases, and typical histopathological lesions (epidermal hyperplasia, epidermal and follicular hyperkeratosis, folliculitis and furunculosis with large numbers of nematode larvae of 25–40 μm of diameter within hair follicles were present. The Pelodera strongyloides dermatitica strain from the first verified case in Finland has been maintained in ordinary blood agar in our laboratory since 1975. Light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies were employed to obtain detailed morphological information about the causative agent. The rhabditiform oesophagus at all developmental stages, the morphology of the anterior end of the nematode, copulatory bursa and spicules of the male and the tail of the female were the most important morphological features for identifying P. strongyloides. Conclusion These cases show that Pelodera dermatitis occurs in Finland, and also farther north than described earlier in the literature. This condition should be considered when a dog living outdoors has typical skin lesions situated at sites in contact with the ground as the main presenting clinical feature. The fastest and

  8. Intestinal mass in a one year old child: An unusual presentation of Strongyloides stercolaris infection. Case report

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    Silvia Aragon, MD

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal strongyloidiasis is a common disease in the world. In children, the worldwide prevalence rates ranged from 0.6% to 5.3% [1]. In Colombia studies report a prevalence of 1.3% in children, although it may be higher [2]. The most frequent symptoms are abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. However, on rare occasions the infection can cause duodenal obstruction, pyloric hypertrophy and colonic mass. This article reports the first case of a toddler who presented with a mass in the cecum as a manifestation of Strongyloides stercolaris infection, which required surgical resection as it was initially believed to be a Burkitt lymphoma.

  9. Regulatory T cell expansion in HTLV-1 and strongyloidiasis co-infection is associated with reduced IL-5 responses to Strongyloides stercoralis antigen.

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    Martin Montes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Human strongyloidiasis varies from a chronic but limited infection in normal hosts to hyperinfection in patients treated with corticosteroids or with HTLV-1 co-infection. Regulatory T cells dampen immune responses to infections. How human strongyloidiasis is controlled and how HTLV-1 infection affects this control are not clear. We hypothesize that HTLV-1 leads to dissemination of Strongyloides stercoralis infection by augmenting regulatory T cell numbers, which in turn down regulate the immune response to the parasite.To measure peripheral blood T regulatory cells and Strongyloides stercoralis larval antigen-specific cytokine responses in strongyloidiasis patients with or without HTLV-1 co-infection.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were isolated from newly diagnosed strongyloidiasis patients with or without HTLV-1 co-infection. Regulatory T cells were characterized by flow cytometry using intracellular staining for CD4, CD25 and FoxP3. PBMCs were also cultured with and without Strongyloides larval antigens. Supernatants were analyzed for IL-5 production.Patients with HTLV-1 and Strongyloides co-infection had higher parasite burdens. Eosinophil counts were decreased in the HTLV-1 and Strongyloides co-infected subjects compared to strongyloidiasis-only patients (70.0 vs. 502.5 cells/mm(3, p = 0.09, Mann-Whitney test. The proportion of regulatory T cells was increased in HTLV-1 positive subjects co-infected with strongyloidiasis compared to patients with only strongyloidiasis or asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (median = 17.9% vs. 4.3% vs. 5.9 p<0.05, One-way ANOVA. Strongyloides antigen-specific IL-5 responses were reduced in strongyloidiasis/HTLV-1 co-infected patients (5.0 vs. 187.5 pg/ml, p = 0.03, Mann-Whitney test. Reduced IL-5 responses and eosinophil counts were inversely correlated to the number of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ cells.Regulatory T cell counts are increased in patients with HTLV-1 and Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection and

  10. Application of PCR-Based Tools to Explore Strongyloides Infection in People in Parts of Northern Australia

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    Gemma J. Robertson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis, which is caused by infection with the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, is endemic to areas of northern Australia. Diagnosis in this region remains difficult due to the distances between endemic communities and diagnostic laboratories, leading to lengthy delays in stool processing for microscopy and culture. PCR represents a viable solution to this difficulty, having potential for high sensitivity detection of S. stercoralis, even in older, unpreserved faecal samples. We prospectively collected 695 faecal specimens that were submitted to The Townsville Hospital Microbiology Laboratory from the North Queensland region for routine parasitological examination, and subjected them to a Strongyloides sp. real-time (qPCR. Results were confirmed with a novel nested conventional PCR assay targeting the 18S rRNA gene, followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis (SSCP. Of the 695 specimens tested, S. stercoralis was detected in three specimens (0.4% by classical parasitological methods (direct microscopy and formyl-ether acetate concentration, whereas 42 positives were detected by qPCR (6.0%. Conventional PCR confirmed the real-time PCR results in 24 of the samples (3.5%. Several apparent false-positive results occurred at higher cycle times (Ct in the qPCR. Use of real-time PCR in these populations is promising for the enhanced detection of disease and to support eradication efforts.

  11. Donor-Derived Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanyie, F. A.; Gray, E. B.; Delli Carpini, K. W.; Yanofsky, A.; McAuliffe, I.; Rana, M.; Chin-Hong, P. V.; Barone, C. N.; Davis, J. L.; Montgomery, S. P.; Huprikar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is typically asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts, despite chronic infection. In contrast, immunocompromised hosts such as solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for hyperinfection syndrome and/or disseminated disease, frequently resulting in fatal outcomes. Infection in these recipients may result from reactivation of latent infection or infection through transmission from an infected donor. We describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's experience with seven clusters of donor-derived infection from 2009 to 2013. Six of the seven (86%) donors were born in Latin America; donor screening was not performed prior to organ transplantation in any of these investigations. Eleven of the 20 (55%) organ recipients were symptomatic, two of whom died from complications of strongyloidiasis. We also describe the New York Organ Donor Network (NYODN) experience with targeted donor screening from 2010 to 2013. Of the 233 consented potential donors tested, 10 tested positive for Strongyloides antibody; and 18 organs were transplanted. The majority (86%) of the donors were born in Central or South America. Fourteen recipients received prophylaxis after transplantation; no recipients developed strongyloidiasis. The NYODN experience provides evidence that when targeted donor screening is performed prior to transplantation, donor-derived infection can be averted in recipients. PMID:25703251

  12. Donor-derived Strongyloides stercoralis infection in solid organ transplant recipients in the United States, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanyie, F A; Gray, E B; Delli Carpini, K W; Yanofsky, A; McAuliffe, I; Rana, M; Chin-Hong, P V; Barone, C N; Davis, J L; Montgomery, S P; Huprikar, S

    2015-05-01

    Infection with Strongyloides stercoralis is typically asymptomatic in immunocompetent hosts, despite chronic infection. In contrast, immunocompromised hosts such as solid organ transplant recipients are at risk for hyperinfection syndrome and/or disseminated disease, frequently resulting in fatal outcomes. Infection in these recipients may result from reactivation of latent infection or infection through transmission from an infected donor. We describe the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's experience with seven clusters of donor-derived infection from 2009 to 2013. Six of the seven (86%) donors were born in Latin America; donor screening was not performed prior to organ transplantation in any of these investigations. Eleven of the 20 (55%) organ recipients were symptomatic, two of whom died from complications of strongyloidiasis. We also describe the New York Organ Donor Network (NYODN) experience with targeted donor screening from 2010 to 2013. Of the 233 consented potential donors tested, 10 tested positive for Strongyloides antibody; and 18 organs were transplanted. The majority (86%) of the donors were born in Central or South America. Fourteen recipients received prophylaxis after transplantation; no recipients developed strongyloidiasis. The NYODN experience provides evidence that when targeted donor screening is performed prior to transplantation, donor-derived infection can be averted in recipients. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. A Community-Directed Integrated Strongyloides Control Program in Queensland, Australia

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    Adrian Miller

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two phases of a community-directed intervention to address strongyloidiasis in the remote Aboriginal community of Woorabinda in central Queensland, Australia. The first phase provides the narrative of a community-driven ‘treat-and-test’ mass drug administration (MDA intervention that was co-designed by the Community Health Service and the community. The second phase is a description of the re-engagement of the community in order to disseminate the key factors for success in the previous MDA for Strongyloides stercoralis, as this information was not shared or captured in the first phase. During the first phase in 2004, there was a high prevalence of strongyloidiasis (12% faecal examination, 30% serology; n = 944 community members tested that resulted in increased morbidity and at least one death in the community. Between 2004–2005, the community worked in partnership with the Community Health Service to implement a S. stercoralis control program, where all of the residents were treated with oral ivermectin, and repeat doses were given for those with positive S. stercoralis serology. The community also developed their own health promotion campaign using locally-made resources targeting relevant environmental health problems and concerns. Ninety-two percent of the community residents participated in the program, and the prevalence of strongyloidiasis at the time of the ‘treat-and-test’ intervention was 16.6% [95% confidence interval 14.2–19.3]. The cure rate after two doses of ivermectin was 79.8%, based on pre-serology and post-serology tests. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of local Aboriginal leadership and governance and a high level of community involvement in this successful mass drug administration program to address S. stercoralis. The commitment required of these leaders was demanding, and involved intense work over a period of several months. Apart from controlling strongyloidiasis

  14. Diagnosis, treatment and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in schoolchildren in Cambodia.

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    Virak Khieu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Worldwide, an estimated 30 to 100 million people are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis, a soil-transmitted helminth. Information on the parasite is scarce in most settings. In semi-rural Cambodia, we determined infection rates and risk factors; compared two diagnostic methods (Koga agar plate [KAP] culture and Baermann technique for detecting S. stercoralis infections, using a multiple stool examination approach; and assessed efficacy of ivermectin treatment. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional study in 458 children from four primary schools in semi-rural villages in Kandal province, using three diagnostic procedures (Kato-Katz, KAP culture and Baermann technique on three stool samples. Infected children were treated with ivermectin (100 µg/kg/day for two days and re-examined three weeks after treatment. Hookworm, S. stercoralis, Trichuris trichiura, and small trematode eggs were most prevalent, with 24.4% of children being infected with S. stercoralis. The sensitivity of KAP culture and Baermann technique was 88.4% and 75.0%, respectively and their negative predictive values were 96.4% and 92.5%, respectively. The cumulative prevalence of S. stercoralis increased from 18.6% to 24.4%, after analyzing three stool samples, which was close to the modeled 'true' prevalence of 24.8%. Children who reported defecating in latrines were significantly less infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not use latrines (p<0.001. Itchy skin and diarrhea were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. The cure rate of ivermectin was 98.3%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: S. stercoralis infection is highly prevalent among semi-rural Cambodian schoolchildren. The sensitivity of KAP culture is higher than that of the Baermann technique. In the absence of a "gold standard", analysis of multiple stool samples by different diagnostic methods is required to achieve a satisfactory level of sensitivity. Almost three

  15. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Kalousová, B.; McLennan, M. R.; Modrý, D.; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Shutt-Phillips, K. A.; Todd, A.; Huffman, M. A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2016), s. 367-370 ISSN 1383-5769 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-05180S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Chimpanzee * Cox1 * Gorilla * Human * HVR-IV * Strongyloides * Transmission Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016

  16. Strongyloides infections of humans and great apes in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and in degraded forest fragments in Bulindi, Uganda

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasegawa, H.; Kalousová, B.; McLennan, M. R.; Modrý, David; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Shutt-Phillips, K. A.; Todd, A.; Huffman, M. A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 5 (2016), s. 367-370 ISSN 1383-5769 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : chimpanzee * Gorilla * Human * Strongyloides * transmission * HVR-IV * cox1 Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.744, year: 2016

  17. Occurrence of Strongyloides papillosus associated with extensive pulmonary lesions and sudden deaths in calves on a beef farm in a highland area of South Bohemia (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kváč, Martin; Vítovec, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2007), s. 10-13 ISSN 0440-6605 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Strongyloides papillosus * beef calves * prevalence * sudden death syndrome Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.373, year: 2007

  18. Control of Strongyloides westeri by nematophagous fungi after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of donkeys Controle de Strongyloides westeri por fungos nematófagos após trânsito gastrintestinal em jumentas

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    Juliana Milani Araujo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides westeri is the most prevalent nematode among equines aged up to four months and causes gastrointestinal disorders. The objective of this study was to observe the control of infective S. westeri larvae (L3 by the nematophagous fungi Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34 after passage through the gastrointestinal tract of female donkeys. Twelve dewormed female donkeys that were kept in stables were used. Two treatment groups each comprising four animals received orally 100 g of pellets made of sodium alginate matrix containing a mycelial mass of either D. flagrans (AC001 or M. thaumasium (NF34. The control group consisted of four animals that received pellets without fungus. Feces samples were then collected from the animal groups at different times (after 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. These feces were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar medium and 1000 L3 of S. westeri. AC001 and NF34 isolates showed the ability to destroy the L3, after gastrointestinal transit, thus demonstrating their viability and predatory activity.O Strongyloides westeri é o nematóide de maior prevalência entre equídeos com idade até quatro meses, causando distúrbios gastrintestinais. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi observar o controle de larvas infectantes (L3 de Strongyloides westeri pelos fungos nematófagos Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001 e Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34 após trânsito gastrintestinal em jumentas. Foram utilizadas 12 jumentas, estabuladas e previamente vermifugadas. A seguir, dois grupos tratados, contendo cada um 4 animais receberam por via oral 100 g de péletes em matriz de alginato de sódio, contendo massa miceliana dos fungos D. flagrans (AC001 ou M. thaumasium (NF34. O grupo controle foi constituído de 4 animais que receberam péletes sem fungo. A seguir, amostras de fezes dos grupos de animais foram coletadas em distintos intervalos de horas (12, 24, 48 e 72. Essas fezes foram vertidas em

  19. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans—Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemm, Felix M.; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B.

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is

  20. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.

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    Tegegn G Jaleta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but

  1. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleta, Tegegn G; Zhou, Siyu; Bemm, Felix M; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B; Streit, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is

  2. Hyperinfection by Strongyloides stercoralis probably associated with Rituximab in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma and hyper eosinophilia Hiperinfección por Strongyloides stercoralis probablemente asociada con Rituximab en una paciente con linfoma e hipereosinofilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo Nino Incani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The first report to our knowledge, of hyperinfection by Strongyloides stercoralis (HS and hypereosinophilia, associated to immune suppression by Rituximab (the only drug received for the last one year and 10 months, in a patient with mantle-cell lymphoma (MCL, is presented. The patient has a 3-year history of MCL, and developed two accesses of HS during 2008, including meningitis, pneumonia and presence of larvae of S. stercoralis in the lungs. We had a unique chance to look at cytotoxicity of filariform larvae in the expectoration after Ivermectin treatment, showing immobilization and death of larvae, associated with eosinophils attached to the cuticle of the parasite.Se presenta el primer reporte, hasta donde tengamos información, de hiperinfección por Strongyloides stercoralis (HS e hipereosinofilia asociados a inmunosupresión por Rituximab (el único medicamento recibido durante 1 año y 10 meses, en un paciente con linfoma de células del manto (LCM. La paciente tuvo una historia de 3 años con LCM, y desarrolló 2 accesos de HS durante el 2008, incluyendo meningitis, neumonía y presencia de larvas de S. stercoralis en los pulmones. Se tuvo la oportunidad única de observar la citotoxicidad contra las larvas filariformes en la expectoración, luego del tratamiento con Ivermectina, mostrando la inmovilización y muerte de las larvas, asociada a la presencia de eosinófilos adheridos a la cutícula del parásito.

  3. Life Cycle Stage-resolved Proteomic Analysis of the Excretome/Secretome from Strongyloides ratti—Identification of Stage-specific Proteases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soblik, Hanns; Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Mitreva, Makedonka; Renard, Bernhard Y.; Kirchner, Marc; Geisinger, Frank; Steen, Hanno; Brattig, Norbert W.

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of biomolecules, including proteins, are excreted and secreted from helminths and contribute to the parasite's successful establishment, survival, and reproduction in an adverse habitat. Excretory and secretory proteins (ESP) are active at the interface between parasite and host and comprise potential targets for intervention. The intestinal nematode Strongyloides spp. exhibits an exceptional developmental plasticity in its life cycle characterized by parasitic and free-living generations. We investigated ESP from infective larvae, parasitic females, and free-living stages of the rat parasite Strongyloides ratti, which is genetically very similar to the human pathogen, Strongyloides stercoralis. Proteomic analysis of ESP revealed 586 proteins, with the largest number of stage-specific ESP found in infective larvae (196), followed by parasitic females (79) and free-living stages (35). One hundred and forty proteins were identified in all studied stages, including anti-oxidative enzymes, heat shock proteins, and carbohydrate-binding proteins. The stage-selective ESP of (1) infective larvae included an astacin metalloproteinase, the L3 Nie antigen, and a fatty acid retinoid-binding protein; (2) parasitic females included a prolyl oligopeptidase (prolyl serine carboxypeptidase), small heat shock proteins, and a secreted acidic protein; (3) free-living stages included a lysozyme family member, a carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme, and saponin-like protein. We verified the differential expression of selected genes encoding ESP by qRT-PCR. ELISA analysis revealed the recognition of ESP by antibodies of S. ratti-infected rats. A prolyl oligopeptidase was identified as abundant parasitic female-specific ESP, and the effect of pyrrolidine-based prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors showed concentration- and time-dependent inhibitory effects on female motility. The characterization of stage-related ESP from Strongyloides will help to further understand the interaction of

  4. Transposon-mediated chromosomal integration of transgenes in the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti and establishment of stable transgenic lines.

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    Hongguang Shao

    Full Text Available Genetic transformation is a potential tool for analyzing gene function and thereby identifying new drug and vaccine targets in parasitic nematodes, which adversely affect more than one billion people. We have previously developed a robust system for transgenesis in Strongyloides spp. using gonadal microinjection for gene transfer. In this system, transgenes are expressed in promoter-regulated fashion in the F1 but are silenced in subsequent generations, presumably because of their location in repetitive episomal arrays. To counteract this silencing, we explored transposon-mediated chromosomal integration of transgenes in S. ratti. To this end, we constructed a donor vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP under the control of the Ss-act-2 promoter with flanking inverted tandem repeats specific for the piggyBac transposon. In three experiments, free-living Strongyloides ratti females were transformed with this donor vector and a helper plasmid encoding the piggyBac transposase. A mean of 7.9% of F1 larvae were GFP-positive. We inoculated rats with GFP-positive F1 infective larvae, and 0.5% of 6014 F2 individuals resulting from this host passage were GFP-positive. We cultured GFP-positive F2 individuals to produce GFP-positive F3 L3i for additional rounds of host and culture passage. Mean GFP expression frequencies in subsequent generations were 15.6% in the F3, 99.0% in the F4, 82.4% in the F5 and 98.7% in the F6. The resulting transgenic lines now have virtually uniform GFP expression among all progeny after at least 10 generations of passage. Chromosomal integration of the reporter transgenes was confirmed by Southern blotting and splinkerette PCR, which revealed the transgene flanked by S. ratti genomic sequences corresponding to five discrete integration sites. BLAST searches of flanking sequences against the S. ratti genome revealed integrations in five contigs. This result provides the basis for two powerful functional genomic tools

  5. Transposon-mediated chromosomal integration of transgenes in the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti and establishment of stable transgenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hongguang; Li, Xinshe; Nolan, Thomas J; Massey, Holman C; Pearce, Edward J; Lok, James B

    2012-01-01

    Genetic transformation is a potential tool for analyzing gene function and thereby identifying new drug and vaccine targets in parasitic nematodes, which adversely affect more than one billion people. We have previously developed a robust system for transgenesis in Strongyloides spp. using gonadal microinjection for gene transfer. In this system, transgenes are expressed in promoter-regulated fashion in the F1 but are silenced in subsequent generations, presumably because of their location in repetitive episomal arrays. To counteract this silencing, we explored transposon-mediated chromosomal integration of transgenes in S. ratti. To this end, we constructed a donor vector encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the Ss-act-2 promoter with flanking inverted tandem repeats specific for the piggyBac transposon. In three experiments, free-living Strongyloides ratti females were transformed with this donor vector and a helper plasmid encoding the piggyBac transposase. A mean of 7.9% of F1 larvae were GFP-positive. We inoculated rats with GFP-positive F1 infective larvae, and 0.5% of 6014 F2 individuals resulting from this host passage were GFP-positive. We cultured GFP-positive F2 individuals to produce GFP-positive F3 L3i for additional rounds of host and culture passage. Mean GFP expression frequencies in subsequent generations were 15.6% in the F3, 99.0% in the F4, 82.4% in the F5 and 98.7% in the F6. The resulting transgenic lines now have virtually uniform GFP expression among all progeny after at least 10 generations of passage. Chromosomal integration of the reporter transgenes was confirmed by Southern blotting and splinkerette PCR, which revealed the transgene flanked by S. ratti genomic sequences corresponding to five discrete integration sites. BLAST searches of flanking sequences against the S. ratti genome revealed integrations in five contigs. This result provides the basis for two powerful functional genomic tools in S. ratti

  6. The transcriptome analysis of Strongyloides stercoralis L3i larvae reveals targets for intervention in a neglected disease.

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    Antonio Marcilla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis is one of the most neglected diseases distributed worldwide with endemic areas in developed countries, where chronic infections are life threatening. Despite its impact, very little is known about the molecular biology of the parasite involved and its interplay with its hosts. Next generation sequencing technologies now provide unique opportunities to rapidly address these questions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present the first transcriptome of the third larval stage of S. stercoralis using 454 sequencing coupled with semi-automated bioinformatic analyses. 253,266 raw sequence reads were assembled into 11,250 contiguous sequences, most of which were novel. 8037 putative proteins were characterized based on homology, gene ontology and/or biochemical pathways. Comparison of the transcriptome of S. strongyloides with those of other nematodes, including S. ratti, revealed similarities in transcription of molecules inferred to have key roles in parasite-host interactions. Enzymatic proteins, like kinases and proteases, were abundant. 1213 putative excretory/secretory proteins were compiled using a new pipeline which included non-classical secretory proteins. Potential drug targets were also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the present dataset should provide a solid foundation for future fundamental genomic, proteomic and metabolomic explorations of S. stercoralis, as well as a basis for applied outcomes, such as the development of novel methods of intervention against this neglected parasite.

  7. Accuracy of molecular biology techniques for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonfrate, Dora; Requena-Mendez, Ana; Angheben, Andrea; Cinquini, Michela; Cruciani, Mario; Fittipaldo, Andrea; Giorli, Giovanni; Gobbi, Federico; Piubelli, Chiara; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2018-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection is a neglected tropical disease which can lead to severe symptoms and even death in immunosuppressed people. Unfortunately, its diagnosis is hampered by the lack of a gold standard, as the sensitivity of traditional parasitological tests (including microscopic examination of stool samples and coproculture) is low. Hence, alternative diagnostic methods, such as molecular biology techniques (mostly polymerase chain reaction, PCR) have been implemented. However, there are discrepancies in the reported accuracy of PCR. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the accuracy of PCR for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (record: CRD42016054298). Fourteen studies, 12 of which evaluating real-time PCR, were included in the analysis. The specificity of the techniques resulted high (ranging from 93 to 95%, according to the reference test(s) used). When all molecular techniques were compared to parasitological methods, the sensitivity of PCR was assessed at 71.8% (95% CI 52.2-85.5), that decreased to 61.8% (95% CI 42.0-78.4) when serology was added among the reference tests. Similarly, sensitivity of real-time PCR resulted 64.4% (95% CI 46.2-77.7) when compared to parasitological methods only, 56.5% (95% CI 39.2-72.4) including serology. PCR might not be suitable for screening purpose, whereas it might have a role as a confirmatory test.

  8. The effect of the intensity of parasitic infection with Strongyloides papillosus and albendazole therapy on biochemical parameters in sheep blood

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    Dimitrijević Blagoje

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report was to study the biochemical parameters in sheep blood under conditions of various intensities of parasitic infection with Strongyloides papillosus, as well as after therapy with albendazole (ABZ. Investigations were performed on sheep of the Würtemberg race (n = 30 in which were detected mild, moderate and high intensities of parasitic infection with S. papillosus. The control group (n = 10 was composed of sheep negative to parasitic infections. The degree and type of changes were monitored by determining the concentrations of glucose, total proteins, albumin, A/G ratio, AST, urea, total bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, total LDH activity and isoenzymatic LDH1-5 distributions. On the basis of the obtained results, we determined, through isoenzymatic LDH distribution, that during parasitic infection with S. papillosus, there is ongoing damage to the liver, heart muscle and lung, while after therapy with ABZ, the liver suffers the most damage. The concentration of glucose, total proteins and albumin fell linearly with the rise in the intensity of parasitic infection (p0.05 and phosphorus (p<0.05 also fall linearly with the rise of the intesity of the parasitic infection. The trend in the concentration fall of these macroelements, continues also after treatment with albendazole (p<0.001. Having in mind our previous studies in the field of oxidative stress and phenomena lying behind these changes, we strongly recommend that in antiparasitic treatment protocols, beside antihelminthics, compounds with antioxidative properties should also be used.

  9. Alterations in serum paraoxonase-1 activity and lipid profile in chronic alcoholic patients infected with Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Inês, Elizabete; Sampaio Silva, Mônica Lopes; de Souza, Joelma Nascimento; Galvão, Alana Alcântara; Aquino Teixeira, Márcia Cristina; Soares, Neci Matos

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, cortisol levels, and the lipid profile in the sera of alcoholic and non-alcoholic Strongyloides stercoralis-infected and uninfected individuals in a sample of 276 individuals attended at the National Health System in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The activity of PON1 was measured by the Beltowski method, serum lipids, and cortisol levels using commercial kits. PON1 activity was low in both alcoholic and non-alcoholic individuals infected with S. stercoralis. A positive correlation was observed between PON1 activity and cortisol concentration in alcoholic individuals who were not infected with S. stercoralis; whereas a negative correlation occurred in S. stercoralis-infected nonalcoholic individuals. The levels of triglycerides, LDL-C, and VLDL-C in S. stercoralis-infected alcoholic individuals were significantly lower than in uninfected alcoholic individuals. The high level of HDL-C and the low level of LDL-C, VLDL, triglycerides and PON1 activity in alcoholic patients infected with S. stercoralis evidenced an anti-atherogenic pattern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Western blotting using Strongyloides ratti antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies as confirmatory test in human strongyloidiasis

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    Luciana Pereira Silva

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of antigenic components recognized by serum IgG antibodies in Western blotting (WB using a Strongyloides ratti larval extract for the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. In addition, the WB results were compared to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT results. Serum samples of 180 individuals were analyzed (80 with strongyloidiasis, 60 with other intestinal parasitoses, and 40 healthy individuals. S. ratti was obtained from fecal culture of experimentally infected Rattus rattus. For IFAT, S. ratti larvae were used as antigen and S. ratti larval antigenic extracts were employed in WB and ELISA. Eleven S. ratti antigenic components were predominantly recognized by IgG antibodies in sera of patients with strongyloidiasis. There was a positive concordance for the three tests in 87.5% of the cases of strongyloidiasis. The negative concordance in the three tests was 94% and 97.5%, in patients with other intestinal parasitoses and healthy individuals, respectively. In cases of positive ELISA and negative IFAT results, diagnosis could be confirmed by WB. ELISA, IFAT, and WB using S. ratti antigens showed a high rate of sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, WB using S. ratti larval extract was able to recognize 11 immunodominant antigenic components, showing to be a useful tool to define the diagnosis in cases of equivocal serology.

  11. Eficacia de la ivermectina en el tratamiento de niños colombianos parasitados por Strongyloides stercoralis.

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    Leonardo Elías Ordóñez

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se llevó a cabo un estudio para determinar la eficacia de 200 ?g/kg diarios de ivermectina por 2 días en niños con estrongiloidiasis no complicada de un poblado de la Amazonia colombiana. Los criterios de inclusión fueron: ausencia de enfermedad aguda actual, sin ingestión de antiparasitarios en el último mes y sin presencia de trastornos hepáticos ni neurológicos severos; además, los participantes debían tener, al menos, 2 muestras positivas de 4 para Strongyloides stercoralis procesadas con la técnica de Baermann; este último criterio con el fin de disminuir la frecuencia de falsos negativos en los exámenes de seguimiento. De los 60 participantes que cumplieron estos requisitos, sólo 49 completaron, al menos, 4 muestras de seguimiento y fueron incluidos en los resultados. El porcentaje de curación contra S. stercoralis fue del 93,8% (46/49, con efectos secundarios leves y pasajeros. Se describen, además, los resultados contra otros parásitos intestinales. En conclusión, de acuerdo con la información disponible, la dosis diaria de ivermectina de 200 ?g/kg por 2 días es el esquema terapéutico recomendado para la estrongiloidiasis no complicada en niños.

  12. Strongyloides stercoralis and other Enteroparasites in Children at Uberlândia City, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Rodrigues Machado Eleuza

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the rate of infection by Strongyloides stercoralis and other enteroparasites a survey was conducted in the city of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 900 stool samples from 300 children aging from four months to seven years, randomly selected in ten nursery schools from September 1994 to December 1995, were examined, both by the Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. Thirty nine children (13% were found to be infected by S. stercoralis, 64.1% were boys and 35.9% were girls. Taking all the enteroparasites as a whole the results of the survey pointed out that 265 (88.4% of the 300 children were infected by the following: Giardia lamblia, 78.3%; Ascaris lumbricoides, 15.3%; S. stercoralis, 13%; Hymenolepis nana, 6.7%; hookworms, 6%; Enterobius vermicularis, 4%; Hymenole-pis diminuta, 4% and Trichuris trichiura, 0.7%. From 265 infected children 64.5% were mono-infected, 27.2% were infected by two parasites and 8.3% had a poly-specific parasite burden. It was concluded that strongyloidiasis is hyperendemic in this area

  13. Strongyloides stercoralis infection increases the likelihood to detect Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in peripheral blood in Chagas disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Fernando; Sulleiro, Elena; Piron, Maria; Sánchez-Montalvá, Adrián; Sauleda, Silvia; Molina-Morant, Daniel; Moure, Zaira; Molina, Israel

    2017-11-01

    In a previous study performed by our group, Strongyloides stercoralis infection in patients with Chagas disease was associated with higher proportion of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA detection in peripheral blood. The aim of the study was to confirm this association in a larger cohort of patients. Cross-sectional study of all patients with Chagas disease diagnosed from 2005 to 2015 during blood donation at the Catalan Blood Bank. Demographic data and T. cruzi RT-PCR were collected. S. stercoralis infection diagnosis was based on a serological test. Two hundred and two blood donors were included. T. cruzi RT-PCR was positive in 72 (35.6%) patients, and S. stercoralis serology was positive in 22 (10.9%) patients. Patients with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR than those with negative serology (54.5% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.050), and the difference increased when taking a serological index cut-off of 2.5, which increases the specificity of the test to detect a confirmed strongyloidiasis (60% vs. 33%, P = 0.017). Patients with Chagas disease with positive S. stercoralis serology had higher proportion of positive T. cruzi RT-PCR in peripheral blood than those with negative serology, which reflects the potential immunomodulatory effects of S. stercoralis in T. cruzi co-infected patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. PREVALENCIA DE Strongyloides stercoralis Y OTROS PARÁSITOS INTESTINALES EN INDIGENTES ALCOHÓLICOS DE CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, ESTADO BOLÍVAR, VENEZUELA | PREVALENCE OF Strongyloides stercoralis AND OTHER INTESTINAL PARASITES IN ALCOHOLIC HOMELESS FROM CIUDAD BOLÍVAR, BOLÍVAR STATE, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Devera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Between may and july 2010 a study was performed in order to determine the prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and other intestinal parasites in alcoholic homeless who attend two Alcoholics Anonymous Centers in Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State, Venezuela. Eighty stool samples were collected, which were analyzed using the techniques of direct examination, Kato, micro-Baermann, Rugai and agar plate culture. An estimate of 61.3% of the evaluated population was parasitized. The intestinal parasite most prevalent was the chromist Blastocystis (33.8%. Among the protozoan, the most common was Endolimax nana (21.3% and among the helminths it was Strongyloides stercoralis (12.5%.

