WorldWideScience

Sample records for strongly negatively related

  1. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  2. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  3. Strong Turbulence in Alkali Halide Negative Ion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Daniel

    1999-11-01

    Negative ion plasmas (NIPs) are charge-neutral plasmas in which the negative charge is dominated by negative ions rather than electrons. They are found in laser discharges, combustion products, semiconductor manufacturing processes, stellar atmospheres, pulsar magnetospheres, and the Earth's ionosphere, both naturally and man-made. They often display signatures of strong turbulence^1. Development of a novel, compact, unmagnetized alkali halide (MX) NIP source will be discussed, it incorporating a ohmically-heated incandescent (2500K) tantulum solenoid (3cm dia, 15 cm long) with heat shields. The solenoid ionizes the MX vapor and confines contaminant electrons, allowing a very dry (electron-free) source. Plasma densities of 10^10 cm-3 and positive to negative ion mass ratios of 1 Fusion 4, 91 (1978).

  4. Negative mobility of a Brownian particle: Strong damping regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słapik, A.; Łuczka, J.; Spiechowicz, J.

    2018-02-01

    We study impact of inertia on directed transport of a Brownian particle under non-equilibrium conditions: the particle moves in a one-dimensional periodic and symmetric potential, is driven by both an unbiased time-periodic force and a constant force, and is coupled to a thermostat of temperature T. Within selected parameter regimes this system exhibits negative mobility, which means that the particle moves in the direction opposite to the direction of the constant force. It is known that in such a setup the inertial term is essential for the emergence of negative mobility and it cannot be detected in the limiting case of overdamped dynamics. We analyse inertial effects and show that negative mobility can be observed even in the strong damping regime. We determine the optimal dimensionless mass for the presence of negative mobility and reveal three mechanisms standing behind this anomaly: deterministic chaotic, thermal noise induced and deterministic non-chaotic. The last origin has never been reported. It may provide guidance to the possibility of observation of negative mobility for strongly damped dynamics which is of fundamental importance from the point of view of biological systems, all of which in situ operate in fluctuating environments.

  5. Strong negative self regulation of Prokaryotic transcription factors increases the intrinsic noise of protein expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Dafyd J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many prokaryotic transcription factors repress their own transcription. It is often asserted that such regulation enables a cell to homeostatically maintain protein abundance. We explore the role of negative self regulation of transcription in regulating the variability of protein abundance using a variety of stochastic modeling techniques. Results We undertake a novel analysis of a classic model for negative self regulation. We demonstrate that, with standard approximations, protein variance relative to its mean should be independent of repressor strength in a physiological range. Consequently, in that range, the coefficient of variation would increase with repressor strength. However, stochastic computer simulations demonstrate that there is a greater increase in noise associated with strong repressors than predicted by theory. The discrepancies between the mathematical analysis and computer simulations arise because with strong repressors the approximation that leads to Michaelis-Menten-like hyperbolic repression terms ceases to be valid. Because we observe that strong negative feedback increases variability and so is unlikely to be a mechanism for noise control, we suggest instead that negative feedback is evolutionarily favoured because it allows the cell to minimize mRNA usage. To test this, we used in silico evolution to demonstrate that while negative feedback can achieve only a modest improvement in protein noise reduction compared with the unregulated system, it can achieve good improvement in protein response times and very substantial improvement in reducing mRNA levels. Conclusion Strong negative self regulation of transcription may not always be a mechanism for homeostatic control of protein abundance, but instead might be evolutionarily favoured as a mechanism to limit the use of mRNA. The use of hyperbolic terms derived from quasi-steady-state approximation should also be avoided in the analysis of stochastic

  6. Debunking vaccination myths: strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsch, Cornelia; Sachse, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    Information about risks is often contradictory, especially in the health domain. A vast amount of bizarre information on vaccine-adverse events (VAE) can be found on the Internet; most are posted by antivaccination activists. Several actors in the health sector struggle against these statements by negating claimed risks with scientific explanations. The goal of the present work is to find optimal ways of negating risk to decrease risk perceptions. In two online experiments, we varied the extremity of risk negations and their source. Perception of the probability of VAE, their expected severity (both variables serve as indicators of perceived risk), and vaccination intentions. Paradoxically, messages strongly indicating that there is "no risk" led to a higher perceived vaccination risk than weak negations. This finding extends previous work on the negativity bias, which has shown that information stating the presence of risk decreases risk perceptions, while information negating the existence of risk increases such perceptions. Several moderators were also tested; however, the effect occurred independently of the number of negations, recipient involvement, and attitude. Solely the credibility of the information source interacted with the extremity of risk negation: For credible sources (governmental institutions), strong and weak risk negations lead to similar perceived risk, while for less credible sources (pharmaceutical industries) weak negations lead to less perceived risk than strong negations. Optimal risk negation may profit from moderate rather than extreme formulations as a source's trustworthiness can vary.

  7. Body image related negative interpretation bias in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Anderle, Alisa; Schmidt, Hagen; Febry, Stephanie; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally; Leiteritz, Andreas; Friederich, Hans-Christoph

    2018-03-14

    A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder. Body-related negative interpretation bias (i.e., a tendency to interpret ambiguous information about the own body in a negative way) was measured by a Scrambled Sentences Task. Patients with AN showed a stronger body-related negative interpretation bias than healthy controls. Within both groups, negative interpretation bias correlated strongly and positively with AN symptom severity and these effects were not moderated by levels of depressive symptoms. The findings support the idea that biased interpretation of body-related information is associated with the specific psychopathology of AN. Targeted, computerised interventions (e.g. interpretation bias modification) may help to alter these dysfunctional cognitive schemas that lie at the heart of AN. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Embedding relations connected with strong approximation of Fourier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . © Indian Academy of Sciences. Embedding relations connected with strong approximation of Fourier series. BOGDAN SZAL. Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics,. University of Zielona Góra, 65-516 Zielona Góra, ul.

  9. Negative tunneling magneto-resistance in quantum wires with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seungju; Serra, Llorenç; Choi, Mahn-Soo

    2015-07-01

    We consider a two-dimensional magnetic tunnel junction of the FM/I/QW(FM+SO)/I/N structure, where FM, I and QW(FM+SO) stand for a ferromagnet, an insulator and a quantum wire with both magnetic ordering and Rashba spin-orbit (SOC), respectively. The tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR) exhibits strong anisotropy and switches sign as the polarization direction varies relative to the quantum-wire axis, due to interplay among the one-dimensionality, the magnetic ordering, and the strong SOC of the quantum wire.

  10. Problematic smartphone use and relations with negative affect, fear of missing out, and fear of negative and positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolniewicz, Claire A; Tiamiyu, Mojisola F; Weeks, Justin W; Elhai, Jon D

    2017-09-25

    For many individuals, excessive smartphone use interferes with everyday life. In the present study, we recruited a non-clinical sample of 296 participants for a cross-sectional survey of problematic smartphone use, social and non-social smartphone use, and psychopathology-related constructs including negative affect, fear of negative and positive evaluation, and fear of missing out (FoMO). Results demonstrated that FoMO was most strongly related to both problematic smartphone use and social smartphone use relative to negative affect and fears of negative and positive evaluation, and these relations held when controlling for age and gender. Furthermore, FoMO (cross-sectionally) mediated relations between both fear of negative and positive evaluation with both problematic and social smartphone use. Theoretical implications are considered with regard to developing problematic smartphone use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Achieving a strongly negative scattering asymmetry factor in random media composed of dual-dipolar particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. X.; Zhao, C. Y.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding radiative transfer in random media like micro- or nanoporous and particulate materials, allows people to manipulate the scattering and absorption of radiation, as well as opens new possibilities in applications such as imaging through turbid media, photovoltaics, and radiative cooling. A strong-backscattering phase function, i.e., a negative scattering asymmetry parameter g , is of great interest, which can possibly lead to unusual radiative transport phenomena, for instance, Anderson localization of light. Here we demonstrate that by utilizing the structural correlations and second Kerker condition for a disordered medium composed of randomly distributed silicon nanoparticles, a strongly negative scattering asymmetry factor (g ˜-0.5 ) for multiple light scattering can be realized in the near infrared. Based on the multipole expansion of Foldy-Lax equations and quasicrystalline approximation (QCA), we have rigorously derived analytical expressions for the effective propagation constant and scattering phase function for a random system containing spherical particles, by taking the effect of structural correlations into account. We show that as the concentration of scattering particles rises, the backscattering is also enhanced. Moreover, in this circumstance, the transport mean free path is largely reduced and even becomes smaller than that predicted by independent scattering approximation. We further explore the dependent scattering effects, including the modification of electric and magnetic dipole excitations and far-field interference effect, both induced and influenced by the structural correlations, for volume fraction of particles up to fv˜0.25 . Our results have profound implications in harnessing micro- or nanoscale radiative transfer through random media.

  12. Application of the nuclear liquid drop model to a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M.Ya.; Kornyushin, Y. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem (Israel)]. E-mail: yurik@vms.huji.ac.il

    2000-09-01

    The nuclear liquid drop model is applied to describe some basic properties of a negative hydrogen ion in the strong electric field of a laser. The equilibrium ionic size, energy and polarizability of the ion are calculated. Collective modes of the dipole oscillations are considered. A barrier which arises in a strong electric field is studied. The barrier vanishes at some large value of the electric field, which is defined as a critical value. The dependence of the critical field on frequency is studied. At frequencies {omega}{>=}({omega}{sub d}/2{sup 1/2}) ({omega}{sub d} is the frequency of the dipole oscillations of the electronic cloud relative to the nucleus) the barrier remains for any field. At high frequencies a 'stripping' mechanism for instability arises. At the resonant frequency a rather low amplitude of the electric field causes the 'stripping' instability. (author)

  13. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolders, Anna C; Tops, Mattie; Band, Guido P H; Stallen, Pieter Jan M

    2017-01-01

    To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (in)dependence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS) theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014). Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity) resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid). PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007). Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed) was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  14. Perceptual Sensitivity and Response to Strong Stimuli Are Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To shed new light on the long-standing debate about the (independence of sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity to strong stimuli, we examined the relation between these tendencies within the neurobehavioral framework of the Predictive and Reactive Control Systems (PARCS theory (Tops et al., 2010, 2014. Whereas previous studies only considered overreactivity in terms of the individual tendency to experience unpleasant affect (punishment reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation, we also took the individual tendency to experience pleasant affect (reward reactivity resulting from strong sensory stimulation into account. According to PARCS theory, these temperamental tendencies overlap in terms of high reactivity toward stimulation, but oppose each other in terms of the response orientation (approach or avoid. PARCS theory predicts that both types of reactivity to strong stimuli relate to sensitivity to weak stimuli, but that these relationships are suppressed due to the opposing relationship between reward and punishment reactivity. We measured punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli and sensitivity to weak stimuli using scales from the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (Evans and Rothbart, 2007. Sensitivity was also measured more objectively using the masked auditory threshold. We found that sensitivity to weak stimuli (both self-reported and objectively assessed was positively associated with self-reported punishment and reward reactivity to strong stimuli, but only when these reactivity measures were controlled for each other, implicating a mutual suppression effect. These results are in line with PARCS theory and suggest that sensitivity to weak stimuli and overreactivity are dependent, but this dependency is likely to be obscured if punishment and reward reactivity are not both taken into account.

  15. On autostability of almost prime models relative to strong constructivizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, Sergey S

    2011-01-01

    Questions of autostability and algorithmic dimension of models go back to papers by A.I. Malcev and by A. Froehlich and J.C. Shepherdson in which the effect of the existence of computable presentations which are non-equivalent from the viewpoint of their algorithmic properties was first discovered. Today there are many papers by various authors devoted to investigations of such questions. The present paper deals with the question of inheritance of the properties of autostability and non-autostability relative to strong constructivizations under elementary extensions for almost prime models. Bibliography: 37 titles.

  16. Prediction of the occurrence of related strong earthquakes in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieva, I.A.; Panza, G.F.

    1993-06-01

    In the seismic flow it is often observed that a Strong Earthquake (SE), is followed by Related Strong Earthquakes (RSEs), which occur near the epicentre of the SE with origin time rather close to the origin time of the SE. The algorithm for the prediction of the occurrence of a RSE has been developed and applied for the first time to the seismicity data of the California-Nevada region and has been successfully tested in several regions of the World, the statistical significance of the result being 97%. So far, it has been possible to make five successful forward predictions, with no false alarms or failures to predict. The algorithm is applied here to the Italian territory, where the occurrence of RSEs is a particularly rare phenomenon. Our results show that the standard algorithm is successfully directly applicable without any adjustment of the parameters. Eleven SEs are considered. Of them, three are followed by a RSE, as predicted by the algorithm, eight SEs are not followed by a RSE, and the algorithm predicts this behaviour for seven of them, giving rise to only one false alarm. Since, in Italy, quite often the series of strong earthquakes are relatively short, the algorithm has been extended to handle such situation. The result of this experiment indicates that it is possible to attempt to test a SE, for the occurrence of a RSE, soon after the occurrence of the SE itself, performing timely ''preliminary'' recognition on reduced data sets. This fact, the high confidence level of the retrospective analysis, and the first successful forward predictions, made in different parts of the World, indicates that, even if additional tests are desirable, the algorithm can already be considered for routine application to Civil Defence. (author). Refs, 3 figs, 7 tabs

  17. Probing strong-field general relativity near black holes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Alvarez-Gaumé, Luís

    2005-01-01

    Nature has sprinkled black holes of various sizes throughout the universe, from stellar mass black holes in X-ray sources to supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses in quasars. Astronomers today are probing the spacetime near black holes using X-rays, and gravitational waves will open a different view in the near future. These tools give us an unprecedented opportunity to test ultra-strong-field general relativity, including the fundamental theorem of the uniqueness of the Kerr metric and Roger Penrose's cosmic censorship conjecture. Already, fascinating studies of spectral lines are showing the extreme gravitational lensing effects near black holes and allowing crude measurements of black hole spin. When the ESA-NASA gravitational wave detector LISA begins its observations in about 10 years, it will make measurements of dynamical spacetimes near black holes with an accuracy greater even than that which theoreticians can reach with their computations today. Most importantly, when gravitational wa...

  18. Stability of matrices with sufficiently strong negative-dominant-diagonal submatrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, H.J.; Schoonbeek, L.

    A well-known sufficient condition for stability of a system of linear first-order differential equations is that the matrix of the homogeneous dynamics has a negative dominant diagonal. However, this condition cannot be applied to systems of second-order differential equations. In this paper we

  19. Probing Strong-field General Relativity with Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Frans

    We are on the verge of a new era in astrophysics as a world-wide effort to observe the universe with gravitational waves takes hold---ground based laser interferometers (Hz to kHz), pulsar timing (micro to nano Hz), measurements of polarization of the cosmic microwave background (sub-nano Hz), and the planned NASA/ESA mission LISA (.1 mHz to .1 Hz). This project will study the theoretical nature of gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by two sources in the LISA band, namely supermassive-black-hole (SMBH) binary mergers, and extreme-mass-ratio-inspirals (EMRI's)---the merger of a stellar mass black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf with a SMBH. The primary goal will be to ascertain how well LISA, by observing these sources, could answer the following related questions about the fundamental nature of strong-field gravity: Does Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) describe the geometry of black holes in the universe? What constraints can GW observations of SMBH mergers and EMRIs place on alternative theories of gravity? If there are deviations from GR, are there statistics that could give indications of a deviation if sources are detected using a search strategy based solely on GR waveforms? The primary reasons for focusing on LISA sources to answer these questions are (a) binary SMBH mergers could be detected by LISA with exquisitely high signal-to- noise, allowing enough parameters of the system to be accurately extracted to perform consistency checks of the underlying theory, (b) EMRIs will spend numerous orbits close to the central black hole, and thus will be quite sensitive to even small near-horizon deviations from GR. One approach to develop the requisite knowledge and tools to answer these questions is to study a concrete, theoretically viable alternative to GR. We will focus on the dynamical variant of Chern-Simons modified gravity (CSMG), which is interesting for several reasons, chief among which are (1) that CSMG generically arises in both string

  20. Embedding relations connected with strong approximation of Fourier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing only odd functions and a set of functions defined via the strong means of Fourier series of odd continuous functions. We establish an improvement of a recent theorem of Le and Zhou [Math. Inequal. Appl. 11(4) (2008) 749–756] which is a generalization of Tikhonov's results [Anal. Math. 31 (2005) 183–194]. We also ...

  1. Do negative aspects of social relations influence fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekmann, Anette; Avlund, Kirsten; Osler, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint among young and old adults and may be associated with negative aspects of social relations. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the association between demands from and conflicts with different sources of social relations and fatigue.......Fatigue is a common complaint among young and old adults and may be associated with negative aspects of social relations. Hence, the purpose of this study was to explore the association between demands from and conflicts with different sources of social relations and fatigue....

  2. Are all negative consequences truly negative? Assessing variations among college students' perceptions of alcohol related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Bachrach, Rachel L; Turrisi, Rob

    2008-10-01

    Brief feedback sessions have been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in college student samples. However, these feedback sessions show mixed results in reducing negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Because the discussion of alcohol consequences is a component of feedback sessions, it was seen as important to evaluate the degree to which college students perceive these consequences as negative. The present study assessed college students' perceptions of positivity-negativity of alcohol related consequences they experienced during the past year. The findings revealed college students' perceptions of positivity-negativity varied depending on the consequence that was assessed. Most consequences were considered negative by greater than 50% of the sample. There were six consequences that were not considered negative by the majority of the sample and of these, all were considered positive or neutral by greater than at least 50% of the sample. Finally, perceived positivity of the consequences were associated with higher weekly drinking patterns for vomiting, blackouts, regretted sex, late to work/class, skipping an evening meal, and being hungover. Results are discussed in reference to improving brief alcohol interventions for college students.

  3. Relational aggression, positive urgency and negative urgency: predicting alcohol use and consequences among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Research on relational aggression (indirect and social means of inflicting harm) has previously focused on adolescent populations. The current study extends this research by exploring both the frequency of perpetrating and being the target of relational aggression as it relates to alcohol use outcomes in a college population. Further, this study examines whether positive urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to positive emotions) and negative urgency (e.g., acting impulsively in response to negative emotions) moderate the relationship between relational aggression and alcohol outcomes. In this study, 245 college students (65.7% female) completed an online survey. Results indicated greater frequency of perpetrating relational aggression, higher levels of positive urgency, or higher levels of negative urgency was associated with more negative consequences. Further, negative urgency moderated the relationship between frequency of perpetrating aggression and consequences such that aggression was more strongly associated with consequences for those high in urgency. Counter to the adolescent literature, the frequency of being the target of aggression was not associated with more alcohol use. These findings suggest that perpetrators of relational aggression may be at particular risk for negative alcohol-related consequences when they act impulsively in response to negative, but not positive, emotions. These students may benefit from interventions exploring alternative ways to cope with negative emotions.

  4. Can we bet on negative emissions to achieve the 2°C target even under strong carbon cycle feedbacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Yokohata, T.; Emori, S.; Hanaoka, T.

    2015-12-01

    Negative emission technologies such as Bioenergy with Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage (BioCCS) play an ever more crucial role in meeting the 2°C stabilization target. However, such technologies are currently at their infancy and their future penetrations may fall short of the scale required to stabilize the warming. Furthermore, the overshoot in the mid-century prior to a full realization of negative emissions would give rise to a risk because such a temporal but excessive warming above 2°C might amplify itself by strengthening climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. It has not been extensively assessed yet how carbon cycle feedbacks might play out during the overshoot in the context of negative emissions. This study explores how 2°C stabilization pathways, in particular those which undergo overshoot, can be influenced by carbon cycle feedbacks and asks their climatic and economic consequences. We compute 2°C stabilization emissions scenarios under a cost-effectiveness principle, in which the total abatement costs are minimized such that the global warming is capped at 2°C. We employ a reduced-complexity model, the Aggregated Carbon Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, and Climate model (ACC2), which comprises a box model of the global carbon cycle, simple parameterizations of the atmospheric chemistry, and a land-ocean energy balance model. The total abatement costs are estimated from the marginal abatement cost functions for CO2, CH4, N2O, and BC.Our preliminary results show that, if carbon cycle feedbacks turn out to be stronger than what is known today, it would incur substantial abatement costs to keep up with the 2°C stabilization goal. Our results also suggest that it would be less expensive in the long run to plan for a 2°C stabilization pathway by considering strong carbon cycle feedbacks because it would cost more if we correct the emission pathway in the mid-century to adjust for unexpectedly large carbon cycle feedbacks during overshoot. Furthermore, our

  5. Oxytocin and diabetes mellitus: a strong biochemical relation. Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoangelos, K; Papageorgiou, C C; Raptis, A E; Rabavilas, A D; Papadimitriou, G N

    2013-11-01

    Oxytocin (OXT) is a neurohypophysial hormone which is synthesized in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus. OXT is currently attracting considerable attention because it has been discovered that it regulates various functions of behavior especially in the context of social interactions. OXT is a key component in bone formation, glycemia, male sexuality, cardiac differentiation and pregnancy and thus it is important to be further explored. The authors review various aspects of gestational diabetes, including definition, screening, diagnostic procedures, complications, clinical evaluation, indications of delivery and neonatal aspects. Not only the relation among diabetes mellitus, oxytocin and neurophysiology concerning erectile dysfunction, but also the role of OXT in the activity of arginine and vasopressin is investigated. It is imperative to develop technological and experimental methods that will be able to reveal the oxytocin and its potential.

  6. Positive and Negative Themes Found in Sport-Related Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Hannah M; Olympia, Robert P; King, Tonya S; Wakefield, Bryan H; Weber, Chris J

    2017-06-01

    Sport participation is an important part of the development of children and adolescents in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine positive and negative themes found in a selected number of sport-related films. A total of 44 sport-related films were independently viewed and analyzed by four reviewers. The most common sports depicted were baseball (27%) and football (25%). The most common positive themes were positive interactions with the coach, positive interactions with family and friends, and positive interactions with teammates (2.04, 1.42, 1.2 mean events per hour). The most common negative themes were taunting/fighting/poor sportsmanship, negative interactions with the coach, and drinking/smoking/drug use (2.13, 1.10, 0.94 mean events per hour). In conclusion, the coviewing of sport films among pediatric athletes and their coaches, athletic trainers, and/or parents in order to focus on "teachable moments" may encourage the acquisition and development of positive themes and the avoidance and de-emphasis of negative themes.

  7. Lactate dehydrogenase has no control on lactate production but has a strong negative control on formate production in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.W.; Pedersen, M.B.; Hammer, Karin

    2001-01-01

    a homolactic pattern of fermentation. Only after lactate dehydrogenase activity was reduced ninefold compared to the wild-type was the growth rate significantly affected, and the ldh mutants started to produce mixed-acid products (formate, acetate, and ethanol in addition to lactate). Flux control coefficients...... enhanced in the strain deleted for lactate dehydrogenase. What is more surprising is that the enzyme had a strong negative control (C- LDH(F1)J=-1.3) on the flux to formate at the wild-type level of lactate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, we showed that L. lactis has limited excess of capacity of lactate...... dehydrogenase, only 70% more than needed to catalyze the lactate flux in the wild- type cells....

  8. Tendon progenitor cells in injured tendons have strong chondrogenic potential: the CD105-negative subpopulation induces chondrogenic degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Shuji; Otsuru, Satoru; Candela, Maria Elena; Cantley, Leslie; Uchibe, Kenta; Hofmann, Ted J; Zhang, Kairui; Wapner, Keith L; Soslowsky, Louis J; Horwitz, Edwin M; Enomoto-Iwamoto, Motomi

    2014-12-01

    To study the cellular mechanism of the tendon repair process, we used a mouse Achilles tendon injury model to focus on the cells recruited to the injured site. The cells isolated from injured tendon 1 week after the surgery and uninjured tendons contained the connective tissue progenitor populations as determined by colony-forming capacity, cell surface markers, and multipotency. When the injured tendon-derived progenitor cells (inTPCs) were transplanted into injured Achilles tendons, they were not only integrated in the regenerating area expressing tenogenic phenotype but also trans-differentiated into chondrogenic cells in the degenerative lesion that underwent ectopic endochondral ossification. Surprisingly, the micromass culture of the inTPCs rapidly underwent chondrogenic differentiation even in the absence of exogenous bone morphogenetic proteins or TGFβs. The cells isolated from human ruptured tendon tissues also showed connective tissue progenitor properties and exhibited stronger chondrogenic ability than bone marrow stromal cells. The mouse inTPCs contained two subpopulations one positive and one negative for CD105, a coreceptor of the TGFβ superfamily. The CD105-negative cells showed superior chondrogenic potential in vitro and induced larger chondroid degenerative lesions in mice as compared to the CD105-positive cells. These findings indicate that tendon progenitor cells are recruited to the injured site of tendons and have a strong chondrogenic potential and that the CD105-negative population of these cells would be the cause for chondroid degeneration in injured tendons. The newly identified cells recruited to the injured tendon may provide novel targets to develop therapeutic strategies to facilitate tendon repair. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  9. [Negative symptoms in schizophrenia and substance-related disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance-related disorders is common in psychiatric practice. Epidemiologic studies and report have established that the risk of a substance-related disorder was 4 to 5 times higher in a population of psychiatric patients than in the general population. However, little is known on the reason of this relationship and the treatments required. It's well known that a family history of psychosis is a risk factor of schizophrenia. Similarly a family history of substance use disorders increases the risk of using substances. Because the two disorders often occurred together, it could be hypothesized that a genetic risk factor is common. However, recent studies did not confirm this hypothesis and it seems that their genetic risks factor would be unrelated. Evidence now exists describing the different profiles of patients whether they used substance or not. Concerning negative symptoms clinical studies and meta-analyses have described fewer symptoms in schizophrenia patients with a substance use disorder. Among the different explanations that have been addressed, it seems that a lower capability of obtaining the substance could partly explain this relationship. Perhaps because patients with social withdrawal have more difficulties to find and spend the time required to obtain abused substances. At the opposite some products such as cocaine may relieve some symptoms especially anhedonia and alogia. However the link between substance-related disorders and negative symptoms is weak and decreases in more recent studies, probably because negative symptoms as well as addiction disorders are better characterized. Considering that treating psychiatric symptoms may not always lead to a decrease in the substance-related disorders but that patients who give up substances improve their psychotic symptoms, a therapeutic strategy should be planned for these dual disorders patients combining psychiatry and addiction interventions. Copyright © 2015

  10. Delinquency as a Mediator of the Relation between Negative Affectivity and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoal, Gavin D.; Gudonis, Lauren C.; Giancola, Peter R.; Tarter, Ralph E.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined mediators of the longitudinal relation between negative affectivity and the development of problematic drinking behavior in adolescent boys and girls. In the present study, 499 early adolescents completed inventories of negative affectivity, attitudes toward delinquency, personal delinquency, and affiliation with delinquent peers. Positive attitudes toward delinquency emerged as the most consistent mediator and strongly predicted drinking frequency in various situations. Compared with personal delinquency, both attitudes toward delinquency and peer delinquency were superior predictors of affect-related drinking. Our results also demonstrated that positive attitudes toward delinquency mediated the relation between negative affectivity and later development of an alcohol use disorder. These findings suggest that a proneness to unpleasant affect impacts adolescent drinking by heightening risk for general rejection of normative behavior, rather than by increasing drinking as a means of managing affect. The importance and implications of testing delinquency variables together in the same model are discussed. PMID:17490823

  11. Enhanced Feedback-Related Negativity in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei Yamaguchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, results in the impairment of executive function, including that of performance monitoring. Feedback-related negativity (FRN is an electrophysiological measure reflecting the activity of this monitoring system via feedback signals, and is generated from the anterior cingulate cortex. However, there have been no reports on FRN in AD. Based on prior aging studies, we hypothesized that FRN would decrease in AD patients. To assess this, FRN was measured in healthy individuals and those with AD during a simple gambling task involving positive and negative feedback stimuli. Contrary to our hypothesis, FRN amplitude increased in AD patients, compared with the healthy elderly. We speculate that this may reflect the existence of a compensatory mechanism against the decline in executive function. Also, there was a significant association between FRN amplitude and depression scores in AD, and the FRN amplitude tended to increase insomuch as the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS was higher. This result suggests the existence of a negative bias in the affective state in AD. Thus, the impaired functioning monitoring system in AD is a more complex phenomenon than we thought.

  12. Structural Relations among Negative Affect, Mate Value, and Mating Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Randi Kirsner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared the ability of models based on evolutionary economic theory and Life History (LH Theory to explain relations among self-reported negative affect, mate value, and mating effort. Method: Two hundred thirty-eight undergraduates provided multiple measures of these latent constructs, permitting us to test a priori predictions based on Kirsner, Figueredo, and Jacobs (2003. We compared the fit of the initial model to the fit of five alternative theory-driven models using nested model comparisons of Structural Equations Models. Rejecting less parsimonious and explanatory models eliminated the original model. Two equally parsimonious models explained the data pattern well. The first, based on evolutionary economic theory, specified that Negative Affect increases both Personal Mate Value and Mating Effort via the direct effects specified in the original model. The second, based on LH Theory, specified that Negative Affect, Personal Mate Value, and Mating Effort relate spuriously through a common latent construct, the LH Factor. The primary limitation of the present study is generalizability. We used self-reports taken from a young, university-based sample that included a spectrum of affective states. We cannot know how well these models generalize to an older population or to actual behavior. Both models predict the presence of a rich pattern of mate acquisition and retention behaviors, including an alarming set of behavioral tactics often not considered or targeted during treatment. Moreover, each model suggests a unique set of problems may arise after an effective intervention. We describe several ways to distinguish these models empirically.

  13. Are All Negative Consequences Truly Negative? Assessing Variations Among College Students’ Perceptions of Alcohol Related Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Turrisi, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Brief feedback sessions have been shown to reduce alcohol consumption in college student samples. However, these feedback sessions show mixed results in reducing negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Because the discussion of alcohol consequences is a component of feedback sessions, it was seen as important to evaluate the degree to which college students perceive these consequences as negative. The present study assessed college students’ perceptions of positivity-negativity of alcoh...

  14. The genetics of anxiety-related negative valence system traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jeanne E; Sawyers, Chelsea; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Hettema, John M

    2017-03-01

    NIMH's Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) domain of negative valence systems (NVS) captures constructs of negative affect such as fear and distress traditionally subsumed under the various internalizing disorders. Through its aims to capture dimensional measures that cut across diagnostic categories and are linked to underlying neurobiological systems, a large number of phenotypic constructs have been proposed as potential research targets. Since "genes" represent a central "unit of analysis" in the RDoC matrix, it is important for studies going forward to apply what is known about the genetics of these phenotypes as well as fill in the gaps of existing knowledge. This article reviews the extant genetic epidemiological data (twin studies, heritability) and molecular genetic association findings for a broad range of putative NVS phenotypic measures. We find that scant genetic epidemiological data is available for experimentally derived measures such as attentional bias, peripheral physiology, or brain-based measures of threat response. The molecular genetic basis of NVS phenotypes is in its infancy, since most studies have focused on a small number of candidate genes selected for putative association to anxiety disorders (ADs). Thus, more research is required to provide a firm understanding of the genetic aspects of anxiety-related NVS constructs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Error-Related Negativities During Spelling Judgments Expose Orthographic Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lindsay N.; Perfetti, Charles A.; Rickles, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, we demonstrate that error-related negativities (ERNs) recorded during spelling decisions can expose individual differences in lexical knowledge. The first experiment found that the ERN was elicited during spelling decisions and that its magnitude was correlated with independent measures of subjects’ spelling knowledge. In the second experiment, we manipulated the phonology of misspelled stimuli and observed that ERN magnitudes were larger when misspelled words altered the phonology of their correctly spelled counterparts than when they preserved it. Thus, when an error is made in a decision about spelling, the brain processes indexed by the ERN reflect both phonological and orthographic input to the decision process. In both experiments, ERN effect sizes were correlated with assessments of lexical knowledge and reading, including offline spelling ability and spelling-mediated vocabulary knowledge. These results affirm the interdependent nature of orthographic, semantic, and phonological knowledge components while showing that spelling knowledge uniquely influences the ERN during spelling decisions. Finally, the study demonstrates the value of ERNs in exposing individual differences in lexical knowledge. PMID:24389506

  16. Diversification rates are more strongly related to microhabitat than climate in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars-Closel, Melissa; Kohlsdorf, Tiana; Moen, Daniel S; Wiens, John J

    2017-09-01

    Patterns of species richness among clades can be directly explained by the ages of clades or their rates of diversification. The factors that most strongly influence diversification rates remain highly uncertain, since most studies typically consider only a single predictor variable. Here, we explore the relative impacts of macroclimate (i.e., occurring in tropical vs. temperate regions) and microhabitat use (i.e., terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, aquatic) on diversification rates of squamate reptile clades (lizards and snakes). We obtained data on microhabitat, macroclimatic distribution, and phylogeny for >4000 species. We estimated diversification rates of squamate clades (mostly families) from a time-calibrated tree, and used phylogenetic methods to test relationships between diversification rates and microhabitat and macroclimate. Across 72 squamate clades, the best-fitting model included microhabitat but not climatic distribution. Microhabitat explained ∼37% of the variation in diversification rates among clades, with a generally positive impact of arboreal microhabitat use on diversification, and negative impacts of fossorial and aquatic microhabitat use. Overall, our results show that the impacts of microhabitat on diversification rates can be more important than those of climate, despite much greater emphasis on climate in previous studies. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. The role of mental imagery in depression: Negative mental imagery induces strong implicit and explicit affect in depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Maria Görgen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mental imagery, seeing with the mind’s eyes, can induce stronger positive as well as negative affect compared to verbal processing. Given this emotion-amplifying effect, it appears likely that mental images play an important role in affective disorders. According to the subcomponents model of depression, depressed mood is maintained by both negative imagery (which amplifies negative mood and less efficient positive imagery processes. Empirical research on the link between mental imagery and affect in clinical depression, however, is still sparse. This study aimed at testing the role of mental imagery in depression, using a modified version of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP and the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM to assess implicit (AMP and explicit (SAM affect elicited by mental images, pictures, and verbal processing in clinically depressed participants (n = 32 compared to healthy controls (n = 32. In individuals with a depressive disorder, compared to healthy controls, negative mental images induced stronger negative affect in the explicit as well as implicit measure. Negative mental imagery did not, however, elicit greater increases in explicitly and implicitly assessed negative affect compared to other processing modalities (verbal processing, pictures in the depressed group. Additionally, a positive imagery deficit in depression was observed in the explicit measure. Interestingly, the two groups did not differ in implicitly assessed affect after positive imagery, indicating that depressed individuals might benefit from positive imagery on an implicit or automatic level. Overall, our findings suggest that mental imagery also plays an important role in depression and confirm the potential of novel treatment approaches for depression such as the promotion of positive imagery.

  18. Strong and Weak Readings in the Domain of Worlds: A Negative Polar Modal and Children's Scope Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koring, Loes; Meroni, Luisa; Moscati, Vincenzo

    2018-03-22

    This study investigates children's interpretation of sentences with two logical operators: Dutch universal modal hoeven and negation (niet). In adult Dutch, hoeven is an NPI that necessarily scopes under negation, giving rise to a NOT > NECESSARY reading. The findings from a hidden-object task with 5- and 6-year-old children showed that children's performance is suggestive of an interpretation of sentences with hoeft niet in which the modal scopes over negation (NECESSARY > NOT). This is in line with the Semantic Subset Principle that dictates that children should opt for the strongest possible reading in case of potential scope ambiguities. The full pattern of results, however, seems to be determined, in addition, by a particular strategy children use when facing uncertainty called Premature Closure.

  19. Positive and negative emotional responses to work- related trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-10

    Oct 10, 2010 ... Life Scale: Compassion Satisfaction and Fatigue Subscales' en die 'Silencing Response Scale' ingevorder en ... hazards and have a negative impact on the quality of life and the psychological health of the nurse, as well as .... of caregivers to pay attention to the stories or experiences of their patients and ...

  20. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children's Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive-positive and harsh-negative parenting behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children's depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports…

  1. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colonnesi, C.; Napoleone, E.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence suggests that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from

  2. Strong room-temperature negative transconductance in an axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Le, Son T.; Hou, Xiaoxiao; Zaslavsky, A.; Perea, Daniel E.; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Picraux, S. T.

    2014-08-01

    We report on room-temperature negative transconductance (NTC) in axial Si/Ge hetero-nanowire tunneling field-effect transistors. The NTC produces a current peak-to-valley ratio >45, a high value for a Si-based device. We characterize the NTC over a range of gate VG and drain VD voltages, finding that NTC persists down to VD = -50 mV. The physical mechanism responsible for the NTC is the VG-induced depletion in the p-Ge section that eventually reduces the maximum electric field that triggers the tunneling ID, as confirmed via three-dimensional (3D) technology computer-aided design simulations.

  3. Positive and negative expressions of shyness in toddlers: are they related to anxiety in the same way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonnesi, Cristina; Napoleone, Elisa; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    Shyness has generally been investigated as a negative and unpleasant emotional state, strongly related to social anxiety and loneliness. However, recent evidence has suggested that shyness may have a positive and socially adaptive form. We examined whether the positive expression of shyness differs from the negative expression of shyness during toddlerhood, and whether a negative relation to anxiety exists. Participants were 30-month-old children (N=102; 56 girls) who were asked to mimic animal sounds with a novel person (performance) and then to watch their performance (self-watching). Their expression of pleasure (positive reactions) and distress (negative reactions), as well as their positive and negative expressions of shyness, were coded. Children's temperamental level of shyness, sociability, and anxiety were measured with parent-reported questionnaires. Toddlers produced more positive and negative displays of shyness in the performance task than in the self-watching task. Children's positive expression of shyness was associated with lower parent-reported anxiety and higher sociability. Negative reactions, but not negative shyness, were related to children's higher anxiety levels and lower sociability. Multiple linear regression analyses confirmed a negative predictive role of the positive expression of shyness on anxiety. These results suggest that the positive expression of shyness can regulate early anxiety symptoms and already serves a social function in interpersonal interactions in early childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Positive, Neutral and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarandache F.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges. As predicted, there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane the space rotates at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

  5. Positive, Neutral, and Negative Mass-Charges in General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As shown, any four-dimensional proper vector has two observable projections onto time line, attributed to our world and the mirror world (for a mass-bearing particle, the projections posses are attributed to positive and negative mass-charges. As predicted, there should be a class of neutrally mass-charged particles that inhabit neither our world nor the mirror world. Inside the space-time area (membrane the space rotates at the light speed, and all particles move at as well the light speed. So, the predicted particles of the neutrally mass-charged class should seem as light-like vortices.

  6. Bubble Formation within Filaments of Melt-Processed Bi2212 wires and its strongly negative effect on the Critical Current Density

    CERN Document Server

    Kametani, F; Jiang, J; Scheuerlein, C; Malagoli, A; Di Michiel, M; Huang, Y; Miao, H; Parrell, J A; Hellstrom, E E; Larbalestier, D C

    2011-01-01

    Most studies of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi2212) show that the critical current density Jc is limited by the connectivity of the filaments, but what determines the connectivity is still elusive. Here we report on the role played by filament porosity in limiting Jc. By a microstructural investigation of wires quenched from the melt state, we find that porosity in the unreacted wire agglomerates into bubbles that segment the Bi2212 melt within the filaments into discrete sections. These bubbles do not disappear during subsequent processing because they are only partially filled by Bi2212 grains as the Bi2212 forms on cooling. Correlating the microstructure of quenched wires to their final, fully processed Jc values shows an inverse relation between Jc and bubble density. Bubbles are variable between conductors and perhaps from sample to sample, but they occur frequently and almost completely fill the filament diameter, so they exert a strongly variable but always negative effect on Jc. Bubbles reduce the continuous Bi221...

  7. Close relation of interpersonal sensitivity with negative core beliefs about the self, the central construct of cognitive vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shirata, Toshinori

    2018-05-01

    Interpersonal sensitivity is a personality trait linked with anxious attachment conceptualized in attachment theory. This personality trait is comprised of four components, i.e., interpersonal awareness, separation anxiety, timidity and fragile inner-self, which are measured by the corresponding subscales of the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM). Meanwhile, one study showed that six items of the IPSM tentatively used as negative self-schemas predicted the onset of depression. To clarify if interpersonal sensitivity reflects cognitive vulnerability, we examined the relation of this personality trait with negative core beliefs about the self. The study population consisted of 335 Japanese volunteers. Interpersonal sensitivity was measured by the IPSM, and negative core beliefs about the self were assessed by the negative-self subscale of the Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS). Multiple regression analysis showed that scores of the four subscales of the IPSM were strongly correlated with those of the negative-self subscale of the BCSS (P < 0.001). Similarly, sequential equation modeling demonstrated that the four components of interpersonal sensitivity were strongly predicted by core beliefs of negative-self (P < 0.001). The present study shows that interpersonal sensitivity is closely related to negative core beliefs about the self, suggesting that this personality trait can be regarded as a cognitive vulnerability to depression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. OBSERVED SCALING RELATIONS FOR STRONG LENSING CLUSTERS: CONSEQUENCES FOR COSMOLOGY AND CLUSTER ASSEMBLY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comerford, Julia M.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Natarajan, Priyamvada

    2010-01-01

    Scaling relations of observed galaxy cluster properties are useful tools for constraining cosmological parameters as well as cluster formation histories. One of the key cosmological parameters, σ 8 , is constrained using observed clusters of galaxies, although current estimates of σ 8 from the scaling relations of dynamically relaxed galaxy clusters are limited by the large scatter in the observed cluster mass-temperature (M-T) relation. With a sample of eight strong lensing clusters at 0.3 8 , but combining the cluster concentration-mass relation with the M-T relation enables the inclusion of unrelaxed clusters as well. Thus, the resultant gains in the accuracy of σ 8 measurements from clusters are twofold: the errors on σ 8 are reduced and the cluster sample size is increased. Therefore, the statistics on σ 8 determination from clusters are greatly improved by the inclusion of unrelaxed clusters. Exploring cluster scaling relations further, we find that the correlation between brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) luminosity and cluster mass offers insight into the assembly histories of clusters. We find preliminary evidence for a steeper BCG luminosity-cluster mass relation for strong lensing clusters than the general cluster population, hinting that strong lensing clusters may have had more active merging histories.

  9. Negative and Positive Peer Influence: Relations to Positive and Negative Behaviors for African American, European American, and Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Bean, Roy A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine adolescents' perceptions of negative and positive peer influence (i.e., indirect peer association and direct peer pressure) as they related to adolescent behavior. Regression analyses were conducted using a sample of African American, European American, and Hispanic adolescents (N=1659, M age=16.06,…

  10. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right.

  11. Age-related neuroinflammatory changes negatively impact on neuronal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Lynch

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammatory changes, characterized by an increase in microglial activation and often accompanied by upregulation of inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1β (IL-1β, are common to many, if not all, neurodegenerative diseases. Similar, though less dramatic neuroinflammatory changes are also known to occur with age. Among the consequences of these changes is an impairment in synaptic function and the evidence suggests that inflammatory cytokines may be the primary contributory factor responsible for the deficits in synaptic plasticity which have been identified in aged rodents. Specifically a decrease in the ability of aged rats to sustain long-term potentiation (LTP in perforant path-granule cells of the hippocampus is associated with increased microglial activation. This review considers the evidence which suggests a causal relationship between these changes and the factors which contribute to the age-related microglial activation, and reflects on data which demonstrate that agents which inhibit microglial activation also improve ability of rats to sustain LTP.

  12. Strong/weak coupling duality relations for non-supersymmetric string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.D.; Dienes, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    Both the supersymmetric SO(32) and E 8 x E 8 heterotic strings in ten dimensions have known strong-coupling duals. However, it has not been known whether there also exist strong-coupling duals for the non-supersymmetric heterotic strings in ten dimensions. In this paper, we construct explicit open-string duals for the circle compactifications of several of these non-supersymmetric theories, among them the tachyon-free SO(16) x SO(16) string. Our method involves the construction of heterotic and open-string interpolating models that continuously connect non-supersymmetric strings to supersymmetric strings. We find that our non-supersymmetric dual theories have exactly the same massless spectra as their heterotic counterparts within a certain range of our interpolations. We also develop a novel method for analyzing the solitons of non-supersymmetric open-string theories, and find that the solitons of our dual theories also agree with their heterotic counterparts. These are therefore the first known examples of strong/weak coupling duality relations between non-supersymmetric, tachyon-free string theories. Finally, the existence of these strong-coupling duals allows us to examine the non-perturbative stability of these strings, and we propose a phase diagram for the behavior of these strings as a function of coupling and radius. (orig.)

  13. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential after an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relation of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes…

  14. Finding the positive in all of the negative: Facilitation for color-related emotion words in a negative priming paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tina M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-10-01

    A study conducted by Sutton and Altarriba (2008) suggested that color-related emotion words (e.g., sad, envy) produce standard Stroop interference effects. Associations between emotion words and colors are culture specific, and may be the result of common phrases in a language (e.g., "feeling blue" in English), or a result of the manner in which color is used to signify information or meaning in a language (e.g., red often represents threat). In the present paper, the same stimuli were investigated in a negative priming paradigm in which participants were asked to name the ink color of a presented word. In this task, response times are typically slower in ignored repetition trials (i.e., the probe target is related to the prime distractor) than control trials. The results of Experiment 1 indicated that color words and color-related neutral words yielded negative priming; however, color-related emotion words yielded significant facilitation. In Experiment 2, the three word types were intermixed within the same block and the same results were obtained. The current study provides converging evidence that salient distractors cannot be ignored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Positive and negative symptom behaviors and caregiver burden in the relatives of persons with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, H L; Mueser, K T

    1997-07-25

    The relationships of perceived severity and responsibility attribution for positive and negative symptom behaviors to caregiver burden were investigated. Two types of burden were studied: objective burden (i.e., negative consequences such as physical problems, financial difficulties, and household tension), and subjective burden (i.e., emotional distress about disturbing behaviors). Self-report measures were completed by 70 primary caregivers of persons with schizophrenia. Subjective burden was related to both the severity of positive and negative symptom behaviors, whereas objective burden was related only to the severity of negative symptom behaviors. Responsibility attribution for negative symptom behaviors was related only to objective burden. Caregivers who perceived patients as being less responsible for their negative symptom behaviors reported higher levels of objective burden. The relationship between responsibility attribution for negative symptom behaviors and objective burden remained significant, even after controlling for the severity of negative symptom behaviors. Caregivers' perceptions of patients' responsibility for positive symptom behaviors were not related to objective burden. As expected, perceived severity of negative symptom behaviors was related to objective caregiver burden, whereas severity of positive symptom behaviors was not. These findings suggest that negative symptoms may have a greater impact on role functioning that positive symptoms, leading to greater burden. However, contrary to expectations, less responsibility attribution for negative symptom behaviors was related to higher levels of objective caregiver burden. Caregivers who perceive patients as incapable of altering their negative symptom behaviors and meeting certain role obligations may assume extra responsibilities, leading to higher levels of objective burden. The results indicate that there may be disadvantages for caregivers associated with assuming that patients have

  16. Executive self, self-esteem, and negative affectivity: Relations at the phenotypic and genotypic level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neiss, M.B.; Stevenson, J.; Sedikides, C.; Kumashiro, M.; Finkel, E.J.; Rusbult, C.E.

    2005-01-01

    Complementary approaches examined the relations among executive self, self-esteem, and negative affectivity. A cross-sectional (N = 4,242) and a longitudinal (N = 158) study established that self-esteem mediated the relation between executive self and negative affectivity. A 3rd study (N = 878 twin

  17. Experimental demonstration of single-mode fiber coupling over relatively strong turbulence with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Xian, Hao

    2015-10-10

    High-speed free-space optical communication systems using fiber-optic components can greatly improve the stability of the system and simplify the structure. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence degrades the spatial coherence of the signal beam and limits the single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the SMF coupling efficiency over various turbulences. The results show that the SMF coupling efficiency drops from 81% without phase distortion to 10% when phase root mean square value equals 0.3λ. The simulations of SMF coupling with adaptive optics (AO) indicate that it is inevitable to compensate the high-order aberrations for SMF coupling over relatively strong turbulence. The SMF coupling efficiency experiments, using an AO system with a 137-element deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, obtain average coupling efficiency increasing from 1.3% in open loop to 46.1% in closed loop under a relatively strong turbulence, D/r0=15.1.

  18. A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, T; Liberati, S; Mattingly, D

    2003-08-28

    Special relativity asserts that physical phenomena appear the same to all unaccelerated observers. This is called Lorentz symmetry and relates long wavelengths to short ones: if the symmetry is exact it implies that space-time must look the same at all length scales. Several approaches to quantum gravity, however, suggest that there may be a microscopic structure of space-time that leads to a violation of Lorentz symmetry. This might arise because of the discreteness or non-commutivity of space-time, or through the action of extra dimensions. Here we determine a very strong constraint on a type of Lorentz violation that produces a maximum electron speed less than the speed of light. We use the observation of 100-MeV synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula to improve the previous limit by a factor of 40 million, ruling out this type of Lorentz violation, and thereby providing an important constraint on theories of quantum gravity.

  19. Infant pain-related negative affect at 12 months of age: early infant and caregiver predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din Osmun, Laila; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Flora, David B

    2014-01-01

    To examine the predictive relationships of early infant and caregiver variables on expressed pain-related negative affect duration at the 12-month immunization. Infants and their caregivers (N = 255) were followed during immunization appointments over the first year of life. Latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling context was used. Higher levels of initial infant pain reactivity at 2 months and caregiver emotional availability averaged across 2, 4, and 6 months of age were related to larger decreases in the duration of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life. Longer duration of infant negative affect at 2 months and poorer regulation of infant negative affect over the first 6 months of life predicted longer durations of infant negative affect by 12 months. Infant negative affect at 12 months was a function of both infant factors and the quality of caregiver interactive behaviors (emotional availability) in early infancy.

