WorldWideScience

Sample records for strongly incongruent sentences

  1. Higher language ability is related to angular gyrus activation increase during semantic processing, independent of sentence incongruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene eVan Ettinger-Veenstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task - which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency - employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that there is no evidence found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation.

  2. Strong systematicity through sensorimotor conceptual grounding: an unsupervised, developmental approach to connectionist sentence processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Peter A.; Watter, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Connectionist language modelling typically has difficulty with syntactic systematicity, or the ability to generalise language learning to untrained sentences. This work develops an unsupervised connectionist model of infant grammar learning. Following the semantic boostrapping hypothesis, the network distils word category using a developmentally plausible infant-scale database of grounded sensorimotor conceptual representations, as well as a biologically plausible semantic co-occurrence activation function. The network then uses this knowledge to acquire an early benchmark clausal grammar using correlational learning, and further acquires separate conceptual and grammatical category representations. The network displays strongly systematic behaviour indicative of the general acquisition of the combinatorial systematicity present in the grounded infant-scale language stream, outperforms previous contemporary models that contain primarily noun and verb word categories, and successfully generalises broadly to novel untrained sensorimotor grounded sentences composed of unfamiliar nouns and verbs. Limitations as well as implications to later grammar learning are discussed.

  3. Sentencing Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Melissa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Criminal justice stakeholders are strongly concerned with disparities in penalty outcomes. Disparities are problematic when they represent unfounded differences in sentences, an abuse of discretion, and/or potential discrimination based on sociodemographic characteristics. The Article presents an original empirical study that explores disparities in sentences at two levels: the individual case level and the regional level. More specifically, the study investigates upward departures in the United States’ federal sentencing system, which constitutes a guidelines-based structure. Upward departures carry unique consequences to individuals and their effects on the system as they lead to lengthier sentences, symbolically represent a dispute with the guidelines advice, and contribute to mass incarceration. Upward departures are discretionary to district courts and thus may lead to disparities in sentencing in which otherwise seemingly like offenders receive dissimilar sentences, in part because of the tendency of their assigned judges to depart upward (or not.

  4. On the Optimization of Sentence Imitation in Primary School English Teaching from the Perspective of Strong Memes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wang

    2017-01-01

    A sentence is an important unit in English language, and plays a crucial role in language teaching and learning as well. For many years, sentence teaching is always worth discussion in English teaching, because sentence imitation is very important for students' construction of logical discourse. This paper, based on memetics, proposes some certain…

  5. Rape sentencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    This handbook conducts an analysis of the sentences imposed for rape by Irish courts. Part I examines The People (DPP) v. WD [2007] IEHC 310 by outlining the salient points of the decision, in particular the separation of rape sentences into categories of punishments. The mitigating and aggravating...... factors are also laid out. Part II analyses recent sentences for rape since 2007. All reported Court of Criminal Appeal (CCA) cases post The People (DPP) v. WD are included as well as a survey of two years of Irish Times reports (covering the period November 2010 to November 2012)....

  6. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC Effects Reflect Controlled Rather than Automatic Mechanisms of Sentence Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kotchoubey

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared automatic and controlled cognitive processes that underlie event-related potentials (ERPs effects during speech perception. Sentences were presented to French native speakers, and the final word could be congruent or incongruent, and presented at one of four levels of degradation (using a modulation with pink noise: no degradation, mild degradation (2 levels, or strong degradation. We assumed that degradation impairs controlled more than automatic processes. The N400 and Late Positive Complex (LPC effects were defined as the differences between the corresponding wave amplitudes to incongruent words minus congruent words. Under mild degradation, where controlled sentence-level processing could still occur (as indicated by behavioral data, both N400 and LPC effects were delayed and the latter effect was reduced. Under strong degradation, where sentence processing was rather automatic (as indicated by behavioral data, no ERP effect remained. These results suggest that ERP effects elicited in complex contexts, such as sentences, reflect controlled rather than automatic mechanisms of speech processing. These results differ from the results of experiments that used word-pair or word-list paradigms.

  7. A Genome-Scale Investigation of Incongruence in Culicidae Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyu; Zhou, Xiaofan; Yang, Ding; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Comparison of individual gene trees in several recent phylogenomic studies from diverse lineages has revealed a surprising amount of topological conflict or incongruence, but we still know relatively little about its distribution across the tree of life. To further our understanding of incongruence, the factors that contribute to it and how it can be ameliorated, we examined its distribution in a clade of 20 Culicidae mosquito species through the reconstruction and analysis of the phylogenetic histories of 2,007 groups of orthologous genes. Levels of incongruence were generally low, the three exceptions being the internodes concerned with the branching of Anopheles christyi, with the branching of the subgenus Anopheles as well as the already reported incongruence within the Anopheles gambiae species complex. Two of these incongruence events (A. gambiae species complex and A. christyi) are likely due to biological factors, whereas the third (subgenus Anopheles) is likely due to analytical factors. Similar to previous studies, the use of genes or internodes with high bootstrap support or internode certainty values, both of which were positively correlated with gene alignment length, substantially reduced the observed incongruence. However, the clade support values of the internodes concerned with the branching of the subgenus Anopheles as well as within the A. gambiae species complex remained very low. Based on these results, we infer that the prevalence of incongruence in Culicidae mosquitoes is generally low, that it likely stems from both analytical and biological factors, and that it can be ameliorated through the selection of genes with strong phylogenetic signal. More generally, selection of genes with strong phylogenetic signal may be a general empirical solution for reducing incongruence and increasing the robustness of inference in phylogenomic studies. PMID:26608059

  8. Sentence pitch change detection in the native and unfamiliar language in musicians and non-musicians: behavioral, electrophysiological and psychoacoustic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguchi, Chizuru; Boureux, Magali; Sarlo, Michela; Besson, Mireille; Grassi, Massimo; Schön, Daniele; Colombo, Lucia

    2012-05-21

    Previous ERP studies have shown that musicians detect a pitch change in spoken sentences better than non-musicians in both native (French, Schön et al., 2004) and unfamiliar (Portuguese, Marques et al., 2007) language. The aim of the present study was to further investigate differences between musicians and non-musicians in processing pitch changes in spoken sentences. To study the effects of familiarity of intonational contour and of the presence of meaningful context, behavioral and electrophysiological data from Italian musicians and non-musicians were compared in a pitch incongruity detection task using sentences in the native (Italian) and foreign (French) language and in jabberwocky (meaningless sentences formed by pseudowords). Moreover, to examine whether these differences depend on enhanced auditory sensitivity to pitch, the frequency discrimination threshold (FDT) for tones was obtained using a psychophysical procedure. Musicians were more accurate than non-musicians in detecting small pitch changes in all languages showing a smaller response bias, as well as much lower FDTs than non-musicians. The ERP data revealed shorter latencies of a late positivity over parietal sites in musicians than in non-musicians for weak and strong incongruities. Overall results confirmed musicians' advantage in detection of subtle pitch changes not only with tones but also with speech sentences in both native and unfamiliar languages. Such effect appears to emerge from more efficient pitch analysis trained by musical experience. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, G.J.; Tong, F.; Hagoort, P.; van Ee, R.

    2009-01-01

    We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability

  10. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  11. Signal Incongruence and its Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergne, Jean-Philippe; Wernicke, Maria Stokholm; Brenner, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    We draw on the signaling and infomediary literatures to examine how media evaluations of CEO overcompensation (a negative cue associated with selfishness and greed) are affected by the presence of corporate philanthropy (a positive cue associated with altruism and generosity). In line with our th...... and damage media evaluations of firms and CEOs. Taken together, these findings shed new light on the media as agents of external corporate governance for firms and open new avenues for research on executive compensation.......We draw on the signaling and infomediary literatures to examine how media evaluations of CEO overcompensation (a negative cue associated with selfishness and greed) are affected by the presence of corporate philanthropy (a positive cue associated with altruism and generosity). In line with our...... incongruence, and to infomediary and corporate governance research by showing that media disapproval can lead to lower executive compensation. We also reconcile two conflicting views on firm prosocial behavior by showing that, in the presence of incongruent cues, philanthropy can simultaneously enhance...

  12. Rules and heuristics during sentence comprehension: evidence from a dual-task brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Loeches, Manuel; Schacht, Annekathrin; Casado, Pilar; Hohlfeld, Annette; Abdel Rahman, Rasha; Sommer, Werner

    2009-07-01

    Whether syntactic and semantic processes during sentence comprehension follow strict sets of rules or succumb to context-dependent heuristics was studied by recording event-related potentials in a dual-task design. In one condition, sentence-extraneous acoustic material was either semantically congruent or incongruent relative to an adjective in the visually presented sentence, the latter being either semantically correct or incorrect within the sentence context. Homologous syntactic (gender) manipulations were performed in another condition. Syntactic processing within the sentence appeared to be blind to the syntactic content of the second task. In contrast, semantically incongruous material of the second task induced fluctuations typically associated with the detection of within-sentence semantic anomalies (N400) even in semantically correct sentences. Subtle but extant differences in topography between this N400 and that obtained with within-sentence semantic violations add to recent proposals of separate semantic subsystems differing in their specificity for sentence structure and computational procedures. Semantically incongruous material of the second task also influenced later stages of the processing of semantically incorrect adjectives (P600 component), which are traditionally assumed to pertain to the syntactic domain. This result is discussed in the light of current proposals of a third combinatorial stream in sentence comprehension.

  13. Priming sentence planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopka, A.E.; Meyer, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Sentence production requires mapping preverbal messages onto linguistic structures. Because sentences are normally built incrementally, the information encoded in a sentence-initial increment is critical for explaining how the mapping process starts and for predicting its timecourse. Two experiments

  14. Perceptual incongruence influences bistability and cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Joost Brouwer

    Full Text Available We employed a parametric psychophysical design in combination with functional imaging to examine the influence of metric changes in perceptual incongruence on perceptual alternation rates and cortical responses. Subjects viewed a bistable stimulus defined by incongruent depth cues; bistability resulted from incongruence between binocular disparity and monocular perspective cues that specify different slants (slant rivalry. Psychophysical results revealed that perceptual alternation rates were positively correlated with the degree of perceived incongruence. Functional imaging revealed systematic increases in activity that paralleled the psychophysical results within anterior intraparietal sulcus, prior to the onset of perceptual alternations. We suggest that this cortical activity predicts the frequency of subsequent alternations, implying a putative causal role for these areas in initiating bistable perception. In contrast, areas implicated in form and depth processing (LOC and V3A were sensitive to the degree of slant, but failed to show increases in activity when these cues were in conflict.

  15. LANGUAGE, MEMORY, AND AGING - AN ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF THE N400 DURING READING OF MEMORY-DEMANDING SENTENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GUNTER, TC; JACKSON, JL; MULDER, G

    Twenty-four young and 24 middle-aged academics carried out a language recognition task in which sentences were presented that made either a high or a low demand on working memory (WM). The sentences ended either normally (i.e., congruent) or with an incongruous word. Middle-aged subjects had smaller

  16. Early neuronal responses in right limbic structures mediate harmony incongruity processing in musical experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Clara E; Britz, Juliane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauert, Claude-Alain; Michel, Christoph M

    2008-10-01

    In western tonal music, musical phrases end with an explicit harmonic consequent which is highly expected. As such expectation is a consequence of musical background, cerebral processing of incongruities of musical grammar might be a function of expertise. We hypothesized that a subtle incongruity of standard closure should evoke a profound and rapid reaction in an expert's brain. If such a reaction is due to neuroplasticity as a consequence of musical training, it should be correlated with distinctive activations in sensory, motor and/or cognitive function related brain areas in response to the incongruent closure. Using event related potential (ERP) source imaging, we determined the temporal dynamics of neuronal activity in highly trained pianists and musical laymen in response to syntactic harmonic incongruities in expressive music, which were easily detected by the experts but not by the laymen. Our results revealed that closure incongruity evokes a selective early response in musical experts, characterized by a strong, right lateralized negative ERP component. Statistical source analysis could demonstrate putative contribution to the generation of this component in right temporal-limbic areas, encompassing hippocampal complex and amygdala, and in right insula. Its early onset (approximately 200 ms) preceded responses in frontal areas that may reflect more conscious processing. These results go beyond previous work demonstrating that musical training can change activity of sensory and motor areas during musical or audio-motor tasks, and suggest that functional plasticity in right medial-temporal structures and insula also modulates processing of subtle harmonic incongruities.

  17. Electrophysiology of prosodic and lexical-semantic processing during sentence comprehension in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Shannon M; Love, Tracy; Midgley, Katherine J; Holcomb, Phillip J; Shapiro, Lewis P

    2017-12-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine how individuals with aphasia and a group of age-matched controls use prosody and themattic fit information in sentences containing temporary syntactic ambiguities. Two groups of individuals with aphasia were investigated; those demonstrating relatively good sentence comprehension whose primary language difficulty is anomia (Individuals with Anomic Aphasia (IWAA)), and those who demonstrate impaired sentence comprehension whose primary diagnosis is Broca's aphasia (Individuals with Broca's Aphasia (IWBA)). The stimuli had early closure syntactic structure and contained a temporary early closure (correct)/late closure (incorrect) syntactic ambiguity. The prosody was manipulated to either be congruent or incongruent, and the temporarily ambiguous NP was also manipulated to either be a plausible or an implausible continuation for the subordinate verb (e.g., "While the band played the song/the beer pleased all the customers."). It was hypothesized that an implausible NP in sentences with incongruent prosody may provide the parser with a plausibility cue that could be used to predict syntactic structure. The results revealed that incongruent prosody paired with a plausibility cue resulted in an N400-P600 complex at the implausible NP (the beer) in both the controls and the IWAAs, yet incongruent prosody without a plausibility cue resulted in an N400-P600 at the critical verb (pleased) only in healthy controls. IWBAs did not show evidence of N400 or P600 effects at the ambiguous NP or critical verb, although they did show evidence of a delayed N400 effect at the sentence-final word in sentences with incongruent prosody. These results suggest that IWAAs have difficulty integrating prosodic cues with underlying syntactic structure when lexical-semantic information is not available to aid their parse. IWBAs have difficulty integrating both prosodic and lexical-semantic cues with syntactic structure, likely due to a

  18. Adaptive Sentence Boundary Disambiguation

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, David D.; Hearst, Marti A.

    1994-01-01

    Labeling of sentence boundaries is a necessary prerequisite for many natural language processing tasks, including part-of-speech tagging and sentence alignment. End-of-sentence punctuation marks are ambiguous; to disambiguate them most systems use brittle, special-purpose regular expression grammars and exception rules. As an alternative, we have developed an efficient, trainable algorithm that uses a lexicon with part-of-speech probabilities and a feed-forward neural network. After training ...

  19. Defendant remorse, need for affect, and juror sentencing decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Emily P; Cramer, Robert J; Griffin, Desiree A; Brodsky, Stanley L

    2012-01-01

    Defendant remorse is generally accepted as a mitigating factor in capital murder sentencing in the legal system. The current study addressed whether verbal and nonverbal expressions of defendant remorse are perceived as remorseful by mock jurors. Moreover, this study investigated the associations of defendant behaviors and mock juror need for affect on sentencing decisions. Participants watched a video of a defendant depicting either high or low levels of verbal and nonverbal remorseful behavior. Results indicated that nonverbal behaviors were more important than verbal cues for perception of remorse. Incongruent verbal and nonverbal behavior, as well as mock juror willingness to approach emotional situations (i.e., high need for affect (NFA)) resulted in more lenient sentences for defendants. Implications for the remorse construct, for witness preparation, and for jury selection are discussed.