  15. Strongyloides stercoralis y VIH: un caso de infección diseminada en una zona no endémica

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    F. D. Rivero

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis affects people who live in the tropics, but it also extends to temperate regions where its low incidence rate may lead to misdiagnose it. Inside the host this nematode may remain silent for many years, nevertheless, in patients infected with HIV its reactivation leads to a disseminated infection in ectopic sites. This report presents the case of a 34 years-old man infected with HIV who lived in a highland area in the province of Córdoba, Argentina. He was admitted to the hospital because of a complicated Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and prednisone treatment. A few days after admission his conditions deteriorated badly, a sputum examination revealed filariform larvae of S. stercoralis, he was then given oral ivermectin medication (200 µg/kg/d. Malabsorption and ileus were installed and he died from multiorganic failure. The evolution of HIV infection to AIDS, a steroids treatment and therapy failure despite oral ivermectin triggered larvae proliferation and lead to disseminated hyperinfection until he died. This report presents not only the first case of disseminated strongyloidiasis detected in our Hospital but also an indigenous infection acquired in a non-endemic area. An awareness of an increased predisposition to this infection, especially in immunocompromised patients with malabsorption and ileus is of paramount importance, since failure to initiate appropriate therapy can lead to catastrophic outcomes, as illustrated in this case report.Strongyloides stercoralis es un geohelminto que afecta a los pobladores que residen tanto en regiones tropicales como templadas. Dentro de sus huéspedes inmunocompetentes puede permanecer inadvertido durante años; no obstante, en pacientes infectados por el VIH su reactivación puede conducir a una diseminación de larvas hacia sitios ectópicos. Este informe muestra el caso de un paciente masculino VIH positivo oriundo de una zona

  16. Modulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific humoral immune responses is associated with Strongyloides stercoralis co-infection.

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    Rajamanickam Anuradha

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Helminth infections are known to influence T cell responses in latent tuberculosis (LTBI. Whether helminth infections also modulate B cell responses in helminth-tuberculosis co-infection is not known.We assessed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb-antigen specific IgM and IgG levels, circulating levels of the B cell growth factors, BAFF and APRIL and the absolute numbers of the various B cell subsets in individuals with LTBI, LTBI with coincident Strongyloides stercoralis (Ss infection (LTBI/Ss and in those with Ss infection alone (Ss. We also measured the above-mentioned parameters in the LTBI-Ss group after anthelmintic therapy.Our data reveal that LTBI-Ss exhibit significantly diminished levels of Mtb-specific IgM and IgG, BAFF and APRIL levels in comparison to those with LTBI. Similarly, those with LTBI-Ss had significantly diminished numbers of all B cell subsets (naïve, immature, classical memory, activated memory, atypical memory and plasma cells compared to those with LTBI. There was a positive correlation between Mtb-antigen specific IgM and IgG levels and BAFF and APRIL levels that were in turn related to the numbers of activated memory B cells, atypical memory B cells and plasma cells. Finally, anthelmintic treatment resulted in significantly increased levels of Mtb-antigen specific IgM and IgG levels and the numbers of each of the B cell subsets.Our data, therefore, reveal that Ss infection is associated with significant modulation of Mtb-specific antibody responses, the levels of B cell growth factors and the numbers of B cells (and their component subsets.

  17. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasites among Institutionalized Mentally Disabled Individuals in Rasht, Northern Iran

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    Amin SAEIDINIA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to determine the status of strongyloidiasis in mentally disabled population in the institutional places in Rasht City, the capital of Guilan Province, northern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 institutions for mentally retarded population in Rasht in 2013. Before collecting the samples, a questionnaire was filled out for each participant by an expert person. A single  stool sample was obtained from each of the 173 subjects and examined using direct wet mount, formalin-ether concentration technique and agar plate culture method. Results: A total of 173 mentally disabled individuals aged 2-57 (25.69±11.56 yr old were studied. Stool examination showed that 51 (29.5% cases were infected with at least one parasite. Of 173 studied cases only 10 (5.8% individuals were infected with pathogenic parasites, of which 2 (1.2% cases were infected with Strongyloides stercoralis and 8 (4.6% with Giardia lamblia. On the other hand, 42 (24.3% of the studied population were infected with non-pathogenic intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (n=29, 16.8%, Entamoeba coli (n=16, 9.2% and Endolimax nana (n=4, 2.3%. Mixed protozoal infections were observed in 8 (4.6% individuals.Conclusion: The prevalence rate of S. stercoralis in mentally disabled individuals in Rasht was somewhat higher than those of normal population of the province. The same picture was seen when the prevalence of G. lamblia and non-pathogenic protozoa in normal and mentally disabled populations were compared.

  18. Faecal egg counts from field experiment reveal density dependence in helminth fecundity: Strongyloides robustus infecting grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, L A; Cauchie, S; Martinoli, A; Matthysen, E; Saino, N; Ferrari, N

    2014-09-01

    Investigation of endo-macroparasite infections in living animals relies mostly on indirect methods aimed to detect parasite eggs in hosts' faeces. However, faecal flotation does not provide quantitative information on parasite loads, whereas faecal egg count (FEC) techniques may not give reliable estimates of parasite intensity, since egg production may be affected by density-dependent effects on helminth fecundity. We addressed this issue using Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) and their gastrointestinal nematode Strongyloides robustus to assess the performance of coprological techniques and to investigate factors affecting parasite fecundity. We compared results of gut examination, flotation and McMaster FECs in 65 culled grey squirrels. Sensitivity and specificity of flotation were 81.2% (Confidence Interval, CI 54.3-95.9%) and 85.7% (CI 72.7-94.1%), respectively, resulting in low positive predictive values when infection prevalence is low. Individual parasite fecundity (no. of eggs/adult female worm) was negatively affected by S. robustus intensity, leading to a non-linear relationship between parasite load and eggs/gram of faeces (EPG). As a consequence, whereas flotation may be a valid method to perform the first screening of infection status, FECs are not a reliable method to estimate S. robustus intensity, since diverse values of EPG may correspond to the same number of parasites. Neither the amount of analysed faeces nor the season had any effect on EPG, indicating that the observed reduction in helminth fecundity is likely caused exclusively by density-dependent processes such as competition among worms or host immune response.

  19. Regulation of Life Cycle Checkpoints and Developmental Activation of Infective Larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis by Dafachronic Acid.

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    Mennatallah M Y Albarqi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex life cycle of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis leads to either developmental arrest of infectious third-stage larvae (iL3 or growth to reproductive adults. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, analogous determination between dauer arrest and reproductive growth is governed by dafachronic acids (DAs, a class of steroid hormones that are ligands for the nuclear hormone receptor DAF-12. Biosynthesis of DAs requires the cytochrome P450 (CYP DAF-9. We tested the hypothesis that DAs also regulate S. stercoralis development via DAF-12 signaling at three points. First, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA stimulated 100% of post-parasitic first-stage larvae (L1s to develop to free-living adults instead of iL3 at 37°C, while 69.4±12.0% (SD of post-parasitic L1s developed to iL3 in controls. Second, we found that 1 μM Δ7-DA prevented post-free-living iL3 arrest and stimulated 85.2±16.9% of larvae to develop to free-living rhabditiform third- and fourth-stages, compared to 0% in the control. This induction required 24-48 hours of Δ7-DA exposure. Third, we found that the CYP inhibitor ketoconazole prevented iL3 feeding in host-like conditions, with only 5.6±2.9% of iL3 feeding in 40 μM ketoconazole, compared to 98.8±0.4% in the positive control. This inhibition was partially rescued by Δ7-DA, with 71.2±16.4% of iL3 feeding in 400 nM Δ7-DA and 35 μM ketoconazole, providing the first evidence of endogenous DA production in S. stercoralis. We then characterized the 26 CYP-encoding genes in S. stercoralis and identified a homolog with sequence and developmental regulation similar to DAF-9. Overall, these data demonstrate that DAF-12 signaling regulates S. stercoralis development, showing that in the post-parasitic generation, loss of DAF-12 signaling favors iL3 arrest, while increased DAF-12 signaling favors reproductive development; that in the post-free-living generation, absence of DAF-12 signaling is crucial for

  20. Strongyloidiasis Current Status with Emphasis in Diagnosis and Drug Research

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    Tiago Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives. Treatment is also an issue as ivermectin and benzimidazoles administration leads to inconsistent cure rates and several side effects. Researching new anti-Strongyloides drugs is a difficult task since S. stercoralis does not develop until the adult stages in Mus musculus (with the exception of SCID mice, the main experimental host model. Fortunately, alternative parasite models can be used, namely, Strongyloides ratti and S. venezuelensis. However, even with these models, there are other complications in finding new drugs, which are associated with specific in vitro assay protocol steps, such as larvae decontamination. In this review, we highlight the challenges associated with new drug search, the compounds tested, and a list of published in vitro assay methodologies. We also point out advances being made in strongyloidiasis diagnosis so far.

  1. Importance of a Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis inStrongyloides Stercoralisand Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 Co-infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Olga; Berini, Carolina A; Waldbaum, Carlos; Avagnina, Alejandra; Juarez, María; Repetto, Silvia; Sorda, Juan; Biglione, Mirna

    2017-01-01

    Strongyloides (S.) stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1) share some endemic regions such as Japan, Jamaica, and South America and are mostly diagnosed elsewhere in immigrants from endemic areas. This co-infection has not been documented in Argentina although both pathogens are endemic in the Northwest. We present a case of S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 co-infection with an initial presentation due to gastrointestinal symptoms which presented neither eosinophilia nor the presence of larvae in stool samples in a non-endemic area for these infections. A young Peruvian woman living in Buenos Aires attended several emergency rooms and finally ended up admitted in a gastroenterology ward due to incoercible vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms started 3 months before she returned to Argentina from a trip to Peru. She presented malnutrition and abdominal distension parameters. HIV-1 and other immunodeficiencies were discarded. The serial coproparasitological test was negative. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of duodenal and jejunal walls. At the beginning, vasculitis was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. The patient worsened rapidly. Skin, new enteral biopsies, and a new set of coproparasitological samples revealed S. stercoralis . Then, HTLV-1 was suspected and infection was confirmed. Ivermectin and albendazole were administrated, until the stool sample remained negative for 2 weeks. Larvae were not observed in fresh stool, Ritchie method, and agar culture 1 week post-treatment. Although she required initial support with parenteral nutrition due to oral intolerance she slowly progressed favorably. It has been highly recommended to include a rapid and sensitive PCR strategy in the algorithm to confirm Strongyloides infection, which has demonstrated to improve early diagnosis in patients at-risk of disseminated strongyloidiasis.

  2. Prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and Other Intestinal Parasite Infections in School Children in a Rural Area of Angola: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alegría, María Luisa Aznar Ruiz; Colmenares, Karen; Espasa, Mateu; Amor, Arancha; Lopez, Isabel; Nindia, Arlette; Kanjala, Joaquina; Guilherme, Domingas; Sulleiro, Elena; Barriga, Begoña; Gil, Eva; Salvador, Fernando; Bocanegra, Cristina; López, Teresa; Moreno, Milagros; Molina, Israel

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of S. stercoralis and other intestinal parasites and identify the risk factors for infection with S. stercoralis in a rural area of Angola. A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-age children (SAC) in Cubal, Angola. A questionnaire collecting clinical and epidemiological variables was used, and two stool samples were collected. A concentration technique (Ritchie) and a technique for detection of larvae migration (Baermann) were performed. Of 230 SAC, 56.1% were female and the mean age was 9.3 years (SD 2.45). Severe malnutrition, according to body mass index (BMI)-for-age, was observed in 20.4% of the SAC, and anemia was found in 59.6%. Strongyloides stercoralis was observed in 28 of the 230 (12.8%) SAC. Eggs of other helminths were observed in 51 (22.2%) students: Hymenolepis spp. in 27 students (11.7%), hookworm in 14 (6.1%), Schistosoma haematobium in four (1.7%), Enterobius vermicularis in four (1.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides in three (1.3%), Taenia spp. in two (0.9%), and Fasciola hepatica in one (0.4%). Protozoa were observed in 17 (7.4%) students. Detection of S. stercoralis was higher using the Baermann technique versus using formol-ether (11.3 vs. 3%). Overall prevalence of S. stercoralis in the school population of 16 studied schools in the municipal area of Cubal was greater than 10%. This fact must be considered when designing deworming mass campaigns. The use of specific tests in larvae detection is needed to avoid overlooking this parasite.

  3. Stage-specific excretory-secretory small heat shock proteins from the parasitic nematode Strongyloides ratti--putative links to host's intestinal mucosal defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Abuelhassan Elshazly; Geisinger, Frank; Ajonina-Ekoti, Irene; Soblik, Hanns; Steen, Hanno; Mitreva, Makedonka; Erttmann, Klaus D; Perbandt, Markus; Liebau, Eva; Brattig, Norbert W

    2011-09-01

    In a search for molecules involved in the interaction between intestinal nematodes and mammalian mucosal host cells, we performed MS to identify excretory-secretory proteins from Strongyloides ratti. In the excretory-secretory proteins of the parasitic female stage, we detected, in addition to other peptides, peptides homologous with the Caenorhabditis elegans heat shock protein (HSP)-17, named Sra-HSP-17.1 (∼ 19 kDa) and Sra-HSP-17.2 (∼ 18 kDa), with 49% amino acid identity. The full-length cDNAs (483 bp and 474 bp, respectively) were identified, and the genomic organization was analyzed. To allow further characterization, the proteins were recombinantly expressed and purified. Profiling of transcription by quantitative real-time-PCR and of protein by ELISA in various developmental stages revealed parasitic female-specific expression. Sequence analyses of both the DNA and amino acid sequences showed that the two proteins share a conserved α-crystallin domain and variable N-terminals. The Sra-HSP-17s showed the highest homology with the deduced small HSP sequence of the human pathogen Strongyloides stercoralis. We observed strong immunogenicity of both proteins, leading to strong IgG responses following infection of rats. Flow cytometric analysis indicated the binding of Sra-HSP-17s to the monocyte-macrophage lineage but not to peripheral lymphocytes or neutrophils. A rat intestinal epithelial cell line showed dose-dependent binding to Sra-HSP-17.1, but not to Sra-HSP-17.2. Exposed monocytes released interleukin-10 but not tumor necrosis factor-α in response to Sra-HSP-17s, suggesting the possible involvement of secreted female proteins in host immune responses. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  4. Importance of a Rapid and Accurate Diagnosis in Strongyloides Stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 Co-infection: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Quintero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides (S. stercoralis and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 (HTLV-1 share some endemic regions such as Japan, Jamaica, and South America and are mostly diagnosed elsewhere in immigrants from endemic areas. This co-infection has not been documented in Argentina although both pathogens are endemic in the Northwest. We present a case of S. stercoralis and HTLV-1 co-infection with an initial presentation due to gastrointestinal symptoms which presented neither eosinophilia nor the presence of larvae in stool samples in a non-endemic area for these infections. A young Peruvian woman living in Buenos Aires attended several emergency rooms and finally ended up admitted in a gastroenterology ward due to incoercible vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, and weight loss. Gastrointestinal symptoms started 3 months before she returned to Argentina from a trip to Peru. She presented malnutrition and abdominal distension parameters. HIV-1 and other immunodeficiencies were discarded. The serial coproparasitological test was negative. Computed tomography showed diffuse thickening of duodenal and jejunal walls. At the beginning, vasculitis was suspected and corticosteroid therapy was initiated. The patient worsened rapidly. Skin, new enteral biopsies, and a new set of coproparasitological samples revealed S. stercoralis. Then, HTLV-1 was suspected and infection was confirmed. Ivermectin and albendazole were administrated, until the stool sample remained negative for 2 weeks. Larvae were not observed in fresh stool, Ritchie method, and agar culture 1 week post-treatment. Although she required initial support with parenteral nutrition due to oral intolerance she slowly progressed favorably. It has been highly recommended to include a rapid and sensitive PCR strategy in the algorithm to confirm Strongyloides infection, which has demonstrated to improve early diagnosis in patients at-risk of disseminated strongyloidiasis.

  5. Heterologous antigen extract in ELISA for the detection of human IgE anti-Strongyloides stercoralis Extrato antigênico heterólogo em ELISA para a detecção de IgE humana anti-Strongyloides stercoralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Costa-Cruz

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides ratti larval extract was used for the standardization of ELISA to detect genus-specific IgE in human strongyloidiasis. Forty serum samples from monoinfected patients shedding S. stercoralis larvae (Group I, 40 from patients with other intestinal parasites (Group II, and 40 from copronegative healthy subjects (Group III were analyzed. Genus-specific IgE levels (ELISA Index: EI were significantly higher in the group I (EI = 1.43 than groups II (EI = 0.70 and III (EI = 0.71, showing positivity rates of 55%, 2.5% and 0%, respectively. Similarly, sera from copropositive patients had significantly higher levels of total IgE (866 IU/mL as compared to those from group II (302 IU/mL and III (143 IU/mL. A significant positive correlation was found between levels of Strongyloides specific-IgE and total IgE in sera from patients with strongyloidiasis. In conclusion, S. ratti heterologous extract showed to be a useful tool for detecting genus-specific IgE by ELISA, contributing for a better characterization of the immune response profile in human strongyloidiasis.Extrato contendo larvas de Strongyloides ratti foi usado na padronização de um ELISA para detecção de IgE gênero-específica na estrongiloidíase humana. Foram analisadas 40 amostras de soro de pacientes monoinfectados que estavam eliminando larvas de S. stercoralis nas fezes (Grupo I, 40 de pacientes com outros parasitos intestinais (Grupo II, e 40 indivíduos copronegativos (Grupo III. Níveis de IgE gênero-específica (índice ELISA: EI foram significativamente maiores no Grupo I (EI = 1,43 do que no II (EI = 0,70 e III (EI = 0,71, mostrando positividade de 55%, 2,5% e 0%, respectivamente. Similarmente, soros dos pacientes copropositivos (Grupo I apresentaram níveis significativamente maiores de IgE total (866 IU/mL quando comparados com os soros dos Grupo II (302 IU/mL e III (143 IU/mL. Uma significativa correlação positiva foi encontrada entre os níveis de IgE espec

  6. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding [75Se]selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and [ 75 Se]selenomethionine. When the 75 Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood

  7. Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Children in a Remote Aboriginal Community in the Northern Territory: Hookworm is Rare but Strongyloides stercoralis and Trichuris trichiura Persist

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    Deborah C. Holt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: soil-transmitted helminths are a problem worldwide, largely affecting disadvantaged populations. The little data available indicates high rates of infection in some remote Aboriginal communities in Australia. Studies of helminths were carried out in the same remote community in the Northern Territory in 1994–1996 and 2010–2011; (2 Methods: fecal samples were collected from children aged <10 years and examined for helminths by direct smear microscopy. In the 2010–2011 study, some fecal samples were also analyzed by agar plate culture and PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis DNA. Serological analysis of fingerprick dried blood spots using a S. stercoralis NIE antigen was also conducted; (3 Results and Conclusions: a reduction in fecal samples positive for S. stercoralis, hookworm and Trichuris trichiura was seen between the studies in 1994–1996 and 2010–2011, likely reflecting public health measures undertaken in the region to reduce intestinal helminths. Comparison of methods to detect S. stercoralis showed that PCR of fecal samples and serological testing of dried blood spots was at least as sensitive as direct smear microscopy and agar plate culture. These methods have advantages for use in remote field studies.

  8. Modulation of CD4+and CD8+T Cell Function and Cytokine Responses in Strongyloides stercoralis Infection by Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; Munisankar, Saravanan; Bhootra, Yukthi; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Nutman, Thomas B; Babu, Subash

    2017-11-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection is associated with diminished antigen-specific Th1- and Th17-associated responses and enhanced Th2-associated responses. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-37 are two known anti-inflammatory cytokines that are highly expressed in S. stercoralis infection. We therefore wanted to examine the role of IL-27 and IL-37 in regulating CD4 + and CD8 + T cell responses in S. stercoralis infection. To this end, we examined the frequency of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th9/Tc9, Th17/Tc17, and Th22/Tc22 cells in 15 S. stercoralis -infected individuals and 10 uninfected individuals stimulated with parasite antigen following IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization. We also examined the production of prototypical type 1, type 2, type 9, type 17, and type 22 cytokines in the whole-blood supernatants. Our data reveal that IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization resulted in significantly enhanced frequencies of Th1/Tc1, Th2/Tc2, Th17/Tc17, Th9, and Th22 cells with parasite antigen stimulation. There was no induction of any T cell response in uninfected individuals following parasite antigen stimulation and IL-27 or IL-37 neutralization. Moreover, we also observed increased production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-5, IL-9, IL-17, and IL-22 and decreased production of IL-10 following IL-27 and IL-37 neutralization and parasite antigen stimulation in whole-blood cultures. Thus, we demonstrate that IL-27 and IL-37 limit the induction of particular T cell subsets along with cytokine responses in S. stercoralis infections, which suggest the importance of IL-27 and IL-37 in immune modulation in a chronic helminth infection. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. cGMP and NHR signaling co-regulate expression of insulin-like peptides and developmental activation of infective larvae in Strongyloides stercoralis.

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    Jonathan D Stoltzfus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The infectious form of the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i, which is morphologically similar to the developmentally arrested dauer larva in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We hypothesize that the molecular pathways regulating C. elegans dauer development also control L3i arrest and activation in S. stercoralis. This study aimed to determine the factors that regulate L3i activation, with a focus on G protein-coupled receptor-mediated regulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP pathway signaling, including its modulation of the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling (IIS pathway. We found that application of the membrane-permeable cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP potently activated development of S. stercoralis L3i, as measured by resumption of feeding, with 85.1 ± 2.2% of L3i feeding in 200 µM 8-bromo-cGMP in comparison to 0.6 ± 0.3% in the buffer diluent. Utilizing RNAseq, we examined L3i stimulated with DMEM, 8-bromo-cGMP, or the DAF-12 nuclear hormone receptor (NHR ligand Δ7-dafachronic acid (DA--a signaling pathway downstream of IIS in C. elegans. L3i stimulated with 8-bromo-cGMP up-regulated transcripts of the putative agonistic insulin-like peptide (ILP -encoding genes Ss-ilp-1 (20-fold and Ss-ilp-6 (11-fold in comparison to controls without stimulation. Surprisingly, we found that Δ7-DA similarly modulated transcript levels of ILP-encoding genes. Using the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, we demonstrated that 400 nM Δ7-DA-mediated activation (93.3 ± 1.1% L3i feeding can be blocked using this IIS inhibitor at 100 µM (7.6 ± 1.6% L3i feeding. To determine the tissues where promoters of ILP-encoding genes are active, we expressed promoter::egfp reporter constructs in transgenic S. stercoralis post-free-living larvae. Ss-ilp-1 and Ss-ilp-6 promoters are active in the hypodermis and neurons and the Ss-ilp-7 promoter is active in the

  10. Cognitive Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Cognitive Challenges Approximately 45% to 60% of individuals with TSC develop cognitive challenges (intellectual disabilities), although the degree of intellectual dysfunction ...

  11. Waterfront Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2007-01-01

    An overall view on the waterfront transformation and the planning challenges related to this process. It contributes to the specific challenges and potentials related to Aalborg Waterfront.......An overall view on the waterfront transformation and the planning challenges related to this process. It contributes to the specific challenges and potentials related to Aalborg Waterfront....

  12. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... section Back to section menu It's Only Natural Planning ahead Breastfeeding and baby basics Making breastfeeding work ... It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths Overcoming challenges Common questions ...

  13. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support ... challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch Finding support ...

  14. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... receive Breastfeeding email updates Enter email Submit Overcoming challenges Breastfeeding has a long list of benefits for ... getting started. Hear how moms overcame common nursing challenges and stayed committed to breastfeeding. Common questions about ...

  15. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echazú, Adriana; Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A; Cajal, Silvana P; Cimino, Ruben O; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J

    2017-10-01

    Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (pSTH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  16. In vivo assay of IgE activities on the expulsion of intestinal adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Makoto

    2016-10-01

    A physiological role of immunoglobulin E (IgE) is to promote parasitic helminth expulsion. This assertion is largely based on a series of studies carried out by Capron's laboratory. They observed that IgE is an essential component of protective immunity against Schistosoma mansoni larvae both in vitro and in vivo. Then, another group reported that IgE-deficient mice show higher worm burdens than wild-type (WT) mice when mice are infected with Trichinella spiralis. Although these studies indicate anti-helminth activities of IgE targeted on larvae forms, they do not prove the fighting effects of IgE on adult worms. In contrast, a recent study demonstrates an expelling activity of IgE for adult worms through an adoptive transfer of immune serum-derived IgE into Strongyloides venezuelensis-infected mice. Here, I describe how IgE is purified from S. venezuelensis-immune sera and is transferred into infected mice to examine its effect on worm expulsion. This method will be used to advance our understanding the mechanism of S. venezuelensis expulsion and explore S. venezuelensis antigens recognized by IgE. Moreover, adoptive transfers of IgE purified from immune sera will be applicable to other helminth infection models to investigate physiological roles of IgE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... into your life Breastfeeding in daily life: At home and in public Laws that support breastfeeding 10 ... and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural ...

  18. Overcoming challenges

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    Full Text Available ... Disease and Stroke HIV and AIDS Mental Health Pain Pregnancy Reproductive Health Sexual Health Sexually Transmitted Infections ... breastfeeding Overcoming challenges Common questions about breastfeeding and pain Breastfeeding checklist: How to get a good latch ...

  19. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social......, cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...

  20. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Echazú

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm.Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed.STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis. Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001 after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001. After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001 and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009.Hookworm' infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis.

  1. Albendazole and ivermectin for the control of soil-transmitted helminths in an area with high prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm in northwestern Argentina: A community-based pragmatic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Marisa; Vargas, Paola A.; Cajal, Silvana P.; Cimino, Ruben O.; Heredia, Viviana; Caropresi, Silvia; Paredes, Gladys; Arias, Luis M.; Abril, Marcelo; Gold, Silvia; Lammie, Patrick; Krolewiecki, Alejandro J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Recommendations for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) control give a key role to deworming of school and pre-school age children with albendazole or mebendazole; which might be insufficient to achieve adequate control, particularly against Strongyloides stercoralis. The impact of preventive chemotherapy (PC) against STH morbidity is still incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a community-based program with albendazole and ivermectin in a high transmission setting for S. stercoralis and hookworm. Methodology Community-based pragmatic trial conducted in Tartagal, Argentina; from 2012 to 2015. Six communities (5070 people) were enrolled for community-based PC with albendazole and ivermectin. Two communities (2721 people) were re-treated for second and third rounds. STH prevalence, anemia and malnutrition were explored through consecutive surveys. Anthropometric assessment of children, stool analysis, complete blood count and NIE-ELISA serology for S. stercoralis were performed. Principal findings STH infection was associated with anemia and stunting in the baseline survey that included all communities and showed a STH prevalence of 47.6% (almost exclusively hookworm and S. stercoralis). Among communities with multiple interventions, STH prevalence decreased from 62% to 23% (p<0.001) after the first PC; anemia also diminished from 52% to 12% (p<0.001). After two interventions S. stercoralis seroprevalence declined, from 51% to 14% (p<0.001) and stunting prevalence decreased, from 19% to 12% (p = 0.009). Conclusions Hookworm’ infections are associated with anemia in the general population and nutritional impairment in children. S. stercoralis is also associated with anemia. Community-based deworming with albendazole and ivermectin is effective for the reduction of STH prevalence and morbidity in communities with high prevalence of hookworm and S. stercoralis. PMID:28991899

  2. Environmental challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conable, B.; Warford, J.; Partow, Z.; Lutz, E.; Munasinghe, M.

    1991-09-01

    The contents include the following: Development and the Environment: A Global Balance; Evolution of the World Bank's Environmental Policy; Accounting for the Environment; Public Policy and the Environment; Managing Drylands; Environmental Action Plans in Africa; Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa; Irrigation and the Environmental Challenge; Curbing Pollution in Developing Countries; Global Warming and the Developing World; and The Global Environment Facility

  3. Overcoming challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Blog Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section Home It's Only Natural Overcoming challenges It's Only Natural Planning ahead Addressing breastfeeding myths ...

  4. Strongyloides stercoralis e infecção pelo HIV : prevalência em pacientes HIV positivos em Vitória, Espirito Santo e revisão sistemática dos casos de estrongiloidíase grave em pacientes com HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Flávio Lofêgo

    2011-01-01

    Introdução. Os dados sobre prevalência de Strongyloides stercoralis em pacientes HIV positivos são discordantes, tanto no Brasil como em outros países; apesar da profunda imunodeficiência, estrongiloidíase disseminada ocorre casualmente em pacientes com HIV/AIDS, mas não se conhecem os fatores que a desencadeiam. Objetivos (a) Avaliar a prevalência de S. stercoralis em pacientes HIV positivos atendidos no Hospital Universitário C A Moraes no período 2009-2011 e comparar com a prevalência em a...

  5. Strongyloides stercoralis e infecção pelo HIV: prevalência em pacientes HIV positivos em Vitória,ES, e revisão sistemática dos casos de estrongiloidíase grave em pacientes com HIV/AIDS.

    OpenAIRE

    GONCALVES, F. L.

    2011-01-01

    Os dados sobre prevalência de Strongyloides stercoralis em pacientes HIV positivos são discordantes, tanto no Brasil como em outros países; apesar da profunda imunodeficiência, estrongiloidíase disseminada ocorre casualmente em pacientes com HIV/AIDS, mas não se conhecem os fatores que a desencadeiam. Objetivos (a) Avaliar a prevalência de S. stercoralis em pacientes HIV positivos atendidos no Hospital Universitário C A Moraes no período 2009-2011 e comparar com a prevalência em amostras do m...

  6. Ocorrência de parasitoses intestinais com ênfase na infecção por Strongyloides stercoralis e coccídios (Cryptosporidium sp., Cystoisospora belli e Cyclospora cayetanensis) em pacientes portadores de HIV/AIDS atendidos no serviço de assistência especializada (SAE) do município de Jataí-Go

    OpenAIRE

    Barcelos, Natane Barbosa

    2016-01-01

    As infecções oportunistas são frequentemente observadas em pacientes portadores do vírus HIV/aids. Dentre os parasitos mais comuns, tem-se o nematódeo Strongyloides stercoralis e os coccídios intestinais responsáveis por agravar o quadro clínico dos pacientes, muitas vezes por casos recorrentes e de caráter crônico. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a prevalência de enteroparasitos com ênfase em infecções causadas por S. stercoralis e coccídios intestinais em pacientes portadores do...

  7. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Identity is a keyword in a number of academic fields as well as in public debate and in politics. During the last decades, references to identity have proliferated, yet there is no simple definition available that corresponds to the use of the notion in all contexts. The significance of the notion...... depends on the conceptual or ideological constellation in which it takes part. This volume on one hand demonstrates the role of notions of identity in a variety of European contexts, and on the other hand highlights how there may be reasons to challenge the use of the term and corresponding social......, cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...

  8. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  9. Global challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1990-01-01

    A major challenge now facing the world is the supply of energy needed for growth and development in a manner which is not only economically viable but also environmentally acceptable and sustainable in view of the demands of and risks to future generations. The internationally most significant pollutants from energy production through fossil fuels are SO 2 and NO x which cause acid rain, and CO 2 which is the most significant contributor to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear power, now providing about 17% of the world's electricity and 5% of the primary energy already is making a notable contribution to avoiding these emissions. While the industrialized countries will need more energy and especially electricity in the future, the needs of the developing countries are naturally much larger and present a tremendous challenge to the shaping of the world's future energy supply system. The advanced countries will have to accept special responsibilities, as they can most easily use advanced technologies and they have been and remain the main contributors to the environmental problems we now face. Energy conservation and resort to new renewable energy sources, though highly desirable, appear inadequate alone to meet the challenges. The world can hardly afford to do without an increased use of nuclear power, although it is strongly contested in many countries. The objections raised against the nuclear option focus on safety, waste management and disposal problems and the risk for proliferation of nuclear weapons. These issues are not without their problems. The risk of proliferation exists but will not appreciably diminish with lesser global reliance on nuclear power. The waste issue is more of a political than a technical problem. The use of nuclear power, or any other energy source, will never be at zero risk, but the risks are constantly reduced by new techniques and practices. The IAEA sees it as one of its priority tasks to promote such techniques. (author)

  10. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  11. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  12. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  13. Night Rover Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Night Rover Challenge was to foster innovations in energy storage technology. Specifically, this challenge asked competitors to create an energy...