  20. Trait acceptance predicts fewer daily negative emotions through less stressor-related rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalino, Lahnna I; Arenander, Justine; Epel, Elissa; Puterman, Eli

    2017-12-01

    People who are more accepting of their thoughts and feelings experience fewer negative emotions. Although several studies document the connection between acceptance and negative emotions, little, if any research, sheds light on how being receptive to one's internal experience results in less negativity in everyday life. In a daily diary study (N = 183), we found that people who were more accepting of their thoughts and feelings experienced fewer daily negative emotions, and this association was partly explained by less daily stressor-related rumination. The strength of this mediational pathway differed depending upon the average perceived severity of daily stressors. When daily stressors were perceived to be more demanding, trait acceptance predicted a stronger inverse association with rumination, and rumination predicted a stronger positive association with negative emotions. These results shed light on one way acceptance of internal experience predicts less negativity, as well as the moderating role of perceived daily stress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Relations among child negative emotionality, parenting stress, and maternal sensitive responsiveness in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M.C.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hermanns, J.M.A.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2008-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study focuses on relations between preschool-aged childrens' perceived "difficult" temperament (defined as high negative emotionality) and observed maternal sensitive responsiveness in the context of maternal parenting stress. Design. Participants were fifty-nine

  2. Solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events and the related solar-terrestrial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guiming; Yang, Xingxing; Ding, Liuguang; Liu, Yonghua; Lu, Yangping; Chen, Minhao

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events (SPEs, peak flux ≥1000 pfu) and the solar-terrestrial phenomena associated with the strong SPEs during solar cycles 21-23. The results show that 37 strong SPEs were registered over this period of time, where 20 strong SPEs were originated from the super active regions (SARs) and 28 strong SPEs were accompanied by the X-class flares. Most strong SPEs were not associated with the ground level enhancement (GLE) event. Most strong SPEs occurred in the descending phases of the solar cycles. The weaker the solar cycle, the higher the proportion of strong SPES occurred in the descending phase of the cycle. The number of the strong SPEs that occurred within a solar cycle is poorly associated with the solar cycle size. The intensity of the SPEs is highly dependent of the location of their source regions, with the super SPEs (≥20000 pfu) distributed around solar disk center. A super SPE was always accompanied by a fast shock driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and a great geomagnetic storm. The source location of strongest GLE event is distributed in the well-connected region. The SPEs associated with super GLE events (peak increase rate ≥100%) which have their peak flux much lower than 10000 pfu were not accompanied by an intense geomagnetic storm.

  3. The mass limit of white dwarfs with strong magnetic fields in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen De-Hua; Liu He-Lei; Zhang Xiang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, U. Das and B. Mukhopadhyay proposed that the Chandrasekhar limit of a white dwarf could reach a new high level (2.58M⊙) if a superstrong magnetic field were considered (Das U and Mukhopadhyay B 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 071102), where the structure of the strongly magnetized white dwarf (SMWD) is calculated in the framework of Newtonian theory (NT). As the SMWD has a far smaller size, in contrast with the usual expectation, we found that there is an obvious general relativistic effect (GRE) in the SMWD. For example, for the SMWD with a one Landau level system, the super-Chandrasekhar mass limit in general relativity (GR) is approximately 16.5% lower than that in NT. More interestingly, the maximal mass of the white dwarf will be first increased when the magnetic field strength keeps on increasing and reaches the maximal value M = 2.48M⊙ with B D = 391.5. Then if we further increase the magnetic fields, surprisingly, the maximal mass of the white dwarf will decrease when one takes the GRE into account. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  4. How is emotional awareness related to emotion regulation strategies and self-reported negative affect in the general population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Subic-Wrana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. SAMPLE AND METHODS: A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ, assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. RESULTS: LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. DISCUSSION: Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion

  5. How is emotional awareness related to emotion regulation strategies and self-reported negative affect in the general population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general population. A short version of the LEAS, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), assessing reappraisal and suppression as emotion regulation strategies, were presented to N = 2524 participants of a representative German community study. The questionnaire data were analyzed with regard to the level of emotional awareness. LEAS scores were independent from depression, but related to self-reported anxiety. Although of small or medium effect size, different correlational patters between emotion regulation strategies and negative affectivity were related to implict and explict levels of emotional awareness. In participants with implicit emotional awareness, suppression was related to higher anxiety and depression, whereas in participants with explicit emotional awareness, in addition to a positive relationship of suppression and depression, we found a negative relationship of reappraisal to depression. These findings were independent of age. In women high use of suppression and little use of reappraisal were more strongly related to negative affect than in men. Our first findings suggest that conscious awareness of emotions may be a precondition for the use of reappraisal as an adaptive emotion regulation strategy. They encourage further research in the relation between subconsious and conscious emotional awareness and the prefarance of adaptive or maladaptive emotion regulation strategies The correlational trends found in a representative

  6. Effects of negative content on the processing of gender information: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, José A; Albert, Jacobo; Fernández-Folgueiras, Uxía; Santaniello, Gerardo; López-Bachiller, Cristina; Sebastián, Manuel; Sánchez-Carmona, Alberto J; Pozo, Miguel A

    2014-12-01

    Previous research on emotion in language has mainly concerned the impact of emotional information on several aspects of lexico-semantic analyses of single words. However, affective influences on morphosyntactic processing are less understood. In the present study, we focused on the impact of negative valence in the processing of gender agreement relations. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read three-word phrases and performed a syntactic judgment task. Negative and neutral adjectives could agree or disagree in gender with the preceding noun. At an electrophysiological level, the amplitude of a left anterior negativity (LAN) to gender agreement mismatches decreased in negative words, relative to neutral words. The behavioral data suggested that LAN amplitudes might be indexing the processing costs associated with the detection of gender agreement errors, since the detection of gender mismatches resulted in faster and more accurate responses than did the detection of correct gender agreement relations. According to this view, it seems that negative content facilitated the processes implicated in the early detection of gender agreement mismatches. However, gender agreement violations in negative words triggered processes involved in the reanalysis and repair of the syntactic structure, as reflected in larger P600 amplitudes to incorrect than to correct phrases, irrespective of their emotional valence.

  7. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Unimodal tree size distributions possibly result from relatively strong conservatism in intermediate size classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Bin

    Full Text Available Tree size distributions have long been of interest to ecologists and foresters because they reflect fundamental demographic processes. Previous studies have assumed that size distributions are often associated with population trends or with the degree of shade tolerance. We tested these associations for 31 tree species in a 20 ha plot in a Dinghushan south subtropical forest in China. These species varied widely in growth form and shade-tolerance. We used 2005 and 2010 census data from that plot. We found that 23 species had reversed J shaped size distributions, and eight species had unimodal size distributions in 2005. On average, modal species had lower recruitment rates than reversed J species, while showing no significant difference in mortality rates, per capita population growth rates or shade-tolerance. We compared the observed size distributions with the equilibrium distributions projected from observed size-dependent growth and mortality. We found that observed distributions generally had the same shape as predicted equilibrium distributions in both unimodal and reversed J species, but there were statistically significant, important quantitative differences between observed and projected equilibrium size distributions in most species, suggesting that these populations are not at equilibrium and that this forest is changing over time. Almost all modal species had U-shaped size-dependent mortality and/or growth functions, with turning points of both mortality and growth at intermediate size classes close to the peak in the size distribution. These results show that modal size distributions do not necessarily indicate either population decline or shade-intolerance. Instead, the modal species in our study were characterized by a life history strategy of relatively strong conservatism in an intermediate size class, leading to very low growth and mortality in that size class, and thus to a peak in the size distribution at intermediate sizes.

  9. Inter-relations among negative social control, self-efficacy, and physical activity in healthy couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohl, Diana Hilda; Lüscher, Janina; Keller, Jan; Heuse, Silke; Scholz, Urte; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Knoll, Nina

    2018-03-08

    In romantic relationships, partners can influence each other's health-relevant behaviour by exerting negative social control (e.g., pressuring), however, with mixed success. To elucidate this phenomenon, we examined couples motivated to increase their physical activity and investigated the degree to which both partners exerted negative control on each other, their self-efficacy, reciprocal associations among the two behaviour-specific constructs, and their relationship with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This was a longitudinal study with three assessment periods (T0, T2, T3) spanning 7 weeks. We performed secondary analyses with data from the control condition (N = 113 heterosexual couples) of a published randomized controlled trial. Dyadic mediator models specified either both partners' self-efficacy as predictors and provided negative partner control to each other as mediators or vice versa. The outcomes comprised both partners' accelerometer-assessed MVPA. Mediators and outcomes were controlled for their T0 values. The first model showed that women's and men's provided negative partner control (T0) was positively related to the other partners' self-efficacy (T2). Testing the alternative predictive direction, the second model showed that only women's self-efficacy (T0) was associated with more provided negative partner control (T2) by men. Women and men showed less MVPA (T3) when their partners had provided them with more negative control at T2. As negative control provided to partners may be detrimental to their behaviour change, interventionists should advise couples to avoid it. However, active ingredients of negative control that may benefit recipients' self-efficacy beliefs should be investigated in future work. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Couples often try to change each other's health behaviour not just using supportive tactics, but also controlling ones. Negative partner control (e.g., rebuking and

  10. The feedback-related negativity signals salience prediction errors, not reward prediction errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmi, Deborah; Atkinson, Ryan; El-Deredy, Wael

    2013-05-08

    Modulations of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) event-related potential (ERP) have been suggested as a potential biomarker in psychopathology. A dominant theory about this signal contends that it reflects the operation of the neural system underlying reinforcement learning in humans. The theory suggests that this frontocentral negative deflection in the ERP 230-270 ms after the delivery of a probabilistic reward expresses a prediction error signal derived from midbrain dopaminergic projections to the anterior cingulate cortex. We tested this theory by investigating whether FRN will also be observed for an inherently aversive outcome: physical pain. In another session, the outcome was monetary reward instead of pain. As predicted, unexpected reward omissions (a negative reward prediction error) yielded a more negative deflection relative to unexpected reward delivery. Surprisingly, unexpected pain omission (a positive reward prediction error) also yielded a negative deflection relative to unexpected pain delivery. Our data challenge the theory by showing that the FRN expresses aversive prediction errors with the same sign as reward prediction errors. Both FRNs were spatiotemporally and functionally equivalent. We suggest that FRN expresses salience prediction errors rather than reward prediction errors.

  11. Relation of extended Van Hove singularities to high-temperature superconductivity within strong-coupling theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, R.J.; Norman, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Recent angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) experiments have indicated that the electronic dispersion in some of the cuprates possesses an extended saddle point near the Fermi level which gives rise to a density of states that diverges like a power law instead of the weaker logarithmic divergence usually considered. We investigate whether this strong singularity can give rise to high transition temperatures by computing the critical temperature T c and isotope effect coefficient α within a strong-coupling Eliashberg theory which accounts for the full energy variation of the density of states. Using band structures extracted from ARPES measurements, we demonstrate that, while the weak-coupling solutions suggest a strong influence of the strength of the Van Hove singularity on T c and α, strong-coupling solutions show less sensitivity to the singularity strength and do not support the hypothesis that band-structure effects alone can account for either the large T c 's or the different T c 's within the copper oxide family. This conclusion is supported when our results are plotted as a function of the physically relevant self-consistent coupling constant, which shows universal behavior at very strong coupling

  12. Error-Related Negativity and Tic History in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Gregory L.; Carrasco, Melisa; Harbin, Shannon M.; Nienhuis, Jenna K.; LaRosa, Christina E.; Chen, Poyu; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Gehring, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The error-related negativity (ERN) is a negative deflection in the event-related potential following an incorrect response, which is often increased in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relationship of the ERN to comorbid tic disorders has not been examined in patients with OCD. This study compared ERN amplitudes in patients with tic-related OCD, patients with non-tic-related OCD, and healthy controls. Method The ERN, correct response negativity, and error number were measured during an Eriksen flanker task to assess performance monitoring in 44 youth with a lifetime diagnosis of OCD and 44 matched healthy controls ranging in age from 10 to 19 years. Nine youth with OCD had a lifetime history of tics. Results ERN amplitudewas significantly increased in OCD patients compared to healthy controls. ERN amplitude was significantly larger in patients with non-tic-related OCD than either patients with tic-related OCD or controls. ERN amplitude had a significant negative correlation with age in healthy controls but not patients with OCD. Instead, in patients with non-tic-related OCD, ERN amplitude had a significant positive correlation with age at onset of OCD symptoms. ERN amplitude in patients was unrelated to OCD symptom severity, current diagnostic status, or treatment effects. Conclusions The results provide further evidence of increased error-related brain activity in pediatric OCD. The difference in the ERN between patients with tic-related and non-tic-related OCD provides preliminary evidence of a neurobiological difference between these two OCD subtypes. The results indicate the ERN is a trait-like measure that may serve as a biomarker for non-tic-related OCD. PMID:22917203

  13. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuicui Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs were used to record investor’s brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN and feedback-related negativity (FRN components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process.

  14. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuicui; Vieito, João Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor's brain activity and capture the event-related negativity (ERN) and feedback-related negativity (FRN) components. The results of ERN suggested that there might be a higher risk and more conflict when buying stocks with negative net money flow information than positive net money flow information, and the inverse was also true for the “not to buy” stocks option. The FRN component evoked by the bad outcome of a decision was more negative than that by the good outcome, which reflected the difference between the values of the actual and expected outcome. From the research, we could further understand how investors perceived money flow information of financial market and the neural cognitive effect in investment process. PMID:26557139

  15. Coping strategies in relation to negative work events and accommodations in employed multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hiele, K; van Gorp, Dam; Benedict, Rhb; Jongen, P J; Arnoldus, Epj; Beenakker, Eac; Bos, H M; van Eijk, Jjj; Fermont, J; Frequin, Stfm; van Geel, B M; Hengstman, Gjd; Hoitsma, E; Hupperts, Rmm; Mostert, J P; Pop, Phm; Verhagen, Wim; Zemel, D; Frndak, S E; Heerings, Map; Middelkoop, Ham; Visser, L H

    2016-01-01

    Job loss is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and is known to exert a negative effect on quality of life. The process leading up to job loss typically includes negative work events, productivity losses and a need for accommodations. By using active coping strategies job loss may be prevented or delayed. Our goal was to examine negative work events and accommodations in relation to coping strategies in employed relapsing-remitting MS patients. Ninety-seven MS patients (77% females; 21-59 years old) completed questionnaires concerning the patient's work situation, coping strategies, demographics, physical, psychological and cognitive functioning. Forward binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine coping strategies and other (disease) characteristics predictive of reported negative work events and accommodations. Nineteen per cent of the employed MS patients reported one or more negative work events, associated with a higher use of emotion-oriented coping and more absenteeism. Seventy-three per cent reported using one or more work accommodations, associated with a higher educational level and more presenteeism. MS patients reporting physical changes to the workplace employed more emotion-oriented coping, while flexible scheduling was associated with task-oriented coping. Emotion-oriented and task-oriented coping strategies are associated with negative work events and the use of accommodations.

  16. Does Negative Mood Influence Self-Report Assessment of Individual and Relational Measures? An Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heene, Els; De Raedt, Rudi; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the influence of negative mood on the self-report of individual and relational correlates of depression and marital distress. The authors applied a combined experimental mood induction procedure, based on music, autobiographical recall, and environmental manipulation. Results showed that the mood manipulation…

  17. A Lexical Framework for Semantic Annotation of Positive and Negative Regulation Relations in Biomedical Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zambach, Sine; Lassen, Tine

    presented here, we analyze 6 frequently used verbs denoting the regulation relations regulates, positively regulates and negatively regulates through corpus analysis, and propose a formal representation of the acquired knowledge as domain speci¯c semantic frames. The acquired knowledge patterns can thus...

  18. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.; Bruijn, E.R.A. de

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures-that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  19. Feedback-related negativity codes outcome valence, but not outcome expectancy, during reversal learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borries, A.K.L. von; Verkes, R.J.; Bulten, B.H.; Cools, R.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal behavior depends on the ability to assess the predictive value of events and to adjust behavior accordingly. Outcome processing can be studied by using its electrophysiological signatures--that is, the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and the P300. A prominent reinforcement-learning model

  20. Relations of Parenting and Negative Life Events to Cognitive Diatheses for Depression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Alanna E.; Cole, David A.; Dallaire, Danielle H.; Jacquez, Farrah M.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; LaGrange, Beth

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 299 children (grades 2, 4, and 6), we examined parenting and negative life events as predictors of depressive cognitions, specifically low self-perceived competence, depressive cognitive schemas, and depressogenic attributional style. We also examined developmental trends in these relations. Children completed measures of parenting,…

  1. Toddlers' temperament profiles: stability and relations to negative and positive parenting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Prinzie, P.; Asscher, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the type and stability of temperament profiles in toddlers, and relations of profile probability to negative and positive parenting trajectories. Mothers (N  = 96) rated their child’s (41 girls and 54 boys) Sociability, Anger Proneness, and Activity Level four times during 1

  2. Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araas, Teresa E.; Adams, Troy B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol abuse among college students is associated with a quality of life burden. The current study replicated and extended previous research on protective behavioral strategies (PBS) by examining relationships between PBS use and negative alcohol-related consequences. Method: A national sample of 29,792 U. S. college students who…

  3. Positive and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences: Associations with Past Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Patrick, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image)…

  4. Tracing Error-Related Knowledge in Interview Data: Negative Knowledge in Elder Care Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartmeier, Martin; Gruber, Hans; Heid, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates elder care nurses' negative knowledge. This form of experiential knowledge is defined as the outcome of error-related learning processes, focused on how something is not, on what not to do in certain situations or on deficits in one's knowledge or skills. Besides this definition, we presume the existence of…

  5. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  6. Mastery matters most: How mastery and positive relations link attachment avoidance and anxiety to negative emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Juliane; Schindler, Ines; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2016-08-01

    Attachment avoidance and anxiety are associated with negative emotions. However, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not fully understood. We investigated environmental mastery and positive relations with others as two mechanisms behind the attachment-emotion link in a sample of 343 adults. As predicted, attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to greater fear, hostility, envy and depression through lower mastery. Contrary to our hypothesis, positive relations mediated only the attachment-depression link. In addition, by adopting a moderated mediation approach, we were able to show that mastery mattered most for individuals high on avoidance: The indirect effect of avoidance through lack of mastery on fear, hostility and depression (but not on envy) increased with higher avoidance scores. Contrary to our predictions, poor relationships did not matter more as sources of negative emotions as anxiety increased. These findings underscore that the emotional life of avoidantly attached individuals is especially jeopardised by poor mastery.

  7. Parental reactions to children's negative emotions: prospective relations to Chinese children's psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Annie; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun

    2010-04-01

    The prospective relations between five types of parental reactions to children's negative emotions (PRCNE) and children's psychological adjustment (behavioral problems and social competence) were examined in a two-wave longitudinal study of 425 school-age children in China. Parents (mostly mothers) reported their own PRCNE. Parents, teachers, and children or peers reported on children's adjustment. Parental punitive reactions positively predicted externalizing problems (controlling for baseline), whereas emotion- and problem-focused reactions were negatively related to internalizing problems. Parental minimizing and encouragement of emotion expression were unrelated to adjustment. Concurrent relations were found between PRCNE and parents' authoritative and authoritarian parenting dimensions. However, PRCNE did not uniquely predict adjustment controlling for global parenting dimensions. The findings have implications for cultural adaptation of parent-focused interventions for families of Chinese origin. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Reproductive history and oral contraceptive use in relation to risk of triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Prentice, Ross; McTiernan, Anne; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Kuller, Lewis H; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Lane, Dorothy; Stefanick, Marcia L; Vitolins, Mara; Kabat, Geoffrey C; Rohan, Thomas E; Li, Christopher I

    2011-03-16

    Triple-negative (ie, estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor, and HER2 negative) breast cancer occurs disproportionately among African American women compared with white women and is associated with a worse prognosis than ER-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Hormonally mediated risk factors may be differentially related to risk of triple-negative and ER+ breast cancers. Using data from 155,723 women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative, we assessed associations between reproductive and menstrual history, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use, and subtype-specific breast cancer risk. We used Cox regression to evaluate associations with triple-negative (N = 307) and ER+ (N = 2610) breast cancers and used partial likelihood methods to test for differences in subtype-specific hazard ratios (HRs). Reproductive history was differentially associated with risk of triple-negative and ER+ breast cancers. Nulliparity was associated with decreased risk of triple-negative breast cancer (HR = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37 to 0.97) but increased risk of ER+ breast cancer (HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.20 to 1.52). Age-adjusted absolute rates of triple-negative breast cancer were 2.71 and 1.54 per 10,000 person-years in parous and nulliparous women, respectively; by comparison, rates of ER+ breast cancer were 21.10 and 28.16 per 10,000 person-years in the same two groups. Among parous women, the number of births was positively associated with risk of triple-negative disease (HR for three births or more vs one birth = 1.46, 95% CI = 0.82 to 2.63) and inversely associated with risk of ER+ disease (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.74 to 1.04). Ages at menarche and menopause were modestly associated with risk of ER+ but not triple-negative breast cancer; breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use were not associated with either subtype. The association between parity and breast cancer risk differs appreciably for ER+ and triple-negative breast cancers. These findings require further

  9. Negative Mood and Obsessive-Compulsive Related Clinical Constructs: An Examination of Underlying Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary I. Britton

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that many of the clinical constructs used to help understand and explain obsessive-compulsive (OC symptoms, and negative mood, may be causally interrelated. One approach to understanding this interrelatedness is a motivational systems approach. This approach suggests that rather than considering clinical constructs and negative affect as separable entities, they are all features of an integrated threat management system, and as such are highly coordinated and interdependent. The aim of the present study was to examine if clinical constructs related to OC symptoms and negative mood are best treated as separable or, alternatively, if these clinical constructs and negative mood are best seen as indicators of an underlying superordinate variable, as would be predicted by a motivational systems approach. A sample of 370 student participants completed measures of mood and the clinical constructs of inflated responsibility, intolerance of uncertainty, not just right experiences, and checking stop rules. An exploratory factor analysis suggested two plausible factor structures, one where all construct items and negative mood items loaded onto one underlying superordinate variable, and a second structure comprising of five factors, where each item loaded onto a factor representative of what the item was originally intended to measure. A confirmatory factor analysis showed that the five factor model was preferential to the one factor model, suggesting the four constructs and negative mood are best conceptualized as separate variables. Given the predictions of a motivational systems approach were not supported in the current study, other possible explanations for the causal interrelatedness between clinical constructs and negative mood are discussed.

  10. On function classes related pertaining to strong approximation of double Fourier series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baituyakova, Zhuldyz

    2015-09-01

    The investigation of embedding of function classes began a long time ago. After Alexits [1], Leindler [2], and Gogoladze[3] investigated estimates of strong approximation by Fourier series in 1965, G. Freud[4] raised the corresponding saturation problem in 1969. The list of the authors dealing with embedding problems partly is also very long. It suffices to mention some names: V. G. Krotov, W. Lenski, S. M. Mazhar, J. Nemeth, E. M. Nikisin, K. I. Oskolkov, G. Sunouchi, J. Szabados, R. Taberski and V. Totik. Study on this topic has since been carried on over a decade, but it seems that most of the results obtained are limited to the case of one dimension. In this paper, embedding results are considered which arise in the strong approximation by double Fourier series. We prove theorem on the interrelation between the classes Wr1,r2HS,M ω and H(λ, p, r1, r2, ω(δ1, δ2)), in the one-dimensional case proved by L. Leindler.

  11. Emotional suppression in torture survivors: Relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms and trauma-related negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Angela; Garber, Benjamin; Ahmed, Ola; Asnaani, Anu; Cheung, Jessica; Hofmann, Stefan G; Huynh, Ly; Liddell, Belinda; Litz, Brett T; Pajak, Rosanna; Bryant, Richard A

    2016-08-30

    While clinical reports suggest that torture survivors may try to suppress their emotions during torture, little is known about the use of emotional suppression following torture. In this study, 82 refugees and asylum-seekers (including 33 torture survivors) completed self-report measures of trait suppression, PTSD symptoms and baseline negative affect before being exposed to images depicting scenes of interpersonal trauma. The use of suppression while viewing the images was indexed and negative affect was measured both immediately after viewing the images and following a five minute rest period. Findings indicated that torture survivors did not show higher rates of trait suppression or state emotional suppression during the experimental session compared to non-torture survivors. However, torture survivors who endorsed state suppression higher levels of distress, and this relationship was especially strong for those with more severe PTSD symptoms. In contrast, there was a negative relationship between state suppression and distress for non-torture survivors with high levels of PTSD symptoms. These findings suggest that, while torture exposure does not lead to greater use of suppression, it does influence the impact of suppression on emotional responses to stimuli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Building Strong Bonds with Program Sponsors--Public Relations Ideas To Make It Happen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Karen

    2003-01-01

    Lists public relations strategies for child care center directors seeking to cultivate relationships with their program sponsors. Suggests ways to identify a public relations message, make the sponsor part of the child care family, become part of the sponsor's family, give public recognition, and share the children's accomplishments. (JPB)

  13. The Cancer Loneliness Scale and Cancer-related Negative Social Expectations Scale: development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Rebecca N; Mosher, Catherine E; Rand, Kevin L; Hirsh, Adam T; Monahan, Patrick O; Abonour, Rafat; Kroenke, Kurt

    2017-07-01

    Loneliness is a known risk factor for poor mental and physical health outcomes and quality of life in the general population, and preliminary research suggests that loneliness is linked to poorer health outcomes in cancer patients as well. Various aspects of the cancer experience contribute to patients feeling alone and misunderstood. Furthermore, loneliness theory suggests that negative social expectations, which may specifically relate to the cancer experience, precipitate and sustain loneliness. Cancer-specific tools are needed to assess key constructs of this theory. In the current study, we developed and tested measures of (1) loneliness attributed to cancer (i.e., cancer-related loneliness) and (2) negative social expectations related to cancer. First, we developed the items for the measures based on theory, prior research, and expert feedback. Next, we assessed the measures' psychometric properties (i.e., internal consistency and construct validity) in a diverse sample of cancer patients. The final products included a 7-item unidimensional Cancer Loneliness Scale and a 5-item unidimensional Cancer-related Negative Social Expectations Scale. Evidence of excellent reliability and validity was found for both measures. The resulting measures have both clinical and research utility.

  14. Parents' Attributions for Negative and Positive Child Behavior in Relation to Parenting and Child Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joanne L; Johnston, Charlotte; Colalillo, Sara; Williamson, David

    2016-04-12

    Previous research has stressed the importance of parents' attributions and parenting for child problems. Based on social cognitive models, studies have focused on the interrelations among parents' child-responsibility attributions for negative behavior, harsh parenting, and child problems. Little is known about the extent to which child-responsibility attributions for positive behavior and other types of parenting play a role in these models. The purpose of this study was to examine whether parents' child-responsibility attributions for positive and negative child behaviors are related to child problems, and whether these relations are mediated by harsh, lax, and positive parenting. Mothers' and fathers' attributions and parenting were examined separately. A community sample of 148 couples and their 9- to 12-year-old child (50% boys) participated in the study. Mothers and children participated by completing questionnaires and a laboratory interaction task. Fathers participated by completing the same questionnaires as mothers. Harsh parenting was the only parenting variable that uniquely mediated the relations between more child-responsibility attributions for (a) negative child behaviors and child problems for both parents and (b) the inverse relation between attributions for positive child behaviors and child problems for fathers. Findings confirm the importance of harsh parenting and demonstrate the importance of parents' attributions for positive child behaviors in relation to decreasing harsh parenting and child problems. Clinically, it may be useful not only to reduce child-responsibility attributions for negative behaviors but also to increase the extent to which parents give their child credit for positive behaviors.

  15. Relations of negative and positive work experiences to employee alcohol use: testing the intervening role of negative and positive work rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R

    2015-04-01

    This study tested a model linking work experiences to employee alcohol use. The model extended past research in 3 ways. First, it incorporated both negative and positive work experiences. Second, it incorporated a previously unexplored cognitive intervening process involving negative and positive work rumination. Third, it incorporated several important dimensions of alcohol use (heavy use, workday use, and after-work use). Data were collected from a national probability sample of 2,831 U.S. workers. Structural equation modeling revealed that the conceptual model provided an excellent fit to the data. Negative work experiences were positively related to negative work rumination, which was positively related to heavy alcohol use, workday alcohol use, and after work alcohol use. Positive work experiences were positively related to positive work rumination, which was negatively related to heavy alcohol use and after work alcohol use, but was unrelated to workday alcohol use. The study also provided initial support for the psychometric properties and construct validity of the newly developed Negative and Positive Work Rumination Scale (NAPWRS). (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Relative contributions of negative symptoms, insight, and coping strategies to quality of life in stable schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemagni, Cristiana; Castagna, Filomena; Crivelli, Barbara; De Marzi, Giampiero; Frieri, Tiziana; Macrì, Antonio; Rocca, Paola

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relative contributions of negative symptomatology, insight, and coping to quality of life (QOL) in a sample of 92 consecutive outpatients with stable schizophrenia referring to the Department of Neuroscience, Psychiatric Section, University of Turin, Struttura Semplice di Coordinamento a Valenza Dipartimentale (SSCVD), Department of Mental Health ASL TO1, Molinette, Italy, in the period between July 2009 and July 2011. In order to assess the specific effect of negative symptoms on QOL and the possible mediating role of insight and coping, two mediation hypotheses were tested, using multiple regression analyses specified by Baron and Kenny (1986). Our findings suggest that (a) higher negative symptoms predict a worse Quality of Life Scale (QLS) intrapsychic foundations (IF) subscale score; (b) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion have a direct and positive association with QLS-IF; (c) patients high in negative symptoms are less likely to use attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion; and (d) attribution of symptoms and coping-social diversion act as partial mediators in the negative symptoms-QOL relationship. The prediction model accounts for 45.3% of the variance of the QLS-IF subscale score in our sample. In conclusion, our results suggest that insight and coping-social diversion substantially contribute to QOL in patients with higher negative symptoms. These factors are potentially modifiable from specific therapeutic interventions, which can produce considerable improvements in the QOL of this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup. Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition. Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  18. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  19. Patient-reported negative experiences related to caries and its treatment among Swedish adult patients

    OpenAIRE

    Flink, H?kan; Tegelberg, ?ke; Arnetz, Judith E.; Birkhed, Dowen

    2017-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that dental caries should be regarded as a chronic disease as many individuals repeatedly develop new caries lesions. How this is perceived by caries active patients is unclear. The aim of this study was to measure patient-reported attitudes and negative experiences related to caries and dental treatment. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to 134 caries active (CA) and 40 caries inactive (CI) adult patients treated at a Swedish public dental service clinic. Th...

  20. Maturity Status Strongly Influences the Relative Age Effect in International Elite Under-9 Soccer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller, Josef Gehmaier, Christoph Gonaus, Christian Raschner, Erich Müller

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the role of the relative age effect (RAE and to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in international under-9 soccer. The birth dates of 222 male participants of the U9 Eurochampionship Soccer Tournament in Vienna in 2016 were analyzed and divided into four relative age quarters (Q1-Q4 and the biological maturity status was assessed with the age at peak height velocity (APHV method. Based on the mean±standard deviation of the APHV, the athletes were divided into three groups of maturity: early, normal and late maturing. Chi-Square-tests were used to assess the difference between the observed and the expected even relative age quarter distribution and to evaluate the difference between the observed distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution. A univariate analysis of variance was performed to assess differences in the APHV between the relative age quarters. A RAE was present (χ2 = 23.87; p < 0.001; ω = 0.33. A significant difference was found in APHV between the four relative age quarters (F = 9.906; p < 0.001; relatively older athletes were significantly less mature. A significant difference was found between the distribution of early, normal and late maturing athletes and the expected normal distribution for athletes of Q1 (high percentage of late maturing athletes: 27%; χ2 = 17.69; p < 0.001; ω = 0.46 and of Q4 (high percentage of early maturing soccer players: 31%; χ2 = 12.08; p = 0.002; ω = 0.58. These findings demonstrated that the selection process in international soccer, with athletes younger than 9 years, seems to be associated with the biological maturity status and the relative age. Relatively younger soccer players seem to have a better chance for selection for international tournaments, if they enter puberty at an earlier age, whereas relatively older athletes seem to have an increased likelihood for

  1. Mushroom's spore size and time of fruiting are strongly related: is moisture important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Halvorsen, Rune; Boddy, Lynne; Høiland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-04-23

    Most basidiomycete fungi produce annual short-lived sexual fruit bodies from which billions of microscopic spores are spread into the air during a short time period. However, little is known about the selective forces that have resulted in some species fruiting early and others later in the fruiting season. This study of relationships between morphological and ecological characteristics, climate factors and time of fruiting are based upon thorough statistical analyses of 66 520 mapped records from Norway, representing 271 species of autumnal fruiting mushroom species. We found a strong relationship between spore size and time of fruiting; on average, a doubling of spore size (volume) corresponded to 3 days earlier fruiting. Small-spored species dominate in the oceanic parts of Norway, whereas large-spored species are typical of more continental parts. In separate analyses, significant relationships were observed between spore size and climate factors. We hypothesize that these relationships are owing to water balance optimization, driven by water storage in spores as a critical factor for successful germination of primary mycelia in the drier micro-environments found earlier in the fruiting season and/or in continental climates.

  2. Concepts relating magnetic interactions, intertwined electronic orders, and strongly correlated superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. C. Séamus; Lee, Dung-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional superconductivity (SC) is said to occur when Cooper pair formation is dominated by repulsive electron–electron interactions, so that the symmetry of the pair wave function is other than an isotropic s-wave. The strong, on-site, repulsive electron–electron interactions that are the proximate cause of such SC are more typically drivers of commensurate magnetism. Indeed, it is the suppression of commensurate antiferromagnetism (AF) that usually allows this type of unconventional superconductivity to emerge. Importantly, however, intervening between these AF and SC phases, intertwined electronic ordered phases (IP) of an unexpected nature are frequently discovered. For this reason, it has been extremely difficult to distinguish the microscopic essence of the correlated superconductivity from the often spectacular phenomenology of the IPs. Here we introduce a model conceptual framework within which to understand the relationship between AF electron–electron interactions, IPs, and correlated SC. We demonstrate its effectiveness in simultaneously explaining the consequences of AF interactions for the copper-based, iron-based, and heavy-fermion superconductors, as well as for their quite distinct IPs. PMID:24114268

  3. Lipofectamine and related cationic lipids strongly improve adenoviral infection efficiency of primitive human hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byk, T; Haddada, H; Vainchenker, W; Louache, F

    1998-11-20

    Adenoviral vectors have the potential to infect a large number of cell types including quiescent cells. Their use in hematopoietic cells is limited by the episomal form of their DNA, leading to transgene loss in the progeny cells. However, the use of this vector may be interesting for short-term in vitro modifications of primitive human hematopoietic cells. Therefore, we have investigated the ability of adenovirus to transduce cord blood CD34+ cells. Several promoters were tested using the lacZ reporter gene. The PGK and CMV promoters induced transgene expression in 18-25% of the cells, whereas the HTLV-I and especially the RSV promoter were almost inactive. To improve infection efficiency, adenovirus was complexed with cationic lipids. Lipofectamine, Cellfectin, and RPR120535b, but not Lipofectin, Lipofectace, or DOTAP, markedly improved transgene expression in CD34+ cells (from 19 to 35%). Lipofectamine strongly enhanced infection efficiency of the poorly infectable primitive CD34+CD38low cells (from 11 to 28%) whereas the more mature CD34+CD38+ cells were only slightly affected (from 24 to 31%). Lipofectamine tripled the infection of CFU-GMs and LTC-ICs derived from the CD34+CD38low cell fraction (from 4 to 12% and from 5 to 16%, respectively) and doubled that of BFU-Es (from 13 to 26%). We conclude that cationic lipids can markedly increase the efficiency of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer into primitive hematopoietic cells.

  4. When strong unions meet precarious migrants: Building trustful relations to unionise labour migrants in a high union-density setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2018-01-01

    Based on case studies in a fish processing plant and a demolition company, this article shows how strong and institutionally embedded unions interact with migrant workers in a precarious labour market position in order to safeguard their working conditions and organise them. It shows how strong...... unions are in a good position to include migrant workers and thereby resist labour market segmentation. The strong Danish unions, faced with the serious challenges of intra-European labour migration, have increased their attention and resources devoted to organising migrant workers and including them...... in the IR-model. The dynamic relation between migrant workers and national unions in this high-density setting is discussed emphasising the need for building a trustful relation between the migrant workers and the unions in order to empower the migrants to better navigate in the national labour market...

  5. Location negative priming effects in children with developmental dyslexia: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yujun; Wang, Enguo; Yuan, Tian; Zhao, Guo Xiang

    2016-08-01

    As the reading process is inseparable from working memory, inhibition, and other higher cognitive processes, the deep cognitive processing defects that are associated with dyslexia may be due to defective distraction inhibition systems. In this study, we used event-related potential technology to explore the source of negative priming effects in children with developmental dyslexia and in a group of healthy children for comparison. We found that the changes in the average response times in the negative priming and control conditions were consistent across the two groups, while the negative priming effects differed significantly between the groups. The magnitude of the negative priming effect was significantly different between the two groups, with the magnitude being significantly higher in the control group than it was in the developmental dyslexia group. These results indicate that there are deficits in distraction inhibition in children with developmental dyslexia. In terms of the time course of processing, inhibition deficits in the dyslexia group appeared during early-stage cognition selection and lasted through the response selection phase. Regarding the cerebral cortex locations, early-stage cognition selection was mainly located in the parietal region, while late-stage response selection was mainly located in the frontal and central regions. The results of our study may help further our understanding of the intrinsic causes of developmental dyslexia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relations Between Dispositional Expressivity and Physiological Changes During Acute Positive and Negative Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmir Gračanin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine the relations between emotional expressivity measured by Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire and physiological response in situations where positive and negative affects were induced. On 65 participants four physiological parameters, including finger pulse amplitude, heart rate, skin conductance level and amplitude of skin conductance response were measured. In situations in which negative affect was induced, individuals higher in negative expressivity showed higher skin conductance level, higher amplitude of skin conductance response and higher heart rate compared to individuals low on negative expressivity, whereas finger pulse amplitude did not differ between these two groups. The same results were obtained even when controlling for five factor personality traits and recorded participants’ facial expression. In situation where a positive affect was induced, no differences in sympathetic responses between participants high and low in positive expressivity have been found. The results are explained in the context of Coactivation theory and possible consequences of the results on health outcomes are discussed.

  7. Negative emotional reactivity moderates the relations between family cohesion and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jill A; Osigwe, Ijeoma; Drabick, Deborah A G; Reynolds, Maureen D

    2016-12-01

    Lower family cohesion is associated with adolescent internalizing and externalizing problems. However, there are likely individual differences in youth's responses to family processes. For example, adolescents higher in negative emotional reactivity, who often exhibit elevated physiological responsivity to context, may be differentially affected by family cohesion. We explored whether youth's negative emotional reactivity moderated the relation between family cohesion and youth's symptoms and tested whether findings were consistent with the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility hypothesis. Participants were 651 adolescents (M = 12.99 ± .95 years old; 72% male) assessed at two time points (Time 1, ages 12-14; Time 2, age 16) in Pittsburgh, PA. At Time 1, mothers reported on family cohesion and youth reported on their negative emotional reactivity. At Time 2, youth reported on their symptoms. Among youth higher in negative emotional reactivity, lower family cohesion predicted higher symptoms than higher family cohesion, consistent with the diathesis-stress model. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Problems related to stimulated electromagnetic emissions, strong turbulence and ionospheric modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, S.

    1993-05-01

    Optical pumping of the ionospheric plasma by high-frequency radio waves produces a state of turbulence. Several consequences of the pumping are considered in this thesis. At reflection altitude the plasma is thought to be dominated by parametric instabilities and strong turbulence; these are both encapsulated in the so called Zakharov equations. The Zakharov equations are derived and generalised from kinetic theory. Limits of validity, corrections to the ion sound speed,effective ponderomotive force, nonlinear damping and other generalisation are included. As an example of the difference a kinetic approach makes, the threshold for parametric instabilities is seen to be lowered in a kinetic plasma. Mostly relevant to the upper hybrid layer is the recent discovery in the pumping experiments of stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). In particular one feature of SEE which occurs around the cyclotron harmonics and depends on density striations is investigated. The observed frequency of emission, dependency on striations, time evolution and cutoff frequency below which the feature does not occur, are explained. Two theoretical approaches are taken. The first is a parametric three wave decay instability followed by a nonlinear mixing to produce SEE. Thresholds for the instability are well within experimental capacity. The second, less orthodox, approach, is a finite amplitude model. The finite amplitude model goes beyond the traditional parametric approach by being able to predict radiated power output. Miscellaneous aspects of a turbulent ionosphere are also examined. The dependency of the scattering cross section of a turbulent plasma upon higher order perturbations is considered. In a turbulent plasma, density gradients steeper than characteristic plasma scales may develop. The case of calculating the dielectric permittivity for a linear gradient of arbitrary steepness is considered

  9. Contextual Mobile Learning Strongly Related to Industrial Activities: Principles and Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    David, Bertrand; Yin, Chuantao; Chalon, René

    2010-01-01

    M-learning (mobile learning) can take various forms. We are interested in contextualized M-learning, i.e. the training related to the situation physically or logically localized. Contextualization and pervasivity are important aspects of our approach. We propose in particular MOCOCO principles (Mobility - COntextualisation - COoperation) using IMERA platform (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment) covering our university campus in which we prototype and test our approach. We ar...

  10. Empirical relations between instrumental and seismic parameters of some strong earthquakes of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin Arias, Juan Pablo; Salcedo Hurtado, Elkin de Jesus; Castillo Gonzalez, Hardany

    2008-01-01

    In order to establish the relationships between macroseismic and instrumental parameters, macroseismic field of 28 historical earthquakes that produced great effects in the Colombian territory were studied. The integration of the parameters was made by using the methodology of Kaussel and Ramirez (1992), for great Chilean earthquakes; Kanamori and Anderson (1975) and Coppersmith and Well (1994) for world-wide earthquakes. Once determined the macroseismic and instrumental parameters it was come to establish the model of the source of each earthquake, with which the data base of these parameters was completed. For each earthquake parameters related to the local and normal macroseismic epicenter were complemented, depth of the local and normal center, horizontal extension of both centers, vertical extension of the normal center, model of the source, area of rupture. The obtained empirical relations from linear equations, even show behaviors very similar to the found ones by other authors for other regions of the world and to world-wide level. The results of this work allow establishing that certain mutual non compatibility exists between the area of rupture and the length of rupture determined by the macroseismic methods, with parameters found with instrumental data like seismic moment, Ms magnitude and Mw magnitude.

  11. Development of event related negativity together with an internal model of audio-motor associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eLutz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The brain’s reactions to error are manifested in several event related potentials (ERP components, derived from electroencephalographic (EEG signals. Although these components have been known for decades, their interpretation is still controversial. A current hypothesis (first indicator hypothesis claims that the first indication of an action being erroneous leads to a negative deflection of the EEG signal over frontal midline areas. In some cases this requires sensory feedback in the form of knowledge of results (KR. If KR is given, then the first negative deflection can be found around 250 ms after feedback presentation (feedback related negativity, FRN. When KR is not required, a negative deflection is found already around 100 ms after action onset (ERN. This deflection may be evoked when a mismatch between required and actually executed actions is detected. To detect such a mismatch, however, necessitates knowledge about which action is required. To test this assumption, the current study monitored EEG error components during acquisition of an internal model, i.e., acquisition of the knowledge of which actions are needed to reach certain goals. Actions consisted of finger presses on a piano keyboard and goals were tones of a certain pitch to be generated, thus the internal model represented audio-motor mapping. Results show that with increasing proficiency in mapping goals to appropriate actions, the amplitude of the ERN increased, whereas the amplitude of the FRN remained unchanged. Thus, when knowledge is present about which action is required, this supports generation of an ERN around 100ms, likely by detecting a mismatch between required and performed actions. This is in accordance with the first indicator hypothesis. The present study furthermore lends support to the notion that FRN mainly relies on comparison of sensory targets with sensory feedback.

  12. A Solar Eruption from a Weak Magnetic Field Region with Relatively Strong Geo-Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.

    2017-12-01

    A moderate flare eruption giving rise to a series of geo-effectiveness on 2015 November 4 caught our attentions, which originated from a relatively weak magnetic field region. The associated characteristics near the Earth are presented, which indicates that the southward magnetic field in the sheath and the ICME induced a geomagnetic storm sequence with a Dst global minimum of 90 nT. The ICME is indicated to have a small inclination angle by using a Grad-Shafranov technique, and corresponds to the flux rope (FR) structure horizontally lying on the solar surface. A small-scale magnetic cancelling feature was detected which is beneath the FR and is co-aligned with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) EUV brightening prior to the eruption. Various magnetic features for space-weather forecasting are computed by using a data product from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) called Space-weather HMI Active Region Patches (SHARPs), which help us identify the changes of the photospheric magnetic fields during the magnetic cancellation process and prove that the magnetic reconnection associated with the flux cancellation is driven by the magnetic shearing motion on the photosphere. An analysis on the distributions at different heights of decay index is carried out. Combining with a filament height estimation method, the configurations of the FR is identified and a decay index critical value n = 1 is considered to be more appropriate for such a weak magnetic field region. Through a comprehensive analysis to the trigger mechanisms and conditions of the eruption, a clearer scenario of a CME from a relatively weak region is presented.

  13. How Harmonious and Obsessive Passion for Alcohol and Marijuana Relate to Consumption and Negative Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steers, Mai-Ly N; Neighbors, Clayton; Hove, M Christina; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M

    2015-09-01

    Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults' passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention.

  14. Characteristics of prospectively identified negative alcohol-related events among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisel, Matthew K; Kenney, Shannon R; Barnett, Nancy P

    2018-03-01

    Throughout the first two years of college, the majority of drinkers experience one or more alcohol-related consequences. Research that examines the characteristics surrounding negative consequences typically utilizes global retrospective survey methods. The objective of the current study was to apply an event-based methodology to describe the circumstances of a recent drinking episode that resulted in one or more alcohol-related consequences among first- and second-year college students. We used a prospective web-based survey method to identify participants (N=296) who had one or more alcohol-related consequences in the past week. Shortly after reporting the consequence(s), participants attended an in-person interview during which they described the circumstances that preceded and followed the consequence(s), including the use of alcohol and other substances, proximal contextual factors including peer drinking, the characteristics of the negative alcohol-related consequence(s), and the reaction of others to the event. The majority of participants reported experiencing the event at either their own (32.4%) or a friend's (32.8%) residence, and 87.1% of participants were with peers when the event happened. Most (85.0%) of the sample indicated that their closest friend knew about their event. The high peer involvement at all stages of the event suggest the potential for training college students to help each other avoid or prevent consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding Negative Self-Evaluations in Borderline Personality Disorder-a Review of Self-Related Cognitions, Emotions, and Motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Dorina; Bohus, Martin; Lis, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Self-conscious emotions, such as guilt, shame, or self-disgust, as well as self-related motives, such as self-enhancement or self-verification, influence how people perceive, evaluate, memorize, and respond to self-related information. They not only influence peoples' concepts of themselves but may also affect their behavior in social environments. In the current review, we describe alterations of self-related processing in borderline personality disorder (BPD). We chose BPD as an example of a mental disorder of which impairments in self-functioning and identity constitute a major feature. Since terminology used in clinical research on self-referential processing is diverse and often confusing, we start with reviewing some of the main concepts in this area of research using a conceptual framework provided from social psychology. Most studies on self-referential processing in BPD focused on descriptions of self-esteem and revealed a negative self-concept, particularly expressed by explicitly reported low self-esteem. Moreover, self-esteem is unstable in BPD and likely reactive to self-relevant cues. BPD patients are prone to negative emotions with respect to themselves, such as self-disgust and shame. First data point to altered self-related motives, too. In conclusion, although explicit self-esteem is widely studied as a global and trait-like feature of BPD, there is a strong lack of studies that take the complexity of the construct self-esteem into account. Further studies on alterations in self-related processes are required to deepen our understanding of impairments of the self-concept in BPD and enable the improvement of psychosocial therapeutic approaches.

  16. Number-Phase Wigner Representation and Entropic Uncertainty Relations for Binomial and Negative Binomial States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amitabh, J.; Vaccaro, J.A.; Hill, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    We study the recently defined number-phase Wigner function S NP (n,θ) for a single-mode field considered to be in binomial and negative binomial states. These states interpolate between Fock and coherent states and coherent and quasi thermal states, respectively, and thus provide a set of states with properties ranging from uncertain phase and sharp photon number to sharp phase and uncertain photon number. The distribution function S NP (n,θ) gives a graphical representation of the complimentary nature of the number and phase properties of these states. We highlight important differences between Wigner's quasi probability function, which is associated with the position and momentum observables, and S NP (n,θ), which is associated directly with the photon number and phase observables. We also discuss the number-phase entropic uncertainty relation for the binomial and negative binomial states and we show that negative binomial states give a lower phase entropy than states which minimize the phase variance

  17. Perceiving an opponent's loss: gender-related differences in the medial-frontal negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Hirokata; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    Along with expanding the understanding of the human 'social brain', a new challenge for neuroscience is to elucidate the nature of individual differences in social competence. Here we report a neural index of gender difference in empathy-related processing in a complex social situation. Using electroencephalography, we measured the neural activity of perceptions to one's own and another's monetary gain or loss, while individuals played a 'competitive' two-person gambling game, in which one's monetary gain resulted in the other's loss. The medial-frontal negativity (MFN), a component within 300 ms latency reflecting an emotional categorization of the event, showed a significant gender difference in perceiving an opponent's, but not a self-performed outcome. When females perceive the opponent's outcomes, the MFN was elicited, indicating that another's loss was categorized as negative, even though it resulted in a benefit to them. On the contrary, the males did not elicit discernable MFN to the opponent's outcomes. Together with the fact that the affect score has a negative linear correlation with the MFN, this indicated that the MFN was sensitive to socio-emotional processing. These results suggest that individual differences in complex social behavior result from rapid neural activity in response to external stimuli.

  18. Intraspecific variation in sperm length is negatively related to sperm competition in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Oddmund; Laskemoen, Terje; Fossøy, Frode; Robertson, Raleigh J; Lifjeld, Jan T

    2008-02-01

    Spermatozoa are among the most diversified cells in the animal kingdom, but the underlying evolutionary forces affecting intraspecific variation in sperm morphology are poorly understood. It has been hypothesized that sperm competition is a potent selection pressure on sperm variation within species. Here, we examine intraspecific variation in total sperm length of 22 wild passerine bird species (21 genera, 11 families) in relation to the risk of sperm competition, as expressed by the frequency of extrapair paternity and relative testis size. We demonstrate, by using phylogenetic comparative methods, that between-male variation in sperm length within species is closely and negatively linked to the risk of sperm competition. This relationship was even stronger when only considering species in which data on sperm length and extrapair paternity originated from the same populations. Intramale variation in sperm length within species was also negatively, although nonsignificantly, related to sperm competition risk. Our findings suggest that postcopulatory sexual selection is a powerful evolutionary force reducing the intraspecific phenotypic variation in sperm-size traits, potentially driving the diversification of sperm morphology across populations and species.

  19. A Neuroeconomics Analysis of Investment Process with Money Flow Information: The Error-Related Negativity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Cuicui; Vieito, Jo?o Paulo; Ma, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    This investigation is among the first ones to analyze the neural basis of an investment process with money flow information of financial market, using a simplified task where volunteers had to choose to buy or not to buy stocks based on the display of positive or negative money flow information. After choosing “to buy” or “not to buy,” participants were presented with feedback. At the same time, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to record investor’s brain activity and capture the even...