  20. Modelling the incongruent dissolution of hydrated cement minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, U.R.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrated calciumsilicates are the main constituents of hydrated portland cements. Their chemistry will strongly influence the longterm behaviour of a concrete system envisioned in use in radioactive waste repositories. Experimental data show that hydrated calciumsilicates dissolve incongruently, depending on the calcium/silicon ratio of the solid. A model that simulates the incongruent dissolution behaviour of these hydrated calciumsilicates is presented. In the model the hydrated calciumcilicates are represented as a mixture of two congruently soluble components. The dissolution of the particular components is described using the concept of variable activities in the solid state. Each component's activity in the solid state is obtained from a large body of solubility data by applying the Gibbs-Duhem equation for nonideal mixtures. Using this approach a simplified set of equations, which describe the solubility of the components as a function of the calcium/silicon ratio of the solid, is derived. As an application, the degradation of a standard portland cement in pure water and in a carbonate-rich groundwater is modelled. (orig.)

  1. Sentence-Level Effects of Literary Genre: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohm, Stefan; Menninghaus, Winfried; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures to examine effects of genre awareness on sentence processing and evaluation. We hypothesized that genre awareness modulates effects of genre-typical manipulations. We manipulated instructions between participants, either specifying a genre (poetry) or not (neutral). Sentences contained genre-typical variations of semantic congruency (congruent/incongruent) and morpho-phonological features (archaic/contemporary inflections). Offline ratings of meaningfulness ( n = 64/group) showed higher average ratings for semantically incongruent sentences in the poetry vs. neutral condition. ERPs during sentence reading ( n = 24/group; RSVP presentation at a fixed per-constituent rate; probe task) showed a left-lateralized N400-like effect for contemporary vs. archaic inflections. Semantic congruency elicited a bilateral posterior N400 effect for incongruent vs. congruent continuations followed by a centro-parietal positivity (P600). While N400 amplitudes were insensitive to the genre, the latency of the P600 was delayed by the poetry instruction. From these results, we conclude that during real-time sentence comprehension, readers are sensitive to subtle morphological manipulations and the implicit prosodic differences that accompany them. By contrast, genre awareness affects later stages of comprehension.

  2. Sentence-Level Effects of Literary Genre: Behavioral and Electrophysiological Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Blohm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs and behavioral measures to examine effects of genre awareness on sentence processing and evaluation. We hypothesized that genre awareness modulates effects of genre-typical manipulations. We manipulated instructions between participants, either specifying a genre (poetry or not (neutral. Sentences contained genre-typical variations of semantic congruency (congruent/incongruent and morpho-phonological features (archaic/contemporary inflections. Offline ratings of meaningfulness (n = 64/group showed higher average ratings for semantically incongruent sentences in the poetry vs. neutral condition. ERPs during sentence reading (n = 24/group; RSVP presentation at a fixed per-constituent rate; probe task showed a left-lateralized N400-like effect for contemporary vs. archaic inflections. Semantic congruency elicited a bilateral posterior N400 effect for incongruent vs. congruent continuations followed by a centro-parietal positivity (P600. While N400 amplitudes were insensitive to the genre, the latency of the P600 was delayed by the poetry instruction. From these results, we conclude that during real-time sentence comprehension, readers are sensitive to subtle morphological manipulations and the implicit prosodic differences that accompany them. By contrast, genre awareness affects later stages of comprehension.

  3. The listener automatically uses spatial story representations from the speaker's cohesive gestures when processing subsequent sentences without gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Kazuki; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-09-01

    This study examined spatial story representations created by speaker's cohesive gestures. Participants were presented with three-sentence discourse with two protagonists. In the first and second sentences, gestures consistently located the two protagonists in the gesture space: one to the right and the other to the left. The third sentence (without gestures) referred to one of the protagonists, and the participants responded with one of the two keys to indicate the relevant protagonist. The response keys were either spatially congruent or incongruent with the gesturally established locations for the two participants. Though the cohesive gestures did not provide any clue for the correct response, they influenced performance: the reaction time in the congruent condition was faster than that in the incongruent condition. Thus, cohesive gestures automatically establish spatial story representations and the spatial story representations remain activated in a subsequent sentence without any gesture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Neuroimaging studies in people with gender incongruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; Guillamon, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The current review gives an overview of brain studies in transgender people. First, we describe studies into the aetiology of feelings of gender incongruence, primarily addressing the sexual differentiation hypothesis: does the brain of transgender individuals resemble that of their natal sex, or that of their experienced gender? Findings from neuroimaging studies focusing on brain structure suggest that the brain phenotypes of trans women (MtF) and trans men (FtM) differ in various ways from control men and women with feminine, masculine, demasculinized and defeminized features. The brain phenotypes of people with feelings of gender incongruence may help us to figure out whether sex differentiation of the brain is atypical in these individuals, and shed light on gender identity development. Task-related imaging studies may show whether brain activation and task performance in transgender people is sex-atypical. Second, we review studies that evaluate the effects of cross-sex hormone treatment on the brain. This type of research provides knowledge on how changes in sex hormone levels may affect brain structure and function.

  5. Predictive coding of music--brain responses to rhythmic incongruity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Ostergaard, Leif; Pallesen, Karen Johanne; Bailey, Christopher; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    During the last decades, models of music processing in the brain have mainly discussed the specificity of brain modules involved in processing different musical components. We argue that predictive coding offers an explanatory framework for functional integration in musical processing. Further, we provide empirical evidence for such a network in the analysis of event-related MEG-components to rhythmic incongruence in the context of strong metric anticipation. This is seen in a mismatch negativity (MMNm) and a subsequent P3am component, which have the properties of an error term and a subsequent evaluation in a predictive coding framework. There were both quantitative and qualitative differences in the evoked responses in expert jazz musicians compared with rhythmically unskilled non-musicians. We propose that these differences trace a functional adaptation and/or a genetic pre-disposition in experts which allows for a more precise rhythmic prediction.

  6. Sentence plausibility influences the link between action words and the perception of biological human movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Gimenes, Manuel; Toussaint, Lucette; Almecija, Yves; Badets, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to assess the role of sentence plausibility in the functional link between action words and visual judgments of point-light human actions. Following the oral presentation of action verbs included in a plausible or implausible sentence, participants were asked to detect the presence of congruent or incongruent biological movements. Sentence plausibility was manipulated by inverting the positions of the subject and the complement (e.g., the neighbor is running in the garden vs the garden is running in the neighbor). The results showed that for both plausible and implausible sentences, the detection of human movements is greater following presentation of congruent action verbs. These results suggest that the presentation of action verbs affects the subsequent perception of point-light human movements, regardless of the associated semantic context. However, the link between action verbs and judgment of biological movements is strengthened when plausible sentences are presented, as illustrated by the increase in visual detection capacity in plausible congruent conditions. Concerning the analysis of the detection speed, the performance is only affected in plausible sentences with slower response times associated with the presentation of an incongruent action verb. These findings are discussed in light of an embodied mechanism and the domain of biological movement perception.

  7. Incongruous consultation behaviour: results from a UK-wide population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Alison M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom characteristics are strong drivers of care seeking. Despite this, incongruous consultation behaviour occurs and has implications for both individuals and health-care services. The aim of this study was to determine how frequently incongruous consultation behaviour occurs, to examine whether it is more common for certain types of symptoms and to identify the factors associated with being an incongruous consulter. Methods An age and sex stratified random sample of 8,000 adults was drawn from twenty UK general practices. A postal questionnaire was used to collect detailed information on the presence and characteristics of 25 physical and psychological symptoms, actions taken to manage the symptoms, general health, attitudes to symptom management and demographic/socio-economic details. Two types of incongruous consultation behaviour were examined: i consultation with a GP for symptoms self-rated as low impact and ii no consultation with a GP for symptoms self-rated as high impact. Results A fifth of all symptoms experienced resulted in consultation behaviour which was incongruous based on respondents' own rating of the symptoms' impact. Low impact consultations were not common, although symptoms indicative of a potentially serious condition resulted in a higher proportion of low impact consultations. High impact non-consultations were more common, although there was no clear pattern in the type of associated symptoms. Just under half of those experiencing symptoms in the previous two weeks were categorised as an incongruous consulter (low impact consulter: 8.3%, high impact non-consulter: 37.1%. Employment status, having a chronic condition, poor health, and feeling that reassurance or advice from a health professional is important were associated with being a low impact consulter. Younger age, employment status, being an ex-smoker, poor health and feeling that not wasting the GPs time is important were associated with

  8. [Psychiatric treatment sentences.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Hanne; Nordentoft, Merete; Agerbo, Esben

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous Danish studies of the increasing number of sentences to psychiatric treatment (SPT) have compared prevalent populations of persons undergoing treatment with incident measures of reported crimes. Examining the period 1990-2006, we studied incident sentences, taking the type...... and severity of crime into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using data from Statistics Denmark's national crime statistics, we have compared time-trends of SPT with time-trends of suspended and custodial sentences stratified by type of crime. RESULTS: We found that the rise in SPT is primarily attributable...... to more confrontations and changes in practices, e.g., for reporting violence against staff. However, if a civil person is the victim of a violent offence, the probability of the perpetrator being a psychiatric patient is small and has remained virtually unchanged since 1990. Udgivelsesdato: 2010-Aug-30...

  9. Sentencing Multiple Crimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Julian V.

    Most people assume that criminal offenders have only been convicted of a single crime. However, in reality almost half of offenders stand to be sentenced for more than one crime.The high proportion of multiple crime offenders poses a number of practical and theoretical challenges for the criminal......, and psychology offer their perspectives to the volume. A comprehensive examination of the dynamics involved with sentencing multiple offenders has the potential to be a powerful tool for legal scholars and professionals, particularly given the practical importance of the topic and the relative dearth of research...

  10. Sentence Level Information Patterns for Novelty Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    .... Given a user's information need, some information patterns in sentences such as combinations of query words, sentence lengths, named entities and phrases, and other sentence patterns, may contain...

  11. A sentence to remember: instructed language switching in sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, Mathieu; Philipp, Andrea M

    2015-04-01

    In the current study, we set out to investigate the influence of a sentence context on language switching. The task required German-English bilinguals to produce responses based on an alternating language sequence (L1-L1-L2-L2- …) and concepts in a specific sequential order. The concept sequence was either a sentence which was syntactically correct in both languages (language-unspecific sentence), a sentence which was correct in just one language (language-specific sentence) or a sentence which was syntactically incorrect in both languages (scrambled sentence). No switch costs were observed in language-unspecific sentences. Consequently, switch costs were smaller in those sentences than in the language-specific or scrambled sentences. The language-specific and scrambled sentence did not differ with respect to switch costs. These results demonstrate an important role of sentence context for language switch costs and were interpreted in terms of language interference and preparation processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving Sentence Writing Ability through Sentence-Combining Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddler, Bruce; Preschern, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Creating well constructed sentences is challenging for most writers. For less skilled writers, including writers with learning disabilities (LD), it can be even more difficult. These writers generally produce less syntactically complex sentences that contain more grammatical errors. They may also produce sentences that are shorter; have higher…

  13. Geometric Dimensioning Sentence Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCuistion, Patrick J.

    1991-01-01

    Explanations of geometric dimensioning symbols are provided to assist in the comprehension of the implied basic sentence structure of modern geometric dimensioning and tolerance. The proper identification and interpretation of the substantive language within several exemplary engineering drawings, otherwise called feature control frames, is…

  14. From Utterance to Example Sentence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard

    This poster will address some of the problems on excerption of example sentences for the online dictionary of Danish Sign Language (DTS) from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues. In the Danish Sign Language Dictionary every meaning is illustrated by one or more sentences showing the sign...... lexicographers. The sentences were excerpted by hand from a raw corpus of dialogues and monologues – given to us by our group of consultants. The poster describes the process from utterance in a corpus in a larger context to an example sentence in a dictionary, where the purpose of having examples sentences...... is to help the dictionary user to gain additional knowledge of a meaning of a sign, as well as to provide sentence constructions that can be adopted by the L2 learner. The process from the moment when a sentence has been excerpted from the corpus to the point when an example sentence is finally accepted...

  15. The mandatory sentence and Section 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, S

    1986-01-01

    Sentencing in homicide depends on how psychiatrists view the issues of Section 2. In most killings that do not involve clear-cut mental disorder, strong emotions and stress play a part. Both can be cited in aid of diminished responsibility. If doctors cite them, however tentatively, it becomes feasible for the court to review any mitigating factors and to choose an appropriate penalty. Otherwise, the mandatory penalty is imposed. Thus doctors, by opining not on the medical but on the legal and moral aspects of Section 2, decide who shall automatically get a life sentence and who shall not. Anomaly and injustice are the results. They would be remedied by the abolition of the mandatory sentence for murder. PMID:3959037

  16. Neuroelectric Correlates of Pragmatic Emotional Incongruence Processing: Empathy Matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Dozolme

    Full Text Available The emotions people feel can be simulated internally based on emotional situational contexts. In the present study, we assessed the behavioral and neuroelectric effects of seeing an unexpected emotional facial expression. We investigated the correct answer rate, response times and Event-Related Potential (ERP effects during an incongruence paradigm between emotional faces and sentential contexts allowing emotional inferences. Most of the 36 healthy participants were recruited from a larger population (1 463 subjects, based on their scores on the Empathy Questionnaire (EQ. Regression analyses were conducted on these ratings using EQ factors as predictors (cognitive empathy, emotional reactivity and social skills. Recognition of pragmatic emotional incongruence was less accurate (P < .05 and slower (P < .05 than recognition of congruence. The incongruence effect on response times was inversely predicted by social skills. A significant N400 incongruence effect was found at the centro-parietal (P < .001 and centro-posterior midline (P < .01 electrodes. Cognitive empathy predicted the incongruence effect in the left occipital region, in the N400 time window. Finally, incongruence effects were also found on the LPP wave, in frontal midline and dorso-frontal regions, (P < .05, with no modulation by empathy. Processing pragmatic emotional incongruence is more cognitively demanding than congruence (as reflected by both behavioral and ERP data. This processing shows modulation by personality factors at the behavioral (through self-reported social skills and neuroelectric levels (through self-reported cognitive empathy.

  17. Inferring kangaroo phylogeny from incongruent nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Phillips

    Full Text Available The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus and M. (Osphranter, as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus. A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby within M. (Osphranter rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus. Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression.