  14. National Drug IQ Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2017 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2016 National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 Reto nacional del coeficiente intelectual (CI) sobre las drogas y el alcohol 2015 ...

  15. Energy transition - economic challenge, climate challenge, industrial challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenu, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This document highlights and discusses the different economic, climate and industrial challenges, identifies and discusses the different objectives and main results for a successful energy transition respectively in its relationships with the energy mix (the result is to divide emissions by a factor 4), with governance (the result should be a balanced distribution of energy governance), with energy consumption

  16. Software quality challenges.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, Ronan; Smith, Peter; O'Shea, Brendan

    2004-01-01

    This paper sets out a number of challenges facing the software quality community. These challenges relate to the broader view of quality and the consequences for software quality definitions. These definitions are related to eight perspectives of software quality in an end-to-end product life cycle. Research and study of software quality has traditionally focused on product quality for management information systems and this paper considers the challenge of defining additional quality factors...

  17. Millennium Challenge Account

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tarnoff, Curt

    2008-01-01

    .... foreign aid initiative. The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA) provides assistance through a competitive selection process to developing nations that are pursing political and economic reforms in three areas...

  18. Challenges in fingertip replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young

    2013-11-01

    Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.

  19. Challenges in Fingertip Replantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Yang, Jae-Won; Lee, Dong-Chul; Ki, Sae-Hwi; Roh, Si-Young

    2013-01-01

    Fingertip amputation is a challenging injury to manage. Among various reconstructive procedures, replantation results in superior outcome, but is seldom considered in many institutions. From the identification of vessel ends to reanastomosis of the submillimeter vessels, fingertip's highly specialized anatomy requires technical excellence. By addressing these anatomic challenges, fingertip replantation can be a routine reconstructive option for microvascular surgeons.

  20. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  1. Dewey's Challenge to Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Stephen M.; McCarthy, Lucille

    2010-01-01

    Given the serious social problems confronting Americans and others worldwide, the authors propose that Dewey's 1932 challenge to teachers is worthy of reconsideration by educators at all levels. In times similar to our own, Dewey challenged teachers to cultivate students' capacities to identify their happiness with what they can do to improve the…

  2. Nasal and ocular challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Amber N; Ledford, Dennis K

    2018-03-06

    Nasal and ocular challenges facilitate the evaluation of subjective and objective responses to defined allergen or irritant exposure. Nasal and ocular allergen challenges are the gold standard to diagnose allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, respectively, and aid in the evaluation of novel therapies in clinical trials. Additionally, nasal and ocular allergen challenges might help identify medically relevant allergens in clinical practice. Nonspecific or irritant challenges evaluate mucosal hyperreactivity. Direct mucosal challenges, which can be performed in an office or research setting, expose the participant to higher allergen doses than common in the natural environment. Park studies and environmental chambers, which are most practical in clinical trials, more closely simulate natural allergen exposure. International consensus guidelines for nasal and ocular challenges do not exist. Therefore the positivity criteria, methodologies, and extract or allergen preparations used in challenges vary in the literature. Regardless of these limitations, nasal and ocular challenges are helpful clinical and research tools for nasal and ocular diseases. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Virtual Bridge Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    This design/problem-solving activity challenges students to design a replacement bridge for one that has been designated as either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. The Aycock MS Technology/STEM Magnet Program Virtual Bridge Design Challenge is an authentic introduction to the engineering design process. It is a socially relevant…

  4. Employment challenges in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Roehr

    2011-01-01

    Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system......Discussion of challenges in employment challenges in Europe and a brief discription of the Danish flexicurity system...

  5. Challenges of serious games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Fernández-Manjón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although educational games have revealed to be a very effective focus in diverse situations, their use in education is still very limited. In this paper we analyse the main challenges concerning educational games that, from our perspective, have to be approached so that the use of this kind of games can be widespread. These challenges are classified in three main dimensions: socio-cultural, educational and technological. Once the challenges are identified, some possible measures are suggested to address or reduce these problems so that the use of educational games may be widespread.

  6. The challenges of dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sene, Monique; Lheureux, Yves; Leroyer, Veronique; Rollinger, Francois; Gauthier, Florence; Depauw, Denis; Reynal, Nathalie; Fraysse, Thierry; Burger, Eric; Bertrand, Adrien; Vallat, Christophe; Bernet, Philippe; Eimer, Michel; Boutin, Dominique; Bietrix, Philippe; Richard, Francoise; Piketty, Laurence; Mouchet, Chantal; Charre, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    This document gathers Power Point presentations which address the contexts and challenges of dismantling (legal framework, safety and radiation protection challenges, waste processing industry), and propose illustrations of dismantling challenges (example of operations to prepare EURODIF dismantling and CLIGEET work-group on EURODIF dismantling, examples of dismantling of EDF installations and CLIs' opinion on the dismantling of EDF installations, Brennilis dismantling follow-up performed by the CLI, examples of dismantling of CEA installations and opinion of a CLI on the dismantling of CEA installations)

  7. Nuclear renaissance, the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, J.; Aycart, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Industry has been able to get prepared for the Renaissance by overcoming many different challenges. Most of them related to shortage in capabilities and resources. However, as new builds approach, new challenges appear in the horizon. Now, those are mostly related to the risk management embedded in huge projects like these. This Article provides a vision on how to face those new challenges, so that the industry will not be damaged in its credibility by lack of commitments or failed executions. (Author)

  8. Big Data Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Adrian TOLE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The amount of data that is traveling across the internet today, not only that is large, but is complex as well. Companies, institutions, healthcare system etc., all of them use piles of data which are further used for creating reports in order to ensure continuity regarding the services that they have to offer. The process behind the results that these entities requests represents a challenge for software developers and companies that provide IT infrastructure. The challenge is how to manipulate an impressive volume of data that has to be securely delivered through the internet and reach its destination intact. This paper treats the challenges that Big Data creates.

  9. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  10. Community Challenge Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...

  11. Big data challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachlechner, Daniel; Leimbach, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Although reports on big data success stories have been accumulating in the media, most organizations dealing with high-volume, high-velocity and high-variety information assets still face challenges. Only a thorough understanding of these challenges puts organizations into a position in which...... they can make an informed decision for or against big data, and, if the decision is positive, overcome the challenges smoothly. The combination of a series of interviews with leading experts from enterprises, associations and research institutions, and focused literature reviews allowed not only...... framework are also relevant. For large enterprises and startups specialized in big data, it is typically easier to overcome the challenges than it is for other enterprises and public administration bodies....

  12. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  13. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  14. Challenges to Public Health

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Challenges to Public Health. Tracing of the infection. Isolation of patients to stop spread. Laboratory diagnosis. Hospitalization &Treatment. Stock pile & supply of drugs. Planning & mitigation. Information to public. Support to SEARO countries.

  15. Challenges in marine instrumentation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Afzulpurkar, S.; Desa, E.; Joseph, A.; Chakraborty, B.; Nayak, M.R.; Ranade, G.

    challenge for technology. Biosensors which can detect bioluminescence and other biological activities would play a major role. Autonomous instrumentation outfitted with different types of in-situ sensors would collect data without disturbing the system...

  16. TRI University Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Details about the TRI University Challenge, in which EPA is looking to academic institutions to help build a diverse portfolio of practical and replicable projects that benefit communities, the environment, academic institutions, and the TRI Program.

  17. Challenge of Fetal Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Technical Information Service NCHS The Challenge of Fetal Mortality Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS Data ... and ethnicity What is the impact of fetal mortality on U.S. families? In 2005, a total of ...

  18. Brazil World Cup Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANSUR, R.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overcoming the productivity challenge is the main benefit of the 2014 World Cup for Brazilian people. The sustainable development of our cultural tourism industry will catapult the new middle class growing up rate.

  19. Overcoming Safeguards Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the 2010 IAEA International Safeguards Symposium was how best, from a technical perspective, to prepare for future verification challenges during this time of change. By bringing together the leading experts in the field from across the world, this symposium provided an opportunity for stakeholders to explore possible solutions in support of the IAEA's nuclear verification mission, and to identify areas where the different stakeholders in the safeguards business can help address these challenges

  20. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is a...

  1. 75 FR 47316 - Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ..., 2010. ADDRESSES: 2010 Strong Tether Challenge will be conducted at the 2010 Space Elevator Conference... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2010 Strong Tether Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice is...

  2. Global challenges in energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorian, James P.; Franssen, Herman T.; Simbeck, Dale R. MD

    2006-01-01

    Environmental and security concerns are stimulating global interest in hydrogen power, renewable energy, and advanced transportation technologies, but no significant movement away from oil and a carbon-based world economy is expected soon. Over the longer-term, however, a transition from fossil fuels to a non-carbon-based economy will likely occur, affecting the type of environment future generations may encounter. Key challenges will face the world's energy industry over the next few decades to ensure a smooth transition-challenges which will require government and industry solutions beginning as early as today. This paper identifies four critical challenges in energy and the choices which will have to be made on how best to confront growing pollution caused by fossil fuels and how to facilitate an eventual revolutionary-like transition to a non-carbon-based global economy

  3. The challenge of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses sustainability in a world that has changed rapidly. The author suggests that ecological assumptions embedded in communism and capitalism are badly flawed, but the flaws were not apparent when there were fewer than a billion people on earth living at low technology levels. Sustaining the earth's vital signs is a challenge to our perception of time, and the numbers - population, environmental damage, oil consumption, waste disposal - are too large to comprehend easily. There is a global debate about what sustainability means. In fact the challenge of sustainability is 6 different challenges: overcoming the tendency to deny inconvenient realities; establishing accurate indicators of human and ecological health; questions about the kinds of technology necessary to make the transition to sustainability; education; the need for an emotional bond between man and nature; rebuilding the existing democratic institutions. 16 refs

  4. British Muslims: A Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Hady, Zakaryya Mohamed [زكريا محمد عبد الهادي

    2007-01-01

    The Muslim community in Britain today face multiple challenges covering a wide range of spectrum from the basic right to exists, fighting the increasing trends of Islamophobia, having equal opportunities, to participate in public life, fully integrate within the society and be a positive member of the community. The recent events of September 11th in the US, July 7th in UK and the more recent row over the ban of the headscarf in UK and other European countries have placed tremendous challenge...

  5. Small finance banks: Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A recent innovation in the Indian banking structure has been the formation of a new banking institution—small finance banks (SFBs. These banks are expected to penetrate into financial inclusion by providing basic banking and credit services with a differentiated banking model to the larger population. In this context the new SFBs have multiple challenges in coming out with a new, differentiated business model. The challenges include building low cost liability portfolio, technology management, and balancing the regulatory compliances. This paper also presents the top of mind views of three senior executives of new small finance banks.

  6. Banff Challenge 2

    CERN Document Server

    Junk, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    Experimental particle physics collaborations constantly seek newer and better ideas for improving the sensitivity of their searches for new particles and phenomena. Statistical techniques are the last step in interpreting the results of an experiment; they are used to make discoveries (hypothesis testing), and to measure parameters (point estimation). They are also used in the first step - experiment and analysis design. Banff Challenge 2 asks participants to test their methods of disco vering hidden signals in simulated datasets and of measuring the properties of these signals. The Challenge problems are described, and the performances of the submitted entries is summarized, for datasets with and without simulated signals present.

  7. Challenges in Request Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis

    2014-01-01

    profitability. This research study seeks to investigate the challenges of RQM in practice. Existing demand chain management literature is used as a basis for developing a RQM framework. RQM is investigated through an explorative research design in a dyadic B2B case study including a global industrial company...... and its customers. The study provides an insight into a new area of supply chain management, including the process activity flow and challenges involved across the process. Furthermore, the method is dyadic including the customer in the case study, which is rare in related research....

  8. ENTREPRENEUR CHALLENGES IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Hernández, José; Almanza, Rebeca; Calderon, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    As the twentieth century there has been particular interest in studying and understanding the role of the entrepreneur in Mexico because the entrepreneur benefits the economy of a country this research project aims to identify the challenges and entrepreneurial profile in Mexico, by identifying personal, social and professional skills that promote entrepreneurship successfully.

  9. Ecommerce: Ongoing Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Derek Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines some of the challenges of online marketing, including the importance of adding online marketing to corporation budgets. A review of the pros and cons of social networking on the Internet, when used as a marketing tool by companies is presented. In addition, new forms of Internet shoppers and new niches for companies are identified

  10. A Challenge to Watson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterman, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Watson's Jeopardy victory raises the question of the similarity of artificial intelligence and human intelligence. Those of us who study human intelligence issue a challenge to the artificial intelligence community. We will construct a unique battery of tests for any computer that would provide an actual IQ score for the computer. This is the same…

  11. Electric Vehicle Battery Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    A serious drawback to electric vehicles [batteries only] is the idle time needed to recharge their batteries. In this challenge, students can develop ideas and concepts for battery change-out at automotive service stations. Such a capability would extend the range of electric vehicles.

  12. The Moon Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Pat; Leddy, Diana; Johnson, Lindy; Biggam, Sue; Locke, Suzan

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a first-grade research project that incorporates trade books and challenges misconceptions. Educators see the power of their students' wonder at work in their classrooms on a daily basis. This wonder must be nourished by students' own experiences--observing the moon on a crystal clear night--as well as by having…

  13. The Challenge of Thor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 3. The Challenge of Thor. Anil Kakodkar Sujata Varadarajan. Face to Face Volume 15 Issue 3 March 2010 pp 277-293. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/03/0277-0293 ...

  14. Anthropocene Age Wicked Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Wu, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Grand global challenges, including wicked human caused or influenced ones key to sustainability, characterize the Anthropocene Age. Among these are climate change driven by increased methane and CO2 in the atmosphere; consequent global warming and increasing intensity and incidence of extreme wea...

  15. Kayak Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Anson

    2011-01-01

    Living in the Adirondack Park and being an avid outdoorsman has often resulted in the author's love of the outdoors working its way into class projects. In 2010, the author gave a group of 25 students in grades 9-12 a challenge that required them to design and construct a prototype inexpensive, lightweight kayak for backpackers and fisherman. In…

  16. Employment Challenges in Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    Key Words: Employment Challenge, Employment Policy, Kenya. 1.0 Context ... Fiscal Measures. √. ×. √. Source: own elaboration based on government documents. Key: √- policy measure present; ×- policy measure not present ..... are Republic of Korea (1960–2001); Malaysia (1967–1997); Malta (1963–1994); Oman.

  17. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study wa...

  18. India's Higher Education Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altbach, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    India, with the world's second largest higher education system and a rapidly growing economy as one of the BRIC nations, faces significant challenges in building both capacity and excellence in higher education. India's higher education system is characterized by "islands of excellence in a sea of mediocrity." The mainstream universities…

  19. The challenge of implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Karen Heide Hauge

    2016-01-01

    these concepts in daily teaching, as it is strongly encouraged by policy makers and educations. This paper aims to discuss how lecturers experience the challenge of teaching their own discipline while being imposed to embrace and promote innovation and entrepreneurship teaching. Through a single study case...

  20. Challenges in Danish VET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe

    2011-01-01

    In Denmark the 95 percent target, meaning that in 2015 95 percent of a youth cohort should complete a youth education programme, is particularly challenging for the vocational educational and training (VET) system. In the article is given a short outline of the significant characteristics...

  1. A formidable synthetic challenge

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Isolation and characterization of maoecrystal V, a C19 terpenoid, having potent and selective cytotoxicity towards HeLa cells was recently reported. Unusually complex pentacyclic molecular structure, presence of spirofused rings and several stereogenic centres posed a great synthetic challenge. In this short review, efforts ...

  2. Perishable Inventory Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates how inventory control of perishable items is managed and line up some possible options of improvement. This includes a review of relevant literature dealing with the challenges of determining ordering policies for perishable products and a study of how the current procedures...

  3. The Challenges in Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. The Challenges in Communication. The conflict between connection oriented and connectionless. The seamless integration needs of broadcast, unicast and multicast in the midst growing security concerns. Like Indian roads – need to carry voice, internet traffic, video ...

  4. Semantic Web challenge 2003

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Michel; Visser, Ubbo

    The concept of the semantic web application and the challenge of using the semantic web techniques to build an online application that deduces, combines, and integrates information are discussed. The application must use information sources that are heterogeneous and geographically distributed, and

  5. Asia's new challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliana; Vang, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Asian countries are currently undergoing significant changes with respect to their role in and interaction with the international economy. Despite their heterogeneity, Asian countries share the common aim to upgrade capacities, skills and capabilities. This paper aims at unpacking the challenges...

  6. Biggest challenges in bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen

    2013-04-01

    The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held on 18th October 2012, at Heidelberg University, Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the 'Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a 'World Café' style event.

  7. Biggest challenges in bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Jonathan C; Khoueiry, Pierre; Dinkel, Holger; Forslund, Kristoffer; Stamatakis, Alexandros; Barry, Joseph; Budd, Aidan; Soldatos, Theodoros G; Linssen, Katja; Rajput, Abdul Mateen

    2013-01-01

    The third Heidelberg Unseminars in Bioinformatics (HUB) was held in October at Heidelberg University in Germany. HUB brought together around 40 bioinformaticians from academia and industry to discuss the ‘Biggest Challenges in Bioinformatics' in a ‘World Café' style event.

  8. 77 FR 70835 - Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... in accordance with 51 U.S.C. 20144(c). The 2013 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams... Robot Challenge is a prize competition designed to encourage development of new technologies or...

  9. 76 FR 56819 - Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National... 42 U.S.C. 2451(314)(d). The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to... technologies of interest and value to NASA and the nation. The 2012 Sample Return Robot Challenge is a prize...

  10. Challenges to Resistance Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Quanfeng

    This report originates from the compulsory defense during my Ph.D. study at the Technical University of Denmark. Resistance welding is an old and well-proven technology. Yet the emergence of more and more new materials, new designs, invention off new joining techniques, and more stringent...... requirement in quality have imposed challenges to the resistance welding. More some research and development have to be done to adapt the old technology to the manufacturing industry of the 21st century. In the 1st part of the report, the challenging factors to the resistance welding are reviewed. Numerical...... simulation of resistance welding has been under development for many years. Yet it is no easy to make simulation results reliable and accurate because of the complexity of resistance welding process. In the 2nd part of the report numerical modeling of resistance welding is reviewed, some critical factors...

  11. Mathematical olympiad challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Andreescu, Titu

    2000-01-01

    Mathematical Olympiad Challenges is a rich collection of problems put together by two experienced and well-known professors and coaches of the U.S. International Mathematical Olympiad Team. Hundreds of beautiful, challenging, and instructive problems from algebra, geometry, trigonometry, combinatorics, and number theory were selected from numerous mathematical competitions and journals. An important feature of the work is the comprehensive background material provided with each grouping of problems. The problems are clustered by topic into self-contained sections with solutions provided separately. All sections start with an essay discussing basic facts and one or two representative examples. A list of carefully chosen problems follows and the reader is invited to take them on. Additionally, historical insights and asides are presented to stimulate further inquiry. The emphasis throughout is on encouraging readers to move away from routine exercises and memorized algorithms toward creative solutions to open-e...

  12. NASA Microclimate Cooling Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this outline form presentation is to present NASA's challenges in microclimate cooling as related to the spacesuit. An overview of spacesuit flight-rated personal cooling systems is presented, which includes a brief history of cooling systems from Gemini through Space Station missions. The roles of the liquid cooling garment, thermal environment extremes, the sublimator, multi-layer insulation, and helmet visor UV and solar coatings are reviewed. A second section is presented on advanced personal cooling systems studies, which include heat acquisition studies on cooling garments, heat rejection studies on water boiler & radiators, thermal storage studies, and insulation studies. Past and present research and development and challenges are summarized for the advanced studies.

  13. Diagnostic Challenges at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source now being built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, accelerates an H- ion beam to 1000 MeV with an average power of 1.4 MW. The H- beam is then stripped to H+, compressed in a storage ring to a pulse length of 695 ns, and then directed onto a mercury neutron spallation target. Most of the acceleration is accomplished with superconducting rf cavities. The presence of these cavities, the high average beam power, and the large range of beam intensity in the storage ring, provide unique challenges to the beam diagnostics systems. In this talk we will discuss these challenges and some of our solutions, including the laser profile monitor system, the residual gas ionization profile monitors, and network attached devices. Measurements performed using prototype instrumentation will also be presented.

  14. Challenges in sexual medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cellek, Selim; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2012-01-01

    The sexual medicine field has been in mode of revolution until recently. Like all other fields of biomedical research, the economic situation around the world has had a negative impact on the field's momentum-research funding bodies, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies seem to have...... placed sexual medicine in their low-priority list. But this is not the only challenge the field is facing. The successful development of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) means that research in this area seems to have slowed. However, there remain...... several unmet medical needs within sexual medicine such as premature ejaculation, severe ED and hypoactive sexual desire disorder, which await novel therapeutic approaches. Despite these challenges, research into finding and developing such therapies is likely to continue in the sexual medicine field...

  15. Terabit Wireless Communication Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on Terabit Wireless communication systems for possible space applications. Recently, terahertz (THz) technology (300-3000 GHz frequency) has attracted a great deal of interest from academia and industry. This is due to a number of interesting features of THz waves, including the nearly unlimited bandwidths available, and the non-ionizing radiation nature which does not damage human tissues and DNA with minimum health threat. Also, as millimeter-wave communication systems mature, the focus of research is, naturally, moving to the THz range. Many scientists regard THz as the last great frontier of the electromagnetic spectrum, but finding new applications outside the traditional niches of radio astronomy, Earth and planetary remote sensing, and molecular spectroscopy particularly in biomedical imaging and wireless communications has been relatively slow. Radiologists find this area of study so attractive because t-rays are non-ionizing, which suggests no harm is done to tissue or DNA. They also offer the possibility of performing spectroscopic measurements over a very wide frequency range, and can even capture signatures from liquids and solids. According to Shannon theory, the broad bandwidth of the THz frequency bands can be used for terabit-per-second (Tb/s) wireless communication systems. This enables several new applications, such as cell phones with 360 degrees autostereoscopic displays, optic-fiber replacement, and wireless Tb/s file transferring. Although THz technology could satisfy the demand for an extremely high data rate, a number of technical challenges need to be overcome before its development. This presentation provides an overview the state-of-the- art in THz wireless communication and the technical challenges for an emerging application in Terabit wireless systems. The main issue for THz wave propagation is the high atmospheric attenuation, which is dominated by water vapor absorption in the THz

  16. Energy challenges in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niquet, V.

    2007-01-01

    Energy challenges represent one of the most important security paradigms in the Asia Pacific region where you have a mixture of growing energy dependency, fuelled by high economic growth, the emergence of new major players like China and India, and a quasi-complete absence of regional regulatory mechanisms to tackle the challenges in a multilateral way. These challenges mostly concern Japan and China, where crucial energy issues are aggravated by power rivalry, historical and ideological issues, and a lack of both economic and political harmony between them. Neither countries are self sufficient in terms of energy needs. This can lead to a shared analysis and common approaches regarding Japan and China concerning this issue. Their cases are. however very different and the solutions applied are related to different world views that are not easily reconcilable. Both countries share common objectives: both want security and stable supply. But there are also big divergences and these divergences could be new sources of conflict and misunderstanding between Tokyo and Beijing. One of the main differences is history related. Both China and Japan are uneasy regarding outside energy dependency. In Japan, memories of the pre-war oil embargo have not disappeared. The oil shocks of the 70's renewed this uneasiness. However, Japan's outside dependency is not new. Tokyo has learned to live with it, finding a system to alleviate this vulnerability in cooperation with its partners, multilateral institutions like the International Energy Agency (IEA). China's outside dependency is new. The country's dependency on oil, which began in 1993, is particularly challenging since the principles of independence, non interference and military autonomy, principles at the core of Maoist foreign strategy, did not completely disappear in spite of China's new policy of reform and opening up. China's leadership, even the fourth generation, did not forget its isolation during the 60's and 70's

  17. Coastal research: Observational challenge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    . Thus, two important aspects are near real-time data telemetry and data assimilation modeling. It is evident that marine technologies face challenges not only in the natural scales of coastal environmental variability, but also in par ticular... fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass, phy toplankton blooms associated with incipient seasonal stratification, and frontal- and eddy-trapped inertial waves. Measurements of nitrate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pC0 2 ), and dissolved oxygen (DO) have...

  18. The Terawatt Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haegel, Nancy

    In response to concerns about accelerating climate change, the world is uniting to both envision and enable a global energy system that supports a sustainable environment and broad economic prosperity. Growth in the technology and the deployment of renewable energy has been dramatic. Evidence can be seen in the growth of photovoltaics (PV) and wind as contributors to worldwide electricity production over the last decade. PV and wind provided 1.2% and 3.7% of global electricity production in 2015, compared to 0.1% and 1.3% respectively in 2005. These numbers indicate both the rapid increase in the rate of deployment, as well as the remaining work to be done to extend this trend to transform a massive energy system and provide a significant fraction of the world's future energy demand with renewable energy. Based on recent trends, it is highly likely that global cumulative PV installation will reach terawatt scale in the next few decades. The challenges, as well as the resulting impact, vary greatly depending on whether we envision 1 TW ( 15% of 2015 global electricity capacity), 3 TW ( 50% of 2015 global electricity capacity) or 10 TW, a level that could drive electrification of transportation and industrial sectors and production of solar fuels. This presentation will draw upon the work of the 2016 GA-SERI (Global Alliance of Solar Energy Research Institutes) Terawatt Workshop to assess the feasibility and summarize the challenges for PV as a primary energy source. These challenges include the continuing demand for improved efficiency and reliability, the required magnitude of capital expenditure, the need for a sustainable industry (both financially and environmentally), as well as needs for grid modernization and consistent policies that support global climate goals. Physicists can play important roles in addressing this full range of challenges, from materials science to public policy, as well as in education of the public and its future leaders.

  19. Challenges in paediatric neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Ganjoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in technique, knowledge and expertise have brought about rapid advances in the fields of paediatric neurosurgery and anaesthesia, and many procedures limited earlier to adults are now being increasingly attempted in neonates and small children, with good outcomes. This article highlights the challenges faced by the operating team while handling some of the technically complex procedures like awake craniotomy, interventional neuroradiology, minimally invasive neurosurgery, procedures in intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging suites, and neonatal emergencies in the paediatric population.

  20. Challenges in plastics recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann; Damgaard, Anders; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamin...

  1. EDMS implementation challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Marta

    2002-08-01

    The challenges faced by facilities wishing to implement an electronic medical record system are complex and overwhelming. Issues such as customer acceptance, basic computer skills, and a thorough understanding of how the new system will impact work processes must be considered and acted upon. Acceptance and active support are necessary from Senior Administration and key departments to enable this project to achieve measurable success. This article details one hospital's "journey" through design and successful implementation of an electronic medical record system.

  2. IDEOLOGICALLY CHALLENGING ENTERTAINMENT (ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Lori Chalmers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ideologically Challenging Entertainment (ICE is entertainment that challenges ‘us vs. them’ ideologies associated with radicalization, violent conflict and terrorism. ICE presents multiple perspectives on a conflict through mainstream entertainment. This article introduces the theoretical underpinnings of ICE, the first ICE production and the audience responses to it. The first ICE production was Two Merchants: The Merchant of Venice adapted to challenge ideologies of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views. Each performance included two versions of the adaptation: a Jewish dominated society with an Arab Muslim minority, contrasted with an Arab Muslim dominated society and a Jewish minority. A mixed-methods study of audience responses explored whether this production inspired audiences to shift their ideological views to become more tolerant of differences away from ideological radicalization. Of audience members who did not initially agree with the premise of the production, 40% reconsidered their ideological views, indicating increased tolerance, greater awareness of and desire to change their own prejudices. In addition, 86% of the audience expressed their intention to discuss the production with others, thereby encouraging critical engagement with, and broader dissemination of the message. These outcomes suggest that high quality entertainment – as defined by audience responses to it - can become a powerful tool in the struggle against radicalised ideologies.

  3. The Challenges of Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrtle, Robert C

    2018-03-09

    Perhaps in no other period in recent times have the challenges leaders face been so profound. In these times of uncertainty and turbulence, we look to leaders who create a sense of purpose, who generate feelings of trust and optimism, and who tap the passion, talent, and efforts of those so essential to the success of the organization and of the people it serves. Our research suggests that becoming the leader whom people look to and admire requires an active commitment to responding to 5 essential leadership challenges. These are (1) creating a sense of purpose, (2) devising means for aligning the actions of the followers with that sense of purpose, (3) establishing a context that enables others to behave in a way that is consistent with the vision and values of the organization, (4) ensuring that the work that is done provides meaning to those engaging in the work activities, and (5) adding to the sum of everyone's knowledge through learning through reflective actions. In this article, we describe these challenges and offer suggestions that you can take to become a more effective and respected leader.

  4. ATLAS Data Challenge 1

    CERN Document Server

    DC1 TaskForce

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration at CERN is preparing for the data taking and analysis at LHC that will start in 2007. Therefore, in 2002 a series of Data Challenges (DC's) was started whose goals are the validation of the Computing Model, of the complete software suite, of the data model, and to ensure the correctness of the technical choices to be made. A major feature of the first Data Challenge (DC1) was the preparation and the deployment of the software required for the production of large event samples for the High Level Trigger and Physics communities, and the production of those large data samples as a worldwide distributed activity. It should be noted that it was not an option to "run everything at CERN" even if we had wanted to; the resources were not available at CERN to carry out the production on a reasonable time-scale. We were therefore faced with the great challenge of organising and then carrying out this large-scale production at a significant number of sites around the world. However, the benefits o...

  5. IgG antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Susana A Zevallos; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos S A; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii). Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.). Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES), obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  6. Ultraestructural study of effects of alkylphospholipid analogs against nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant' Anna, Viviane; Railbolt, Marcelle; Oliveira-Menezes, Aleksandra; Calogeropoulou, Theodora; Pinheiro, Jairo; de Souza, Wanderley

    2018-02-26

    Alkylphospholipid analogs were initially developed as anticancer agents and were later found to antiparasitic activity. Miltefosine is the prototype alkylphosphocholine and is the first oral treatment against visceral leishmaniasis. Here we investigated the effects of miltefosine and two ring-substituted alkylphosphocholine derivatives, TCAN26 and TC70, on the viability, morphology, and ultrastructure of the life stages of Caenorhabditis elegans and infective larvae of the parasite Strongyloides venezuelensis. Miltefosine displayed activity against C. elegans adults at low concentrations and was more effective than TCAN26 and TC70. Miltefosine inhibited the hatching of eggs, leading to embryonic lethality, and showed larvicidal activity against C. elegans and S. venezuelensis larvae after 24 h. Mitelfosine also induced alterations in the reproductive system of hermaphrodites, causing vulvar prolapse and general effects in the body wall. Electron microscopy analysis showed that miltefosine induced selective embryonic lethality, leading to cell death. Our results suggest that alkylphospholipid analogs are a potential new alternative for anti-nematode chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Challenging the Innovation Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Sveiby, Karl Erik; Segercrantz, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is almost always seen as a "good thing". Challenging the Innovation Paradigm is a critical analysis of the innovation frenzy and contemporary innovation research. The one-sided focus on desirable effects of innovation misses many opportunities to reduce the undesirable consequences. Authors in this book show how systemic effects outside the innovating firms reduce the net benefits of innovation for individual employees, customers, as well as for society as a whole - also the innovators' own organizations. This book analyzes the dominant discourses that construct and recons

  8. Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post conference proceedings of the first edition of the Semantic Web Evaluation Challenge, SemWebEval 2014, co-located with the 11th Extended Semantic Web conference, held in Anissaras, Crete, Greece, in May 2014. This book includes the descriptions of all methods and tools that competed at SemWebEval 2014, together with a detailed description of the tasks, evaluation procedures and datasets. The contributions are grouped in three areas: semantic publishing (sempub), concept-level sentiment analysis (ssa), and linked-data enabled recommender systems (recsys).

  9. Challenging times ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    While, Alison

    2008-07-01

    The global economic challenges will not only affect the banks but also healthcare staff and their patients. Indeed, no-one will be unaffected. At this moment community nurses are not being properly reimbursed for the cost of using their cars to deliver care in the home as the price of petrol rises ever higher and older people are counting the cost of ever rising energy and food costs. Additionally there will be less extra money available to fund public services as the government attempts to balance its expenditure against tax receipts without further increasing government debt.