  20. Alcohol-Related Blackouts, Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences, and Motivations for Drinking Reported by Newly Matriculating Transgender College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott

    2017-05-01

    Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender

  1. Effects of simulated interpersonal touch and trait intrinsic motivation on the error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjew-A-Sin, Mandy; Tops, Mattie; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Koole, Sander L

    2016-03-23

    The error-related negativity (ERN or Ne) is a negative event-related brain potential that peaks about 20-100 ms after people perform an incorrect response in choice reaction time tasks. Prior research has shown that the ERN may be enhanced by situational and dispositional factors that promote intrinsic motivation. Building on and extending this work the authors hypothesized that simulated interpersonal touch may increase task engagement and thereby increase ERN amplitude. To test this notion, 20 participants performed a Go/No-Go task while holding a teddy bear or a same-sized cardboard box. As expected, the ERN was significantly larger when participants held a teddy bear rather than a cardboard box. This effect was most pronounced for people high (rather than low) in trait intrinsic motivation, who may depend more on intrinsically motivating task cues to maintain task engagement. These findings highlight the potential benefits of simulated interpersonal touch in stimulating attention to errors, especially among people who are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive and negative emotionality: trajectories across six years and relations with social competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallquist, Julie Vaughan; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Reiser, Mark; Hofer, Claire; Zhou, Qing; Liew, Jeffrey; Eggum, Natalie

    2009-02-01

    The goals of the present study were to examine (1) the mean-level stability and differential stability of children's positive emotional intensity, negative emotional intensity, expressivity, and social competence from early elementary school-aged to early adolescence, and (2) the associations between the trajectories of children's emotionality and social functioning. Using four waves of longitudinal data (with assessments 2 years apart), parents and teachers of children (199 kindergarten through third grade children at the first assessment) rated children's emotion-related responding and social competence. For all constructs, there was evidence of mean-level decline with age and stability in individual differences in rank ordering. Based on age-centered growth-to-growth curve analyses, the results indicated that children who had a higher initial status on positive emotional intensity, negative emotional intensity, and expressivity had a steeper decline in their social skills across time. These findings provide insight into the stability and association of emotion-related constructs to social competence across the elementary and middle school years. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Negative statin-related news stories decrease statin persistence and increase myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    AIM: We tested the hypothesis that statin-related news stories, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, statin dose, calendar year, and socio-demographic status are associated with early statin discontinuation. We also examined frequency and consequences of early statin discontinuation. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: From the entire Danish population, we studied 674 900 individuals aged 40 or older who were initiated on statin therapy in 1995-2010, and followed them until 31 December 2011. Individuals on statins increased from statin discontinuation increased from 6......% in 1995 to 18% in 2010. The odds ratios for early statin discontinuation vs. continued use were 1.09 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.12) for negative statin-related news stories, 1.04 (1.02-1.07) per increasing calendar year, 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per increasing defined daily dose of statin, 1.05 (1...

  4. Combined Phosphoproteomics and Bioinformatics Strategy in Deciphering Drug Resistant Related Pathways in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the absence of a clear therapeutic target for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC, conventional chemotherapy is the only available systemic treatment option for these patients. Despite chemotherapy treatment, TNBC patients still have worse prognosis when compared with other breast cancer patients. The study is to investigate unique phosphorylated proteins expressed in chemoresistant TNBC cell lines. In the current study, twelve TNBC cell lines were subjected to drug sensitivity assays against chemotherapy drugs docetaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine, and cisplatin. Based on their half maximal inhibitory concentrations, four resistant and two sensitive cell lines were selected for further analysis. The phosphopeptides from these cells were enriched with TiO2 beads and fractionated using strong cation exchange. 1,645 phosphoprotein groups and 9,585 unique phosphopeptides were identified by a high throughput LC-MS/MS system LTQ-Orbitrap. The phosphopeptides were further filtered with Ascore system and 1,340 phosphoprotein groups, 2,760 unique phosphopeptides, and 4,549 unique phosphosites were identified. Our study suggested that differentially phosphorylated Cdk5, PML, AP-1, and HSF-1 might work together to promote vimentin induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT in the drug resistant cells. EGFR and HGF were also shown to be involved in this process.

  5. Analysis of the enhanced negative correlation between electron density and electron temperature related to earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Liu, J.; Zhao, S. F.; Yuan, G. P.

    2015-04-01

    Ionospheric perturbations in plasma parameters have been observed before large earthquakes, but the correlation between different parameters has been less studied in previous research. The present study is focused on the relationship between electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te) observed by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite during local nighttime, in which a positive correlation has been revealed near the equator and a weak correlation at mid- and low latitudes over both hemispheres. Based on this normal background analysis, the negative correlation with the lowest percent in all Ne and Te points is studied before and after large earthquakes at mid- and low latitudes. The multiparameter observations exhibited typical synchronous disturbances before the Chile M8.8 earthquake in 2010 and the Pu'er M6.4 in 2007, and Te varied inversely with Ne over the epicentral areas. Moreover, statistical analysis has been done by selecting the orbits at a distance of 1000 km and ±7 days before and after the global earthquakes. Enhanced negative correlation coefficients lower than -0.5 between Ne and Te are found in 42% of points to be connected with earthquakes. The correlation median values at different seismic levels show a clear decrease with earthquakes larger than 7. Finally, the electric-field-coupling model is discussed; furthermore, a digital simulation has been carried out by SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere), which illustrates that the external electric field in the ionosphere can strengthen the negative correlation in Ne and Te at a lower latitude relative to the disturbed source due to the effects of the geomagnetic field. Although seismic activity is not the only source to cause the inverse Ne-Te variations, the present results demonstrate one possibly useful tool in seismo-electromagnetic anomaly differentiation, and a comprehensive analysis with multiple parameters helps to

  6. Negative reactions of men to the loss of power in gender relations: Lilith vs. Eve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Moya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the reaction of the man when he sees he is losing power and authority over a woman and it relation with men’s sexist ideology. 83 men participated in the study and were led to believe they were interacting via computer with a woman, and answered a decision-making task about family relationships. All of them were assigned the role of someone with authority and power. In half the cases, the woman accepted the man's decisions, and, in the other half, she did not accept. The results showed that when woman did not accept the decisions of the man, she was perceived more negatively. Moreover, the more hostile sexist participants were, the more they rated negatively their female partner, especially when the woman did not accept their decisions. Hostile sexism acts as a corrective tool against those women who defy the traditionally higher status accorded to men. The valuation that woman receive in their interaction with man is determined by what man feel threatened. These results are of great interest in the field of gender violence, since it is one more step towards explaining why some men use violence to attempt to regain their threatened or lost power.

  7. Habitual Cognitive Reappraisal Was Negatively Related to Perceived Immorality in the Harm and Fairness Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongquan; Wu, Xiaoyuan; Zhang, Lisong; Zhang, Ziyuan

    2017-01-01

    Emotion plays an important role in moral judgment, and people always use emotion regulation strategies to modulate emotion, consciously or unconsciously. Previous studies had investigated only the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and moral judgment in the Harm domain, and revealed divergent results. Based on Moral Foundations Theory, the present study extended the investigation into moral judgment in all five moral domains and used a set of standardized moral vignettes. Two hundred and six college students filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and completed emotional ratings and moral judgment on moral vignettes from Moral Foundations Vignettes. Correlation analysis indicated that habitual cognitive reappraisal was negatively related to immorality rating in Harm, Fairness, and Loyalty domains. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling the effect of other variables, cognitive reappraisal negatively predicted immorality ratings in the Harm and Fairness domains. Further mediation analysis showed that emotional valence only partially explained the association between cognitive reappraisal and moral judgment in Harm area. Some other factors beyond emotional valence were suggested for future studies.

  8. Habitual Cognitive Reappraisal Was Negatively Related to Perceived Immorality in the Harm and Fairness Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongquan Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion plays an important role in moral judgment, and people always use emotion regulation strategies to modulate emotion, consciously or unconsciously. Previous studies had investigated only the relationship between emotion regulation strategies and moral judgment in the Harm domain, and revealed divergent results. Based on Moral Foundations Theory, the present study extended the investigation into moral judgment in all five moral domains and used a set of standardized moral vignettes. Two hundred and six college students filled in the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire and completed emotional ratings and moral judgment on moral vignettes from Moral Foundations Vignettes. Correlation analysis indicated that habitual cognitive reappraisal was negatively related to immorality rating in Harm, Fairness, and Loyalty domains. Regression analysis revealed that after controlling the effect of other variables, cognitive reappraisal negatively predicted immorality ratings in the Harm and Fairness domains. Further mediation analysis showed that emotional valence only partially explained the association between cognitive reappraisal and moral judgment in Harm area. Some other factors beyond emotional valence were suggested for future studies.

  9. Inducing negative affect using film clips with general and eating disorder-related content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushiou, Maria; Nicolaou, Kalia; Karekla, Maria

    2018-02-09

    The aim of the present study was to select appropriate film clips with a general vs. eating disorder (ED)-related content to induce negative affect. More specifically, the study examined the subjective emotional experience (valence, arousal, anxiety, induction of somatic symptoms, and ability to control reactions during film clips) of Greek-Cypriot university students (N = 79) in response to three types of film clips: general unpleasant, ED-specific unpleasant, and emotionally neutral. In addition, the study aimed to compare the emotional reactions to the aforementioned clips between two groups of participants differing on their risk for ED (high vs. low). Preliminary results indicate the clips with general content ("The Champ") and with ED-specific content ("Binge eating") that are most effective in inducing negative affect and differentiating between risk groups. These clips provide an effective method for emotion induction that can be used for assessing the emotional experience of individuals with ED symptoms, since their emotional experience is significantly implicated in the development and maintenance of their symptoms (Merwin, Clin Psychol Sci Pract 18(3):208-214, 2011).Level of evidence No level of evidence, Experimental Study.

  10. Negative voice-content as a full mediator of a relation between childhood adversity and distress ensuing from hearing voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Cherise; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Jones, Nev; Chase, Kayla A; Sharma, Rajiv P

    2018-03-23

    A key predictor of whether or not an individual who hears voices (auditory verbal hallucinations; AVH) meets criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis is the level of negative content of the voices (e.g., threats, criticism, abuse). Yet the factors that contribute to negative voice-content are still not well understood. This study aimed to test the hypotheses that levels of childhood adversity would predict levels of negative voice-content, and that negative voice-content would partially mediate a relation between childhood adversity and voice-related distress. These hypotheses were tested in a clinical sample of 61 patients with formally diagnosed psychotic disorders (48 schizophrenia, 13 bipolar). We found evidence consistent with negative voice-content fully (not partially) mediating the relation between childhood adversity and voice-related distress. Although bivariate analyses found depression to be associated with both negative voice-content and voice-related distress, we found no evidence of an indirect effect of childhood adversity on either negative voice-content or voice-related distress via depression. Alternative study designs are now needed to test if our findings are replicable and causal. Should they be, it will be necessary for psychological therapies to devise ways to reduce negative voice-content itself, rather than just changing beliefs about voices. A number of techniques are discussed (Avatar Therapy, Compassion Focused Therapy, voice-dialogue) that already show promise for this. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Severity and Justness Do Not Moderate the Relation between Corporal Punishment and Negative Child Outcomes: A Multicultural and Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alampay, Liane Peña; Godwin, Jennifer; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Giunta, Laura Di; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana M. Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bacchini, Dario

    2017-01-01

    There is strong evidence of a positive association between corporal punishment and negative child outcomes, but previous studies have suggested that the manner in which parents implement corporal punishment moderates the effects of its use. This study investigated whether severity and justness in the use of corporal punishment moderate the…

  12. Error-related negativity varies with the activation of gender stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingguo; Shu, Liangchao; Wang, Xiaoyi; Dai, Shenyi; Che, Hongmin

    2008-09-19

    The error-related negativity (ERN) was suggested to reflect the response-performance monitoring process. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the activation of gender stereotypes influences the ERN. Twenty-eight male participants were asked to complete a tool or kitchenware identification task. The prime stimulus is a picture of a male or female face and the target stimulus is either a kitchen utensil or a hand tool. The ERN amplitude on male-kitchenware trials is significantly larger than that on female-kitchenware trials, which reveals the low-level, automatic activation of gender stereotypes. The ERN that was elicited in this task has two sources--operation errors and the conflict between the gender stereotype activation and the non-prejudice beliefs. And the gender stereotype activation may be the key factor leading to this difference of ERN. In other words, the stereotype activation in this experimental paradigm may be indexed by the ERN.

  13. Multiple sources of positive- and negative-priming effects: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Henning; Rammsayer, Thomas H; Stahl, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potential correlates of positive priming (PP) and negative priming (NP) were investigated in order to further elucidate the cognitive mechanisms involved. Thirty-six participants performed both an identity- and a location-based priming task. Repeating the target stimulus/location from the immediately preceding display produced behavioral PP. With localization, but not with identification, behavioral NP was observed when the target stimulus/location matched the preceding distractor stimulus/location. Smaller P300 amplitude accompanied identity-based PP, suggesting persisting target-specific activation. The lateralized readiness potential, an index of correct/incorrect response activation, indicated persisting central motor activation as another source of PP. Both location-based PP and NP were accompanied by reduced P1/N1 and P300 amplitudes, pointing to the involvement of inhibition of return in location-based priming. The results support the view that multiple brain processes underlie behavioral priming.

  14. Negative Affective Experiences in Relation to Stages of Eating Disorder Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Megan B.; Fitzsimmons-Crafr, Ellen E.; Maldonado, Christine R.; Bardone-Cone, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n =53), partially recovered (n =15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n =20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal, social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this, in turn, has

  15. [WMN: a negative ERPs component related to working memory during non-target visual stimuli processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lun; Wei, Jin-he

    2003-10-01

    To study non-target stimuli processing in the brain. Features of the event-related potentials (ERPs) from non-target stimuli during selective response task (SR) was compared with that during visual selective discrimination (DR) task in 26 normal subjects. The stimuli consisted of two color LED flashes (red and green) appeared randomly in left (LVF) or right (RVF) visual field with same probability. ERPs were derived at 9 electrode sites on the scalp under 2 task conditions: a) SR, making switch response to the target (NT) stimuli from LVF or RVF in one direction and making no response to the non-target (NT) ones; b) DR, making switching response to T stimuli differentially, i.e., to the left for T from LVF and to the right for T from RVF. 1) the non-target stimuli in DR conditions, compared with that in SR condition, elicited smaller P2 and P3 components and larger N2 component at the frontal brain areas; 2) a significant negative component, named as WMN (working memory negativity), appeared in the non-target ERPs during DR in the period of 100 to 700 ms post stimulation which was predominant at the frontal brain areas. According to the major difference between brain activities for non-target stimuli during SR and DR, the predominant appearance of WMN at the frontal brain areas demonstrated that the non-target stimulus processing was an active process and was related to working memory, i.e., the temporary elimination and the retrieval of the response mode which was stored in working memory.

  16. Negative affective experiences in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, Megan B; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Maldonado, Christine R; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine a collection of negative affect symptoms in relation to stages of eating disorder recovery. Depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, loneliness, and perceived stress are known to be present in individuals with eating disorders; however, less is known about the presence of such constructs throughout the recovery process. Does this negative affect fog continue to linger in individuals who have recovered from an eating disorder? Female participants seen at some point for an eating disorder at a primary care clinic were categorized into one of three groups using a stringent definition of eating disorder recovery based on physical, behavioral, and psychological criteria: active eating disorder (n=53), partially recovered (n=15; psychological criteria not met), and fully recovered (n=20; all recovery criteria met). Additionally, data were obtained from 67 female controls who had no history of an eating disorder. Self-report data indicated that controls and women fully recovered from an eating disorder scored significantly lower than partially recovered and active eating disorder groups in perceived stress, depression, and anxiety. Controls and the fully recovered group were statistically indistinguishable from each other in these domains, as were the partially recovered and active eating disorder groups, suggesting an interesting divide depending on whether psychological criteria (e.g., normative levels of weight/shape concern) were met. In contrast, controls and fully recovered and partially recovered groups all reported feeling significantly less lonely relative to those with an active eating disorder suggesting that improved perceptions of interpersonal functioning and social support may act as a stepping stone toward more comprehensive eating disorder recovery. Future research may want to longitudinally determine if an increase in actual or perceived social support facilitates the movement toward full recovery and whether this

  17. Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J. Brooker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children's risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN, an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems.

  18. Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A

    2014-07-01

    Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children's risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Severity and Justness Do Not Moderate the Relation Between Corporal Punishment and Negative Child Outcomes: A Multicultural and Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alampay, Liane Peña; Godwin, Jennifer; Lansford, Jennifer E; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana M; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha; Bacchini, Dario

    2017-07-01

    There is strong evidence of a positive association between corporal punishment and negative child outcomes, but previous studies have suggested that the manner in which parents implement corporal punishment moderates the effects of its use. This study investigated whether severity and justness in the use of corporal punishment moderate the associations between frequency of corporal punishment and child externalizing and internalizing behaviors. This question was examined using a multicultural sample from eight countries and two waves of data collected one year apart. Interviews were conducted with 998 children aged 7-10 years, and their mothers and fathers, from China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Thailand, and the United States. Mothers and fathers responded to questions on the frequency, severity, and justness of their use of corporal punishment; they also reported on the externalizing and internalizing behavior of their child. Children reported on their aggression. Multigroup path models revealed that across cultural groups, and as reported by mothers and fathers, there is a positive relation between the frequency of corporal punishment and externalizing child behaviors. Mother-reported severity and father-reported justness were associated with child-reported aggression. Neither severity nor justness moderated the relation between frequency of corporal punishment and child problem behavior. The null result suggests that more use of corporal punishment is harmful to children regardless of how it is implemented, but requires further substantiation as the study is unable to definitively conclude that there is no true interaction effect.

  20. Gravity, Special Relativity, and the Strong Force A Bohr-Einstein-de Broglie Model for the Formation of Hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2012-01-01

    This book shows that the strong interaction forces, which keep hadrons and nuclei together, are relativistic gravitational forces exerted between very small particles in the mass range of neutrinos. First, this book considers the problematic motion of two charged particles under the influence of electrostatic and gravitational forces only, which shows that bound states are formed by following the same semi-classical methodology used by Bohr to describe the H atom. This approach is also coupled with Newton's gravitational law and with Einstein's special relativity. The results agree with experi

  1. A note on the relation between strong and M-stationarity for a class of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Outrata, Jiří; Henrion, R.; Surowiec, T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 423-434 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints * S-stationary points * M-stationary points * Frechet normal cone * limiting normal cone Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-a note on the relation between strong and m-stationarity for a class of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints.pdf

  2. Time-to-death-related change in positive and negative affect among older adults approaching the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nina; Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2013-03-01

    Late-life development may imply terminal processes related with time-to-death rather than with chronological age. In this study, we applied the time-to-death perspective to affective well-being. Using a 15-year observational interval including five measurement occasions with a large sample of deceased participants (N = 1,671; mean age = 75.60; mean time-to-death = 6.83 years, at first occasion) from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), we examined (1) whether intraindividual trajectories in positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) can be better described in terms of time-to-death as compared to chronological age; (2) whether time-to-death-related change in PA and NA follows a terminal decline (linear change) versus terminal drop (accelerating change) pattern, and (3) whether transition points in PA and NA, marking the beginning of the terminal change period, can be identified. For both PA and NA, multilevel mixed models of linear and quadratic time-to-death and age-related trajectories confirmed that time-to-death accounts for more intraindividual variance and reveals a better fit to the data than chronological age. Quadratic time-to-death-related trends fitted better than linear trajectories, thus indicating terminal drop of affective well-being, in terms of decreases of PA and increases of NA accelerating as death comes close. Also, change of NA was linked to time-to-death more strongly than PA change. Transition points to the terminal phase were found at 5.6 and 3.7 years for PA and NA, respectively. In conclusion, affective development toward the end of the human life span may be better understood as a death-related-rather than age-graded-process.

  3. Analysis of the enhanced negative correlation between electron density and electron temperature related to earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Shen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric perturbations in plasma parameters have been observed before large earthquakes, but the correlation between different parameters has been less studied in previous research. The present study is focused on the relationship between electron density (Ne and temperature (Te observed by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions satellite during local nighttime, in which a positive correlation has been revealed near the equator and a weak correlation at mid- and low latitudes over both hemispheres. Based on this normal background analysis, the negative correlation with the lowest percent in all Ne and Te points is studied before and after large earthquakes at mid- and low latitudes. The multiparameter observations exhibited typical synchronous disturbances before the Chile M8.8 earthquake in 2010 and the Pu'er M6.4 in 2007, and Te varied inversely with Ne over the epicentral areas. Moreover, statistical analysis has been done by selecting the orbits at a distance of 1000 km and ±7 days before and after the global earthquakes. Enhanced negative correlation coefficients lower than −0.5 between Ne and Te are found in 42% of points to be connected with earthquakes. The correlation median values at different seismic levels show a clear decrease with earthquakes larger than 7. Finally, the electric-field-coupling model is discussed; furthermore, a digital simulation has been carried out by SAMI2 (Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere, which illustrates that the external electric field in the ionosphere can strengthen the negative correlation in Ne and Te at a lower latitude relative to the disturbed source due to the effects of the geomagnetic field. Although seismic activity is not the only source to cause the inverse Ne–Te variations, the present results demonstrate one possibly useful tool in seismo-electromagnetic anomaly differentiation, and a comprehensive analysis with multiple

  4. Reduced ratings of physical and relational aggression for youths with a strong cultural identity: evidence from the Naskapi people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tara; Iarocci, Grace; D'Arrisso, Alexandra; Mandour, Tarek; Tootoosis, Curtis; Robinson, Sandy; Burack, Jacob A

    2011-08-01

    Minority youth in general, and Aboriginal youth in particular, are at increased statistical risk for being perpetrators or victims of aggression. We examined the potential protective aspect of cultural identity in relation to peer ratings of physical and relational aggression and factors typically associated with each among almost the entire cohort of Naskapi youths from Kawawachikamach, Québec. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that a strong identity with their own Native culture predicted less perceived physical and social aggression by their peers. These findings are discussed in the context of the role of a positive affiliation with ancestral culture for the diminishment of adolescent aggression and for general adaptive development and well-being. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The interplay between feedback-related negativity and individual differences in altruistic punishment: An EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Hendrik; Enge, Sören; Strobel, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    To date, the interplay betwexen neurophysiological and individual difference factors in altruistic punishment has been little understood. To examine this issue, 45 individuals participated in a Dictator Game with punishment option while the feedback-related negativity (FRN) was derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Unlike previous EEG studies on the Dictator Game, we introduced a third party condition to study the effect of fairness norm violations in addition to employing a first person perspective. For the first time, we also examined the role of individual differences, specifically fairness concerns, positive/negative affectivity, and altruism/empathy as well as recipients' financial situation during altruistic punishment. The main results show that FRN amplitudes were more pronounced for unfair than for fair assignments in both the first person and third party perspectives. These findings suggest that FRN amplitudes are sensitive to fairness norm violations and play a crucial role in the recipients' evaluation of dictator assignments. With respect to individual difference factors, recipients' current financial situation affected the FRN fairness effect in the first person perspective, indicating that when being directly affected by the assignments, more affluent participants experienced stronger violations of expectations in altruistic punishment decisions. Regarding individual differences in trait empathy, in the third party condition FRN amplitudes were more pronounced for those who scored lower in empathy. This may suggest empathy as another motive in third party punishment. Independent of the perspective taken, higher positive affect was associated with more punishment behavior, suggesting that positive emotions may play an important role in restoring violated fairness norms.

  6. Feedback-related negativity in children with two subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Gong

    Full Text Available The current model of ADHD suggests abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, although differences in ADHD subgroups are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of feedback valence (reward or punishment and punishment magnitude (small or large on Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN and Late Positive Potential (LPP in two subtypes of ADHD (ADHD-C and ADHD-I compared to typically developing children (TD during a children's gambling task.Children with ADHD-C (n = 16, children with ADHD-I (n = 15 and typically developing children (n = 15 performed a children's gambling task under three feedback conditions: large losses, small losses and gains. FRN and LPP components in brain potentials were recorded and analyzed.In TD children and children with ADHD-C, large loss feedback evoked more negative FRN amplitudes than small loss feedback, suggesting that brain sensitivity to the punishment and its magnitude is not impaired in children with ADHD-C. In contrast to these two groups, the FRN effect was absent in children with ADHD-I. The LPP amplitudes were larger in children with ADHD-C in comparison with those with ADHD-I, regardless of feedback valence and magnitude.Children with ADHD-C exhibit intact brain sensitivity to punishment similar to TD children. In contrast, children with ADHD-I are significantly impaired in neural sensitivity to the feedback stimuli and in particular, to punishment, compared to TD and ADHD-C children. Thus, FRN, rather than LPP, is a reliable index of the difference in reward and punishment sensitivity across different ADHD-subcategories.

  7. Feedback-related negativity in children with two subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jingbo; Yuan, Jiajin; Wang, Suhong; Shi, Lijuan; Cui, Xilong; Luo, Xuerong

    2014-01-01

    The current model of ADHD suggests abnormal reward and punishment sensitivity, although differences in ADHD subgroups are unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of feedback valence (reward or punishment) and punishment magnitude (small or large) on Feedback-Related Negativity (FRN) and Late Positive Potential (LPP) in two subtypes of ADHD (ADHD-C and ADHD-I) compared to typically developing children (TD) during a children's gambling task. Children with ADHD-C (n = 16), children with ADHD-I (n = 15) and typically developing children (n = 15) performed a children's gambling task under three feedback conditions: large losses, small losses and gains. FRN and LPP components in brain potentials were recorded and analyzed. In TD children and children with ADHD-C, large loss feedback evoked more negative FRN amplitudes than small loss feedback, suggesting that brain sensitivity to the punishment and its magnitude is not impaired in children with ADHD-C. In contrast to these two groups, the FRN effect was absent in children with ADHD-I. The LPP amplitudes were larger in children with ADHD-C in comparison with those with ADHD-I, regardless of feedback valence and magnitude. Children with ADHD-C exhibit intact brain sensitivity to punishment similar to TD children. In contrast, children with ADHD-I are significantly impaired in neural sensitivity to the feedback stimuli and in particular, to punishment, compared to TD and ADHD-C children. Thus, FRN, rather than LPP, is a reliable index of the difference in reward and punishment sensitivity across different ADHD-subcategories.

  8. Spiders do not evoke greater early posterior negativity in the event-related potential as snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongshen; Kubo, Kenta; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2014-09-10

    It has been long believed that both snakes and spiders are archetypal fear stimuli for humans. Furthermore, snakes have been assumed as stronger threat cues for nonhuman primates. However, it is still unclear whether spiders hold a special status in human perception. The current study explored to what extent spider pictures draw early visual attention [as assessed with early posterior negativity (EPN)] when compared with insects similar to spiders. To measure the EPN, participants watched a random rapid serial presentation of pictures, which consisted of two conditions: spider condition (spider, wasp, bumblebee, beetle) and snake condition (snake, bird). EPN amplitudes revealed no significant difference between spider, wasp, bumblebee, and beetle pictures, whereas EPN amplitudes were significantly larger for snake pictures relative to bird pictures. In addition, EPN amplitudes were significantly larger for snake pictures relative to spider pictures. These results suggest that the early visual attentional capture of animate objects is stronger for snakes, whereas spiders do not appear to hold special early attentional value.

  9. Task engagement and the relationships between the error-related negativity, agreeableness, behavioral shame proneness and cortisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Boksem, Maarten A. S.; Wester, Anne E.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Meijman, Theo F.

    Previous results suggest that both cortisol. mobilization and the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) reflect goal engagement, i.e. the mobilization and allocation of attentional and physiological resources. Personality measures of negative affectivity have been associated both to high cortisol levels

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  11. The Processing of Causal and Hierarchical Relations in Semantic Memory as Revealed by N400 and Frontal Negativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Liang

    Full Text Available Most current studies investigating semantic memory have focused on associative (ring-emerald or taxonomic relations (bird-sparrow. Little is known about the question of how causal relations (virus-epidemic are stored and accessed in semantic memory. The goal of this study was to examine the processing of causally related, general associatively related and hierarchically related word pairs when participants were required to evaluate whether pairs of words were related in any way. The ERP data showed that the N400 amplitude (200-500 ms elicited by unrelated related words was more negative than all related words. Furthermore, the late frontal distributed negativity (500-700 ms elicited by causally related words was smaller than hierarchically related words, but not for general associated words. These results suggested the processing of causal relations and hierarchical relations in semantic memory recruited different degrees of cognitive resources, especially for role binding.

  12. Relation of Positive and Negative Parenting to Children’s Depressive Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Dallaire, Danielle H.; Pineda, Ashley Q.; Cole, David A.; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Jacquez, Farrah; LaGrange, Beth; Bruce, Alanna E.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the combined and cumulative effects of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors on children’s depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of 515 male and female elementary and middle school students (ages 7 to 11) and their parents provided reports of the children’s depressive symptoms. Parents provided self-reports of supportive–positive and harsh–negative parenting behaviors. Structural equation modeling indicated that supportive–positive and harsh–negative p...

  13. Skin colonisation at the catheter exit site is strongly associated with catheter colonisation and catheter-related sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Vennila; Perperoglou, Aris; Venkatesh, Vidheya; Curley, Anna; Brown, Nicholas; Tremlett, Catherine; Clarke, Paul

    2014-12-01

    The commonest mode of catheter colonisation is via the extraluminal route with skin bacteria. Catheter-related sepsis causes significant mortality and morbidity in neonates. Our aim was to study the relationships between culture-positive catheter exit site skin swabs, percutaneous central venous catheter segments and blood to determine the magnitude of associations between exit site skin colonisation, catheter colonisation and catheter-related sepsis. In a prospective study, an exit site skin swab and three formerly in vivo catheter segments (proximal, middle and tip) were taken for culture at catheter removal. In those neonates who were clinically unwell at catheter removal, a peripheral blood culture was also collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to study associations. Skin swabs were culture positive in 39 (21%) of 187 catheter removals. With a culture-positive skin swab, the risk of associated catheter colonisation was nearly eight times higher (OR: 7.84, 95% CI: 3.59-17.15) and the risk of definite catheter-related sepsis with the same organism was nearly 10 times higher (OR 9.86, 95% CI: 3.13-31.00). Culture-positive skin swabs from the catheter exit site were strongly associated with catheter colonisation and with definite catheter-related sepsis with the same organism. These data provide further evidence supporting catheter colonisation via the extraluminal route and highlight the importance of optimising skin disinfection before catheter insertion. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Looking at the sunny side of life: age-related change in an event-related potential measure of the negativity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisley, Michael A; Wood, Stacey; Burrows, Christina L

    2007-09-01

    Studies of the negativity bias have demonstrated that negative information has a stronger influence than positive information in a wide range of cognitive domains. At odds with this literature is extensive work now documenting emotional and motivational shifts that result in a positivity effect in older adults. It remains unclear, however, whether this age-related positivity effect results from increases in processing of positive information or from decreases in processing of negative information. Also unknown is the specific time course of development from a negative bias to an apparently positive one. The present study was designed to investigate the negativity bias across the life span using an event-related potential measure of responding to emotionally valenced images. The results suggest that neural reactivity to negative images declines linearly with age, but responding to positive images is surprisingly age invariant across most of the adult life span.

  15. Household income is strongly associated with health-related quality of life among Japanese men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Fukuhara, S; Suzukamo, Y

    2005-07-01

    As socio-economic status (SES) strongly reflects individual economic status, evaluating the association between SES and health could provide information that is important for planning integrated economic and public health policies. We examined the association between annual household income as a measure of SES and the eight scale scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a quantifier of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Japan. Cross-sectional survey. Data were from the SF-36 national survey in Japan. A total of 4500 people aged 16 years or older were selected from the entire population of Japan using stratified-random sampling, and 3395 responded to the survey. Men with lower levels of annual household income had lower scores in all SF-36 domains. However, only 'general health perceptions' and 'social functioning' showed statistically significant trends among the women surveyed. In the subgroup of women working full-time, there were no domains that showed significant trends. A strong association exists between annual household income and SF-36 scores among men, but there is only a limited association among women. The employment and economic policies that affect annual household income potentially influence HRQOL.

  16. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C; knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  17. Modafinil improves event related potentials P300 and contingent negative variation after 24 h sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Koushik; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Panjwani, Usha; Kumar, Sanjeev; Sahu, Surajit; Ghosh, Sayan; Thakur, Lalan; Anand, Jag Parvesh

    2012-08-21

    The efficacy of modafinil as a countermeasure in the reduction of cognitive decline following 24 h of sleep deprivation (SD) on subjective sleepiness scales, event-related potential (ERP) P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV) was evaluated. Eleven healthy males, age 25-30 years participated. The experiment was performed in five sessions on different days between 7 and 8a.m. Session 1, baseline recordings; Session 2, after one night's SD; Session 3, 48 h of recovery from SD; Session 4, after 1 week of Session 1, following one night's SD along with modafinil (400mg/day); Session 5, 48 h of recovery after SD+modafinil. Subjective sleepiness scores increased significantly after SD as compared to baseline (Pmodafinil supplementation. There was an increase in N100 and P300 peak latencies of ERP following SD (Pmodafinil (Pmodafinil (Pmodafinil (Pmodafinil in a dose of 400mg/day, reduces the subjective sleepiness and cognitive decline following 24 h of SD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Negative regulation of parathyroid hormone-related protein expression by steroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajitani, Takashi; Tamamori-Adachi, Mimi; Okinaga, Hiroko; Chikamori, Minoru; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Okazaki, Tomoki

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Steroid hormones repress expression of PTHrP in the cell lines where the corresponding nuclear receptors are expressed. → Nuclear receptors are required for suppression of PTHrP expression by steroid hormones, except for androgen receptor. → Androgen-induced suppression of PTHrP expression appears to be mediated by estrogen receptor. -- Abstract: Elevated parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM), which is of clinical significance in treatment of terminal patients with malignancies. Steroid hormones were known to cause suppression of PTHrP expression. However, detailed studies linking multiple steroid hormones to PTHrP expression are lacking. Here we studied PTHrP expression in response to steroid hormones in four cell lines with excessive PTHrP production. Our study established that steroid hormones negatively regulate PTHrP expression. Vitamin D receptor, estrogen receptor α, glucocorticoid receptor, and progesterone receptor, were required for repression of PTHrP expression by the cognate ligands. A notable exception was the androgen receptor, which was dispensable for suppression of PTHrP expression in androgen-treated cells. We propose a pathway(s) involving nuclear receptors to suppress PTHrP expression.

  19. Does cue context matter? Examining the specificity of cue-related activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2013-12-01

    Consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, positive alcohol expectancies may be activated by cues in drinking contexts because they are more closely associated with these cues in memory than are negative expectancies. However, there is little research examining the specificity of cue-induced alcohol expectancy activation. This study investigated the relative activation of positive and negative expectancies in response to positive and negative cue contexts. We also examined whether these effects were stronger for heavier and more problematic drinkers. College student drinkers were randomly assigned to listen to vignettes describing either positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue exposure). Participants also completed an implicit measure of alcohol expectancy activation (modified Stroop task) both before and after the cue exposure, as well as self-report measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. We found that alcohol-related problems moderated the effects of cue condition on expectancy activation, such that specific activation of positive relative to negative expectancies in response to positive cues was observed only for drinkers with higher levels of alcohol problems. No differences in activation of positive versus negative expectancies were observed for more problematic drinkers in the negative cue condition or for less problematic drinkers in either cue condition. The results are partially consistent with the Encoding Specificity principle, showing that positive contextual cues can selectively activate positive alcohol expectancies for more problematic drinkers. Findings may have implications for interventions that target automatic expectancy processes, suggesting potential utility in targeting specific expectancies in specific contexts.

  20. Climate- and successional-related changes in functional composition of European forests are strongly driven by tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Ratcliffe, Sophia; Zavala, Miguel A; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Vilà-Cabrera, Albert; Lloret, Francisco; Madrigal-González, Jaime; Wirth, Christian; Greenwood, Sarah; Kändler, Gerald; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Kattge, Jens; Dahlgren, Jonas; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Intense droughts combined with increased temperatures are one of the major threats to forest persistence in the 21st century. Despite the direct impact of climate change on forest growth and shifts in species abundance, the effect of altered demography on changes in the composition of functional traits is not well known. We sought to (1) quantify the recent changes in functional composition of European forests; (2) identify the relative importance of climate change, mean climate and forest development for changes in functional composition; and (3) analyse the roles of tree mortality and growth underlying any functional changes in different forest types. We quantified changes in functional composition from the 1980s to the 2000s across Europe by two dimensions of functional trait variation: the first dimension was mainly related to changes in leaf mass per area and wood density (partially related to the trait differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms), and the second dimension was related to changes in maximum tree height. Our results indicate that climate change and mean climatic effects strongly interacted with forest development and it was not possible to completely disentangle their effects. Where recent climate change was not too extreme, the patterns of functional change generally followed the expected patterns under secondary succession (e.g. towards late-successional short-statured hardwoods in Mediterranean forests and taller gymnosperms in boreal forests) and latitudinal gradients (e.g. larger proportion of gymnosperm-like strategies at low water availability in forests formerly dominated by broad-leaved deciduous species). Recent climate change generally favoured the dominance of angiosperm-like related traits under increased temperature and intense droughts. Our results show functional composition changes over relatively short time scales in European forests. These changes are largely determined by tree mortality, which should be further

  1. The semantic origin of unconscious priming: Behavioral and event-related potential evidence during category congruency priming from strongly and weakly related masked words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortells, Juan J; Kiefer, Markus; Castillo, Alejandro; Megías, Montserrat; Morillas, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying masked congruency priming, semantic mechanisms such as semantic activation or non-semantic mechanisms, for example response activation, remain a matter of debate. In order to decide between these alternatives, reaction times (RTs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in the present study, while participants performed a semantic categorization task on visible word targets that were preceded either 167 ms (Experiment 1) or 34 ms before (Experiment 2) by briefly presented (33 ms) novel (unpracticed) masked prime words. The primes and targets belonged to different categories (unrelated), or they were either strongly or weakly semantically related category co-exemplars. Behavioral (RT) and electrophysiological masked congruency priming effects were significantly greater for strongly related pairs than for weakly related pairs, indicating a semantic origin of effects. Priming in the latter condition was not statistically reliable. Furthermore, priming effects modulated the N400 event-related potential (ERP) component, an electrophysiological index of semantic processing, but not ERPs in the time range of the N200 component, associated with response conflict and visuo-motor response priming. The present results demonstrate that masked congruency priming from novel prime words also depends on semantic processing of the primes and is not exclusively driven by non-semantic mechanisms such as response activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The relations among child negative interactive behavior, child temperament, and maternal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szabo, Nora; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Chantal; Verhoeven, Marjolein; van Aken, Marcel A.G.; Junger, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    Negative behavior toward the mother during toddlerhood might be a marker of increased risk for maladjustment. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible antecedents of toddler boys’ negative behavior observed in interaction with the mother: child temperament, and maternal behavior

  3. Nuclear detection of Y-box protein-1 (YB-1) closely associates with progesterone receptor negativity and is a strong adverse survival factor in human breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, Edgar; Dunn, Sandra E; Mertens, Peter R; En-Nia, Abdelaziz; Wiesmann, Frank; Krings, Renate; Djudjaj, Sonja; Breuer, Elisabeth; Fuchs, Thomas; Wild, Peter J; Hartmann, Arndt

    2009-01-01

    Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is the prototypic member of the cold shock protein family that fulfills numerous cellular functions. In the nucleus YB-1 protein orchestrates transcription of proliferation-related genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it associates with mRNA and directs translation. In human tumor entities, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer, cellular YB-1 expression indicates poor clinical outcome, suggesting that YB-1 is an attractive marker to predict patients' prognosis and, potentially, is suitable to individualize treatment protocols. Given these predictive qualities of YB-1 detection we sought to establish a highly specific monoclonal antibody (Mab) for diagnostic testing and its characterization towards outcome prediction (relapse-free and overall survival). Hybridoma cell generation was carried out with recombinant YB-1 protein as immunogen and Mab characterization was performed using immunoblotting and ELISA with recombinant and tagged YB-1 proteins, as well as immunohistochemistry of healthy and breast cancer specimens. Breast tumor tissue array staining results were analyzed for correlations with receptor expression and outcome parameters. YB-1-specific Mab F-E2G5 associates with conformational binding epitopes mapping to two domains within the N-terminal half of the protein and detects nuclear YB-1 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Prognostic evaluation of Mab F-E2G5 was performed by immunohistochemistry of a human breast cancer tissue microarray comprising 179 invasive breast cancers, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ and 37 normal breast tissue samples. Nuclear YB-1 detection in human breast cancer cells was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0046). We observed a close correlation between nuclear YB-1 detection and absence of progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.002), indicating that nuclear YB-1 detection marks a specific subgroup of breast cancer. Likely due to limitation of sample

  4. Nuclear detection of Y-box protein-1 (YB-1 closely associates with progesterone receptor negativity and is a strong adverse survival factor in human breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wild Peter J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1 is the prototypic member of the cold shock protein family that fulfills numerous cellular functions. In the nucleus YB-1 protein orchestrates transcription of proliferation-related genes, whereas in the cytoplasm it associates with mRNA and directs translation. In human tumor entities, such as breast, lung and prostate cancer, cellular YB-1 expression indicates poor clinical outcome, suggesting that YB-1 is an attractive marker to predict patients' prognosis and, potentially, is suitable to individualize treatment protocols. Given these predictive qualities of YB-1 detection we sought to establish a highly specific monoclonal antibody (Mab for diagnostic testing and its characterization towards outcome prediction (relapse-free and overall survival. Methods Hybridoma cell generation was carried out with recombinant YB-1 protein as immunogen and Mab characterization was performed using immunoblotting and ELISA with recombinant and tagged YB-1 proteins, as well as immunohistochemistry of healthy and breast cancer specimens. Breast tumor tissue array staining results were analyzed for correlations with receptor expression and outcome parameters. Results YB-1-specific Mab F-E2G5 associates with conformational binding epitopes mapping to two domains within the N-terminal half of the protein and detects nuclear YB-1 protein by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues. Prognostic evaluation of Mab F-E2G5 was performed by immunohistochemistry of a human breast cancer tissue microarray comprising 179 invasive breast cancers, 8 ductal carcinoma in situ and 37 normal breast tissue samples. Nuclear YB-1 detection in human breast cancer cells was associated with poor overall survival (p = 0.0046. We observed a close correlation between nuclear YB-1 detection and absence of progesterone receptor expression (p = 0.002, indicating that nuclear YB-1 detection marks a specific subgroup of

  5. Offspring Hg exposure relates to parental feeding strategies in a generalist bird with strong individual foraging specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cátia S A; Blondel, Léa; Sotillo, Alejandro; Müller, Wendt; Stienen, Eric W M; Boeckx, Pascal; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Monteiro, Marta S; Loureiro, Susana; de Neve, Liesbeth; Lens, Luc

    2017-12-01

    Generalist species can potentially exploit a wide variety of resources, but at the individual level they often show a certain degree of foraging specialization. Specific foraging strategies, however, may increase exposure to environmental contaminants that can alter the cost-benefit balance of consuming particular food items. The Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus) is known to opportunistically feed on a wide range of marine and terrestrial prey that differ in contaminant load, such as mercury (Hg) that strongly biomagnifies through the aquatic food web. The hypothesis tested in this study were: i) a predominant use of marine prey by females during egg-formation and by both parents during chick rearing increases the exposure to Hg during embryonic development and chick growth, and ii) this affects parental investment in clutch volume, chick growth and body condition. Total Hg burden and isotopic signatures of carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) were determined for eggs, down feathers, and primary feathers of L. fuscus chicks collected at a coastal colony in Belgium. As expected, eggs and feathers of chicks from parents with a stable isotope signature that suggested a predominantly marine diet had higher levels of Hg. The use of marine resources by females during the egg-formation period positively correlated to maternal investment in egg size, though entailing the cost of increased Hg-concentrations which in turn negatively affected clutch volume. Furthermore, it is shown that the use of chick down feathers is a suitable matrix to non-lethally estimate Hg concentrations in eggs. Contrary to our expectations, no relationship between Hg exposure and chick growth or chick body condition was found, which may be due the low concentrations found. We conclude that currently Hg contamination does not constitute a risk for development and condition of L. fuscus offspring at the levels currently observed at the Belgian coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Alexithymia Components Are Differentially Related to Explicit Negative Affect But Not Associated with Explicit Positive Affect or Implicit Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas; Donges, Uta-Susan

    2017-01-01

    Alexithymia represents a multifaceted personality construct defined by difficulties in recognizing and verbalizing emotions and externally oriented thinking. According to clinical observations, experience of negative affects is exacerbated and experience of positive affects is decreased in alexithymia. Findings from research based on self-report indicate that all alexithymia facets are negatively associated with the experience of positive affects, whereas difficulties identifying and describing feelings are related to heightened negative affect. Implicit affectivity, which can be measured using indirect assessment methods, relates to processes of the impulsive system. The aim of the present study was to examine, for the first time, the relations between alexithymia components and implicit and explicit positive and negative affectivity in healthy adults. The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) were administered to two hundred and forty-one healthy individuals along with measures of depression and trait anxiety. Difficulties identifying feelings were correlated with explicit negative trait affect, depressive mood and trait anxiety. Difficulties describing feelings showed smaller but also significant correlations with depressive mood and trait anxiety but were not correlated with explicit state or trait affect as assessed by the PANAS. Externally oriented thinking was not significantly correlated with any of the implicit and explicit affect measures. According to our findings, an externally oriented, concrete way of thinking appears to be generally unrelated to dispositions to develop positive or negative affects. Difficulties identifying feelings seem to be associated with increased conscious negative affects but not with a heightened disposition to develop negative affects at an automatic response level.

  7. Negative aspects of close social relations and 10-year incident ischaemic heart disease hospitalization among middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Thielen, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    was found for conflicts with partner. High levels of worries/demands from or conflicts with family and friends were associated with a 40% higher risk of IHD. CONCLUSIONS: Negative aspects of close social relations are associated with higher risk of incident IHD hospitalization except for conflicts......BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between negative aspects of close social relations and development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aim to address if the experience of worries/demands and conflicts with close social relations are related to risk of first-time hospitalization...

  8. Sleep quality is negatively related to video gaming volume in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exelmans, Liese; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Most literature on the relationship between video gaming and sleep disturbances has looked at children and adolescents. There is little research on such a relationship in adult samples. The aim of the current study was to investigate the association of video game volume with sleep quality in adults via face-to-face interviews using standardized questionnaires. Adults (n = 844, 56.2% women), aged 18-94 years old, participated in the study. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and gaming volume was assessed by asking the hours of gaming on a regular weekday (Mon-Thurs), Friday and weekend day (Sat-Sun). Adjusting for gender, age, educational level, exercise and perceived stress, results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that video gaming volume was a significant predictor of sleep quality (β = 0.145), fatigue (β = 0.109), insomnia (β = 0.120), bedtime (β = 0.100) and rise time (β = 0.168). Each additional hour of video gaming per day delayed bedtime by 6.9 min (95% confidence interval 2.0-11.9 min) and rise time by 13.8 min (95% confidence interval 7.8-19.7 min). Attributable risk for having poor sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5) due to gaming >1 h day was 30%. When examining the components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index using multinomial regression analysis (odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals), gaming volume significantly predicted sleep latency, sleep efficiency and use of sleep medication. In general, findings support the conclusion that gaming volume is negatively related to the overall sleep quality of adults, which might be due to underlying mechanisms of screen exposure and arousal. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Age-related changes in deterministic learning from positive versus negative performance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vijver, I.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; de Wit, S.

    2015-01-01

    Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability

  10. Factors related to a negative birth experience - A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lena; Grimsrud, Elisabeth; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2017-08-01

    this study aimed to explore factors associated with a negative childbirth experience including descriptions from women themselves. we performed a mixed methods study based on data from the Norwegian cohort of the Bidens study, including a total of 1352 multiparous women. Quantitative information was analysed in addition to thematic analysis of 103 free-text comments provided by women with a prior negative childbirth experience. the total prevalence of a negative birth experience was 21.1%. A negative experience was associated with fear of birth (AOR: 5.00 95% CI 3.40-7.23) and a history of abuse (AOR 1.34 95% CI 1.01-1.79) in multivariate analysis. Women who indicated they were para 2 were less likely or report a negative childbirth (AOR 0.66 95% CI 0.46-0.94). Three major themes were identified: 'complications for mother, child or both', 'not being seen or heard'; and 'experience of pain and loss of control'. The majority of respondents reported experiences of unexpected and dramatic complications during childbirth. Further, several of the respondents felt a lack of support, that they had not been treated with respect or included in decisions regarding their birth. A minority described pain and loss of control as the main reason for their negative birth experience. comments by the women show that they were unprepared for complications and inadequate care during birth. The feeling of not being seen or heard during childbirth contributed to a negative experience. Midwives can use the information gained from this study to prevent negative birth experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Adolescent Gaming and Gambling in Relation to Negative Social Consequences and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hellström, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the thesis were to study relationships between the effects of online gaming and gambling and negative social consequences and ill health among adolescents and to determine whether gaming and gambling activities occur together. The papers in this thesis used epidemiological methods to obtain self-report information from Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. Time spent in online gaming was associated with negative social consequences, and this relationship was explained by online ga...

  12. Negative appraisals and fear extinction are independently related to PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuj, Daniel V; Palmer, Matthew A; Gray, Kate E; Hsu, Chia-Ming K; Nicholson, Emma L; Malhi, Gin S; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2017-08-01

    Considerable research has revealed impaired fear extinction to be a significant predictor of PTSD. Fear extinction is also considered the primary mechanism of exposure therapy, and a critical factor in PTSD recovery. The cognitive theory of PTSD proposes that symptoms persist due to excessive negative appraisals about the trauma and its sequelae. Research has not yet examined the relationship between fear extinction and negative appraisals in PTSD. A cross-sectional sample of participants with PTSD (n =21), and trauma-exposed controls (n =33) underwent a standardized differential fear conditioning and extinction paradigm, with skin conductance response (SCR) amplitude serving as the index of conditioned responses. The Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory (PTCI) was used to index catastrophic negative appraisals. Participants with PTSD demonstrated a slower decrease in overall SCR responses during extinction and greater negative appraisals compared to the group. A moderation analysis revealed that both negative trauma-relevant appraisals and fear extinction learning were independently associated with PTSD symptoms, but there was no moderation interaction. The current study was limited by a modest sample size, leading to the inclusion of participants with subclinical PTSD symptoms. Further, the current study only assessed fear extinction learning; including a second day extinction recall task may show alternative effects. These findings indicate that negative appraisals and fear extinction did not interact, but had independent relationships with PTSD symptoms. Here we show for the first time in an experimental framework that negative appraisals and fear extinction play separate roles in PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The mass-metallicity relations for gas and stars in star-forming galaxies: strong outflow versus variable IMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Jianhui; Thomas, Daniel; Maraston, Claudia; Goddard, Daniel; Comparat, Johan; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Ventura, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the mass-metallicity relations for the gaseous (MZRgas) and stellar components (MZRstar) of local star-forming galaxies based on a representative sample from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. The mass-weighted average stellar metallicities are systematically lower than the gas metallicities. This difference in metallicity increases towards galaxies with lower masses and reaches 0.4-0.8 dex at 109 M⊙ (depending on the gas metallicity calibration). As a result, the MZRstar is much steeper than the MZRgas. The much lower metallicities in stars compared to the gas in low-mass galaxies imply dramatic metallicity evolution with suppressed metal enrichment at early times. The aim of this paper is to explain the observed large difference in gas and stellar metallicity and to infer the origin of the mass-metallicity relations. To this end we develop a galactic chemical evolution model accounting for star formation, gas inflow and outflow. By combining the observed mass-metallicity relation for both gas and stellar components to constrain the models, we find that only two scenarios are able to reproduce the observations. Either strong metal outflow or a steep initial mass function (IMF) slope at early epochs of galaxy evolution is needed. Based on these two scenarios, for the first time we successfully reproduce the observed MZRgas and MZRstar simultaneously, together with other independent observational constraints in the local Universe. Our model also naturally reproduces the flattening of the MZRgas at the high-mass end leaving the MZRstar intact, as seen in observational data.