  18. Inferring Kangaroo Phylogeny from Incongruent Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew J.; Haouchar, Dalal; Pratt, Renae C.; Gibb, Gillian C.; Bunce, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The marsupial genus Macropus includes three subgenera, the familiar large grazing kangaroos and wallaroos of M. (Macropus) and M. (Osphranter), as well as the smaller mixed grazing/browsing wallabies of M. (Notamacropus). A recent study of five concatenated nuclear genes recommended subsuming the predominantly browsing Wallabia bicolor (swamp wallaby) into Macropus. To further examine this proposal we sequenced partial mitochondrial genomes for kangaroos and wallabies. These sequences strongly favour the morphological placement of W. bicolor as sister to Macropus, although place M. irma (black-gloved wallaby) within M. (Osphranter) rather than as expected, with M. (Notamacropus). Species tree estimation from separately analysed mitochondrial and nuclear genes favours retaining Macropus and Wallabia as separate genera. A simulation study finds that incomplete lineage sorting among nuclear genes is a plausible explanation for incongruence with the mitochondrial placement of W. bicolor, while mitochondrial introgression from a wallaroo into M. irma is the deepest such event identified in marsupials. Similar such coalescent simulations for interpreting gene tree conflicts will increase in both relevance and statistical power as species-level phylogenetics enters the genomic age. Ecological considerations in turn, hint at a role for selection in accelerating the fixation of introgressed or incompletely sorted loci. More generally the inclusion of the mitochondrial sequences substantially enhanced phylogenetic resolution. However, we caution that the evolutionary dynamics that enhance mitochondria as speciation indicators in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting may also render them especially susceptible to introgression. PMID:23451266

  19. Grammatical verb aspect and event roles in sentence processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Madden-Lombardi

    Full Text Available Two experiments examine how grammatical verb aspect constrains our understanding of events. According to linguistic theory, an event described in the perfect aspect (John had opened the bottle should evoke a mental representation of a finished event with focus on the resulting object, whereas an event described in the imperfective aspect (John was opening the bottle should evoke a representation of the event as ongoing, including all stages of the event, and focusing all entities relevant to the ongoing action (instruments, objects, agents, locations, etc.. To test this idea, participants saw rebus sentences in the perfect and imperfective aspect, presented one word at a time, self-paced. In each sentence, the instrument and the recipient of the action were replaced by pictures (John was using/had used a *corkscrew* to open the *bottle* at the restaurant. Time to process the two images as well as speed and accuracy on sensibility judgments were measured. Although experimental sentences always made sense, half of the object and instrument pictures did not match the temporal constraints of the verb. For instance, in perfect sentences aspect-congruent trials presented an image of the corkscrew closed (no longer in-use and the wine bottle fully open. The aspect-incongruent yet still sensible versions either replaced the corkscrew with an in-use corkscrew (open, in-hand or the bottle image with a half-opened bottle. In this case, the participant would still respond "yes", but with longer expected response times. A three-way interaction among Verb Aspect, Sentence Role, and Temporal Match on image processing times showed that participants were faster to process images that matched rather than mismatched the aspect of the verb, especially for resulting objects in perfect sentences. A second experiment replicated and extended the results to confirm that this was not due to the placement of the object in the sentence. These two experiments extend

  20. Grammatical verb aspect and event roles in sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden-Lombardi, Carol; Dominey, Peter Ford; Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments examine how grammatical verb aspect constrains our understanding of events. According to linguistic theory, an event described in the perfect aspect (John had opened the bottle) should evoke a mental representation of a finished event with focus on the resulting object, whereas an event described in the imperfective aspect (John was opening the bottle) should evoke a representation of the event as ongoing, including all stages of the event, and focusing all entities relevant to the ongoing action (instruments, objects, agents, locations, etc.). To test this idea, participants saw rebus sentences in the perfect and imperfective aspect, presented one word at a time, self-paced. In each sentence, the instrument and the recipient of the action were replaced by pictures (John was using/had used a *corkscrew* to open the *bottle* at the restaurant). Time to process the two images as well as speed and accuracy on sensibility judgments were measured. Although experimental sentences always made sense, half of the object and instrument pictures did not match the temporal constraints of the verb. For instance, in perfect sentences aspect-congruent trials presented an image of the corkscrew closed (no longer in-use) and the wine bottle fully open. The aspect-incongruent yet still sensible versions either replaced the corkscrew with an in-use corkscrew (open, in-hand) or the bottle image with a half-opened bottle. In this case, the participant would still respond "yes", but with longer expected response times. A three-way interaction among Verb Aspect, Sentence Role, and Temporal Match on image processing times showed that participants were faster to process images that matched rather than mismatched the aspect of the verb, especially for resulting objects in perfect sentences. A second experiment replicated and extended the results to confirm that this was not due to the placement of the object in the sentence. These two experiments extend previous research

  1. On the role of sentence stress in sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, A.; Foss, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    Words bearing high stress appear to be easier to process during sentence comprehension. Since sentence stress typically falls on content words this suggests that comprehension is organized according to a form class bias: process stressed items as content words. The present study measured

  2. Sensorimotor incongruence and body perception: an experimental investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eFoell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several studies have shown that mirrored arm or leg movements are related to altered body sensations. This includes the alleviation of chronic pain using congruent mirror feedback and the induction of abnormal sensation in healthy participants using incongruent mirror feedback. Prior research has identified neuronal and conceptual mechanisms of these phenomena. With the rising application of behavior-based methods for pain relief, a structured investigation of these reported effects seems necessary.Methods: We investigated a mirror setup that included congruent and incongruent hand and arm movements in 113 healthy participants and assessed the occurrence and intensity of unusual physical experiences such as pain, the sensation of missing or additional limbs, or changes in weight or temperature. A wooden surface instead of a mirror condition served as control. Results: As reported earlier, mirrored movements led to a variety of subjective reactions in both the congruent an incongruent movement condition, with the sensation of possessing a third limb being significantly more intense and frequent in the incongruent mirror condition. Reports of illusory pain were not more frequent during mirrored than during non-mirrored movements.Conclusions: These results suggest that hand movements with and without a mirror induce abnormal body perceptions but that the experience of an extra limb is most pronounced in the incongruent mirror movement condition. The frequent sensation of having a third arm may be related to brain processes designed to integrate input from several senses in a meaningful manner.

  3. Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanov Jason

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874 were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [ϕ] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results Participants (n = 520 reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%, creatine (36.1%, whey protein (30.6%, iron (29.8%, caffeine (23.8%, and ginseng (8.3% for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%, doctors' advice (24.2%, enhancing endurance (20.0%, ability to train longer (13.3%, and provided by the governing body (3.8%. Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (ϕ 2 = 49.14, p 2 = 97.08, p 2 = 97.82, p Conclusion This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements.

  4. Motor activation in literal and non literal sentences: does time matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCacciari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the impressive amount of evidence showing involvement of the sensorimotor systems in language processing, important questions remain unsolved among which the relationship between non literal uses of language and sensorimotor activation. The literature did not yet provide a univocal answer on whether the comprehension of non literal, abstract motion sentences engages the same neural networks recruited for literal sentences. A previous TMS study using the same experimental materials of the present study showed activation for literal, fictive and metaphoric motion sentences but not for idiomatic ones. To evaluate whether this may depend on insufficient time for elaborating the idiomatic meaning, we conducted a behavioural experiment that used a sensibility judgment task performed by pressing a button either with a hand finger or with a foot. Motor activation is known to be sensitive to the action-congruency of the effector used for responding. Therefore, all other things being equal, significant differences between response emitted with an action-congruent or incongruent effector (foot vs. hand may be attributed to motor activation. Foot-related action verbs were embedded in sentences conveying literal motion, fictive motion, metaphoric motion or idiomatic motion. Mental sentences were employed as a control condition. Foot responses were significantly faster than finger responses but only in literal motion sentences. We hypothesize that motor activation may arise in early phases of comprehension processes (i.e. upon reading the verb for then decaying as a function of the strength of the semantic motion component of the verb.

  5. Unintentional eating. What determines goal-incongruent chocolate consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julia L; Johnston, Marie; Campbell, Neil

    2010-04-01

    Overeating can be automatically triggered by the presence of palatable food. When presented with an opportunity to consume unlimited chocolate under the guise of a consumer study, chocolate consumption in individuals (n=62) with healthy dietary intentions could be predicted from a psychological measure of cognitive inhibition. Individuals who were less able to suppress goal-incongruent responses in an established inhibitory task: (a) ate more chocolate and (b) had a higher body mass index than others suggesting that these individuals were less able to exert dietary control in the presence of palatable but intention-incongruent foods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. THE FUNCTION OF ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH SENTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. A multiple sentence contains one or more clauses as its immediate constituents. Multiple sentences are either compound or complex. In a compound sentence the immediate constituents are two or more coordinate clause. In a complex sentence one or more of its elements, such as direct object or adverbial, are realized by a subordinate.[1] Simple sentence may be divided into four major syntactic classes, whose use correlates with different...

  7. Sensorimotor Incongruence in People with Musculoskeletal Pain: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Don; Dr. L.P. Voogt; M. Meeus; M. de Kooning; Jo Nijs

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain has major public health implications, but the theoretical framework remains unclear. It is hypothesized that sensorimotor incongruence (SMI) might be a cause of long-lasting pain sensations in people with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Research data about experimental SMI

  8. Infant Perception of Incongruent Shapes in Cast Shadows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Sato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A cast shadow occurs when an object blocks the light from an illumination and projects a dark region onto a surface. Previous studies have reported that adults are slower to identify an object when the object has an incongruent cast shadow than when it has a congruent cast shadow (Castiello, 2001. Here, we used the familiarization-novelty preference procedure to examine whether 5- to 8-month-old infants could detect the relationship between object shapes and cast shadows. In Experiment 1, we examined the infants' ability to detect incongruency between objects and cast shadows. Results showed that 7- to 8-month olds could detect incongruence between the object shapes and the cast shadows, whereas 5- to 6-month olds did not. Yet, our control experiment showed that infants could not detect this incongruence from stimuli in which a white outline had been added to the original cast shadow to decrease the possibility of it being perceived as a cast shadow (Experiment 2. The results of these experiments demonstrate that 7- to 8-month olds responded to the congruence of cast shadows and to consistent contrast polarity between the cast shadow and its background.

  9. Cognitive and Affective Consequences of Two Types of Incongruent Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef (Joost); P.W.J. Verlegh (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this study, Heckler & Childers' (1992) two-dimensional conceptualization of incongruity is employed and related to the different schemas that consumers use in ad processing. Consumers can relate advertising to expectations about ads for the product concerned from the ad schema or to

  10. Unsettling Melodies: A Cognitive Approach to Incongruent Film Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Steven; Kiss, Miklós

    2013-01-01

    Incongruent film music is a soundtrack, either diegetic or non- diegetic, which expresses qualities that stand in contrast to the emotions evoked by the events seen. The present article aims at covering two interconnected areas; the first is comprised of a critical recapitulation of available

  11. Exploring Methods to Investigate Sentencing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrall, Elizabeth L. C.; Dhami, Mandeep K.; Bird, Sheila M.

    2010-01-01

    The determinants of sentencing are of much interest in criminal justice and legal research. Understanding the determinants of sentencing decisions is important for ensuring transparent, consistent, and justifiable sentencing practice that adheres to the goals of sentencing, such as the punishment, rehabilitation, deterrence, and incapacitation of…

  12. Numbers and prior knowledge in sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Macizo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether the comprehension of sentences that contained numerical information could benefit from presenting numbers in Arabic format and from using prior knowledge. Participants read sentences including numbers (Arabic digits or number words while the comprehension accuracy was evaluated. In addition, the sentences were biased or unbiased by people's prior knowledge about quantities. The results showed better comprehension for sentences that contained Arabic digits as compared to number words. Moreover, biased sentences were understood more accurately than unbiased sentences. These results indicate that information about magnitude in sentence context is comprehended better when quantities are presented in Arabic format and when they are associated with participants' world knowledge.

  13. Gender incongruence/gender dysphoria and its classification history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Titia F; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C

    2016-01-01

    In this article we discuss the changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) classification of gender identity-related conditions over time, and indicate how these changes were associated with the changes in conceptualization. A diagnosis of 'transsexualism' appeared first in DSM-III in 1980. This version also included a childhood diagnosis: gender identity disorder of childhood. As research about gender incongruence/gender dysphoria increased, the terminology, placement and criteria were reviewed in successive versions of the DSM. Changes in various aspects of the diagnosis, however, were not only based on research. Social and political factors contributed to the conceptualization of gender incongruence/gender dysphoria as well.

  14. Spatial Hearing with Incongruent Visual or Auditory Room Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil Carvajal, Juan Camilo; Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    whether a mismatch between playback and recording room reduces perceived distance, azimuthal direction, and compactness of the auditory image, and whether this is mostly due to incongruent auditory cues or to expectations generated from the visual impression of the room. Perceived distance ratings...... decreased significantly when collected in a more reverberant environment than the recording room, whereas azimuthal direction and compactness remained room independent. Moreover, modifying visual room-related cues had no effect on these three attributes, while incongruent auditory room-related cues between......In day-to-day life, humans usually perceive the location of sound sources as outside their heads. This externalized auditory spatial perception can be reproduced through headphones by recreating the sound pressure generated by the source at the listener’s eardrums. This requires the acoustical...

  15. A new sentence generator providing material for maximum reading speed measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Luc; Paillé, Damien; Baccino, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    A new method is proposed to generate text material for assessing maximum reading speed of adult readers. The described procedure allows one to generate a vast number of equivalent short sentences. These sentences can be displayed for different durations in order to determine the reader's maximum speed using a psychophysical threshold algorithm. Each sentence is built so that it is either true or false according to common knowledge. The actual reading is verified by asking the reader to determine the truth value of each sentence. We based our design on the generator described by Crossland et al. and upgraded it. The new generator handles concepts distributed in an ontology, which allows an easy determination of the sentences' truth value and control of lexical and psycholinguistic parameters. In this way many equivalent sentence can be generated and displayed to perform the measurement. Maximum reading speed scores obtained with pseudo-randomly chosen sentences from the generator were strongly correlated with maximum reading speed scores obtained with traditional MNREAD sentences (r = .836). Furthermore, the large number of sentences that can be generated makes it possible to perform repeated measurements, since the possibility of a reader learning individual sentences is eliminated. Researchers interested in within-reader performance variability could use the proposed method for this purpose.

  16. The sentence superiority effect revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joshua; Grainger, Jonathan

    2017-11-01

    A sentence superiority effect was investigated using post-cued word-in-sequence identification with the rapid parallel visual presentation (RPVP) of four horizontally aligned words. The four words were presented for 200ms followed by a post-mask and cue for partial report. They could form a grammatically correct sentence or were formed of the same words in a scrambled agrammatical sequence. Word identification was higher in the syntactically correct sequences, and crucially, this sentence superiority effect did not vary as a function of the target's position in the sequence. Cloze probability measures for words at the final, arguably most predictable position, revealed overall low values that did not interact with the effects of sentence context, suggesting that these effects were not driven by word predictability. The results point to a level of parallel processing across multiple words that enables rapid extraction of their syntactic categories. These generate a sentence-level representation that constrains the recognition process for individual words, thus facilitating parallel word processing when the sequence is grammatically sound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Passive sentences and structural parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    Traditional language parsing is mainly based on generative grammar in English. As English and Chinese belong to two different families of language, a grammar is not sufficient for Chinese parsing although it is still important. In passive sentences in English and Chinese, there exists some

  18. Incremental Sentence Processing in Japanese: A Maze Investigation into Scrambled and Control Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Jeffrey; Witzel, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates preverbal structural and semantic processing in Japanese, a head-final language, using the maze task. Two sentence types were tested--simple scrambled sentences (Experiment 1) and control sentences (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that even for simple, mono-clausal Japanese sentences, (1) there are online processing…

  19. Spatial Hearing with Incongruent Visual or Auditory Room Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Carvajal, Juan C.; Cubick, Jens; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2016-11-01

    In day-to-day life, humans usually perceive the location of sound sources as outside their heads. This externalized auditory spatial perception can be reproduced through headphones by recreating the sound pressure generated by the source at the listener’s eardrums. This requires the acoustical features of the recording environment and listener’s anatomy to be recorded at the listener’s ear canals. Although the resulting auditory images can be indistinguishable from real-world sources, their externalization may be less robust when the playback and recording environments differ. Here we tested whether a mismatch between playback and recording room reduces perceived distance, azimuthal direction, and compactness of the auditory image, and whether this is mostly due to incongruent auditory cues or to expectations generated from the visual impression of the room. Perceived distance ratings decreased significantly when collected in a more reverberant environment than the recording room, whereas azimuthal direction and compactness remained room independent. Moreover, modifying visual room-related cues had no effect on these three attributes, while incongruent auditory room-related cues between the recording and playback room did affect distance perception. Consequently, the external perception of virtual sounds depends on the degree of congruency between the acoustical features of the environment and the stimuli.