  10. New challenges? Well, certainly!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    New challenges? Well, certainly! With the internationalization of European higher education, teaching and learning through the medium of a foreign language has become more and more widespread in recent years. This requires, of course, that lecturers as well as students have the necessary language......, different cultural backgrounds, different educational backgrounds and be used to a diverse set of didactic traditions and norms. Given this diversity, higher education institutions (HEIs) need to have measures in place to deal with this. Policies and practices must go hand in hand and, more often than not...

  11. Challenging a sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Lise

    Academia is expanding beyond its traditional, institutional boundaries, as the perceived use value of research and knowledge production has highlighted the political incentive to look at how the higher education sector is organized. In Denmark, as well as in many countries, these challenges...... and pressures has led to the reorganization of knowledge production, e.g. by integrating new institutions into the research sector. The present paper reports initial findings from a study how the new “cousins” navigate demands from an institutionalized sector, and from the external environment. Focus is on how...... policy changes are translated and affects narratives of organizational identities....

  12. DARPA 7-Day Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-17

    and LF 59,60 . These complexes are then taken up by a clatherin dependent mechanism where changes in pH cause pore formation and entry of EF and LF...in Ac-DEX nano/ mico -particles (particles). Mice were inoculated at 20 µg lysate /mouse. Mice were challenged day 21, 26 and 33 i.p with 232-402...due to the complex immune response that is necessary to protect against highly virulent strains94. Furthermore, in the development of a rapid response

  13. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  14. Challenges of tomorrow... chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steindler, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    According to the author, nuclear materials are going to play an increasing role in concerns regarding proliferation and international affair, with an increased demand for clean electric power, and in environmental and health and safety issues. Challenges range from detecting a single species in a sea of others at molar ratios of 10- 12 , or smaller, to a knowledge of the fundamental physical chemistry (e.g., thermodynamics, activity coefficients, etc., of a two phase system, containing about 40 materials, at 500 0 C) for the lanthanide and actinide elements produced during reactor operation. Other concerns are identified and discussed

  15. Safeguards by Design Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-13

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines Safeguards as a system of inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials as part of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. IAEA oversees safeguards worldwide. Safeguards by Design (SBD) involves incorporation of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation during the design phase of a facility, rather that after the fact. Design challenge goals are the following: Design a system of safeguards technologies, techniques, and instrumentation for inspection and verification of the peaceful uses of nuclear materials. Cost should be minimized to work with the IAEA’s limited budget. Dose to workers should always be as low are reasonably achievable (ALARA). Time is of the essence in operating facilities and flow of material should not be interrupted significantly. Proprietary process information in facilities may need to be protected, thus the amount of information obtained by inspectors should be the minimum required to achieve the measurement goal. Then three different design challenges are detailed: Plutonium Waste Item Measurement System, Marine-based Modular Reactor, and Floating Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP).

  16. Résultats challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Club de pétanque

    2015-01-01

    C'est avec un temps magnifique que se disputait pour la deuxième année le Challenge de notre cher ami Patrick DURAND le jeudi 30 juillet 2015. Vingt-six personnes formées en doublettes s'affrontaient pour trois parties .Après des parties très serrées le juge arbitre Claude JOUVE épaulé par Alain PHILIPONA déclarait  vainqueur l'imbattable Claude MACARI suivi de très près par Eric DARMEDRU et à la troisième place Christian JOUVE. La première féminine était Mireille ROCHE. La soirée se clôturait par une succulente paëlla préparée par Jennifer et sa maman Sylvie JOUVE. Rendez-vous à tous pour le jeudi 27 août 2015 pour le challenge Jean-Claude FROT Nos concours sont ouverts à tous les amateurs de pétanque.

  17. Aerodynamic challenges of ALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, I.; Homan, D.; Romere, P. O.

    1985-01-01

    The approach and landing test (ALT) of the Space Shuttle Orbiter presented a number of unique challenges in the area of aerodynamics. The purpose of the ALT program was both to confirm the use of the Boeing 747 as a transport vehicle for ferrying the Orbiter across the country and to demonstrate the flight characteristics of the Orbiter in its approach and landing phase. Concerns for structural fatigue and performance dictated a tailcone be attached to the Orbiter for ferry and for the initial landing tests. The Orbiter with a tailcone attached presented additional challenges to the normal aft sting concept of wind tunnel testing. The landing tests required that the Orbiter be separated from the 747 at approximately 20,000 feet using aerodynamic forces to fly the vehicles apart. The concept required a complex test program to determine the relative effects of the two vehicles on each other. Also of concern, and tested, was the vortex wake created by the 747 and the means for the Orbiter to avoid it following separation.

  18. The ALICE data challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baud, J.P.; Collignon, M.; Collin, F.; Durand, J.; Jarp, S.; Jouanigot, J.M.; Panzer, B.; Carena, W.; Carminati, F.; Divia, R.; Rademakers, F.; Saiz, P.; Schossmaier, K.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Vascotto, A.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1998, the ALICE experiment and the CERN/IT division have jointly executed several large-scale high throughput distributed computing exercises: the ALICE data challenges. The goals of these regular exercises are to test hardware and software components of the data acquisition and computing systems in realistic conditions and to execute an early integration of the overall ALICE computing infrastructure. The authors report on the third ALICE Data Challenge (ADC III) that has been performed at CERN from January to March 2001. The data used during the ADC III are simulated physics raw data of the ALICE TPC, produced with the ALICE simulation program AliRoot. The data acquisition was based on the ALICE online framework called the ALICE Data Acquisition Test Environment (DATE) system. The data, after event building, were then formatted with the ROOT I/O package and a data catalogue based on MySQL was established. The Mass Storage System used during ADC III is CASTOR. Different software tools have been used to monitor the performances. DATE has demonstrated performances of more than 500 MByte/s. An aggregate data throughput of 85 MByte/s was sustained in CASTOR over several days. The total collected data amounts to 100 TBytes in 100.000 files

  19. Challenge Based Innovation gala

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Utriainen, Tuuli Maria; Toivonen, Harri; Nordberg, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Challenge Based Innovation gala   There’s a new experiment starting in CERN called IdeaLab where we work together with detector R&D researchers to help them to bridge their knowledge into a more human, societally oriented context. Currently we are located in B153, but will move our activities to a new facility next to the Globe in May 2014. One of our first pilot projects is a 5 month course CBI (Challenge Based Innovation) where two multidisciplinary student teams join forces with Edusafe & TALENT projects at CERN. Their goal is to discover what kind of tools for learning could be created in collaboration with the two groups. After months of user interviews and low resolution prototyping they are ready to share the results with us in the form of an afternoon gala. We warmly welcome you to join us to see the students' results and experience the prototypes they have conceived. The event is in three parts, you are welcome to visit all of them,...

  20. A brief overview of our energy challenge(s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Robert

    2018-01-01

    I provide an overview of the current world-wide energy generation and use, and discuss the challenge of meeting the expectations of rising standards of living in the developing world, as well as the challenge posed by ongoing climate change. I focus in particular on the possible evolution of energy systems in response to these challenges.

  1. Leptospira venezuelensis sp. nov., a new member of the intermediate group isolated from rodents, cattle and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puche, Rafael; Ferrés, Ignacio; Caraballo, Lizeth; Rangel, Yaritza; Picardeau, Mathieu; Takiff, Howard; Iraola, Gregorio

    2018-02-01

    Three strains, CLM-U50 T , CLM-R50 and IVIC-Bov1, belonging to the genus Leptospira, were isolated in Venezuela from a patient with leptospirosis, a domestic rat (Rattus norvegicus) and a cow (Bos taurus), respectively. The initial characterisation of these strains based on the rrs gene (16S rRNA) suggested their designation as a novel species within the 'intermediates' group of the genus Leptospira. Further phylogenomic characterisation based on single copy core genes was consistent with their separation into a novel species. The average nucleotide identity between these three strains was >99 %, but below 89 % with respect to any previously described leptospiral species, also supporting their designation as a novel species. Given this evidence, these three isolates were considered to represent a novel species, for which the name Leptospiravenezuelensis sp. nov. is proposed, with CLM-U50 T (=CIP 111407 T =DSM 105752 T ) as the type strain.

  2. Molecular Detection of Strongyloides ratti in Faecal Samples from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for all collected stool samples. Briefly, 2 g of each sample was placed in the center of plastic petri dish containing approximately 20 mL of nutrient agar. Dishes were sealed with parafilm tape to prevent larvae from crawling .... loops spiraling around the intestine or running parallel with intestine. Eggs in single row in uterus.

  3. Offshore northern Europe, the challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergseth, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper relates to challenges of the offshore activity in the North Sea. It is appropriate to address these challenges in the context of generating values through efficient management of resources, markets, safety and technology, as the challenges lie therein. The petroleum industry is built to turn natural resources into market value, assuring broad benefits to stake holders and shareholders. In the following, the challenges facing the industry the industry offshore Northern Europe is examined on this background

  4. Staff Definitions of Challenging Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgie, Sarah; Hastings, Richard P.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty staff working with adults with mental retardation rated potentially challenging behaviors in terms of: (1) whether they thought the behaviors were challenging, and (2) whether the behaviors should be the focus of intervention. Results found that staff were less likely to identify as challenging those behaviors having negative effects on…

  5. Challenges of Virtual School Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jayson W.; LaFrance, Jason; Beck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine challenges faced by virtual school leaders in the United States. Through semistructured interviews, the researchers explored challenges faced by eighteen leaders of fully online or blended online programs. Analysis revealed six main challenges: funding, staff, accountability, time, parents, and…

  6. Hydropower Modeling Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, Brady [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Andrade, Juan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Greg [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Hydropower facilities are important assets for the electric power sector and represent a key source of flexibility for electric grids with large amounts of variable generation. As variable renewable generation sources expand, understanding the capabilities and limitations of the flexibility from hydropower resources is important for grid planning. Appropriately modeling these resources, however, is difficult because of the wide variety of constraints these plants face that other generators do not. These constraints can be broadly categorized as environmental, operational, and regulatory. This report highlights several key issues involving incorporating these constraints when modeling hydropower operations in terms of production cost and capacity expansion. Many of these challenges involve a lack of data to adequately represent the constraints or issues of model complexity and run time. We present several potential methods for improving the accuracy of hydropower representation in these models to allow for a better understanding of hydropower's capabilities.

  7. The Global Energy Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    This report gives a brief overview of the global energy challenge and subsequently outlines how and where renewable energy could be developed to solve these issues. The report does not go into a lot of detail on these issues and hence, it is meant as an overview only. The report begins by outlining...... the causes of global climate change, concluding that energy-related emissions are the primary contributors to the problem. As a result, global energy production is analysed in more detail, discussing how it has evolved over the last 30 years and also, how it is expected to evolve in the coming 30 years....... Afterwards, the security of the world’s energy supply is investigated and it becomes clear that there is both an inevitable shortage of fossil fuels and a dangerous separation of supply and demand. The final topic discussed is renewable energy, since it is one sustainable solution to the global energy...

  8. Challenges for nuclear regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses issues that will present particular challenges to the nuclear industry, during the next decade, that should be addressed in order to achieve increased public acceptance of the industry. The issues of safety culture, peer review of safety, severe accidents, transport accidents and public communication are suggest as meriting special consideration. The need for nuclear regulatory agencies to establish credibility and for operating organisations to demonstrate accountability is emphasised, and the Australian experiences are reviewed. Increased collaboration by nuclear regulatory agencies in the Asian-pacific region is suggested, in order to encourage consistency of regulatory safety standards for the nuclear safety issues identified. Methods whereby this could be achieved within the framework of existing agreements and arrangements are suggested. 2 refs

  9. Energy Challenges for ICT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagas, Giorgos; Gallagher, John Patrick; Gammaitoni, Luca

    2017-01-01

    and enhance resource efficiency in other sectors, e.g., transportation (through intelligent transportation and advanced driver assistance systems and self-driving vehicles), heating (through smart building control), and manufacturing (through digital automation based on smart autonomous sensors). To address......The energy consumption from the expanding use of information and communications technology (ICT) is unsustainable with present drivers, and it will impact heavily on the future climate change. However, ICT devices have the potential to contribute significantly to the reduction of CO2 emission......, system design, embedded systems, efficient electronics, static analysis, and computation. In this chapter, we introduce challenges and opportunities in this emerging field and a common framework to strive towards energy-sustainable ICT....

  10. Ten Challenges in Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, Audrey; Howatt, Kerry; Waddington, Ashley; Reid, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Despite the introduction of promising products into the contraceptive market, the rate of unintended pregnancies remains high. Women with underlying medical conditions should have access to safe and effective contraceptive methods for various reasons, including the potential deleterious effect of the disease on the pregnancy or the effect of the pregnancy on the disease process. Healthcare providers are often confronted with cases in which contraception counseling is problematic due to controversial evidence and persistent myths. This review will examine a number of medical conditions that often create contraception counseling challenges. It should in no way be considered as an extensive review of all contraceptive options for a given medical condition. The following topics will be explored: depression, immunosuppression, inflammatory bowel diseases, past bariatric surgery, liver diseases, family history of breast cancer, migraines, polycystic ovarian syndrome, perimenopausal state, and sickle cell disease. We advocate for improved information and accessibility to contraception as a means of decreasing the rate of unintended pregnancies.

  11. Challenging the Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Nina

    2004-01-01

    to explore in the study and teaching of foreign languages. Not only may linguistics and literature be employed to shed light on each other, the insights gained may furthermore prove useful in a broader context in our foreign language studies. The article begins with a brief introduction to literary...... linguistics in general and to Hallidayan linguistics in particular. The theoretical framework thus laid out, it is exemplified how Halliday's theory of language may be employed in the analysis of literature. The article concludes by considering the possible status of literary linguistics in a broader......To many people, challenging the boundaries between the traditional disciplines in foreign language studies means doing cultural studies. The aim of this article is to pull in a different direction by suggesting how the interface between linguistics and literature may be another fertile field...

  12. Multicore Programming Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Michael

    The computer industry is facing fundamental challenges that are driving a major change in the design of computer processors. Due to restrictions imposed by quantum physics, one historical path to higher computer processor performance - by increased clock frequency - has come to an end. Increasing clock frequency now leads to power consumption costs that are too high to justify. As a result, we have seen in recent years that the processor frequencies have peaked and are receding from their high point. At the same time, competitive market conditions are giving business advantage to those companies that can field new streaming applications, handle larger data sets, and update their models to market conditions faster. The desire for newer, faster and larger is driving continued demand for higher computer performance.

  13. Technology Empowerment: Security Challenges.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Drake Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backus, George A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Wendell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nelson, Thomas R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Skocypec, Russell D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    “Technology empowerment” means that innovation is increasingly accessible to ordinary people of limited means. As powerful technologies become more affordable and accessible, and as people are increasingly connected around the world, ordinary people are empowered to participate in the process of innovation and share the fruits of collaborative innovation. This annotated briefing describes technology empowerment and focuses on how empowerment may create challenges to U.S. national security. U.S. defense research as a share of global innovation has dwindled in recent years. With technology empowerment, the role of U.S. defense research is likely to shrink even further while technology empowerment will continue to increase the speed of innovation. To avoid falling too far behind potential technology threats to U.S. national security, U.S. national security institutions will need to adopt many of the tools of technology empowerment.

  14. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    about breeding blind hens. But we also argue that alternative views, which (for example) claim that it is important to respect the telos or rights of an animal, do not offer a more convincing solution to questions raised by the possibility of disenhancing animals for their own benefit.......Animal ethicists have recently debated the ethical questions raised by disenhancing animals to improve their welfare. Here, we focus on the particular case of breeding blind hens for commercial egg-laying systems, in order to benefit their welfare. Many people find breeding blind hens intuitively...... repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  15. Huijgens' Synchronization: A Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijmeijer, H.; Pogromsky, A. Y.

    Oscillations are common almost everywhere, be it in biology, in economics, in physics and many other fields. Everyone is familiar with the day-night rhythm, or the regular or less regular heart-beat of a human, the pig cycle in economy or the flashing of fire-flies and so on. All the above examples have in common that the oscillations seem to happen naturally, but there are also other more or less forced type of oscillations like for instance in chemistry, electrical circuits and acoustics. Probably the most basic example of an oscillator is a pendulum clock that runs at a fixed frequency and such that the exact time is given by the clock. Design and construction of a fully accurate mechanical clock is - even today - a very challenging task; the reader is referred to [Rawlings, 1994; Penman, 1998] for some background on this…

  16. Some Challenges to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R. Conard

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The word “sustainability” is often used in business in the belief that the current ways of doing things will be able to be continued with only minor changes to balance economic development with related environmental and social issues. There are, however, immense challenges that threaten the very sustainability of our global society, let alone individual businesses or developments. A few of the most important of these challenges—population growth, clean energy supply, fresh water availability, and global climate change—are discussed. As humanity forms its collective response to these threats, it is concluded that all intelligent people, but especially scientists, have important roles to play, not only in technical innovation, but also in catalyzing political action.

  17. Challenges of protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fanning

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Local protection committees in North and South Kivu are tackling – with some success – a range of protection challenges.Since June 2010, Mukungu1 village in Kalehe, South Kivu, has welcomed 1,150 displaced households fleeing FDLR2 attacks during military operations in the area. A battalion of the national army arrived recently; they have set up checkpoints demanding a fee, do not speak any local language and have moved in with local families unasked. Forced labour and arbitrary arrests are widespread. Meanwhile, locals cannot farm fields near the forest as FDLR soldiers rape women who try – and have killed men who accompany them. The local community takes in IDPs but they warn that resources are limited.

  18. Challenges in data science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Anna; Jensen, M.; Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2016-01-01

    The ability to process and manage large data volumes has been proven to be not enough to tackle the current challenges presented by "Big Data". Deep insight is required for understanding interactions among connected systems, space- and time-dependent heterogeneous data structures. Emergence...... can Complex Systems Science contribute to Big Data? ". Such question can be reversed and brought to a superior level of abstraction by asking "What Knowledge can be drawn from Big Data?" These aspects constitute the main motivation behind this article to introduce a volume containing a collection...... of papers presenting interdisciplinary advances in the Big Data area by methodologies and approaches typical of the Complex Systems Science, Nonlinear Systems Science and Statistical Physics. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. New challenges in gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandil, C. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [Cedigaz, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Streicher, C. [Prosernat, 92 - Paris la Defense (France)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    New developments in the area of gas treatment will be to a large extent driven by the need to find appropriate solutions to the fundamental need of sustainable development. New gas treatment processes are developed with the aim to minimise contaminant emissions and meet most stringent environmental specifications. A new major challenge for the industry will be to implement new cost effective technologies for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. Industry has also to minimise its costs, and therefore, in order to ensure at the same time a better protection of the environment and a better safety, it is necessary to innovate. The purpose of this seminar is precisely to identify better the innovations which are required in the area of gas treatment. These proceedings comprise 8 papers and a summary of the contributions to a round-table discussion dealing with the options for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The presentations treat of: the future prospects for the gas industry (M.F. Chabrelie, Cedigaz); the solutions for offshore gas treatment (C. Streicher, Prosernat); gas treatment with membranes (H. Meyer, GTI); the Axens Multibed{sub TM} technology for natural gas treatment (G. Jochem, Axens); the potentials and applications for the Propure co-current contactors (F.P. Nilsen, ProPure); the production of very-sour and super-sour large gas reserves: the new challenges (F. Lallemand, TotalFinaElf); Hybrisol, a new gas treatment process for sour natural gases (F. Lecomte, IFP); and the conception and building of large acid-gas removal units (J. Castel, Technip-Coflexip). (J.S.)

  20. Challenges in preventive psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Sharan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of mental disorders offers opportunities for decreasing enormous health, economic, and social burden attributable to them. Substantial evidence exist showing effectiveness of prevention strategies in reducing risk factors, strengthening protective factors, and decreasing psychiatric symptoms and disability. The government and various stakeholders should work toward developing policies on national and regional levels for the prevention of mental disorders and integrate them with various public policies. Research should be focused on enhancing the evidence base for these interventions. It should also cover additional domains such as quantification of the burden of disease associated with particular risk factors, the interaction between lifestyle behaviors and mental health, and integrating mental health outcome measures in large community-based interventions for noncommunicable diseases. Special efforts should be made in devising alternative strategies to deliver these programs in low-resource settings. Integrating the research from the field of neurosciences with prevention strategies can augment the effort in this direction. One of the important challenges is to design programs that are either indigenously developed or culturally adapted. Mental health professionals have to play an important and multiple roles to make prevention of mental and behavioral disorders a reality.

  1. Challenges in Piaget's legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibace, Roger

    2013-03-01

    The publication of After Piaget (Martí and Rodríguez 2012) hopefully triggers a new effort to understand the richness of the efforts of that major psychologist of the 20th century. Piaget was consistently concerned with part/whole relationships throughout his life. He addressed this issue philosophically, epistemologically, and psychologically. Conceptually Piaget struggled with the issue of continuity/discontinuity in development and changed his mind about how to reconcile the discontinuities of stages with his concept of development. I also attribute his variability to the implications of his important work on perception, and to his willingness to get involved in widespread concrete applications of his approach to education including the education of children with special needs; his center for genetic epistemology, and his interest in psychoanalysis. Benefiting from all the authors of After Piaget, I want to point out that Piaget has identified many major issues that will continue to constitute challenges to psychology in this century. These include specifying terms such as 'development;' methodological issues such as sampling both quantitatively in one culture and across cultures; comprehensive inclusion of the psychological processes covered by introductory textbooks in psychology; and conceptual issues such as the relationships among all these parts within a whole. I make a distinction between an 'issue' and a 'problem'--problems have solutions; while issues refer to controversies in science generally as well as in psychology that have persisted for centuries.

  2. Challenges in Organ Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Beyar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  3. Challenges in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greve, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    Astronomy is an attractive subject for education. It deals with fascination of the unknown and the unreachable, yet is uses tools, concepts and insights from various fundamental sciences such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology. Because of this it can be well used for introducing sciences to young people and to raise their interest in further studies in that direction. It is also an interesting subject for teaching as its different aspects (observation techniques, theory, data sampling and analysis, modelling,?) offer various didactical approaches towards different levels of pupils, students and different backgrounds. And it gives great opportunities to teach and demonstrate the essence of scientific research, through tutorials and projects. In this paper we discuss some of the challenges education in general, and astronomy in particular, faces in the coming decades, given the major geophysical and technological changes that can be deducted from our present knowledge. This defines a general, but very important background in terms of educational needs at various levels, and in geographical distribution of future efforts of the astronomical community. Special emphasis will be given to creative approaches to teaching, to strategies that are successful (such as the use of tutorials with element from computer games), and to initiatives complementary to the regular educational system. The programs developed by the IAU will be briefly highlighted.

  4. Challenges in organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-04-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty.

  5. Challenges in Organ Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyar, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Organ transplantation has progressed tremendously with improvements in surgical methods, organ preservation, and pharmaco-immunologic therapies and has become a critical pathway in the management of severe organ failure worldwide. The major sources of organs are deceased donors after brain death; however, a substantial number of organs come from live donations, and a significant number can also be obtained from non-heart-beating donors. Yet, despite progress in medical, pharmacologic, and surgical techniques, the shortage of organs is a worldwide problem that needs to be addressed internationally at the highest possible levels. This particular field involves medical ethics, religion, and society behavior and beliefs. Some of the critical ethical issues that require aggressive interference are organ trafficking, payments for organs, and the delicate balance in live donations between the benefit to the recipient and the possible harm to the donor and others. A major issue in organ transplantation is the definition of death and particularly brain death. Another major critical factor is the internal tendency of a specific society to donate organs. In the review below, we will discuss the various challenges that face organ donation worldwide, and particularly in Israel, and some proposed mechanisms to overcome this difficulty. PMID:23908807

  6. Hermes: the engineering challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeski, Jurek; Gers, Luke; Smith, Greg; Staszak, Nicholas

    2012-09-01

    The Australian Astronomical Observatory is building a 4-channel VPH-grating High Efficiency and Resolution Multi Element Spectrograph (HERMES) for the 3.9 meter Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT). HERMES will provide a nominal spectral resolving power of 28,000 for Galactic Archaeology with an optional high-resolution mode of 45,000 with the use of a slit mask. HERMES is fed by a fibre positioning robot called 2dF at the telescope prime focus. There are a total of 784 science fibres, which interface with the spectrograph via two separate slit body assemblies, each comprising of 392 science fibers. The slit defines the spectral lines of 392 fibres on the detector. The width of the detector determines the spectral bandwidth and the detector height determines the fibre to fibre spacing or cross talk. Tolerances that follow from this are all in the 10 micrometer range. The slit relay optics must contribute negligibly to the overall image quality budget and uniformly illuminate the spectrograph exit pupil. The latter requirement effectively requires that the relay optics provide a telecentric input at the collimator entrance slit. As a result it is critical to align the optical components to extreme precision required by the optical design. This paper discusses the engineering challenges of designing, optimising, tolerancing and manufacturing of very precise mechanical components for housing optics and the design of low cost of jigs and fixtures for alignment and assembly of the optics.

  7. VISIR: Experiences and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Tawfik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of crucial importance the integration of practical sessions in engineering curricula owing to their significant role in understanding engineering concepts and scientific phenomena. However, the lack of practical sessions due to the high costs of the equipment and the unavailability of instructors has caused a significant declination in experimentation in engineering education. Remote laboratories have tackled this issues providing online reusable and shared workbenches unconstrained by neither geographical nor time considerations. Thereby, they have extremely proliferated among universities and integrated into engineering curricula over the last decade. This contribution compiles diverse experiences based on the deployment of the remote laboratory, Virtual Instrument Systems in Reality (VISIR, on the practices of undergraduate engineering grades at various universities within the VISIR community. It aims to show the impact of its usage on engineering education concerning the assessments of students and teachers as well. In addition, the paper address the next challenges and future works carried out at several universities within the VISIR community.

  8. 'Scrap yard challenge'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollick, A.

    2000-01-01

    'Plutonium'. The word evokes deep reactions outside of the nuclear industry. Although the majority of Plutonium currently in existence is man-made and therefore perceived as being unnatural, plutonium has been found as a product of the Oklo natural reactor in Gabon. This paper seeks to challenge two concepts, that of the Nuclear Control Institute that Plutonium is unnatural, 'fiendishly toxic' and one of the 'substances most hazardous to man' and the second image that a high security Plutonium store is merely a 'scrapyard' containing a material which has little use. The nuclear industry has often been accused of treating Plutonium and its accumulation casually in proportion to the risks perceived by those outside the industry. As a result this paper seeks to demonstrate that the industry is aware of the concerns of the public and is actively seeking viable solutions. The paper looks at Plutonium itself and explores the issues surrounding military and civil Plutonium in adding to the current stockpiles. It also suggests three possible alternatives for dealing with these Plutonium stockpiles and arrives at a conclusion as to which solutions currently appear most viable. (authors)

  9. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  10. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  11. The Repack Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Daniele Francesco

    2014-06-01

    Physics data stored in CERN tapes is quickly reaching the 100 PB milestone. Tape is an ever-changing technology that is still following Moore's law in terms of capacity. This means we can store every year more and more data in the same amount of tapes. However this doesn't come for free: the first obvious cost is the new higher capacity media. The second less known cost is related to moving the data from the old tapes to the new ones. This activity is what we call repack. Repack is vital for any large tape user: without it, one would have to buy more tape libraries and more floor space and, eventually, data on old non supported tapes would become unreadable and be lost forever. In this paper we describe the challenge of repacking 115 PB before LHC data taking starts in the beginning of 2015. This process will have to run concurrently with the existing experiment tape activities, and therefore needs to be as transparent as possible for users. Making sure that this works out seamlessly implies careful planning of the resources and the various policies for sharing them fairly and conveniently. To tackle this problem we need to fully exploit the speed and throughput of our modern tape drives. This involves proper dimensioning and configuration of the disk arrays and all the links between them and the tape servers, i.e the machines responsible for managing the tape drives. It is also equally important to provide tools to improve the efficiency with which we use our tape libraries. The new repack setup we deployed has on average increased tape drive throughput by 80%, allowing them to perform closer to their design specifications. This improvement in turn means a 48% decrease in the number of drives needed to achieve the required throughput to complete the full repack on time.

  12. The stem factor challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.J.; Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important challenges that still needs to be met in the effort to understand the operation of motor-operated, rising-stem valves is the ability to determine stem factor throughout the valve's load range. The stem factor represents the conversion of operator torque to stem thrust. Determining the stem factor is important because some motor-operated valves (MOVs) cannot be tested in the plant at design basis conditions. The ability of these valves to perform their design basis function (typically, to operate against specified flow and pressure loads) must be ensured by analytical methods or by extrapolating from the results of tests conducted at lower loads. Because the stem factor tends to vary in response to friction and lubrication phenomena that occur during loading and wedging, analytical methods and extrapolation methods have been difficult to develop and implement. Early investigations into variability in the stem factor tended to look only at the tip of the iceberg; they focused on what was happening at torque switch trip, which usually occurs at full wedging. In most stems, the stem factor is better (lower) in the wedging transient than before wedging, so working with torque switch trip data alone led many early researchers to false conclusions about the relationship between stem factor and load. However, research at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has taken a closer look at what happens during the running portion of the closing stroke along with the wedging portion. This shift in focus is important, because functional failure of a valve typically consists of a failure to isolate flow, not a failure to achieve full wedging. Thus, the stem factor that must be determined for a valve's design basis closing requirements is the one that corresponds with the running load before wedging

  13. Decommissioning - The worldwide challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, John

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Whatever the future may hold for nuclear power, there are closed or ageing nuclear facilities in many countries around the world. While these may be in safe care and maintenance at present, a sustainable long term solution is required. Facilities need to be decommissioned, contaminated land remediated, and wastes conditioned for safe storage or disposal. Practical nuclear site restoration has been demonstrated internationally. This experience has revealed generic challenges in dealing with old, often experimental, facilities. These include: Facilities not designed for ease of decommissioning; Records of plant construction and operation, and of the materials utilised and wastes produced, not to modern standards; Fuels and wastes stored for long periods in less than optimal conditions, leading to deterioration and handling problems; The historic use of experimental fuels and materials, giving rise to unique waste streams requiring unique waste management solutions; The application of modern safety and environmental standards to plant which dates from the 1940s, 50s and 60s, requiring investment before decommissioning can even commence. These problems can be tackled, as examples from UKAEA's own programme will illustrate. But two fundamental issues must be recognised and considered. First, the costs of decommissioning older facilities are very high, and may place a heavy burden on national budgets, despite using best efforts to control them. We can limit these costs by learning from one another's experience and sharing the development of new techniques and technologies. UKAEA has already initiated a programme of international collaboration, and hopes that other IAEA countries will be encouraged to follow suit. But whilst the costs of decommissioning may be high, the process normally meets with public acceptance. This is seldom the case for long term waste storage or disposal. Until waste management routes are available - either nationally or internationally

  14. Challenging the two-minute tidal breathing challenge test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, Anne J; Hagedoorn, Paul; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) bronchial challenge test, AMP is usually administered according to dosing protocols for methacholine. We investigated whether the 2-min tidal breathing challenge test for methacholine is applicable to AMP. Parameters known to affect nebulizer

  15. The Cosmonauts challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Blatchford

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the experience of working with Russia’s cultural, industrial and political sectors, this paper investigates how the development of new contacts and partnerships has contributed not only to the loan of material of historic significance to the Science Museum’s exhibition, but more broadly changes perceptions about Russia and its space programme in the western world. Addressing the multiple challenges involved – legal, political and security, among others – it reveals the importance of many of the space objects themselves as well as demonstrating how the Science Museum has helped to maintain a dialogue with Russia even during the most testing times. In September 2015 the Science Museum opened the most ambitious special exhibition it had ever undertaken: Cosmonauts: birth of the space age. Whilst the creation of a ‘blockbuster’ exhibition might be the normal expectation of a great art museum, the fact that a science museum should undertake such an endeavour is equally worthy of comment, and this article seeks to illustrate the exceptional curatorial, museological, logistical, legal and political hurdles that this project had to overcome. Indeed, they would astonish even the grandest and most experienced of the international art museums. Art museums are delighted when they can display the acclaimed works of Monet, but even the most valuable paintings cannot be said to be have been official state secrets in the way that so much Russian space technology has been. The curatorial team kept its nerve because of a compelling sense that while the project delivery was high stress, the intellectual rewards would be considerable, and especially the opportunity to present a story of human endeavour in which cultural and scientific excellence are so intertwined. When the project team started out they could never have anticipated that they would be seeking to deliver an audacious exhibition set against a background of very serious strains

  16. Challenges in Designing Mechatronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Qamar, Ahsan; Achiche, Sofiane

    2013-01-01

    Development of mechatronic products is traditionally carried out by several design experts from different design domains. Performing development of mechatronic products is thus greatly challenging. In order to tackle this, the critical challenges in mechatronics have to be well understood and well...