  14. Alcohol-related memory associations in positive and negative affect situations: Drinking motives, working memory capacity, and prospective drinking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task

  15. Perturbative Analysis of the Influence of Strong Interaction on the Relations between A$_{2\\pi}$ Creation Probabilities in ns-States

    CERN Document Server

    Voskresenskaya, O O

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the relations between probabilities of A_{2\\pi}-atoms creation in ns-states, derived with neglecting of strong interaction between pions, hold practically unchanged if the strong interaction is taken into account in the first order of perturbation theory. The formulation of Deser equation for the energy levels shift of the hadronic atoms (HA) is given in terms of effective range of strong interaction and relative correction to the coulombic wave function of HA at origin, caused by strong interaction.

  16. Waddlia chondrophila, a Chlamydia-related bacterium, has a negative impact on human spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, D; Vulliemoz, N; Ammerdorffer, A; Gyger, J; Greub, G; Castella, V; Stojanov, M

    2018-01-01

    What is the impact of Waddlia chondrophila, an emerging Chlamydia-related bacterium associated with miscarriage, on human spermatozoa? W. chondrophila had a negative impact on human spermatozoa (decrease in viability and mitochondrial membrane potential) and was not entirely removed from infected samples by density gradient centrifugation. Bacterial infection or colonization might have a deleterious effect on male fertility. Waddlia chondrophila was previously associated with miscarriage, but its impact on male reproductive function has never been studied. An in vitro model of human spermatozoa infection was used to assess the effects of W. chondrophila infection. Controls included Chlamydia trachomatis serovar D and latex beads with similar size to bacteria. Purified motile spermatozoa were infected with W. chondrophila (multiplicity of infection of 1). Immunohistochemistry combined with confocal microscopy was used to evaluate how bacteria interact with spermatozoa. The impact on physiology was assessed by monitoring cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation. Using super-resolution confocal microscopy, bacteria were localized on spermatozoa surface, as well as inside the cytoplasm. Compared to controls, W. chondrophila caused a 20% increase in mortality over 72 h of incubation (P impact of W. chondrophila. Intracellular bacteria, including C. trachomatis, Mycoplasma spp. and Ureaplasma spp., are associated with male infertility. Waddlia chondrophila might represent yet another member of this group, highlighting the need for more rigorous microbiological analysis during investigations for male infertility. This work has been funded by the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland, and by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant nos. 310030-156169/1, 320030-169853/1 and 320030-169853/2 attributed to D.B.). D.B. is also supported by the 'Fondation Leenaards' through the 'Bourse pour la rel

  17. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, Gerhard; Holmes, John; Studer, Joseph

    2015-06-29

    There have been reviews on the association between density of alcohol outlets and harm including studies published up to December 2008. Since then the number of publications has increased dramatically. The study reviews the more recent studies with regard to their utility to inform policy. A systematic review found more than 160 relevant studies (published between January 2009 and October 2014). The review focused on: (i) outlet density and assaultive or intimate partner violence; (ii) studies including individual level data; or (iii) 'natural experiments'. Despite overall evidence for an association between density and harm, there is little evidence on causal direction (i.e. whether demand leads to more supply or increased availability increases alcohol use and harm). When outlet types (e.g. bars, supermarkets) are analysed separately, studies are too methodologically diverse and partly contradictory to permit firm conclusions besides those pertaining to high outlet densities in areas such as entertainment districts. Outlet density commonly had little effect on individual-level alcohol use, and the few 'natural experiments' on restricting densities showed little or no effects. Although outlet densities are likely to be positively related to alcohol use and harm, few policy recommendations can be given as effects vary across study areas, outlet types and outlet cluster size. Future studies should examine in detail outlet types, compare different outcomes associated with different strengths of association with alcohol, analyse non-linear effects and compare different methodologies. Purely aggregate-level studies examining total outlet density only should be abandoned. [Gmel G, Holmes J, Studer J. Are alcohol outlet densities strongly associated with alcohol-related outcomes? A critical review of recent evidence. Drug Alcohol Rev 2015]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyang; Hildebrandt, Andrea; Recio, Guillermo; Sommer, Werner; Cai, Xinxia; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN), when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account or not. These

  19. Individual Differences in the Speed of Facial Emotion Recognition Show Little Specificity but Are Strongly Related with General Mental Speed: Psychometric, Neural and Genetic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyang Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Facial identity and facial expression processing are crucial socio-emotional abilities but seem to show only limited psychometric uniqueness when the processing speed is considered in easy tasks. We applied a comprehensive measurement of processing speed and contrasted performance specificity in socio-emotional, social and non-social stimuli from an individual differences perspective. Performance in a multivariate task battery could be best modeled by a general speed factor and a first-order factor capturing some specific variance due to processing emotional facial expressions. We further tested equivalence of the relationships between speed factors and polymorphisms of dopamine and serotonin transporter genes. Results show that the speed factors are not only psychometrically equivalent but invariant in their relation with the Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism. However, the 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 serotonin polymorphism was related with the first-order factor of emotion perception speed, suggesting a specific genetic correlate of processing emotions. We further investigated the relationship between several components of event-related brain potentials with psychometric abilities, and tested emotion specific individual differences at the neurophysiological level. Results revealed swifter emotion perception abilities to go along with larger amplitudes of the P100 and the Early Posterior Negativity (EPN, when emotion processing was modeled on its own. However, after partialling out the shared variance of emotion perception speed with general processing speed-related abilities, brain-behavior relationships did not remain specific for emotion. Together, the present results suggest that speed abilities are strongly interrelated but show some specificity for emotion processing speed at the psychometric level. At both genetic and neurophysiological levels, emotion specificity depended on whether general cognition is taken into account

  20. Processing of Positive-Causal and Negative-Causal Coherence Relations in Primary School Children and Adults: A Test of the Cumulative Cognitive Complexity Approach in German

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepke, Julia; Richter, Tobias; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Naumann, Johannes; Neeb, Yvonne; Weinert, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Establishing local coherence relations is central to text comprehension. Positive-causal coherence relations link a cause and its consequence, whereas negative-causal coherence relations add a contrastive meaning (negation) to the causal link. According to the cumulative cognitive complexity approach, negative-causal coherence relations are…

  1. The relation between mindfulness and fear of negative evaluation over the course of cognitive behavioral therapy for social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mark; Schmertz, Stefan K; Price, Matthew; Masuda, Akihiko; Anderson, Page L

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the relation between mindfulness and fear of negative evaluation over the course of nonmindfulness based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). We expected that higher levels of mindfulness would be associated with a more positive response to treatment. This study is a secondary report from a randomized controlled trial in which participants (N = 65) diagnosed with SAD were randomly assigned to receive 8 weeks of 1 of 2 manualized treatments (exposure group therapy, n = 33; or virtual reality exposure therapy, n = 32) either immediately or following an 8 week waiting period. Fear of negative evaluation decreased following treatment and was negatively related to mindfulness throughout treatment and follow-up. Mindfulness did not moderate treatment outcome. These findings indicate that while mindfulness is related to fear, it is not a moderator of symptom reduction in nonmindfulness-based treatment. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  2. How does tuberculosis relate to HIV positive and HIV negative drug users?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, S. T.; Langendam, M. M.; van Deutekom, H.; Coutinho, R. A.; van Ameijden, E. J.

    2000-01-01

    (1) To compare the incidence of active tuberculosis in HIV positive and HIV negative drug users. (2) To describe the main characteristics of the tuberculosis cases. A prospective study was performed from 1986 to 1996 as part of an ongoing cohort study of HIV infection in Amsterdam drug users. Data

  3. Relating Specific Emotions to Intrinsic Motivation: On the Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Emotion Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation –individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions– on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:25517984

  4. Relating specific emotions to intrinsic motivation: on the moderating role of positive and negative emotion differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandercammen, Leen; Hofmans, Joeri; Theuns, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that studies on self-determination theory have traditionally disregarded the explicit role of emotions in the motivation eliciting process, research attention for the affective antecedents of motivation is growing. We add to this emerging research field by testing the moderating role of emotion differentiation -individual differences in the extent to which people can differentiate between specific emotions- on the relationship between twelve specific emotions and intrinsic motivation. To this end, we conducted a daily diary study (N = 72) and an experience sampling study (N = 34). Results showed that the relationship between enthusiasm, cheerfulness, optimism, contentedness, gloominess, miserableness, uneasiness (in both studies 1 and 2), calmness, relaxation, tenseness, depression, worry (only in Study 1) on one hand and intrinsic motivation on the other hand was moderated by positive emotion differentiation for the positive emotions and by negative emotion differentiation for the negative emotions. Altogether, these findings suggest that for people who are unable to distinguish between different specific positive emotions the relationship between those specific positive emotions and intrinsic motivation is stronger, whereas the relationship between specific negative emotions and intrinsic motivation is weaker for people who are able to distinguish between the different specific negative emotions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  5. Combination of 24-Hour and 7-Day Relative Neurological Improvement Strongly Predicts 90-Day Functional Outcome of Endovascular Stroke Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jie; Wang, Huaiming; Tu, Mingyi; Zi, Wenjie; Hao, Yonggang; Yang, Dong; Liu, Wenhua; Wan, Yue; Geng, Yu; Lin, Min; Jin, Ping; Xiong, Yunyun; Xu, Gelin; Yin, Qin; Liu, Xinfeng

    2018-01-03

    Early judgment of long-term prognosis is the key to making medical decisions in acute anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS) after endovascular treatment (EVT). We aimed to investigate the relationship between the combination of 24-hour and 7-day relative neurological improvement (RNI) and 90-day functional outcome. We selected the target population from a multicenter ischemic stroke registry. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at baseline, 24 hours, and 7 days were collected. RNI was calculated by the following equation: (baseline NIHSS - 24-hour/7-day NIHSS)/baseline NIHSS × 100%. A modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days was defined as a favorable outcome. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the relationship between RNI and 90-day outcome. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify the predictive power and cutoff point of RNI for functional outcome. A total of 568 patients were enrolled. Both 24-hour and 7-day RNI were independent predictors of 90-day outcome. The best cutoff points of 24-hour and 7-day RNI were 28% and 42%, respectively. Compared with those with 24-hour RNI of less than 28% and 7-day RNI of less than 42%, patients with 24-hour RNI of 28% or greater and 7-day RNI of 42% or greater had a 39.595-fold (95% confidence interval 22.388-70.026) increased probability of achieving 90-day favorable outcome. The combination of 24-hour and 7-day RNI very strongly predicts 90-day functional outcome in patients with acute anterior circulation LVOS who received EVT, and it can be used as an early accurate surrogate of long-term outcome. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF NEGATIVE POINT-PLANE CORONA AND ITS RELATION TO BALL LIGHTNING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Existing theories of ball lightning are briefly discussed. the corona discharge from a negative point flows in a series of regular pulses called...trichel pulses. based on the theoretical relationship between corona discharge (trichel pulses) and ball lightning , an experimental program is developed...pulse-repetition frequencies of a few mc/s have been the highest attained in the course of the experiments. the results obtained are then discussed as they concern ball lightning .

  7. Positive and Negative Emotionality: Trajectories Across Six Years and Relations With Social Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Sallquist, Julie Vaughan; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Reiser, Mark; Hofer, Claire; Liew, Jeffrey; Zhou, Qing; Eggum, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to examine (1) the mean-level stability and differential stability of children’s positive emotional intensity, negative emotional intensity, expressivity, and social competence from early elementary school-aged to early adolescence, and (2) the associations between the trajectories of children’s emotionality and social functioning. Using four waves of longitudinal data (with assessments 2 years apart), parents and teachers of children (199 kindergarten thro...

  8. Event-Related Potentials: Search for Positive and Negative Child-Related Schemata in Individuals at Low and High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Joel S.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; McCanne, Thomas R.; Crouch, Julie L.; Skowronski, John J.; Fleming, Matthew T.; Hiraoka, Regina; Risser, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation used event-related potentials (ERPs, N400 and N300) to determine the extent to which individuals at low and high risk for child physical abuse (CPA) have pre-existing positive and negative child-related schemata that can be automatically activated by ambiguous child stimuli. Methods: ERP data were obtained from…

  9. Examining Facets of Depression and Social Anxiety: The Relation among Lack of Positive Affect, Negative Cognitions, and Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ivan; Joormann, Jutta

    2017-10-26

    Depression and Social Anxiety Disorder are commonly conceptualized by the presence of negative affect. However, these disorders are also characterized by lack of positive affect, presence of negative cognitions, and emotion dysregulation which may play an important role in the onset and maintenance of these disorders. The present study explored differences among these variables in 189 clinical patients diagnosed with Major Depression, Social Anxiety Disorder, or both. Results showed differences in lack of positivity F(2, 185) = 18.92, p = .0001, η2 = .17, presence of negative cognitions F(2, 185) = 13.97, p = .0001, η2 = .13, and the use of rumination F(2, 185) = 14.63, p = .0001, η2 = .14 and punishment F(2, 181) = 7.64, p = .001, η2 = .08 among groups. Overall, lack of positivity, negative cognitions, and emotion dysregulation were elevated in the comorbid group, whereas lack of positivity and negative cognitions were specifically found for patients diagnosed with depression compared to socially anxious patients. In addition, the study examined the relation of both, lack of positivity and negative cognitions, to emotion regulation processes among groups. Overall, lack of positivity was associated with fear and avoidance in the social anxiety group (all r > .417, p .370, p < .01). Limitations of the present study and future directions are discussed.

  10. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children's Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…

  11. School Connectedness Buffers the Effects of Negative Family Relations and Poor Effortful Control on Early Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alexandra; Roalson, Lori A.; Herrera, Denise E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the unique and interactive contributions of school connectedness, negative family relations, and effortful control to subsequent early adolescent conduct problems. Data were collected from 476 adolescents when they were initially in the 6th and 7th grades and again 1 year later. Results from hierarchical regression analyses…

  12. Good news or bad news: Conducting sentiment analysis on Dutch texts to distinguish between positive and negative relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Atteveldt, W.H.; Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Ruigrok, N.; Schlobach, S.

    2008-01-01

    Many research questions in political communication can be answered by representing text as a network of positive or negative relations between actors and issues such as conducted by semantic network analysis. This article presents a system for automatically determining the polarity

  13. When the truth is not too hard to handle: an event-related potential study on the pragmatics of negation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S; Kuperberg, Gina R

    2008-12-01

    Our brains rapidly map incoming language onto what we hold to be true. Yet there are claims that such integration and verification processes are delayed in sentences containing negation words like not. However, studies have often confounded whether a statement is true and whether it is a natural thing to say during normal communication. In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we aimed to disentangle effects of truth value and pragmatic licensing on the comprehension of affirmative and negated real-world statements. As in affirmative sentences, false words elicited a larger N400 ERP than did true words in pragmatically licensed negated sentences (e.g., "In moderation, drinking red wine isn't bad/good..."), whereas true and false words elicited similar responses in unlicensed negated sentences (e.g., "A baby bunny's fur isn't very hard/soft..."). These results suggest that negation poses no principled obstacle for readers to immediately relate incoming words to what they hold to be true.

  14. Positive and Negative Thoughts in Ambiguous Anxiety-Related Stories: The Child’s Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Filomena Valadão Dias; Raquel V. Oliveira; Isabel Leal; João Maroco

    2015-01-01

    AimTo evaluate the presence/absence, frequency of cognitive products (positive, negative and neutral thoughts) in a Portuguese community sample of children aged 10 and 11 years.MethodA total of 274 children participated in this study, 151 girls and 123 boys, from the 5th and 6th grades, aged 10 and 11 years. Cognitive products were accessed through children’s cognitive responses to the Nine Ambiguous Stories.ResultsThe answers to the nine stories produced 6,633 thoughts (positive - 2,570, ...

  15. Negative attitudes related to violence against women: gender and ethnic differences among youth living in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djikanovic, Bosiljka; Stamenkovic, Željka; Mikanovic, Vesna Bjegovic; Vukovic, Dejana; Gordeev, Vladimir S; Maksimovic, Natasa

    2017-09-15

    This study aimed to identify to what extent negative attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women are present among young women and men living in Serbia, in Roma and non-Roma settlements. We used the data from the 2010 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey conducted in Serbia, for the respondents who were 15-24 years old. Regression analyses were used to examine the association between judgmental attitudes, socio-demographic factors and life satisfaction. In Roma settlements, 34.8% of men and 23.6% of women believed that under certain circumstances men are justified to be violent towards wives, while among non-Roma it was 5.6 and 4.0%, respectively. These negative attitudes were significantly associated with lower educational level, lower socio-economic status and being married. In multivariate model, in both Roma and non-Roma population women who were not married were less judgmental, while the richest Roma men were least judgmental (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18-0.87). Violence prevention activities have to be focused on promoting gender equality among youth in vulnerable population groups such as Roma, especially through social support, strengthening their education and employment.

  16. Age-Related Frequency of Triple Negative Breast Cancer in Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, M. T.; Ahmad, M.; Mustafa, Q.; Shukr, I.; Azhar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine frequency of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in Pakistani women with respect to age. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from July 2005 to July 2010. Methodology: Pathological records of all specimens of breast cancer were reviewed and data was obtained for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2 neu receptor proteins. Specimens having complete record of all three proteins were included for analysis. TNBC was defined as those who were ER, PR and HER-2 neu negative. Overall frequency as well as frequency with respect to age was calculated. Descriptive and categorical variables were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: Eight hundred and fifteen patients out of 4715 (17.28%) were found to be TNBC. Mean age of diagnosis of TNBC was found to be 46.26 A +- 12.22 years of age while other breast cancers had a mean age 52.90 A +- 9.78 years (p 50 years while majority of patients with other breast cancers were elderly females (p < 0.001). Conclusion: TNBC comprised 17.28% of the breast cancers in Pakistani women diagnosed at the studied centre. A higher frequency of TNBC was noted in significantly younger patients. (author)

  17. Age-related changes in deterministic learning from positive versus negative performance feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Irene; Ridderinkhof, K Richard; de Wit, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    Feedback-based learning declines with age. Because older adults are generally biased toward positive information ("positivity effect"), learning from positive feedback may be less impaired than learning from negative outcomes. The literature documents mixed results, due possibly to variability between studies in task design. In the current series of studies, we investigated the influence of feedback valence on reinforcement learning in young and older adults. We used nonprobabilistic learning tasks, to more systematically study the effects of feedback magnitude, learning of stimulus-response (S-R) versus stimulus-outcome (S-O) associations, and working-memory capacity. In most experiments, older adults benefitted more from positive than negative feedback, but only with large feedback magnitudes. Positivity effects were pronounced for S-O learning, whereas S-R learning correlated with working-memory capacity in both age groups. These results underline the context dependence of positivity effects in learning and suggest that older adults focus on high gains when these are informative for behavior.

  18. Feedback-related negativity is enhanced in adolescence during a gambling task with and without probabilistic reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Velázquez, Eduardo S; Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; González-Garrido, Andrés A; Sequeira, Henrique

    2015-01-21

    Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a negative deflection that appears around 250 ms after the gain or loss of feedback to chosen alternatives in a gambling task in frontocentral regions following outcomes. Few studies have reported FRN enhancement in adolescents compared with adults in a gambling task without probabilistic reinforcement learning, despite the fact that learning from positive or negative consequences is crucial for decision-making during adolescence. Therefore, the aim of the present research was to identify differences in FRN amplitude and latency between adolescents and adults on a gambling task with favorable and unfavorable probabilistic reinforcement learning conditions, in addition to a nonlearning condition with monetary gains and losses. Higher rate scores of high-magnitude choices during the final 30 trials compared with the first 30 trials were observed during the favorable condition, whereas lower rates were observed during the unfavorable condition in both groups. Higher FRN amplitude in all conditions and longer latency in the nonlearning condition were observed in adolescents compared with adults and in relation to losses. Results indicate that both the adolescents and the adults improved their performance in relation to positive and negative feedback. However, the FRN findings suggest an increased sensitivity to external feedback to losses in adolescents compared with adults, irrespective of the presence or absence of probabilistic reinforcement learning. These results reflect processing differences on the neural monitoring system and provide new perspectives on the dynamic development of an adolescent's brain.

  19. Teachers' Emotional Exhaustion Is Negatively Related to Students' Achievement: Evidence from a Large-Scale Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klusmann, Uta; Richter, Dirk; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has demonstrated that teachers' professional knowledge and motivation are strongly related to students' learning and motivation. Symptoms of teachers' stress and burnout (e.g., emotional exhaustion) are also thought to influence students' achievement, but no empirical study has tested this prediction. Using multilevel analyses and a…

  20. Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome: Predictor of Dementia and Age-Related Negative Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagadish K. Chhetri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive disorders represent a leading cause of disability in the aging population, of which dementia has the highest global burden. Early signs of dementia such as slow gait and memory complaints are known to present well before the overt manifestation of the disease. Motoric cognitive risk (MCR syndrome characterized by the simultaneous presence of gait disturbances and memory complaints in older subjects has been proposed to study the close interactions between the physical and cognitive domains as well as a possible approach to identify individuals at increased risk of dementia. In addition, studies have shown MCR as a predictor of other negative outcomes in older adults, including disability, falls and death. However, the concept of MCR is still in its early stage and approach to the syndrome is still not well established. This review aims to put together the various aspects of MCR syndrome including its pathophysiology, diagnosis, epidemiology, and relationship with other geriatric conditions.

  1. The Moderating Role of Gender in the Prospective Associations Between Expectancies and Alcohol–Related Negative Consequences Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Martie P.; Spitler, Hugh; Mccoy, Thomas P.; Marra, Laura; Sutfin, Erin L.; Rhodes, Scott D.; Brown, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if alcohol expectancies (assessed with the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol–Brief Form) were prospectively related to negative consequences (assessed with the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index) and if these associations varied by gender. Data were collected from 558 first-year college students at a university in the south-eastern United States as part of an intervention study conducted during their initial residence hall meetings of the fall semester of 2007. Only those students who used alcohol and completed both baseline and 3-month follow-up surveys were included in the analyses (n = 347). Mixed-model multivariate analyses indicated that higher sexuality and tension reduction expectancies were prospectively related to more alcohol consumption–related negative consequences for males but not for females. Findings suggest that intervention efforts to prevent problem drinking would benefit from being gender-specific. The study's limitations are noted. PMID:19938937

  2. The Effects of a Local Negative Feedback Function between Choice and Relative Reinforcer Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Michael; Elliffe, Douglas; Marr, M. Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were trained on two-key concurrent variable-interval schedules with no changeover delay. In Phase 1, relative reinforcers on the two alternatives were varied over five conditions from 0.1 to 0.9. In Phases 2 and 3, we instituted a molar feedback function between relative choice in an interreinforcer interval and the probability of…

  3. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riepl, Korbinian; Mussel, Patrick; Osinsky, Roman; Hewig, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task) via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions) via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states) led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on depression and

  4. Influences of State and Trait Affect on Behavior, Feedback-Related Negativity, and P3b in the Ultimatum Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Riepl

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how different emotions can alter social bargaining behavior. An important paradigm to study social bargaining is the Ultimatum Game. There, a proposer gets a pot of money and has to offer part of it to a responder. If the responder accepts, both players get the money as proposed by the proposer. If he rejects, none of the players gets anything. Rational choice models would predict that responders accept all offers above 0. However, evidence shows that responders typically reject a large proportion of all unfair offers. We analyzed participants' behavior when they played the Ultimatum Game as responders and simultaneously collected electroencephalogram data in order to quantify the feedback-related negativity and P3b components. We induced state affect (momentarily emotions unrelated to the task via short movie clips and measured trait affect (longer-lasting emotional dispositions via questionnaires. State happiness led to increased acceptance rates of very unfair offers. Regarding neurophysiology, we found that unfair offers elicited larger feedback-related negativity amplitudes than fair offers. Additionally, an interaction of state and trait affect occurred: high trait negative affect (subsuming a variety of aversive mood states led to increased feedback-related negativity amplitudes when participants were in an angry mood, but not if they currently experienced fear or happiness. We discuss that increased rumination might be responsible for this result, which might not occur, however, when people experience happiness or fear. Apart from that, we found that fair offers elicited larger P3b components than unfair offers, which might reflect increased pleasure in response to fair offers. Moreover, high trait negative affect was associated with decreased P3b amplitudes, potentially reflecting decreased motivation to engage in activities. We discuss implications of our results in the light of theories and research on

  5. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM). Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO). A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250). Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences were significantly less on both AMED and AOCM occasions compared with AO occasions. The findings that heavy alcohol consumption occurs significantly less often on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions is in opposition to some earlier claims implying that greatest alcohol consumption occurs with AMED. The overall greatest alcohol consumption and associated negative consequences were clearly associated with AO occasions. Negative consequences for AMED and AOCM drinking occasions were similar, suggesting that energy

  6. Protective Behavioral Strategies and the Relationship Between Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Matthew P.; Martin, Jessica L.; Hatchett, E. Suzanne; Fowler, Roneferiti M.; Fleming, Kristie M.; Karakashian, Michael A.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 40% of college students reported engaging in heavy episodic or “binge” drinking in the 2 weeks prior to being surveyed. Research indicates that college students suffering from depression are more likely to report experiencing negative consequences related to their drinking than other students are. The reasons for this relationship have not been well-studied. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine whether use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS), defined as cognitive-behavioral strategies an individual can use when drinking alcohol that limit both consumption and alcohol-related problems, mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students. Data were obtained from 686 participants from a large, public university who were referred to an alcohol intervention as a result of violating on-campus alcohol policies. Results from structural equation modeling analyses indicated that use of PBS partially mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and alcohol-related negative consequences. Implications for clinicians treating college students who report experiencing depressive symptoms or consuming alcohol are discussed. PMID:22017560

  7. Relative entropies, suitable weak solutions, and weak-strong uniqueness for the compressible Navier–Stokes system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Jin, B.J.; Novotný, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2012), s. 717-730 ISSN 1422-6928 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : suitable weak solution * weak-strong uniqueness * compressible Navier-Stokes system Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.415, year: 2012 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00021-011-0091-9

  8. How Absent Negativity Relates to Affect and Motivation: An Integrative Relief Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eDeutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion and motivational systems (Carver & Scheier, 1990; Gray & McNaughton, 2000; Higgins, 1997; Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1990. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors (Mowrer, 1951; Ostafin & Brooks, 2011, self destructive behaviors (Favazza, 1998; Franklin, Lee, Hanna, & Prinstein, 2013, and social influence (Dolinski & Nawrat, 1998. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO.

  9. Infection-related hemolysis and susceptibility to Gram-negative bacterial co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eOrf

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased susceptibility to co-infection with enteric Gram-negative bacteria, particularly non-typhoidal Salmonella, is reported in malaria and Oroya fever (Bartonella bacilliformis infection, and can lead to increased mortality. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a causal association with risk of bacterial co-infection, rather than just co-incidence of common risk factors. Both malaria and Oroya fever are characterised by hemolysis, and observations in humans and animal models suggest that hemolysis causes the susceptibility to bacterial co-infection. Evidence from animal models implicates hemolysis in the impairment of a variety of host defence mechanisms, including macrophage dysfunction, neutrophil dysfunction and impairment of adaptive immune responses. One mechanism supported by evidence from animal models and human data, is the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in bone marrow, which impairs the ability of developing neutrophils to mount a competent oxidative burst. As a result, dysfunctional neutrophils become a new niche for replication of intracellular bacteria. Here we critically appraise and summarize the key evidence for mechanisms which may contribute to these very specific combinations of co-infections, and propose interventions to ameliorate this risk.

  10. Brain metabolites of lindane and related isomers: identification by negative ion mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigas, F; Martínez, E; Camón, L; Gelpí, E; Rodríguez-Farré, E

    1988-04-01

    The application of a new method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to the study of some aspects of the metabolism of hexachlorocyclohexanes is presented. Instead of the classical mode of ionization (Electron Impact, EI), this method uses chemical ionization, recording only the negative ions produced. This enables a tremendous enhancement of the signal when chlorinated compounds elute from the chromatographic column. The mass spectra obtained consist generally in the ions corresponding to the molecular weight of the compound analyzed. The sensitivity of the method is higher than any other GC method described: the limit of detection of several organochlorine compounds can be as low as 60 femtograms. Using this method we have been able to identify several Lindane metabolites (tetra-, penta- and hexachlorocyclohexenes, tetra- and pentachlorobenzene) in rat brain homogenates without any purification step. Using this method, a quantitative study of the main metabolites found in brain after treatment with 4 different HCH isomers has been performed. This study reveals that the HCH isomers are cleared from the brain via different metabolic pathways, with a rate of production of metabolites which is inversely correlated to their half lives in brain.

  11. Carbon dioxide inhalation induces dose-dependent and age-related negative affectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J Griez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbon dioxide inhalation is known to induce an emotion similar to spontaneous panic in Panic Disorder patients. The affective response to carbon dioxide in healthy subjects was not clearly characterized yet. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixty-four healthy subjects underwent a double inhalation of four mixtures containing respectively 0, 9, 17.5 and 35% CO(2 in compressed air, following a double blind, cross-over, randomized design. Affective responses were assessed according to DSM IV criteria for panic, using an Electronic Visual Analogue Scale and the Panic Symptom List. It was demonstrated that carbon dioxide challenges induced a dose dependent negative affect (p<0.0001. This affect was semantically identical to the DSM IV definition of panic. Older individuals were subjectively less sensitive to Carbon Dioxide (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CO(2 induced affectivity may lay on a continuum with pathological panic attacks. Consistent with earlier suggestions that panic is a false biological alarm, the affective response to CO(2 may be part of a protective system triggered by suffocation and acute metabolic distress.

  12. Relation between radiographic BI-RADS scores and triple negativity in patients with ductal carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Murat; Oktay, Nilay Aydın; Besir, Fahri Halit; Buyukkaya, Ramazan; Erdem, Havva; Onal, Binnur; Ozaydın, Ismet; Yazıcı, Burhan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate association of radiographic (BI-RADS 4 and 5) results and prognostic factors of invasive ductal carcinomas with their histopathological subtypes. A total of 103 patients histopathologically diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma of breast with in last five years period were enrolled. Of them, 69 patients who had radiological reports in were included from registry of Radiology Department; Duzce University Training and Research Hospital archives. BI-RADS scores (4 and 5) of radiological reports and subtypes of ductal carcinoma were compared. Of 69 cases, 12 of 22 cases with BIRADS 4 score were Triple negative (TN) while 5 of 47 cases with BIRADS 5 score were TN (p = 0.001). The patients with TN tumors were found to have lower average age, higher grade, higher Ki67 proliferative index and fewer lymph node metastasis than those with non-TN ductal carcinomas (p = 0.048; 0.019; 0.02; 0.048 respectively). Patients who had radiological BIRADS 4 score were significantly more frequent TN type carcinoma than BI-RADS 5. It is important to pay attention to this issue when clinicians evaluate patients with BI-RADS 4 score breast lesions.

  13. Longitudinal and Incremental Relation of Cybervictimization to Negative Self-Cognitions and Depressive Symptoms in Young Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David A; Zelkowitz, Rachel L; Nick, Elizabeth; Martin, Nina C; Roeder, Kathryn M; Sinclair-McBride, Keneisha; Spinelli, Tawny

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents are among the most frequent users of social media websites, raising concern about the dangers of cyber bullying or cybervictimization (CV). A 12-month longitudinal study examined the unique, prospective relation of CV to the development of negative self-cognitions and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 827 children and young adolescents (ages 8-13; 55.1 % female) from the southeastern United States. Over and above conventional types of peer victimization, CV significantly predicted changes in self-referential negative cognitions, victimization-related cognitive reactions, and depressive symptoms, even after controlling for baseline levels of the dependent variables. Results also showed that CV was significantly less stable than other forms of victimization and tended to increase slightly with time. The study highlights the unique effects of CV and has implications for research and practice.

  14. Clinical impact of delayed catheter removal for patients with central-venous-catheter-related Gram-negative bacteraemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y-M; Moon, C; Kim, Y J; Lee, H J; Lee, M S; Park, K-H

    2018-01-10

    Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly the cause of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI), and the prevalence of multi-drug-resistant strains is rising rapidly. This study evaluated the impact of delayed central venous catheter (CVC) removal on clinical outcomes in patients with Gram-negative CRBSI. Between January 2007 and December 2016, patients with Gram-negative bacteraemia and CVC placement, from two tertiary care hospitals, were included retrospectively. Cases with CVC removal more than three days after onset of bacteraemia or without CVC removal were classified as having delayed CVC removal. In total, 112 patients were included. Of these, 78 had CRBSI (43 definite and 35 probable) and 34 had Gram-negative bacteraemia from another source (non-CRBSI). Enterobacteriaceae were less common pathogens in patients with CRBSI than in patients with non-CRBSI (11.5% vs 41.3%; P0.99). Delayed CVC removal [odds ratio (OR) 6.8], multi-drug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteraemia (OR 6.3) and chronic renal failure (OR 11.1) were associated with 30-day mortality in patients with CRBSI. The protective effect of early CVC removal on mortality was evident in the MDR group (48.3% vs 18.2%; P=0.03), but not in the non-MDR group (11.1% vs 0%; P=0.43). CVCs should be removed early to improve clinical outcomes in patients with Gram-negative CRBSI, especially in settings where MDR isolates are prevalent. Copyright © 2018 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Loneliness among people with HIV in relation to locus of control and negative meta-stereotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, E.H.; Boven, G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the relation between locus of control, meta-stereotyping (expectancies about how one's group is stereotyped by another group), and loneliness among people who are HIV-positive. In line with expectations, a survey in the Netherlands among 122 people living with

  16. Increased Error-Related Negativity (ERN) in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: ERP and Source Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Ryan, Neal D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: In this study we used event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization analyses to track the time course of neural activity underlying response monitoring in children diagnosed with an anxiety disorder compared to age-matched low-risk normal controls. Methods: High-density ERPs were examined following errors on a flanker task…

  17. The Importance of Failure: Feedback-Related Negativity Predicts Motor Learning Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helden, J. van der; Boksem, M.A.S.; Blom, J.H.G.

    2010-01-01

    Learning from past mistakes is of prominent importance for successful future behavior. In the present study, we tested whether reinforcement learning signals in the brain are predictive of adequate learning of a sequence of motor actions. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while subjects

  18. Positive and negative assessment center feedback in relation to development self-efficacy, feedback seeking, and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimotakis, Nikolaos; Mitchell, Deb; Maurer, Todd

    2017-11-01

    In this field study we examined both positive and negative developmental feedback given in managerial assessment centers in relation to employees' self-efficacy for their ability to improve their relevant skills assessed in the centers, the extent to which they sought subsequent feedback from others at work, and the career outcome of being promoted to a higher level position within the organization. We found that feedback was related to self-efficacy for improvement which was in turn positively related to feedback seeking, which was positively linked to the career outcome of promotion (e.g., feedback leads to self-efficacy for improvement leads to feedback seeking leads to promotion). In addition, we tested boundary variables for the effects of feedback in this model. Both social support for development and implicit theory of ability moderated the effects of negative feedback on self-efficacy. Having more support and believing that abilities can be improved buffered the detrimental impact of negative feedback on self-efficacy. We discuss implications for theory, future research and practical implications drawing upon literature on assessment centers, feedback and feedback seeking, employee development and career success. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. How do parents' depression and anxiety, and infants' negative temperament relate to parent-infant face-to-face interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktar, Evin; Colonnesi, Cristina; de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Bögels, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    The present study investigated the associations of mothers' and fathers' lifetime depression and anxiety symptoms, and of infants' negative temperament with parents' and infants' gaze, facial expressions of emotion, and synchrony. We observed infants' (age between 3.5 and 5.5 months, N = 101) and parents' gaze and facial expressions during 4-min naturalistic face-to-face interactions. Parents' lifetime symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed with clinical interviews, and infants' negative temperament was measured with standardized observations. Parents with more depressive symptoms and their infants expressed less positive and more neutral affect. Parents' lifetime anxiety symptoms were not significantly related to parents' expressions of affect, while they were linked to longer durations of gaze to parent, and to more positive and negative affect in infants. Parents' lifetime depression or anxiety was not related to synchrony. Infants' temperament did not predict infants' or parents' interactive behavior. The study reveals that more depression symptoms in parents are linked to more neutral affect from parents and from infants during face-to-face interactions, while parents' anxiety symptoms are related to more attention to parent and less neutral affect from infants (but not from parents).

  20. Objective hot flashes are negatively related to verbal memory performance in midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Pauline M; Drogos, Lauren L; Rubin, Leah H; Banuvar, Suzanne; Shulman, Lee P; Geller, Stacie E

    2008-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that hot flashes specifically relate to verbal memory performance by examining the relationship between objective hot flashes and cognitive test performance in women with moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms. In an observational study, 29 midlife women (mean age, 53 y) with moderate to severe hot flashes provided measures of objective hot flashes with an ambulatory hot flash monitor, subjective hot flashes with a diary and questionnaire, and objective measures of verbal memory and other cognitive functions with standardized neuropsychological tests. The mean number of objective hot flashes was 19.5 per day (range, 6 to 35), including 15.3 (range, 6 to 35) during waking hours and 4.2 (range, 0 to 9) during sleep. The mean sensitivity (ie, subjective detection of objectively measured hot flashes) was 60%. Regression analyses revealed that total number of objective hot flashes, sleep duration, and verbal knowledge were significant predictors of delayed verbal memory. Verbal fluency correlated positively with objective daytime hot flashes. Hot flashes did not predict performance on any of the other secondary cognitive measures (ie, attention, working memory, visual memory), although poor sleep predicted worse performance on several outcome measures. Highly symptomatic women underreport the number of objective hot flashes that they experience by 43%. Verbal memory performance relates significantly to the objective number of hot flashes women experience but not to the number of hot flashes that they report. These findings suggest that physiological factors related to hot flashes, rather than psychological factors, predict poorer verbal memory function.

  1. The "Emotional Side" of Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Analysis of the Relation between Positive and Negative Affect and Entrepreneurial Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Oana C; Pintea, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The experience of work in an entrepreneurial context is saturated with emotional experiences. While the literature on the relation between affect and entrepreneurial performance (EP) is growing, there was no quantitative integration of the results so far. This study addresses this gap and meta-analytically integrates the results from 17 studies ( N = 3810) in order to estimate the effect size for the relation between positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), on the one hand, and EP, on the other hand. The meta-analysis includes studies in English language, published until August 2016. The results indicate a significant positive relation between PA and EP, r = 0.18. The overall NA - EP relation was not significant, r = -0.12. Only state NA has a significant negative relation with EP ( r = -0.16). The moderating role of several conceptual (i.e., emotion duration, integrality etc.), sample (i.e., gender, age, education) and methodological characteristics of the studies (i.e., type of measurements etc.) are explored and implications for future research are discussed.

  2. Saturation of auditory short-term memory causes a plateau in the sustained anterior negativity event-related potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alunni-Menichini, Kristelle; Guimond, Synthia; Bermudez, Patrick; Nolden, Sophie; Lefebvre, Christine; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2014-12-10

    The maintenance of information in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) is accompanied by a sustained anterior negativity (SAN) in the event-related potential measured during the retention interval of simple auditory memory tasks. Previous work on ASTM showed that the amplitude of the SAN increased in negativity as the number of maintained items increases. The aim of the current study was to measure the SAN and observe its behavior beyond the point of saturation of auditory short-term memory. We used atonal pure tones in sequences of 2, 4, 6, or 8t. Our results showed that the amplitude of SAN increased in negativity from 2 to 4 items and then levelled off from 4 to 8 items. Behavioral results suggested that the average span in the task was slightly below 3, which was consistent with the observed plateau in the electrophysiological results. Furthermore, the amplitude of the SAN predicted individual differences in auditory memory capacity. The results support the hypothesis that the SAN is an electrophysiological index of brain activity specifically related to the maintenance of auditory information in ASTM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Updating the (supermassive black hole mass)-(spiral arm pitch angle) relation: a strong correlation for galaxies with pseudobulges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Graham, Alister W.; Seigar, Marc S.

    2017-10-01

    We have conducted an image analysis of the (current) full sample of 44 spiral galaxies with directly measured supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses, MBH, to determine each galaxy's logarithmic spiral arm pitch angle, ϕ. For predicting black hole masses, we have derived the relation: log (MBH/M⊙) = (7.01 ± 0.07) - (0.171 ± 0.017)[|ϕ| - 15°]. The total root mean square scatter associated with this relation is 0.43 dex in the log MBH direction, with an intrinsic scatter of 0.30 ± 0.08 dex. The MBH-ϕ relation is therefore at least as accurate at predicting SMBH masses in spiral galaxies as the other known relations. By definition, the existence of an MBH-ϕ relation demands that the SMBH mass must correlate with the galaxy discs in some manner. Moreover, with the majority of our sample (37 of 44) classified in the literature as having a pseudobulge morphology, we additionally reveal that the SMBH mass correlates with the large-scale spiral pattern and thus the discs of galaxies hosting pseudobulges. Furthermore, given that the MBH-ϕ relation is capable of estimating black hole masses in bulge-less spiral galaxies, it therefore has great promise for predicting which galaxies may harbour intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, MBH < 105 M⊙). Extrapolating from the current relation, we predict that galaxies with |ϕ| ≥ 26.7° should possess IMBHs.

  4. Data on simulated interpersonal touch, individual differences and the error-related negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Tjew-A-Sin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dataset includes data from the electroencephalogram study reported in our paper: ‘Effects of simulated interpersonal touch and trait intrinsic motivation on the error-related negativity’ (doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2016.01.044 (Tjew-A-Sin et al., 2016 [1]. The data was collected at the psychology laboratories at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam in 2012 among a Dutch-speaking student sample. The dataset consists of the measures described in the paper, as well as additional (exploratory measures including the Five-Factor Personality Inventory, the Connectedness to Nature Scale, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale and a scale measuring life stress. The data can be used for replication purposes, meta-analyses, and exploratory analyses, as well as cross-cultural comparisons of touch and/or ERN effects. The authors also welcome collaborative research based on re-analyses of the data. The data described is available at a data repository called the DANS archive: http://persistent-identifier.nl/?identifier=urn:nbn:nl:ui:13-tzbk-gg.

  5. Episodic memory after trauma exposure: Medial temporal lobe function is positively related to re-experiencing and inversely related to negative affect symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Reddy, Renuka; Kim, Ye Ji; van Rooij, Sanne J H; Ely, Timothy D; Hamann, Stephan; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    Hippocampal structure is particularly sensitive to trauma and other stressors. However, previous findings linking hippocampal function with trauma-related psychopathology have been mixed. Heterogeneity in psychological responses to trauma has not been considered with respect to hippocampal function and may contribute to mixed findings. To address these issues, we examined associations between data-driven symptom dimensions and episodic memory formation, a key function of the hippocampus, in a trauma-exposed sample. Symptom dimensions were defined using principal components analysis (PCA) in 3881 trauma-exposed African-American women recruited from primary care waiting rooms of a large urban hospital. Hippocampal and amygdala function were subsequently investigated in an fMRI study of episodic memory formation in a subset of 54 women. Participants viewed scenes with neutral, negative, and positive content during fMRI, and completed a delayed cued recall task. PCA analysis produced five symptom dimensions interpreted as reflecting negative affect, somatic symptoms, re-experiencing, hyper-arousal, and numbing. Re -experiencing was the only symptom type associated with hippocampal function, predicting increased memory encoding-related activation in the hippocampus as well as the amygdala. In contrast, the negative affect component predicted lower amygdala activation for subsequently recalled scenes, and lower functional coupling with other important memory-related regions including the precuneus, inferior frontal gyrus, and occipital cortex. Symptom dimensions were not related to hippocampal volume. The fMRI findings for re-experiencing versus negative affect parallel differences in behavioral memory phenomena in PTSD versus MDD, and highlight a need for more complex models of trauma-related pathology.

  6. The content of lexical stimuli and self-reported physiological state modulate error-related negativity amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benau, Erik M; Moelter, Stephen T

    2016-09-01

    The Error-Related Negativity (ERN) and Correct-Response Negativity (CRN) are brief event-related potential (ERP) components-elicited after the commission of a response-associated with motivation, emotion, and affect. The Error Positivity (Pe) typically appears after the ERN, and corresponds to awareness of having committed an error. Although motivation has long been established as an important factor in the expression and morphology of the ERN, physiological state has rarely been explored as a variable in these investigations. In the present study, we investigated whether self-reported physiological state (SRPS; wakefulness, hunger, or thirst) corresponds with ERN amplitude and type of lexical stimuli. Participants completed a SRPS questionnaire and then completed a speeded Lexical Decision Task with words and pseudowords that were either food-related or neutral. Though similar in frequency and length, food-related stimuli elicited increased accuracy, faster errors, and generated a larger ERN and smaller CRN than neutral words. Self-reported thirst correlated with improved accuracy and smaller ERN and CRN amplitudes. The Pe and Pc (correct positivity) were not impacted by physiological state or by stimulus content. The results indicate that physiological state and manipulations of lexical content may serve as important avenues for future research. Future studies that apply more sensitive measures of physiological and motivational state (e.g., biomarkers for satiety) or direct manipulations of satiety may be a useful technique for future research into response monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Assault-related shame mediates the association between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p shame. These findings offer new insight concerning the intervening role of assault-related shame and highlight the importance of shame as a target for therapeutic intervention. This study suggests the need for future research concerning the role of shame in the etiology of PTSD and process of disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Are energy drinks unique mixers in terms of their effects on alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson SJ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sean J Johnson,1 Chris Alford,1 Karina Stewart,2 Joris C Verster3–5 1Department of Health and Social Sciences, Psychological Sciences Research Group, University of the West of England, 2Department of Applied Sciences, Biomedical and Analytical Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK; 3Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Utrecht 4Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 5Center for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Introduction: Previous research has suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED increases overall alcohol consumption. However, there is limited research examining whether energy drinks are unique in their effects when mixed with alcohol, when compared with alcohol mixed with other caffeinated mixers (AOCM. Therefore, the aim of this survey was to investigate alcohol consumption on AMED occasions, to that on other occasions when the same individuals consumed AOCM or alcohol only (AO. Methods: A UK-wide online student survey collected data on the frequency of alcohol consumption and quantity consumed, as well as the number of negative alcohol-related consequences reported on AO, AMED and AOCM occasions (N=250. Results: Within-subjects analysis revealed that there were no significant differences in the number of alcoholic drinks consumed on a standard and a heavy drinking session between AMED and AOCM drinking occasions. However, the number of standard mixers typically consumed was significantly lower on AMED occasions compared with AOCM occasions. In addition, when consuming AMED, students reported significantly fewer days consuming 5 or more alcohol drinks, fewer days mixing drinks, and fewer days being drunk, compared with when consuming AOCM. There were no significant differences in the number of reported negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions to AOCM occasions. Of importance, alcohol

  9. Validation of the Jarzynski relation for a system with strong thermal coupling: an isothermal ideal gas model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baule, A; Evans, R M L; Olmsted, P D

    2006-12-01

    We revisit the paradigm of an ideal gas under isothermal conditions. A moving piston performs work on an ideal gas in a container that is strongly coupled to a heat reservoir. The thermal coupling is modeled by stochastic scattering at the boundaries. In contrast to recent studies of an adiabatic ideal gas with a piston [R.C. Lua and A.Y. Grosberg, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 6805 (2005); I. Bena, Europhys. Lett. 71, 879 (2005)], the container and piston stay in contact with the heat bath during the work process. Under this condition the heat reservoir as well as the system depend on the work parameter lambda and microscopic reversibility is broken for a moving piston. Our model is thus not included in the class of systems for which the nonequilibrium work theorem has been derived rigorously either by Hamiltonian [C. Jarzynski, J. Stat. Mech. (2004) P09005] or stochastic methods [G.E. Crooks, J. Stat. Phys. 90, 1481 (1998)]. Nevertheless the validity of the nonequilibrium work theorem is confirmed both numerically for a wide range of parameter values and analytically in the limit of a very fast moving piston, i.e., in the far nonequilibrium regime.

  10. Much ado about aha!: Insight problem solving is strongly related to working memory capacity and reasoning ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuderski, Adam; Jastrzębski, Jan

    2018-02-01

    A battery comprising 4 fluid reasoning tests as well as 13 working memory (WM) tasks that involved storage, recall, updating, binding, and executive control, was applied to 318 adults in order to evaluate the true relationship of reasoning ability and WM capacity (WMC) to insight problem solving, measured using 40 verbal, spatial, math, matchstick, and remote associates problems (insight problems). WMC predicted 51.8% of variance in insight problem solving and virtually explained its almost isomorphic link to reasoning ability (84.6% of shared variance). The strong link between WMC and insight pertained generally to most WM tasks and insight problems, was identical for problems solved with and without reported insight, was linear throughout the ability levels, and was not mediated by age, motivation, anxiety, psychoticism, and openness to experience. In contrast to popular views on the sudden and holistic nature of insight, the solving of insight problems results primarily from typical operations carried out by the basic WM mechanisms that are responsible for the maintenance, retrieval, transformation, and control of information in the broad range of intellectual tasks (including fluid reasoning). Little above and beyond WM is unique about insight. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Generation mechanism of negative permittivity and Kramers-Kronig relations in BaTiO3/Y3Fe5O12 multiferroic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongyang; Sun, Kai; Xie, Peitao; Liu, Yao; Fan, Runhua

    2017-09-01

    Recently, negative parameters such as negative permittivity and negative permeability have been attracting extensive attention for their unique electromagnetic properties. Usually, negative permittivity is well achieved by plasma oscillation of free electrons in conductor-insulator composites or metamaterials, while some attention has been paid to attaining negative permittivity in ceramics to reduce dielectric loss. In this paper, negative permittivity in barium titanate and yttrium iron garnet composites are reported which was well fitted by the Lorentz model. Further, negative permittivity behavior was verified via Kramers-Kronig relations, and it revealed that the causal principle still valid for negative permittivity resulted from dielectric resonance. The interrelationships among negative permittivity, capacitive-inductive transition and ac conductivity are discussed.