  20. Sentence-Level Attachment Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albakour, M.-Dyaa; Kruschwitz, Udo; Lucas, Simon

    Attachment prediction is the task of automatically identifying email messages that should contain an attachment. This can be useful to tackle the problem of sending out emails but forgetting to include the relevant attachment (something that happens all too often). A common Information Retrieval (IR) approach in analyzing documents such as emails is to treat the entire document as a bag of words. Here we propose a finer-grained analysis to address the problem. We aim at identifying individual sentences within an email that refer to an attachment. If we detect any such sentence, we predict that the email should have an attachment. Using part of the Enron corpus for evaluation we find that our finer-grained approach outperforms previously reported document-level attachment prediction in similar evaluation settings.

  1. Multigenic phylogeny and analysis of tree incongruences in Triticeae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhaumon Claire

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Introgressive events (e.g., hybridization, gene flow, horizontal gene transfer and incomplete lineage sorting of ancestral polymorphisms are a challenge for phylogenetic analyses since different genes may exhibit conflicting genealogical histories. Grasses of the Triticeae tribe provide a particularly striking example of incongruence among gene trees. Previous phylogenies, mostly inferred with one gene, are in conflict for several taxon positions. Therefore, obtaining a resolved picture of relationships among genera and species of this tribe has been a challenging task. Here, we obtain the most comprehensive molecular dataset to date in Triticeae, including one chloroplastic and 26 nuclear genes. We aim to test whether it is possible to infer phylogenetic relationships in the face of (potentially large-scale introgressive events and/or incomplete lineage sorting; to identify parts of the evolutionary history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner; and to decipher the biological causes of gene-tree conflicts in this tribe. Results We obtain resolved phylogenetic hypotheses using the supermatrix and Bayesian Concordance Factors (BCF approaches despite numerous incongruences among gene trees. These phylogenies suggest the existence of 4-5 major clades within Triticeae, with Psathyrostachys and Hordeum being the deepest genera. In addition, we construct a multigenic network that highlights parts of the Triticeae history that have not evolved in a tree-like manner. Dasypyrum, Heteranthelium and genera of clade V, grouping Secale, Taeniatherum, Triticum and Aegilops, have evolved in a reticulated manner. Their relationships are thus better represented by the multigenic network than by the supermatrix or BCF trees. Noteworthy, we demonstrate that gene-tree incongruences increase with genetic distance and are greater in telomeric than centromeric genes. Together, our results suggest that recombination is the main factor

  2. The rapid distraction of attentional resources toward the source of incongruent stimulus input during multisensory conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Sarah E; Todisco, Alexandra E; Woldorff, Marty G

    2013-04-01

    Neuroimaging work on multisensory conflict suggests that the relevant modality receives enhanced processing in the face of incongruency. However, the degree of stimulus processing in the irrelevant modality and the temporal cascade of the attentional modulations in either the relevant or irrelevant modalities are unknown. Here, we employed an audiovisual conflict paradigm with a sensory probe in the task-irrelevant modality (vision) to gauge the attentional allocation to that modality. ERPs were recorded as participants attended to and discriminated spoken auditory letters while ignoring simultaneous bilateral visual letter stimuli that were either fully congruent, fully incongruent, or partially incongruent (one side incongruent, one congruent) with the auditory stimulation. Half of the audiovisual letter stimuli were followed 500-700 msec later by a bilateral visual probe stimulus. As expected, ERPs to the audiovisual stimuli showed an incongruency ERP effect (fully incongruent versus fully congruent) of an enhanced, centrally distributed, negative-polarity wave starting ∼250 msec. More critically here, the sensory ERP components to the visual probes were larger when they followed fully incongruent versus fully congruent multisensory stimuli, with these enhancements greatest on fully incongruent trials with the slowest RTs. In addition, on the slowest-response partially incongruent trials, the P2 sensory component to the visual probes was larger contralateral to the preceding incongruent visual stimulus. These data suggest that, in response to conflicting multisensory stimulus input, the initial cognitive effect is a capture of attention by the incongruent irrelevant-modality input, pulling neural processing resources toward that modality, resulting in rapid enhancement, rather than rapid suppression, of that input.

  3. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

  4. Marital Sex Role Incongruence and Marital Adjustment: A Reply to Bowen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Robert A.; Li, Jason T.

    1989-01-01

    Defends authors' methodological approach to examining incongruity of marital sex role attitudes and satisfaction in their "Journal of Family Issues" (JFI) article, "Magnitude and Directional Effects of Marital Sex Role Incongruence and Marital Adjustment," from Gary Bowen's critique (JFI l0:416-419). Asserts that methodological approach used,…

  5. The ICSI+ Multilingual Sentence Segmentation System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmerman, M; Hakkani-Tuer, D; Fung, J; Mirghafori, N; Gottlieb, L; Shriberg, E; Liu, Y

    2006-01-01

    The ICSI+ multilingual sentence segmentation with results for English and Mandarin broadcast news automatic speech recognizer transcriptions represents a joint effort involving ICSI, SRI, and UT Dallas...

  6. Congruence and Incongruence in Adolescents' and Parents' Perceptions of the Family: Using Response Surface Analysis to Examine Links with Adolescents' Psychological Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Lauren J; Dirks, Melanie A; DeLongis, Anita; Chen, Edith

    2016-10-01

    Parents and adolescents often hold discrepant views about the family environment and these discrepancies may in turn influence adolescents' psychological adjustment. The current study examined how adolescent-parent perceptions of family routines and chaos, and their congruence and incongruence, relate to adolescents' self-reported psychological adjustment (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), both concurrently (N dyads = 261; 53 % female) and 2 years later (N dyads = 118; 50 % female). Using polynomial regression and response surface analysis, results indicated that adolescents' perceptions of the family environment were a stronger predictor of adolescents' adjustment than parents' perceptions (76 % mothers), concurrently and over time. However, both congruence and incongruence in adolescent-parent perceptions were also related to adolescents' adjustment. Specifically, congruently negative adolescent-parent perceptions were associated with worse concurrent adolescent adjustment. Further, incongruence defined by more negativity in adolescents' versus parents' perceptions was associated with worse adolescent psychological adjustment, concurrently and over time. In sum, in addition to the strong links between adolescents' perceptions of the family and their own psychological adjustment, examining how congruent and incongruent adolescents' perceptions are with parents' perceptions may shed additional light on how the family environment relates to adolescent adjustment.

  7. Discourse, Paragraph, and Sentence Structure in Selected Philippine Languages. Final Report. Volume II, Sentence Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Robert E.

    Volume II of "Discourse, Paragraph, and Sentence Structure in Selected Philippine Languages" begins with an explanation of certain assumptions and postulates regarding sentence structure. A detailed treatment of systems of sentence structure and the parameters of such systems follows. Data in the various indigenous languages are…

  8. Deep phylogenetic incongruence in the angiosperm clade Rosidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Miao; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Zhu, Xinyu; Burleigh, J Gordon; Chen, Zhiduan

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of large data sets can help resolve difficult nodes in the tree of life and also reveal complex evolutionary histories. The placement of the Celastrales-Oxalidales-Malpighiales (COM) clade within Rosidae remains one of the most confounding phylogenetic questions in angiosperms, with previous analyses placing it with either Fabidae or Malvidae. To elucidate the position of COM, we assembled multi-gene matrices of chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear sequences, as well as large single- and multi-copy nuclear gene data sets. Analyses of multi-gene data sets demonstrate conflict between the chloroplast and both nuclear and mitochondrial data sets, and the results are robust to various character-coding and data-exclusion treatments. Analyses of single- and multi-copy nuclear loci indicate that most loci support the placement of COM with Malvidae, fewer loci support COM with Fabidae, and almost no loci support COM outside a clade of Fabidae and Malvidae. Although incomplete lineage sorting and ancient introgressive hybridization remain as plausible explanations for the conflict among loci, more complete sampling is necessary to evaluate these hypotheses fully. Our results emphasize the importance of genomic data sets for revealing deep incongruence and complex patterns of evolution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Judging Grammaticality: Experiments in Sentence Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Joachim; Foster, Jennifer; van Genabith, Josef

    2009-01-01

    A classifier which is capable of distinguishing a syntactically well formed sentence from a syntactically ill formed one has the potential to be useful in an L2 language-learning context. In this article, we describe a classifier which classifies English sentences as either well formed or ill formed using information gleaned from three different…

  10. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    2012-08-08

    Aug 8, 2012 ... research visits, and the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law,. Freiburg, Germany ... Whether or not a pre-sentence report should be obtained before a child offender is sentenced has ...... the Criminal Procedure Act. It is important to read the quoted part of section 85(1) as a single ...

  11. Example Sentences in Bilingual School Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in dictionary articles, different types of example sentences as well as the criteria for example sen- tences in bilingual school dictionaries in order to ensure that the final product is natural, typical, informative, intelligible and of use to the user. Keywords: SCHOOL DICTIONARY, USER, USER NEEDS, EXAMPLE SENTENCE, ...

  12. Sentencing of homicide offenders in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, B.; Wingerden, S. van; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical investigations of criminal sentencing represent a vast research enterprise in criminology. However, this research has been restricted almost exclusively to U.S. contexts, and often it suffers from key data limitations. As such, an examination of more detailed international sentencing data

  13. Creating Hope for Life-Sentenced Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddell, Rick; Broom, Ian; Young, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Offenders sentenced to terms of life imprisonment pose special challenges for correctional systems. The Correctional Service of Canada collaborated with nongovernmental agencies to develop programmatic interventions to better prepare this population to survive their prison sentences and transition to the community. This study describes the…

  14. Phylogenetic relationships of typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae and test of incongruence based on Bayes factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylander Johan AA

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The typical antbirds (Thamnophilidae form a monophyletic and diverse family of suboscine passerines that inhabit neotropical forests. However, the phylogenetic relationships within this assemblage are poorly understood. Herein, we present a hypothesis of the generic relationships of this group based on Bayesian inference analyses of two nuclear introns and the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The level of phylogenetic congruence between the individual genes has been investigated utilizing Bayes factors. We also explore how changes in the substitution models affected the observed incongruence between partitions of our data set. Results The phylogenetic analysis supports both novel relationships, as well as traditional groupings. Among the more interesting novel relationship suggested is that the Terenura antwrens, the wing-banded antbird (Myrmornis torquata, the spot-winged antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris and the russet antshrike (Thamnistes anabatinus are sisters to all other typical antbirds. The remaining genera fall into two major clades. The first includes antshrikes, antvireos and the Herpsilochmus antwrens, while the second clade consists of most antwren genera, the Myrmeciza antbirds, the "professional" ant-following antbirds, and allied species. Our results also support previously suggested polyphyly of Myrmotherula antwrens and Myrmeciza antbirds. The tests of phylogenetic incongruence, using Bayes factors, clearly suggests that allowing the gene partitions to have separate topology parameters clearly increased the model likelihood. However, changing a component of the nucleotide substitution model had much higher impact on the model likelihood. Conclusions The phylogenetic results are in broad agreement with traditional classification of the typical antbirds, but some relationships are unexpected based on external morphology. In these cases their true affinities may have been obscured by convergent evolution and

  15. Resolving incongruence: Species of hybrid origin in Columnea (Gesneriaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F; Clark, John L; Amaya-Márquez, Marisol; Marín-Gómez, Oscar H

    2017-01-01

    Speciation by hybridization has long been recognized among plants and includes both homoploid and allopolyploid speciation. The numbers of presumed hybrid species averages close to 11% and tends to be concentrated in a subset of angiosperm families. Recent advances in molecular methods have verified species of hybrid origin that had been presumed on the basis of morphology and have identified species that were not initially considered hybrids. Identifying species of hybrid origin is often a challenge and typically based on intermediate morphology, or discrepancies between molecular datasets. Discrepancies between data partitions may result from several factors including poor support, incomplete lineage sorting, or hybridization. A phylogenetic analysis of species in Columnea (Gesneriaceae) indicated significant incongruencies between the cpDNA and nrDNA datasets. Tests that examined whether one or both of the datasets had the phylogenetic signal to reject the topology of the alternate dataset (Shimodaira and Hasegawa [SH] and approximately unbiased [AU] tests) indicated significant differences between the topologies. Splitstree analyses also showed that there was support for the placement of the discrepant taxa in both datasets and that the combined data placed the putative hybrid species in an intermediate position between the two datasets. The genealogical sorting index (GSI) implied that coalescence in nrDNA had occurred in all species where more than a single individual had been sampled, but the GSI value was lower for the cpDNA of most of the putative hybrids, implying that these regions have not yet coalesced in these lineages despite being haploid. The JML test that evaluates simulated species pairwise distances against observed distances also implies that observed nrDNA data generate shorter distances than simulated data, implying hybridization. It is most likely that C. gigantifolia, C. rubriacuta, and C. sp. nov. represent a lineage from a hybrid ancestor

  16. Authoritarian personality and rape sentence length in conservative and liberal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2009-06-01

    The author tested the claim that authoritarians desire exceptionally strong punishment for rapists. Given data on 55,966 felons sentenced in 32 U.S. states in 1986 for homicide, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, larceny, and drug offenses (D. A. Bowers & J. L. Waltman, 1993) and given state conservatism scores of 141,798 respondents to 122 1976-1988 CBS and The New York Times national telephone polls (R. Erikson, G. Wright, & J. McIver, 1993) as proxies for authoritarianism, regression analyses showed state conservatism accounted for 18.9%, F(1, 18) = 7.11, p < .01, of the rape sentence length variance when sentence lengths for the 7 other offenses were controlled for and 12.5%, F(1, 27) = 8.16, p < .01, with means substituted for missing data. In both analyses, state conservatism and rape sentence length were positively correlated.

  17. Automatically extracting clinically useful sentences from UpToDate to support clinicians' information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Kilicoglu, Halil; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Fiszman, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians raise several information needs in the course of care. Most of these needs can be met by online health knowledge resources such as UpToDate. However, finding relevant information in these resources often requires significant time and cognitive effort. To design and assess algorithms for extracting from UpToDate the sentences that represent the most clinically useful information for patient care decision making. We developed algorithms based on semantic predications extracted with SemRep, a semantic natural language processing parser. Two algorithms were compared against a gold standard composed of UpToDate sentences rated in terms of clinical usefulness. Clinically useful sentences were strongly correlated with predication frequency (correlation= 0.95). The two algorithms did not differ in terms of top ten precision (53% vs. 49%; p=0.06). Semantic predications may serve as the basis for extracting clinically useful sentences. Future research is needed to improve the algorithms.