  17. Challenges Facing Group Work Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bo; Kang, Haijun

    2016-01-01

    Online group work can be complicated because of its asynchronous characteristics and lack of physical presence, and its requirements for skills in handling technology, human relationships, and content-related tasks. This study focuses on the administrative, logistical and relationship-related challenges in online group work. Challenges in areas…

  18. A Window-Washing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Skyscrapers sure do have a lot of windows, and these windows are cleaned and checked regularly. All this takes time, money, and puts workers at potential risk. Might there be a better way to do it? In this article, the author discusses a window-washing challenge and describes how students can tackle this task, pick up the challenge, and creatively…

  19. Higher Education Marketing: A Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canterbury, Richard

    1999-01-01

    States that similarities between education and other services may not be sufficient to conclude that services marketing methods can be easily transferred to all markets in higher education. Article identifies and discusses why higher education marketing is a particular challenge. Suggests that understanding these challenges can help in making…

  20. Challenging high-ability students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scager, Karin; Akkerman, Sanne F.; Pilot, Albert; Wubbels, Theo

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on indicators of an optimal learning environment for high-ability students frequently discusses the concept of challenge. It is, however, not clear what, precisely, constitutes appropriate challenge for these students. In this study, the authors examined an undergraduate

  1. IT Challenges for Space Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the various Information Technology challenges for aerospace medicine. The contents include: 1) Space Medicine Activities; 2) Private Medical Information; 3) Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health; 4) Mission Medical Support; 5) Data Repositories for Research; 6) Data Input and Output; 7) Finding Data/Information; 8) Summary of Challenges; and 9) Solutions and questions.

  2. Oral food challenges in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Yung Yum

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients assume that allergic reactions against foods are responsible for triggering or worsening their allergic symptoms. Therefore, it is important to identify patients who would benefit from an elimination diet, while avoiding unnecessary dietary restrictions. The diagnosis of food allergy depends on the thorough review of the patients's medical history, results of supplemented trials of dietary elimination, and in vivo and in vitro tests for measuring specific IgE levels. However, in some cases the reliability of such procedures is suboptimal. Oral food challenges are procedures employed for making an accurate diagnosis of immediate and occasionally delayed adverse reactions to foods. The timing and type of the challenge, preparation of patients, foods to be tested, and dosing schedule should be determined on the basis of the patient's history, age, and experience. Although double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges(DBPCFC are used to establish definitively if a food is the cause of adverse reactions, they are time-consuming, expensive and troublesome for physician and patients. In practice, An open challenge controlled by trained personnel is sufficient especially in infants and young children. The interpretation of the results and follow-up after a challenge are also important. Since theses challenges are relatively safe and informative, controlled oral food challenges could become the measure of choice in children.

  3. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  4. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  5. Eight challenges in phylodynamic inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D.W. Frost

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The field of phylodynamics, which attempts to enhance our understanding of infectious disease dynamics using pathogen phylogenies, has made great strides in the past decade. Basic epidemiological and evolutionary models are now well characterized with inferential frameworks in place. However, significant challenges remain in extending phylodynamic inference to more complex systems. These challenges include accounting for evolutionary complexities such as changing mutation rates, selection, reassortment, and recombination, as well as epidemiological complexities such as stochastic population dynamics, host population structure, and different patterns at the within-host and between-host scales. An additional challenge exists in making efficient inferences from an ever increasing corpus of sequence data.

  6. The Humpty-Dumpty Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, Jan S.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a twist on the egg-drop challenge activity for an 8th grade physical science unit. Students engage in active inquiry and explore the laws of physics, develop critical thinking skills, and practice problem-solving tasks. (NB)

  7. The challenges of green nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de la Guardia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials have great impacts on life sciences; however,these advanced materials may induce inadvertant consequences.Thus, this editorial will highlight the futuristic challenges in green nanotechnology.

  8. Challenging environmental mythology: wrestling Zeus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dini, J. W; Lehr, Jay H

    2003-01-01

    .... At a time when the public can be thoroughly confused between fact and fiction regarding our environmental concerns, this book proposes to challenge our concerns in clear, jargon free language that we can...

  9. Challenges to 5G standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2013-01-01

    Interoperable, ubiquitous and dynamic are key objectives for fifth-generation (5G) communication systems and applications. These characteristics are also at the core of the main challenges that researchers, manufacturers, regulators and standardization bodies face when designing targeted strategies...

  10. Refugee status determination: three challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Refugee status determination (RSD, which is vital to the protection of so many asylum seekers worldwide, is at best an imperfect, haphazard and challenging process. It merits greater attention and appropriate reform.

  11. Challenge of COPD: Getting Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: The Challenge of COPD Getting Tested Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents Getting Tested Everyone at risk for COPD who has cough, sputum production, or shortness of ...

  12. The Mock LISA Data Challenges: from Challenge 1B to Challenge 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, Stanislav; Porter, Edward K; Gair, Jonathan; Baker, John G; Arnaud, Keith; Benacquista, Matthew J; Cornish, Neil J; Crowder, Jeff; Vallisneri, Michele; Cutler, Curt; Larson, Shane L; Plagnol, Eric; Vecchio, Alberto; Barack, Leor; Blaut, Arkadiusz; Fairhurst, Stephen; Harry, Ian; Gong Xuefei; Khurana, Deepak; Krolak, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The Mock LISA Data Challenges are a programme to demonstrate and encourage the development of LISA data-analysis capabilities, tools and techniques. At the time of this workshop, three rounds of challenges had been completed, and the next was about to start. In this paper we provide a critical analysis of the entries to the latest completed round, Challenge 1B. The entries confirm the consolidation of a range of data-analysis techniques for galactic and massive-black-hole binaries, and they include the first convincing examples of detection and parameter estimation of extreme-mass-ratio inspiral sources. In this paper we also introduce the next round, Challenge 3. Its data sets feature more realistic waveform models (e.g., galactic binaries may now chirp, and massive-black-hole binaries may precess due to spin interactions), as well as new source classes (bursts from cosmic strings, isotropic stochastic backgrounds) and more complicated nonsymmetric instrument noise

  13. Stable isotope views on ecosystem function: challenging or challenged?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resco, Víctor; Querejeta, José I.; Ogle, Kiona; Voltas, Jordi; Sebastià, Maria-Teresa; Serrano-Ortiz, Penélope; Linares, Juan C.; Moreno-Gutiérrez, Cristina; Herrero, Asier; Carreira, José A.; Torres-Cañabate, Patricia; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Stable isotopes and their potential for detecting various and complex ecosystem processes are attracting an increasing number of scientists. Progress is challenging, particularly under global change scenarios, but some established views have been challenged. The IX meeting of the Spanish Association of Terrestrial Ecology (AAET, Úbeda, 18–22 October 2009) hosted a symposium on the ecology of stable isotopes where the linear mixing model approach of partitioning sinks and sources of carbon and water fluxes within an ecosystem was challenged, and new applications of stable isotopes for the study of plant interactions were evaluated. Discussion was also centred on the need for networks that monitor ecological processes using stable isotopes and key ideas for fostering future research with isotopes. PMID:20015858

  14. Ecological Challenges for Closed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Dempster, William; Allen, John P.

    2012-07-01

    Closed ecological systems are desirable for a number of purposes. In space life support systems, material closure allows precious life-supporting resources to be kept inside and recycled. Closure in small biospheric systems facilitates detailed measurement of global ecological processes and biogeochemical cycles. Closed testbeds facilitate research topics which require isolation from the outside (e.g. genetically modified organisms; radioisotopes) so their ecological interactions and fluxes can be studied separate from interactions with the outside environment. But to achieve and maintain closure entails solving complex ecological challenges. These challenges include being able to handle faster cycling rates and accentuated daily and seasonal fluxes of critical life elements such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, water, macro- and mico-nutrients. The problems of achieving sustainability in closed systems for life support include how to handle atmospheric dynamics including trace gases, producing a complete human diet and recycling nutrients and maintaining soil fertility, the sustaining of healthy air and water and preventing the loss of crucial elements from active circulation. In biospheric facilities the challenge is also to produce analogues to natural biomes and ecosystems, studying processes of self-organization and adaptation in systems that allow specification or determination of state variables and cycles which may be followed through all interactions from atmosphere to soils. Other challenges include the dynamics and genetics of small populations, the psychological challenges for small isolated human groups and measures and options which may be necessary to ensure long-term operation of closed ecological systems.

  15. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits, but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. Much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis is needed to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. There is a further oportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges must be overcome. The first step is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of three key technical challenges is plasma engineering - burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost

  16. Challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwitters, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The design of new and upgrades of existing high energy particle accelerators is reviewed in light of the current knowledge of the standard model determined from existing and past machines and funding factors. Current financing of science will delay determining unknowns, such as CP violation, proton decay, neutrino properties, and dark matter. Three options are given: (1) obtain more funding, (2) downsize scientific personnel as are private enterprises or (3) develop new technology which will reduce the high cost of building current designs of high energy accelerators. (AIP) copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. LHC luminosity upgrade detector challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; de Roeck, Albert; Bortoletto, Daniela; Wigmans, Richard; Riegler, Werner; Smith, Wesley H

    2006-01-01

    LHC luminosity upgrade: detector challenges The upgrade of the LHC machine towards higher luminosity (1035 cm -2s-1) has been studied over the last few years. These studies have investigated scenarios to achieve the increase in peak luminosity by an order of magnitude, as well as the physics potential of such an upgrade and the impact of a machine upgrade on the LHC DETECTORS. This series of lectures will cover the following topics: • Physics motivation and machine scenarios for an order of magnitude increase in the LHC peak luminosity (lecture 1) • Detector challenges including overview of ideas for R&D programs by the LHC experiments: tracking and calorimetry, other new detector developments (lectures 2-4) • Electronics, trigger and data acquisition challenges (lecture 5) Note: the much more ambitious LHC energy upgrade will not be covered

  18. Respiratory challenge MRI: Practical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona C. Moreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory challenge MRI is the modification of arterial oxygen (PaO2 and/or carbon dioxide (PaCO2 concentration to induce a change in cerebral function or metabolism which is then measured by MRI. Alterations in arterial gas concentrations can lead to profound changes in cerebral haemodynamics which can be studied using a variety of MRI sequences. Whilst such experiments may provide a wealth of information, conducting them can be complex and challenging. In this paper we review the rationale for respiratory challenge MRI including the effects of oxygen and carbon dioxide on the cerebral circulation. We also discuss the planning, equipment, monitoring and techniques that have been used to undertake these experiments. We finally propose some recommendations in this evolving area for conducting these experiments to enhance data quality and comparison between techniques.

  19. Challenges in future linear colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, S

    2002-01-01

    For decades, electron-positron colliders have been complementing proton-proton colliders. But the circular LEP, the largest e/sup -/e /sup +/ collider, represented an energy limit beyond which energy losses to synchrotron radiation necessitate moving to e/sup -/e/sup + / linear colliders (LCs), thereby raising new challenges for accelerator builders. Japanese-American, German, and European collaborations have presented options for the "Future Linear Collider " (FLC). Key accelerator issues for any FLC option are the achievement of high enough energy and luminosity. Damping rings, taking advantage of the phenomenon of synchrotron radiation, have been developed as the means for decreasing beam size, which is crucial for ensuring a sufficiently high rate of particle-particle collisions. Related challenges are alignment and stability in an environment where even minute ground motion can disrupt performance, and the ability to monitor beam size. The technical challenges exist within a wider context of socioeconomi...

  20. Higgs Machine Learning Challenge 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    Olivier, A-P; Bourdarios, C ; LAL / Orsay; Goldfarb, S ; University of Michigan

    2014-01-01

    High Energy Physics (HEP) has been using Machine Learning (ML) techniques such as boosted decision trees (paper) and neural nets since the 90s. These techniques are now routinely used for difficult tasks such as the Higgs boson search. Nevertheless, formal connections between the two research fields are rather scarce, with some exceptions such as the AppStat group at LAL, founded in 2006. In collaboration with INRIA, AppStat promotes interdisciplinary research on machine learning, computational statistics, and high-energy particle and astroparticle physics. We are now exploring new ways to improve the cross-fertilization of the two fields by setting up a data challenge, following the footsteps of, among others, the astrophysics community (dark matter and galaxy zoo challenges) and neurobiology (connectomics and decoding the human brain). The organization committee consists of ATLAS physicists and machine learning researchers. The Challenge will run from Monday 12th to September 2014.

  1. Challenge problems for artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selman, B.; Brooks, R.A.; Dean, T. [and others

    1996-12-31

    AI textbooks and papers of ten discuss the big questions, such as {open_quotes}how to reason with uncertainty{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}how to reason efficiently{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}how to improve performance through learning.{close_quotes} It is more difficult, however, to find descriptions of concrete problems or challenges that are still ambitious and interesting, yet not so open-ended. The goal of this panel is to formulate a set of such challenge problems for the field. Each panelist was asked to formulate one or more challenges. The emphasis is on problems for which there is a good chance that they will be resolved within the next five to ten years.

  2. 78 FR 19742 - Centennial Challenges: 2014 Night Rover Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... . General questions and comments regarding the program should be addressed to Dr. Larry Cooper, Centennial....cooper@nasa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Summary Solar energy is a renewable source that would be... Earth environment in a NASA test chamber. The Phase I Challenge will be to demonstrate a portable energy...

  3. 76 FR 41526 - Centennial Challenges 2011 Strong Tether Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    .... 2451 (314)(d). The 2011 Strong Tether Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may... prize competitors must (1) Register and comply with all requirements in the rules and team agreement; (2... the United States, and in the case of an individual, whether participating singly or in a group, shall...

  4. Success of Breast Cancer Startup Challenge Inspires Second Challenge | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Thomas Stackhouse, Joseph Conrad, and Michele Newton, Contributing Writers, and Rosemarie Truman, Guest Writer Sixty-one teams have been accepted into, and are now competing in, the Neuro Startup Challenge, a new collaboration established by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) with The Center for Advancing Innovation (CAI) and Heritage Provider Network, Inc.

  5. The Challenge of Prejudice: Counsellors' Talk about Challenging Clients' Prejudices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spong, Sheila J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers the implications for training and practice of counsellors' responses to the notion of challenging clients' prejudices. It explores tensions in counselling discourse between social responsibility, responsibility to the client and responsibility for one's self as counsellor. Three focus groups of counsellors were asked whether a…

  6. ITER safety challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest challenges and opportunities. ''ITER is capable of meeting anticipated regulatory dose limits,'' but proof is difficult because of large radioactive inventories needing stringent radioactivity confinement. We need much research and development (R ampersand D) and design analysis to establish that ITER meets regulatory requirements. We have a further opportunity to do more to prove more of fusion's potential safety and environmental advantages and maximize the amount of ITER technology on the path toward fusion power plants. To fulfill these tasks, we need to overcome three programmatic challenges and three technical challenges. The first programmatic challenge is to fund a comprehensive safety and environmental ITER R ampersand D plan. Second is to strengthen safety and environment work and personnel in the international team. Third is to establish an external consultant group to advise the ITER Joint Team on designing ITER to meet safety requirements for siting by any of the Parties. The first of the three key technical challenges is plasma engineering -- burn control, plasma shutdown, disruptions, tritium burn fraction, and steady state operation. The second is the divertor, including tritium inventory, activation hazards, chemical reactions, and coolant disturbances. The third technical challenge is optimization of design requirements considering safety risk, technical risk, and cost. Some design requirements are now too strict; some are too lax. Fuel cycle design requirements are presently too strict, mandating inappropriate T separation from H and D. Heat sink requirements are presently too lax; they should be strengthened to ensure that maximum loss of coolant accident temperatures drop

  7. CHALLENGES FACING THE ESP PRACTITIONER

    OpenAIRE

    SIMION MINODORA OTILIA

    2015-01-01

    The ESP teacher has to face certain challenges in his profession: One of the biggest challenges of the ESP teacher is the fact that he/she lacks the necessary knowledge of the subject to teach Business English, for instance, some researchers believing that such courses should be taught by subject teachers. The task of teaching ESP by ESL teachers is not an easy one. Dudley- Evans and St. John pointed out its complexity, identifying five key roles of the ESP practitioner: teacher, cou...

  8. Zero Energy Schools: The Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    School buildings have a lot of potential to achieve zero energy (ZE) in new construction as well as in retrofits. There are many examples of schools operating at ZE, and many technical resources available to guide school districts and their design and construction teams through the process. When school districts embark on the path to ZE, however, they often confront challenges related to processes and a perception that ZE buildings require 'new,' unconventional, and expensive technologies, materials, or equipment. Here are some of the challenges school districts and their design and construction teams commonly encounter, and the solutions they use to overcome them.

  9. Grand Challenges of Enterprise Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, W.D; Neal, R.E.; Marks, D.

    2001-04-01

    Enterprise Integration connects and combines people, processes, systems, and technologies to ensure that the right people and the right processes have the right information and the right resources at the right time. A consensus roadmap for Technologies for Enterprise Integration was created as part of an industry/government/academia partnership in the Integrated Manufacturing Technology Initiative (IMTI). Two of the grand challenges identified by the roadmapping effort will be addressed here--Customer Responsive Enterprises and Totally Connected Enterprises. Each of these challenges is briefly discussed as to the current state of industry and the future vision as developed in the roadmap.

  10. Challenges in anaesthesia for elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Camilla; Rasmussen, L S

    2014-01-01

    The segment of elderly individuals comprises a growing proportion of the global population. Health care systems and health care providers worldwide need to understand the specific challenges related to treatment of this heterogeneous patient population. The process of ageing is complex and under...... constant influence by numerous factors, for which reason the way human age is extremely individual. It is important to understand and acknowledge how elderly differ from younger adults, and how management needs to be modified and tailored to the individual patient in order to improve outcomes. The goal...... of the challenges, when dealing with the aged surgical population with emphasis on postoperative cognitive changes....

  11. Implantable Devices: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan V. Jacob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ageing population and a multitude of neurological and cardiovascular illnesses that cannot be mitigated by medication alone have resulted in a significant growth in the number of patients that require implantable electronic devices. These range from sensors, gastric and cardiac pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, to deep brain, nerve, and bone stimulators. Long-term implants present specific engineering challenges, including low energy consumption and stable performance. Resorbable electronics may offer excellent short-term performance without the need for surgical removal. However, most electronic materials have poor bio- and cytocompatibility, resulting in immune reactions and infections. This paper reviews the current situation and highlights challenges for future advancements.

  12. Challenges and opportunities for REDD+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasgaard, Maya; Sun, Zhanli; Müller, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) is a promising mechanism of payments for ecosystem services with the aim to effectively reduce emissions in an efficient and equitable manner. REDD+ is part of the Paris-agreement reached at the UNFCCC COP21 in December 2015...... the opportunities and challenges of REDD+ for achieving effective, efficient and equitable outcomes and co-benefits (3E+). We substantiate our survey results with a literature review. Results suggest that the challenges in achieving the 3E+ relate to the disproportionality between deforestation drivers...

  13. Challenges in legal translation - revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Simonnæs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss challenges in legal translation from the view of a teacher who evaluates the work of semi-professional translators in a special setting. Recurrent translation errors may subsequently be used as a pedagogical resource in specialised translator training. The observation of recurrent challenges confronting the candidates in legal translation and the absence of formal translator training programs are the reasons why NHH now offers an on-line course in legal translation, JurDist, focusing i.a. on useful translation strategies.

  14. Challenging Sexual Harassment on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy V.

    2010-01-01

    More than thirty years ago, an administrative assistant at Cornell University first challenged her university's indifference to her boss's sexually predatory behavior. While she did not prevail, her case sparked a movement. Litigation, news stories, and government guidelines defining sexual harassment followed. And universities responded: policies…

  15. Authenticity and its Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Franziska Bork

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate what 'authenticity' means in a contemporary popular context and how it is used in the staging of bodies. Furthermore, I analyse works of dance and fashion from the past fifteen years with a focus on their strategies of challenging the notion of 'bodily authenticity'. ...

  16. Challenging Behaviour and Communication Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    This article highlights the fact that to date, emphasis has been upon promotion of the expressive communication skills of a person with a learning disability and challenging behavior. It is suggested that practitioners need to pay closer attention to the neglected and largely unmet need of receptive communication difficulties. (Contains…

  17. Reasons to Do Food Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of reasonable explanations for this that underscore the importance of food challenges . Given the possibility of severe reactions, food ... than was previously suspected. In this case, the importance of strict avoidance, as well as being thoroughly prepared to treat severe ... & Visitors Giving For Professionals About Us ...

  18. Neuroscience challenges to philosophical anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sánchez Orantos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to provide a possible framework to critically define the concept of human nature and person in dialogue with Neuroscience. He tries to help meet the challenge of the naturalism in the current thought.

  19. Low Intensity Conflict: Global Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motley, James Berry

    1987-01-01

    Examines the increase in low intensity conflict (LIC) such as terrorism and subversion, since World War II and discusses the United States ability to deal with it. States that LICs continue to increase, making U.S. involvement inevitable. Describes necessary preparations and actions for meeting this challenge. (GEA)

  20. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  1. A Water-Service Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to let students see the value of mathematics in design--and how mathematics lends perspective to problem solving. In this article, the author describes a water-service challenge which enables students to design a water utility system that uses surface runoff into an open reservoir as the potable water source. This challenge…

  2. Monitoring challenges and innovative ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, R.V.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Levine, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring programs are difficult to design even when they focus on specific problems. Ecosystems are complex, and it is often impossible to predetermine what aspects of system structure or dynamics will respond to a specific insult. It is equally difficult to interpret whether a response is a stabilizing compensatory mechanism or a real loss of capacity to maintain the ecosystem. The problems are compounded in a broad monitoring program designed to assess ecosystem health'' at regional and continental scales. It is challenging in the extreme to monitor ecosystem response, at any scale, to past insults as well as an unknown future array of impacts. The present paper will examine some of the fundamental issues and challenges raised by large-scale monitoring efforts. The challenges will serve as a framework and as an excuse to discuss several important topics in more detail. Following the discussion of challenges, we suggest some basic innovations that could be important across a range of monitoring programs. The innovations include integrative measures, innovative methodology, and creative interpretation. 59 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Challenges to Vocational Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard C.

    1985-01-01

    Challenges to vocational teacher education include technological change that is sending large numbers of adults back to school; increasing numbers of women, minorities, and handicapped individuals who are seeking employment in nontraditional occupations; vocational preparation for jobs in the information economy; teacher recruitment; and creative…

  4. The WCET Tool Challenge 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanxleden, Reinhard von; Holsti, Niklas; Lisper, Björn

    of problems to be solved by the Challenge participants with their tools, WCET problems, which ask for bounds on the execution time, and ow-analysis problems, which ask for bounds on the number of times certain parts of the code can be executed. The benchmarks to be used in WCC'11 were debie1, Papa...

  5. Challenges in a Physics Course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Carola Hernández; Ravn, Ole; Forero Shelton, Antonio Manu

    2014-01-01

    This article identifies and analyses some of the challenges that arose in a development process of changing from a content-based teaching environment to a student-centred environment in an undergraduate physics course for medicine and biology students at Universidad de los Andes. Through the use...

  6. The Challenges of Becoming Agile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Dowlen, Chris

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade agile methods have been a vast success in the domain of software development. This paper investigates whether these methods can be successfully transferred to the domain of physical product development in order to address the fundamental challenges of increased marked speed...

  7. The Challenge of Urban Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaeser, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Urbanization almost invariably accompanies development, and the cities of India and China are experiencing spectacular increases in population. The concentration of millions of people in a small mass creates challenges for public policy, especially in the areas of basic infrastructure, public health, traffic congestion, and often law enforcement…

  8. Changing Demographics: Challenges for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Betty Fry

    1992-01-01

    This paper identifies demographic changes in the areas of poverty, single-parent families, teenage pregnancy, and educational achievement, with emphasis on increased vulnerability of minority populations. It also notes related challenges to the educational system in personnel recruitment and preparation, effective delivery of educational services…

  9. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 3. The Challenge of Weather Prediction Old and Modern Ways of Weather Forecasting. B N Goswami. Series Article Volume 2 Issue 3 March 1997 pp 8-15. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Student Leadership: Challenges and Possibilities*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. In my attempt to adhere to the request that I provide an interpretation of the theme for the session,. 'Critical Engagement, Innovation and Inclusivity', and cognisant of the primary audience,. I weave student leadership responsibilities, challenges and possibilities into the address. Events since the plenary address ...

  11. NASA Space Rocket Logistics Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeley, James R.; Jones, James V.; Watson, Michael D.; Bramon, Christopher J.; Inman, Sharon K.; Tuttle, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is the new NASA heavy lift launch vehicle and is scheduled for its first mission in 2017. The goal of the first mission, which will be uncrewed, is to demonstrate the integrated system performance of the SLS rocket and spacecraft before a crewed flight in 2021. SLS has many of the same logistics challenges as any other large scale program. Common logistics concerns for SLS include integration of discreet programs geographically separated, multiple prime contractors with distinct and different goals, schedule pressures and funding constraints. However, SLS also faces unique challenges. The new program is a confluence of new hardware and heritage, with heritage hardware constituting seventy-five percent of the program. This unique approach to design makes logistics concerns such as commonality especially problematic. Additionally, a very low manifest rate of one flight every four years makes logistics comparatively expensive. That, along with the SLS architecture being developed using a block upgrade evolutionary approach, exacerbates long-range planning for supportability considerations. These common and unique logistics challenges must be clearly identified and tackled to allow SLS to have a successful program. This paper will address the common and unique challenges facing the SLS programs, along with the analysis and decisions the NASA Logistics engineers are making to mitigate the threats posed by each.

  12. The Challenges of Digital Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Because digital devices and online environments can simultaneously be transformatively empowering and maddeningly disruptive, the work of integrating digital learning tools into schools is usually difficult and complex. Common challenges arise, however, and can be thoughtfully addressed by proactive leadership. In the end, technology change in…

  13. eHealth Recruitment Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Canada, Ashanti; Bhatt, Riddhi; Davis, Jennifer; Plesko, Lisa; Baranowski, Tom; Cullen, Karen; Zakeri, Issa

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about effective eHealth recruitment methods. This paper presents recruitment challenges associated with enrolling African-American girls aged 8-10 years in an eHealth obesity prevention program, their effect on the recruitment plan, and potential implications for eHealth research. Although the initial recruitment strategy was…

  14. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  15. The Challenge of Fluid Flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 8. The Challenge of Fluid Flow - The Diversity of Flow Phenomena. Roddam Narasimha. General Article Volume 10 Issue 8 August 2005 pp 67-79. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. The Challenge of Fluid Flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 9. The Challenge of Fluid Flow - What One Can and Cannot Do. Roddam Narasimha. General Article Volume 10 Issue 9 September 2005 pp 6-22. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. IPTV: Challenges and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.M. Bonastre; M.J. Montpetit; P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe move to IP Protocol Television (IPTV) has challenged the traditional television industry by opening the Internet to high quality real time television content delivery. Thus it has provided an enabling set of key technologies to understand and foster further innovations in the

  18. Challenged assumptions and invisible effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz; Vitus, Kathrine; Jervelund, Signe Smith

    2017-01-01

    of two complete intervention courses and an analysis of the official intervention documents. Findings – This case study exemplifies how the basic normative assumptions behind an immigrant-oriented intervention and the intrinsic power relations therein may be challenged and negotiated by the participants...

  19. Modernizing emergency alerts poses challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2010-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, OUT OF THE CLASSROOM Download the paper: Paper: IPAWS (Integrated Public Alert and Warning System)” Modernizing emergency alerts poses challenges Anthony Cox is interested in the next generation of emergency alert systems.Any television viewer...

  20. Accountability: new challenges, new forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerkum, C.; Aarts, N.

    2012-01-01

    The general call for more accountability, affecting all western institutions, has reached the communication professionals as well. How can they cope with this new challenge? The danger is that they focus mainly on outcomes, so on performative accountability, whereas decisional accountability,

  1. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  2. Challenges from the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... diverse ethnic groups under what came to be known as Nigeria. The ethnic communities that ... Bolade and Adelemo. National Security and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Challenges from the Niger Delta ... recommended the creation of the Niger Delta Development Board. Azaiki. (2003:48) states ...

  3. Research Award: IDRC Challenge Fund

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Corey Piccioni

    2013-08-07

    Aug 7, 2013 ... IDRC is one of the world's leaders in generang new knowledge to meet global challenges. We offer a number of research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, in‐house programs of training and ...

  4. Digital Libraries: The Grand Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, John R.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the technical, economic, social, and cultural challenges to building a national digital library system. Selecting and filtering information, building and scaling distributed digital library networks, invoicing, payment, authorizing access, the locus of planning leadership, and the information poor are discussed. (Contains three…

  5. They rose to the challenge!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    The Challenge-Based Innovation programme is a Masters-level initiative developed at CERN in collaboration with many universities around the world. The first programme saw 45 students take part, and their final results were presented at an official "gala" held on 26 February.   On 26 February, after their official presentations, the six CBI teams presented their prototypes to the public in the IdeaSquare building.   As part of the IdeaSquare project, the Challenge-Based Innovation (CBI) programme is based on a very pragmatic question: can the tools and results produced by basic research (like that being carried out at CERN) be used to solve societal problems? If so, how? To answer this question, 45 students from very different professional and cultural backgrounds formed six teams, each with a specific societal challenge to solve (see here). Over a six-month period – from September 2014 to February 2015 – the six teams worked on the challenge in o...

  6. Managing Stress through Challenge Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Camille J.

    1982-01-01

    Many positive benefits can be obtained through participation in risk, challenge, or adventure activities: (1) emotional release; (2) social interaction; (3) expanded perspective; (4) expanded personal limits; and (5) singleness of mind or attention. Participating in these activities also often helps to develop stress management skills. (CJ)

  7. The challenge of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryner, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    The chapter outlines the science of global warming, the likely consequences of global warming and some of the major challenges in dealing with global climate change. Some of the major international organisations concerned with environmental issues are listed. International agreements might be used to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  8. President's Report: Choices and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrill, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Presents remarks from the Presidential Address at the 75th Annual Meeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics held in Minneapolis in April, 1997. Two major challenges addressed were the need to change classroom practice and the need to rethink the definition of "basic". (AIM)

  9. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...... extensive research and development are needed is covered....

  10. Climate change challenges for SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen

    This paper takes a theoretical perspective on the challenges that climate changes pose for SEA. The theoretical framework used is the sociologist Ulrich Beck’s theory of risk society and the aspects that characterise this society. Climate change is viewed as a risk, and the theory is used to derive...

  11. Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors: Challenges

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-14

    Sep 14, 2015 ... Interferometric Gravitational Wave Detectors: Challenges. The IndiGO Consortium & The LIGO Scientific ... of spinning objects (Gravity Probe-B). 6) Black holes. 7) Gravitational Waves .... Scheme of the advanced Interferometric GW detector. 300 times. 300 times. 40 times. Adding up all innovations, we ...

  12. Challenges in Business System Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    Four main frameworks for intercompany relationships (SCOR, CPFR, ISA95 and OAG) are discussed and compared. The link between the frameworks and different supply chain integration applications such as ERP, CRM and VMI are pictured. Finally the state-of-the-art, future state and challenges of the

  13. The Real Challenge of ESD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    Between the Inter-governmental Conference on Environmental Education at Tbilisi in 1977 and the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Education at Ahmedabad in 2007, our conception of the challenge posed by the global crises of climate change, environmental destruction, social disintegration, poverty, natural resources exhaustion and…

  14. Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Paul; Heward, William L.

    2010-01-01

    In "Climate Change: Meeting the Challenge," we conclude the special section by assuming that you have been persuaded by Thompson's paper or other evidence that global warming is real and poses a threat that must be dealt with, and that for now the only way to deal with it is by changing behavior. Then we ask what you, as behavior analysts, can do…

  15. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B N Goswami is with the. Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the Indian Institute of. Science, Bangalore. After his PhD in Plasma Physics he was attracted to this field by the challenges in weather and climate prediction. His interests include understanding variability and predictability of all tropical phenomena.