  12. Do strong brands pay off? : An empirical investigation of the relation between brand asset valuator and financial performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Vijn, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the relation between BrandAssetTM Valuatorand financial performance measures. More specifically, we investigate whether pillars of the BrandAssetTM Valuatormodel (Brand Vitality and Brand Stature) are associated with accounting performance (return on investment, return

  13. Variation in Genes Related to Cochlear Biology Is Strongly Associated with Adult-Onset Deafness in Border Collies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhe, Alison L.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Robertson, Kathryn R.; Webb, Aubrey A.; Williams, D. Colette; Chang, Melanie L.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Hamilton, Steven P.; Neff, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3–5 years) than typically expected for aging dogs (8–10 years). Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09×10−13). To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total) and controls (n = 101 total) and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS–guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders. PMID:23028339

  14. Variation in genes related to cochlear biology is strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in border collies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S Yokoyama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs can suffer from hearing losses that can have profound impacts on working ability and quality of life. We have identified a type of adult-onset hearing loss in Border Collies that appears to have a genetic cause, with an earlier age of onset (3-5 years than typically expected for aging dogs (8-10 years. Studying this complex trait within pure breeds of dog may greatly increase our ability to identify genomic regions associated with risk of hearing impairment in dogs and in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS to detect loci underlying adult-onset deafness in a sample of 20 affected and 28 control Border Collies. We identified a region on canine chromosome 6 that demonstrates extended support for association surrounding SNP Chr6.25819273 (p-value = 1.09 × 10(-13. To further localize disease-associated variants, targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS of one affected and two unaffected dogs was performed. Through additional validation based on targeted genotyping of additional cases (n = 23 total and controls (n = 101 total and an independent replication cohort of 16 cases and 265 controls, we identified variants in USP31 that were strongly associated with adult-onset deafness in Border Collies, suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB pathway. We found additional support for involvement of RBBP6, which is critical for cochlear development. These findings highlight the utility of GWAS-guided fine-mapping of genetic loci using targeted NGS to study hereditary disorders of the domestic dog that may be analogous to human disorders.

  15. Negative velocity fluctuations and non-equilibrium fluctuation relation for a driven high critical current vortex state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bag, Biplab; Shaw, Gorky; Banerjee, S S; Majumdar, Sayantan; Sood, A K; Grover, A K

    2017-07-17

    Under the influence of a constant drive the moving vortex state in 2H-NbS 2 superconductor exhibits a negative differential resistance (NDR) transition from a steady flow to an immobile state. This state possesses a high depinning current threshold ([Formula: see text]) with unconventional depinning characteristics. At currents well above [Formula: see text], the moving vortex state exhibits a multimodal velocity distribution which is characteristic of vortex flow instabilities in the NDR regime. However at lower currents which are just above [Formula: see text], the velocity distribution is non-Gaussian with a tail extending to significant negative velocity values. These unusual negative velocity events correspond to vortices drifting opposite to the driving force direction. We show that this distribution obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen Non-Equilibrium Fluctuation Relation (GC-NEFR). Just above [Formula: see text], we also find a high vortex density fluctuating driven state not obeying the conventional GC-NEFR. The GC-NEFR analysis provides a measure of an effective energy scale (E eff ) associated with the driven vortex state. The E eff corresponds to the average energy dissipated by the fluctuating vortex state above [Formula: see text]. We propose the high E eff value corresponds to the onset of high energy dynamic instabilities in this driven vortex state just above [Formula: see text].

  16. Diabetes-related major lower limb amputation incidence is strongly related to diabetic foot service provision and improves with enhancement of services: peer review of the South-West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, R B; Abbott, A; Levenson, R; Harrington, A; Browne, D; Moore, J; Bamford, M; Roe, M

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between high diabetes-related lower limb amputation incidence and foot care services in the South-West region of England. The introduction of 10 key elements of foot care service provision in one area of the South-West resulted in stabilization of foot ulcer incidence and sustained reduction in amputation incidence from 2007. Services introduced included administrative support, standardized general practice foot screening, improved community podiatry staffing, hospital multidisciplinary foot clinics, effective care pathways, availability of an orthotist and audit. Peer reviews of the region's diabetes foot care services were undertaken to assess delivery of these service provisions and compare this with major amputation incidence in other regions with data provided by Yorkshire and Humber Public Health Observatory Hospital Episode Statistics. Recommendations were made to improve service provision. In 2015 changes in service provision and amputation incidence were reviewed. Initial reviews in 2013 showed that the 3-year diabetes-related major amputation incidence correlated inversely with adequate delivery of diabetes foot care services (P=0.0024, adjusted R 2 =0.51). Repeat reviews in 2015 found that two or more foot care service improvements were reported by six diabetes foot care providers, with improvement in outcomes. The negative relationship between major amputation incidence and service provision remained strong both in the period 2012-2015 and in the year 2015 only (P ≤0.0012, adjusted R 2 =0.56, and P= 0.0005, R 2 =0.62, respectively). Major diabetes-related lower limb amputation incidence is significantly inversely correlated with foot care services provision. Introduction of more effective service provision resulted in significant reductions in major amputation incidence within 2 years. Failure to improve unsatisfactory service provision resulted in continued high amputation incidence. © 2017 The Authors. Diabetic

  17. Living alone, receiving help, helplessness, and inactivity are strongly related to risk of undernutrition among older home-dwelling people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomstad ST

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Solveig T Tomstad1, Ulrika Söderhamn2, Geir Arild Espnes3, Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway and Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 2Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Being at risk of undernutrition is a global problem among older people. Undernutrition can be considered inadequate nutritional status, characterized by insufficient food intake and weight loss. There is a lack of Norwegian studies focusing on being at risk of undernutrition and self-care ability, sense of coherence, and health-related issues among older home-dwelling people.Aim: To describe the prevalence of being at risk of undernutrition among a group of older home-dwelling individuals in Norway, and to relate the results to reported self-care ability, sense of coherence, perceived health and other health-related issues.Methods: A cross-sectional design was applied. A questionnaire with instruments for nutritional screening, self-care ability, and sense of coherence, and health-related questions was sent to a randomized sample of 450 persons (aged 65+ years in southern Norway. The study group included 158 (35.1% participants. Data were analysed using statistical methods.Results: The results showed that 19% of the participants were at medium risk of undernutrition and 1.3% at high risk. Due to the low response rate it can be expected that the nonparticipants can be at risk of undernutrition. The nutritional at-risk group had lower self-care ability and weaker sense of coherence. Living alone, receiving help

  18. Convergent, incremental, and criterion-related validity of multi-informant assessments of adolescents' fears of negative and positive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Jeremy N; Makol, Bridget A; Keeley, Lauren M; Qasmieh, Noor; Deros, Danielle E; Weeks, Justin W; Racz, Sarah J; Lipton, Melanie F; Augenstein, Tara M; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2017-11-17

    Adolescents who experience social anxiety tend to hold fears about negative evaluations (e.g., taunting) and may also hold fears about positive evaluations (e.g., praise from a teacher). The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation (BFNE) scale and Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES) are 2 widely used measures of adults' evaluative concerns. Yet we know little about their psychometric properties when assessing adolescents. In a mixed clinical/community sample of 96 adolescents (66.7% female; M = 14.50 years, SD = 0.50; 63.3% African American), we examined both self-report and parent report versions of the BFNE and FPES. Adolescents and parents also provided reports about adolescents on survey measures of social anxiety and depressive symptoms. Adolescents participated in multiple social interactions in which they self-reported their state arousal before and during the tasks. Adolescent and parent BFNE and FPES reports distinguished adolescents who displayed elevated social anxiety from those who did not. Both informants' reports related to survey measures of adolescent social anxiety, when accounting for domains that commonly co-occur with social anxiety (i.e., depressive symptoms). Further, both the BFNE and FPES displayed incremental validity in relation to survey measures of adolescent social anxiety, relative to each other. However, only adolescents' BFNE and FPES reports predicted adolescents' self-reported arousal within social interactions, and only adolescents' FPES displayed incremental validity in predicting self-reported arousal, relative to their BFNE. Adolescent and parent BFNE and FPES reports display convergent validity and in some cases incremental and criterion-related validity. These findings have important implications for evidence-based assessments of adolescents' evaluative concerns. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's negative emotions, effortful control, and math achievement in early elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jodi; Valiente, Carlos; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Bradley, Robert H; Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D

    2014-01-01

    Panel mediation models and fixed-effects models were used to explore longitudinal relations among parents' reactions to children's displays of negative emotions, children's effortful control (EC), and children's math achievement (N = 291; M age in fall of kindergarten = 5.66 years, SD = .39 year) across kindergarten through second grade. Parents reported their reactions and children's EC. Math achievement was assessed with a standardized achievement test. First-grade EC mediated the relation between parents' reactions at kindergarten and second-grade math achievement, beyond stability in constructs across study years. Panel mediation model results suggested that socialization of EC may be one method of promoting math achievement in early school; however, when all omitted time-invariant covariates of EC and math achievement were controlled, first-grade EC no longer predicted second-grade math achievement. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  20. State and trait positive and negative affectivity in relation to restraint intention and binge eating among adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E; Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2018-01-01

    Restraint and binge eating are cognitive and behavioral processes that are particularly important in the context of obesity. While extensive research has focused on negative affect (NA) in relation to binge eating, it is unclear whether affective valence (i.e., positive versus negative) and stability (i.e., state versus trait) differentially predict binge eating and restraint among individuals with obesity. Distinguishing between valence and stability helps elucidate under which affective contexts, and among which individuals, restraint and binge eating are likely to occur. Therefore, the present study examined relationships between trait and state levels of NA and positive affect (PA), binge eating, and restraint intention among 50 adults with obesity (BMI ≥ 30). Participants completed baseline assessments followed by a two-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. Structural equation modeling assessed a trait model of person-level measures of affect in relation to overall levels of binge eating and restraint intention, while general estimating equations (GEEs) assessed state models examining relationships between momentary affect and subsequent binge eating and restraint. The trait model indicated higher overall NA was related to more binge eating episodes, but was unrelated to overall restraint intention. Higher overall PA was related to higher overall restraint intention, but was unrelated to binge eating. State models indicated momentary NA was associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent binge eating and lower restraint intention. Momentary PA was unrelated to subsequent binge eating or restraint intention. Together, findings demonstrate important distinctions between the valence and stability of affect in relationship to binge eating and restraint intention among individuals with obesity. While NA is a more salient predictor of binge eating than PA, both overall PA and momentary NA are predictors of restraint intention. Published by

  1. Relations between negative affect and health behaviors by race/ethnicity: Differential effects for symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Erin M; Orom, Heather; Giovino, Gary A; Kiviniemi, Marc T

    2015-09-01

    Health behaviors, including smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption, are both associated with psychological distress and vary by race/ethnicity. The relation of global psychological distress to behavior also varies by race/ethnicity, but the specific negative affective states responsible for this effect are not known. This study examined how the relation of feelings of depression and anxiety to health behaviors differs by race/ethnicity. Secondary data analysis of the HINTS nationally representative population survey was conducted. Survey participants reported their current symptoms of depression and anxiety, as well as smoking status and fruit and vegetable consumption. Survey weighted linear and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether race/ethnicity moderated the relation of symptoms of depression and anxiety to smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption. For symptoms of depression, but not anxiety, there was a significant interaction between race/ethnicity and psychological distress in predicting both smoking status and fruit and vegetable consumption. Greater depressive symptoms were related to a greater likelihood of smoking and lower fruit and vegetable consumption for White, but not Black respondents. For Hispanic respondents, depressive symptoms were associated with a greater likelihood of currently smoking, but were not associated with fruit and vegetable consumption. The association between depressive symptoms and both smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption differs as a function of race/ethnicity. These findings have implications for understanding the extent to which negative affective states influence health behaviors across different racial/ethnic groups, and for developing interventions that effectively target smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption among different racial/ethnic subgroups. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Augmented potential, energy densities, and virial relations in the weak- and strong-interaction limits of DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Stefan; Levy, Mel; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2017-12-01

    The augmented potential introduced by Levy and Zahariev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113002 (2014)] is shifted with respect to the standard exchange-correlation potential of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory by a density-dependent constant that makes the total energy become equal to the sum of the occupied orbital energies. In this work, we analyze several features of this approach, focusing on the limit of infinite coupling strength and studying the shift and the corresponding energy density at different correlation regimes. We present and discuss coordinate scaling properties of the augmented potential, study its connection to the response potential, and use the shift to analyze the classical jellium and uniform gas models. We also study other definitions of the energy densities in relation to the functional construction by local interpolations along the adiabatic connection. Our findings indicate that the energy density that is defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole is particularly well suited for this purpose.

  3. Augmented potential, energy densities, and virial relations in the weak- and strong-interaction limits of DFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuckovic, Stefan; Levy, Mel; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2017-12-07

    The augmented potential introduced by Levy and Zahariev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113002 (2014)] is shifted with respect to the standard exchange-correlation potential of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory by a density-dependent constant that makes the total energy become equal to the sum of the occupied orbital energies. In this work, we analyze several features of this approach, focusing on the limit of infinite coupling strength and studying the shift and the corresponding energy density at different correlation regimes. We present and discuss coordinate scaling properties of the augmented potential, study its connection to the response potential, and use the shift to analyze the classical jellium and uniform gas models. We also study other definitions of the energy densities in relation to the functional construction by local interpolations along the adiabatic connection. Our findings indicate that the energy density that is defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole is particularly well suited for this purpose.

  4. Overview of the relations earthquake source parameters and the specification of strong ground motion for design purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-08-01

    One of the most important steps in the seismic design process is the specification of the appropriate ground motion to be input into the design analysis. From the point-of-view of engineering design analysis, the important parameters are peak ground acceleration, spectral shape and peak spectral levels. In a few cases, ground displacement is a useful parameter. The earthquake is usually specified by giving its magnitude and either the epicentral distance or the distance of the closest point on the causitive fault to the site. Typically, the appropriate ground motion parameters are obtained using the specified magnitude and distance in equations obtained from regression analysis among the appropriate variables. Two major difficulties with such an approach are: magnitude is not the best parameter to use to define the strength of an earthquake, and little near-field data is available to establish the appropriate form for the attenuation of the ground motion with distance, source size and strength. These difficulties are important for designing a critical facility; i.e., one for which a very low risk of exceeding the design ground motion is required. Examples of such structures are nuclear power plants, schools and hospitals. for such facilities, a better understanding of the relation between the ground motion and the important earthquake source parameters could be very useful for several reasons

  5. Common rather than unique aspects of repetitive negative thinking are related to depressive and anxiety disorders and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Drost, Jolijn; van Hemert, Bert; Penninx, Brenda W

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive Negative Thinking (RNT) is assumed to be a transdiagnostic factor in depressive and anxiety disorders. We hypothesized that an underlying common dimension of RNT will be more strongly associated with each of the anxiety and depressive disorders, with comorbidity among disorders and with symptom severity than unique aspects of rumination and worry. In a cross-sectional study, 2143 adults diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria completed questionnaires for content-independent RNT, rumination and worry. 84% of the shared variance of worry and rumination overlapped with content-independent RNT. The common dimension of RNT was significantly associated with each of the depressive and anxiety disorders, comorbidity among emotional disorders and the common core of depressive, anxiety and avoidance symptoms. The unique portion of rumination showed a significant relationship with Major Depressive Disorder and depressive comorbidity and the unique portion of worry with Generalized Anxiety Disorder. These findings are particularly relevant for clinical practice as generic interventions to reduce RNT are currently being tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lower Functional Connectivity of the Periaqueductal Gray Is Related to Negative Affect and Clinical Manifestations of Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Coulombe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM syndrome is characterized by chronic widespread pain, muscle tenderness and emotional distress. Previous studies found reduced endogenous pain modulation in FM. This deficiency of pain modulation may be related to the attributes of chronic pain and other clinical symptoms experienced in patients with FM. Thus, we tested whether there is a link between the clinical symptoms of FM and functional connectivity (FC of the periaqueductal gray (PAG, a key node of pain modulation. We acquired resting state 3T functional MRI (rsfMRI data from 23 female patients with FM and 16 age- and sex- matched healthy controls (HC and assessed FM symptoms with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS. We found that patients with FM exhibit statistically significant disruptions in PAG FC, particularly with brain regions implicated in negative affect, self-awareness and saliency. Specifically, we found that, compared to HCs, the FM patients had stronger PAG FC with the lingual gyrus and hippocampus but weaker PAG FC with regions associated with motor/executive functions, the salience (SN and default mode networks (DMN. The attenuated PAG FC was also negatively correlated with FIQ scores, and positively correlated with the magnification subscale of the PCS. These alterations were correlated with emotional and behavioral symptoms of FM. Our study implicates the PAG as a site of dysfunction contributing to the clinical manifestations and pain in FM.

  7. Low-rank approximation based non-negative multi-way array decomposition on event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Fengyu; Zhou, Guoxu; Astikainen, Piia; Zhao, Qibin; Wu, Qiang; Nandi, Asoke K; Hietanen, Jari K; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2014-12-01

    Non-negative tensor factorization (NTF) has been successfully applied to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs), and shown superiority in terms of capturing multi-domain features. However, the time-frequency representation of ERPs by higher-order tensors are usually large-scale, which prevents the popularity of most tensor factorization algorithms. To overcome this issue, we introduce a non-negative canonical polyadic decomposition (NCPD) based on low-rank approximation (LRA) and hierarchical alternating least square (HALS) techniques. We applied NCPD (LRAHALS and benchmark HALS) and CPD to extract multi-domain features of a visual ERP. The features and components extracted by LRAHALS NCPD and HALS NCPD were very similar, but LRAHALS NCPD was 70 times faster than HALS NCPD. Moreover, the desired multi-domain feature of the ERP by NCPD showed a significant group difference (control versus depressed participants) and a difference in emotion processing (fearful versus happy faces). This was more satisfactory than that by CPD, which revealed only a group difference.

  8. Error related negativity and multi-source interference task in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-combined type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Huerta-Albarrán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To compare performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorders-combined (ADHD-C type with control children in multi-source interference task (MSIT evaluated by means of error related negativity (ERN. Method We studied 12 children with ADHD-C type with a median age of 7 years, control children were age- and gender-matched. Children performed MSIT and simultaneous recording of ERN. Results We found no differences in MSIT parameters among groups. We found no differences in ERN variables between groups. We found a significant association of ERN amplitude with MSIT in children with ADHD-C type. Some correlation went in positive direction (frequency of hits and MSIT amplitude, and others in negative direction (frequency of errors and RT in MSIT. Conclusion Children with ADHD-C type exhibited a significant association between ERN amplitude with MSIT. These results underline participation of a cingulo-fronto-parietal network and could help in the comprehension of pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD.

  9. Predictors of alcohol-related negative consequences in adolescents: A systematic review of the literature and implications for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigsby, Timothy J; Forster, Myriam; Unger, Jennifer B; Sussman, Steve

    2016-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk and protective factors of alcohol related negative consequences (ARNCs) among adolescents. We conducted a systematic search of original empirical articles published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2015. The qualitative synthesis was performed using the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. Fifty-two studies were reviewed. Intrapersonal (e.g., personality traits, drinking motives and expectancies, depression), interpersonal (e.g., parental and peer alcohol use, violence exposure) and attitudinal factors (e.g., media exposure to alcohol, religiosity) influence ARNCs. Emerging evidence of new trends contributing to ARNCs include ready mixed alcohol drinks and childhood trauma and abuse. Risk factors from all domains of influence were observed. More research is needed on protective factors and how alcohol use interacts with preventive factors in predicting ARNCs. The conceptualization of negative consequences varies significantly between studies and may impact the external validity of previous research. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Escalating risk and the moderating effect of resistance to peer influence on the P200 and feedback-related negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiat, John; Straley, Elizabeth; Cheadle, Jacob E

    2016-03-01

    Young people frequently socialize together in contexts that encourage risky decision making, pointing to a need for research into how susceptibility to peer influence is related to individual differences in the neural processing of decisions during sequentially escalating risk. We applied a novel analytic approach to analyze EEG activity from college-going students while they completed the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), a well-established risk-taking propensity assessment. By modeling outcome-processing-related changes in the P200 and feedback-related negativity (FRN) sequentially within each BART trial as a function of pump order as an index of increasing risk, our results suggest that analyzing the BART in a progressive fashion may provide valuable new insights into the temporal neurophysiological dynamics of risk taking. Our results showed that a P200, localized to the left caudate nucleus, and an FRN, localized to the left dACC, were positively correlated with the level of risk taking and reward. Furthermore, consistent with our hypotheses, the rate of change in the FRN was higher among college students with greater self-reported resistance to peer influence. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Cognitive dysfunction, negative symptoms, and tardive dyskinesia in schizophrenia. Their association in relation to topography of involuntary movements and criterion of their abnormality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, J L; Youssef, H A; Dolphin, C; Kinsella, A

    1987-10-01

    Little is known of factors that, on an individual basis, confer vulnerability to the emergence of involuntary movements (tardive dyskinesia) during long-term neuroleptic treatment. In this study of 88 chronic schizophrenic inpatients, 22 variables (four demographic, 14 medication history, and four features of illness) were compared for any association(s) with the presence, by differing topographies and criteria of abnormality, and severity of involuntary movements. Irrespective of the criterion used, the presence of marked cognitive dysfunction-muteness bore a consistent and highly significant primary association with both the presence and the overall severity of orofacial dyskinesia; no such association was found in relation to the presence of limb-truncal dyskinesia. Flattening of affect was the only other variable consistently associated with the presence of orofacial movements. The reliability and prominence of the association between the presence of orofacial, but not of limb-truncal, movements and cognitive dysfunction-negative symptoms suggest that these varying topographies may not constitute a unitary syndrome. This strong association, not with indexes of neuroleptic exposure but rather with features of the illness for which that treatment was prescribed, suggests some neurologic process, more subtle than may previously have been appreciated, as a vulnerability factor of some importance. In schizophrenia it appears to be intimately related to the disease process.

  12. Negating the Verum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    an (aboutness-)topic. The negation of a verum predicate explains why preposed negation—like other constructions with verum-focus—fails to license strong negative polarity items and fails to rule out positive ones. The lack of a topic explains why preposed negation is preferred with non-referential subjects...

  13. Laser imprint reduction for the critical-density foam buffered target driven by a relatively strong foot pulse at early stage of laser implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J. W., E-mail: li-jiwei@iapcm.ac.cn; He, X. T. [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China); Kang, W. [Key Lab of High Energy Density Physics Simulation, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, J. H.; Zheng, W. D. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P. O. Box 8009, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2015-12-15

    In order to reduce the effect of laser imprint in direct-drive ignition scheme a low-density foam buffered target has been proposed. This target is driven by a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot at the early stage of implosion, which heats the foam and elongates the thermal conduction zone between the laser absorption region and ablation front, increasing the thermal smoothing effect. In this paper, a relatively strong foot pulse is adopted to irradiate the critical-density foam buffered target. The stronger foot, near 1 × 10{sup 14 }W/cm{sup 2}, is able to drive a radiative shock in the low-density foam, which helps smooth the shock and further reduce the effect of laser imprint. The radiative shock also forms a double ablation front structure between the two ablation fronts to further stabilize the hydrodynamics, achieving the similar results to a target with a high-Z dopant in the ablator. 2D analysis shows that for the critical-density foam buffered target irradiated by the strong foot pulse, the laser imprint can be reduced due to the radiative shock in the foam and an increased thermal smoothing effect. It seems viable for the critical-density foam buffered target to be driven by a relatively strong foot pulse with the goal of reducing the laser imprint and achieving better implosion symmetry in the direct-drive laser fusion.

  14. Laser imprint reduction for the critical-density foam buffered target driven by a relatively strong foot pulse at early stage of laser implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J. W.; He, X. T.; Kang, W.; Li, J. H.; Zheng, W. D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce the effect of laser imprint in direct-drive ignition scheme a low-density foam buffered target has been proposed. This target is driven by a laser pulse with a low-intensity foot at the early stage of implosion, which heats the foam and elongates the thermal conduction zone between the laser absorption region and ablation front, increasing the thermal smoothing effect. In this paper, a relatively strong foot pulse is adopted to irradiate the critical-density foam buffered target. The stronger foot, near 1 × 10 14  W/cm 2 , is able to drive a radiative shock in the low-density foam, which helps smooth the shock and further reduce the effect of laser imprint. The radiative shock also forms a double ablation front structure between the two ablation fronts to further stabilize the hydrodynamics, achieving the similar results to a target with a high-Z dopant in the ablator. 2D analysis shows that for the critical-density foam buffered target irradiated by the strong foot pulse, the laser imprint can be reduced due to the radiative shock in the foam and an increased thermal smoothing effect. It seems viable for the critical-density foam buffered target to be driven by a relatively strong foot pulse with the goal of reducing the laser imprint and achieving better implosion symmetry in the direct-drive laser fusion

  15. mecA-related structure in methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci from street food in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tsung-Ying; Hung, Wei-Wen; Lin, Lin; Hung, Wei-Chun; Tseng, Sung-Pin

    2017-02-09

    Antibiotic-resistant patterns, a mecA homologue complex, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) were analysed in samples of ready-to-eat (RTE) street food in Taiwan. RTE food samples (270) were collected in three densely populated Taiwanese cities between June and November 2014. Among 14 strains being identified as methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), genetic diversities was determined by PFGE analysis. SCCmec types IV, V, VIII and TXG-24 were detected in 9, and mecA Ss (a mecA homologue) detected in 8. The mecA Ss gene complex from S. sciuri subsp. sciuri TXG-24 was found to be closely related to those found in both S. sciuri subsp. sciuri (ATCC29062) and S. sciuri subsp. rodentium (ATCC700061). SCCmec TXG24 carries a class A mec complex, a ccrA5B3-like gene complex, a heavy metal gene complex, and an IS1216 mobile element carrying tet(S). Matching identity to ccrA5 was 84.5% for ccrA in S. pseudintermedius KM241. Matching identify to ccrB3 was 92.1% for ccrB in S. pseudintermedius AI16. Similar ccrA and SCCmec boundary sequences suggest that SCCmec is easily transmitted to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS). Based on MRCoNS strains identified in this research, Taiwanese RTE food products likely carry multiple antibiotic resistance genes that can be transmitted to hospitals and other clinical settings.

  16. PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) negatively regulates endothelial adhesion of monocytes via inhibition of NF κB activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chengye, Zhan; Daixing, Zhou; Qiang, Zhong; Shusheng, Li

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •First time to display that LPS downregulate the expression of PRC. •First time to show that PRC inhibits the induction of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. •First time to show that PRC inhibit monocytes attachment to endothelial cells. •First time to display that PRC inhibits transcriptional activity of NF-κB. •PRC protects the respiration rate and suppresses the glycolysis rate against LPS. -- Abstract: PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC) is a growth-regulated transcriptional cofactor known to activate many of the nuclear genes specifying mitochondrial respiratory function. Endothelial dysfunction is a prominent feature found in many inflammatory diseases. Adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, mediate the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, thereby playing an important role in endothelial inflammation. The effects of PRC in regards to endothelial inflammation remain unknown. In this study, our findings show that PRC can be inhibited by the inflammatory cytokine LPS in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the presence of LPS, the expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecular, such as VCAM1 and E-selectin, is found to be increased. These effects can be negated by overexpression of PRC. Importantly, monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells caused by LPS is significantly attenuated by PRC. In addition, overexpression of PRC protects mitochondrial metabolic function and suppresses the rate of glycolysis against LPS. It is also found that overexpression of PRC decreases the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. These findings suggest that PRC is a negative regulator of endothelial inflammation

  17. Enhanced error related negativity amplitude in medication-naïve, comorbidity-free obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawani, Hema; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Basavaraju, Shrinivasa; Bose, Anushree; Mahavir Agarwal, Sri; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Janardhan Reddy, Y C

    2018-04-01

    Error monitoring and response inhibition is a key cognitive deficit in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Frontal midline regions such as the cingulate cortex and pre-supplementary motor area are considered critical brain substrates of this deficit. Electrophysiological equivalent of the above dysfunction is a fronto-central event related potential (ERP) which occurs after an error called the error related negativity (ERN). In this study, we sought to compare the ERN parameters between medication-naïve, comorbidity-free subjects with OCD and healthy controls (HC). Age, sex and handedness matched subjects with medication-naïve, comorbidity-free OCD (N = 16) and Healthy Controls (N = 17) performed a modified version of the flanker task while EEG was acquired for ERN. EEG signals were recorded from the electrodes FCz and Cz. Clinical severity of OCD was assessed using the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. The subjects with OCD had significantly greater ERN amplitude at Cz and FCz. There were no significant correlations between ERN measures and illness severity measures. Overactive performance monitoring as evidenced by enhanced ERN amplitude could be considered as a biomarker for OCD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of the deposition of ultrafine secondary organic aerosols by the negative air ion and the effect of relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kuo-Pin

    2012-11-01

    Deposition is an important process for the removal of aerosol particles. Negative air ion (NAI) generators can charge the ultrafine airborne particles and enhance their deposition rate. However, many NAI generators may also emit ozone and increase the concentration of particles in the presence of biogenic volatile organic compounds owing to the secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. To validate the effectiveness of NAI generator the authors investigated the enhancement effect of an NAI generator on the deposition of the ultrafine SOAs generated from the ozonolysis of d-limonene in a test chamber under controlled ventilation rate and relative humidity (RH). The experimental results demonstrated that compared with other effects, including the gravity, particle eddy diffusion, and the Brownian diffusion, the effect of NAIs is the most dominate one on the deposition of SOA particles onto the wall surface in the near-wall region (generator could efficiently enhance the deposition rate by an enhancement factor ranging from 8.17 +/- 0.38 to 25.3 +/- 1.1, with a low ozone production rate. This NAI generator had better performance on the deposition of the SOAs with smaller particle sizes and it performed even better under higher RH. The enhancement effect of the NAI generator was related to its high NAI production and electric field strength.

  19. Negative affect in at-risk youth: Outcome expectancies mediate relations with both regular and electronic cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stephen; Pike, James; Stacy, Alan W; Xie, Bin; Ames, Susan L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the general trend of declining use of traditional cigarettes among young adults in the United States, alternative high school students continue to smoke cigarettes and electronic cigarettes at rates much higher than do students attending regular high schools. Challenging life circumstances leading to elevated levels of negative affect may account for increased smoking behavior in this population. Further, a belief in the negative affect-reducing qualities of nicotine may mediate this effect. The current study tested the hypothesis that negative reinforcing outcome expectancies mediate the relationship between negative affect on smoking susceptibility in nonusers, smoking frequency in users, and smoking experimentation in the overall sample. Results support the hypothesis that negative affect in alternative high school students is correlated with smoking experimentation, smoking willingness, and smoking frequency and that the relationship between negative affect and smoking behavior outcomes is mediated by negative reinforcing outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs in the negative affect-reducing effects of smoking). This finding was supported for both cigarettes and electronic cigarettes and coincides with a rapid increase in the number of high school students nationally who have experimented with electronic cigarettes. Future antismoking initiatives directed at at-risk youth should consider integrating healthier negative affect reduction techniques to counter the use of nicotine products. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. I Keep my Problems to Myself: Negative Social Network Orientation, Social Resources, and Health-Related Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Yael; Campo, Rebecca A.; Wu, Lisa M.; Austin, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant rely on their social network for successful recovery. However, some survivors have negative attitudes about using social resources (negative social network orientation) that are critical for their recovery. Purpose We examined the association between survivors’ social network orientation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and whether it was mediated by social resources (network size, perceived support, and negative and positive support-related social exchanges). Methods In a longitudinal study, 255 survivors completed validated measures of social network orientation, HRQoL, and social resources. Hypotheses were tested using path analysis. Results More negative social network orientation predicted worse HRQoL (p social exchanges. Conclusions Survivors with negative social network orientation may have poorer HRQoL in part due to deficits in several key social resources. Findings highlight a subgroup at risk for poor transplant outcomes and can guide intervention development. PMID:26693932

  1. Factors related to the use of antenatal care services in Ethiopia: Application of the zero-inflated negative binomial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Enyew; Tadesse, Mekonnen

    2017-08-01

    The major causes for poor health in developing countries are inadequate access and under-use of modern health care services. The objective of this study was to identify and examine factors related to the use of antenatal care services using the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data. The number of antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy by mothers aged 15 to 49 years (n = 7,737) was analyzed. More than 55% of the mothers did not use antenatal care (ANC) services, while more than 22% of the women used antenatal care services less than four times. More than half of the women (52%) who had access to health services had at least four antenatal care visits. The zero-inflated negative binomial model was found to be more appropriate for analyzing the data. Place of residence, age of mothers, woman's educational level, employment status, mass media exposure, religion, and access to health services were significantly associated with the use of antenatal care services. Accordingly, there should be progress toward a health-education program that enables more women to utilize ANC services, with the program targeting women in rural areas, uneducated women, and mothers with higher birth orders through appropriate media.

  2. Temporal dynamics of conflict monitoring and the effects of one or two conflict sources on error-(related) negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrecht, Anne-Simone; Wöhrmann, Anne; Gibbons, Henning; Stahl, Jutta

    2010-09-01

    The present electrophysiological study investigated the temporal development of response conflict and the effects of diverging conflict sources on error(-related) negativity (Ne). Eighteen participants performed a combined stop-signal flanker task, which was comprised of two different conflict sources: a left-right and a go-stop response conflict. It is assumed that the Ne reflects the activity of a conflict monitoring system and thus increases according to (i) the number of conflict sources and (ii) the temporal development of the conflict activity. No increase of the Ne amplitude after double errors (comprising two conflict sources) as compared to hand- and stop-errors (comprising one conflict source) was found, whereas a higher Ne amplitude was observed after a delayed stop-signal onset. The results suggest that the Ne is not sensitive to an increase in the number of conflict sources, but to the temporal dynamics of a go-stop response conflict. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Facilitated attentional disengagement from negative information in relation to self-reported depressive symptoms of Dutch female undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deurzen, P.A.; Roelofs, J.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Rinck, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has shown that depressive symptoms are associated with an enhanced attention toward negative stimuli and difficulty of disengaging attention from negative stimuli. The current study was an extension of a 2005 study by Koster and colleagues. A different stimulus presentation time and

  4. Facilitated attentional disengagement from negative information in relation to self-reported depressive symptoms of dutch female undergraduate students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurzen, P.A.M. van; Roelofs, J.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Rinck, M.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has shown that depressive symptoms are associated with an enhanced attention toward negative stimuli and difficulty of disengaging attention from negative stimuli. The current study was an extension of a 2005 study by Koster and colleagues. A different stimulus presentation time and

  5. Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu Mui

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

  6. Let it be and keep on going! Acceptance and daily occupational well-being in relation to negative work events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuba, Katharina; Scheibe, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Negative work events can diminish daily occupational well-being, yet the degree to which they do so depends on the way in which people deal with their emotions. The aim of the current study was to examine the role of acceptance in the link between daily negative work events and occupational

  7. The sequential pathway between trauma-related symptom severity and cognitive-based smoking processes through perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies among trauma exposed smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garey, Lorra; Cheema, Mina K; Otal, Tanveer K; Schmidt, Norman B; Neighbors, Clayton; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Smoking rates are markedly higher among trauma-exposed individuals relative to non-trauma-exposed individuals. Extant work suggests that both perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies are independent mechanisms that link trauma-related symptoms and smoking. Yet, no work has examined perceived stress and negative affect reduction smoking expectancies as potential explanatory variables for the relation between trauma-related symptom severity and smoking in a sequential pathway model. Methods The present study utilized a sample of treatment-seeking, trauma-exposed smokers (n = 363; 49.0% female) to examine perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies for smoking as potential sequential explanatory variables linking trauma-related symptom severity and nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of withdrawal-related problems and symptoms during past quit attempts. As hypothesized, perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies had a significant sequential indirect effect on trauma-related symptom severity and criterion variables. Findings further elucidate the complex pathways through which trauma-related symptoms contribute to smoking behavior and cognitions, and highlight the importance of addressing perceived stress and negative affect reduction expectancies in smoking cessation programs among trauma-exposed individuals. (Am J Addict 2016;25:565-572). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. Understanding consumer's responses to negative emotions related to crowding on satisfaction and impulse purchase in retail: the mediating role of coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlette Cassia Oliveira Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract The perception of crowding, understood as an individual's response to crowds, can be observed in retail environments and influences positive and negative emotions. In this research we test the mediating effect of coping – rational strategies adopted to deal with negative emotions – in the relationship between negative emotions (resulting from crowding perception and consumer behavior (measured by impulse purchase and satisfaction. The findings related to coping explain to what extent there is a positive response to human density in the retail environment. For this, a theoretical model was developed which includes the relationships among perception of crowding, positive and negative emotions, and consumer behavior. The model enhances the understanding of the crowding phenomenon by including relationships mediated by an oppositional strategy (coping dimension between negative emotions and consumer behaviors. To test the theoretical model, a survey was conducted with 456 respondents and hypothesis tests using structural equation modeling. It was evidenced that crowding perception has more robust effects on negative emotions than positive emotions. It is emphasized that with the inclusion of opposition mediation, the weak direct relationship between negative emotions and behaviors, becomes a positive relationship between negative emotion and impulse purchase, and negative emotion and satisfaction. In addition to the theoretical contributions of the tested model, future research and managerial implications are proposed at the end of the article.

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria Inducing a Weak Interleukin-12 and Tumor Necrosis Alpha Response in Human Dendritic Cells Inhibit Strongly Stimulating Lactic Acid Bacteria but Act Synergistically with Gram-Negative Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    The development and maintenance of immune homeostasis indispensably depend on signals from the gut flora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are gram-positive (G+) organisms, are plausible significant players and have received much attention. Gram-negative (G-) commensals, such as members...

  10. Positive affect and negative affect correlate differently with distress and health-related quality of life in patients with cardiac conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Denollet, Johan; Kruse, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health-related qual......-related quality of life (HRQL).......The Global Mood Scale (GMS), assessing negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), is sensitive to tapping treatment-related changes in patients with cardiac conditions. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish GMS and the influence of NA and PA on distress and health...

  11. Relations between pure dietary and dietary-negative affect subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity in binge eating individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, Isabelle; Crépin, Christelle; Ceschi, Grazia; Golay, Alain; Van der Linden, Martial

    2012-01-01

    To investigate potential predictors of the severity of binge eating disorder (BED), two subtypes of patients with the disorder, a pure dietary subtype and a dietary-negative affect subtype, were identified. This study investigated the relationships between the two subtypes and impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity. Ninety-two women meeting threshold and subthreshold criteria for BED diagnosis filled out questionnaires to determine eating disorder severity, impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity before and after participating in an online guided self-help program for BED. Cluster analyses revealed a pure dietary subtype (N=66, 71.7%) and a dietary-negative affect subtype (N=26, 28.3%). Compared to the pure dietary subtype, the dietary-negative affect subtype reported a higher frequency of objective binge episodes, more severe eating disorders, higher urgency scores (defined as a tendency to act rashly in the context of negative affect), a greater sensitivity to punishment, and a higher dropout rate during treatment. These findings suggest that BED patients in the dietary-negative affect subtype exhibit heightened anxiety and are highly impulsive, especially in contexts of negative affect. For these individuals, psychological interventions for BED should focus on inhibiting automatic responses to negative emotions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes of Attention during Value-Based Reversal Learning Are Tracked by N2pc and Feedback-Related Negativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariann Oemisch

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Previously learned reward values can have a pronounced impact, behaviorally and neurophysiologically, on the allocation of selective attention. All else constant, stimuli previously associated with a high value gain stronger attentional prioritization than stimuli previously associated with a low value. The N2pc, an ERP component indicative of attentional target selection, has been shown to reflect aspects of this prioritization, by changes of mean amplitudes closely corresponding to selective enhancement of high value target processing and suppression of high value distractor processing. What has remained unclear so far is whether the N2pc also reflects the flexible and repeated behavioral adjustments needed in a volatile task environment, in which the values of stimuli are reversed often and unannounced. Using a value-based reversal learning task, we found evidence that the N2pc amplitude flexibly and reversibly tracks value-based choices during the learning of reward associated stimulus colors. Specifically, successful learning of current value-contingencies was associated with reduced N2pc amplitudes, and this effect was more apparent for distractor processing, compared with target processing. In addition, following a value reversal the feedback related negativity(FRN, an ERP component that reflects feedback processing, was amplified and co-occurred with increased N2pc amplitudes in trials following low-value feedback. Importantly, participants that showed the greatest adjustment in N2pc amplitudes based on feedback were also the most efficient learners. These results allow further insight into how changes in attentional prioritization in an uncertain and volatile environment support flexible adjustments of behavior.

  13. How Is Emotional Awareness Related to Emotion Regulation Strategies and Self-Reported Negative Affect in the General Population?

    OpenAIRE

    Subic-Wrana, Claudia; Beutel, Manfred E.; Brähler, Elmar; Stöbel-Richter, Yve; Knebel, Achim; Lane, Richard D.; Wiltink, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) as a performance task discriminates between implicit or subconscious and explicit or conscious levels of emotional awareness. An impaired awareness of one's feeling states may influence emotion regulation strategies and self-reports of negative emotions. To determine this influence, we applied the LEAS and self-report measures for emotion regulation strategies and negative affect in a representative sample of the German general populat...

  14. <strong>Relative Biological Effect of Antiprotonsstrong>> strong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael

    purpose/objective The AD-4/ACE collaboration has recently performed experiments to directly measure the RBE of antiprotons. Antiprotons have very similar stopping power compared to protons, but when they come to rest, antiprotons will annihilate on a target nucleus and thereby release almost 2 Ge......V of energy. About 30 MeV of this energy is deposited in the vicinity of the Bragg-peak, thereby significantly enhancing it. It is furthermore expected that this additional energy is deposited by radiation which carries a high-LET component. This will have a significant influence on the radiobiological...... nuclear research facility CERN. A beam of 126 MeV antiprotons, corresponding to about 12 cm range in water, was spread out to a SOBP with a width of 1 cm. Dosimetry experiments were carried out with ionization chambers, alanine pellets and radiochromic film, and the results were used for benchmarking...

  15. Parametrized tests of the strong-field dynamics of general relativity using gravitational wave signals from coalescing binary black holes: Fast likelihood calculations and sensitivity of the method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidam, Jeroen; Tsang, Ka Wa; Goldstein, Janna; Agathos, Michalis; Ghosh, Archisman; Haster, Carl-Johan; Raymond, Vivien; Samajdar, Anuradha; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; Blackburn, Kent; Del Pozzo, Walter; Field, Scott E.; Li, Tjonnie; Pürrer, Michael; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Veitch, John; Vitale, Salvatore

    2018-02-01

    Thanks to the recent discoveries of gravitational wave signals from binary black hole mergers by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and Advanced Virgo, the genuinely strong-field dynamics of spacetime can now be probed, allowing for stringent tests of general relativity (GR). One set of tests consists of allowing for parametrized deformations away from GR in the template waveform models and then constraining the size of the deviations, as was done for the detected signals in previous work. In this paper, we construct reduced-order quadratures so as to speed up likelihood calculations for parameter estimation on future events. Next, we explicitly demonstrate the robustness of the parametrized tests by showing that they will correctly indicate consistency with GR if the theory is valid. We also check to what extent deviations from GR can be constrained as information from an increasing number of detections is combined. Finally, we evaluate the sensitivity of the method to possible violations of GR.

  16. Baseline EEG theta/beta ratio and punishment sensitivity as biomarkers for feedback-related negativity (FRN) and risk-taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massar, S.A.A.; Rossi, V.; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Feedback-related negativity (FRN) is associated with reinforcement learning and punishment sensitivity. Furthermore, reinforcement learning proficiency can be predicted from pre-task baseline EEG theta/beta ratio. In this study it was examined whether there was a relation between baseline

  17. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Separate Ways: The Mass–Metallicity Relation Does Not Strongly Correlate with Star Formation Rate in SDSS-IV MaNGA Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Heckman, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 70-264, 04510 México, D.F., México (Mexico); Blanc, G. A., E-mail: jbarrer3@jhu.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Collaboration: MaNGA Team

    2017-07-20

    We present the integrated stellar mass–metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R {sub eff}) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondary relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.

  19. Separate Ways: The Mass–Metallicity Relation Does Not Strongly Correlate with Star Formation Rate in SDSS-IV MaNGA Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Heckman, T.; Sánchez, S. F.; Blanc, G. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the integrated stellar mass–metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R eff ) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondary relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.

  20. Separate Ways: The Mass-Metallicity Relation Does Not Strongly Correlate with Star Formation Rate in SDSS-IV MaNGA Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera-Ballesteros, J. K.; Sánchez, S. F.; Heckman, T.; Blanc, G. A.; The MaNGA Team

    2017-07-01

    We present the integrated stellar mass-metallicity relation (MZR) for more than 1700 galaxies included in the integral field area SDSS-IV MaNGA survey. The spatially resolved data allow us to determine the metallicity at the same physical scale (effective radius, R eff) using a heterogeneous set of 10 abundance calibrators. In addition to scale factors, the shape of the MZR is similar for all calibrators, consistent with those reported previously using single-fiber and integral field spectroscopy. We compare the residuals of this relation against the star formation rate (SFR) and specific SFR (sSFR). We do not find a strong secondary relation of the MZR with either SFR or sSFR for any of the calibrators, in contrast with previous single-fiber spectroscopic studies. Our results agree with a scenario in which metal enrichment happens at local scales, with global outflows playing a secondary role in shaping the chemistry of galaxies and cold-gas inflows regulating the stellar formation.

  1. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  2. NUP98-NSD1 gene fusion and its related gene expression signature are strongly associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Norio; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Taki, Tomohiko; Park, Myoung-Ja; Jo, Aoi; Mitani, Sachiyo; Kobayashi, Tohru; Shimada, Akira; Sotomatsu, Manabu; Arakawa, Hirokazu; Adachi, Souichi; Tawa, Akio; Horibe, Keizo; Tsuchida, Masahiro; Hanada, Ryoji; Tsukimoto, Ichiro; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2013-07-01

    The cryptic t(5;11)(q35;p15.5) creates a fusion gene between the NUP98 and NSD1 genes. To ascertain the significance of this gene fusion, we explored its frequency, clinical impact, and gene expression pattern using DNA microarray in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcripts were detected in 6 (4.8%) of 124 pediatric AML patients. Supervised hierarchical clustering analyses using probe sets that were differentially expressed in these patients detected a characteristic gene expression pattern, including 18 NUP98-NSD1-negative patients (NUP98-NSD1-like patients). In total, a NUP98-NSD1-related gene expression signature (NUP98-NSD1 signature) was found in 19% (24/124) and in 58% (15/26) of cytogenetically normal cases. Their 4-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were poor (33.3% in NUP98-NSD1-positive and 38.9% in NUP98-NSD1-like patients) compared with 100 NUP98-NSD1 signature-negative patients (4-year OS: 86.0%, 4-year EFS: 72.0%). Interestingly, t(7;11)(p15;p15)/NUP98-HOXA13, t(6;11)(q27;q23)/MLL-MLLT4 and t(6;9)(p22;q34)/DEK-NUP214, which are known as poor prognostic markers, were found in NUP98-NSD1-like patients. Furthermore, another type of NUP98-NSD1 fusion transcript was identified by additional RT-PCR analyses using other primers in a NUP98-NSD1-like patient, revealing the significance of this signature to detect NUP98-NSD1 gene fusions and to identify a new poor prognostic subgroup in AML. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Characterization of Botrytis cinerea negative-stranded RNA virus 1, a new mycovirus related to plant viruses, and a reconstruction of host pattern evolution in negative-sense ssRNA viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, Livia; Pagán, Israel; Ayllón, María A

    2016-12-01

    The molecular characterization of a novel negative single-stranded RNA virus infecting the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is reported here. Comparison of the sequence of Botrytis cinerea negative-stranded RNA virus 1 (BcNSRV-1) showed a strong identity with RNA dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps) of plant pathogenic emaraviruses and tospoviruses. We have also found all the molecular signatures present in the RdRp of the genus Emaravirus and in other genera of family Bunyaviridae: the conserved TPD triplet and RY dinucleotide, the three basic residues in premotif A and the conserved motifs A, B, C, D, and E. Our results showed that BcNSRV-1 is phylogenetically close to members of the genus Emaravirus and of the family Bunyaviridae, and an ancestral state reconstruction using the conserved RdRp motifs of type members of each family of (-)ssRNA viruses indicated that BcNSRV-1 could possibly derive from an invertebrate and vertebrate-infecting virus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Event-Related Potential Correlates of Visual Identity Negative Priming Unbiased by Trial-by-Trial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, J. A.; Pozo, M. A.; Mendez-Bertolo, C.; Luna, D.

    2009-01-01

    Negative priming (NP) refers to slowed reaction times and/or less accurate responses in people responding to a target that was ignored on a previous trial. Although extensive research with behavioral measures has been conducted, little is known about the electrophysiological mechanisms underlying this effect. The few previous studies carried out…

  5. Emotional Development across Adulthood: Differential Age-Related Emotional Reactivity and Emotion Regulation in a Negative Mood Induction Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliegel, Matthias; Jager, Theodor; Phillips, Louise H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examines the hypothesis that older adults might differentially react to a negative versus neutral mood induction procedure than younger adults. The rationale for this expectation was derived from Socioemotional Selectivity Theory (SST), which postulates differential salience of emotional information and ability to regulate…

  6. Dimensions of negative thinking and the relations with symptoms of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood, L.; Roelofs, J.; Bogels, S.M.; Alloy, L.B.

    2010-01-01

    The current study sought to examine three forms of negative, repetitive thinking in non-clinical children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18. More specifically, this study addressed the degree to which stress-reactive rumination can be differentiated from other forms of repetitive thinking, such

  7. Beyond Generalized Sexual Prejudice: Need for Closure Predicts Negative Attitudes Toward Bisexual People Relative to Gay/Lesbian People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Sara E; Dovidio, John F; LaFrance, Marianne; Przedworski, Julia M; Perry, Sylvia P; Phelan, Sean M; Burgess, Diana J; Hardeman, Rachel R; Yeazel, Mark W; van Ryn, Michelle

    2017-07-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that bisexual people are sometimes evaluated more negatively than heterosexual and gay/lesbian people. A common theoretical account for this discrepancy argues that bisexuality is perceived by some as introducing ambiguity into a binary model of sexuality. The present brief report tests a single key prediction of this theory, that evaluations of bisexual people have a unique relationship with Need for Closure (NFC), a dispositional preference for simple ways of structuring information. Participants ( n =3406) were heterosexual medical students from a stratified random sample of 49 U.S. medical schools. As in prior research, bisexual targets were evaluated slightly more negatively than gay/lesbian targets overall. More importantly for the present investigation, higher levels of NFC predicted negative evaluations of bisexual people after accounting for negative evaluations of gay/lesbian people, and higher levels of NFC also predicted an explicit evaluative preference for gay/lesbian people over bisexual people. These results suggest that differences in evaluations of sexual minority groups partially reflect different psychological processes, and that NFC may have a special relevance for bisexual targets even beyond its general association with prejudice. The practical value of testing this theory on new physicians is also discussed.