  18. Dopamine supports sentence comprehension in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M; Glosser, G; Kalmanson, J; Morris, J; Stern, M B; Hurtig, H I

    2001-03-01

    To determine the role of dopamine in the executive resource component of sentence comprehension. We studied sentence-picture matching in 20 right-handed, non-demented, native English speakers with mild Parkinson's disease (PD) when 'on' and 'off' their levodopa, taking into account disease duration to control for endogenous dopamine metabolism. We also administered a verbal working memory measure that does not involve specific grammatical manipulations. PD patients 'off' levodopa demonstrated a significant discrepancy in their comprehension of grammatically complex sentences compared to grammatically simpler sentences that was not evident when PD patients were 'on' levodopa. An error analysis demonstrated that impaired comprehension of grammatically complex sentences when 'off' levodopa was associated with poorer performance on foils requiring working memory resources. Performance on an independent measure of verbal working memory correlated only with comprehension of grammatically complex sentences during levodopa supplementation, but working memory according to this measure did not differ during 'on' and 'off' states. Dopamine supports the executive resources contributing to sentence comprehension in PD.

  19. Classification of Clinically Useful Sentences in MEDLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morid, Mohammad Amin; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Fiszman, Marcelo; Raja, Kalpana; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated a sentence classification model that uses semantic features to extract clinically useful sentences from UpToDate, a synthesized clinical evidence resource. In the present study, we assess the generalizability of the sentence classifier to Medline abstracts. We applied the classification model to an independent gold standard of high quality clinical studies from Medline. Then, the classifier trained on UpToDate sentences was optimized by re-retraining the classifier with Medline abstracts and adding a sentence location feature. The previous classifier yielded an F-measure of 58% on Medline versus 67% on UpToDate. Re-training the classifier on Medline improved F-measure to 68%; and to 76% (p<0.01) after adding the sentence location feature. The classifier's model and input features generalized to Medline abstracts, but the classifier needed to be retrained on Medline to achieve equivalent performance. Sentence location provided additional contribution to the overall classification performance.

  20. Verb and sentence production and comprehension in aphasia: Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho-Reyes, Soojin; Thompson, Cynthia K

    Verbs and sentences are often impaired in individuals with aphasia, and differential impairment patterns are associated with different types of aphasia. With currently available test batteries, however, it is challenging to provide a comprehensive profile of aphasic language impairments because they do not examine syntactically important properties of verbs and sentences. This study presents data derived from the Northwestern Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS; Thompson, 2011), a new test battery designed to examine syntactic deficits in aphasia. The NAVS includes tests for verb naming and comprehension, and production of verb argument structure in simple active sentences, with each examining the effects of the number and optionality of arguments. The NAVS also tests production and comprehension of canonical and non-canonical sentences. A total of 59 aphasic participants (35 agrammatic and 24 anomic) were tested using a set of action pictures. Participants produced verbs or sentences for the production subtests and identified pictures corresponding to auditorily provided verbs or sentences for the comprehension subtests. The agrammatic group, compared to the anomic group, performed significantly more poorly on all subtests except verb comprehension, and for both groups comprehension was less impaired than production. On verb naming and argument structure production tests both groups exhibited difficulty with three-argument verbs, affected by the number and optionality of arguments. However, production of sentences using three-argument verbs was more impaired in the agrammatic, compared to the anomic, group. On sentence production and comprehension tests, the agrammatic group showed impairments in all types of non-canonical sentences, whereas the anomic group exhibited difficulty primarily with the most difficult, object relative, structures. Results show that verb and sentence deficits seen in individuals with agrammatic aphasia are largely influenced by

  1. Dissociating task difficulty from incongruence in face-voice emotion integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca eWatson

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the everyday environment, affective information is conveyed by both the face and the voice. Studies have demonstrated that a concurrently presented voice can alter the way that an emotional face expression is perceived, and vice versa, leading to emotional conflict if the information in the two modalities is mismatched. Additionally, evidence suggests that incongruence of emotional valence activates cerebral networks involved in conflict monitoring and resolution. However, it is currently unclear whether this is due to task difficulty – that incongruent stimuli are harder to categorise – or simply to the detection of mismatching information in the two modalities. The aim of the present fMRI study was to examine the neurophysiological correlates of processing incongruent emotional information, independent of task difficulty. Subjects were scanned while judging the emotion of face-voice affective stimuli. Both the face and voice were parametrically morphed between anger and happiness and then paired in all audiovisual combinations, resulting in stimuli each defined by two separate values: the degree of incongruence between the face and voice, and the degree of clarity of the combined face-voice information. Due to the specific morphing procedure utilised, we hypothesized that the clarity value, rather than incongruence value, would better reflect task difficulty. Behavioural data revealed that participants integrated face and voice affective information, and that the clarity, as opposed to incongruence value correlated with categorization difficulty. Cerebrally, incongruence was more associated with activity in the superior temporal region, which emerged after task difficulty had been accounted for. Overall, our results suggest that activation in the superior temporal region in response to incongruent information cannot be explained simply by task difficulty, and may rather be due to detection of mismatching information between the two

  2. Dissociating task difficulty from incongruence in face-voice emotion integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca; Latinus, Marianne; Noguchi, Takao; Garrod, Oliver; Crabbe, Frances; Belin, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    In the everyday environment, affective information is conveyed by both the face and the voice. Studies have demonstrated that a concurrently presented voice can alter the way that an emotional face expression is perceived, and vice versa, leading to emotional conflict if the information in the two modalities is mismatched. Additionally, evidence suggests that incongruence of emotional valence activates cerebral networks involved in conflict monitoring and resolution. However, it is currently unclear whether this is due to task difficulty-that incongruent stimuli are harder to categorize-or simply to the detection of mismatching information in the two modalities. The aim of the present fMRI study was to examine the neurophysiological correlates of processing incongruent emotional information, independent of task difficulty. Subjects were scanned while judging the emotion of face-voice affective stimuli. Both the face and voice were parametrically morphed between anger and happiness and then paired in all audiovisual combinations, resulting in stimuli each defined by two separate values: the degree of incongruence between the face and voice, and the degree of clarity of the combined face-voice information. Due to the specific morphing procedure utilized, we hypothesized that the clarity value, rather than incongruence value, would better reflect task difficulty. Behavioral data revealed that participants integrated face and voice affective information, and that the clarity, as opposed to incongruence value correlated with categorization difficulty. Cerebrally, incongruence was more associated with activity in the superior temporal region, which emerged after task difficulty had been accounted for. Overall, our results suggest that activation in the superior temporal region in response to incongruent information cannot be explained simply by task difficulty, and may rather be due to detection of mismatching information between the two modalities.

  3. Effects of incongruent auditory and visual room-related cues on sound externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens

    recorded [1,2,3]. This may be due to incongruent auditory cues between the recording and playback room during sound reproduction [2]. Alternatively, an expectation effect caused by the visual impression of the room may affect the position of the perceived auditory image [3]. Here, we systematically...... investigated whether incongruent auditory and visual roomrelated cues affected sound externalization in terms of perceived distance, azimuthal localization, and compactness....

  4. Sentence Recognition in Quiet and Noise by Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users: Relationships to Spoken Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Laurie S; Fisher, Laurel M; Johnson, Karen C; Ganguly, Dianne Hammes; Grace, Thelma; Niparko, John K

    2016-02-01

    We investigated associations between sentence recognition and spoken language for children with cochlear implants (CI) enrolled in the Childhood Development after Cochlear Implantation (CDaCI) study. In a prospective longitudinal study, sentence recognition percent-correct scores and language standard scores were correlated at 48-, 60-, and 72-months post-CI activation. Six tertiary CI centers in the United States. Children with CIs participating in the CDaCI study. Cochlear implantation. Sentence recognition was assessed using the Hearing In Noise Test for Children (HINT-C) in quiet and at +10, +5, and 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). Spoken language was assessed using the Clinical Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL) core composite and the antonyms, paragraph comprehension (syntax comprehension), syntax construction (expression), and pragmatic judgment tests. Positive linear relationships were found between CASL scores and HINT-C sentence scores when the sentences were delivered in quiet and at +10 and +5 dB S/N, but not at 0 dB S/N. At 48 months post-CI, sentence scores at +10 and +5 dB S/N were most strongly associated with CASL antonyms. At 60 and 72 months, sentence recognition in noise was most strongly associated with paragraph comprehension and syntax construction. Children with CIs learn spoken language in a variety of acoustic environments. Despite the observed inconsistent performance in different listening situations and noise-challenged environments, many children with CIs are able to build lexicons and learn the rules of grammar that enable recognition of sentences.

  5. Face or body? Oxytocin improves perception of emotions from facial expressions in incongruent emotional body context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anat; Aviezer, Hillel; Goldstein, Pavel; Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2013-11-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been repeatedly reported to play an essential role in the regulation of social cognition in humans in general, and specifically in enhancing the recognition of emotions from facial expressions. The later was assessed in different paradigms that rely primarily on isolated and decontextualized emotional faces. However, recent evidence has indicated that the perception of basic facial expressions is not context invariant and can be categorically altered by context, especially body context, at early perceptual levels. Body context has a strong effect on our perception of emotional expressions, especially when the actual target face and the contextually expected face are perceptually similar. To examine whether and how OT affects emotion recognition, we investigated the role of OT in categorizing facial expressions in incongruent body contexts. Our results show that in the combined process of deciphering emotions from facial expressions and from context, OT gives an advantage to the face. This advantage is most evident when the target face and the contextually expected face are perceptually similar. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality of Life for Dementia Caregiving Dyads: Effects of Incongruent Perceptions of Everyday Care and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heehyul; Townsend, Aloen L; Whitlatch, Carol J; Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye

    2017-08-01

    This dyadic study investigated incongruence in care recipients' (CRs') and caregivers' (CGs') perceptions of (a) CRs' involvement in decision making and (b) how much CRs value social relations as predictors of subjective quality of life (QOL) of CRs with mild-to-moderate dementia and their primary family CGs. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional, dyadic data from in-person interviews with 205 CRs with mild-to-moderate dementia and their primary family CGs Incongruence was operationalized in two ways: absolute difference and direction of difference. Paired t tests and multilevel modeling were used to analyze differences. CGs reported CRs were significantly less involved in decision making and valued social relations significantly less than CRs. Greater incongruence on CRs' values significantly predicted lower QOL of CG and CR. When CGs reported that CRs valued social relationships less than the CR himself/herself reported, CGs' and CRs' QOL was significantly lower compared with QOL for dyads where there was no incongruence on CRs' values. Incongruent perceptions of CRs' involvement in decisions were not a significant predictor of QOL. This study provides evidence for the importance of assessing both CRs' and CGs' QOL, as well as incongruence in their perceptions in domains that may affect both of their QOL. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Post-conflict slowing after incongruent stimuli: from general to conflict-specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2017-05-01

    Encountering a cognitive conflict not only slows current performance, but it can also affect subsequent performance, in particular when the conflict is induced with bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with relevant features for two different tasks) or with incongruent trials (i.e., stimuli with relevant features for two response alternatives). The post-conflict slowing following bivalent stimuli, called "bivalency effect", affects all subsequent stimuli, irrespective of whether the subsequent stimuli share relevant features with the conflict stimuli. To date, it is unknown whether the conflict induced by incongruent stimuli results in a similar post-conflict slowing. To investigate this, we performed six experiments in which participants switched between two tasks. In one task, incongruent stimuli appeared occasionally; in the other task, stimuli shared no feature with the incongruent trials. The results showed an initial performance slowing that affected all tasks after incongruent trials. On further trials, however, the slowing only affected the task sharing features with the conflict stimuli. Therefore, the post-conflict slowing following incongruent stimuli is first general and then becomes conflict-specific across trials. These findings are discussed within current task switching and cognitive control accounts.

  8. The Stroop incongruity effect: Congruity relationship reaches beyond the Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatukai, Tatiana; Algom, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Stroop objects are defined by the existence of a logical relationship, congruity or incongruity, between their constituent dimensions. The Stroop effect is the difference in performance between congruent and incongruent stimuli with respect to one of these dimensions. However, the pair of Stroop generating dimensions does not exhaust all dimensions of the object. In this study, we examined performance with respect to a third non-Stroop dimension of an otherwise Stroop object, a dimension that is unrelated to those generating the Stroop effect. We witnessed a reversal of the usual Stroop pattern with respect to the third dimension, the Incongruity Effect. Performance was superior with Stroop-incongruent stimuli despite the fact that congruity was defined with respect to another pair of dimensions. In 8 experiments, we first documented the Incongruity Effect and then tested possible explanations. We conclude that the best account is associated with the notion that Stroop-incongruent stimuli engender negative affect that people strive to swiftly terminate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Video2Sentence and Vice Versa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    which outperforms a low-level audiovisual representation. Our novelty is to demonstrate the capabilities of semantic representations for translating ...demonstrate the translations using arbi- trary web videos and sentences related to everyday events. What is more, we will provide an automatically generated...explanation, in terms of concept detectors, on why a partic- ular video or sentence has been retrieved as the most likely translation . Categories and

  10. The role of remorse in sentencing

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    It has become an established feature of the South African sentencing practice to consider the level of remorse displayed by the accused (S v M (Centre for Child Law as Amicus Curiae) 2007 (2) SACR 539 (CC) par [115]). Genuine contrition or remorse is generally regarded as a mitigating factor whilst the absence thereof is considered to be an aggravating factor. Our courts link the presence of remorse with the prospect of the rehabilitation of the offender(Terblanche "Sentencing" 2010 Annual Su...

  11. Even a rich man can afford that expensive house: ERP responses to construction-based pragmatic constraints during sentence comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Li, Yi; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2013-08-01

    A linguistic construction is typically viewed as encoding the pairing of syntactic form and semantic information that is independent of the meaning of constituent words. Here with the event-related potentials (ERPs) we demonstrate that such a construction can also encode pragmatic constraints (event likelihood) that immediately influence online sentence comprehension and the associated neural activity. The lian…dou…construction in Chinese (similar to even in English) normally describes an event of low expectedness (a semantic constraint); it also introduces a pragmatic scale implying that any event with a higher likelihood than the event described must occur (pragmatic inference). By embedding a highly likely event (a rich man buying a house) or an underspecified event (a man buying a house) in the construction, we created an incongruent condition and an underspecified condition and compared both with a control condition in which an event of low expectedness (a poor man buying a house) was described. ERPs on the main verb phrases showed an N400 with a maximum in the right hemisphere followed by a late negativity with an anterior maximum for both the incongruent and underspecified conditions, with a larger N400 effect for the former than for the latter. ERPs on the sentence-final phrases showed a sustained negativity for the incongruent, but not for the underspecified condition. The N400 effect may reflect the increased difficulty in unifying the current event into the lian…dou… construction. The late negativity may reflect a second-pass revision according to the likelihood scale to satisfy the pragmatic constraints of the construction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Syntactic Priming during Sentence Comprehension: Evidence for the Lexical Boost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traxler, Matthew J.; Tooley, Kristen M.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Syntactic priming occurs when structural information from one sentence influences processing of a subsequently encountered sentence (Bock, 1986; Ledoux et al., 2007). This article reports 2 eye-tracking experiments investigating the effects of a prime sentence on the processing of a target sentence that shared aspects of syntactic form. The…

  13. 28 CFR 2.10 - Date service of sentence commences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... imposed. (b) The imposition of a sentence of imprisonment for civil contempt shall interrupt the running of any sentence of imprisonment being served at the time the sentence of civil contempt is imposed... civil contempt is lifted. (c) Service of the sentence of a committed youth offender or person committed...