  16. Restenosis: A Challenge to Angioplasty

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 4. Restenosis: A Challenge to Angioplasty. M S S Murthy. General Article Volume 6 Issue 4 April 2001 pp 52-61. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/04/0052-0061. Author Affiliations.

  17. Focusing on key development challenges

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    addresses today's pressing environmental, social, economic, and political challenges. It reflects continuity and change, balancing research in hard science with public policy concerns. We will implement changes to our program architecture on a rolling basis to reflect our focus on four broad themes. OUR PROGRAMS.

  18. Accountability: New challenges, new forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.; Aarts, N.

    2012-01-01

    The general call for more accountability, affecting all western institutions, has reached the communication professionals as well. How can they cope with this new challenge? The danger is that they focus mainly on outcomes, so on performative accountability, whereas decisional accountability,

  19. Unique Identification Project Issues and Challenges Unique ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multiple authentication methods · UID adoption can help improve pro-poor delivery systems · Technology Challenges … Biometric Challenges · Rural Biometric Challenges · Biometric De-Duplication · Architecture Challenges · Network Infrastructure · Security, Fraud Detection · Managing multiple risks · UID goals can be ...

  20. An All-School Library Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Connie

    2005-01-01

    The library media center is hosting an all-school team challenge, designed to celebrate reading and library skills. Students could choose from the contest categories like "Lord of the Rings", "Harry Potter", Author Facts Challenge and Opening Lines Challenge for the competition and those students who read more challenging books show their…

  1. Unique Identification Project Issues and Challenges Unique ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... can help improve pro-poor delivery systems · Technology Challenges … Biometric Challenges · Rural Biometric Challenges · Biometric De-Duplication · Architecture Challenges · Network Infrastructure · Security, Fraud Detection · Managing multiple risks · UID goals can be accelerated with urgency in implementation.

  2. 22 CFR 9.8 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification challenges. 9.8 Section 9.8... challenges. (a) Challenges. Holders of information pertaining to the Department of State who believe that its classification status is improper are expected and encouraged to challenge the classification status of the...

  3. 32 CFR 2001.14 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 2001.14 Section 2001... Classification § 2001.14 Classification challenges. (a) Challenging classification. Authorized holders, including authorized holders outside the classifying agency, who want to challenge the classification status of...

  4. 33 CFR 125.41 - Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Challenges. 125.41 Section 125.41....41 Challenges. Within five days after receipt of the notice described in § 125.39 the applicant or... notwithstanding the challenge, he shall notify the person who made the challenge and arrange to proceed with the...

  5. Embracing the challenge of competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.

    1998-01-01

    The new and creative solutions that Edmonton Power is using to meet the challenges of deregulation, competition and demand for customer choice in the electric power industry are discussed. Among these creative initiatives, in 1997 Edmonton Power extended account management services to 850 accounts to deliver commercial and operational analysis of energy consumption and management. Another major focus of effort has been the introduction of time of use (TOU) pricing options to commercial and industrial customers above 150 kWh. This required the installation of the latest hourly metering technology and the establishment of new price plans and contracts. Two major challenges were highlighted: (1) the mismatch between the prices utilities pay at the power pool and what the customer pays at the meter, and (2) the increased volatility of hour to hour price changes are just some of the risks that will have to be resolved under the new market structure

  6. Transistor challenges - A DRAM perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faul, Juergen W.; Henke, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    Key challenges of the transistor scaling from a DRAM perspective will be reviewed. Both, array transistors as well as DRAM support devices face challenges that differ essentially from high performance logic device scaling. As a major difference, retention time and standby current requirements characterize special boundary conditions in the DRAM device design. Array device scaling is determined by a chip size driven aggressive node scaling. To continue scaling, major innovations need to be introduced into state-of-the-art planar array transistors. Alternatively, non planar device concepts will have to be evaluated. Support device design for DRAMs is driven by today's market demand for increased chip performances at little to no extra cost. Major innovations are required to continue that path. Besides this strive for performance increase, special limitations for 'on pitch' circuits at the array edge will come up due to the aggressive cell size scaling

  7. Terahertz applications: trends and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Thierry; Bouye, Clementine; Cochard, Jacques

    2014-03-01

    The objective of our work [1] was to determine the opportunities and challenges for Terahertz application development for the next years with a focus on systems: for homeland security and for Non Destructive Testing (NDT). Terahertz radiation has unique abilities and has been the subject of extensive research for many years. Proven concepts have emerged for numerous applications including Industrial NDT, Security, Health, Telecommunications, etc. Nevertheless, there has been no widely deployed application and Businesses based on THz technologies are still in their infancy. Some technological, market and industrial barriers are still to be broken. We summarize the final analysis and data: study of the technology trends and major bottlenecks per application segment, main challenges to be addressed in the next years, key opportunities for THz technologies based on market needs and requirements.

  8. Challenges in pediatric endothelial keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Mittal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed endothelial keratoplasty (EK in three eyes of two siblings (2.5 years, male and 3.5 years, female with congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED and report the intraoperative and postoperative difficulties. Repeated iris prolapse, apprehension of crystalline lens touch due to positive vitreous pressure, and need for frequent air injections to attach the graft were intraoperative challenges in all three eyes. These were addressed by use of Sheet′s glide instead of Busin′s glide during graft insertion and suturing of main and side ports before air injection. One eye had graft dislocation on second postoperative day due to eye rubbing by the child. Graft was repositioned with air and a venting incision was created. Postoperative examination required repeated general anesthesia. Corneal edema resolved completely in all three eyes. Present case series highlights the possible intraoperative and postoperative challenges and their solutions in pediatric EK for CHED.

  9. Authenticity and its Contemporary Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork Petersen, Franziska

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis I investigate what ‘authenticity’ means in a contemporary popular context and how it is used in the staging of bodies. Furthermore, I analyse works of dance and fashion from the past fifteen years with a focus on their strategies of challenging the notion of ‘bodily authenticity...... self’. I scrutinise the staging techniques and the codes of appearance that bodies have to comply with in order to be deemed ‘authentic’ on the shows. To define them and place them in the history of the idea of ‘bodily authenticity’, I complement my study with an outline of how ‘authenticity...... and by a depiction of 'working hard'. But various techniques also mask the hard work, for example by showing a participant ‘having fun’ performing it. Contemporary works of dance and fashion challenge the problematic implications in the notion of ‘bodily authenticity’. I analyse three strategies of undermining...

  10. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev......We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii......) The relevance and efficiency of different instruments for internalisation and compensation; and iii) Implementing internalisation over large geographical and temporal distances. We find taxation to be a more relevant and efficient tool for internalisation than insurance and litigation. With increasing...

  11. Challenges for Research on Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Hunt

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After 100 years of research, the definition of the field is still inadequate. The biggest challenge we see is moving away from a de-factor definition of intelligence in terms of test scores, but at the same time making clear what the boundaries of the field are. We then present four challenges for the field, two within a biological and two within a social context. These revolve around the issues of the malleability of intelligence and its display in everyday life, outside of a formal testing context. We conclude that developments in cognitive neuroscience and increases in the feasibility of monitoring behavior outside of the context of a testing session offer considerable hope for expansion of our both the biological and social aspects of individual differences in cognition.

  12. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Anne-Marie eLandtblom; Maria eEngström

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue f...

  13. Challenges to sustainable risk management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Ariel C., Aurora, Ashish, Hall, Dennis E.,

    2004-08-09

    This paper summarizes the intermediate lessons learned from the analyses of the risk management problems in three technological endeavors. These problems are: the absence of a structure for rewarding successful project risk management; the need for an ever-more accurate economic measure of risk; and the difficulty of transferring risks to contract-bound independent outsourcing entity. This paper also describes recent advancement towards providing answers to these challenges and future research endeavors in this field.

  14. The Challenge of the bespoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Quinn, Gregory; Evers, Henrik Leander

    2014-01-01

    The Dermoid project, a series of three plywood grid shells, navigates at the interface between parametrically designed architectural spaces and the efficiency and resourcefulness of the simulations that are necessary in order to build them. It highlights the increasingly common challenges...... and conflicts which occur in building practice ranging from design to fabrication and highlights approaches that facilitate implementation in multiple scales of material, element and structure....

  15. The challenges of managing migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacoli, Cecilia

    2005-10-15

    Migration and urbanisation are driven by economic growth and social change, but also by deepening inequalities. Managing migration should not be equated with curbing it, as this inevitably reduces migrants' rights. But managing population movement whilst respecting the rights of migrants and nonmigrants, supporting the contribution of migration to poverty reduction and economic growth in sending and receiving areas and reducing the human and material costs of movement means that fundamental challenges need to be addressed.

  16. Management Challenges Fiscal Year 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    include improved lighting; high-efficiency heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems; double-pane windows, solar and wind electricity, and new...talented and skilled service members and civilians to serve the nation. One example of this challenge is the reported shortage of Air Force drone ...and jet pilots. Air Force leadership has testified that the Air Force needs over 500 fighter jet pilots and approximately 500 drone pilots. Air

  17. Grand Challenges for Disaster Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    volcanically active nations in the world with nearly 70 active or potentially active volcanoes .13 During the 20th century, volcanic eruptions in...Grand Challenges for Disaster Reduction deformation, gravity changes, gas emissions, magma move- ment, and other parameters to distinguish between mag...address the interdependencies of these lifelines at a systems level (e.g., communications, electricity, financial, gas , sewage, transportation, and

  18. The ATLAS Student Event Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Fassouliotis, D; Roupas, Z; Vudragovic, D

    2007-01-01

    The ASEC (ATLAS Student Event Challenge) is an educational project which allows the students to learn about the elementary particles by studying "events", the products of beam collisions at the LHC. The events are collected by the ATLAS detector and displayed graphically using the ATLANTIS package. The students are given the means to select and analyse the events on-line, and subsequently present the results and draw conclusions.

  19. Challenges for Contextualizing Language Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Søren; Rehm, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    To help facilitate language learning for immigrants or foreigners arriving to another culture and language, we propose a context-aware mobile application. To expand on the known elements like location, activity, time and identity, we investigate the challenges on including cultural awareness...... to ensure a better experience-based learning. We present methods used to collect information about everyday activities collected by immigrants or foreigners. This information will help structuring language learning assignments presented through the context-aware mobile application....

  20. [Pharmacoeconomics - Challenges for Health Professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turčić, P; Benković, V; Brborović, O; Valent, A

    2016-04-01

    Over the last 30 years, medical expenditure has increased throughout the world. The main reasons estimated to lay behind it include aging, ever more chronic diseases and new emerging diseases, new drugs, expanded indications of current drugs, and development of pharmaceutical industry. A challenge for healthcare professionals is to sustain current quality of care and enable medical innovations while attempting to contain costs. The overall goal is to demonstrate the pharmacoeconomic value, i.e. a balance of economic, humanistic and clinical outcomes.

  1. Farm profitability and structural challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Kristensen, Inge Toft

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to demonstrate a methodology to establish data for analysing the geographical patterns in the economic performance of farms. The methodology combines population-based agricultural register data on physical activity levels with sample-based farm economic accounts data...... as an illustrative example. Furthermore, the paper identifies some geographical patterns in some of the likely upcoming challenges for agriculture, based on the established dataset....

  2. Diagnostic challenges in celiac disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haghighat

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available   1-The most important challenge in diagnosis of celiac disease is not- performing the diagnostic tests in suspected persons. Because of multi-organ damage and multiple manifestations of disease, diagnosis of celiac disease may be delayed. It seems general physicians should be awared about uncommon presentations of disease and indications of celiac tests 2-The second most important challenge is in patients with suspected disease but negative serologic tests. In these cases evaluating of HLA can be useful. 3- The third challenge is in cases with positive serologic tests but negative histopathological findings. There may be false positive serologic response or consumption of gluten before testing. We recommend introduction of gluten for at least 3 mo and re- endoscopy and if diagnosis is equivocal HLA-typing  for DQ8 and  DQ2 should be done. 4-The forth challenge is about performing endoscopy. Based on guideline from ESPGHAN if there are typical clinical manifestations of celiac disease, Anti-TTG more than ten times UPN , positive Anti-EMA and HLA DQ2, performing endoscopy may not be necessary, but many physicians don’t agree with this idea. 5-In people who are genetically predisposed to celiac disease antibody levels may be fluctuating thus endoscopy with biopsy should be done in these patients. 6-In children lower than 2years, Anti- TTG and Anti –EMA have low sensitivity. we recommend Anti-TTG and Anti-DGP in these patients. 7-Resolution of symptoms after gluten free diet is not necessarily a feature of celiac disease. This condition may be seen in patients with IBS or non-celiac gluten sensitivity.  

  3. WIPP startup: Overcoming unprecedented challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, Arlen E.

    1992-01-01

    Since its authorization by the U.S. Congress in Public Law 96-164, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Program has achieved significant progress. Subsequent to a Record of Decision based on the October 1980 Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), the scientific and engineering challenge of constructing a 100-acre mined repository to demonstrate the safe and environmentally sound disposal of defense program generated transuranic waste became reality. Since initial conception, however, a complex program has evolved. Demonstration of compliance with the requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) disposal Standards defined in 10 CFR 191, Subpart B (yet to be repromulgated), became prerequisites to a disposal decision. On June 13, 1990, based on a supplement to the 1980 FEIS, the decision was made to redefine the program to include a formal test phase. This decision required an addendum to the Final Safety Analysis Report to assure commitment to safety considerations, an intensive operational readiness review effort, and the need for a No-Migration Determination for the Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to meeting the technical challenges, the need to satisfy a broad spectrum of oversight groups (some directly funded by the Department of Energy) was required. With the decision making process publicly displayed on the Secretary of Energy's Decision Plan, the unprecedented challenges of the WIPP Program were painstakingly met, one by one, in an accountable and visible manner. (author)

  4. Students’ Identities and Pedagogical Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Camacho-Oviedo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result from the orientation process carried out for the first-year students of four study programs of the Basic Education Division at the Center for Research and Teaching in Education (CIDE, Universidad Nacional, Costa Rica, in 2012. Information from 110 students was collected and analyzed with the purpose to identify the students’ identity traits and possible pedagogical challenges associated. The actions taken during the design and execution of the orientation process and the data collected through different instruments were taken into account for the analysis. The findings include strong areas, as well as areas “to be developed” which represent the pedagogical challenges of the academic unit. The Basic Education Division (or School of Basic Education plays a fundamental role in the country’s social and cultural transformation preparing professionals in Education and providing students with the necessary tools for developing better skills in areas such as art, writing, technology, sports, and public speaking. These are some of the challenges emerging from the analysis of the orientation process for first-year students.

  5. Energy challenges and strategic challenges in the 21. Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    Prices of fossil fuels are still increasing in 2011. This trend should accentuate in the next years. Because natural resources are indeed limited and without any possibility of quickly reversing current consuming habits, world consumers must find a way to limit the impact of these bullish tendencies. This challenge must be confronted to the lack of credible alternative to fossil fuels. In fact, there is no energy with comparable qualities to oil and gas. Thus other resources will keep a low profile in the world energy balance in the next twenty years. This phenomenon of scarcity and a high level of dependency to hydrocarbons will have four consequences: redefinition of military and economic alliances; calling into questions the positions of established powers; implementation of policies which aim to reduce any external dependency; upholding of the Middle East as a key energy area, due to the amount of its natural reserves. In such a context, producing countries will try to preserve their resources from any external lust. For all, any energy policy based on abstinence should contribute to limit the risks of a possible world energy crisis. However, such a development seems to be unlikely on the mid term. Energy will stay one of the major challenges of the 21. century

  6. VAST 2010 Challenge: Arms Dealings and Pandemics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, Georges; Konecni, Shawn; Plaisant, Catherine; Scholtz, Jean; Whiting, Mark A.

    2010-10-23

    The 5th VAST Challenge consisted of three mini-challenges that involved both intelligence analysis and bioinformatics. Teams could solve one, two or all three mini-challenges and assess the overall situation to enter the Grand Challenge. Mini-challenge one involved text reports about people and events giving information about arms dealers, situations in various countries and linkages between different countries. Mini-challenge two involved hospital admission and death records from various countries providing information about the spread of a world wide pandemic. Mini-challenge three involved genetic data to be used to identify the origin of the pandemic and the most dangerous viral mutations. The Grand Challenge was to determine how these various mini-challenges were connected. As always the goal was to analyze the data and provide novel interactive visualizations useful in the analytic process. We received 58 submissions in total and gave 15 awards.

  7. International migration: a global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P; Widgren, J

    1996-04-01

    Trends in international migration are presented in this multiregional analysis. Seven of the world's wealthiest countries have about 33% of the world's migrant population, but under 16% of the total world population. Population growth in these countries is substantially affected by the migrant population. The migration challenge is external and internal. The external challenge is to balance the need for foreign labor and the commitment to human rights for those migrants seeking economic opportunity and political freedom. The internal challenge is to assure the social adjustment of immigrants and their children and to integrate them into society as citizens and future leaders. Why people cross national borders and how migration flows are likely to evolve over the next decades are explained. This report also presents some ways that countries can manage migration or reduce the pressures which force people to migrate. It is recommended that receiving nations control immigration by accelerating global economic growth and reducing wars and human rights violations. This report examines the impact of immigration on international trade, aid, and direct intervention policies. Although migration is one of the most important international economic issues, it is not coordinated by an international group. The European experience indicates that it is not easy to secure international cooperation on issues that affect national sovereignty. It is suggested that countries desiring control of their borders should remember that most people never cross national borders to live or work in another country, that 50% of the world's migrants move among developing countries, and that countries can shift from being emigration to immigration countries. The author suggests that sustained reductions in migration pressure are a better alternative than the "quick fixes" that may invite the very much feared mass and unpredictable movements.

  8. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  9. Cooperative Projects - Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubotz, Wiebke; Brücher, Tim; Vamborg, Freja

    2017-04-01

    Today's research in Germany is often organized in large projects and collaborations, so-called cooperative projects ("Verbundprojekte" in German). These projects are defined by a large number of members (more than 50) and participating institutes, e.g. institutes of research organizations such as the Max-Planck society and the Leibniz association, Helmholtz centres, and universities. For coordination purposes these projects usually have a general project manager or project coordinator close to the speaker of the project. Despite this overarching position, it is often challenging for the project manager to really overview the entire project as he is, for example, not involved in the individual institute's recruitment processes or research connections to other institutes via other projects. Additionally, there is neither a formal obligation for the principal investigators and project scientists to report changes within their sub-projects, nor any formal dependency between these sub-projects and the coordination office to ensure a contemporary update of changes and progress in their specific tasks of the project. Therefore, the idea of a coordinating position to oversee the entire cooperative project is sometimes difficult to reach. Furthermore, project managers usually have no formal connection to other project managers. This means that recurrent tasks, for which cooperation between project managers would be helpful, need to be reinvented for each project anew. Due to the lack of this more formalized cooperation between project managers, acquired expertise is often lost. We will illustrate the challenges of this kind of project management based on projects at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology (Hamburg) and the Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research (GEOMAR, Kiel), but also point out opportunities that arise within a large collaboration of partners. Moreover, we present an approach to coordinate management processes in order to overcome some of the aforementioned

  10. Plain language and organisational challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Changing the language in an organization is a major organizational change. In this article, I discuss some of the organizational challenges for one specific language change implementation, taking the stance that language change must be treated as any other organizational change for it to have...... an effect. I work with the case of the Danish tax authorities’ language project aimed at producing more readable letters. The empirical data that I work with are two qualitative informant interviews. One recorded at the language project’s headquarters where they lay out the general lines for the project......, and the other at the payment center where they use the revised letters....

  11. The 5-second marketing challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Talk by: Dr Jonathan A.J. Wilson, looking at the challenges of marketing and advertising on social media - in the face of shorter attention spans and greater clutter.\\ud \\ud (Introduction by Iwan Setiwan in Bahasa Indonesia)\\ud \\ud At: the MarkPlus Inc. and KIN ASEAN Kellogg Innovation Network Annual Conference.\\ud To: an audience of 5,000 marketing delegates.\\ud In: The Ritz Carlton Pacific Place Hotel Ballroom, Jakarta, Indonesia.\\ud On: 10th December 2015.\\ud \\ud Having already delivered h...

  12. The Euclid Data Processing Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubath, Pierre; Apostolakos, Nikolaos; Bonchi, Andrea; Belikov, Andrey; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Capak, Peter; Coupon, Jean; Dabin, Christophe; Degaudenzi, Hubert; Desai, Shantanu; Dubath, Florian; Fontana, Adriano; Fotopoulou, Sotiria; Frailis, Marco; Galametz, Audrey; Hoar, John; Holliman, Mark; Hoyle, Ben; Hudelot, Patrick; Ilbert, Olivier; Kuemmel, Martin; Melchior, Martin; Mellier, Yannick; Mohr, Joe; Morisset, Nicolas; Paltani, Stéphane; Pello, Roser; Pilo, Stefano; Polenta, Gianluca; Poncet, Maurice; Saglia, Roberto; Salvato, Mara; Sauvage, Marc; Schefer, Marc; Serrano, Santiago; Soldati, Marco; Tramacere, Andrea; Williams, Rees; Zacchei, Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).

  13. Intelligent Transformer: Possibilities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktor, Beldjajev; Indrek, Roasto; Tõnu, Lehtla

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers the concept of an intelligent transformer that is a good candidate to replace a conventional low frequency transformer in the microgrids. As the power production and consumption can vary in a wide range, the new substations have to meet many requirements to guarantee reliable energy management in the autonomous networks. Different topologies of intelligent transformers can be used to meet these requirements. Therefore the advantages and disadvantages of the existing topologies were analyzed. The future trends and challenges are also discussed.

  14. IAEA safeguards: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The history of the IAEA safeguards regime is described. New challenges and opportunities are discussed in connection with the discovery in Iraq of a clandestine nuclear weapons development programme, the difficulties experienced in the implementation of the safeguards agreement with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the conclusion of a comprehensive safeguards agreement with Argentina, Brazil and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, recent developments in South Africa, the emergence of newly independent States that made up the former USSR. 2 figs

  15. Plain Language and Organizational Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Pedersen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Changing the language in an organization is a major organizational change. In this article, I discuss some of the organizational challenges for one specific language change implementation, taking the stance that language change must be treated as any other organizational change for it to have an effect. I work with the case of the Danish tax authorities’ language project aimed at producing more readable letters. The empirical data that I work with are two qualitative informant interviews. One recorded at the language project’s headquarters where they lay out the general lines for the project, and the other at the payment center where they use the revised letters.

  16. Challenges for current University management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez Vargas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian university through a change of era, this complex pathway mediated by globalization imposes imminently. The aim of this paper is to present a review of literature on the main aspects of management that are generated for the interaction University - context. This scan was performed on secondary sources, and grounded in scienti?c data abstraction. College education is an information and training process that allows the scientific, technological, economic, political, social and cultural development of a region or country; however, some phenomena such as globalization, technological revolution or multiculturalism are key to this, same that can be considered as a problem or a challenge.

  17. The Kiki-Bouba Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Collins, Nick

    2014-01-01

    We propose the “Kiki-Bouba Challenge” (KBC) for the re- search and development of content-based music informa- tion retrieval (MIR) systems. This challenge is unencum- bered by several problems typically encountered in MIR research: insufficient data, restrictive copyrights, imper- fect ground...... truth, a lack of specific criteria for classes (e.g., genre), a lack of explicit problem definition, and irrepro- ducibility. KBC provides a limitless amount of free data, a perfect ground truth, and well-specifiable and meaningful characteristics defining each class. These ideal conditions are made...

  18. University education: Demands and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pinos Vélez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the current situation prevailing in the Universities from the point of view of a teacher whose academic since its inception has been Salesian, which allows for a “best approach” to young students and where the passion for teaching is clearly influenced by the teachings of one of the greatest teachers, Don Bosco. Also, these teachings are still of great relevance in our time, seek to adopt these methodologies in our workspaces teaching is challenging, where you can suggest new strategies for communication and integration with students and in this way to service the needy, such as programs aid Persons with Disabilities.

  19. Contemporary challenges for intrafamilial relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GOTEA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays we live in a time of rapid changes, from a social, industrial and technological standpoint. Profound mutations in family institution can be observed, regarding the family structure, lifestyle and the cycle of family life. Today’s tendencies reflect a clear distinction between marriage and the activity of raising children, as we can notice the increased number of marriages without children or the number of single-parent families. That is why, the present paper focus on these two types of intrafamily relationships: couple’s relationship and parent-child relation, pointing out some changes and challenges of contemporary period.

  20. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    -to-market, and reduce development and manufacturing costs. In this paper, the author introduces several embedded systems design problems, and shows how they can be formulated as optimization problems. Solving such challenging design optimization problems are the key to the success of the embedded systems design...... of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time...

  1. New vaccines: challenges of discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Adel

    2016-09-01

    Vaccines have been a major component of preventing and controlling infectious diseases. The basis for discovery of what protects is reviewed as well as new attempts in utilizing Reverse Vaccinology, RNA-RNA methods and proteome analysis are adding significantly to our knowledge. The challenge of how to define protective and defined components of microbes is still hampering efforts to discover new vaccines. Recent excitement about immunotherapy of cancer opens the way to develop vaccines against multiple malignancies. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Challenges in commercializing biomimetic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perry, Mark; Madsen, Steen Ulrik; Jørgensen, Tine Elkjær

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of selective water channel proteins—aquaporins—has prompted growing interest in using these proteins, as the building blocks for designing new types of membranes. However, as with any other new and potentially disruptive technology, barriers for successful market entry exist. One...... of these barriers and challenges associated with introducing biomimetic aquaporin membranes. These include technical issues in membrane production and product testing. Then we discuss possible business models for introducing new technologies in general, followed by a presentation of beach-head market segments...... relevant for biomimetic aquaporin membranes....

  3. Nanometrology - challenges for health regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailton Carreteiro Damasceno

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between metrology, nanotechnology and nanoscience and sanitary regulation is discussed from the point of view of its importance and the interrelationship between the themes for the development of products and services involving nanotech-nology. The discussion involves the main techniques for measuring dimensional, chemical and biological properties of materials, and presents some of the challenges for the future. Issues such as processes of standardization and regulation in Europe, U.S. and Brazil are also addressed, providing an overview of how these processes are related to sanitary regulation.

  4. Asymmetry a challenge for orthodontists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

      Asymmetry is considered a challenge and often the reason for which the optimal result cannot be obtained. The explanations are many. Only rarely, the cause of the asymmetry is localized and camouflage is frequently resulting in the development a different type of asymmetry occurring in all thre...... the required tooth displacements can be generated. In order to control the interaction between the force systems developed in the three planes of space, the appliances should commonly be segmented. Anchorage problems can occasionally only be solved by means of skeletal anchorage....

  5. Power engineering challenges in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorkaltseva Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a review of current power engineering challenges in Zambia in relevance to the required potential necessary for the country’s modern economic development. An outline of the energy sector is provided. The driving need for enhancing the development of the energy sector is highlighted, accounted by the country’s annual increase of GDP, leading to an increase in electricity demand. Possible mitigations are suggested, with the development of Zambia's rich potential in renewable energy, as well as upgrading the operating power plants and constructing more off-grid and on-grid generating facilities.

  6. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  7. Challenges in wind farm optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    for the wind turbine modeling, where aeroelastic models are required, and for the wind farm flow field description, where in-stationary flow field modeling is needed to capture the complicated mixture of atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows and upstream emitted meandering wind turbine wakes, which together...... dictates the fatigue loading of the individual wind turbines. Within an optimization context, the basic challenge in describing the in-stationary wind farm flow field is computational speed. The Dynamic Wake Meandering (DWM) model includes the basic features of a CFD Large Eddy Simulation approach...

  8. Breast cancer: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledge, G W; Miller, K

    1999-12-01

    The pace of research in breast cancer has picked up significantly in recent years, due to both increased public awareness and improved technology. The availability of many new agents in an already crowded field has resulted in several challenges (both practical and conceptual) for the research community. This report suggests that the "business-as-usual" approach to drug development has important limitations rendering it inadequate to the current research climate. Future drug development, in the form of biologically targeted therapies, offers the best hope for defeating this disease.

  9. The Grand Challenges of Nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Amazing breakthroughs and advances continue to be made in nanoscale science and engineering and the rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology, including near-commercial applications in biomedicine, computing and environmental protection. The National Nanotechnology Initiative, begun by the Clinton Administration has placed nanoscale research on a new funding trajectory. But, many 'grand challenges' must be overcome, technical ones as well as those related to funding, science and technology workforce, and the need for stronger collaboration across discipline, organizations, government agencies and with other countries

  10. Challenges in biocooperative rehabilitation robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihelj, Matjaž; Novak, Domen; Ziherl, Jaka; Olenšek, Andrej; Munih, Marko

    2011-01-01

    Psychological states such as mood, motivation and engagement are known to be critical for the success of rehabilitation, and encouraging unmotivated stroke patients improves the likelihood of their eventual recovery. Psychological factors can be incorporated into the closed-loop control of biocooperative rehabilitation systems, augmenting the device with critical information about the patient state. However, in rehabilitation robotics, interpretation of psychophysiological measurements is made complex by the multi-task environment, the presence of strenuous physical activity and patient's damage to the central and autonomic nervous systems. The study examines these challenges and proposes possible solutions for implementation in biocooperative control of rehabilitation robots. © 2011 IEEE

  11. Ageing world: Health care challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Mahishale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The world population reached 7 billion in 2012, which is 6 billion more than in 1800. This remarkable population growth is the result of several factors like advances in the medical, technological and public health systems resulting in the control and treatment of communicable diseases, the control of pandemics, the end of large-scale wars, improvements in living conditions and the revolutions in the field of agriculture. Because of all these factors, there has been a considerable improvement in the life expectancy of human beings. There is also an alarming reduction in fertility rates. The combination of declining fertility rate and augmented life expectancies has led to a change in the demographics of the population with the strata of older individuals growing faster than the younger individuals. The aging of populations is poised to become the next global public health challenge. Advances in medicine and socioeconomic development have substantially reduced mortality and morbidity rates due to infectious conditions and, to some extent, non-communicable diseases. These demographic and epidemiological changes, coupled with rapid urbanization, modernization, globalization, and accompanying changes in risk factors and lifestyles, have increased the prominence of chronic non-infective conditions. Health systems need to find effective strategies to extend health care and to respond to the needs of older adults. This review highlights the pathophysiology of aging, biological and physiological changes, impact of aging on health, epidemiological transitions, multi-morbidity in elderly and challenges for health care system.

  12. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager puts the doctor in a, often tricky, situation where it must be decided if we deal with normal physiology or if we should suspect pathological conditions. What medical investigations are proper to consider? What differential diagnoses should be considered in the first place? And what tools do we actually have? The symptoms and problems that usually are presented at the clinical visit can be both of medical and psychosocial character - and actually they are often a mixture of both. Subsequently, the challenge to investigate the sleepy teenager often includes the examination of a complex behavioral pattern. It is important to train and develop diagnostic skills and to realize that the physiological or pathological conditions that can cause the symptoms may have different explanations. Research in sleep disorders has shown different pathological mechanisms congruent with the variations in the clinical picture. There are probably also different patterns of involved neuronal circuits although common pathways may exist. The whole picture remains to be drawn in this interesting and challenging area.