  8. Encoding negative events under stress: high subjective arousal is related to accurate emotional memory despite misinformation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoscheidt, Siobhan M; LaBar, Kevin S; Ryan, Lee; Jacobs, W Jake; Nadel, Lynn

    2014-07-01

    Stress at encoding affects memory processes, typically enhancing, or preserving, memory for emotional information. These effects have interesting implications for eyewitness accounts, which in real-world contexts typically involve encoding an aversive event under stressful conditions followed by potential exposure to misinformation. The present study investigated memory for a negative event encoded under stress and subsequent misinformation endorsement. Healthy young adults participated in a between-groups design with three experimental sessions conducted 48 h apart. Session one consisted of a psychosocial stress induction (or control task) followed by incidental encoding of a negative slideshow. During session two, participants were asked questions about the slideshow, during which a random subgroup was exposed to misinformation. Memory for the slideshow was tested during the third session. Assessment of memory accuracy across stress and no-stress groups revealed that stress induced just prior to encoding led to significantly better memory for the slideshow overall. The classic misinformation effect was also observed - participants exposed to misinformation were significantly more likely to endorse false information during memory testing. In the stress group, however, memory accuracy and misinformation effects were moderated by arousal experienced during encoding of the negative event. Misinformed-stress group participants who reported that the negative slideshow elicited high arousal during encoding were less likely to endorse misinformation for the most aversive phase of the story. Furthermore, these individuals showed better memory for components of the aversive slideshow phase that had been directly misinformed. Results from the current study provide evidence that stress and high subjective arousal elicited by a negative event act concomitantly during encoding to enhance emotional memory such that the most aversive aspects of the event are well remembered and

  9. Jun and Fos related gene products bind to and modulate the GPE I, a strong enhancer element of the rat glutathione transferase P gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oridate, N; Nishi, S; Inuyama, Y; Sakai, M

    1994-10-18

    The rat glutathione transferase P gene has a strong enhancer element, termed GPE I, which is composed of a dyad of palindromicly oriented TPA (phorbol 12-O-tetradecanoate 13-acetate) responsive element (TRE)-like sequences. TRE is a binding sequence of the transcription factor AP-1, which consists of several closely related proteins belonging to the Jun and Fos family. The gel retardation experiments show that all the heterodimers formed between the Jun and Fos related gene products bind to the GPE I as well as to the TRE. In spite of the fact that the GPE I has a stronger activity than the TRE, the binding affinities of these heterodimers to the GPE I are much lower than to the TRE. Co-transfection studies of the reporter construct containing the GPE I and expression constructs of each of the Jun and Fos family cDNAs indicate that FosB and delta FosB repress transcription through the GPE I enhancer. These results suggests that some of Jun/Fos family may regulate the rat GST-P gene expression through the GPE I in vivo.

  10. Prevent the blue, be true to you: Authenticity buffers the negative impact of loneliness on alcohol-related problems, physical symptoms, and depressive and anxiety symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jennifer L; Baker, Zachary G; Tou, Reese Yw

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated authenticity as a moderator of the association between loneliness and depressive symptoms, anxiety, physical symptoms, and alcohol-related problems. It was expected that loneliness and health outcomes would be negatively related and that relationship would be weaker among those higher in authenticity. Significant interactions emerged between authenticity and loneliness for each outcome such that authenticity mitigated the relationship between higher loneliness and negative health outcomes. Results suggest that authenticity may be an underutilized resource for lonely individuals and warrants future investigation. The potential implications are diverse and could be incorporated in college adjustment and health promotion programs.

  11. When negation is not negation

    OpenAIRE

    Milicevic, Nataša

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the formation of different types of yes/no questions in Serbian (examples in (1)), focusing on the syntactically and semantically puzzling example (1d), which involves the negative auxiliary inversion. Although there is a negative marker on the fronted auxiliary, the construction does not involve sentential negation. This coincides with the fact that the negative quantifying NPIs cannot be licensed. The question formation and sentential negation have similar synta...

  12. Individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms are characterised by a negative sleep-related expectancy bias: Results from a cognitive-experimental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtauld, Hannah; Notebaert, Lies; Milkins, Bronwyn; Kyle, Simon D; Clarke, Patrick J F

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive models of insomnia consistently suggest that negative expectations regarding the consequences of poor sleep contribute to the maintenance of insomnia. To date, however, no research has sought to determine whether insomnia is indeed characterised by such a negative sleep-related expectancy bias, using objective cognitive assessment tasks which are more immune to response biases than questionnaire assessments. Therefore, the current study employed a reaction-time task assessing biased expectations among a group with clinically significant insomnia symptoms (n = 30) and a low insomnia symptoms group (n = 40). The task involved the presentation of scenarios describing the consequences of poor sleep, and non-sleep related activities, which could be resolved in a benign or a negative manner. The results demonstrated that the high insomnia symptoms group were disproportionately fast to resolve sleep-related scenarios in line with negative outcomes, as compared to benign outcomes, relative to the low insomnia symptoms group. The two groups did not differ in their pattern of resolving non-sleep related scenarios. This pattern of findings is entirely consistent with a sleep-specific expectancy bias operating in individuals with clinically significant insomnia symptoms, and highlights the potential of cognitive-experimental assessment tasks to objectively index patterns of biased cognition in insomnia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The negative effects of development megaprojects: Comparative study of four cases of population relocation related to dam projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Almeida, K.

    1993-11-01

    As with any other hydroelectric installation project around the world, the construction of large dams in Africa such as the Kariba in Zambia, the Aswan High Dam in Egypt, the Akossombo in Ghana, and the Kossou in Ivory Coast have caused massive displacements of populations. Parallel to the attendant positive effects, negative effects have been observed following the relocation of those populations. These negative effects are social, cultural, political, economic, sanitary, demographic, psychological, and ecological. A comparative study is conducted of the four cases of dam construction cited above in order to demonstrate that errors committed by planners were at the source of those negative effects of population displacement. The knowledge of those errors committed in the past should serve as lessons for future instances of population relocation. Such lessons are outlined in the areas of relocation planning, principles of indemnization, re-housing of populations on new sites, and adaptation of the populations to new agricultural techniques. 116 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  14. A pathway closely related to the (D)-tagatose pathway of gram-negative enterobacteria identified in the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-06-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  15. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23524682

  16. A Pathway Closely Related to the d-Tagatose Pathway of Gram-Negative Enterobacteria Identified in the Gram-Positive Bacterium Bacillus licheniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Heiden, Edwige; Delmarcelle, Michaël; Lebrun, Sarah; Freichels, Régine; Brans, Alain; Vastenavond, Christian M.; Galleni, Moreno; Joris, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We report the first identification of a gene cluster involved in d-tagatose catabolism in Bacillus licheniformis. The pathway is closely related to the d-tagatose pathway of the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, in contrast to the d-tagatose 6-phosphate pathway described in the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  17. The Roles of Negative Affect and Coping Motives in the Relationship Between Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems Among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, Clayton; Lewis, Melissa A.; Lee, Christine M.; Oster-Aaland, Laura; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although studies have consistently indicated that among college students alcohol use and the likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related problems are related it is possible that additional factors strengthen the magnitude of this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to assess the moderating effect of two such factors: negative affect and coping drinking motives. Method Data were collected on 316 college students at a midsized public university in the upper Midwest who reported using alcohol. Results Findings indicated that both negative affect and coping drinking motives moderated the alcohol use–alcohol problems relationship. The three-way interaction indicated that the strongest relationship between alcohol use and alcohol-related problems existed for individuals high in both negative affect and coping drinking motives. Conclusions This study suggests that college students high in negative affect and coping drinking motives are particularly at risk for experiencing problems as a result of their alcohol use, indicating that clinicians should consider screening for these factors when conducting alcohol-related prevention and intervention efforts. PMID:18432384

  18. Use of protective behavioral strategies and their association to 21st birthday alcohol consumption and related negative consequences: a between- and within-person evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Patrick, Megan E; Lee, Christine M; Kaysen, Debra L; Mittman, Angela; Neighbors, Clayton

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine between- and within-person relationships among protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol consumption, and related negative consequences during the 21st birthday week. Participants for the present study included undergraduate college students (n = 1,028) who turned 21 during three academic quarters at a large public northwestern university in the United States. Students completed a Web-based survey that comprised measures of 21st birthday PBS, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related negative consequences. Between-person findings indicated that participants who used more manner of drinking PBS and fewer serious harm reduction PBS consumed fewer drinks and reached lower BACs. Results also showed that participants who used a greater number of limiting/stopping PBS and who used more manner of drinking PBS experienced fewer negative consequences. Within-person findings demonstrated that on days when participants used more limiting/stopping PBS, fewer manner of drinking PBS, and more serious harm reduction PBS than average they also consumed more drinks and reached higher BACs. When examining negative consequences, within-person results showed that on days when participants used more limiting/stopping PBS, fewer manner of drinking PBS, and more serious harm reduction PBS than usual they experienced more negative consequences. Discussion focuses on clarification of the association between PBS and drinking and implications for preventive interventions.

  19. When the truth isn’t too hard to handle: An event-related potential study on the pragmatics of negation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S.; Kuperberg, Gina R.

    2011-01-01

    Our brains rapidly map incoming language onto what we hold to be true. Yet there are claims that such integration and verification processes are delayed in sentences containing negation words like ‘not’. However, research studies have often confounded whether a statement is true and whether it is natural thing to say during normal communication. In an event-related potential (ERP) experiment, we aimed to disentangle effects of truth-value and pragmatic licensing on the comprehension of affirmative and negated real-world statements. As in affirmative sentences, false words elicited a larger N400 ERP than true words in pragmatically licensed negated sentences (e.g., “In moderation, drinking red wine isn’t bad/good…”), whereas true and false words elicited similar responses in unlicensed negated sentences (e.g., “A baby bunny’s fur isn’t very hard/soft…”). These results suggest that negation poses no principled obstacle for readers to immediately relate incoming words to what they hold to be true. PMID:19121125

  20. A Slow Life History is Related to a Negative Attitude towards Cousin Marriages: A Study in Three Ethnic Groups in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham P. Buunk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about current attitudes towards cousin marriages. Using data from a rural population in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, the present research examined how life history was related to attitudes towards cousin marriages in various ethnic groups. Participants were 205 parents from three ethnic groups. i.e., Mestizos (people of mixed descent, n = 103, indigenous Mixtecs (n = 65, and Blacks (n = 35. Nearly all men in this study were farm workers or fishermen. Participants reported more negative than positive attitudes towards cousin marriage, and women reported more negative attitudes than did men. The main objection against marrying a cousin was that it is wrong for religious reasons, whereas the risk of genetic defects was considered relatively unimportant. Cousin marriage was not considered to contribute to the quality and unity of marriage and the family. The three ethnic groups did not differ in their attitude towards cousin marriages. However, a slower life history was related to a more negative attitude towards cousin marriages, especially among Blacks, less so among Mixtecs, and not at all among Mestizos. In addition, and independent of the effect of life history, with increasing levels of parental control over mate choice, the attitude towards cousin marriage was more positive, but among men the attitude was more negative the more religious they were. The results are discussed in the context of theorizing on life history theory and the benefits and costs of cousin marriages.

  1. Identification of a Rare Germline Heterozygous Deletion Involving the Polycistronic miR-17–92 Cluster in Two First-Degree Relatives from a BRCA 1/2 Negative Chilean Family with Familial Breast Cancer: Possible Functional Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás de Mayo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro-RNAs (miRNAs have emerged as novel gene expression regulators. Recent evidence strongly suggests a role for miRNAs in a large variety of cancer-related pathways. Different studies have shown that 18.7 to 37% of all human miRNA genes are clustered. miR-17–92 polycistronic cluster overexpression is associated with human hematolymphoid and solid malignancies including breast cancer (BC. Here, we report the identification of rs770419845, a rare 6 bp deletion located within the polycistronic miR-17–92 cluster, in two first-degree relatives from a Chilean family with familial BC and negative for point mutations in BRCA 1/2 genes. The deletion was identified by Sanger sequencing when 99 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative BC cases with a strong family history were initially screened. In silico analysis predicts that rs770419845 affects the secondary structure and stability of the pre-miR-17–pre-miR-18 region and the entire 17–92 cluster. The deletion was screened in 458 high-risk BRCA1/2-negative Chilean families and 480 controls. rs770419845 was not detected in any control but identified in a single family with two cases of BC and other cancers. Both BC cases, the mother and her daughter, carried the deletion. Based on bioinformatic analyses, the location of the deletion and its low frequency, we presume rs770419845 may be a pathogenic variant. Functional studies are needed to support this hypothesis.

  2. RELATIONS OF GEODYNAMIC PROCESSES, TECTONIC STRESSES AND STRONG EARTHQUAKES ON THE MIDDLE KURIL FROM 2006 THROUGH 2009 WITH ERUPTION OF THE SARYCHEV PEAK VOLCANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofei K. Zlobin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  It is suggested that the eruption of the Sarycheva Peak volcano on 11 June 2009 may have been related to strong earthquakes which occurred in the Middle Kuril Islands from 2006 through 2009 (Figure 1, geodynamic processes (such as tectonic activation, subduction, and friction of contacting blocks, tectonic stresses, melting of rocks, rising of the melting substance, gases and fluids. The publication discusses the earthquake hypocenters profile along the Kuril Islands (Figure 2, the seismogeological depth profile of volcanoes of the Kuril Islands that was published by T.K. Zlobin (Figure 3, and positions of the magmatic chamber and the seismogenic zone of the SenHelens volcano from the publication by S. Carey (Figure 4.The map of earthquake epicenters for the Middle Kuril Islands is constructed on the basis of the NEIC catalogue (Figure 5. A corresponding depth profile showing earthquake hypocenters is constructed (Figure 6.An aseismic area is detected underneath the Matua Island (Sarychev Peak volcano; it is almost 30 km wide and about 200 km thick. In the Middle Kuril Islands, magma lifting and eruption were facilitated by stretching of the lithosphere (Figure 7, occurrence and activation of breaks, fractures and faults due to earthquakes which occurred from 2006 though 2009, and lifting of gas and fluids (Figure 8. The eruption was possible by explosion upon instant injection of fluids into the porous space due to considerable shear stresses, which occurred after the earthquakes, and the reaction of dehydration. It can also result from supply of volcanic gases and fluids, according to the vacuumexplosion fluid dynamics model.

  3. Perceived Employability in Relation to Job Performance: A Cross-lagged Study Accounting for a Negative Path via Reduced Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristien Philippaers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study challenges the idea that perceived employability boosts job performance: perceived employability may indirectly decrease employees’ performance through reduced affective organizational commitment. We define performance broadly in terms of task, helping, and creative behaviors. Results are based on cross-lagged structural equation modeling involving two-wave data from 791 Flemish (i.e., Dutch-speaking Belgian employees. Perceived employability had a negative cross-lagged effect on commitment. In turn, commitment had a positive cross-lagged effect on all three components of job performance. The cross-lagged effect of perceived employability on performance was non-significant. Our results suggest that perceived employability could entail a ‘dark side’: it might decrease affective organizational commitment, which, in turn, may compromise job performance. This may defy earlier assumptions on the overall positive effects associated with perceived employability.

  4. Functional analysis of Arabidopsis immune-related MAPKs uncovers a role for MPK3 as negative regulator of inducible defences

    KAUST Repository

    Frei dit Frey, Nicolas

    2014-06-30

    Background Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are key regulators of immune responses in animals and plants. In Arabidopsis, perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) activates the MAPKs MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. Increasing information depicts the molecular events activated by MAMPs in plants, but the specific and cooperative contributions of the MAPKs in these signalling events are largely unclear. Results In this work, we analyse the behaviour of MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 mutants in early and late immune responses triggered by the MAMP flg22 from bacterial flagellin. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that 36% of the flg22-upregulated genes and 68% of the flg22-downregulated genes are affected in at least one MAPK mutant. So far MPK4 was considered as a negative regulator of immunity, whereas MPK3 and MPK6 were believed to play partially redundant positive functions in defence. Our work reveals that MPK4 is required for the regulation of approximately 50% of flg22-induced genes and we identify a negative role for MPK3 in regulating defence gene expression, flg22-induced salicylic acid accumulation and disease resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Among the MAPK-dependent genes, 27% of flg22-upregulated genes and 76% of flg22-downregulated genes require two or three MAPKs for their regulation. The flg22-induced MAPK activities are differentially regulated in MPK3 and MPK6 mutants, both in amplitude and duration, revealing a highly interdependent network. Conclusions These data reveal a new set of distinct functions for MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 and indicate that the plant immune signalling network is choreographed through the interplay of these three interwoven MAPK pathways.

  5. Rapid negative inotropic effect induced by TNF-α in rat heart perfused related to PKC activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jude, B; Vetel, S; Giroux-Metges, M A; Pennec, J P

    2017-11-29

    Myocardial depression, frequently observed in septic shock, is mediated by circulating molecules such as cytokines. TNF-α appears to be the most important pro-inflammatory cytokine released during the early phase of a septic shock. It was previously shown that TNF-α had a negative inotropic effect on myocardium. Now, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the activation of PKC by TNF-α on heart function, and to determine if this cytokine could induce a decrease of membrane excitability. Isolated rat hearts (n = 6) were perfused with Tyrode solution containing TNF-α at 20 ng/ml during 30 min by using a Langendorff technique. Expressions of PKC-α and PKC-ε were analysed by western blot on membrane and cytosol proteins extracted from ventricular myocardium. Patch clamp was performed on freshly isolated cardiomyocytes (n = 8). Compared to control situation, 30 min of TNF-α perfusion led to cardiac dysfunction with a decrease of the heart rate (-83%), the force (-20%) and speed of relaxation (-18%) and the coronary flow (-25%). This is associated with an activation and a membrane targeting of both PKC-α and PKC-ε isoforms in ventricle with respectively +123% and +54% compared to control hearts. Nevertheless, TNF-α had no significant effect on voltage-gated sodium current (109.0%+/- 12.5) after addition of the cytokine when compared to control. These results showed that TNF-α had a negative inotropic effect on the isolated rat heart and can induce PKC activation leading to an impaired contractility of the heart. However the early heart dysfunction induced by the cytokine was not associated to a decrease of cardiomyocytes membrane excitability as it has been evidenced in skeletal muscle fibres. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. "Negative of My Money, Positive of Her Money": Secondary Students' Ways of Relating Equations to a Debt Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Ian; Pierson Bishop, Jessica; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Bagley, Spencer; Schappelle, Bonnie P.

    2015-01-01

    We interviewed 40 students each in grades 7 and 11 to investigate their integer-related reasoning. In one task, the students were asked to write and interpret equations related to a story problem about borrowing money from a friend. All the students solved the story problem correctly. However, they reasoned about the problem in different ways.…

  7. Family Support and Family Negativity as Mediators of the Relation between Acculturation and Postpartum Weight in Low-Income Mexican-Origin Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Letham-Hamlett, Kirsten; Hanna Ibrahim, Mariam; Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P

    2017-12-01

    Obesity presents a significant health concern among low-income, ethnic minority women of childbearing age. The study investigated the influence of maternal acculturation, family negativity, and family support on postpartum weight loss among low-income Mexican-origin women. Low-income Mexican-origin women (N=322; 14% born in the U.S.) were recruited from a prenatal clinic in an urban area of the Southwest U.S. Acculturation was assessed during a prenatal home visit (26-38 weeks gestation), and post-birth family support and general family negativity were assessed at 6 weeks postpartum. Objective maternal weight measures were obtained at five time points across the first postpartum year. Higher acculturation predicted higher family support and family negativity. Higher family support predicted decreasing weight across the first postpartum year, and higher family negativity predicted higher weight at 6 weeks postpartum and increasing weight across the first postpartum year. In combination, family negativity and support mediated the impact of acculturation on postpartum weight gain. Cultural and family-related factors play a significant role in postpartum weight gain and loss for low-income Mexican-origin women.

  8. BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF COAGULASE-POSITIVE AND COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI IN RELATION TO METHICILLIN SENSITIVITY TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabham Yalangi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus has long been recognised as an important pathogen in human disease. Staphylococci infection occurs regularly in hospitalised patients and has serious consequences despite antibiotic therapy. Shortly after introduction of methicillin after clinical use Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA were identified in many countries and become one of the most common causes of nosocomial infections. The aim of the study is to know the methicillin sensitivity of both coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from various samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 strains of staphylococci both coagulase positive and coagulase negative were isolated in the Department of Microbiology from various clinical samples. They were confirmed by morphology, staining methods and by using standard bacteriological procedures and biochemical reactions. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion test. RESULTS Predominant species from pus were S. epidermidis (42.42% and from sputum S. haemolyticus (31.81% from blood S. haemolyticus (53.33%. 53% of strains produced beta-lactamase. Majority 47.22% by S. epidermidis from pus followed by S. haemolyticus 23.33% from pus. Beta-lactamase production was least from throat swab (5.55%. Out of 32 coagulase-positive staphylococci tested to methicillin 15 (46.87% were found to be sensitive, 17 (53.13% were found to be resistant. Out of 68 coagulase-negative staphylococci tested, 13 (19.11% were found to sensitive and 55 (80.88% were found to be resistant. 72% of strains were sensitive to novobiocin and 28% resistant to novobiocin. 43% showed drug resistance to 2 drugs. 14% to 3 drugs and 5 drugs. 6% of staphylococci sensitive to all the 10 drugs. CONCLUSION MRSA is a type of bacteria that is resistant to a number of widely used antibiotics. This means MRSA infections can be more difficult to treat than other bacterial infections. In recent years

  9. The impact of early parenting bonding on young adults' internet addiction, through the mediation effects of negative relating to others and sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaitzaki, Argyroula E; Birtchnell, John

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study is the investigation of the potential role of negative relating to others, perceived loneliness, sadness, and anxiety, as mediators of the association between early parental bonding and adult Internet Addiction (IA). The factorial structure of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the prevalence rates of it in a Greek sample will also be investigated. A total of 774 participants were recruited from a Technological Education Institute (mean age=20.2, SD=2.8) and from high school technical schools (mean age=19.9, SD=7.4). The IAT was used to measure the degree of problematic Internet use behaviors; the Parental Bonding Instrument was used to assess one's recalled parenting experiences during the first 16years of life; the shortened Person's Relating to Others Questionnaire was used to assess one's negative (i.e. maladaptive) relating to others (NRO). Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the three-factor structure of the IAT. Only 1.0% of the sample was severely addicted to the Internet. The mediated effects of only the NRO and sadness were confirmed. Negative relating to others was found to fully mediate the effect of both the father's optimal parenting and affectionless control on IA, whereas sadness was found to fully mediate the effect of the mother's optimal parenting on IA. Overall, the results suggest that parenting style has an indirect impact on IA, through the mediating role of negative relating to others or sadness in later life. Both family-based and individual-based prevention and intervention efforts may reduce the incidence of IA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Distinct Classes of Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences in a National Sample of Incoming First-Year College Students: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Diamond, Pamela M; Walters, Scott T; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William

    2016-09-01

    : First-year college students are at particular risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences that may set the stage for experiencing such consequences in later life. Latent class analysis is a person-centered approach that, based on observable indicator variables, divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups ('classes'). To date, no studies have examined the latent class structure of negative alcohol-related consequences experienced by first-year college students just before entering college. The aims of this study were to (a) identify classes of first-year college students based on the patterns of negative alcohol-related consequences they experienced just before entering college, and (b) determine whether specific covariates were associated with class membership. Incoming freshmen from 148 colleges and universities (N = 54,435) completed a baseline questionnaire as part of an alcohol education program they completed just prior to their first year of college. Participants answered questions regarding demographics and other personal characteristics, their alcohol use in the past 2 weeks, and the negative alcohol-related consequences they had experienced during that time. Four distinct classes of students emerged: (a) No Problems, (b) Academic Problems, (c) Injured Self and (d) Severe Problems. Average number of drinks per drinking day, total number of drinking days, age of drinking initiation, intention to join a fraternity or sorority and family history of alcohol problems were associated with membership in all of the problem classes relative to the No Problems class. These results can inform future campus-based prevention efforts. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of 23SrRNA Mutations Strongly Related to Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated From Patients in the North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, Zahra; Mojtahedi, Ali; Moien Ansar, Malek; Fakhrieh Asl, Saba; Aminian, Keyvan

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is curved Gram negative and microaerophilic bacilli that have infected half of the world's population. It is recognized as the causative agent of duodenal ulcer, gastritis peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and is associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. Resistance to clarithromycin is related to point mutations in 23SrRNA gene on nt 2143 and 2144, when A turns to G, and A2143G is the most important type. These mutations lead to reduced affinity of antibiotics to their ribosomal target and are considered as the main cause of treatment failure. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of A2143G point mutation in 23SrRNA of H. pylori strains isolated from gastric biopsies of patients in Rasht, north of Iran, by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). A descriptive study was performed on 89 H. pylori strains, which were isolated from gastric biopsies of patients with gastric disorders such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, duodenal ulcer, non-ulcer dyspepsia and gastric adenocarcinoma. Isolated strains were tested for clarithromycin resistance using as breakpoint a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ≥ 1 mg/L by the E-test. The presence of H. pylori DNA was confirmed by amplifying the ureC (glmM) gene by PCR. Also, point mutation on 23SrRNA gene (A2142G and A2143G) was detected by PCR-RFLP using MboII and BsaI restriction endonucleases in all extracted DNA. Of the 89 H. pylori isolates, eighty-four were susceptible to clarithromycin, while five (5.6%) were resistant. All DNA samples of resistant strains, which were treated with BsaI had A2143G mutation. There was no point mutation in the sensitive strains of H. pylori. Also, we detected no mutation on nt A2142G of resistant strains. In the present study, the frequency of clarithromycin resistance was lower than the other studies conducted in Iran. Resistance frequency in samples isolated from gastric ulcer was higher

  12. Commensal coagulase-negative Staphylococcus from the udder of healthy cows inhibits biofilm formation of mastitis-related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Paula; Bohl, Luciana Paola; Breser, María Laura; Orellano, María Soledad; Conesa, Agustín; Ferrero, Marcela Alejandra; Porporatto, Carina

    2017-08-01

    Bovine mastitis, considered the most important cause of economic losses in the dairy industry, is a major concern in veterinary medicine. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the main pathogens associated with intramammary infections, and bacterial biofilms are suspected to be responsible for the persistence of this disease. CNS from the udder are not necessarily associated with intramammary infections. In fact, some commensal CNS have been shown to have biological activities. This issue led us to screen exoproducts from commensal Staphylococcus chromogenes for anti-biofilm activity against different mastitis pathogens. The cell-free supernatant from S. chromogenes LN1 (LN1-CFS) was confirmed to display a non-biocidal inhibition of pathogenic biofilms. The supernatant was subjected to various treatments to estimate the nature of the biofilm-inhibiting compounds. The results showed that the bioactive compound >5KDa in mass is sensitive to thermal treatment and proteinase K digestion, suggesting its protein properties. LN1-CFS was able to significantly inhibit S. aureus and CNS biofilm formation in a dose-independent manner and without affecting the viability of bovine cells. These findings reveal a new activity of the udder microflora of healthy animals. Studies are underway to purify and identify the anti-biofilm biocompound and to evaluate its biological activity in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cigarette smoke inhibits macrophage sensing of Gram-negative bacteria and lipopolysaccharide: relative roles of nicotine and oxidant stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, S K; Paul-Clark, M J; Walters, M; Fleet, M; Anandarajah, J; Sriskandan, S; Mitchell, J A

    2008-02-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Moreover, smokers are more prone to infections. This has been associated with a suppression of the immune system by smoke. However, it is not clear how cigarette smoke affects the ability of immune cells to sense pathogens. Cigarette smoke contains a large number of molecules which may mediate responses on immune cells and of these, nicotine and oxidants have both been identified as inhibitory for the sensing of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are both induced in macrophages on stimulation with Gram negative bacteria or LPS. We used murine macrophages stimulated with whole heat-killed bacteria or LPS. We measured output of NO (as nitrite) and TNFalpha, NOS protein by Western blotting and cellular oxidant stress. Cigarette smoke extract suppressed the ability of murine macrophages to release NO, but not TNFalpha in response to whole bacteria. Cigarette smoke extract also inhibited nitric oxide synthase II protein expression in response to LPS. The effects of cigarette smoke extract on nitrite formation stimulated by LPS were unaffected by inhibition of nicotinic receptors with alpha-bungarotoxin (100 units ml(-1)). However, the effects of cigarette smoke extract on LPS-induced nitrite formation were mimicked by hydrogen peroxide and reversed by the anti-oxidants N-acetyl cysteine and glutathione. We suggest that cigarette smoke exerts its immunosuppressive effects through an oxidant-dependent and not a nicotine-dependent mechanism.

  14. Negative ... concord?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannakidou, A

    The main claim of this paper is that a general theory of negative concord (NC) should allow for the possibility of NC involving scoping of a universal quantifier above negation. I propose that Greek NC instantiates this option. Greek n-words will be analyzed as polarity sensitive universal

  15. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  16. Structural and Functional Changes in the Tight Junctions of Asymptomatic and Serology-negative First-degree Relatives of Patients With Celiac Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Asha; Prakash, Shyam; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Das, Taposh K; Ahuja, Vineet; Gupta, Siddhartha D; Makharia, Govind K

    2016-08-01

    Ten to 15% of first-degree relatives (FDRs) of celiac disease (CeD) patients develop CeD. Although intestinal barrier functions (intestinal permeability) are abnormal in the subset of serology-negative FDRs, what leads to the abnormal barrier function is not known. To study the ultrastructure and functions of tight junctions in serology-negative FDRs of CeD patients. The intestinal permeability was measured in 97 asymptomatic and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody (anti-tTG Ab)-negative FDRs (using the lactulose mannitol ratio) and in 75 controls. The ultrastructure of tight junctions using transmission electron microscopy, and the expression of key tight junction proteins (claudin-2, claudin-3, occludin, JAM-A, and ZO-1) and zonulin using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were assessed in anti-tTG Ab-negative, HLA-DQ2/-DQ8-positive FDRs having normal villi and in disease controls. In addition, the serum zonulin level was measured in 172 anti-tTG Ab-negative FDRs and 198 controls. The intestinal permeability was significantly increased in FDRs than in controls. Ultrastructural abnormalities such as dilatation of the tight junction (P=0.004) and loss of the pentalaminar structure (P=0.001) were more common in FDRs than in disease controls. There was significant underexpression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 (P=0.040) and occludin (P=0.041) in FDRs. There was no significant difference in the serum zonulin level between FDRs and controls (P=0.154). Even asymptomatic, anti-tTG-Ab-negative FDRs with a normal villous histology have both ultrastructural and functional abnormalities in tight junctions. These findings are indirect evidence of the presence of tight junction abnormalities before the onset of the disease and may have therapeutic implications.

  17. A Relational Model of Sexual Minority Mental and Physical Health: The Negative Effects of Shame on Relationships, Loneliness, and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereish, Ethan H.; Poteat, V. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minorities (e.g., lesbians, gay men, bisexual individuals) are at higher risk for mental and physical health disparities than heterosexuals, and some of these disparities relate to minority stressors such as discrimination. Yet, there is little research elucidating pathways that predict health or that promote resiliency among sexual minorities. Building on the minority stress model, the present study utilized relational cultural theory to situate sexual minority health within a relational framework. Specifically, the study tested mediators of the relationships between distal (i.e., discrimination, rejection, victimization) and proximal stressors (i.e., internalized homophobia, sexual orientation concealment) and psychological and physical distress for sexual minorities. Among 719 sexual minority adults, structural equation modeling analyses were used to test four models reflecting the mediating effects of shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness on the associations between minority stressors and psychological distress (i.e., depression and anxiety) and physical distress (i.e., distressing physical symptoms). As hypothesized, the associations between distal and proximal minority stressors and distress were mediated by shame, poorer relationships with a close peer and the LGBT community, and loneliness. Findings underscore the possible relational and interpersonal mechanisms by which sexual minority stressors lead to psychological and physical distress. PMID:26010289

  18. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  19. An Evaluation of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 Using Item Response Theory: Which Items Are Most Strongly Related to Psychological Distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; de Vries, Rivka M.; van Bruggen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The psychometric structure of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) was investigated using Mokken scaling and parametric item response theory. Data of 487 outpatients, 266 students, and 207 prisoners were analyzed. Results of the Mokken analysis indicated that the BSI-18 formed a strong Mokken scale for outpatients and…

  20. Very strong negative trends in laminae in ozone profiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2002), s. 477-483 ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : laminae profile of ozone * long-term trends Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  1. The “Emotional Side” of Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Analysis of the Relation between Positive and Negative Affect and Entrepreneurial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Oana C.; Pintea, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The experience of work in an entrepreneurial context is saturated with emotional experiences. While the literature on the relation between affect and entrepreneurial performance (EP) is growing, there was no quantitative integration of the results so far. This study addresses this gap and meta-analytically integrates the results from 17 studies (N = 3810) in order to estimate the effect size for the relation between positive (PA) and negative affect (NA), on the one hand, and EP, on the other hand. The meta-analysis includes studies in English language, published until August 2016. The results indicate a significant positive relation between PA and EP, r = 0.18. The overall NA – EP relation was not significant, r = -0.12. Only state NA has a significant negative relation with EP (r = -0.16). The moderating role of several conceptual (i.e., emotion duration, integrality etc.), sample (i.e., gender, age, education) and methodological characteristics of the studies (i.e., type of measurements etc.) are explored and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:28348534

  2. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  3. Negative attentional bias for positive recovery-related words as a predictor of treatment success among individuals with an alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettie, Hannah C; Hogan, Lee M; Cox, W Miles

    2018-04-03

    This study assessed relationships between clients' attentional bias (AB) for different types of stimuli and their treatment outcomes. Alcohol AB during detoxification has previously been shown to predict relapse, but further research was needed to clarify this relationship. The current study determined whether AB for recovery-related words would also predict treatment outcome. Participants were 45 clients undergoing alcohol detoxification, and a control group of 36 staff members. They rated words for personal relevance in four categories (alcohol-related, neutral, positive change-related, and negative change-related). Participants completed an individualized Stroop task containing their chosen words. They were also assessed on readiness-to-change, difficulties with emotion regulation, drinking problems, anxiety, and depression. Clients were interviewed at a three-month follow-up to determine their treatment outcome. As predicted, questionnaire measures did not predict clients' treatment outcome (p > .05). A logistic regression model indicated that the best predictor of treatment outcome was AB for positive change-related words (p = .048), with successful individuals having less AB for these words than for the other word categories. Although this finding was unexpected, it was supported by significant relationships between positive change-related interference scores and continuous measures of drinking at follow-up [i.e. number of units drunk (p = .039) and number of drinking days (p = .018)]. The results suggest that positive change-related words are a better predictor of treatment outcome than are either alcohol-related words or negative change-related words. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of antiviral therapy on post-hepatectomy HBV reactivation and liver function in HBV DNA-negative patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wen-Feng; Zhong, Jian-Hong; Lu, Shi-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Qiu-Ming; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Xiang, Bang-De; Li, Le-Qun

    2017-02-28

    The ability of antiviral therapy to reduce risk of post-hepatectomy hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients negative for viral DNA is unclear. This prospective study involved 174 consecutive patients with hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma who were negative for hepatitis B virus DNA in serum and who underwent hepatic resection. Hepatitis B virus reactivation occurred in 30 patients in the non-antiviral group (27.8%) but in only 2 patients in the antiviral group (3.0%, P antiviral therapy. Liver function indicators at one week after resection did not differ significantly between the two groups, or between patients who experienced hepatitis B virus reactivation or not. Nevertheless, alanine aminotransferase and albumin at 1 month after resection were significantly higher in the antiviral group than in the non-antiviral group, and they were significantly higher in patients who did not experience hepatitis B virus reactivation than in those who did. Therefore, patients with hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma face substantial risk of hepatitis B virus reactivation after hepatectomy, even if they are negative for viral DNA at baseline. Antiviral therapy can reduce the risk of reactivation, helping improve liver function after surgery.

  5. Relations between functional norms of a non-negative function and its square root on the positive cone of Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechevsky, Lubomir T.; Grip, Niklas

    2009-11-01

    In this communication we study in detail the relations between the smoothness of f and √f in the case when the smoothness of the univariate non-negative functions f is measured via Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin space scales. The results obtained can be considered also as embedding theorems for usual Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces and their analogues in Hellinger metric. These results can be used in constrained approximation using wavelets, with applications to probability density estimation in speech recognition, non-negative non-parametric regression-function estimation in positron-emission tomography (PET) imaging, shape/order-preserving and/or one-sided approximation and many others.

  6. The cognitive and hedonic costs of dwelling on achievement-related negative experiences: implications for enduring happiness and unhappiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Boehm, Julia K; Kasri, Fazilet; Zehm, Keri

    2011-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that multiple cognitive and motivational processes underlie individual differences in happiness (Lyubomirsky, 2001, 2008). One behavior that is associated with (un)happiness is self-reflection or dwelling. We hypothesized that unhappy individuals would be inclined to dwell about themselves, and that this behavior would have a variety of adverse consequences. Three studies tested the prediction that, unlike their happier peers, unhappy participants would be sensitive to unfavorable achievement feedback, likely to dwell about its implications and, hence, show impaired attention during important academic tasks. The results of Studies 1 and 2 showed that unhappy participants who had "failed" relative to peers subsequently displayed increased interfering thoughts; spent the most time performing a portion of the graduate record examination; and later demonstrated impaired reading comprehension. Study 3 experimentally induced versus inhibiting dwelling and found that the manipulation only impacted unhappy students. Implications of our results for the consequences of dwelling for work and social functioning, as well as for detracting from enduring happiness, are discussed.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  8. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    as such may be more or less central to the meaning of the utterance. The present paper investigates the role of morphosyntactic and prosodic prominence as well as register and social setting on the interpretation of negations. It seems plausible to expect that if the negation as such is central to the meaning...... of the utterance (as in polemic negations), the negation will be articulated prominently in order to emphasise this importance. Likewise, if the negation is not central to the meaning of the utterance, it should not be articulated prominently. Moreover, it is plausible to expect descriptive negations to be more...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...

  9. Cognitive control adjustments in healthy older and younger adults: Conflict adaptation, the error-related negativity (ERN), and evidence of generalized decline with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Keith, Cierra M; Hunt, Isaac J; Hedges, Dawson W; Nielsen, Brent L; Call, Vaughn R A

    2016-03-01

    Older adults display alterations in neural reflections of conflict-related processing. We examined response times (RTs), error rates, and event-related potential (ERP; N2 and P3 components) indices of conflict adaptation (i.e., congruency sequence effects) a cognitive control process wherein previous-trial congruency influences current-trial performance, along with post-error slowing, correct-related negativity (CRN), error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) amplitudes in 65 healthy older adults and 94 healthy younger adults. Older adults showed generalized slowing, had decreased post-error slowing, and committed more errors than younger adults. Both older and younger adults showed conflict adaptation effects; magnitude of conflict adaptation did not differ by age. N2 amplitudes were similar between groups; younger, but not older, adults showed conflict adaptation effects for P3 component amplitudes. CRN and Pe, but not ERN, amplitudes differed between groups. Data support generalized declines in cognitive control processes in older adults without specific deficits in conflict adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lack of Energy and Negative Health-Related Outcomes in Nursing Home Residents: Results From the INCUR Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengarini, Elisa; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario U; Ruggiero, Carmelinda; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Cesari, Matteo

    2016-06-01

    "Lack of energy" or anergia is a common complaint associated with adverse outcomes in older people. There is a lack of knowledge on this symptom in the nursing home (NH) setting. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lack of energy was associated with hospitalization and mortality in NH residents. Longitudinal observational cohort study. A total of 575 NH residents (72% women) in 13 French NHs from the Incidence of pNeumonia and related ConseqUences in nursing home Residents (INCUR) study cohort. Lack of energy was measured at the baseline visit as part of the 10-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to test the association of lack of energy with hospitalization events and mortality over 12 months of follow-up. The mean age of the study sample was 86.3 (SD = 7.5) years. At the baseline, 250 (43.5%) residents complained about lack of energy. Overall, 192 (33.4%) individuals experienced at least 1 hospitalization event and 98 (17.0%) died during the 12-month follow-up. Lack of energy was significantly associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.02-1.80; P = .03), even after adjustment for potential confounders (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.04-1.91; P = .02). No statistically significant association was found between lack of energy and 12-month mortality. Lack of energy is a predictor of hospitalization in older people living in NHs. It may be considered a relevant clinical feature for identifying individuals at risk of adverse health outcomes, thus potentially serving as a screening tool for subsequently conducting a comprehensive geriatric assessment in this highly vulnerable and complex population. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An obesity provoking behaviour negatively influences young normal weight subjects' health related quality of life and causes depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernersson, Asa; Frisman, Gunilla Hollman; Sepa Frostell, Anneli; Nyström, Fredrik H; Lindström, Torbjörn

    2010-12-01

    In many parts of the world the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle in combination with high consumption of food has increased, which contributes to increased risk for becoming overweight. Our primary aim was, in an intervention, to examine the influence on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood in young normal weight subjects of both sexes, when adopting an obesity provoking behaviour by increasing the energy intake via fast food and simultaneously adopting a sedentary lifestyle. A secondary aim was to follow-up possible long-term effects on HRQoL and mood 6 and 12 months after this short-term intervention. In this prospective study, 18 healthy normal weight subjects (mean age 26±6.6 years), mainly university students were prescribed doubled energy intake, and maximum 5000 steps/day, during 4 weeks. An age and sex matched control group (n=18), who were asked to have unchanged eating habits and physical activity, was recruited. Before and after the intervention questionnaires including Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety Depression scale, Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, Sense of Coherence and Mastery scale were completed by the subjects in the intervention group and by the controls with 4 weeks interval. Six and 12 months after the intervention the subjects underwent the same procedure as at baseline and the controls completed the same questionnaires. During the intervention, subjects in the intervention group increased their bodyweight and developed markedly lower physical and mental health scores on Short Form-36 as well as depressive symptoms while no changes appeared in the controls. The increase of depressive symptoms was associated with increases of energy intake, body weight and body fat. When followed up, 6 and 12 months after the intervention, physical and mental health had returned completely to baseline values, despite somewhat increased body weight. In conclusion, adopting obesity provoking behaviour for 4 weeks decreases HRQo

  12. Are negative aspects of social relations predictive of angina pectoris? A 6-year follow-up study of middle-aged Danish women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    after adjustment for age, gender, social class, cohabitation status and depression in a dose-response manner. For example, experiencing excessive demands or worries always/often from different roles in the social relations was associated with an increased risk: partner OR=3.53 (1.68 to 7.43), children...... OR=2.19 (1.04 to 4.61), other family OR=1.91 (1.24 to 2.96). Except for frequent conflicts with the partner and neighbours, conflicts with the social relations was not a risk factor for angina. The authors found no interaction of negative aspects of social relations with gender, age, social class...

  13. A Relativity Enhanced, Medium-Strong Au(I)···H-N Hydrogen Bond in a Protonated Phenylpyridine-Gold(I) Thiolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Raphael J F; Schoiber, Jürgen; Monkowius, Uwe

    2017-01-17

    Gold is an electron-rich metal with a high electronegativity comparable to that of sulfur. Hence, hydrogen bonds of the Au(I)···H-E (E = electronegative element) type should be possible, but their existence is still under debate. Experimental results are scarce and often contradictory. As guidance for possible preparative work, we have theoretically investigated (ppyH)Au(SPh) (ppy = 2-phenylpyridine) bearing two monoanionic ligands which are not strongly electronegative at the same time to further increase the charge density on the gold(I) atom. The protonated pyridine nitrogen atom in ppy is geometrically ideally suited to place a proton in close proximity to the gold atom in a favorable geometry for a classical hydrogen bond arrangement. Indeed, the results of the calculations indicate that the hydrogen bonded conformation of (ppyH)Au(SPh) represents a minimum geometry with bond metrics in the expected range for medium-strong hydrogen bonds [r(N-H) = 1.043 Å, r(H···Au) = 2.060 Å, a(N-H···Au) = 141.4°]. The energy difference between the conformer containing the H···Au bond and another conformer without a hydrogen bond amounts to 7.8 kcal mol -1 , which might serve as an estimate of the hydrogen bond strength. Spectroscopic properties were calculated, yielding further characteristics of such hydrogen bonded gold species.

  14. Can't suppress this feeling: automatic negative evaluations of somatosensory stimuli are related to the experience of somatic symptom distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthöft, Michael; Basfeld, Cora; Steinhoff, Maike; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive theories of medically unexplained ("somatoform") symptoms stress the importance of alterations in attention and memory processes. Accordingly, specific schemata are hypothesized to (mis-)guide the processing of somatosensory stimuli leading to the formation of symptom-like perceptions. The current study tested a possible association between altered automatic somatosensory evaluation processes and the tendency to experience somatoform symptoms in a nonclinical sample. In a first pilot study, a modified version of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP) by Payne, Cheng, Govorun, and Stewart (2005) with aversive and nonaversive tactile stimuli (nonpainful electric vs. vibration stimulus) was successfully tested in 40 college students. In a second study (n = 50), automatic evaluations following aversive tactile stimuli were found to be positively associated (r = .35) with somatic symptom distress (PHQ). Moreover, negative affectivity significantly moderated this association (i.e., people high on negative affectivity revealed the strongest associations between somatic symptom distress and negative automatic evaluations in the tactile AMP). The findings support cognitive theories of somatoform symptom formation. The tactile AMP is suggested as a promising paradigm to study automatic evaluations of body sensations in people with somatoform disorders and related clinical conditions.

  15. The Effect of Body Mass Index, Negative Affect, and Disordered Eating on Health-Related Quality of Life in Preadolescent Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tarrah B; Steele, Ric G

    2016-08-01

    To examine the indirect effect of body mass index z-score (BMIz) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) through disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in a community sample of preadolescent children, and the degree to which negative affect moderated the association between BMIz and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Participants included 165 children between 8 and 12 years of age (M = 9.41). HRQOL, disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, and negative affect were assessed using self-report measures. Height and weight were collected by research staff. Consistent with previous research in treatment-seeking and adolescent samples, the indirect effect of BMIz on HRQOL through disordered eating attitudes and behaviors was significant. Negative affect did not moderate the relationship between BMIz and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Intervening on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors in preadolescents with higher weight status is critical to prevent the risk for poor HRQOL. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Influence of negative affectivity and self-esteem on the oral health related quality of life in patients receiving oral rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Özhayat, Esben Boeskov

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the personality traits Negative Affectivity (NA) and self-esteem influenced the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in patients receiving oral rehabilitation. Methods OHRQoL was measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), NA with a short form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), and self-esteem with Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 66 patients treated with removable dental prosthe...

  17. Accuracy of self-reported family history is strongly influenced by the accuracy of self-reported personal health status of relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, A.C.J.W.; Henneman, L.; Detmar, S.B.; Khoury, M.J.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Eijkemans, M.J.C.; Mushkudiani, N.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacKenbach, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the accuracy of self-reported family history for diabetes, hypertension, and overweight against two reference standards: family history based on physician-assessed health status of relatives and on self-reported personal health status of relatives. Study Design and

  18. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  19. Acute stress modulates feedback processing in men and women: differential effects on the feedback-related negativity and theta and beta power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Banis

    Full Text Available Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses.

  20. Disturbances of spontaneous empathic processing relate with the severity of the negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: a behavioural pilot-study using virtual reality technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirioux, Bérangère; Tandonnet, Louis; Jaafari, Nematollah; Berthoz, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Behavioural and neuroimaging data have recently pointed out that empathy (feeling into someone else) is associated with mental imagery and transformation related to one's and other's visuo-spatial perspectives. Impairments of both empathic and visuo-spatial abilities have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Especially, it has been suggested that schizophrenics are altered in spontaneously simulating another individual's first-person experience. However, there is so far only little evidence regarding the relationship between deficits in empathy and disturbances in spontaneous heterocentered coding in schizophrenia. In the present pilot-study, we tested with schizophrenic patients our behavioural paradigm that enables to measure from the bodily postures and movements whether individuals in ecologically more valid conditions are interacting with another individual by using egocentered - as in sympathy (feeling with someone else) - or heterocentered - as in empathy - visuo-spatial mechanisms. For that, ten patients and ten controls, standing and moving, interacted with a virtual tightrope walker, displayed life-sized, standing and moving as well. We show that patients with higher negative symptoms had, in most cases, deficits in spontaneously using heterocentered visuo-spatial mechanisms and employed preferentially an egocentered referencing to interact with the avatar. In contrast, preserved spontaneous heterocentered visuo-spatial strategies were not linked to a prevailing negative or positive symptomatology. Our data suggest that the severity of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia relates with disturbances of spontaneous ("on-line") empathic processing in association with lower scoring self-reported trait cognitive empathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Greater Experience of Negative Non-Target Emotions by Patients with Neurodegenerative Diseases Is Related to Lower Emotional Well-Being in Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Wells, Jenna L; Otero, Marcela C; Lwi, Sandy J; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2017-12-08

    Behavioral symptoms in patients with neurodegenerative diseases can be particularly challenging for caregivers. Previously, we reported that patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) experienced emotions that were atypical or incongruent with a given situation (i.e., non-target emotions). We tested the hypothesis that greater experience of non-target emotions by patients is associated with lower caregiver emotional well-being. 178 patients with FTD, AD, or other neurodegenerative diseases and 35 healthy individuals watched 3 films designed to induce amusement, sadness, and disgust, and then reported their emotions during the films. Caregivers of the patients reported their own emotional well-being on the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. In response to the amusement and sadness (but not disgust) films, greater experience of non-target emotions by patients was related to lower caregiver emotional well-being. These effects were specific to patients' experience of negative non-target emotions (i.e., not found for positive non-target emotions or for negative or positive target emotions). The findings reveal a previously unstudied patient behavior that is related to worse caregiver emotional well-being. Future research and clinical assessment may benefit from evaluating non-target emotions in patients. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hemispheric Asymmetries in Striatal Reward Responses Relate to Approach-Avoidance Learning and Encoding of Positive-Negative Prediction Errors in Dopaminergic Midbrain Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2015-10-28

    Some individuals are better at learning about rewarding situations, whereas others are inclined to avoid punishments (i.e., enhanced approach or avoidance learning, respectively). In reinforcement learning, action values are increased when outcomes are better than predicted (positive prediction errors [PEs]) and decreased for worse than predicted outcomes (negative PEs). Because actions with high and low values are approached and avoided, respectively, individual differences in the neural encoding of PEs may influence the balance between approach-avoidance learning. Recent correlational approaches also indicate that biases in approach-avoidance learning involve hemispheric asymmetries in dopamine function. However, the computational and neural mechanisms underpinning such learning biases remain unknown. Here we assessed hemispheric reward asymmetry in striatal activity in 34 human participants who performed a task involving rewards and punishments. We show that the relative difference in reward response between hemispheres relates to individual biases in approach-avoidance learning. Moreover, using a computational modeling approach, we demonstrate that better encoding of positive (vs negative) PEs in dopaminergic midbrain regions is associated with better approach (vs avoidance) learning, specifically in participants with larger reward responses in the left (vs right) ventral striatum. Thus, individual dispositions or traits may be determined by neural processes acting to constrain learning about specific aspects of the world. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3514491-10$15.00/0.