  14. On the Complexity of Chinese Sentences in Singapore Primary Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Saye Wee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the sentences from the Singapore primary school Chinese textbooks as the research material, using sentence as a unit; analyses sentence composition and sentence patterns, from quantity, distribution, characteristic and semantic type aspects to examine the progression of sentence complexity in Chinese language. The paper describes how the sentence develops in a systemic and complexity aspect in textbooks of various levels. The paper suggests 7 types of sentence pattern grading in term of complexity progression, and proposes a formula to examine and calculate the complexity index of a sentence. The findings derive a set of valuable data to expound the complexity of a sentence and discuss the variable factors influencing the complexity of sentences used in primary school Chinese textbooks.

  15. An iterative approach for the global estimation of sentence similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Kajiwara

    Full Text Available Measuring the similarity between two sentences is often difficult due to their small lexical overlap. Instead of focusing on the sets of features in two given sentences between which we must measure similarity, we propose a sentence similarity method that considers two types of constraints that must be satisfied by all pairs of sentences in a given corpus. Namely, (a if two sentences share many features in common, then it is likely that the remaining features in each sentence are also related, and (b if two sentences contain many related features, then those two sentences are themselves similar. The two constraints are utilized in an iterative bootstrapping procedure that simultaneously updates both word and sentence similarity scores. Experimental results on SemEval 2015 Task 2 dataset show that the proposed iterative approach for measuring sentence semantic similarity is significantly better than the non-iterative counterparts.

  16. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sauppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  17. Word Order and Voice Influence the Timing of Verb Planning in German Sentence Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauppe, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Theories of incremental sentence production make different assumptions about when speakers encode information about described events and when verbs are selected, accordingly. An eye tracking experiment on German testing the predictions from linear and hierarchical incrementality about the timing of event encoding and verb planning is reported. In the experiment, participants described depictions of two-participant events with sentences that differed in voice and word order. Verb-medial active sentences and actives and passives with sentence-final verbs were compared. Linear incrementality predicts that sentences with verbs placed early differ from verb-final sentences because verbs are assumed to only be planned shortly before they are articulated. By contrast, hierarchical incrementality assumes that speakers start planning with relational encoding of the event. A weak version of hierarchical incrementality assumes that only the action is encoded at the outset of formulation and selection of lexical verbs only occurs shortly before they are articulated, leading to the prediction of different fixation patterns for verb-medial and verb-final sentences. A strong version of hierarchical incrementality predicts no differences between verb-medial and verb-final sentences because it assumes that verbs are always lexically selected early in the formulation process. Based on growth curve analyses of fixations to agent and patient characters in the described pictures, and the influence of character humanness and the lack of an influence of the visual salience of characters on speakers' choice of active or passive voice, the current results suggest that while verb planning does not necessarily occur early during formulation, speakers of German always create an event representation early.

  18. Ideology, Social Threat, and the Death Sentence: Capital Sentences across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, David; Carmichael, Jason T.

    2004-01-01

    Capital punishment is the most severe criminal penalty, yet we know little about the factors that produce jurisdictional differences in the use of the death sentence. Political explanations emphasize conservative values and the strength of more conservative political parties. Threat accounts suggest that this sentence will be more likely in…

  19. The Relationship between Prisoners' Educational Motives and Previous Incarceration, Sentence Length, and Sentence Served

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Beate Buanes; Manger, Terje

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine Norwegian prisoners' educational motives, and how previous incarceration, sentence length, and sentence served influence such motives. Three motive categories emerged: future planning (Factor 1), social reasons and escapism (Factor 2), and competence building (Factor 3). Among prisoners who participated in…

  20. The effects of racial density and income incongruity on pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Kate E; Collins, James W; Masi, Christopher M; Wilkinson, Richard G

    2005-05-01

    This study shows that living in a better area reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes but, among African-American women, living in an area in which they are in a racial minority may increase the risk. Using the 1991 cohort of single infants born to African-American women in Chicago, we measured census tract socioeconomic status and defined women as having "positive income incongruity" if they lived in wealthier tracts than the average African-American woman of comparable education and marital status. We examined whether or not the effect of positive income incongruity differed according to whether or not African-American women lived in predominantly black, or mixed tracts. Among the women living in predominantly black census tracts, positive income incongruity was associated with a lower risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR)=0.91) and preterm delivery (OR=0.83). These effects were modest, but statistically significant for gestation (p-value=0.01). In contrast, among the women living in mixed tracts positive income incongruity was not associated with low birth weight (OR=1.04) or preterm delivery (OR=1.11). In mixed areas the expected benefits of positive income incongruity are completely offset by the racial density effect, suggesting that the positive effects of a better socioeconomic context may be countered for minority women by the adverse effects of racism or racial stigma.

  1. Brain activity during divided and selective attention to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Carlson, Synnöve; Vuontela, Virve; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured brain activity of human participants while they performed a sentence congruence judgment task in either the visual or auditory modality separately, or in both modalities simultaneously. Significant performance decrements were observed when attention was divided between the two modalities compared with when one modality was selectively attended. Compared with selective attention (i.e., single tasking), divided attention (i.e., dual-tasking) did not recruit additional cortical regions, but resulted in increased activity in medial and lateral frontal regions which were also activated by the component tasks when performed separately. Areas involved in semantic language processing were revealed predominantly in the left lateral prefrontal cortex by contrasting incongruent with congruent sentences. These areas also showed significant activity increases during divided attention in relation to selective attention. In the sensory cortices, no crossmodal inhibition was observed during divided attention when compared with selective attention to one modality. Our results suggest that the observed performance decrements during dual-tasking are due to interference of the two tasks because they utilize the same part of the cortex. Moreover, semantic dual-tasking did not appear to recruit additional brain areas in comparison with single tasking, and no crossmodal inhibition was observed during intermodal divided attention. PMID:25745395

  2. Brain activity during divided and selective attention to auditory and visual sentence comprehension tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisala, Mona; Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Carlson, Synnöve; Vuontela, Virve; Salonen, Oili; Alho, Kimmo

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we measured brain activity of human participants while they performed a sentence congruence judgment task in either the visual or auditory modality separately, or in both modalities simultaneously. Significant performance decrements were observed when attention was divided between the two modalities compared with when one modality was selectively attended. Compared with selective attention (i.e., single tasking), divided attention (i.e., dual-tasking) did not recruit additional cortical regions, but resulted in increased activity in medial and lateral frontal regions which were also activated by the component tasks when performed separately. Areas involved in semantic language processing were revealed predominantly in the left lateral prefrontal cortex by contrasting incongruent with congruent sentences. These areas also showed significant activity increases during divided attention in relation to selective attention. In the sensory cortices, no crossmodal inhibition was observed during divided attention when compared with selective attention to one modality. Our results suggest that the observed performance decrements during dual-tasking are due to interference of the two tasks because they utilize the same part of the cortex. Moreover, semantic dual-tasking did not appear to recruit additional brain areas in comparison with single tasking, and no crossmodal inhibition was observed during intermodal divided attention.

  3. Syntactic flexibility and planning scope: The effect of verb bias on advance planning during sentence recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maartje evan de Velde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sentence production, grammatical advance planning scope depends on contextual factors (e.g., time pressure, linguistic factors (e.g., ease of structural processing, and cognitive factors (e.g., production speed. The present study tests the influence of the availability of multiple syntactic alternatives (i.e., syntactic flexibility on the scope of advance planning during the recall of Dutch dative phrases. We manipulated syntactic flexibility by using verbs with a strong bias or a weak bias towards one structural alternative in sentence frames accepting both verbs (e.g., strong/weak bias: De ober schotelt/serveert de klant de maaltijd [voor] 'The waiter dishes out/serves the customer the meal'. To assess lexical planning scope, we varied the frequency of the first post-verbal noun (N1, Experiment 1 or the second post-verbal noun (N2, Experiment 2. In each experiment, 36 speakers produced the verb phrases in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP paradigm. On each trial, they read a sentence presented one word at a time, performed a short distractor task, and then saw a sentence preamble (e.g., De ober… which they had to complete to form the presented sentence. Onset latencies were compared using linear mixed effects models. N1 frequency did not produce any effects. N2 frequency only affected sentence onsets in the weak verb bias condition and especially in slow speakers. These findings highlight the dependency of planning scope during sentence recall on the grammatical properties of the verb and the frequency of post-verbal nouns. Implications for utterance planning in everyday speech are discussed.

  4. Syntactic flexibility and planning scope: the effect of verb bias on advance planning during sentence recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Velde, Maartje; Meyer, Antje S.

    2014-01-01

    In sentence production, grammatical advance planning scope depends on contextual factors (e.g., time pressure), linguistic factors (e.g., ease of structural processing), and cognitive factors (e.g., production speed). The present study tests the influence of the availability of multiple syntactic alternatives (i.e., syntactic flexibility) on the scope of advance planning during the recall of Dutch dative phrases. We manipulated syntactic flexibility by using verbs with a strong bias or a weak bias toward one structural alternative in sentence frames accepting both verbs (e.g., strong/weak bias: De ober schotelt/serveert de klant de maaltijd [voor] “The waiter dishes out/serves the customer the meal”). To assess lexical planning scope, we varied the frequency of the first post-verbal noun (N1, Experiment 1) or the second post-verbal noun (N2, Experiment 2). In each experiment, 36 speakers produced the verb phrases in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. On each trial, they read a sentence presented one word at a time, performed a short distractor task, and then saw a sentence preamble (e.g., De ober…) which they had to complete to form the presented sentence. Onset latencies were compared using linear mixed effects models. N1 frequency did not produce any effects. N2 frequency only affected sentence onsets in the weak verb bias condition and especially in slow speakers. These findings highlight the dependency of planning scope during sentence recall on the grammatical properties of the verb and the frequency of post-verbal nouns. Implications for utterance planning in everyday speech are discussed. PMID:25368592

  5. DATA SET INCONGRUENCE, MISLEADING CHARACTERS, AND INSIGHTS FROM THE FOSSIL RECORD: THE CANID PHYLOGENY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Joao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying and accounting for sources of significant, explicit phylogenetic conflicts among data sets is an issue that requires further study. In this paper I explore the usefulness of the known fossil record for assessing the accuracy of conflicting sister taxa hypotheses, and in identifying and accounting for misleading characters (MCs. The alternative I present begins with a parsimony analysis of each available data set. Bootstrap proportions >95% supporting conflicting clades among most parsimonious trees (MPTs identify instances of "strong" data set incongruence. The accuracy of conflicting sister taxa hypotheses is assessed through a comparison of their temporal gaps (T. Conflicting clades, with a significantly longer than average T, are called into question. As exceptionally long Ts can result from incompleteness and/or biases in the fossil record, it is necessary to differentiate the effect of MCs from the effect of a fragmentary fossil record. For this, the effect that characters supporting questioned conflicting clades have on data set homoplasy is assessed. If resetting these characters to missing values reduces data set homoplasy in a manner that is significantly different from random, then conflicting clades with exceptionally long T must arise from the effect of MCs. If so, new MPTs are calculated for modified data sets and the testing process is repeated until no more well-supported, conflicting clades are found. Finally, data sets are combined and the MPT is calculated. I applied this approach to the phylogeny of the Caninae using morphological and mtDNA data sets. Among the MCs characters identified were some that cannot be accounted for by commonly used a priori weighting schemes. The phylogeny of canids is also briefly discussed. The resulting MPT suggests the colonization of South America by three canid lineages and that the trenchant heel, a trait associated with hypercarnivory and sociality, evolved only once within the

  6. Incongruence between Verbal and Non-Verbal Information Enhances the Late Positive Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Shu; Osumi, Michihiro; Shiotani, Mayu; Nobusako, Satoshi; Maeoka, Hiroshi; Okada, Yohei; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Matsuo, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal information. However, when presented with incongruence between verbal information and nonverbal information, the relationship between an individual judging trustworthiness in those who present the verbal-nonverbal incongruence and the brain activities observed during judgment for trustworthiness are not clear. In the present study, we attempted to identify the impact of incongruencies between verbal information and facial expression on the value of trustworthiness and brain activity using event-related potentials (ERP). Combinations of verbal information [positive/negative] and facial expressions [smile/angry] expressions were presented randomly on a computer screen to 17 healthy volunteers. The value of trustworthiness of the presented facial expression was evaluated by the amount of donation offered by the observer to the person depicted on the computer screen. In addition, the time required to judge the value of trustworthiness was recorded for each trial. Using electroencephalography, ERP were obtained by averaging the wave patterns recorded while the participants judged the value of trustworthiness. The amount of donation offered was significantly lower when the verbal information and facial expression were incongruent, particularly for [negative × smile]. The amplitude of the early posterior negativity (EPN) at the temporal lobe showed no significant difference between all conditions. However, the amplitude of the late positive potential (LPP) at the parietal electrodes for the incongruent condition [negative × smile] was higher than that for the congruent condition [positive × smile]. These results suggest that the LPP amplitude observed from the parietal cortex is involved in the processing of incongruence between verbal information and facial expression.

  7. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan S Terblanche

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution a number of procedural issues related to the sentencing of child offenders and emanating from the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 are considered in some detail. As a general rule, the Act requires pre-sentence reports to be obtained from probation officers before sentencing any child offender, with only a limited number of exceptions. The article argues that the peremptory nature of the Act means that a probation report is always required, even if reports by other experts are also available. The exceptions are limited to instances other than those where the child offender is sentenced to any form of imprisonment or to residence in a care centre. The article addresses the question of whether or not the reference to imprisonment includes alternative imprisonment which is imposed only as an alternative to a fine. It suggests that alternative imprisonment should, generally, not be imposed on child offenders. When an exception is not prevented because of the sentence, a pre-sentence report may be dispensed with only when the offence is a schedule-1 offence (the least serious class of offences or when obtaining a report would prejudice the child. It is argued that these exceptions are likely to occur rather rarely. A final aspect of the Act’s provisions on pre-sentence reports is the requirement that reasons be given for a departure from the recommendations in a pre-sentence report. This requirement merely confirms the status quo.The Act permits the prosecutor to provide the court with a victim impact statement. Such a statement is defined in the Act. It is a sworn statement by a victim or someone authorised by the victim explaining the consequences to the victim of the commission of the crime. The article also addresses the issue of whether or not the child justice court might mero motu obtain a victim impact statement when the prosecution does not do so.Finally, the article addresses appeals against and reviews of the trial

  8. Training Of Manual Actions Improves Language Understanding of Semantically-Related Action Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eLocatelli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual knowledge accessed by language may involve the re-activation of the associated primary sensory-motor processes. Whether these embodied representations are indeed constitutive to conceptual knowledge is hotly debated, particularly since direct evidence that sensory-motor expertise can improve conceptual processing is scarce.In this study, we sought for this crucial piece of evidence, by training naive healthy subjects to perform complex manual actions and by measuring, before and after training, their performance in a semantic language task. 19 participants engaged in 3 weeks of motor training. Each participant was trained in 3 complex manual actions (e.g. origami. Before and after the training period, each subject underwent a series of manual dexterity tests and a semantic language task. The latter consisted of a sentence-picture semantic congruency judgment task, with 6 target congruent sentence-picture pairs (semantically related to the trained manual actions, 6 non-target congruent pairs (semantically unrelated, and 12 filler incongruent pairs.Manual action training induced a significant improvement in all manual dexterity tests, demonstrating the successful acquisition of sensory-motor expertise. In the semantic language task, the reaction times to both target and non-target congruent sentence-image pairs decreased after action training, indicating a more efficient conceptual-semantic processing. Noteworthy, the reaction times for target pairs decreased more than those for non-target pairs, as indicated by the 2x2 interaction. These results were confirmed when controlling for the potential bias of increased frequency of use of target lexical items during manual training.The results of the present study suggest that sensory-motor expertise gained by training of specific manual actions can lead to an improvement of cognitive-linguistic skills related to the specific conceptual-semantic domain associated to the trained actions.