  13. Managerial challenges in nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholand, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear personnel training programs have existed since the infancy of the commercial nuclear power industry. The scope and complexity of these programs have increased dramatically, especially since the Three Mile Island mishap in 1979. Whether voluntary or regulated, the changes of the past several years have greatly increased the responsibilities and roles of the nuclear training managers. Events and our own diligence have compounded two problems (or challenges) that have been with us all along. First, training managers have frequently been excluded from the change-making process, leaving them to react as best they can to new regulatory mandates and new utility innovations in a de facto fashion. Second, the additional resources needed to meet new requirements (personnel, equipment, facilities, and funds) have not been made available, or have been insufficient to accomplish new tasks. This paper discusses these challenges and considers several responses (including a national nuclear trainers association) that can go a long way to place nuclear training managers and their employees more in control of their own fate

  14. Challenges in Double Beta Decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliviero Cremonesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, neutrino oscillation experiments have provided the incontrovertible evidence that neutrinos mix and have finite masses. These results represent the strongest demonstration that the electroweak Standard Model is incomplete and that new Physics beyond it must exist. In this scenario, a unique role is played by the Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay searches which can probe lepton number conservation and investigate the Dirac/Majorana nature of the neutrinos and their absolute mass scale (hierarchy problem with unprecedented sensitivity. Today Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay faces a new era where large-scale experiments with a sensitivity approaching the so-called degenerate-hierarchy region are nearly ready to start and where the challenge for the next future is the construction of detectors characterized by a tonne-scale size and an incredibly low background. A number of new proposed projects took up this challenge. These are based either on large expansions of the present experiments or on new ideas to improve the technical performance and/or reduce the background contributions. In this paper, a review of the most relevant ongoing experiments is given. The most relevant parameters contributing to the experimental sensitivity are discussed and a critical comparison of the future projects is proposed.

  15. Engineering ethics challenges and opportunities

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, W Richard

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Ethics: Challenges and Opportunities aims to set a new agenda for the engineering profession by developing a key challenge: can the great technical innovation of engineering be matched by a corresponding innovation in the acceptance and expression of ethical responsibility?  Central features of this stimulating text include:   ·         An analysis of engineering as a technical and ethical practice providing great opportunities for promoting the wellbeing and agency of individuals and communities. ·         Elucidation of the ethical opportunities of engineering in three key areas:             - Engineering for Peace, emphasising practical amelioration of the root causes of    conflict rather than military solutions.             - Engineering for Health, focusing on close collaboration with healthcare professionals      for both the promotion and restoration of health.             - Engineering for Development, providing effective solution...

  16. The challenges of amblyopia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail D.E. Maconachie

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction and/or strabismic (turn of one eye amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 1998. Since this review, a number of publications have revealed new findings in the treatment of amblyopia. This includes the finding that less intensive occlusion treatments can be successful in treating amblyopia. A relationship between adherence to treatment and visual acuity has also been established and has been shown to be influenced by the use of intervention material. In addition, there is growing evidence of that a period of glasses wearing only can significantly improve visual acuity alone without any other modes of treatment. This review article reports findings since the Snowdon's report.

  17. The challenges of amblyopia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maconachie, Gail D E; Gottlob, Irene

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of amblyopia, particularly anisometropic (difference in refractive correction) and/or strabismic (turn of one eye) amblyopia has long been a challenge for many clinicians. Achieving optimum outcomes, where the amblyopic eye reaches a visual acuity similar to the fellow eye, is often impossible in many patients. Part of this challenge has resulted from a previous lack of scientific evidence for amblyopia treatment that was highlight by a systematic review by Snowdon et al. in 1998. Since this review, a number of publications have revealed new findings in the treatment of amblyopia. This includes the finding that less intensive occlusion treatments can be successful in treating amblyopia. A relationship between adherence to treatment and visual acuity has also been established and has been shown to be influenced by the use of intervention material. In addition, there is growing evidence of that a period of glasses wearing only can significantly improve visual acuity alone without any other modes of treatment. This review article reports findings since the Snowdon's report. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The coffee-time challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The challenge to identify the LEP events displayed on coffee tables in Restaurant 1 (Bulletin 02-03/2010) sparked interest among readers who do not have the opportunity to see them . Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, Table 6, Table 7, Table 8, Table 9, Table 10, Table 11, Table 12 Table 13, Table 14, Table 15, Table 16       We have therefore decided to open the challenge to these readers by displaying the events on the web. We are also extending the deadline accordingly to 2 March. There are 16 events in total (in two areas), four from each of the four LEP experiments, and they include examples of different particle decays observed at LEP during its 11 years of operation. The list below indicates the decay channels represented. We are offering a prize of the ATLAS pop-up book, Voyage to the Heart of Matter, for the correct identification of all 16 events.  Entries should indicate the table number corresponding to each of the decays listed. There wi...

  19. Green ergonomics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the causes and consequences of environmental degradation presents significant challenges for humankind. This paper considers what ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) professionals can contribute to understanding and tackling some of the issues that arise through the movement towards a more environmentally sustainable economy. These issues are considered in relation to work in green industries (specifically, sustainable energy production, recycling and organic food production), and there is a need to ensure that these jobs are safe and healthy; the design of products and systems that are 'environmentally friendly' to facilitate their acceptability and use and how E/HF professionals can contribute to understanding and promoting behavioural change relating to environmental choices. The activities of some international organisations in this area are identified and the potential for E/HF involvement is considered. The implications for the E/HF profession are discussed. This paper considers how ergonomics/human factors professionals can contribute to the movement towards more sustainable and 'environmentally friendly' design and work. Potential challenges and opportunities are discussed in relation to jobs in green industries, products and systems and behaviour change.

  20. Terrorism and its centuries challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonida Drogu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to portray how to better understand the epistemic differences of terminology used for terrorism and how people’s lives have been and are still affected by this undefined violence. By collecting some diary information from 20people about their perception about terrorism attaches we will analyze some of overall countries and Saudi Arabia’s commitment in fighting this century’s challenge. Fighting radical religious beliefs in the Kingdom is an immense challenge. The true Islamic faith is in large contrast to those individuals and entities whose actions are centered on the intentional misrepresentation or the degradation of the teachings of Islam. The base of this data will indicate the progress within Saudi Arabia, its position in the world prospect and its impact in society since it remains a robust construction even now days, even thought, a lot has been done. The first signs provided in this analysis start with the beginning of the new century, when a strong attack happened just days before it began. Some important indicators such as terrorism founding, or money charities caused many changes in Saudi Arabia as a leading power, in the war against terrorism in Middle East.

  1. Multiphysics simulations: challenges and opportunities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, D.; McInnes, L. C.; Woodward, C.; Gropp, W.; Myra, E.; Pernice, M. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (KAUST and Columbia Univ.); (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); (Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign); (Univ. of Mich.); (Idaho National Lab.)

    2012-11-29

    This report is an outcome of the workshop Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities, sponsored by the Institute of Computing in Science (ICiS). Additional information about the workshop, including relevant reading and presentations on multiphysics issues in applications, algorithms, and software, is available via https://sites.google.com/site/icismultiphysics2011/. We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where 'algorithmic' includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity and 'architectural' includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. We also initiate a modest suite of test problems encompassing features present in many applications.

  2. Managing Challenges in a Multi Contractor Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ron

    2011-01-01

    The presentation provides a project description, describes the integrated product team, and review project challenges. The challenges include programmatic, technical, basic drop tests, heavy drop tests, C-17 envelope expansion, and Ares I-X.

  3. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Electronics Challenge Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — On September 22, 2012, EPA launched the SMM Electronics Challenge. The Challenge encourages electronics manufacturers, brand owners and retailers to strive to send...

  4. EU employment challenges in the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rimmer, Nina Roehr

    2010-01-01

    Comparison and discussion of the Danish and Spanish employment situation and challenges in the future......Comparison and discussion of the Danish and Spanish employment situation and challenges in the future...

  5. Statistical Challenges in Modeling Big Brain Signals

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zhaoxia

    2017-11-01

    Brain signal data are inherently big: massive in amount, complex in structure, and high in dimensions. These characteristics impose great challenges for statistical inference and learning. Here we review several key challenges, discuss possible solutions, and highlight future research directions.

  6. Challenges in diagnosing tuberculosis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Nadia; Pedersen, Karin Kæreby; Rosenfeldt, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country.......Clinical investigations of childhood tuberculosis (TB) are challenged by the paucibacillary nature of the disease and the difficulties in obtaining specimens. We investigated the challenges in diagnosing TB in children in a low-incidence country....

  7. Globalisation and international compatibility - a challenge to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contexts of institutions for higher education are in flux with consequent learning challenges. One of these challenges is that of globalisation and the need for international compatibility. Another challenge is that Mode 2 learning programmes, material and methods need to be relevant to the specific context in which they ...

  8. Builders Challenge Quality Criteria Support Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-06-01

    This document provides guidance to U.S. home builders participating in Builders Challenge. To qualify for the Builders Challenge, a home must score 70 or less on the EnergySmart Home Scale (E-Scale). Homes also must meet the Builders Challenge Quality Cri

  9. The Challenges of Developing an Operational Nanosatellite

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, David; Young, Quinn

    2008-01-01

    Recent nanosatellite programs and studies of nanosatellites for operational missions have highlighted challenges that are unique to this spacecraft category. While each small satellite class has peculiar design challenges, nanosatellite development challenges are compounded by the unique niche that nanosatellites occupy and the current perception of hardware maturity levels available to support nanosatellite spacecraft. Recent experimental successes with microsatellite systems are allowing su...

  10. 49 CFR 8.17 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification challenges. 8.17 Section 8.17.../ACCESS Classification/Declassification of Information § 8.17 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized... classification status is improper are encouraged and expected to challenge the classification status of the...

  11. 28 CFR 17.30 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification challenges. 17.30 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information § 17.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized... is improperly classified or unclassified are encouraged and expected to challenge the classification...

  12. 25 CFR 82.9 - Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Challenges. 82.9 Section 82.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... FEDERAL STATUTE AND OTHER ORGANIZED TRIBES § 82.9 Challenges. (a) Once an official filing has been made... of the tribe upon request. During this 15-day period, challenges of signatures may be filed with the...

  13. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of information... classified are encouraged and expected to challenge the classification status of that information pursuant to...

  14. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  15. Educational Leadership: Key Challenges and Ethical Tensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duignan, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    "Educational Leadership" is a major research book on contemporary leadership challenges for educational leaders. In this groundbreaking new work, educational leaders in schools, including teachers, are provided with ways of analysing and resolving common but complex leadership challenges. Ethical tensions inherent in these challenges are…

  16. Restoration challenges for urban rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, B I; Rosenqvist, T; Mitchell, G; Kellagher, R; Billett, S

    2007-01-01

    Urban sources account for significant quantities of important diffuse pollutants, and urban watercourses are typically badly polluted. As well as toxic metals, hydrocarbons including PAHs, and suspended matter, priority urban pollutants include faecal pathogens and nutrients. Can urban watercourses be restored by sufficient reductions in pollution loads? Case studies in the UK and Sweden provide insights and some grounds for optimism. A major trans-Atlantic review of the performance of best management practices (BMPs) is informing BMP planning. New approaches such as the maximisation of self-purification capacity in the receiving waters may also need to be developed, alongside BMPs at source. Other initiatives in Europe, USA and China, including collaborative projects, are trying to address the intractable issues such as persistent pollutants from transport and urban infrastructure. The challenge is daunting, but there are clear ways forward and future research needs are evident.

  17. Challenging the Precepts of Modernism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    history. This article takes a closer look at the late work, the reception of it by Willumsen's contemporaries and the artist's own claims about it. Furthermore, the article proposes to relate the status of the work to its resistance to notions that have become the precepts of modernism such as progression......The late work of the Danish artist J.F. Willumsen (1863-1958) has until recently largely been marginalized and deemed kitsch, of poor quality and "odd". As opposed to the canonization of his earlier work, the period 1930-1958 has been difficult to "digest" and increasingly written off in Danish art......, irreversibility and defined "isms". The challenging of these notions is also found in the phenomenon of "Bad Painting" that has been presented and genealogized mainly through a number of exhibitions the last years. The article suggests to associate the work to this phenomenon....

  18. HCI challenges in Dance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.El Raheb

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Dance learning is by nature multimodal, while dance practice presents a wide diversity across genres and contexts. Choreography and artistic contemporary dance performances have been using interactive technologies to support their creative process for several decades. Nevertheless the use of interactive technologies to support dance learning and education is still relatively immature and raises many challenges and interesting questions when it comes to choosing the appropriate human computer interaction methods. In this paper, we present the characteristics of dance teaching and learning in relation to interactive technology and we highlight the points/feedback that dance, as a field of mastering expressive movement, can bring to the design of whole-body interaction experiences.

  19. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue from chronic disease like multiple sclerosis should be investigated. Clinical assessment, neurophysiological and laboratory investigations constitute important support in these investigations. Functional methods, for example fMRI, are being developed. The role of computer gaming and use of social media in the night is discussed in relation to these diseases. Cognitive dysfunction may develop with several of the conditions. There is need for increased awareness of how to investigate sleep disturbance in children and young people.

  20. DSM-5: Challenging diagnostic testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Leigh D; Guilmette, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (DSM) 60-year evolution has not been particularly linear nor cumulative with respect to the process of its construction, its stated purpose, its framework, and inclusion of specific disorders. We consider DSM-5's stated purpose in light of the manual's explicit cautions and other complications encountered when presenting diagnoses in the course of psychological expert testimony under the applicable rules of evidence. This review considers the extent to which DSM-5 bears up under numerous criticisms when employed for forensic purposes and points out challenges that the expert should anticipate when offering diagnostic opinions underpinned by DSM-5 generally and by neurocognitive disorders in particular. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated Modular Avionics: The Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, O.

    2009-05-01

    The need to reduce Space, Weight, and Power (SWaP) across the embedded market leads many Systems Suppliers to run multiple applications on the same processor. The concept seems deceptively simple. However, a lack of experience using this approach, may lead to many mistakes, resulting in unacceptable system performance and unacceptable costs. The objective of this paper is to review the challenges of controlling the execution of multiple applications on the same processor in a Safety or Mission Critical context and, based on return of experiences, point out some of the common mistakes and the limit of what an operating system can control. As no-one has an unlimited budget, the ability to develop and verify such system at reasonable cost, reduced risk, and re-use of the expended effort will be emphasized.

  2. WFIRST: Microlensing Analysis Data Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Rachel; WFIRST Microlensing Science Investigation Team

    2018-01-01

    WFIRST will produce thousands of high cadence, high photometric precision lightcurves of microlensing events, from which a wealth of planetary and stellar systems will be discovered. However, the analysis of such lightcurves has historically been very time consuming and expensive in both labor and computing facilities. This poses a potential bottleneck to deriving the full science potential of the WFIRST mission. To address this problem, the WFIRST Microlensing Science Investigation Team designing a series of data challenges to stimulate research to address outstanding problems of microlensing analysis. These range from the classification and modeling of triple lens events to methods to efficiently yet thoroughly search a high-dimensional parameter space for the best fitting models.

  3. Multiphysics Simulations: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, David; McInnes, Lois C.; Woodward, Carol; Gropp, William; Myra, Eric; Pernice, Michael; Bell, John; Brown, Jed; Clo, Alain; Connors, Jeffrey; Constantinescu, Emil; Estep, Don; Evans, Kate; Farhat, Charbel; Hakim, Ammar; Hammond, Glenn E.; Hansen, Glen; Hill, Judith; Isaac, Tobin; Jiao, Xiangmin; Jordan, Kirk; Kaushik, Dinesh; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Koniges, Alice; Lee, Ki Hwan; Lott, Aaron; Lu, Qiming; Magerlein, John; Maxwell, Reed M.; McCourt, Michael; Mehl, Miriam; Pawlowski, Roger; Randles, Amanda; Reynolds, Daniel; Riviere, Beatrice; Rude, Ulrich; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Shadid, John; Sheehan, Brendan; Shephard, Mark; Siegel, Andrew; Smith, Barry; Tang, Xianzhu; Wilson, Cian; Wohlmuth, Barbara

    2013-02-12

    We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where ‘‘algorithmic’’ includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity, and ‘‘architectural’’ includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities.

  4. The ambiguous challenge of intranets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis I shall present the argument that intranets increase the role of ambiguity – confrontation between contradicting frames of interpretation – in organisational communication by encouraging processes across organisational borders. In the first chapter I discuss philosophical aspects...... increases with tendencies to cooperate and communicate across organisational boundaries, mainly as a reaction to developments in markets and industrial knowledge base, but also due to the potential provided by computer network. In the third chapter I identify some characteristics of two fundamental intranet...... media, email and the web, partly in the perspective of media richness theory, partly compared with philosophical discussions of classical media. The fourth chapter presents an intranet in a global company, in which problems and challenges related to ambiguity have proven significant....

  5. The ITER project technological challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Lister, Joseph; Marquina, Miguel A; Todesco, Ezio

    2005-01-01

    The first lecture reminds us of the ITER challenges, presents hard engineering problems, typically due to mechanical forces and thermal loads and identifies where the physics uncertainties play a significant role in the engineering requirements. The second lecture presents soft engineering problems of measuring the plasma parameters, feedback control of the plasma and handling the physics data flow and slow controls data flow from a large experiment like ITER. The last three lectures focus on superconductors for fusion. The third lecture reviews the design criteria and manufacturing methods for 6 milestone-conductors of large fusion devices (T-7, T-15, Tore Supra, LHD, W-7X, ITER). The evolution of the designer approach and the available technologies are critically discussed. The fourth lecture is devoted to the issue of performance prediction, from a superconducting wire to a large size conductor. The role of scaling laws, self-field, current distribution, voltage-current characteristic and transposition are...

  6. Structural changes, roles and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Statnett is facing great challenges in a Nordic and European integrated power market, with increasingly mighty commercial players. In a competing market there are conflicts between the socio-economic targets for Statkraft's activities and the commercial interests of Statnet's customers and other players in the power market. In the light of development, the connection lines between the customers and Statnett should be changed. Another problem is the legal competence problem that arises when the Oil and Energy Department (OED) works out the general policy at the same time as it owns Statkraft and Statnett and is the appellate body for the development decisions taken by the NVE (the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate). When comprehensive changes in Statkraft's company organisation and ownership are considered, special attention must be paid to the competence problem and to the risk of the commercial producers increasing their impact on how Statnett manages its role as a systems operator

  7. Coordinated Exploration for Grand Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørding Olsen, Anders; Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    to engage in joint search and compete for funding. Prior research on joint search highlights the role of specialized organizations, mainly regarding technological domains, to identify a superior solution. However, stakeholder theory leads us to believe that the success of any solution depends...... on the acceptance and support of important stakeholders. In this study, we suggest that search consortia are more likely to receive funding when they include representatives of stakeholder concerns, so-called advocacy groups. We extend theory on coordinated exploration in joint search by integrating mechanisms from...... stakeholder theory and argue that advocacy groups improve the generation of potential solutions and provide legitimacy. We test our theory with a unique dataset of 35,249 consortia that proposed solutions to 2,349 grand challenge problems as part of a large European funding program. Our results show...

  8. Ten Challenges for Decision Neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Huettel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision neuroscience research, as currently practiced, employs the methods of neuroscience to investigate concepts drawn from the social sciences. A typical study selects one or more variables from psychological or economic models, manipulates or measures choices within a simplified choice task, and then identifies neural correlates. Using this neuroeconomic approach, researchers have described brain systems whose functioning shapes key economic variables, most notably aspects of subjective value. Yet, the standard approach has fundamental limitations. Important aspects of the mechanisms of decision making – from the sources of variability in decision making to the very computations supported by decision-related regions – remain incompletely understood. Here, I outline ten outstanding challenges for future research in decision neuroscience. While some will be readily addressed using current methods, others will require new conceptual frameworks. Accordingly, a new strain of decision neuroscience will marry methods from economics and cognitive science to concepts from neurobiology and cognitive neuroscience.

  9. The challenge of computer mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, Henk; Wiedijk, Freek

    2005-10-15

    Progress in the foundations of mathematics has made it possible to formulate all thinkable mathematical concepts, algorithms and proofs in one language and in an impeccable way. This is not in spite of, but partially based on the famous results of Gödel and Turing. In this way statements are about mathematical objects and algorithms, proofs show the correctness of statements and computations, and computations are dealing with objects and proofs. Interactive computer systems for a full integration of defining, computing and proving are based on this. The human defines concepts, constructs algorithms and provides proofs, while the machine checks that the definitions are well formed and the proofs and computations are correct. Results formalized so far demonstrate the feasibility of this 'computer mathematics'. Also there are very good applications. The challenge is to make the systems more mathematician-friendly, by building libraries and tools. The eventual goal is to help humans to learn, develop, communicate, referee and apply mathematics.

  10. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da, E-mail: jrausch@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  11. Listeria Endocarditis: A Diagnostic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina J. A. R. M. Valckx MD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old hemodialysis patient with a history of an atrial septum defect closure, coronary bypass surgery, and a St. Jude aortic prosthetic valve was diagnosed with pneumonia and volume overload. Blood cultures were positive for Listeria monocytogenes, and amoxicillin was given for 2 weeks. Immediately after discontinuation of amoxicillin, fever relapsed. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography showed no sign of endocarditis. Given the fever relapse and 3 positive minor Duke criteria, an 18F-FDG PET-CT scan (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan was performed. This scan showed activity at the aortic root, proximal ascending aorta, and inferior wall of the heart, making Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis a likely explanation. Amoxicillin was given for 6 weeks with good clinical result. Diagnosing a life-threatening Listeria monocytogenes endocarditis can be challenging and an 18F-FDG PET-CT scan can be helpful.

  12. Challenging industry conceptions with provotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Laurens; Donovan, Jared; Buur, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    . Provotypes are ethnographically rooted, technically working, robust artefacts that deliberately challenge stakeholder conceptions by reifying and exposing tensions that surround a field of organizational interest. The daily and local experience of provotypes aim to stir dialectical processes of reflection...... on how conceptions currently are, and fuel the front end of a development process by speculating how conceptions could be different. In this article we start by making explicit the relation between provotypes, practices of critical design and organizational sense-making. We then illustrate through...... a multi-stakeholder project that concerned the field of indoor climate how provotypes facilitate transfers of user knowledge to industry, and how they contribute to the development of new products and services. We end by framing the role of the design researcher and discuss the politics that are inherent...

  13. Nuclear cooperation: challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollapally, Deepa; Rajagopal, S.

    1997-01-01

    In this era of globalisation and technology flows, the nuclear field continues to retain strong barriers to international collaboration. From nuclear energy to non-proliferation however, the potential for concerted action exists. The International and Strategic Studies Unit of the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS) held a two day seminar exploring the challenges and prospects for achieving mutual cooperation between states relating to all aspects of nuclear technology. This volume is based on the proceedings of the seminar. The broad themes that the seminar considered included disarmament and the security link; implementation and verification of nonproliferation regimes; transfer of technology and nuclear energy. The seminar culminated with a round table on confidence building

  14. ETHICAL CHALLENGES IN AESTHETIC DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius NEAGU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aesthetic dentistry is a branch of dentistry which aims primarily at improving patient’s physical appearance and, to a lesser extent, the functionality of teeth. This field raises particular ethical dilemmas and requires a careful evaluation of patient’s needs and wishes versus his/her clinical best interests. In this article, the authors discuss the main ethical challenges in the field of aesthetic dentistry in the light of the four “classical” principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. The authors conclude that the principles of medical ethics should be at the very foundation of the field of aesthetic dentistry, for establishing a patient-physician relationship which could lead to optimum clinical outcomes, while respecting the wishes of the patient and promoting his/her best interests.

  15. Deepwater development - the metocean challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, C.

    1998-01-01

    As the focus of the offshore industry moves increasingly towards deepwater, attention is concentrating more and more on life-cycle field development costs. Key elements are reducing development lead times, equipment standardisation and efficient use of scarce resources. An essential precursor is a clear definition of the metocean environment. Without it, engineering design may be unnecessarily conservative or inadequate. Either way the consequences will be expensive. It is the metocean challenge to help bring down costs, while maintaining adequate safety levels by providing the necessary answers, but most important of all, to do this in sufficient time to be in step with the engineering requirements at each stage of a planned development. (author)

  16. Methodological challenges and lessons learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul Erik; Gustafsson, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    into present power structures, greatly influence the narratives that are co-produced during interviews. The article thus concludes that in order to fully understand complex phenomena it is not just enough to use a mixture of methods, the makeup of the research team is also imperative, as a diverse team......Taking as point of departure three recently conducted empirical studies, the aim of this article is to theoretically and empirically discuss methodological challenges studying the interrelations between media and social reality and to critically reflect on the methodologies used in the studies....... By deconstructing the studies, the article draws attention to the fact that different methods are able to grasp different elements of social reality. Moreover, by analysing the power relations at play, the article demonstrated that the interplay between interviewer and interviewee, and how both parties fit...

  17. Multiphysics simulations: Challenges and opportunities

    KAUST Repository

    Keyes, David E.

    2013-02-01

    We consider multiphysics applications from algorithmic and architectural perspectives, where "algorithmic" includes both mathematical analysis and computational complexity, and "architectural" includes both software and hardware environments. Many diverse multiphysics applications can be reduced, en route to their computational simulation, to a common algebraic coupling paradigm. Mathematical analysis of multiphysics coupling in this form is not always practical for realistic applications, but model problems representative of applications discussed herein can provide insight. A variety of software frameworks for multiphysics applications have been constructed and refined within disciplinary communities and executed on leading-edge computer systems. We examine several of these, expose some commonalities among them, and attempt to extrapolate best practices to future systems. From our study, we summarize challenges and forecast opportunities. © The Author(s) 2012.

  18. Challenges for Better thesis supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirian, Laleh; Sayarifard, Azadeh; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rajabi, Fatemeh; Yunesian, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Conduction of thesis by the students is one of their major academic activities. Thesis quality and acquired experiences are highly dependent on the supervision. Our study is aimed at identifing the challenges in thesis supervision from both students and faculty members point of view. This study was conducted using individual in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussions (FGD). The participants were 43 students and faculty members selected by purposive sampling. It was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Data analysis was done concurrently with data gathering using content analysis method. Our data analysis resulted in 162 codes, 17 subcategories and 4 major categories, "supervisory knowledge and skills", "atmosphere", "bylaws and regulations relating to supervision" and "monitoring and evaluation". This study showed that more attention and planning in needed for modifying related rules and regulations, qualitative and quantitative improvement in mentorship training, research atmosphere improvement and effective monitoring and evaluation in supervisory area.

  19. The challenge of social media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper; Paulsen, Michael Eric

    must find new ways of doing things, because our media milieu has changed. Also in schools many things are changing; the classroom is no longer a closed room where interaction is isolated from the external world. Thousands of parallel interaction systems are intermingling within the social situations...... in the classrooms. On this basis, we present the action research project Socio Media Education, which tries to develop new ways of teaching that feed to the new media environment. The aim of the paper is, on an early stage, to report about the challenge of the new social media and how the project tries to find......Like with the emergence of oral language and the invention of writing, printing, and electronic media, today digital media entail a revolution of society. In our present time we are living through the incunabula of a digital revolution. This means that many things in society find new forms, and we...

  20. Image Processing: Some Challenging Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. S.; Aizawa, K.

    1993-11-01

    Image processing can be broadly defined as the manipulation of signals which are inherently multidimensional. The most common such signals are photographs and video sequences. The goals of processing or manipulation can be (i) compression for storage or transmission; (ii) enhancement or restoration; (iii) analysis, recognition, and understanding; or (iv) visualization for human observers. The use of image processing techniques has become almost ubiquitous; they find applications in such diverse areas as astronomy, archaeology, medicine, video communication, and electronic games. Nonetheless, many important problems in image processing remain unsolved. It is the goal of this paper to discuss some of these challenging problems. In Section I, we mention a number of outstanding problems. Then, in the remainder of this paper, we concentrate on one of them: very-low-bit-rate video compression. This is chosen because it involves almost all aspects of image processing.

  1. Challenges in European higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas G. Orphanides

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance has been one of the most important components of the Bologna Process and the EHEA. Quality and innovation are sine qua non in achieving competitiveness in European higher education, especially when the focus is on its challenges in a global context. This principle certainly applies to the entire world as well. It is vital that all European countries and all European higher education institutions implement punctually and with distinction the 'Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in the European Higher Education Area' concerning internal and external quality assurance, and quality assurance agencies, as well as the function and operation of the European Quality Assurance Register (EQAR. On the other hand, if diversity in higher education provision is to be considered an asset, a transparent, multidimensional classification system of instruments designed to benchmark higher education institutions on research and innovation, teaching and learning outcomes, services to society, etc., may help identify and make visible such diversity.

  2. Nanotechnology for the energy challenge

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    With the daunting energy challenges faced by Mankind in the 21st century, revolutionary new technologies will be the key to a clean, secure and sustainable energy future. Nanostructures often have surprising and very useful capabilities and are thus paving the way for new methodologies in almost every kind of industry. This exceptional monograph provides an overview of the subject, and presents the current state of the art with regard to different aspects of sustainable production, efficient storage and low-impact use of energy. Comprised of eighteen chapters, the book is divided in three thematic parts: Part I Sustainable Energy Production covers the main developments of nanotechnology in clean energy production and conversion, including photovoltaics, hydrogen production, thermal-electrical energy conversion and fuel cells. Part II Efficient Energy Storage is concerned with the potential use of nanomaterials in more efficient energy storage systems such as advanced batteries, supercapacitors and hydrogen st...

  3. Challenging institutional logics in Gourmet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt; Scheuer, John Damm

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the initial phase of an organizational transformation. More precisely the paper analyses the moment where an institutional entrepreneur produces ideas, which have the capacity to break with existing logics and thus produces the potential for change by challenging existing...... field logics. The empirical case is the gastronomic field in Denmark and in the Nordic countries - more specifically the paper discusses the cook and entrepreneur Claus Meyers ambitions to realize a food-political vision; The New Nordic Kitchen. The theoretical contribution of the paper...... is a conceptualization of the way in which an institutional entrepreneur initiates change in an organizational field. More specifically the paper discusses a system of concepts offered by Svejenova et al. (2007). According to Svejenova et al. the Spanish haute cuisine chef of the 3 star Michelin restaurant El Bulli...

  4. CHALLENGES OF PERMANENT TEACHER TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Manuela Valles-Ornelas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new challenges for teachers and managers require to assume permanent formation as a tool for responding effectively and efficiently to them, different perspective to strengthen from the initial teacher education programs. The research was done in a primary school in the state of Chihuahua. The method used was research action, the question was: How can we encourage the lifelong learning and training of the staff of this school, with the purpose to assist them in these processes to improve the service that the school provides to students. The school group is the center of the process, the cooperative and collaborative work accompanied by educational leadership and persuasive provide better results, and all accompanied by the professional selfinvitation.

  5. Islay development flow assurance challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helingoe, Mark; Greder, Hugues

    2010-07-01

    The Islay field is located in the Northern North Sea UK sector in the vicinity of the Alwyn Platforms. This gas condensate Brent structure is planned to be developed subsea with first gas in 2011. The main development challenge for this HPHT field comes from the early expected formation water production which is the source of major hydrate related flow assurance issues. As continuous inhibition is not feasible, Total has progressed a development scenario based on seabed conditioning prior to pipe laying so that water can be collected and temporarily inhibited at specific low points after a shut-down. It is also intended to heat trace the pipeline as a back-up solution to avoid hydrate formation. Heat tracing has so far never been implemented in Subsea developments. The Islay pilot could open the path to a new hydrate management philosophy for future developments. (Author)

  6. Challenges and opportunities in presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Kourosh; McKinnon, Brian J; Eibling, David; Gates, George A

    2011-04-01

    The population aged 65 years and older is increasing at a faster rate than the total population, with predictions that by 2030, 20% of the population will be 65 years or older. In 2006, between 35% and 50% of those aged 65 years or older reportedly had presbycusis, a sensory impairment that contributes to social isolation and loss of autonomy and is associated with anxiety, depression, and cognitive decline. To address these concerns, the Geriatric Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology, in conjunction with the Hearing Committee, focused on 3 challenges and opportunities in the management of presbycusis: (1) the financial burden of caring for patients with presbycusis in the face of increasing costs and declining reimbursements; (2) future treatment options arising from improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying presbycusis, and (3) recognition of central presbycusis as a condition commonly superimposed on peripheral age-related hearing loss whose diagnosis and management can improve outcomes.

  7. The new challenges of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernelle, E.

    2006-02-01

    Petroleum in in the center of our civilization: abundant, easy to use and energy powerful, it is used almost everywhere: transports, lighting, space heating, plastics, fertilizers, cloth industry etc. The 'black-gold' is the object of all stakes, from richness to power. However, petroleum is also at the origin of many evils: pollution, corruption, violence. Today, petroleum is a source of worries: how long will it last? How long will we be able to stand its impacts on environment? This book shades light on all these questions and supplies some concrete elements about this energy source. Content: technological challenges of petroleum; producers: powers and risks; consumers' dependence; to learn more about petroleum. (J.S.)