  3. Smoking to Regulate Negative Affect: Disentangling the Relationship Between Posttraumatic Stress and Emotional Disorder Symptoms, Nicotine Dependence, and Cessation-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Brittain L; Gonzalez, Adam; Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Bromet, Evelyn J; Luft, Benjamin J; Kotov, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with various aspects of cigarette smoking, including higher levels of nicotine dependence and cessation difficulties. Affect-regulatory smoking motives are thought to, in part, underlie the association between emotional disorders such as PTSD and smoking maintenance, although few studies have empirically tested this possibility. Data were analyzed from 135 treatment-seeking smokers who were directly exposed to the World Trade Center disaster on September 11, 2001. We modeled the direct effect of 9/11 PTSD symptom severity on nicotine dependence, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problematic symptoms experienced during prior cessation attempts. We also examined the indirect effect of PTSD on these outcomes via negative affect reduction smoking motives. Parallel models were constructed for additional emotional disorder symptoms, including panic and depressive symptoms. PTSD symptom severity was associated with nicotine dependence and perceived barriers to cessation, but not problems during prior quit attempts indirectly via negative affect reduction smoking motives. Panic and depressive symptoms both had significant indirect effects, via negative affect reduction smoking motives, on all three criterion variables. Affect-regulatory smoking motives appear to underlie associations between the symptoms of emotional disorders such as PTSD, panic, and depression in terms of smoking dependence and certain cessation-related criterion variables. Overall, this investigation suggests negative affect reduction smoking motives help to explain the relationship of PTSD, depression, and panic symptoms to nicotine dependence, severity of problems experienced during prior quit attempts and perceived barriers to cessation. These results highlight the importance of assessing motivations for smoking in the context of cessation treatment, especially among those with emotional disorder symptoms. Future interventions

  4. The role of discrimination in alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking HIV-negative and positive men who have sex with men (MSM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Tyler B; Pantalone, David W; Kahler, Christopher W; Monti, Peter M; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2016-09-01

    Heavy drinking is a major public health concern among men who have sex with men (MSM), as it is in many other populations. However, the consequences of heavy drinking among MSM may be particularly severe, especially for sexual risk behavior, due to the relatively high prevalence of HIV. Minority stress models suggest that, among members of marginalized groups, discrimination may be associated with heavier alcohol use as these individuals increasingly drink to cope with such experiences. Past studies have provided some support for this association. However, they have not explored the role other drinking motives play, how these relationships might differ across MSM who are HIV-positive versus HIV-negative, or how this relationship extends to alcohol-related problems. In this study, we used path modeling to explore associations between perceived discrimination experiences, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems in samples of heavy drinking MSM with and without HIV. In both HIV-negative and positive MSM, perceived discrimination was significantly positively associated with alcohol problems. Drinking to cope appears to play an important role in this relationship in both samples. Reporting more discrimination experiences was associated with drinking more frequently for sexual reasons among both groups. While the total effect of drinking to facilitate sex was positively associated with alcohol-related problems, sex motives did not mediate associations between discrimination and either drinking outcome. These results suggest that interventions addressing discrimination and specific drinking motivations may be useful in helping reduce alcohol use of heavy drinking MSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. <strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...... some are rooted in the religious tradition while other aim to be post-religious. Medical meditation across settings combines savings on health care costs with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life...... is met by a meso-strategy aiming the formation of an international, multidisciplinary network which might organize regional workshops for representatives for all involved parties in order to prepare local implementation projects.   Regarding de-stressing by medical meditation a relatively fast...

  6. Strong convergence theorems for a common fixed point of a finite family of Bregman weak relativity nonexpansive mappings in reflexive Banach spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Habtu; Shahzad, Naseer

    2014-01-01

    We introduce an iterative process for finding an element of a common fixed point of a finite family of Bregman weak relatively nonexpansive mappings. Our theorems improve and unify most of the results that have been proved for this important class of nonlinear operators.

  7. Recovery from eating disorder 1 year after start of treatment is related to better mentalization and strong reduction of sensitivity to others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G.S.; den Hollanders, S.; van der Ark, L.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether recovery from an eating disorder is related to pre-treatment attachment and mentalization and/or to improvement of attachment and mentalization during treatment. Method For a sample of 38 anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients receiving treatment the

  8. Recovery from eating disorder 1 year after start of treatment is related to better mentalization and strong reduction of sensitivity to others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, G. S.; den Hollander, S.; van der Ark, L.A.; Bekker, M.H.J.

    Purpose To investigate whether recovery from an eating disorder is related to pre-treatment attachment and mentalization and/or to improvement of attachment and mentalization during treatment. Method For a sample of 38 anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients receiving treatment the

  9. <strong>Neuroeconomics and behavioral health economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    dissemination of relaxation procedures is evident in industrialized countries since about 1970 both inside the medical healthcare system and as NGO-settings in a market-alike competition. However, a serious barrier to the dissemination of meditative de-stressing is the lack of general knowledge of the action...... for explanation of the neural dynamics of normal decision making. Secondly, the literature is reviewed for evidence on hypothesized applications of NeM in behavioral health. Results I. The present bias as documented by neuroeconomic game-trials is explained by NeM as rooted in the basal activation of Amygdala...... - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of human-relations management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations relaxing Amygdala for better emotional integration...

  10. Traits across the personality hierarchy differentially relate to positive and negative affect: Evidence for the predictive validity of empirically derived meta-traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Graf, Markus; Schreiber, Marc

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing interest in the construct validity of higher-order domains of the Big Five personality traits. A total of 831 persons from the Swiss population completed the International Personality Item Pool and an adaptation of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales. Using Goldberg's bass-ackwards method, we found evidence for the general factor of personality (GFP) and the two meta-traits of positive emotionality (blend of low neuroticism and high extraversion) and constraint (blend of high agreeableness and conscientiousness). In association with positive affect, the explanatory power of the GFP (r = 0.43) and positive emotionality (r = 0.37) was largely superior to extraversion (r = 0.24), conscientiousness (r = 0.18), agreeableness (r = 0.09) and openness (r = 0.04), although not neuroticism (r = -0.34). In association with negative affect, neuroticism (r = 0.41), the GFP (r = -0.36) and positive emotionality (r = -0.35) were the most powerful single predictors. We conclude that the higher-order structure of personality is best explained by the meta-traits of positive emotionality and constraint, which correspond closely to the well-established superfactors of internalizing and externalizing. We further demonstrate that these have substantial criterion validity when broad positive and negative affect is the outcome of interest. These findings help to relate Big Five meta-traits to pathological personality. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2.6, an Ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1, Is a Negative Regulator of Strawberry Fruit Development and Ripening1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ruihong; Li, Jinxi; Jiang, Jinzhu; Zhang, Ning; Jia, Meiru; Wei, Lingzhi; Li, Ziqiang; Li, Bingbing; Jia, Wensuo

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that direct fruit ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process, especially for nonclimacteric fruits. In this study, we demonstrated that a SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, designated as FaSnRK2.6, is a negative regulator of fruit development and ripening in the nonclimacteric fruit strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and can also mediate temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was identified as an ortholog of OPEN STOMATA1. Levels of FaSnRK2.6 transcript rapidly decreased during strawberry fruit development and ripening. FaSnRK2.6 was found to be capable of physically interacting with strawberry ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE1, a negative regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. RNA interference-induced silencing of FaSnRK2.6 significantly promoted fruit ripening. By contrast, overexpression of FaSnRK2.6 arrested fruit ripening. Strawberry fruit ripening is highly sensitive to temperature, with high temperatures promoting ripening and low temperatures delaying it. As the temperature increased, the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression declined. Furthermore, manipulating the level of FaSnRK2.6 expression altered the expression of a variety of temperature-responsive genes. Taken together, this study demonstrates that FaSnRK2.6 is a negative regulator of strawberry fruit development and ripening and, furthermore, that FaSnRK2.6 mediates temperature-modulated strawberry fruit ripening. PMID:25609556

  12. Virus-induced gene silencing of Withania somnifera squalene synthase negatively regulates sterol and defence-related genes resulting in reduced withanolides and biotic stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anup Kumar; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Pal, Shaifali; Reddy, Sajjalavarahalli Gangireddy Eswara; Rao, Dodaghatta Krishnarao Venkata; Shasany, Ajit Kumar; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-12-01

    Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is an important Indian medicinal plant that produces withanolides, which are triterpenoid steroidal lactones having diverse biological activities. To enable fast and efficient functional characterization of genes in this slow-growing and difficult-to-transform plant, a virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was established by silencing phytoene desaturase (PDS) and squalene synthase (SQS). VIGS of the gene encoding SQS, which provides precursors for triterpenoids, resulted in significant reduction of squalene and withanolides, demonstrating its application in studying withanolides biosynthesis in W. somnifera leaves. A comprehensive analysis of gene expression and sterol pathway intermediates in WsSQS-vigs plants revealed transcriptional modulation with positive feedback regulation of mevalonate pathway genes, and negative feed-forward regulation of downstream sterol pathway genes including DWF1 (delta-24-sterol reductase) and CYP710A1 (C-22-sterol desaturase), resulting in significant reduction of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol. However, there was little effect of SQS silencing on cholesterol, indicating the contribution of sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, but not of cholesterol, towards withanolides formation. Branch-point oxidosqualene synthases in WsSQS-vigs plants exhibited differential regulation with reduced CAS (cycloartenol synthase) and cycloartenol, and induced BAS (β-amyrin synthase) and β-amyrin. Moreover, SQS silencing also led to the down-regulation of brassinosteroid-6-oxidase-2 (BR6OX2), pathogenesis-related (PR) and nonexpressor of PR (NPR) genes, resulting in reduced tolerance to bacterial and fungal infection as well as to insect feeding. Taken together, SQS silencing negatively regulated sterol and defence-related genes leading to reduced phytosterols, withanolides and biotic stress tolerance, thus implicating the application of VIGS for functional analysis of genes related to withanolides

  13. Strong depth-related zonation of megabenthos on a rocky continental margin (∼700-4000 m off southern Tasmania, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Thresher

    Full Text Available Assemblages of megabenthos are structured in seven depth-related zones between ∼700 and 4000 m on the rocky and topographically complex continental margin south of Tasmania, southeastern Australia. These patterns emerge from analysis of imagery and specimen collections taken from a suite of surveys using photographic and in situ sampling by epibenthic sleds, towed video cameras, an autonomous underwater vehicle and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV. Seamount peaks in shallow zones had relatively low biomass and low diversity assemblages, which may be in part natural and in part due to effects of bottom trawl fishing. Species richness was highest at intermediate depths (1000-1300 m as a result of an extensive coral reef community based on the bioherm-forming scleractinian Solenosmilia variabilis. However, megabenthos abundance peaked in a deeper, low diversity assemblage at 2000-2500 m. The S. variabilis reef and the deep biomass zone were separated by an extensive dead, sub-fossil S. variabilis reef and a relatively low biomass stratum on volcanic rock roughly coincident with the oxygen minimum layer. Below 2400 m, megabenthos was increasingly sparse, though punctuated by occasional small pockets of relatively high diversity and biomass. Nonetheless, megabenthic organisms were observed in the vast majority of photographs on all seabed habitats and to the maximum depths observed--a sandy plain below 3950 m. Taxonomic studies in progress suggest that the observed depth zonation is based in part on changing species mixes with depth, but also an underlying commonality to much of the seamount and rocky substrate biota across all depths. Although the mechanisms supporting the extraordinarily high biomass in 2000-2500 m depths remains obscure, plausible explanations include equatorwards lateral transport of polar production and/or a response to depth-stratified oxygen availability.

  14. Fundamental aspects related to batch and fixed-bed sulfate sorption by the macroporous type 1 strong base ion exchange resin Purolite A500.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Damaris; Leão, Versiane A

    2014-12-01

    Acid mine drainage is a natural process occurring when sulfide minerals such as pyrite are exposed to water and oxygen. The bacterially catalyzed oxidation of pyrite is particularly common in coal mining operations and usually results in a low-pH water polluted with toxic metals and sulfate. Although high sulfate concentrations can be reduced by gypsum precipitation, removing lower concentrations (below 1200 mg/L) remains a challenge. Therefore, this work sought to investigate the application of ion exchange resins for sulfate sorption. The macroporous type 1 strong base IX resin Purolite A500 was selected for bath and fixed-bed sorption experiments using synthetic sulfate solutions. Equilibrium experiments showed that sulfate loading on the resin can be described by the Langmuir isotherm with a maximum uptake of 59 mg mL-resin(-1). The enthalpy of sorption was determined as +2.83 kJ mol(-1), implying an endothermic physisorption process that occurred with decreasing entropy (-15.5 J mol(-1).K(-1)). Fixed-bed experiments were performed at different bed depths, flow rates, and initial sulfate concentrations. The Miura and Hashimoto model predicted a maximum bed loading of 25-30 g L-bed(-1) and indicated that both film diffusion (3.2 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 22.6 × 10(-3) cm s(-1)) and surface diffusion (1.46 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) to 5.64 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)) resistances control the sorption process. It was shown that IX resins are an alternative for the removal of sulfate from mine waters; they ensure very low residual concentrations, particularly in effluents where the sulfate concentration is below the gypsum solubility threshold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Rice Dynamin-Related Protein OsDRP1E Negatively Regulates Programmed Cell Death by Controlling the Release of Cytochrome c from Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD mediated by mitochondrial processes has emerged as an important mechanism for plant development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. However, the role of translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol during PCD remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the rice dynamin-related protein 1E (OsDRP1E negatively regulates PCD by controlling mitochondrial structure and cytochrome c release. We used a map-based cloning strategy to isolate OsDRP1E from the lesion mimic mutant dj-lm and confirmed that the E409V mutation in OsDRP1E causes spontaneous cell death in rice. Pathogen inoculation showed that dj-lm significantly enhances resistance to fungal and bacterial pathogens. Functional analysis of the E409V mutation showed that the mutant protein impairs OsDRP1E self-association and formation of a higher-order complex; this in turn reduces the GTPase activity of OsDRP1E. Furthermore, confocal microscopy showed that the E409V mutation impairs localization of OsDRP1E to the mitochondria. The E409V mutation significantly affects the morphogenesis of cristae in mitochondria and causes the abnormal release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytoplasm. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the mitochondria-localized protein OsDRP1E functions as a negative regulator of cytochrome c release and PCD in plants.

  16. <strong>Neuroeconomics and Health Economicsstrong>/>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    activation of Amygdala - a key center in our emotional arousal (limbic system) - as shaped in the elder stone-age with many acute threats. II. In general, the Hawthorne-effect of management is explained as the result of supportive job-relations reinforcing the homeostatic properties of the limbic system...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  17. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  18. Influence of self-esteem and negative affectivity on oral health related quality of life in patients with partial tooth loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov

    2013-01-01

    To meaningfully interpret oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures, the influence of personality traits must be investigated. Objectives:To investigate and quantify the influence of self-esteem and negative affectivity (NA) on OHRQoL. It was hypothesized that low self-esteem and high...... NA would be associated with worse OHRQoL.Methods: OHRQoL measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), self-esteem measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), NA measured by the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), global oral rating of oral comfort and controlling...... and clinically significantly higher and self-esteem was statistically significantly lower in patients reporting worse oral comfort. Conclusion: NA had the strongest and most clinically meaningful influence, but both NA and self-esteem was found to influence OHRQoL; low self-esteem and high NA was associated...

  19. Influence of negative affectivity and self-esteem on the oral health related quality of life in patients receiving oral rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the personality traits Negative Affectivity (NA) and self-esteem influenced the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in patients receiving oral rehabilitation. Methods: OHRQoL was measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49...... (OHIP-49), NA with a short form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), and self-esteem with Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 66 patients treated with removable dental prosthesis (RDP). The minimally important difference (MID), effect size (ES), and standard error......L regardless of level of NA and self-esteem. High NA is associated with a large effect, but both high NA and low self-esteem is associated with poorer OHRQoL both before and after treatment....

  20. Elucidation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related pathways in a triple-negative breast cancer cell line model by multi-omics interactome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauling, Josch K; Christensen, Anne G; Batra, Richa

    2014-01-01

    exhibiting epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like morphology, respectively. Here we identified altered protein signaling activity in a complex biologically relevant network, related to focal adhesion and migration of breast cancer cells. We found dysregulated functional network modules revealing altered...... obtained from a triple-negative breast cancer cell line model, combining data sets of gene and protein expression as well as protein phosphorylation. We focus on alterations associated with the phenotypical differences arising from epithelial-mesenchymal transition in two breast cancer cell lines...... with generation of biological networks. This allows identification of intrinsic patterns in the data and their linkage to a specific context such as cellular compartments, diseases or functions. Identification of aberrant pathways by traditional approaches is often limited to biological networks based on either...

  1. Regular exercise and related factors in patients with Parkinson's disease: Applying zero-inflated negative binomial modeling of exercise count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Park, Chang Gi; Choi, Moonki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify risk factors that influence regular exercise among patients with Parkinson's disease in Korea. Parkinson's disease is prevalent in the elderly, and may lead to a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise can enhance physical and psychological health. However, patients with Parkinson's disease are less likely to exercise than are other populations due to physical disability. A secondary data analysis and cross-sectional descriptive study were conducted. A convenience sample of 106 patients with Parkinson's disease was recruited at an outpatient neurology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Korea. Demographic characteristics, disease-related characteristics (including disease duration and motor symptoms), self-efficacy for exercise, balance, and exercise level were investigated. Negative binomial regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression for exercise count data were utilized to determine factors involved in exercise. The mean age of participants was 65.85 ± 8.77 years, and the mean duration of Parkinson's disease was 7.23 ± 6.02 years. Most participants indicated that they engaged in regular exercise (80.19%). Approximately half of participants exercised at least 5 days per week for 30 min, as recommended (51.9%). Motor symptoms were a significant predictor of exercise in the count model, and self-efficacy for exercise was a significant predictor of exercise in the zero model. Severity of motor symptoms was related to frequency of exercise. Self-efficacy contributed to the probability of exercise. Symptom management and improvement of self-efficacy for exercise are important to encourage regular exercise in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Minor amputation does not negatively affect health-related quality of life as compared with conservative treatment in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickwell, K; Siersma, V; Kars, M; Apelqvist, J; Bakker, K; Edmonds, M; Holstein, P; Jirkovská, A; Jude, E B; Mauricio, D; Piaggesi, A; Reike, H; Spraul, M; Uccioli, L; Urbancic, V; van Acker, K; van Baal, J; Schaper, N

    2017-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is poor in patients with persistent diabetic foot ulcers and poor HRQoL predicts worse outcomes in these patients. Amputation is often considered a treatment failure, which is why conservative treatment is generally preferred over amputation. However, it is unclear whether minor amputation negatively affects HRQoL compared with conservative treatment in patients with diabetic foot ulcers. In the cohort of the multicenter, prospective, observational Eurodiale study, we determined difference in change of HRQoL measured by EQ-5D between patients with a diabetic foot ulcers that healed after conservative treatment (n = 676) and after minor amputation (n = 145). Propensity score was used to adjust for known confounders, attempting to overcome lack of randomization. Baseline HRQoL was not significantly different between patients treated conservatively and undergoing minor amputation. In addition, there was no difference in the change of HRQoL between these groups. In patients who healed 6 to 12 months after the first visit, HRQoL on the anxiety/depression subscale even appeared to improve more in those who underwent minor amputation. Minor amputation was not associated with a negative impact on HRQoL in patients with a diabetic foot ulcers. It may therefore not be considered treatment failure in terms of HRQoL but rather a viable treatment option. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to further examine the influence of minor amputations on health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Social Relatedness and Physical Health Are More Strongly Related in Older Than Younger Adults: Findings from the Korean Adult Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo Choi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that social relatedness is beneficial to physical health; however, findings on the relative strength of the relationship between these variables have been inconsistent. The present study employed cross-sectional survey (Study 1 and a daily diary survey (Study 2 to examine the link between social relatedness and physical health by age. Using a representative sample of Korean adults (N = 371 aged from 20 to 69, Study 1 examines the link between social relatedness (loneliness, perceived social support and physical health (physical symptoms, chronic health conditions using age as a moderator. The results show that participants' age moderates the association between social relatedness and physical health. Study 2 (N = 384 further corroborated the findings from Study 1 by showing that when controlling for the physical symptoms experienced prior to the daily diary reports, the level of loneliness experienced over a 13-day period exacerbates the age differences in the physical symptoms. The present study thus provides converging evidence that social relatedness plays a significant role in physical health, particularly in the older population.

  4. Inverse agonist of estrogen-related receptor α suppresses the growth of triple negative breast cancer cells through ROS generation and interaction with multiple cell signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying-Min; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Jiang, Guan-Min; Zhang, Kun-Shui; Liu, Qiao; Liang, Shu-Wei; Zhou, Yan; Huang, Hong-Bin; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng

    2016-03-15

    There is an urgent clinical need for targeted therapy approaches for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Increasing evidences suggested that the expression of estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) was correlate with unfavorable clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients. We here show that inhibition of ERRα by its inverse agonist XCT-790 can suppress the proliferation, decrease G2/M phases, and induce mitochondrial-related apoptosis of TNBC cells. XCT-790 elevates the proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress such as ATF4/6, XBT-1 and CHOP. It also increases the expression of growth inhibition related proteins such as p53 and p21. Further, XCT-790 can increase the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in TNBC cells mainly through inhibition of SOD1/2. While ROS scavenger NAC abolishes XCT-790 induced ER-stress and growth arrest. XCT-790 treatment can rapidly activate the signal molecules including ERK1/2, p38-MAPK, JNK, Akt, p65, and IκBα, while NAC attenuates effects of XCT-790 induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38-MAPK and Akt. Further, the inhibitors of ERK1/2, JNK, Akt, and NF-κB attenuate XCT-790 induced ROS generation. These data suggest that AKT/ROS and ERK/ROS positive feedback loops, NF-κB/ROS, and ROS/p38-MAPK, are activated in XCT-790 treated TNBC cells. In vivo experiments show that XCT-790 significantly suppresses the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft tumors, which is associated with up regulation of p53, p21, ER-stress related proteins while down regulation of bcl-2. The present discovery makes XCT-790 a promising candidate drug and lays the foundation for future development of ERRα-based therapies for TNBC patients.

  5. Screening differential expression of serum proteins in AFP-negative HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma using iTRAQ -MALDI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X; Wang, Y; Zhang, W; Li, H; Luo, R; Zhou, Y; Liao, C Li M; Huang, H; Lv, X; Xie, Z; He, M

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) is serious condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. Therefore is an urgent need to develop novel noninvasive techniques for early diagnosis, particularly for patients with AFP-negative [AFP(-)] HCC. In this study, iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS was used to identify differentially expressed proteins in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC compared with non-cancerous hepatitis B virus (HBV) and healthy controls subjects.Serum was obtained from 18 patients with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC, 18 matched patients with HBV without HCC and 18 healthy control subjects. High abundance proteins were removed from serum and the differentially expressed proteins from the three groups were screened out using iTRAQ-MALDI-MS/MS. The Gene Ontology (GO) function and the interaction networks of differentially expressed proteins were then analyzed. A total of 24 expressed differential proteins associated with AFP(-) HBV-related HCC were screened out, 15 proteins were up-regulated and 9 down-regulated. The most common molecular function of the 24 differentially expressed proteins was enzyme inhibition. Interaction network of the 24 differentially expressed proteins showed that 14 proteins (C5, KNG1, FN1, LRG1, HRG, SERPINC1, CRP, APOB, SAA1, APCS, C4BPA, CFI, CFB and GSN) were central to the functional network. The expression levels of the GSN protein were down-regulated in AFP(-) HBV-related HCC subjects compared with healthy controls and the HBV group (pproteins from the serum of AFP(-) HBV-related HCC appeared at the fulcrum of the functional network and were differentially expressed compare to HBV and healthy controls suggesting a possible association with HCC progression.

  6. <strong>Robert Aumannstrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2007-01-01

    In this interview Nobel Prize Winner Robert Aumann talks about how he was initially drawn into game theory, when he came to think of formalizing the folk-theorem, the proper role of game theory in relation to other disciplines and why behavioral game theory probably won't last long.......In this interview Nobel Prize Winner Robert Aumann talks about how he was initially drawn into game theory, when he came to think of formalizing the folk-theorem, the proper role of game theory in relation to other disciplines and why behavioral game theory probably won't last long....

  7. Meaning of the negative impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active.

  8. Meaning of the negative impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conciauro, G.; Puglisi, M.

    1981-06-01

    It is shown that the negative real part of an input impedance does not mean instability of the related circuit. A negative real part of the input impedance means only that the concerned circuit is active

  9. Differences in the mannose oligomer specificities of the closely related lectins from Galanthus nivalis and Zea mays strongly determine their eventual anti-HIV activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouquaert Elke

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a recent report, the carbohydrate-binding specificities of the plant lectins Galanthus nivalis (GNA and the closely related lectin from Zea mays (GNAmaize were determined by glycan array analysis and indicated that GNAmaize recognizes complex-type N-glycans whereas GNA has specificity towards high-mannose-type glycans. Both lectins are tetrameric proteins sharing 64% sequence similarity. Results GNAmaize appeared to be ~20- to 100-fold less inhibitory than GNA against HIV infection, syncytia formation between persistently HIV-1-infected HuT-78 cells and uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte SupT1 cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and subsequent transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virions to uninfected CD4+ T-lymphocyte cells. In contrast to GNA, which preferentially selects for virus strains with deleted high-mannose-type glycans on gp120, prolonged exposure of HIV-1 to dose-escalating concentrations of GNAmaize selected for mutant virus strains in which one complex-type glycan of gp120 was deleted. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR analysis revealed that GNA and GNAmaize interact with HIV IIIB gp120 with affinity constants (KD of 0.33 nM and 34 nM, respectively. Whereas immobilized GNA specifically binds mannose oligomers, GNAmaize selectively binds complex-type GlcNAcβ1,2Man oligomers. Also, epitope mapping experiments revealed that GNA and the mannose-specific mAb 2G12 can independently bind from GNAmaize to gp120, whereas GNAmaize cannot efficiently bind to gp120 that contained prebound PHA-E (GlcNAcβ1,2man specific or SNA (NeuAcα2,6X specific. Conclusion The markedly reduced anti-HIV activity of GNAmaize compared to GNA can be explained by the profound shift in glycan recognition and the disappearance of carbohydrate-binding sites in GNAmaize that have high affinity for mannose oligomers. These findings underscore the need for mannose oligomer recognition of therapeutics to be endowed with anti-HIV activity and that mannose, but

  10. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid, E-mail: shussain2@qinetiq.com

    2017-04-15

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies. - Highlights: • Negative permeability from random particle composites is

  11. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; van der Palen, Job; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED). The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days. A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively), and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4), significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5), and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female)/five (male) alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9). The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5) in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7). Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours). Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were reported (2.6) for the previous year, including driving a car while intoxicated, taking foolish risks, or being injured or hurt, as compared with alcohol-related consequences when consuming alcohol only (4.9). Mixing alcohol with energy drinks decreases overall alcohol consumption, and decreases the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences.

  12. Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor-2 Negatively Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activity by Inhibiting Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced NLRP3 Priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuting; Zhang, Xin; Ding, Yang; Zhou, Wei; Tao, Lei; Lu, Ping; Wang, Yajing; Hu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that protects hosts against a variety of pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms of modulating NLRP3 inflammasome activation, especially at the priming step, are still poorly understood. This study was designed to elucidate the negative regulation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) on the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. We reported that Nrf2 activation inhibited NLRP3 expression, caspase-1 cleavage, and subsequent IL-1β generation. Compared with normal cells, Nrf2-deficient cells showed upregulated cleaved caspase-1, which were attributed to the increased transcription of NLRP3 caused by excess reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, priming of the NLRP3 inflammasome was sensitive to the exogenous ROS levels induced by H 2 O 2 or rotenone. Combined with adenosine triphosphate, rotenone triggered higher activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome compared with lipopolysaccharide, suggesting that ROS promoted the priming step. In addition, Nrf2-induced NQO1 was involved in the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome. In an in vivo alum-induced peritonitis mouse model, Nrf2 activation suppressed typical IL-1 signaling-dependent inflammation, whereas Nrf2 -/- mice exhibited a significant increase in the recruitment of immune cell and the generation of IL-1β compared with wild-type mice. We elucidated the effects and possible mechanisms of Nrf2 activation-induced NQO1 expression on NLRP3 inflammasome inactivation and established a novel regulatory role of the Nrf2 pathway in ROS-induced NLRP3 priming. We demonstrated Nrf2 negatively regulating NLRP3 inflammasome activity by inhibiting the priming step and suggested that Nrf2 could be a potential target for some uncontrolled inflammasome activation-associated diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 28-43.

  13. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  14. Antibacterial activities of coagulase-negative staphylococci from bovine teat apex skin and their inhibitory effect on mastitis-related pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braem, G; Stijlemans, B; Van Haken, W; De Vliegher, S; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2014-05-01

    To explore antibacterial activities of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from teat apices of dairy cows towards mastitis-causing pathogens. Of 254 CoNS, 38 displayed bacteriocin-like activity after a first screening. Seven of these strains displayed activity against at least one mastitis-related pathogen (Streptococcus uberis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus). Staphylococcus chromogenes L217 displayed the strongest inhibitory effect, being active against all tested mastitis-related pathogens and most tested CoNS. Based on cation exchange and reversed-phase chromatography, in addition to N-terminal Edman degradation and PCR, the antibacterial peptide was identified as a nukacin-type bacteriocin and named nukacin L217. Although staphylococcal bacteriocins are generally found in the cell-free supernatants of liquid cultures, Staph. chromogenes L217 only led to detectable activity when grown on agar medium. Bacteriocin-like activities are not uncommon among CoNS from teat apices and may inhibit mastitis-causing pathogens, as found for nukacin L217 production by Staph. chromogenes L217. Nukacin L217 is the first identified bacteriocin of the species Staph. chromogenes and displays unusual production kinetics, that is, requiring surface growth of its producer. The fact that nukacins are produced by different CoNS species suggests a role in the teat skin ecosystem. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Extracellular matrix protein 1, a direct targeting molecule of parathyroid hormone–related peptide, negatively regulates chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification via associating with progranulin growth factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Li; Zhao, Yun-Peng; Tian, Qing-Yun; Feng, Jian-Quan; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Merregaert, Joseph; Liu, Chuan-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification are precisely controlled by cellular interactions with surrounding matrix proteins and growth factors that mediate cellular signaling pathways. Here, we report that extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) is a previously unrecognized regulator of chondrogenesis. ECM1 is induced in the course of chondrogenesis and its expression in chondrocytes strictly depends on parathyroid hormone–related peptide (PTHrP) signaling pathway. Overexpression of ECM1 suppresses, whereas suppression of ECM1 enhances, chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy in vitro and ex vivo. In addition, target transgene of ECM1 in chondrocytes or osteoblasts in mice leads to striking defects in cartilage development and endochondral bone formation. Of importance, ECM1 seems to be critical for PTHrP action in chondrogenesis, as blockage of ECM1 nearly abolishes PTHrP regulation of chondrocyte hypertrophy, and overexpression of ECM1 rescues disorganized growth plates of PTHrP-null mice. Furthermore, ECM1 and progranulin chondrogenic growth factor constitute an interaction network and act in concert in the regulation of chondrogenesis.—Kong, L., Zhao, Y.-P., Tian, Q.-Y., Feng, J.-Q., Kobayashi, T., Merregaert, J., Liu, C.-J. Extracellular matrix protein 1, a direct targeting molecule of parathyroid hormone–related peptide, negatively regulates chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification via associating with progranulin growth factor. PMID:27075243

  16. The stress-response dampening hypothesis: how self-esteem and stress act as mechanisms between negative parental bonds and alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer-Fulghum, Lindsey M; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Roufa, Lindsay; Hagen, Leslie

    2012-04-01

    The stress dampening model (Marlatt, 1987; Sayette, 1993; Sher, 1987) suggests certain individuals may use alcohol to escape from their negative life experiences. Pathological reasons for drinking (e.g., using alcohol as a means to cope) reflect the degree to which individuals are motivated to use alcohol in order to dampen or alleviate the stress they are experiencing (Johnson, Schwitters, Wilson, Nagoshi, & McClearn, 1985). Direct and mediational links among parental bonds (rejection, care, overprotection, autonomy, and neglect), self-esteem, stress, pathological reasons for drinking, and alcohol-related problems were explored. A Structural Equation Model with (405 students; 164 women, 241 men) college students was examined. Three path mediational analyses revealed several mediated pathways. Greater feelings of perceived father/mother neglectfulness (i.e., offspring feeling parents do not show up for them) were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems (e.g., indicative of alcohol use or dependence in emerging adulthood) through increased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. Furthermore, higher levels of father rejection (i.e., perception of feeling unwanted) were indirectly linked to more pathological reasons for drinking through low self-esteem and increased stress. However, greater feelings of mother care (affectionate and attentive) were indirectly linked to fewer pathological reasons for drinking through higher self-esteem and lower levels of stress. Moreover, high self-esteem was found to be indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through decreased stress and pathological reasons for drinking. These findings suggest several specific pathways for using alcohol to self-medicate (i.e., consume alcohol for a specific purpose) or dampen feelings of stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of communicative head movements on the quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals: negligible effects for affirmative and negative gestures and consistent artifacts related to raising eyebrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Morais, Guilherme Augusto Zimeo; Furucho, Rogério Akira; Trambaiolli, Lucas Romualdo; Sato, João Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is currently one of the most promising tools in the neuroscientific research to study brain hemodynamics during naturalistic social communication. The application of fNIRS by studies in this field of knowledge has been widely justified by its strong resilience to motion artifacts, including those that might be generated by communicative head and facial movements. Previous studies have focused on the identification and correction of these artifacts, but a quantification of the differential contribution of common communicative movements on the quality of fNIRS signals is still missing. We assessed the impact of four movements (nodding head up and down, reading aloud, nodding head sideways, and raising eyebrows) performed during rest and task conditions on two metrics of signal quality control: an estimative of signal-to-noise performance and the negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb). Channel-wise group analysis confirmed the robustness of the fNIRS technique to head nodding movements but showed a large effect of raising eyebrows in both signal quality control metrics, both during task and rest conditions. Reading aloud did not disrupt the expected anticorrelation between oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb but had a relatively large effect on signal-to-noise performance. These findings may have implications to the interpretation of fNIRS studies examining communicative processes.

  18. Impact of communicative head movements on the quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals: negligible effects for affirmative and negative gestures and consistent artifacts related to raising eyebrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balardin, Joana Bisol; Zimeo Morais, Guilherme Augusto; Furucho, Rogério Akira; Trambaiolli, Lucas Romualdo; Sato, João Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is currently one of the most promising tools in the neuroscientific research to study brain hemodynamics during naturalistic social communication. The application of fNIRS by studies in this field of knowledge has been widely justified by its strong resilience to motion artifacts, including those that might be generated by communicative head and facial movements. Previous studies have focused on the identification and correction of these artifacts, but a quantification of the differential contribution of common communicative movements on the quality of fNIRS signals is still missing. We assessed the impact of four movements (nodding head up and down, reading aloud, nodding head sideways, and raising eyebrows) performed during rest and task conditions on two metrics of signal quality control: an estimative of signal-to-noise performance and the negative correlation between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb). Channel-wise group analysis confirmed the robustness of the fNIRS technique to head nodding movements but showed a large effect of raising eyebrows in both signal quality control metrics, both during task and rest conditions. Reading aloud did not disrupt the expected anticorrelation between oxy-Hb and deoxy-Hb but had a relatively large effect on signal-to-noise performance. These findings may have implications to the interpretation of fNIRS studies examining communicative processes.

  19. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  20. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  1. Confirmatory analysis method for zeranol, its metabolites and related mycotoxins in urine by liquid chromatography-negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennekom, E.O. van; Brouwer, L.; Laurant, E.H.M.; Hooijerink, H.; Nielen, M.W.F

    2002-11-25

    The determination of the banned anabolic substance zeranol and the metabolites taleranol and zearalanone in bovine urine is complicated by the occurrence of the structurally-related mycotoxin zearalenone and the corresponding {alpha}- and {beta}-zearalenol metabolites which possess similar estrogenic properties. A liquid chromatography-negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometric method is presented for the confirmatory analysis of all six resorcylic acid lactones ('zeranols') in urine samples using deuterium-labelled internal standards. The method was validated as a confirmatory method for bovine urine samples according to new draft EU guidelines and showed good precision and linearity, and CC{alpha} and CC{beta} values of 0.02-0.30 and <1.0 ng ml{sup -1}, respectively. The applicability was demonstrated by comparing the results of an incurred sample with previous results on the same sample obtained by gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry. Preliminary data show that following a simple matrix solid phase dispersion clean-up, liver samples from poultry will be amenable to this method as well.

  2. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Sekiya, Manami; Hirata, Michiko; Ye, Mingjuan; Yamagishi, Azumi; Lee, Sang-Mi; Kang, Man-Jong; Hosoda, Akemi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Kim, Dong-Ho; Saeki, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    Wnt signaling pathways play fundamental roles in the differentiation, proliferation and functions of many cells as well as developmental, growth, and homeostatic processes in animals. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) 5 and LRP6 serve as coreceptors of Wnt proteins together with Frizzled receptors, triggering activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Here, we found that LRP10, a new member of the LDLR gene family, inhibits the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The β-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells was activated by transfection with Wnt3a or LRP6, which was then inhibited by co-transfection with LRP10. Deletion of the extracellular domain of LRP10 negated its inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of LRP10 was consistently conserved in HEK293 cells even when GSK3β phosphorylation was inhibited by incubation with lithium chloride and co-transfection with constitutively active S33Y-mutated β-catenin. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation was unaffected by LRP10. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may interfere with the formation of the β-catenin/TCF complex and/or its binding to target DNA in the nucleus, and that the extracellular domain of LRP10 is critical for inhibition of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  3. The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young-Hee; Sekiya, Manami; Hirata, Michiko; Ye, Mingjuan; Yamagishi, Azumi [Department of Molecular and Biochemical Nutrition, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Lee, Sang-Mi; Kang, Man-Jong [Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Hosoda, Akemi; Fukumura, Tomoe; Kim, Dong-Ho [Department of Molecular and Biochemical Nutrition, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Saeki, Shigeru, E-mail: saeki@life.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Biochemical Nutrition, Graduate School of Human Life Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2010-02-19

    Wnt signaling pathways play fundamental roles in the differentiation, proliferation and functions of many cells as well as developmental, growth, and homeostatic processes in animals. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR)-related protein (LRP) 5 and LRP6 serve as coreceptors of Wnt proteins together with Frizzled receptors, triggering activation of canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling. Here, we found that LRP10, a new member of the LDLR gene family, inhibits the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway. The {beta}-catenin/T cell factor (TCF) transcriptional activity in HEK293 cells was activated by transfection with Wnt3a or LRP6, which was then inhibited by co-transfection with LRP10. Deletion of the extracellular domain of LRP10 negated its inhibitory effect. The inhibitory effect of LRP10 was consistently conserved in HEK293 cells even when GSK3{beta} phosphorylation was inhibited by incubation with lithium chloride and co-transfection with constitutively active S33Y-mutated {beta}-catenin. Nuclear {beta}-catenin accumulation was unaffected by LRP10. The present studies suggest that LRP10 may interfere with the formation of the {beta}-catenin/TCF complex and/or its binding to target DNA in the nucleus, and that the extracellular domain of LRP10 is critical for inhibition of the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling pathway.

  4. Influence of negative affectivity and self-esteem on the oral health related quality of life in patients receiving oral rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the personality traits Negative Affectivity (NA) and self-esteem influenced the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in patients receiving oral rehabilitation. Methods OHRQoL was measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), NA with a short form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), and self-esteem with Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 66 patients treated with removable dental prosthesis (RDP). The minimally important difference (MID), effect size (ES), and standard error of the measurement (SEM) were used to clinically interpret the patient-reported effect. Results The OHIP-49 score was significantly higher and exceeded the MID pre- and post-treatment in participants with high EPI-Q and low RSES score compared to participants with low EPI-Q and high RSES score. The improvement in OHIP-49 score was significant and not limited by high EPI-Q and low RSES score. High EPI-Q score was associated high improvement in OHIP-49 score and the ES of the improvement in participants with high EPI-Q was large and exceeded the MID and SEM. Conclusion Treatment with RDP improves the OHRQoL regardless of level of NA and self-esteem. High NA is associated with a large effect, but both high NA and low self-esteem is associated with poorer OHRQoL both before and after treatment. PMID:24156271

  5. Influence of negative affectivity and self-esteem on the oral health related quality of life in patients receiving oral rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özhayat, Esben Boeskov

    2013-10-24

    The aim of this study was to investigate if and how the personality traits Negative Affectivity (NA) and self-esteem influenced the Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in patients receiving oral rehabilitation. OHRQoL was measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), NA with a short form of the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), and self-esteem with Rosenbergs Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 66 patients treated with removable dental prosthesis (RDP). The minimally important difference (MID), effect size (ES), and standard error of the measurement (SEM) were used to clinically interpret the patient-reported effect. The OHIP-49 score was significantly higher and exceeded the MID pre- and post-treatment in participants with high EPI-Q and low RSES score compared to participants with low EPI-Q and high RSES score. The improvement in OHIP-49 score was significant and not limited by high EPI-Q and low RSES score. High EPI-Q score was associated high improvement in OHIP-49 score and the ES of the improvement in participants with high EPI-Q was large and exceeded the MID and SEM. Treatment with RDP improves the OHRQoL regardless of level of NA and self-esteem. High NA is associated with a large effect, but both high NA and low self-esteem is associated with poorer OHRQoL both before and after treatment.

  6. Social anxiety disorder and quality of life: How fears of negative and positive evaluation relate to specific domains of life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryman, M Taylor; Gardner, Shani; Weeks, Justin W; Heimberg, Richard G

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) experience functional impairment in social, educational, and occupational arenas, contributing to poor quality of life. Previous research using the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) has identified four distinct domains of quality of life among individuals with SAD: Achievement, Personal Growth, Social Functioning, and Surroundings. The present study was designed to investigate how fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) relate to the four QOLI domains among individuals with SAD. We also examined the relationships of FNE and FPE to Satisfaction and Importance ratings on the QOLI. Individuals with SAD (N=129) completed a battery of questionnaires prior to initiating treatment. FNE and FPE showed distinct relationships with the four QOLI domains, even after controlling for demographic characteristics and comorbid depression. Both FNE and FPE were associated with ratings of Satisfaction with the QOLI domains, but neither was associated with ratings of Importance. Our findings highlight the differential impacts of FNE and FPE on SAD. Treatment implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduced temporal mismatch negativity in late-life depression: an event-related potential index of cognitive deficit and functional disability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naismith, Sharon L; Mowszowski, Loren; Ward, Philip B; Diamond, Keri; Paradise, Matthew; Kaur, Manreena; Lewis, Simon J G; Hickie, Ian B; Hermens, Daniel F

    2012-04-01

    Depression in older people has been consistently linked with a variety of neurobiological brain changes. One measure of preattentive auditory processing, the mismatch negativity (MMN), has not been previously examined in late-life depression. This study examined MMN elicited by duration deviant stimuli in older people with lifetime depression, and explored its relationship with neuropsychological functioning and disability. Twenty-two older health-seeking patients (mean age=65.2 years) with lifetime major depressive disorder and twelve age and sex-matched control participants (mean age=64.6 years) completed detailed clinical and neuropsychological assessments and the WHO-DAS as a measure of disability. MMN amplitudes were elicited using a two-tone passive auditory oddball paradigm and measured at frontal (Fz), central (Cz) and temporal (left and right mastoid: M1 and M2, respectively) sites. Patients with depression demonstrated reduced mean MMN amplitude at temporal (M1, t=3.1, pdisability. The contribution of depressive symptom 'state' and medications on MMN need to be considered. Reduced mean amplitudes of mastoid MMN in older patients with lifetime depression may reflect underlying brain changes. This preattentive marker relates to neuropsychological probes of frontotemporal circuits, and importantly, is associated with disability. Longitudinal analysis of MMN in this group will determine its predictive utility as a biomarker for ongoing cognitive decline and illness chronicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Examination of Alzheimer’s-related positive, negative and reactive pathology in the brainstem of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metaxas, Athanasios; Vaitheeswaran, Ramanan; Ilkjær, Laura

    , we examined AD-related pathology in the midbrain brainstem of the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mouse model of amyloidosis (APP/PS1). Methods: For positive lesions, fresh-frozen brainstem sections from female, 12 months old, transgenic and control mice (n=6/genotype) were stained for amyloid beta and tau, using 6E10......, and by measuring mRNA of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6. Results: There were no plaques and tangles in the brainstem of 12 months old transgenic animals. SERT binding levels and TPH2 immunoreactivity were reduced in APP/PS1 mice compared with control, while SERT mRNA was unchanged between...... genotypes. Intense microglial staining was observed in the brainstem of transgenic mice. TNFα mRNA levels were two-fold higher over control. No difference in IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA was observed between APP/PS1 and wild-type animals. Conclusions: These data indicate that negative and reactive lesions...

  9. Visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is elicited with para-foveal hemifield oddball stimulation: An event-related brain potential (ERP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) is a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP) that indicates the automatic processing and detection of changes in the visual sensory input. The study tested whether the vMMN was observable when the visual input is restricted to one visual hemifield and, with this, only para-foveal input to one of the two primary sensory cortices in the visual system is available for stimulus processing. The vMMN was elicited by the stimulation restricted to a small portion of the visual field. This demonstrates that in general vMMN elicitation is not confined to stimulations covering a broad range of the visual field or to the propagation of sensory information to both sensory visual cortices. In addition, the vMMN amplitudes showed a high variability between the different conditions, including non-significant vMMN amplitudes. This suggests that pronounced vMMNs observed in experimental settings relies on salient visual stimuli covering different channels of sensory information in vision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Moderating Effect of the Negative Impact of Recent Life Events on the Relation between Intrinsic Religiosity and Death Ideation in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Danielle R.; Poindexter, Erin K.; Graham, Ryan D.; Cukrowicz, Kelly C.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers tested the hypothesis that the negative impact of recent life events would moderate the relationship between intrinsic religiosity and death ideation in older adults. Participants (n = 272) completed assessments of death ideation, intrinsic religiosity, and negative impact of recent life events. We confirmed the presence of concurrent…

  11. Hopelessness and positive and negative future thinking in parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrew K; Tata, Philip; Tyrer, Peter; Schmidt, Ulrike; Davidson, Kate; Thompson, Simon

    2005-11-01

    Hopelessness about the future is a key element in suicidal behaviour. The aim of the present study was to examine possible components of hopelessness, in particular, to contrast positive and negative future thinking and to examine separately number, expectancy, and value of anticipated positive and negative future experiences. A correlational design. Repeat parasuicide patients (N = 441) were administered the Beck Hopelessness Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the future thinking task, a measure of future positive and negative thinking that assesses number, perceived likelihood, and perceived value of anticipated future positive and negative events. Consistent with predictions, hopelessness correlated more strongly with lack of positive thoughts about the future than it did with presence of negative thoughts. Both positive and negative future thinking showed a relationship to hopelessness over and above their relationships to depression (positive future thinking) and anxiety (negative future thinking). Number and likelihood of positive events and likelihood and value of negative events showed both simple and partial relationships to hopelessness. Number of negative events related to hopelessness but only after the other future thinking variables had been controlled for and value of positive events no longer related to hopelessness after controlling for the other variables. Hopelessness about the future in suicidal individuals is a multi-faceted construct but lack of positive future thinking is more important than presence of negative future thinking.

  12. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Haan L

    2012-11-01

    reported (2.6 for the previous year, including driving a car while intoxicated, taking foolish risks, or being injured or hurt, as compared with alcohol-related consequences when consuming alcohol only (4.9.Conclusion: Mixing alcohol with energy drinks decreases overall alcohol consumption, and decreases the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences.Keywords: alcohol, energy drinks, AMED, alcohol consumption, consequences

  13. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  14. When Negation and Epistemic Modality Combine: The Role of Information Strength in Child Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Vincenzo; Crain, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Negative sentences with epistemic modals (e.g., John "might" not come/John "can" not come) contain two logical operators, negation and the modal, which yields a potential semantic ambiguity depending on scope assignment. The two possible readings are in a subset/superset relation, such that the strong reading ("can…

  15. Quantum logic without negation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatrin, R.R. (Dept. of Mathematics, SPb UEF, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-05-01

    The algebraic tools based on generating semigroups are suggested to describe property lattices possessing the relation of exclusivity rather than the operation of negation. The reduction to standard situation of orthocomplemented and orthomodular lattices is described. As an example of non-orthocomplementable property lattice that of a hypothetical ''topologymeter'' is studied. (orig.)

  16. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  17. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  18. Negative permeability from random particle composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid

    2017-04-01

    Artificial media, such as those composed of periodically-spaced wires for negative permittivity and split ring resonators for negative permeability have been extensively investigated for negative refractive index (NRI) applications (Smith et al., 2004; Pendry et al., 1999) [1,2]. This paper presents an alternative method for producing negative permeability: granular (or particulate) composites incorporating magnetic fillers. Artificial media, such as split-ring resonators, are designed to produce a magnetic resonance feature, which results in negative permeability over a narrow frequency range about the resonance frequency. The position of the feature is dependent upon the size of the inclusion. The material in this case is anisotropic, such that the feature is only observable when the materials are orientated in a specific direction relative to the applied field. A similar resonance can be generated in magnetic granular (particulate) materials: ferromagnetic resonance from the natural spin resonance of particles. Although the theoretical resonance profiles in granular composites shows the permeability dipping to negative values, this is rarely observed experimentally due to resonance damping effects. Results are presented for iron in spherical form and in flake form, dispersed in insulating host matrices. The two particle shapes show different permeability performance, with the magnetic flakes producing a negative contribution. This is attributed to the stronger coupling with the magnetic field resulting from the high aspect ratio of the flakes. The accompanying ferromagnetic resonance is strong enough to overcome the effects of damping and produce negative permeability. The size of random particle composites is not dictated by the wavelength of the applied field, so the materials are potentially much thinner than other, more traditional artificial composites at microwave frequencies.