  9. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  10. Syntactical Connections in Old English (Composite Sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Shalifova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the evolution of the composite sentence in English. Special attention is given to Old English and different ways of syntactical connection of the clauses within a composite sentence. It is specially stressed that the syntactical structure of Old English was determined by the nature of its morphology on the one hand, and by the relation between the spoken and the written forms of the language, on the other. The authors come to the conclusion that the whole Old English syntax was paratactic and that subordination in it was not developed enough.

  11. Sentencing Hearings in English Crown Courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Enescu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the expressive side of the sentencing hearing in three trials dealing respectively with a charge of battery, of indecent assault and of manslaughter. The communication phases of the sentence have been associated with underlying functions of the judge’s speech and with moments of moralization. The specificity of the case appears in the distancing from the defendant and in the moralizing style of the judges. We discuss the implication of this procedure for the administration of justice and for the defendant.

  12. Automatic selection of informative sentences: The sentences that can generate multiple choice questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Majumder

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional education cannot meet the expectation and requirement of a Smart City; it require more advance forms like active learning, ICT education etc. Multiple choice questions (MCQs play an important role in educational assessment and active learning which has a key role in Smart City education. MCQs are effective to assess the understanding of well-defined concepts. A fraction of all the sentences of a text contain well-defined concepts or information that can be asked as a MCQ. These informative sentences are required to be identified first for preparing multiple choice questions manually or automatically. In this paper we propose a technique for automatic identification of such informative sentences that can act as the basis of MCQ. The technique is based on parse structure similarity. A reference set of parse structures is compiled with the help of existing MCQs. The parse structure of a new sentence is compared with the reference structures and if similarity is found then the sentence is considered as a potential candidate. Next a rule-based post-processing module works on these potential candidates to select the final set of informative sentences. The proposed approach is tested in sports domain, where many MCQs are easily available for preparing the reference set of structures. The quality of the system selected sentences is evaluated manually. The experimental result shows that the proposed technique is quite promising.

  13. A note on age differences in mood-congruent vs. mood-incongruent emotion processing in faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkle, Manuel C.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses four interrelated research questions: (1) Does experienced mood affect emotion perception in faces and is this perception mood-congruent or mood-incongruent?(2) Are there age-group differences in the interplay between experienced mood and emotion perception? (3) Does emotion perception in faces change as a function of the temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation, and (4) does emotion perception in faces serve a mood-regulatory function? One hundred fifty-four adults of three different age groups (younger: 20–31 years; middle-aged: 44–55 years; older adults: 70–81 years) were asked to provide multidimensional emotion ratings of a total of 1026 face pictures of younger, middle-aged, and older men and women, each displaying six different prototypical (primary) emotional expressions. By analyzing the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression to a face whose primary emotion had been correctly recognized, the multidimensional rating approach permits the study of emotion perception while controlling for emotion recognition. Following up on previous research on mood responses to recurring unpleasant situations using the same dataset (Voelkle et al., 2013), crossed random effects analyses supported a mood-congruent relationship between experienced mood and perceived emotions in faces. In particular older adults were more likely to perceive happiness in faces when being in a positive mood and less likely to do so when being in a negative mood. This did not apply to younger adults. Temporal sequence of study sessions and stimuli presentation had a strong effect on the likelihood of ascribing an additional emotional expression. In contrast to previous findings, however, there was neither evidence for a change from mood-congruent to mood-incongruent responses over time nor evidence for a mood-regulatory effect. PMID:25018740

  14. Reduction of Dutch Sentences for Automatic Subtitling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.; Daelemans, W.; Höthker, A.

    2004-01-01

    We compare machine learning approaches for sentence length reduction for automatic generation of subtitles for deaf and hearing-impaired people with a method which relies on hand-crafted deletion rules. We describe building the necessary resources for this task: a parallel corpus of examples of news

  15. THE CHILD JUSTICE ACT: PROCEDURAL SENTENCING ISSUES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stephan

    However, in view of the peremptory wording20 it is submitted that it would generally be advisable for the child justice court to comply with section 71(1) and to request a pre-sentence report from a probation officer. Such an approach would not prevent these other experts from also providing the court with a report on ...

  16. Genetic analysis of IQ, processing speed and stimulus-response incongruency effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma, D.; Mulder, E.J.C.M.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Psychometric IQ (WAIS-III), onset and peak latency of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP), decision time, and accuracy were assessed during an Eriksen Flanker task in a young (149 families) and in an older (122 families) cohort of twins and their siblings. Stimulus-response incongruency

  17. Incongruity Humor in Language and Beyond: From Bergson to Digitally Enhanced Worlds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    2015-01-01

    Humour research is often about verbal humour. Language allows us to play with words and with its syntactic, semantic and pragmatic aspects. It provides us with building blocks that can be composed in unusual ways, introducing ambiguities, confusion, inappropriate language use, and incongruities.

  18. Dueling Legislation: The Impact of Incongruent Federal Statutes on Homeless and Other Special-Needs Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brenda Toler; DeSander, Marguerita K.

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes points of incongruence between specific federal statutes designed to address educational needs of special-needs children and youth and their families. Coordination of legislation, policy, and programs addressing problems associated with poverty, homelessness, disabilities, and cultural diversity would greatly reduce fragmented and…

  19. Differences in the neural signature of remembering schema-congruent and schema-incongruent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Garvin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2015-08-15

    New experiences are remembered in relation to one's existing world knowledge or schema. Recent research suggests that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) supports the retrieval of schema-congruent information. However, the neural mechanisms supporting memory for information violating a schema have remained elusive, presumably because incongruity is inherently ambiguous in tasks that rely on world knowledge. We present a novel paradigm that experimentally induces hierarchically structured knowledge to directly contrast neural correlates that contribute to the successful retrieval of schema-congruent versus schema-incongruent information. We hypothesize that remembering incongruent events engages source memory networks including the lateral PFC. In a sample of young adults, we observed enhanced activity in the dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), in the posterior parietal cortex, and in the striatum when successfully retrieving incongruent events, along with enhanced connectivity between DLPFC and striatum. In addition, we found enhanced mPFC activity for successfully retrieved events that are congruent with the induced schema, presumably reflecting a role of the mPFC in biasing retrieval towards schema-congruent episodes. We conclude that medial and lateral PFC contributions to memory retrieval differ by schema congruency, and highlight the utility of the new experimental paradigm for addressing developmental research questions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Congruent and Incongruent Cues in Highly Familiar Audiovisual Action Sequences: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Wuerger

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In a previous fMRI study we found significant differences in BOLD responses for congruent and incongruent semantic audio-visual action sequences (whole-body actions and speech actions in bilateral pSTS, left SMA, left IFG, and IPL (Meyer, Greenlee, & Wuerger, JOCN, 2011. Here, we present results from a 128-channel ERP study that examined the time-course of these interactions using a one-back task. ERPs in response to congruent and incongruent audio-visual actions were compared to identify regions and latencies of differences. Responses to congruent and incongruent stimuli differed between 240–280 ms, 340–420 ms, and 460–660 ms after stimulus onset. A dipole analysis revealed that the difference around 250 ms can be partly explained by a modulation of sources in the vicinity of the superior temporal area, while the responses after 400 ms are consistent with sources in inferior frontal areas. Our results are in line with a model that postulates early recognition of congruent audiovisual actions in the pSTS, perhaps as a sensory memory buffer, and a later role of the IFG, perhaps in a generative capacity, in reconciling incongruent signals.

  1. The role of the amygdala in incongruity resolution: the case of humor comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tagiru; Matsui, Tomoko; Utsumi, Akira; Yamazaki, Mika; Makita, Kai; Harada, Tokiko; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2017-08-21

    A dominant theory of humor comprehension suggests that people understand humor by first perceiving some incongruity in an expression and then resolving it. This is called "the incongruity-resolution theory." Experimental studies have investigated the neural basis of humor comprehension, and multiple neural substrates have been proposed; however, the specific substrate for incongruity resolution is still unknown. The reason may be that the resolution phase, despite its importance in humor comprehension, has not been successfully distinguished from the perception phase because both phases occur almost simultaneously. To reveal the substrate, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance study using 51 healthy participants. We used a humor-producing frame of "Given A, I'd say B, because C" so as to focus on the resolution phase independently by suspending humor processing just after the perception phase. This frame allowed us to separate the two phases. Based on our results, incongruity resolution evoked positive emotion and activated the left amygdala, which is known to be related to positive emotion. On the basis of these findings, we argue that the amygdala plays an important role in humor comprehension, considering its functional role in emotional evaluation, particularly the relevance detection for incoming stimuli.

  2. Frequency of Input and L2 Collocational Processing: A Comparison of Congruent and Incongruent Collocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Brent; Gyllstad, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of frequency effects on the processing of congruent (i.e., having an equivalent first language [L1] construction) collocations and incongruent (i.e., not having an equivalent L1 construction) collocations in a second language (L2). An acceptability judgment task was administered to native and advanced…

  3. Determination of enthalpy–temperature–composition relations in incongruent-melting phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Allred, Paul; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that liquidus line (T-x) data can be obtained from calorimetric determinations of phase transition enthalpy profiles (H-T) for incongruent-melting phase change materials (PCMs) more efficiently than using traditional cooling curves. An accurate and reliable equilibrium mixture enthalpy model bridges the H-T and T-x gap to provide a full suite of high density H-T-x data to assist latent heat energy storage researchers to evaluate composition-dependent two-phase equilibrium processes. The proposed method is validated for T-history method H-T determinations of 1:1 diluted sodium acetate trihydrate in water, and can also be used with other laboratory calorimetric techniques used to determine the phase transition enthalpy profiles of incongruent-melting compounds. -- Highlights: • H-T data can also be used to obtain valuable liquidus region T-x data. • Applies to all incongruent-melting compounds with known thermodynamic properties. • Reduces the effort and cost of assessing full suite H-T-x data for PCMs. • Uses existing T-x or H-T data of incongruent-melting PCMs to determine the other

  4. A systematic analysis of sentence update detection for temporal summarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gârbacea, C.; Kanoulas, E.; Jose, J.M.; Hauff, C.; Altıngovde, I.S.; Song, D.; Albakour, D.; Watt, S.; Tait, J.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal summarization algorithms filter large volumes of streaming documents and emit sentences that constitute salient event updates. Systems developed typically combine in an ad-hoc fashion traditional retrieval and document summarization algorithms to filter sentences inside documents. Retrieval

  5. Federal Sentencing Guidelines: Background, Legal Analysis, and Policy Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seghetti, Lisa M; Smith, Alison M

    2007-01-01

    In United States v. Booker, an unusual two-part opinion transformed federal criminal sentencing by restoring to judges much of the discretion that Congress took away when it put mandatory sentencing guidelines in place...

  6. Enhancing Possible Sentence through Cooperative Learning (Open to Suggestion).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Sharon J.; Duffelmeyer, Frederick A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes using Think-Pair-Share (a three-step cooperative learning activity) to complement the sentence-generation phase of the Possible Sentences Activity, a highly recommended prereading vocabulary strategy. (SR)

  7. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  8. Specificational Copular Sentences in Russian and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara H Partee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Russian sentence (1, from Padučeva and Uspensky (1979, and English (2 are examples of specificational copular sentences: NP2 provides the ‘specification’, or ‘value’ of the description given by NP1. (1Vladelec ètogo osobnjaka – juvelir Fužere. owner-NOM this-GENmansion-GENjeweler-NOM Fuzhere ‘The owner of this mansion is the jeweler Fuzhere.’ (2The biggest problem is the recent budget cuts. Williams (1983 and Partee (1986 argued that specificational sentences like (2 result from “inversion around the copula”: that NP1 is a predicate (type and NP2 is the subject, a referential expression of type e. Partee (1999 argued that such an analysis is right for Russian, citing arguments from Padučeva and Uspensky (1979 that NP2 is the subject of sentence (1. But in that paper I argued that differences between Russian and English suggest that in English there is no such inversion, contra Williams (1983 and Partee (1986: the subject of (2 is NP1, and both NPs are of type e, but with NP1 less referential than NP2, perhaps “attributive”. Now, based on classic work by Roger Higgins on English and by Paducheva and Uspensky on Russian, and on a wealth of recent work by Mikkelsen, Geist, Romero, Schlenker, and others, a reexamination the semantics and structure of specificational copular sentences in Russian and English in a typological perspective supports a partly different set of conclusions: (i NP1 is of type and NP2 is of type e in both English and Russian; (ii but NP1 is subject in English, while NP2 is subject in Russian; and (iii NP1 in specificational sentences is universally topical (discourse-old, but only in some languages (like English is that accomplished by putting NP1 into canonical subject position. In other words, both English (2 and Russian (1 move the -type NP1 into some sentence-initial position for information-structure reasons, but in English NP1 ends up as syntactic subject

  9. Spoken sentence production in college students with dyslexia: working memory and vocabulary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseheart, Rebecca; Altmann, Lori J P

    2017-11-21

    Individuals with dyslexia demonstrate syntactic difficulties on tasks of language comprehension, yet little is known about spoken language production in this population. To investigate whether spoken sentence production in college students with dyslexia is less proficient than in typical readers, and to determine whether group differences can be attributable to cognitive differences between groups. Fifty-one college students with and without dyslexia were asked to produce sentences from stimuli comprising a verb and two nouns. Verb types varied in argument structure and morphological form and nouns varied in animacy. Outcome measures were precision (measured by fluency, grammaticality and completeness) and efficiency (measured by response times). Vocabulary and working memory tests were also administered and used as predictors of sentence production performance. Relative to non-dyslexic peers, students with dyslexia responded significantly slower and produced sentences that were significantly less precise in terms of fluency, grammaticality and completeness. The primary predictors of precision and efficiency were working memory, which differed between groups, and vocabulary, which did not. College students with dyslexia were significantly less facile and flexible on this spoken sentence-production task than typical readers, which is consistent with previous studies of school-age children with dyslexia. Group differences in performance were traced primarily to limited working memory, and were somewhat mitigated by strong vocabulary. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  10. Unscrambling Jumbled Sentences: An Authentic Task for English Language Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanteigne, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Jumbled sentence items in language assessment have been criticized by some authors as inauthentic. However, unscrambling jumbled sentences is a common occurrence in real-world communication in English as a lingua franca. Naturalistic inquiry identified 54 instances of jumbled sentence use in daily life in Dubai/Sharjah, where English is widely…

  11. Thomas Mofolo's sentence design in Chaka approached in translation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofolo's sentence design in Chakais a challenge to the translator, not only because of the significant length of the sentences, but ... Sentence design in this paper will be approached as a narrative facility novelists ex- plore for creative .... pris grand soin de cacher son aventure avec Nandi, mais bientôt tout de monde en eut.