  8. Crowdsourcing. A Citizen Participation Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junia Borges

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a work in progress on Crowdsourcing. First, its concepts and importance are discussed and then its value for citizenship and urban planning. The motivation for participation and the display of geo-tagged information, as well as its possible applications in dynamic spatial temporal issues are presented, as well as its different approaches and applications. Furthermore, Crowdsourcing is discussed when the “ONVCêVIU”, a VGI case study, is presented, revealing its origin, objective, free platform comparison - to select the proper tool to implement, the project’s main challenges, results so far and further steps to be taken. To conclude a short review of the author’s vision about what is to come in the future research.

  9. Management between Passion and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Popovici

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the survey on the management between passion and challenges practised by new managers in the Mountainous Banat. In this post-crisis period, managers have become more cautions and more reluctant, on the one hand, and they have had to become more creative in using the resources at their disposal, on the other hand. The paper proposes a new “profile” of manager for the near future. The two categories of managers, focused on survival and driven by unconventional evolution, exist in parallel and that is why this study presents the results and recommendations for another type of management, which the present and future managers may or not take into account.

  10. Molecular Imaging Challenges With PET

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2010-01-01

    The future trends in molecular imaging and associated challenges for in-vivo functional imaging are illustrated on the basis of a few examples, such as atherosclerosis vulnerable plaques imaging or stem cells tracking. A set of parameters are derived to define the specifications of a new generation of in-vivo imaging devices in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The limitations of strategies used in present PET scanners are discussed and new approaches are proposed taking advantage of recent progress on materials, photodetectors and readout electronics. A special focus is put on metamaterials, as a new approach to bring more functionality to detection devices. It is shown that the route is now open towards a fully digital detector head with very high photon counting capability over a large energy range, excellent timing precision and possibility of imaging the energy deposition process.

  11. Nuclear energy safety - new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, Julio Cezar; Fonseca, Renato Alves da

    2011-01-01

    Fukushima accident in March this year, the second most serious nuclear accident in the world, put in evidence a discussion that in recent years with the advent of the 'nuclear renaissance' has been relegated in the background: what factors influence the use safe nuclear energy? Organizational precursor, latent errors, reduction in specific areas of competence and maintenance of nuclear programs is a scenario where the guarantee of a sustainable development of nuclear energy becomes a major challenge for society. A deep discussion of factors that influenced the major accidents despite the nuclear industry use of the so-called 'lessons learned' is needed. Major accidents continue to happen if a radical change is not implemented in the focus of safety culture. (author)

  12. Challenges for future energy usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebhan, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 2000 years the world's population and the worldwide total energy consumption have been continuously increasing, at a rate even greater than exponential. By now a situation has been reached in which energy resources are running short, which for a long time have been treated as though they were almost inexhaustible. The ongoing growth of the world's population and a growing hunger for energy in underdeveloped and emerging countries imply that the yearly overall energy consumption will continue to grow, by about 1.6 percent every year so that it would have doubled by 2050. This massive energy consumption has led to and is progressively leading to severe changes in our environment and is threatening a climatic state that, for the last 10 000 years, has been unusually benign. The coincidence of the shortage of conventional energy resources with the hazards of an impending climate change is a dangerous threat to the well-being of all, but it is also a challenging opportunity for improvements in our energy usage. On a global scale, conventional methods such as the burning of coal, gas and oil or the use of nuclear fission will still dominate for some time. In their case, the challenge consists in making them more efficient and environmentally benign, and using them only where and when it is unavoidable. Alternative energies must be expanded and economically improved. Among these, promising techniques such as solar thermal and geothermal energy production should be promoted from a shadow existence and further advanced. New technologies, for instance nuclear fusion or transmutation of radioactive nuclear waste, are also quite promising. Finally, a careful analysis of the national and global energy flow systems and intelligent energy management, with emphasis on efficiency, overall effectiveness and sustainability, will acquire increasing importance. Thereby, economic viability, political and legal issues as well as moral aspects such as fairness to disadvantaged

  13. Managing neurocysticercosis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogang YF

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Yannick Fogoum Fogang, Abdoul Aziz Savadogo, Massaman Camara, Dènahin Hinnoutondji Toffa, Anna Basse, Adjaratou Djeynabou Sow, Mouhamadou Mansour Ndiaye Neurology Department, Fann Teaching Hospital, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal Abstract: Taenia solium neurocysticercosis (NCC is a major cause of neurological morbidity in the world. Variability in the neuropathology and clinical presentation of NCC often make it difficult to diagnose and manage. Diagnosis of NCC can be challenging especially in endemic and resource-limited countries where laboratory and imaging techniques are often lacking. NCC management can also be challenging as current treatment options are limited and involve symptomatic agents, antiparasitic agents, or surgery. Although antiparasitic treatment probably reduces the number of active lesions and long-term seizure frequency, its efficacy is limited and strategies to improve treatment regimens are warranted. Treatment decisions should be individualized in relation to the type of NCC. Initial measures should focus on symptomatic management, with antiparasitic therapy only to be considered later on, when appropriate. Symptomatic treatment remains the cornerstone in NCC management which should not only focuses on epilepsy, but also on other manifestations that cause considerable burden (recurrent headaches, cognitive decline. Accurate patients' categorization, better antiparasitic regimens, and definition of new clinical outcomes for trials on NCC could improve management quality and prognosis of NCC. Prevention strategies targeting tapeworm carriers and infected pigs are yielding good results in local models. If local elimination of transmission is confirmed and replicated, this will open the door to cysticercosis eradication efforts worldwide. Keywords: neurocysticercosis, Taenia solium, epilepsy, headache, albendazole, praziquantel

  14. Legal challenges in neurological practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Jayalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward “rating” and “feedback” has made this doctor–patient relationship, a consumer–service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  15. Legal challenges in neurological practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, Sita; Vooturi, Sudhindra

    2016-10-01

    Clinical neuroscience has made tremendous advances over the last century. Neurology as a discipline is still considered challenging and at times risky due to the natural history and progressive course of few of the neurological diseases. Encouragingly, the patient and their caregivers are now increasingly willing to be actively involved in making decisions. The patients' relationship with the doctor is a reflection of the society. A society that is orienting itself toward "rating" and "feedback" has made this doctor-patient relationship, a consumer-service provider relationship. This perhaps is due to commercialization of health that usually accompanies globalization. Moreover, a rapid influx of information from potential erroneous sources such as the Internet has also made patient and caregivers not being hesitant to taking legal course in the case of adverse events during treatment or simply because of dissatisfaction. The purpose of the legal process initiated by patients with neurological ailments is more often to compensate for the income lost, physical and psychological anguish that accompanies disease and its treatment, and to fund treatment or rehabilitation requirements. However, it is not clearly established if monetary benefits acquired lead to better opportunities for recovery of the patient. The consumer protection act and commercialization of medical services may well have an adverse effect on the doctor and patient relationship. Hence, there is a great need for all medical professionals to mutually complement and update each other. This review examines legal (litigation) processes with special interest on medicolegal system in patients with neurological ailments and the challenges faced by the neurologist during day-to-day clinical practice.

  16. Cardiovascular response to thermoregulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuiqing; Yavar, Zubin; Sun, Qinghua

    2015-12-01

    A growing number of extreme climate events are occurring in the setting of ongoing climate change, with an increase in both the intensity and frequency. It has been shown that ambient temperature challenges have a direct and highly varied impact on cardiovascular health. With a rapidly growing amount of literature on this issue, we aim to review the recent publications regarding the impact of cold and heat on human populations with regard to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality/morbidity while also examining lag effects, vulnerable subgroups, and relevant mechanisms. Although the relative risk of morbidity/mortality associated with extreme temperature varied greatly across different studies, both cold and hot temperatures were associated with a positive mean excess of cardiovascular deaths or hospital admissions. Cause-specific study of CVD morbidity/mortality indicated that the sensitivity to temperature was disease-specific, with different patterns for acute and chronic ischemic heart disease. Vulnerability to temperature-related mortality was associated with some characteristics of the populations, including sex, age, location, socioeconomic condition, and comorbidities such as cardiac diseases, kidney diseases, diabetes, and hypertension. Temperature-induced damage is thought to be related to enhanced sympathetic reactivity followed by activation of the sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin system, as well as dehydration and a systemic inflammatory response. Future research should focus on multidisciplinary adaptation strategies that incorporate epidemiology, climatology, indoor/building environments, energy usage, labor legislative perfection, and human thermal comfort models. Studies on the underlying mechanism by which temperature challenge induces pathophysiological response and CVD await profound and lasting investigation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Monte Carlo - Advances and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Forrest B.; Mosteller, Russell D.; Martin, William R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract only, full text follows: With ever-faster computers and mature Monte Carlo production codes, there has been tremendous growth in the application of Monte Carlo methods to the analysis of reactor physics and reactor systems. In the past, Monte Carlo methods were used primarily for calculating k eff of a critical system. More recently, Monte Carlo methods have been increasingly used for determining reactor power distributions and many design parameters, such as β eff , l eff , τ, reactivity coefficients, Doppler defect, dominance ratio, etc. These advanced applications of Monte Carlo methods are now becoming common, not just feasible, but bring new challenges to both developers and users: Convergence of 3D power distributions must be assured; confidence interval bias must be eliminated; iterated fission probabilities are required, rather than single-generation probabilities; temperature effects including Doppler and feedback must be represented; isotopic depletion and fission product buildup must be modeled. This workshop focuses on recent advances in Monte Carlo methods and their application to reactor physics problems, and on the resulting challenges faced by code developers and users. The workshop is partly tutorial, partly a review of the current state-of-the-art, and partly a discussion of future work that is needed. It should benefit both novice and expert Monte Carlo developers and users. In each of the topic areas, we provide an overview of needs, perspective on past and current methods, a review of recent work, and discussion of further research and capabilities that are required. Electronic copies of all workshop presentations and material will be available. The workshop is structured as 2 morning and 2 afternoon segments: - Criticality Calculations I - convergence diagnostics, acceleration methods, confidence intervals, and the iterated fission probability, - Criticality Calculations II - reactor kinetics parameters, dominance ratio, temperature

  18. Decommissioning challenges - an industrial reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, H.; Mort, P.; Hutton, E.

    2008-01-01

    Sellafield Limited has undergone many transformations in previous years. The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) has managed the site from April 2005, and a new Parent Body Organisation (PBO) is soon to be announced. In addition, it is an exciting time for the nuclear industry following the announcement of the UK government support new reactor builds. Should the site be selected for new build, the impact on Sellafield, its decommissioning program and economic impact on the local area can only be speculated at the current time. Every past, present and future decommissioning project at the Sellafield Limited site offers complex challenges, as each facility is unique. Specialist skills and experience must be engaged at pre-planned phases to result in a safe, efficient and successful decommissioning project. This paper provides an overview of a small selection of decommissioning projects, including examples of stakeholder engagement, plant and equipment dismantling using remote handling equipment and the application of innovative techniques and technologies. In addition, the final section provides a summary upon how future technologies required by the decommissioning projects are being assessed and developed. (authors)

  19. The Challenge of Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of renewable energies sets some binding targets for the contribution of renewable energies in 2020 to total consumption, setting the share at 20% of final energy demand, with a particularisation of 10% for the transport sector, and also a 20% reduction of greenhouse gases Together with these targets, it also sets another target relative to energy efficiency, aiming for a 20% improvement, under the terms set down by the Commission in its announcement dated 19 October 2006. This energy saving target is going to have a decisive influence on the achievement of the other two. In order to quantify the degree of difficulty of achieving the saving target and determine the policies and measures to be taken, we are going to analyze the evolution of energy efficiency (energy consumption energy units per unit of GDP - economic unit) in Spain from 1980 to date and the value of energy intensity that we should have in 2020 to achieve the targets. This will give us an idea of the magnitude of the challenge and, therefore, of the efforts we will have to make to achieve the target. (Author)

  20. ALICE Holds Up to Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ALICE's main austenitic stainless steel support structure (the Space Frame) has recently gone through many tests that proved quite challenging: insuring the structure is sound and lowering it horizontally into the ALICE cavern. This structure is constructed to hold the large volume detectors, such as the Time Projection Chamber, Transition Radiation Detector and Time of Flight inside the ALICE solenoid magnet. After the final assembly at CERN, two large mobile cranes were needed for the job of lifting and turning the 14 tonne frame onto its side. Once shifted, it was placed in Building SX2, one of the surface assembly areas designated for ALICE. The structure, which is 8 m in diameter and 7 m long, underwent many tests in its new position. Geometric control tests were performed by measuring each of the 18 cells and placing wooden or metal samples constructed to the same dimensions as the real thing inside the structure. The most important check was the movement of the real Time Projection Chamber from its s...

  1. Mystery photos: challenge No. 2!

    CERN Multimedia

    Alex Brown, Jens Vigen

    2014-01-01

    In the last issue of the Bulletin, we launched a public appeal for information to identify some CERN pictures that have recently been digitised by the CERN Library. The response has been huge. The story was picked up on many websites and discussion forums all over the Web, and hundreds of people sent in their suggestions. Time for a new challenge.   Many thousands of CERN's archived pictures are currently being scanned and uploaded to the CERN Document Server. While most of these pictures can be matched to existing historical information, many are harder to identify. Following the recent article in the last issue of the Bulletin, we have received submissions in five different languages from a dozen countries. We would like to express our thanks to everyone who has contributed their answers. We have now identified all of the pictures highlighted in the last issue of the Bulletin and we are updating the records accordingly. You can see them all here. To see a complete lis...

  2. Tuberculosis diagnostics: Challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Nema

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB has been a disease affecting almost all parts of the world since ages. Lot many efforts came in the past for improving diagnosis and treatment. Also, an effective vaccine has been sought after for long. With the emergence of resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causal organisms of tuberculosis, and complexities emerging due to other associated infections and disease conditions, there is a desperate need for further research input in the field. Be it the better medication and care or better resistance management, proper diagnostics holds the key to success. It has been observed that a high burden of the disease was accompanied by resource limitations and poor research set-up. The scenario remained like this for several decades. With the refreshed vision of resourceful countries and funding agencies, funding is being provided in many areas of research in tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment. This review has been written with an aim to bring forth the limitations of available methods in the field of diagnostics and making researchers aware about the changing scenario with better funding opportunities and support. The author visualizes an enthusiasm from all over the world for the development of better modalities and urges scientists to join the struggle at this very perfect time to take the challenge and come forward with innovations in this field.

  3. Flexicurity as a reality challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Zupančič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publics’ interest is lately focused on establishing so called principle of flexicurity, or flexible safety, and its effects on individuals. Principle presents a big challenge when executing and realizing aims of European employment strategy, and also with executing national employment politics. Flexicurity is in fact an answer to all higher demands of globalisation and competition and also answers all higher needs of adaptability of employed and companies. Principle combines four interconnected components in order to achieve high synergy of effects and balance. Objectives of flexicurity are improvement of existent conditions in European Union labour market and to enable higher participation rates in labour market for individuals (reduction of segmentation, easier adaptation of workers and companies, reducing unemployment (mainly specific groups, supporting entrance to labour market and easier and faster transitions between different contracts (increasing safety with non standard employments and fixed-time employments. Introduction of flexicurity in present economic situation is not a choice but a condition of competitive position and economical growth and development. It is a dynamic mechanism of adaptation to situation and is becoming more important in time of world crisis.

  4. CMS prepares for new challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    One of the world’s largest physics experiments has just had a change in leadership. This is a chance for the collaboration to take stock of the tremendous work done for LS1 and to prepare for the challenges that lie ahead.   From left to right: Kerstin Borras, Tiziano Camporesi and Paris Sphicas. “The keyword is teamwork. That’s the only way you can effectively manage a large number of extremely talented and motivated people,” says Tiziano Camporesi who took the reins of the CMS collaboration at the beginning of the year. The recipe might seem easier on paper than in practice. However, given his 28 years at CERN, two of which he spent as the head of the DELPHI collaboration, Camporesi has extensive experience in managing large scientific collaborations and success in this respect is well within his reach: “I have learned many lessons from the past and I believe that building consensus is instrumental to successful leadership.” The C...

  5. Silicon spintronics: Progress and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Electron spin attracts much attention as an alternative to the electron charge degree of freedom for low-power reprogrammable logic and non-volatile memory applications. Silicon appears to be the perfect material for spin-driven applications. Recent progress and challenges regarding spin-based devices are reviewed. An order of magnitude enhancement of the electron spin lifetime in silicon thin films by shear strain is predicted and its impact on spin transport in SpinFETs is discussed. A relatively weak coupling between spin and effective electric field in silicon allows magnetoresistance modulation at room temperature, however, for long channel lengths. Due to tunneling magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects, a much stronger coupling between the spin (magnetization) orientation and charge current is achieved in magnetic tunnel junctions. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) built on magnetic tunnel junctions is CMOS compatible and possesses all properties needed for future universal memory. Designs of spin-based non-volatile MRAM cells are presented. By means of micromagnetic simulations it is demonstrated that a substantial reduction of the switching time can be achieved. Finally, it is shown that any two arbitrary memory cells from an MRAM array can be used to perform a logic operation. Thus, an intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architecture can be realized

  6. Manned NEO Mission EVA Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The President has proposed to land astronauts on an asteroid by 2025. However, Manned NEO (Near Earth Objects) Missions will present a host of new and exciting problems that will need to be better defined and solved before such a mission is launched. Here I will focus on the challenges for conducting asteroidal EVAs. Specfically, crew locomotion, sampling, drilling, documentation, and instrument deployment issues arising from the micro gravity environments associated with NEOs. Therefore, novel methods and techniques will need to be developed and tested in order to achieve specific mission science objectives. Walking or driving on the surface will not be a realistic option due to the small sizes (10 s to 100 s of meters in diameter) and hence extremely low gravity of the present day known candidate NEOs. EVAs will have to be carried out with crew members either using a self propelled device (akin to the MMU and SAFER units used on Shuttle/ISS) and or tethers. When using tethers a grid system could be deployed which is anchored to the asteroid. These anchor points could be inserted by firing penetrators into the surface from the spacecraft while it is still at a safe standoff distance. These penetrators would pull double duty by being laden with scientific instrumentation to probe the subsurface. Dust and debris generated by sample collection and locomotion in a microgravity environment could also pose some problems that will require forethought.

  7. Ulysses mission design after Challenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthey, Joe L.; Peralta, Fernando; Pojman, Joan L.

    1990-01-01

    The delay of the Ulysses launch from May 1986 to October 1990, because of the Challenger disaster, has altered both the constraints under which the mission must be designed and the timing of several mission critical events. Safety and launch reliability concerns from the Shuttle have increased the effective launch window to durations greater than one hour. Fortuitously high declinations of the launch asymptote (DLA), of the order of the launch site latitude, ameliorate the impact of the new constraints on the launch window. Target overlays in the first hour of the launch window provide higher departure energies that improve mission performance and avoid a science schedule conflict at second opposition near the time of closest Jupiter approach. The mission design starts with the maximum earth departure energy that the upper stage can deliver within the launch constraints. The Jupiter arrival asymptotes are chosen from the optimal point of mission performance in the mission space defined in the Jupiter B-plane by contours mapped by the science and spacecraft constraints. More than half the orbital energy of the earth-to-Jupiter transfer orbit is lost in the Jupiter flyby, and the Jupiter gravitational assist rotates the orbit plane out of the ecliptic to an inclination of about 80 degrees.

  8. Challenges in Commercializing Biomimetic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark; Madsen, Steen Ulrik; Jørgensen, Tine; Braekevelt, Sylvie; Lauritzen, Karsten; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-11-05

    The discovery of selective water channel proteins-aquaporins-has prompted growing interest in using these proteins, as the building blocks for designing new types of membranes. However, as with any other new and potentially disruptive technology, barriers for successful market entry exist. One category includes customer-related barriers, which can be influenced to some extent. Another category includes market-technical-related barriers, which can be very difficult to overcome by an organization/company aiming at successfully introducing their innovation on the market-in particular if both the organization and the technology are at early stages. Often, one faces barriers from both these categories at the same time, which makes it necessary to gain insight of the particular market when introducing a new innovative product. In this review we present the basic concepts and discuss some of these barriers and challenges associated with introducing biomimetic aquaporin membranes. These include technical issues in membrane production and product testing. Then we discuss possible business models for introducing new technologies in general, followed by a presentation of beach-head market segments relevant for biomimetic aquaporin membranes.

  9. Challenges of organized environmental crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugarski Tatjana D.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environment as the totality of natural and man-made values and their relationships, is a complex problem that is not just a challenge for the law in the sense that it is protected from intrusion, but also for the negative social phenomena such as crime. Dynamic negative social phenomenon, immanent to every society, crime is constantly in the process of 'adaptation' in terms of modification of existing and creation of new forms. One of the contemporary forms of crime is an environmental crime which multiplies its concrete forms of manifestation, which is due to the extraordinary diversity of the environment in which offenders constantly find new enforcement cases. Especially significant issues regarding the environment is waste whose collection, transport, treatment and disposal is one of the priority importance for humanity. However, insufficient awareness of the significance and importance of this issue, as well as the harmful consequences of failure in connection with the waste in an appropriate manner, together with the motive of greed is enough for offenders to deal with illegal activity and exercise in relation to different types of waste. In this type of criminal activity usually occur organized criminal group that this type of criminal activity makes it even more difficult. These problems are extremely important and complex, in this paper, attention is given to the organized environmental crime in connection with smuggling of hazardous waste, as one of the forms of organized environmental crime.

  10. New challenges for data design

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The present work provides a platform for leading data designers whose vision and creativity help us to anticipate major changes occurring in the data design field, and pre-empt the future. Each of them strives to provide new answers to the question, “What challenges await data design?” To avoid falling into too narrow a mind-set, each works hard to elucidate the breadth of data design today and to demonstrate its widespread application across a variety of business sectors. With end users in mind, designer-contributors bring to light the myriad of purposes for which the field was originally intended, forging the bond even further between data design and the aims and intentions of those who contribute to it. The first seven parts of the book outline the scope of data design, and presents a line-up of “viewpoints” that highlight this discipline’s main topics, and offers an in-depth look into practices boasting both foresight and imagination. The eighth and final part features a series of interviews wit...

  11. CHALLENGES OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia GALANTON

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article highlights the basic characteristics of the supply chain, specific to changes in the business environment of companies at the beginning of the 21st century. Supply chain activities turn natural resources, raw materials and components into a finished product, which is then delivered to the final customer. The supply chain incorporates the production process alongside the raw material acquisition and distribution of finished products, encompassing all the existing process responsible for transforming the materials taken from the supplier to the finished products delivered to customers. Today, competitiveness and performance of an organization are dependent on belonging to an efficient and effective supply-delivery chain where synergies exist due to the establishment and implementation of common goals and strategies by partners. Competition does not take place between independent organizations or between small groups of organizations, but between supply and delivery chains, made up of interconnected networks of producers, distributors and logistics providers. Under these circumstances, supply chain managers must seek solutions to respond promptly to the most important challenges in the field.

  12. Renewable energies: public policy challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grazi, Laure; Souletie, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Renewable energy sources (RES) are low-carbon energies available right within our borders, and as such can be of great value in addressing the challenges of climate change and energy security. In 2014, renewable energies accounted for 14.6% of France's gross final energy consumption. The French Energy Transition Act for Green Growth sets renewables targets of 23% and 32% as a share of gross final energy consumption by 2020 and 2030, respectively. However, renewable energies are still more costly than conventional energies. A significant share of this additional cost is borne by energy consumers, particularly in the form of energy taxation and biofuels blending obligations. Public aid is also provided to support heat production from renewable energy sources (RES-H). The two most significant aids available today are the Energy Transition Tax Credit (CITE) and the Heat Fund. Comparing the various types of renewable energies shows sharp disparities in terms of the cost of avoiding one tonne of CO 2 , which ranges from euros 59 to more than euros 500 for electricity production it follows that the cost of the energy transition is likely to vary significantly depending on which renewable energy sources are pushed to the fore. The combustion of biomass for heat production appears to offer an economically efficient way to reduce CO 2 emissions. Of the various renewable technologies available for the production of electricity (with the exception of hydropower, which was excluded from the scope of this study), onshore wind power is the least costly

  13. Astronomy Education Challenges in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fady Beshara Morcos, Abd

    2015-08-01

    One of the major challenges in Egypt is the quality of education. Egypt has made significant progress towards achieving the Education for All and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many associations and committees as education reform program and education support programs did high efforts in supporting scientific thinking through the scientific clubs. The current state of astronomical education in Egypt has been developed. Astronomy became a part in both science and geography courses of primary, preparatory and secondary stages. Nowadays the Egyptian National Committee for Astronomy, put on its shoulders the responsibility of revising of astronomy parts in the education courses, beside preparation of some training programs for teachers of different stages of educations, in collaboration with ministry of education. General lectures program has been prepared and started in public places , schools and universities. Many TV and Radio programs aiming to spread astronomical culture were presented. In the university stage new astronomy departments are established and astrophysics courses are imbedded in physics courses even in some private universities.

  14. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  15. Challenges in Commercializing Biomimetic Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Perry

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of selective water channel proteins—aquaporins—has prompted growing interest in using these proteins, as the building blocks for designing new types of membranes. However, as with any other new and potentially disruptive technology, barriers for successful market entry exist. One category includes customer-related barriers, which can be influenced to some extent. Another category includes market-technical-related barriers, which can be very difficult to overcome by an organization/company aiming at successfully introducing their innovation on the market—in particular if both the organization and the technology are at early stages. Often, one faces barriers from both these categories at the same time, which makes it necessary to gain insight of the particular market when introducing a new innovative product. In this review we present the basic concepts and discuss some of these barriers and challenges associated with introducing biomimetic aquaporin membranes. These include technical issues in membrane production and product testing. Then we discuss possible business models for introducing new technologies in general, followed by a presentation of beach-head market segments relevant for biomimetic aquaporin membranes.

  16. Virtual physiological human: training challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Patricia V; Narracott, Andrew V; McCormack, Keith; Bisbal, Jesus; Martin, Carlos; Bijnens, Bart; Brook, Bindi; Zachariou, Margarita; Freixa, Jordi Villà I; Kohl, Peter; Fletcher, Katherine; Diaz-Zuccarini, Vanessa

    2010-06-28

    The virtual physiological human (VPH) initiative encompasses a wide range of activities, including structural and functional imaging, data mining, knowledge discovery tool and database development, biomedical modelling, simulation and visualization. The VPH community is developing from a multitude of relatively focused, but disparate, research endeavours into an integrated effort to bring together, develop and translate emerging technologies for application, from academia to industry and medicine. This process initially builds on the evolution of multi-disciplinary interactions and abilities, but addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of the VPH will require, in the very near future, a translation of quantitative changes into a new quality of highly trained multi-disciplinary personnel. Current strategies for undergraduate and on-the-job training may soon prove insufficient for this. The European Commission seventh framework VPH network of excellence is exploring this emerging need, and is developing a framework of novel training initiatives to address the predicted shortfall in suitably skilled VPH-aware professionals. This paper reports first steps in the implementation of a coherent VPH training portfolio.

  17. Silicon spintronics: Progress and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried, E-mail: Selberherr@TUWien.ac.at

    2015-07-14

    Electron spin attracts much attention as an alternative to the electron charge degree of freedom for low-power reprogrammable logic and non-volatile memory applications. Silicon appears to be the perfect material for spin-driven applications. Recent progress and challenges regarding spin-based devices are reviewed. An order of magnitude enhancement of the electron spin lifetime in silicon thin films by shear strain is predicted and its impact on spin transport in SpinFETs is discussed. A relatively weak coupling between spin and effective electric field in silicon allows magnetoresistance modulation at room temperature, however, for long channel lengths. Due to tunneling magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects, a much stronger coupling between the spin (magnetization) orientation and charge current is achieved in magnetic tunnel junctions. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) built on magnetic tunnel junctions is CMOS compatible and possesses all properties needed for future universal memory. Designs of spin-based non-volatile MRAM cells are presented. By means of micromagnetic simulations it is demonstrated that a substantial reduction of the switching time can be achieved. Finally, it is shown that any two arbitrary memory cells from an MRAM array can be used to perform a logic operation. Thus, an intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architecture can be realized.

  18. Silicon spintronics: Progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2015-07-01

    Electron spin attracts much attention as an alternative to the electron charge degree of freedom for low-power reprogrammable logic and non-volatile memory applications. Silicon appears to be the perfect material for spin-driven applications. Recent progress and challenges regarding spin-based devices are reviewed. An order of magnitude enhancement of the electron spin lifetime in silicon thin films by shear strain is predicted and its impact on spin transport in SpinFETs is discussed. A relatively weak coupling between spin and effective electric field in silicon allows magnetoresistance modulation at room temperature, however, for long channel lengths. Due to tunneling magnetoresistance and spin transfer torque effects, a much stronger coupling between the spin (magnetization) orientation and charge current is achieved in magnetic tunnel junctions. Magnetic random access memory (MRAM) built on magnetic tunnel junctions is CMOS compatible and possesses all properties needed for future universal memory. Designs of spin-based non-volatile MRAM cells are presented. By means of micromagnetic simulations it is demonstrated that a substantial reduction of the switching time can be achieved. Finally, it is shown that any two arbitrary memory cells from an MRAM array can be used to perform a logic operation. Thus, an intrinsic non-volatile logic-in-memory architecture can be realized.

  19. Phenylketonuria: nutritional advances and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovannini Marcello

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the appearance of new treatment, dietary approach remains the mainstay of PKU therapy. The nutritional management has become complex to optimize PKU patients' growth, development and diet compliance. This paper review critically new advances and challenges that have recently focused attention on potential relevant of LCPUFA supplementation, progress in protein substitutes and new protein sources, large neutral amino acids and sapropterin. Given the functional effects, DHA is conditionally essential substrates that should be supplied with PKU diet in infancy but even beyond. An European Commission Programme is going on to establish quantitative DHA requirements in this population. Improvements in the palatability, presentation, convenience and nutritional composition of protein substitutes have helped to improve long-term compliance with PKU diet, although it can be expected for further improvement in this area. Glycomacropeptide, a new protein source, may help to support dietary compliance of PKU subject but further studies are needed to evaluate this metabolic and nutritional issues. The PKU diet is difficult to maintain in adolescence and adult life. Treatment with large neutral amino acids or sapropterin in selected cases can be helpful. However, more studies are necessary to investigate the potential role, dose, and composition of large neutral amino acids in PKU treatment and to show long-term efficacy and tolerance. Ideally treatment with sapropterin would lead to acceptable blood Phe control without dietary treatment but this is uncommon and sapropterin will usually be given in combination with dietary treatment, but clinical protocol evaluating adjustment of PKU diet and sapropterin dosage are needed. In conclusion PKU diet and the new existing treatments, that need to be optimized, may be a complete and combined strategy possibly positive impacting on the psychological, social, and neurocognitive life of PKU patients.

  20. Meeting Ontario's electricity supply challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison between nuclear generation and other existing power generation, with particular reference to the natural gas industry. The aim of the paper was to present a rationale for an extensive nuclear restart in the near future in Ontario. An energy forecast was provided, generating capacity requirements were examined, with particular reference to requirements beyond conservation and renewable energy supplies. The cost effectiveness of nuclear rehabilitation was compared to combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) in terms of capital and non-fuel costs. Future prospects of gas prices were discussed, as well as the possibilities of demand outstripping supply. CCGT costs were compared to nuclear rehabilitation in terms of overall electricity prices, including capital, non-fuel operating costs and fuel costs. Steps towards making the nuclear option a reality included a sustainable market environment; clear policy framework; a balanced energy mix; long term price certainty; and clear regulatory requirements. In was concluded that in order to regenerate its potential, the nuclear industry must demonstrate world class project management; fixed scope; fixed supplier prices; program commitment; guarantees; and realistic future production estimates. It was also concluded that nuclear restart and life extension was an extremely attractive option for consumers, offering long term stable competitive power, with fuel diversity and future reserves as well as zero greenhouse gas emissions and an optimization and use of existing facilities. Challenges in creating the right climate for nuclear rehabilitation were the difficulties in making the nuclear option attractive to investors as well as developing correct estimation of project times, costs, and scopes and allocation of project risks. tabs., figs