  19. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  20. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  1. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  2. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  3. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  4. On Various Negative Translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several proof translations of classical mathematics into intuitionistic mathematics have been proposed in the literature over the past century. These are normally referred to as negative translations or double-negation translations. Among those, the most commonly cited are translations due to Kolmogorov, Godel, Gentzen, Kuroda and Krivine (in chronological order. In this paper we propose a framework for explaining how these different translations are related to each other. More precisely, we define a notion of a (modular simplification starting from Kolmogorov translation, which leads to a partial order between different negative translations. In this derived ordering, Kuroda and Krivine are minimal elements. Two new minimal translations are introduced, with Godel and Gentzen translations sitting in between Kolmogorov and one of these new translations.

  5. Negative ion sourcery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, C.F.A. van.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is involved by current research programs in the field of nuclear-fusion. A brief introduction to fusion is given, anticipated problems related to current drive of the fusion plasma are pinpointed and probable suggestions to overcome these problems are described. One probable means for current drive is highlighted; Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). This is based on injecting a 1 MeV neutral hydrogen or deuterium beam into a fusion plasma. Negative ions are needed as primary particles because they can easily be neutralized at 1 MeV. The two current schemes for production of negative ions are described, volume production and negative surface ionization. The latter method is extensively studied in this thesis. (author). 171 refs.; 55 figs.; 7 tabs

  6. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men’s Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Megan R.; Lisco, Claire G.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Tharp, Andra T.

    2018-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men’s perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed. PMID:25389191

  7. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  8. <strong>Size and local democracystrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritzen, Poul Erik; Rose, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    The issue of the appropriate scale for local government has regularly appeared on the agenda of public sector reformers. In the empirical work devoted to this issue, the principal focus has been on the implications of size for efficiency in local service provision. Relatively less emphasis has been...... and investigated for each indicator in a successive, cumulative fashion employing a "funnel of causality" logic. The overall conclusion from these analyses is that the size of the local political system has a significant negative effect on the character of local democracy in about half of the models estimated...

  9. Influence of self-esteem and negative affectivity on oral health-related quality of life in patients with partial tooth loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özhayat, Esben B

    2013-10-01

    To meaningfully interpret oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measures, the influence of personality traits must be investigated. To investigate and quantify the influence of self-esteem and negative affectivity (NA) on OHRQoL. It was hypothesized that low self-esteem and high NA would be associated with worse OHRQoL. OHRQoL measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile 49 (OHIP-49), self-esteem measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), NA measured by the Eysenck Personality Inventory Questionnaire (EPI-Q), global oral rating of oral comfort and controlling variables (gender, age, number of teeth, experience of wearing removable dental prostheses (RDP), location of missing teeth and zone of missing teeth) were collected from 81 patients with partial tooth loss, signed in for treatment with RDP. Bivariate analyses showed that the EPI-Q score had the highest correlation with OHIP-49 score (R = 0.5). Both EPI-Q and RSES score had a stronger correlation with psychosocial items than physical/functional items of the OHIP-49. In the multivariate analyses, the controlling variables alone explained 17.75% of the variance in OHIP-49 score, while addition of EPI-Q score, RSES score and both EPI-Q and RSES score explained additionally 11.64%, 6.07% and 14.12%, respectively. For each unit increase in EPI-Q score, the OHIP-49 score increased 5.1 units and for each unit increase in RSES score, the OHIP-49 score decreased 1.1. NA was statistically and clinically significantly higher and self-esteem was statistically significantly lower in patients reporting worse oral comfort. NA had the strongest and most clinically meaningful influence, but both NA and self-esteem was found to influence OHRQoL; low self-esteem and high NA was associated with worse OHRQoL. This indicates the possibility to explain some of the impact of tooth loss on OHRQoL based on personality traits. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  11. The Relation between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training Is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; O'Brien, Kelly A.; Johnston, Charlotte; Jones, Heather A.; Clarke, Tana L.; Raggi, Veronica L.; Rooney, Mary E.; Diaz, Yamalis; Pian, Jessica; Seymour, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy…

  12. Advertising/public relations campaign to combat the negative economic impact caused by the nuclear mishap at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the Department of Commerce, conducted a media advertising campaign to offset the negative implications and effects of the Three Mile Island incident. The emphasis of the campaign has been directed toward a friendly, all-clear image for Pennsylvania. The travel industry of the entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the chief beneficiary of the proposed project

  13. Prevalence of molecular types and mecA gene carriage of coagulase-negative staphylococci in a neonatal intensive care unit : Relation to nosocomial septicemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kredriet, TG; Jones, ME; Janssen, K; Gerards, LJ; Fleer, A

    Molecular typing of isolates revealed that neonatal coagulase-negative staphylococcal (CONS) septicemia is most frequently caused by predominant, antibiotic-resistant CONS types, which are widely distributed among both neonates and staff of the neonatal unit, suggesting cross-contamination.

  14. Advertising/public relations campaign to combat the negative economic impact caused by the nuclear mishap at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, through the Department of Commerce, conducted a media advertising campaign to offset the negative implications and effects of the Three Mile Island incident. The emphasis of the campaign has been directed toward a friendly, all-clear image for Pennsylvania. The travel industry of the entire Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is the chief beneficiary of the proposed project.

  15. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  16. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  17. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  18. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  19. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  20. MC1R variation and melanoma risk in relation to host/clinical and environmental factors in CDKN2A positive and negative melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiorzo, Paola; Bonelli, Luigina; Pastorino, Lorenza; Bruno, William; Barile, Monica; Andreotti, Virginia; Nasti, Sabina; Battistuzzi, Linda; Grosso, Marco; Bianchi-Scarrà, Giovanna; Queirolo, Paola

    2012-09-01

    Host, environmental and genetic factors differently modulate cutaneous melanoma (CM) risk across populations. Currently, the main genetic risk determinants are germline mutations in the major known high-risk susceptibility genes, CDKN2A and CDK4, and variants of the low-risk gene MC1R, which is key in the pigmentation process. This case-control study aimed at investigating the influence of the main host and environmental risk factors and of MC1R variation on CM risk in 390 CDKN2A-negative and 49 CDKN2A-positive Italian individuals. Multivariate analysis showed that MC1R variation, number of nevi and childhood sunburns doubled CM risk in CDKN2A-negative individuals. In CDKN2A-positive individuals, family history of CM and presence of atypical nevi, rather than MC1R status, modified risk (20.75- and 2.83-fold, respectively). Occupational sun exposure increased CM risk (three to sixfold) in both CDKN2A-negative and CDKN2A-positive individuals, reflecting the occupational habits of the Ligurian population and the geographical position of Liguria. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS: activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Nima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006 shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS and their relationship to positive and negative affect.Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73 responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule.Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41 and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27.Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument.

  2. Positive and negative feedback loops in nutrient phytoplankton interactions related to climate dynamics factors in a shallow temperate estuary (Vistula Lagoon, southern Baltic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Marek; Kobos, Justyna; Nawrocka, Lidia; Parszuto, Katarzyna

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to demonstrate that factors associated with climate dynamics, such as temperature and wind, affect the ecosystem of the shallow Vistula Lagoon in the southern Baltic and cause nutrient forms phytoplankton interactions: the growth of biomass and constraints of it. This occurs through a network of direct and indirect relationships between environmental and phytoplankton factors, including interactions of positive and negative feedback loops. Path analysis supported by structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test hypotheses regarding the impact of climate factors on algal assemblages. Increased phytoplankton biomass was affected directly by water temperature and salinity, while the wind speed effect was indirect as it resulted in increased concentrations of suspended solids (SS) in the water column. Simultaneously, the concentration of SS in the water was positively correlated with particulate organic carbon (POC), particulate nitrogen (PN), and particulate phosphorus (PP), and was negatively correlated with the total nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio. Particulate forms of C, N, and phosphorus (P), concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and nitrate and nitrite nitrogen (NO3-N + NO2-N), and ratios of the total N:P and DIN:SRP, all indirectly effected Cyanobacteria C concentrations. These processes influence other phytoplankton groups (Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyceae and the picophytoplankton fraction). Increased levels of SRP associated with organic matter (POC), which stemmed from reduced DIN:SRP ratios, contributed to increased Cyanoprokaryota and picophytoplankton C concentrations, which created a positive feedback loop. However, a simultaneous reduction in the total N:P ratio could have inhibited increases in the biomass of these assemblages by limiting N, which likely formed a negative feedback loop. The study indicates that the nutrients-phytoplankton feedback loop phenomenon can intensify eutrophication in a temperate lagoon

  3. Negative supervisionsoplevelser og deres konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    in evaluation. First part of the paper explores negative experience in supervision in general. The second part, focusing on negative experience in supervision caused by evaluation, is explored and discussed in relation to the key concept of supervisory alliance (Bordin, 1983), perceiving evaluation...

  4. Predisposition of cows to mastitis in non-infected mammary glands: effects of dietary-induced negative energy balance during mid-lactation on immune-related genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Drackley, James K; Morin, Dawn E

    2011-01-01

    requirements, and cows fed PEB cows were fed the same diet ad libitum. At 5 days after feed restriction, one rear mammary gland from all cows was biopsied for RNA extraction and transcript profiling using microarray and quantitative PCR. Energy balance (NEB vs. PEB) resulted in 278 differentially expressed......Cows experiencing severe postpartal negative energy balance (NEB) are at greater risk of developing mastitis than cows in positive energy balance (PEB). Our objectives were to compare mammary tissue gene expression profiles between lactating cows (n = 5/treatment) subjected to feed restriction...

  5. The Dark Side of Strongly Coupled Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of dark matter search experiments on the different candidates emerging from the minimal quasi-conformal strong coupling theory with fermions in the adjoint representation. For one candidate, the current limits of CDMS exclude a tiny window of masses around 120 GeV. We...... also investigate under what circumstances the newly proposed candidate composed of a -2 negatively charged particle and a $^4He^{+2}$ can explain the discrepancy between the results of the CDMS and DAMA experiments. We found that this type of dark matter should give negative results in CDMS, while...

  6. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  7. Strong field laser physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Since the invention of the laser in the 1960s, people have strived to reach higher intensities and shorter pulse durations. High intensities and ultrashort pulse durations are intimately related. Recent developments have shown that high intensity lasers also open the way to realize pulses with the shortest durations to date, giving birth to the field of attosecond science (1 asec = 10-18s). This book is about high-intensity lasers and their applications. The goal is to give an up to date introduction to the technology behind these laser systems and to the broad range of intense laser applications. These applications include AMO (atomic molecular and optical) physics, x-ray science, attosecond science, plasma physics and particle acceleration, condensed matter science and laser micromachining, and finally even high-energy physics.

  8. Negative ions of polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, LG.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general concepts relating to, and recent advances in, the study of negative ions of polyatomic molecules are discussed with emphasis on halocarbons. The topics dealt with in the paper are as follows: basic electron attachment processes, modes of electron capture by molecules, short-lived transient negative ions, dissociative electron attachment to ground-state molecules and to hot molecules (effects of temperature on electron attachment), parent negative ions, effect of density, nature, and state of the medium on electron attachment, electron attachment to electronically excited molecules, the binding of attached electrons to molecules (electron affinity), and the basic and the applied significance of negative-ion studies

  9. Negative thermal expansion near two structural quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhialini, Connor A.; Handunkanda, Sahan U.; Said, Ayman; Trivedi, Sudhir; Guzmán-Verri, G. G.; Hancock, Jason N.

    2017-12-01

    Recent experimental work has revealed that the unusually strong, isotropic structural negative thermal expansion in cubic perovskite ionic insulator ScF3 occurs in excited states above a ground state tuned very near a structural quantum phase transition, posing a question of fundamental interest as to whether this special circumstance is related to the anomalous behavior. To test this hypothesis, we report an elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering study of a second system Hg2I2 also tuned near a structural quantum phase transition while retaining stoichiometric composition and high crystallinity. We find similar behavior and significant negative thermal expansion below 100 K for dimensions along the body-centered-tetragonal c axis, bolstering the connection between negative thermal expansion and zero-temperature structural transitions. We identify the common traits between these systems and propose a set of materials design principles that can guide discovery of new materials exhibiting negative thermal expansion.

  10. Negative thermal expansion near two structural quantum phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Occhialini, Connor A.; Handunkanda, Sahan U.; Said, Ayman; Trivedi, Sudhir; Guzmán-Verri, G. G.; Hancock, Jason N.

    2017-12-01

    Recent experimental work has revealed that the unusually strong, isotropic structural negative thermal expansion in cubic perovskite ionic insulator ScF3 occurs in excited states above a ground state tuned very near a structural quantum phase transition, posing a question of fundamental interest as to whether this special circumstance is related to the anomalous behavior. To test this hypothesis, we report an elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering study of a second system Hg2I2 also tuned near a structural quantum phase transition while retaining stoichiometric composition and high crystallinity. We find similar behavior and significant negative thermal expansion below 100 K for dimensions along the body-centered-tetragonal c axis, bolstering the connection between negative thermal expansion and zero-temperature structural transitions.We identify the common traits between these systems and propose a set of materials design principles that can guide discovery of newmaterials exhibiting negative thermal expansion

  11. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

  12. Atomica ionization by strong coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.

    1979-07-01

    The relation among the three most frequently used non-perturbative methods proposed to study the ionization of atoms by strong electromagnetic fields is established. Their range of validity is also determined. (Author) [pt

  13. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  14. Negative differential electrical resistance of a rotational organic nanomotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatef Sadeghi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A robust, nanoelectromechanical switch is proposed based upon an asymmetric pendant moiety anchored to an organic backbone between two C60 fullerenes, which in turn are connected to gold electrodes. Ab initio density functional calculations are used to demonstrate that an electric field induces rotation of the pendant group, leading to a nonlinear current–voltage relation. The nonlinearity is strong enough to lead to negative differential resistance at modest source–drain voltages.

  15. Confirmatory analysis method for zeranol, its metabolites and related mycotoxins in urine by liquid chromatography-negative ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennekom, van E.O.; Brouwer, L.; Laurant, E.H.M.; Hooijerink, H.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2002-01-01

    The determination of the banned anabolic substance zeranol and the metabolites taleranol and zearalanone in bovine urine is complicated by the occurrence of the structurally-related mycotoxin zearalenone and the corresponding - and -zearalenol metabolites which possess similar estrogenic properties.

  16. Negative affect is related to reduced differential neural responses to social and non-social stimuli in 5-to-8-month-old infants: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kant, Anne; Biro, Szilvia; Levelt, Claartje; Huijbregts, Stephan

    2017-12-14

    Both social perception and temperament in young infants have been related to social functioning later in life. Previous functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) data (Lloyd-Fox et al., 2009) showed larger blood-oxygenation changes for social compared to non-social stimuli in the posterior temporal cortex of five-month-old infants. We sought to replicate and extend these findings by using fNIRS to study the neural basis of social perception in relation to infant temperament (Negative Affect) in 37 five-to-eight-month-old infants. Infants watched short videos displaying either hand and facial movements of female actors (social dynamic condition) or moving toys and machinery (non-social dynamic condition), while fNIRS data were collected over temporal brain regions. Negative Affect was measured using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire. Results showed significantly larger blood-oxygenation changes in the right posterior-temporal region in the social compared to the non-social condition. Furthermore, this differential activation was smaller in infants showing higher Negative Affect. Our results replicate those of Lloyd-Fox et al. and confirmed that five-to-eight-month-old infants show cortical specialization for social perception. Furthermore, the decreased cortical sensitivity to social stimuli in infants showing high Negative Affect may be an early biomarker for later difficulties in social interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  18. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori-Negative, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Related Peptic Ulcer Disease in Patients Referred to Afzalipour Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Mirzaei, Seyed Mahdi; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Shafiei Pour, Sara

    2015-10-01

    BACKGROUND Although Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the main causes of peptic ulcers disease (PUD), recently the prevalence of idiopathic peptic ulcer (IPU) is increasing in most parts of the world. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of IPU in Kerman, the center of largest province in south-east Iran. METHODS We included 215 patients with peptic ulcer in our study. Combined methods rapid urease test (RUT), histology, and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on endoscopic samples of peptic ulcers. NSAID use was determined by medical history. SPSS software version 16 was used for data analysis. p valuepeptic ulcer, four (1.8%) had H.pylorinegative and NSAID-negative PUD. There were not significant differences between patients with IPU and patients with peptic ulcer associated with H.pylori or NSAIDs regarding the sex, age, cigarette smoking, and opioid abuse. CONCLUSION Our study showed that in contrast to other reports from western and some Asian countries, the prevalence of IPU is low in Kerman and H.pylori infection is still the major cause of PUD. We recommend a large and multi-central study to determine the prevalence of IPU in Iran.

  19. A G-protein β subunit, AGB1, negatively regulates the ABA response and drought tolerance by down-regulating AtMPK6-related pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-bei Xu

    Full Text Available Heterotrimeric G-proteins are versatile regulators involved in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the function of G-proteins is primarily associated with ABA signaling. However, the downstream effectors and the molecular mechanisms in the ABA pathway remain largely unknown. In this study, an AGB1 mutant (agb1-2 was found to show enhanced drought tolerance, indicating that AGB1 might negatively regulate drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Data showed that AGB1 interacted with protein kinase AtMPK6 that was previously shown to phosphorylate AtVIP1, a transcription factor responding to ABA signaling. Our study found that transcript levels of three ABA responsive genes, AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 (downstream gene of AtVIP1, were significantly up-regulated in agb1-2 lines after ABA or drought treatments. Other ABA-responsive and drought-inducible genes, such as RD29A (downstream gene of AtMYB44, were also up-regulated in agb1-2 lines. Furthermore, overexpression of AtVIP1 resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA at seed germination and seedling stages, and significantly enhanced drought tolerance in transgenic plants. These results suggest that AGB1 was involved in the ABA signaling pathway and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis through down-regulating the AtMPK6, AtVIP1 and AtMYB44 cascade.

  20. Thinking outside a less intact box: thalamic dopamine D2 receptor densities are negatively related to psychometric creativity in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjan de Manzano

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic liability to schizophrenia. Scores on divergent thinking tests (Inventiveness battery, Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Test were correlated with regional D2 receptor densities, as measured by Positron Emission Tomography, and the radioligands [(11C]raclopride and [(11C]FLB 457. The results show a negative correlation between divergent thinking scores and D2 density in the thalamus, also when controlling for age and general cognitive ability. Hence, the results demonstrate that the D2 receptor system, and specifically thalamic function, is important for creative performance, and may be one crucial link between creativity and psychopathology. We suggest that decreased D2 receptor densities in the thalamus lower thalamic gating thresholds, thus increasing thalamocortical information flow. In healthy individuals, who do not suffer from the detrimental effects of psychiatric disease, this may increase performance on divergent thinking tests. In combination with the cognitive functions of higher order cortical networks, this could constitute a basis for the generative and selective processes that underlie real life creativity.

  1. Thinking outside a less intact box: thalamic dopamine D2 receptor densities are negatively related to psychometric creativity in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manzano, Orjan; Cervenka, Simon; Karabanov, Anke; Farde, Lars; Ullén, Fredrik

    2010-05-17

    Several lines of evidence support that dopaminergic neurotransmission plays a role in creative thought and behavior. Here, we investigated the relationship between creative ability and dopamine D2 receptor expression in healthy individuals, with a focus on regions where aberrations in dopaminergic function have previously been associated with psychotic symptoms and a genetic liability to schizophrenia. Scores on divergent thinking tests (Inventiveness battery, Berliner Intelligenz Struktur Test) were correlated with regional D2 receptor densities, as measured by Positron Emission Tomography, and the radioligands [(11)C]raclopride and [(11)C]FLB 457. The results show a negative correlation between divergent thinking scores and D2 density in the thalamus, also when controlling for age and general cognitive ability. Hence, the results demonstrate that the D2 receptor system, and specifically thalamic function, is important for creative performance, and may be one crucial link between creativity and psychopathology. We suggest that decreased D2 receptor densities in the thalamus lower thalamic gating thresholds, thus increasing thalamocortical information flow. In healthy individuals, who do not suffer from the detrimental effects of psychiatric disease, this may increase performance on divergent thinking tests. In combination with the cognitive functions of higher order cortical networks, this could constitute a basis for the generative and selective processes that underlie real life creativity.

  2. Intense negative heavy ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yoshiharu; Takagi, Akira; Ikegami, Kiyoshi; Ueno, Akira; Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    1990-08-01

    Negative ion sources based on plasma-surface interactions (BLAKE ion source) have been developed at KEK for producing negative heavy ions. The first negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-II) was developed by modifying the ordinary negative hydrogen ion source with converter (BLAKE-I) placed into the plasma. It generates various species of negative heavy ions with intense beam currents. For example, a more than 10 mA Au- ion beam was obtained from the ion source. Recently, the large scaled negative heavy ion source (BLAKE-III) has been developed and in the preliminary test experiment, more than 100 mA Cu- ion beam has been stably obtained with a 10% duty factor in pulsed operation. The BLAKE-II ion source was attached to the BNL 15 MV and Tsukuba University TANDEM accelerators and large current negative heavy ion beams were successfully accelerated in pulsed mode operation. Also, it was found that the space charge effect should be carefully considered for such a large current acceleration in a tandem accelerator, especially at the injection beam line and low energy end. In order to examine the negative ion formation process fundamentally, negative ion production probability related on sputtered particle velocity was measured and the results showed exponential dependence of the production probability on particle velocity as Norskov and Lindquist's theory predicted.

  3. A Slow Life History is Related to a Negative Attitude towards Cousin Marriages : A Study in Three Ethnic Groups in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Hoben, Ashley D.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about current attitudes towards cousin marriages. Using data from a rural population in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, the present research examined how life history was related to attitudes towards cousin marriages in various ethnic groups. Participants were 205 parents from three

  4. Metal Artifact Reduction Magnetic Resonance Imaging Around Arthroplasty Implants: The Negative Effect of Long Echo Trains on the Implant-Related Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neil M; de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Schon, Lew C; Fritz, Jan

    2017-05-01

    Long echo train length (ETL) is an often recommended but unproven technique to decrease metal artifacts on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Therefore, we quantitatively and qualitatively assessed the effects of ETL on metal artifact on MRI scans using a cobalt-chromium-containing arthroplasty implant system. Using a total ankle arthroplasty system implanted into a human cadaver ankle and a clinical 1.5 T MRI system, turbo spin echo (TSE) pulse sequences were acquired with ETL ranging from 3 to 23 and receiver bandwidth (BW) from 100 to 750 Hz/pixel, whereas effective echo time and spatial resolution were controlled. A compressed sensing slice encoding for metal artifact correction TSE prototype pulse sequence was used as reference standard. End points included the total implant-related artifact area and implant-related signal void areas. Two raters evaluated the overall image quality and preference across varying BW and ETL. Two-factor analysis of variance, Friedman test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson correlation were used. P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The total implant-related artifact area ranged from 0.119 for compressed sensing slice encoding for metal artifact correction (BW, 600 Hz/pixel; ETL, 3) to 0.265 for TSE (BW, 100 Hz/pixel; ETL, 23). Longer ETL significantly increases the total implant-related artifact area (P = 0.0004), whereas it decreased with increasing BW (P train length, but reduced with higher BW (P trains fail to reduce implant-related metal artifacts, but in fact cause degradation of image quality around the implant with resultant larger appearing total metal artifacts.

  5. Minimal HER1 and HER2 expressions in CHO and HEK-293 cells cause them appropriate negative cells for HERs-related studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar

    2013-11-01

    Conclusion: Our study provides a proven insight to HER1 and HER2 expression status in CHO, HEK-293, MDA-MB-468 and SKBR3 cells. Heterologous expression of HER1 and HER2 in cell lines is the first step in structural and functional studies. Since HER1 is not expressed in CHO and HEK-293 endogenously, these cells are ideal for HER receptor related studies.

  6. The Relations Between False Positive and Negative Screens and Smoking Cessation and Relapse in the National Lung Screening Trial: Implications for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Gorelick, Jeremy J; Sicks, JoRean D; Park, Elyse R; Graham, Amanda L; Abrams, David B; Gareen, Ilana F

    2016-01-01

    Lung screening is an opportunity for smoking cessation and relapse prevention, but smoking behaviors may differ across screening results. Changes in smoking were evaluated among 18 840 current and former smokers aged 55-74 scheduled to receive three annual lung screenings. Participants were randomized to low-dose computed tomography or single-view chest radiography in the American College of Radiology/National Lung Screening Trial. Outcome measures included point and sustained (6-month) abstinence and motivation to quit among smokers; and relapse among smokers who quit during follow-up, recent quitters (quit < 6 months), and long-term former smokers (quit ≥ 6 months). During five years of follow-up, annual point prevalence quit rates ranged from 11.6%-13.4%; 48% of current smokers reported a quit attempt and 7% of long-term former smokers relapsed. Any false positive screening result was associated with subsequent increased point (multivariable hazard ratio HR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13, 1.35) and sustained (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.43) abstinence among smokers. Recent quitters with ≥1 false positive screen were less likely to relapse (HR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.54, 0.96). Screening result was not associated with relapse among long-term former smokers or among baseline smokers who quit during follow-up. A false positive screen was associated with increased smoking cessation and less relapse among recent quitters. Consistently negative screens were not associated with greater relapse among long-term former smokers. Given the Affordable Care Act requires most health plans to cover smoking cessation and lung screening, the impact and cost-effectiveness of lung screening could be further enhanced with the addition of smoking cessation interventions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The impact of adolescent tobacco-related associative memory on smoking trajectory: an application of negative binomial regression to highly skewed longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Adrian B; Haynes, Michele A; Marlatt, G Alan

    2008-05-01

    Tobacco use is prevalent in adolescents and understanding factors that contribute to smoking uptake remains a critical public health priority. While there is now good support for the role of implicit (preconscious) cognitive processing in accounting for changes in drug use, these models have not been applied to tobacco use. Longitudinal analysis of smoking data presents unique problems, because these data are usually highly positively skewed (with excess zeros) and render conventional statistical tools (e.g., OLS regression) largely inappropriate. This study advanced the application of implicit memory theory to adolescent smoking by adopting statistical methods that do not rely on assumptions of normality, and produce robust estimates from data with correlated observations. The study examined the longitudinal association of implicit tobacco-related memory associations (TMAs) and smoking in 114 Australian high school students. Participants completed TMA tasks and behavioural checklists designed to obscure the tobacco-related focus of the study. Results showed that the TMA-smoking association remained significant when accounting for within-subject variability, and TMAs at Time 1 were modestly associated with smoking at Time 2 after accounting for within subject variability. Students with stronger preconscious smoking-related associations appear to be at greater risk of smoking. Strategies that target implicit TMAs may be an effective early intervention or prevention tool. The statistical method will be of use in future research on adolescent smoking, and for research on other behavioural distributions that are highly positively skewed.

  8. “So, it is about how negative it is?!” Understanding researcher/researched interactions as relations between intersectional social positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Qvotrup Jensen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that interactions in qualitative interviews and ethnography can be analyzed as relations between intersectional social positions. It draws attention to the importance of class and geographical location in such analysis. It further argues that such interactions work through typifications, that they have a power dimension and that they entail processes of identity formation. The identities being offered through these processes can, however, be negotiated or resisted. The article then analyses such interactions as they were experienced in two research projects the author participated in: His PhD project about young marginalized ethnic minority men, and the collective project INTERLOC which focused on the interplay between gender, class, ethnicity and ‘race’ in an underprivileged Danish suburb. It is demonstrated that relationality influences the assumptions research participants have about the researcher. It is also demonstrated that the research encounter entails powerful mechanism of identity formation. The informants, however, sometimes resist these processes resulting in blurred and unstable, sometimes antagonistic, power relations. It is finally argued that analyses of such interactions can provide central insight into the subject studied.

  9. Reading is for girls!? The negative impact of preschool teachers' traditional gender role attitudes on boys' reading related motivation and skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka eWolter

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available According to gender stereotypes, reading is for girls. In this study, we investigated the role of preschool teachers in transmitting such gendered expectations. We suggest that boys are less motivated to read in preschool, and less competent in reading one year later in primary school, if their preschool teacher holds a traditional gender role attitude than if the teacher has egalitarian beliefs. In 135 independent dyads of a female preschool teacher (N=135 and one boy (n=65 or one girl (n=70 we measured teacher's gender role attitude, child's reading related motivation as well as precursors of reading skills in preschool, and child's reading skills at the end of first grade in primary school. As expected, the more traditional preschool teachers' gender role attitude was, the weaker was boys' motivation to (learn to read while girls' motivation was unrelated to teachers' gender role attitude. In either gender, motivation in preschool predicted reading skills at the end of first grade.

  10. Factors related to positive and negative outcomes in psychiatric inpatients in a General Hospital Psychiatric Unit: a proposal for an outcomes index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO KARLING MORESCHI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background General Hospital Psychiatric Units have a fundamental importance in the mental health care systems. However, there is a lack of studies regarding the level of improvement of patients in this type of facility. Objective To assess factors related to good and poor outcomes in psychiatric inpatients using an index composed by clinical parameters easily measured. Methods Length of stay (LOS, Global Assessment of Functioning (variation and at discharge and Clinical Global Impression (severity and improvement were used to build a ten-point improvement index (I-Index. Records of psychiatric inpatients of a general hospital during an 18-month period were analyzed. Three groups (poor, intermediate and good outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate models according to clinical and sociodemographic variables. Results Two hundred and fifty patients were included, with a percentage in the groups with poor, regular and good outcomes of 16.4%, 59,6% and 24.0% respectively. Poor outcome at the discharge was associated mainly with lower education, transient disability, antipsychotics use, chief complaint “behavioral change/aggressiveness” and psychotic features. Multivariate analysis found a higher OR for diagnoses of “psychotic disorders” and “personality disorders” and others variables in relation to protective categories in the poor outcome group compared to the good outcome group. Discussion Our I-Index proved to be an indicator of that allows an easy and more comprehensive evaluation to assess outcomes of inpatients than just LOS. Different interventions addressed to conditions such as psychotic disorders and disruptive chief complaints are necessary.

  11. Numerical simulation of electric field enhancement at the contact of positive and negative streamers in relation to the problem of runaway electron generation in lightning and in long laboratory sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, Leonid; Bochkov, Evgenii

    2017-11-01

    The hypothetical mechanism of electric field amplification at contact of positive and negative streamers in a streamer corona up to magnitudes required for the generation of runaway electrons and secondary Bremsstrahlung in the x-ray range, observed in long spark discharges in the open atmosphere, is analyzed. The development of two streamers, moving towards each other in interelectrode gaps of the centimetre range, is numerically simulated at applied voltages from 73 to 250 kV. It is shown that the size of the domain with strong electric field, with intensity sufficient for the thermal electron runaway, is of 1–2 mm. The mean field intensity in this domain increases up to magnitudes of  ≈250–280 kV cm‑1. The maximum energy, to which electrons are capable of energizing in such field, is in the range of 20–70 keV. However, the electron energy is limited by an extremely small life-time of the strong field domain (less than 20 ps).

  12. Total and free testosterone concentrations are strongly influenced by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and diabetes-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Mousumi; Hampton, David; Newcombe, Robert G; Rees, D Aled

    2012-05-01

    Testosterone levels are commonly lowered in men with diabetes, but it is unclear how these relate to symptoms of hypogonadism and quality of life. We sought to investigate the relationship between testosterone levels, symptoms of androgen deficiency, erectile function and quality of life in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Cross-sectional study of 115 men with type 2 diabetes, 93 men with type 1 diabetes and 121 healthy controls. Total, bioavailable and free testosterone levels were measured or calculated by Vermuelen's formula. Quality of life and symptom scores were assessed by the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), androgen deficiency in the aging male (ADAM) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires. Forty-five and sixty-one per cent of men with type 2 diabetes had low total and calculated free testosterone (CFT) levels, respectively. Total testosterone (TT) levels were not lowered in men with type 1 diabetes, but 32% had low CFT. After adjustment for age and waist circumference, only CFT in men with type 2 diabetes (-0·037 nm, 95% CI -0·075 to -0·0003, P = 0.048) remained lowered compared with controls. CFT correlated weakly with ADAM (r = -0·26, 95% CI -0.42 to -0·08, P = 0·006), IIEF (r = 0.19, 95% CI 0.01-0.37, P = 0.042) and ADDQoL (r = 0.21, 95% CI 0·03 to 0·38, P = 0·022) scores in men with type 2, but not type 1 diabetes. Age exerted the predominant effect on erectile function in both groups, in a model incorporating age, testosterone level and complications. Testosterone levels are strongly affected by age and central obesity in men with type 1 and type 2 diabetes but correlate weakly with symptoms of androgen deficiency and erectile function. Testosterone levels do not appear to be a major determinant of quality of life in patients with diabetes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping: associations with working memory, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety/depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Charissa; Thigpen, Jennifer E; Dunn, Madeleine J; Watson, Kelly; Potts, Jennifer; Reising, Michelle M; Robinson, Kristen E; Rodriguez, Erin M; Roubinov, Danielle; Luecken, Linda; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relations of measures of cognitive reappraisal and secondary control coping with working memory abilities, positive and negative affect, and symptoms of anxiety and depression in young adults (N=124). Results indicate significant relations between working memory abilities and reports of secondary control coping and between reports of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal. Associations were also found between measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal and positive and negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, the findings suggest that reports of cognitive reappraisal may be more strongly predictive of positive affect whereas secondary control coping may be more strongly predictive of negative affect and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Overall, the results suggest that current measures of secondary control coping and cognitive reappraisal capture related but distinct constructs and suggest that the assessment of working memory may be more strongly related to secondary control coping in predicting individual differences in distress.

  14. Mechanisms for the Negative Effects of Internalized HIV-Related Stigma on Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Women: The Mediating Roles of Social Isolation and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Bulent; Smith, Whitney; Cohen, Mardge H; Wilson, Tracey E; Adimora, Adaora A; Merenstein, Daniel; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wentz, Eryka L; Foster, Antonina G; Metsch, Lisa; Tien, Phyllis C; Weiser, Sheri D; Turan, Janet M

    2016-06-01

    Internalization of HIV-related stigma may inhibit a person's ability to manage HIV disease through adherence to treatment regimens. Studies, mainly with white men, have suggested an association between internalized stigma and suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, there is a scarcity of research with women of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and on mediating mechanisms in the association between internalized stigma and ART adherence. The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) is a multicenter cohort study. Women living with HIV complete interviewer-administered questionnaires semiannually. Cross-sectional analyses for the current article included 1168 women on ART for whom data on medication adherence were available from their last study visit between April 2013 and March 2014, when the internalized stigma measure was initially introduced. The association between internalized stigma and self-reported suboptimal ART adherence was significant for those in racial/ethnic minority groups (AOR = 0.69, P = 0.009, 95% CI: 0.52 to 0.91), but not for non-Hispanic whites (AOR = 2.15, P = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.69 to 6.73). Depressive symptoms, loneliness, and low perceived social support mediated the association between internalized stigma and suboptimal adherence in the whole sample, as well as in the subsample of minority participants. In serial mediation models, internalized stigma predicted less-perceived social support (or higher loneliness), which in turn predicted more depressive symptoms, which in turn predicted suboptimal medication adherence. Findings suggest that interconnected psychosocial mechanisms affect ART adherence, and that improvements in adherence may require multifaceted interventions addressing both mental health and interpersonal factors, especially for minority women.

  15. Sentential Negation in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  16. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  17. Cross-Lagged Associations Between Adolescents' Depressive Symptoms and Negative Cognitive Style: The Role of Negative Life Event

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kindt, K.C.M.; Kleinjan, M.; Janssens, J.M.A.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has established that cognitive theory-based depression prevention programs aiming change in negative cognitive style in early adolescents do not have strong effects in universal settings. Although theories suggest that a negative cognitive style precedes depressive symptoms,

  18. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  19. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  20. Negative ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Junzo; Takagi, Toshinori

    1983-01-01

    Negative ion sources have been originally developed at the request of tandem electrostatic accelerators, and hundreds of nA to several μA negative ion current has been obtained so far for various elements. Recently, the development of large current hydrogen negative ion sources has been demanded from the standpoint of the heating by neutral particle beam injection in nuclear fusion reactors. On the other hand, the physical properties of negative ions are interesting in the thin film formation using ions. Anyway, it is the present status that the mechanism of negative ion action has not been so fully investigated as positive ions because the history of negative ion sources is short. In this report, the many mechanisms about the generation of negative ions proposed so far are described about negative ion generating mechanism, negative ion source plasma, and negative ion generation on metal surfaces. As a result, negative ion sources are roughly divided into two schemes, plasma extraction and secondary ion extraction, and the former is further classified into the PIG ion source and its variation and Duoplasmatron and its variation; while the latter into reflecting and sputtering types. In the second half of the report, the practical negative ion sources of each scheme are described. If the mechanism of negative ion generation will be investigated more in detail and the development will be continued under the unified know-how as negative ion sources in future, the development of negative ion sources with which large current can be obtained for any element is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Adjective metaphors evoke negative meanings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Previous metaphor studies have paid much attention to nominal metaphors and predicative metaphors, but little attention has been given to adjective metaphors. Although some studies have focused on adjective metaphors, they only examined differences in the acceptability of various types of adjective metaphors. This paper explores the cognitive effects evoked by adjective metaphors. Three psychological experiments revealed that (1 adjective metaphors, especially those modified by color adjectives, tend to evoke negative effect; (2 although the meanings of metaphors are basically affected by the meanings of their vehicles, when a vehicle has a neutral meaning, negative meanings are evoked most frequently for adjective metaphors compared to nominal and predicative metaphors; (3 negative meanings evoked by adjective metaphors are related to poeticness, and poetic metaphors evoke negative meanings more easily than less poetic metaphors. Our research sheds new light on studies of the use of metaphor, which is one of the most basic human cognitive abilities.

  2. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  3. [Positron emission tomography-computed tomography with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose in patients with recurrent differentiated thyroid carcinoma and negative radioiodine scan. Diagnostic performance and relation with tyroglobulin levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal Labrador, E; García Burillo, A; Castell-Conesa, J; Obiols Alfonso, G; Kisiel González, N; Barios Profitós, M; Aguadé-Bruix, S; Mesa Manteca, J

    2013-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG PET-CT scan and its relation to serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma with suspicion of persistence or recurrence of the disease and negative radioiodine scans. This is a retrospective analysis of 35 PET-CT studies in 25 patients (17 women, average age 48.8±15.2 years). The results were confirmed by histology or by ultrasonography and clinical follow-up. We analyzed the relationship between the diagnostic performance of the PET-CT scans and three levels of Tg: ≤2ng/ml; between 2 and 10 ng/ml, and >10ng/ml. We obtained 26 true-positives (TP), one false-positive (FP), 3 true-negatives (TN) and 5 false-negatives (FN). Of the 18 patients with PET-CTs classified as TP, 3 showed lesions at the post-thyroidectomy bed, 15 showed lymph node metastases and 5 were distant metastases. Sensitivity was 83.9% (95%CI: 69.3%-98.4%) and specificity was 75% (95%CI: 20%-100%). Regarding the three intervals of Tg, PET-CT scan showed TP rates of 37.5%, 83% and 100% in patients with Tg levels 10ng/ml, respectively. (18)F-FDG PET-CT demonstrates high diagnostic yield in local disease and distant lesions for the population of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma and persistence of the disease with negative radioiodine scans at Tg levels above 2ng/ml. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  4. Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Christine; Peters, Georg

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The definition of the heterogeneous group of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) is still based on diagnostic procedures that fulfill the clinical need to differentiate between Staphylococcus aureus and those staphylococci classified historically as being less or nonpathogenic. Due to patient- and procedure-related changes, CoNS now represent one of the major nosocomial pathogens, with S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus being the most significant species. They account substantially for foreign body-related infections and infections in preterm newborns. While S. saprophyticus has been associated with acute urethritis, S. lugdunensis has a unique status, in some aspects resembling S. aureus in causing infectious endocarditis. In addition to CoNS found as food-associated saprophytes, many other CoNS species colonize the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals and are less frequently involved in clinically manifested infections. This blurred gradation in terms of pathogenicity is reflected by species- and strain-specific virulence factors and the development of different host-defending strategies. Clearly, CoNS possess fewer virulence properties than S. aureus, with a respectively different disease spectrum. In this regard, host susceptibility is much more important. Therapeutically, CoNS are challenging due to the large proportion of methicillin-resistant strains and increasing numbers of isolates with less susceptibility to glycopeptides. PMID:25278577

  5. Increased suppression of negative and positive emotions in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beblo, Thomas; Fernando, Silvia; Klocke, Sabrina; Griepenstroh, Julia; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Driessen, Martin

    2012-12-10

    Patients with major depression (MDD) show increased suppression of negative emotions. Emotion suppression is related to depressive symptoms such as depressive mood and anhedonia. It is not clear whether MDD patients also suppress positive emotions. In the present study we aim to investigate suppression of both negative and positive emotions in MDD patients as well as the relation between emotion suppression and depressive symptoms. In addition, we suggest that emotion suppression might be associated with fear of emotions. 39 MDD patients and 41 matched healthy control subjects were investigated for emotion suppression and fear of emotions with the Emotion Acceptance Questionnaire (EAQ). In addition, we applied additional questionnaires to validate emotion suppression findings and to assess depressive symptoms. MDD patients reported increased suppression of both negative and positive emotions. Suppression of negative and positive emotions was related to depressive symptoms. Patients also reported more fear of emotions than healthy subjects and this fear was related to emotion suppression in both study samples. Due to the cross-sectional and correlational study design, causal directions between the variables tested cannot be stated. Fear of emotion might be one reason why MDD patients suppress emotions. With regard to positive emotions, our results strongly suggest that therapeutic approaches should not only encourage patients to participate in potentially enjoyable situations but that patients may also benefit from practicing the allowance of pleasant emotions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  7. Socially Anxious Smokers Experience Greater Negative Affect and Withdrawal during Self-Quit Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to po...

  8. [Negative symptoms and cerebral imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaladjian, A; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    A number of neuroanatomical and neurofonctional abnormalities have been evidenced by cerebral imaging studies in patients suffering from schizophrenia. Nevertheless, those specifically associated with the negative symptoms of this disease are still insufficiently known. This work is a review of selected studies that have assessed the brain correlates of negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Approaches using structural imaging have highlighted reduction of gray matter density or cortical thickness associated with negative symptoms, which is rather sparsely distributed within the frontal and temporal regions, localized nevertheless more particularly in the frontal medial and orbitofrontal areas, as well as the amygdalo-hippocampic complex. These deficits are concurrent with a loss of integrity of the principal paths of white matter tracts between frontal and limbic regions. On the other hand, neurofonctional abnormalities associated with negative symptoms involve especially the frontal areas and limbic striatum. A disturbed functioning within the fronto-striatal loops, related to a striatal dopaminergic deficit, may represent a potential explanatory hypothesis of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, as suggested by studies using Positron Emission Tomography on this topic or neuroimaging studies on the effects of antipsychotics. A better identification of the cerebral abnormalities associated with the negative dimension of schizophrenia, with regard to the lateralization of these abnormalities or to their changes during the course of the disease, could offer new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of this dimension which, until now, remains few responsive to conventional pharmacological treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  10. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  11. Positive and negative emotions underlie motivation for L2 learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D. MacIntyre

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of basic emotions in SLA has been underestimated in both research and pedagogy. The present article examines 10 positive emotions (joy, gratitude, serenity, interest, hope, pride, amusement, inspiration, awe, and love and 9 negative emotions (anger, contempt, disgust, embarrassment, guilt, hate, sadness, feeling scared, and being stressed. The emotions are correlated with core variables chosen from three well-known models of L2 motivation: Gardner’s integrative motive, Clément’s social-contextual model, and Dörnyei’s L2 self system. Respondents came from Italian secondary schools, and most participants were from monolingual Italian speaking homes. They described their motivation and emotion with respect to learning German in a region of Italy (South Tyrol that features high levels of contact between Italians and Germans. Results show that positive emotions are consistently and strongly correlated with motivation-related variables. Correlations involving negative emotions are weaker and less consistently implicated in motivation. The positivity ratio, that is, the relative prevalence of positive over negative emotion, showed strong correlations with all of the motivation constructs. Regression analysis supports the conclusion that a variety of emotions, not just one or two key ones, are implicated in L2 motivation processes in this high-contact context.

  12. Negative thermal expansion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)

  13. Some limit theorems for negatively associated random variables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zygmund strong law of large numbers for negatively associated sequences under the case where. {Xn,n ≥ 1} are uniformly dominated by a random variable X. The third result is to obtain a strong law for order statistics for a negatively associated ...

  14. Negative pressure pulmonary oedema after septoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Hombre, Alina M; Cuffini, Alejandro; Bonadeo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Negative pressure pulmonary oedema (NPPO) is an anaesthetic complication due to acute obstruction of the upper airway, whose main cause is laryngospasm. The pathophysiology involves a strong negative intrapleural pressure during inspiration against a closed glottis, which triggers excessive pressure in the pulmonary microvasculature. Although its diagnosis can be difficult, its recognition helps to minimise morbidity and mortality. This article presents a case of NPPO due to postextubation laryngospasm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  16. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  17. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  18. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  19. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  20. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  1. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  2. Iterative solutions of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive or strongly pseudocontractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1994-03-01

    Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space. Suppose T is a strongly pseudo-contractive map with open domain D(T) in E. Suppose further that T has a fixed point in D(T). Under various continuity assumptions on T it is proved that each of the Mann iteration process or the Ishikawa iteration method converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Related results deal with iterative solutions of nonlinear operator equations involving strongly accretive maps. Explicit error estimates are also provided. (author). 38 refs

  3. Negative thermal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera, G D; Bruno, J A O; Barron, T H K; Allan, N L

    2005-01-01

    There has been substantial renewed interest in negative thermal expansion following the discovery that cubic ZrW 2 O 8 contracts over a temperature range in excess of 1000 K. Substances of many different kinds show negative thermal expansion, especially at low temperatures. In this article we review the underlying thermodynamics, emphasizing the roles of thermal stress and elasticity. We also discuss vibrational and non-vibrational mechanisms operating on the atomic scale that are responsible for negative expansion, both isotropic and anisotropic, in a wide range of materials. (topical review)

  4. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  5. On generalized fuzzy strongly semiclosed sets in fuzzy topological spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Bedre Ozbakir

    2002-01-01

    semiclosed, generalized fuzzy almost-strongly semiclosed, generalized fuzzy strongly closed, and generalized fuzzy almost-strongly closed sets. In the light of these definitions, we also define some generalizations of fuzzy continuous functions and discuss the relations between these new classes of functions and other fuzzy continuous functions.

  6. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  7. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  8. Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Protiva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broadside-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole terminated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic single negative metamaterials are reported. The first material consists of unit cells in the form of a cube bearing on its faces six equal planar resonators with tetrahedral symmetry. In the second material, the planar resonators boxed into spherical plastic shells and randomly distributed in a hosting material compose a real 3D volumetric metamaterial with an isotropic response. In both cases the metamaterial shows negative permittivity or permeability, according to the type of resonators that are used. The experiments prove the isotropic behavior of the cells and of the metamaterial specimens.

  9. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  10. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  11. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  12. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  13. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  14. Can the higher risk of disability onset among older people who live alone be alleviated by strong social relations? A longitudinal study of non-disabled men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Avlund, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: to investigate if the increased risk of disability onset among older people who live alone could possibly be moderated by either high social participation or by being satisfied with the social relations. DESIGN AND METHODS: logistic regression models were tested using two waves in a study...... results were present concerning satisfaction with the social relations among men. There was no significant interaction for women. CONCLUSIONS: the study suggests that men who live alone can possibly alleviate their risk of disability onset by being socially active and by having access to satisfactory...

  15. Strong-Q-sequences and small d

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodounský, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 3 (2012), s. 2942-2946 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Katowice problem * strong-Q-sequence * dominating number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002222

  16. The strongly generalized double difference χ sequence spaces defined by a modulus - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Nagarajan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the strongly generalized difference sequence spaces of modulus function and is a non-negative four dimensional matrix of complex numbers and (pi(mn is a sequence of positive real numbers. We also give natural relationship between strongly generalized difference summable sequences with respect of modulus. We examine some topological properties of the above spaces and investigate some inclusion relations between these spaces.  

  17. NEGATION AFFIXES IN ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedy Subandowo -

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This research entitled "Negation Affixes in English". This study is aimed to describe the various negation affixes in English, morphological process, morphophonemic and meaning. The research data were taken from various sources of English grammar book, morphology, research journal and the book which relatees to the research. English grammar books used in this study are written by Otto Jesperson, Marcella Frank, Greenbaum and Geoffrey Leech.  The method used in this research is the descriptive-qualitative method. While the data collection techniques are performed by using jot-down method. And the results of analysis are presented in tabular form and descriptive method. The result of the research shows that English has six types of negative affixes which are categorized by the intensity of its appearance, such as dis-, in-, non-, un-, anti- and -less. Based on the function, negation affixes are divided into several categories such as adjectives, nouns, verbs, and adverbs. The morphophonemic affix in- has four allomorphs, they are in-, im-, il- and ir- . While the analysis revealed that negation affixes have some basic meanings, such as ‘not’, ‘without’, and ‘anti’.

  18. AMBIGUITY, NEGATION, AND C-COMMAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson Cavalcante de Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze negative scope ambiguity in sentences with cause, temporal and purpose adjuncts, in which negation can take scope either over the predicate or over the adjunct. I discuss Huang (1982, Takubo (1985 and Johnston’s (1994 analyses, which propose that the ambiguity is derived from different c-command relations between negation and adjunct, due to an optionality of adjunction to VP or IP. Against this view, I show a set of facts which are problematic for any analysis based only in c-command, i.e., several syntactic contexts where negation should c-command the adjunct, but where the ambiguity surprisingly still holds. Based on this, I argue that c-command is a necessary, but not sufficient condition to establish negative scope. And I suggest that the availability of predicate negation and adjunct negation results from an optionality of the operation of Labeling in adjunction, according Hornstein and Nunes (2008.

  19. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  20. Negative mood effects on craving to smoke in women versus men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Giedgowd, Grace E; Conklin, Cynthia A

    2013-02-01

    Negative mood situations increase craving to smoke, even in the absence of any tobacco deprivation (e.g. "stressors"). Individual differences in effects of negative mood situations on craving have received relatively little attention but may include variability between men and women. Across two separate within-subjects studies, we examined sex differences in craving (via the QSU-brief) as functions of brief smoking abstinence (versus satiation; Study 1) and acute induction of negative mood (versus neutral mood; Study 2). Subjective ratings of negative affect (via the Mood Form) were also assessed. In Study 1, we compared the effects of overnight (>12h) abstinence versus non-abstinence on craving and affect in adult male (n=63) and female (n=42) smokers. In Study 2, these responses to negative versus neutral mood induction (via pictorial slides and music) were examined in male (n=85) and female (n=78) satiated smokers. Results from each study were similar in showing that craving during the abstinence and negative mood induction conditions was greater in women than men, as hypothesized, although the sex difference in craving due to abstinence was only marginal after controlling for dependence. Craving was strongly associated with negative affect in both studies. These results suggest that very acute negative mood situations (e.g. just a few minutes in Study 2), and perhaps overnight abstinence, may increase craving to smoke to a greater extent in women relative to men. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.