  12. The Child Justice Act : Procedural Sentencing Issues | Terblanche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this contribution a number of procedural issues related to the sentencing of child offenders and emanating from the Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 are considered in some detail. As a general rule, the Act requires pre-sentence reports to be obtained from probation officers before sentencing any child offender, with only a ...

  13. 75 FR 13680 - Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... Sentence: Technical Change AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: This document makes a minor technical change to the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau) regulations on sentence commutation to.... Commutation of Sentence: Technical Change This document makes a minor technical change to the Bureau...

  14. Sentence Patterns in Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter | Chukwukaelo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to isolate, describe and evaluate sentence patterns in Ba's So Long a Letter with a view to determining their stylistic significance. Such stylistic devices as foregrounding, sentence fragmentation pattern repetition and category rule violation. The emphasis is on determining how the author's sentences ...

  15. A grammar of newspaper editorial language: The complex sentence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have limited ourselves to the complex sentence, and specifically, to the dependent clause as it occurs in these editorials. At the end of the analysis, we identified the following patterns: (a) only declarative sentences were used, (b) there was overwhelming reliance on complex sentences and (c) most of the complex ...

  16. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  17. GENERATIVE WORDS OF ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH SENTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    This studies or the aim of the research is to deals the generative “morphems, words or “simple or compound[1]” sentence. The full congrast of Albanian and English language in this phenomena of generative is in morphology and in syntactic structure. This accepts of studies will comparted, contrasted and generated between two languages. This studies deals with noun (noun phrase), verb (verb phrase) of syntactic structure between Albanian and English language. In both of languages, most linguis...

  18. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations, and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure) or complex (object-first sentence structure) and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants' working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower WMC. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility.

  19. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on processing demands during sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea eWendt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions can be effortful even when speech is fully intelligible. Acoustical distortions typically make speech comprehension more effortful, but effort also depends on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as its syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations and subjective effort ratings were recorded in 20 normal-hearing participants while performing a sentence comprehension task. The sentences were either syntactically simple (subject-first sentence structure or complex (object-first sentence structure and were presented in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants' working memory capacity. The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher working memory capacity showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful compared to participants with lower working memory capacity. Overall, the results demonstrate that pupil dilations and subjectively rated effort represent different aspects of effort. Furthermore, the results indicate that effort can vary in situations with high speech intelligibility.

  20. Ratings of pleasantness and intensity for beverages served in containers congruent and incongruent with expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudenbush, Bryan; Meyer, Brian; Eppich, William; Corley, Nathan; Petterson, Stephanie

    2002-04-01

    Pleasantness and intensity ratings of beverages served in containers congruent and incongruent with expectancy were assessed. Past research has shown that the violation of food expectancies, e.g., color, taste, temperature, leads to more negative evaluations of food. Thus, it was hypothesized that beverages sampled from a container incongruent with expectancy, e.g., beer from a coffee cup, would be rated less favorably than the same beverage sampled from a container congruent with expectancy, e.g., beer from a beer bottle. 61 participants evaluated three beverages (beer, orange juice, and hot chocolate) in three containers (bottle, glass, and cup) using 11-point rating scales for pleasantness and intensity. Analysis indicated beverages were rated as significantly more pleasant in containers congruent with expectancy, as well as rated more intense when presented in bottles. These results further address the effects of violating expectations on producing negative hedonic evaluations.

  1. The Dominant Robot: Threatening Robots Cause Psychological Reactance, Especially When They Have Incongruent Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubroeks, M. A. J.; Ham, J. R. C.; Midden, C. J. H.

    Persuasive technology can take the form of a social agent that persuades people to change behavior or attitudes. However, like any persuasive technology, persuasive social agents might trigger psychological reactance, which can lead to restoration behavior. The current study investigated whether interacting with a persuasive robot can cause psychological reactance. Additionally, we investigated whether goal congruency plays a role in psychological reactance. Participants programmed a washing machine while a robot gave threatening advice. Confirming expectations, participants experienced more psychological reactance when receiving high-threatening advice compared to low-threatening advice. Moreover, when the robot gave high-threatening advice and expressed an incongruent goal, participants reported the highest level of psychological reactance (on an anger measure). Finally, high-threatening advice led to more restoration, and this relationship was partially mediated by psychological reactance. Overall, results imply that under certain circumstances persuasive technology can trigger opposite effects, especially when people have incongruent goal intentions.

  2. Mechanical implications of humero-ulnar incongruity--finite element analysis and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, B; Eckstein, F; Hillebrand, S; Putz, R

    1997-07-01

    Previous studies show that the humero-ulnar joint is physiologically incongruous [Eckstein et al. (1995a) Anat. Rec. 243, 318-326] and exhibits a bicentric (ventro-dorsal) distribution of subchondral mineralization [Eckstein et al. (1995b) J. Orthop. Res. 13, 286-278]. We therefore asked: (1) Does humero-ulnar incongruity bring about a bicentric distribution of contact pressure? (2) Do tensile stresses occur in the subchondral bone of the trochlear notch that are in the same order of magnitude as the compressive stresses? (3) Do ventral and dorsal maxima of subchondral bone density correlate with a bicentric distribution of strain energy density? To that end, a two-dimensional finite element model was designed. The shape and material properties of the bones were based on CT and the boundary conditions selected to agree with resisted elbow extension at 90 degrees of flexion. The incongruity and contact areas were determined experimentally from casts, and the pressure distribution with Fuji Prescale film. In the model and the experiment contact stresses above 2 MPa were recorded in the ventral and dorsal parts of the joint, and values below 0.5 MPa in the depth of the notch. In the model, tensile stresses of 2.9 MPa were observed in the subchondral bone of the ulna, but not in the humerus. The subchondral strain energy density yielded a bicentric pattern in a model with homogeneous subchondral bone properties. It is shown that humero-ulnar incongruity brings about a bicentric distribution of contact pressure, a tensile stress in the notch that is in the same order of magnitude as the compressive stress, and a distribution of strain energy density that correlates with subchondral density patterns.

  3. Work-Based Social Interactions, Perceived Stress, and Workload Incongruence as Antecedents of Athletic Trainer Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P workplace interventions.

  4. Losing control: Mostly incongruent lists postpone, but do not eliminate, the Stroop effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Jason; Webb, Nicole E; Chahal, Harjot; Palango, Virginia P; Klein, Raymond M; Carroll, Steven R

    2018-03-08

    Identifying the color (e.g., red) of a color word that is incongruent (e.g., "BLUE") can be remarkably difficult. The Stroop effect is a measure of the interference between activity from word and color pathways. The efficacy of these pathways is thought to be highly contingent on the frequency of incongruent trials within a block. A block of trials with mostly incongruent (MI) trials typically results in a smaller Stroop effect than a block with mostly congruent (MC) trials. This reduction of the Stroop effect has been largely attributed to the strategic list-wide control of the word pathway. Here, the time course of the Stroop effect was explored using speed-accuracy tradeoff functions (SATfs) in tasks with 50 % congruent, MC, and MI trials. In the MC and 50 % congruent condition, color-word congruency affected the rate parameter of the SATf. In the MI condition, however, congruency affected the asymptote. This evidence is consistent with the idea that the strategic control of the word pathway is an effortful, temporary phenomenon, prone to buckle if responding is held in check.

  5. Incongruous Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Review of Jonathon Shears and Jen Harrison (ends), Literary Bric-à-Brac and the Victorians: From Commodities to Oddities.......Review of Jonathon Shears and Jen Harrison (ends), Literary Bric-à-Brac and the Victorians: From Commodities to Oddities....

  6. Sentence comprehension in Slovak-speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marková, Jana; Horváthová, Ľubica; Králová, Mária; Cséfalvay, Zsolt

    2017-07-01

    According to some studies, sentence comprehension is diminished in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, but they differ on what underlies the sentence comprehension impairment. Sentence comprehension in AD patients has been studied mainly in the English language. It is less clear how patients with AD speaking a morphologically rich language with grammatical morphemes indicating case and through it even thematic roles process reversible sentences. To compare the comprehension of various syntactic constructions in Slovak-speaking AD patients and cognitively intact elderly people. We were concerned with the influence of the following aspects on sentence comprehension: its length, the order of thematic roles and the presence of a morphological cue placed on the first noun (or at the beginning of a sentence). We used our own Slovak test of sentence comprehension based on matching pictures to spoken sentences. These sentences contain transitive verbs and two nouns (person/animal), one functioning as a subject and the other as an object, which both can perform the action expressed by the verb. We assessed 62 healthy elderly people and two groups of AD patients. The first group consisted of 34 participants with a mild degree of AD and the other group of 43 participants with a moderate degree of AD. Statistical comparisons showed that the elderly controls were significantly better in the comprehension of simple active OVS (object-verb-subject word order) sentences and complex EO sentences (a centre-embedded relative clause with a relative pronoun substituting for an object) than patients with a mild degree of AD. In patients with a moderate degree of AD, comprehension of all tested sentence types was worse than in healthy elderly people. The results also indicated that even mild AD patients have more serious problems with processing sentences with non-canonical order of thematic roles regardless of a morphological cue at the beginning of a sentence. The results point to

  7. Sentence processing: linking language to motor chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, Fabian; Thill, Serge; Ziemke, Tom; Borghi, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence in cognitive science and neuroscience points towards the existence of a deep interconnection between cognition, perception and action. According to this embodied perspective language is grounded in the sensorimotor system and language understanding is based on a mental simulation process (Jeannerod, 2007; Gallese, 2008; Barsalou, 2009). This means that during action words and sentence comprehension the same perception, action, and emotion mechanisms implied during interaction with objects are recruited. Among the neural underpinnings of this simulation process an important role is played by a sensorimotor matching system known as the mirror neuron system (Rizzolatti and Craighero, 2004). Despite a growing number of studies, the precise dynamics underlying the relation between language and action are not yet well understood. In fact, experimental studies are not always coherent as some report that language processing interferes with action execution while others find facilitation. In this work we present a detailed neural network model capable of reproducing experimentally observed influences of the processing of action-related sentences on the execution of motor sequences. The proposed model is based on three main points. The first is that the processing of action-related sentences causes the resonance of motor and mirror neurons encoding the corresponding actions. The second is that there exists a varying degree of crosstalk between neuronal populations depending on whether they encode the same motor act, the same effector or the same action-goal. The third is the fact that neuronal populations' internal dynamics, which results from the combination of multiple processes taking place at different time scales, can facilitate or interfere with successive activations of the same or of partially overlapping pools.

  8. Sentence Processing: Linking Language to Motor Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chersi, Fabian; Thill, Serge; Ziemke, Tom; Borghi, Anna M.

    2010-01-01

    A growing body of evidence in cognitive science and neuroscience points towards the existence of a deep interconnection between cognition, perception and action. According to this embodied perspective language is grounded in the sensorimotor system and language understanding is based on a mental simulation process (Jeannerod, 2007; Gallese, 2008; Barsalou, 2009). This means that during action words and sentence comprehension the same perception, action, and emotion mechanisms implied during interaction with objects are recruited. Among the neural underpinnings of this simulation process an important role is played by a sensorimotor matching system known as the mirror neuron system (Rizzolatti and Craighero, 2004). Despite a growing number of studies, the precise dynamics underlying the relation between language and action are not yet well understood. In fact, experimental studies are not always coherent as some report that language processing interferes with action execution while others find facilitation. In this work we present a detailed neural network model capable of reproducing experimentally observed influences of the processing of action-related sentences on the execution of motor sequences. The proposed model is based on three main points. The first is that the processing of action-related sentences causes the resonance of motor and mirror neurons encoding the corresponding actions. The second is that there exists a varying degree of crosstalk between neuronal populations depending on whether they encode the same motor act, the same effector or the same action-goal. The third is the fact that neuronal populations’ internal dynamics, which results from the combination of multiple processes taking place at different time scales, can facilitate or interfere with successive activations of the same or of partially overlapping pools. PMID:20725506

  9. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  10. Calculation of Sentence Semantic Similarity Based on Syntactic Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the problem of single direction of the solution of the existing sentence similarity algorithms, an algorithm for sentence semantic similarity based on syntactic structure was proposed. Firstly, analyze the sentence constituent, then through analysis convert sentence similarity into words similarity on the basis of syntactic structure, then convert words similarity into concept similarity through words disambiguation, and, finally, realize the semantic similarity comparison. It also gives the comparison rules in more detail for the modifier words in the sentence which also have certain contributions to the sentence. Under the same test condition, the experiments show that the proposed algorithm is more intuitive understanding of people and has higher accuracy.

  11. Proficiency and sentence constraint effects on second language word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Baoguo; Lu, Chunming; Dunlap, Susan

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an experiment that investigated the effects of L2 proficiency and sentence constraint on semantic processing of unknown L2 words (pseudowords). All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a second language. In the experiment, we used a whole sentence presentation paradigm with a delayed semantic relatedness judgment task. Both higher and lower-proficiency L2 learners could make use of the high-constraint sentence context to judge the meaning of novel pseudowords, and higher-proficiency L2 learners outperformed lower-proficiency L2 learners in all conditions. These results demonstrate that both L2 proficiency and sentence constraint affect subsequent word learning among second language learners. We extended L2 word learning into a sentence context, replicated the sentence constraint effects previously found among native speakers, and found proficiency effects in L2 word learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Empirical Descriptions of Criminal Sentencing Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus H. Wandall

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the widespread use of statistical causal modelling to describe criminal sentencing decision-making empirically in Scandinavia. The article describes the characteristics of this model, and on this basis discusses three aspects of sentencing decision-making that the model does not capture: 1 the role of law and legal structures in sentencing, 2 the processes of constructing law and facts as they occur in the processes of handling criminal cases, and 3 reflecting newer organisational changes to sentencing decision-making. The article argues for a stronger empirically based design of sentencing models and for a more balanced use of different social scientific methodologies and models of sentencing decision-making.

  13. Validation of two conceptualizations of fragile self-esteem: Contingent high self-esteem and incongruent high self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Bodroža, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to validate two aspects of fragile high self-esteem: a combination of contingent and high (explicit) self-esteem and a combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (i.e. incongruent high self-esteem), as well as to examine the relationship between these aspects of fragile self-esteem and narcissism. No convergence was found between contingent high and incongruent high self-esteem. The result was consistent regardles...

  14. Automatically extracting clinically useful sentences from UpToDate to support clinicians’ information needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rashmi; Fiol, Guilherme Del; Kilicoglu, Halil; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Fiszman, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians raise several information needs in the course of care. Most of these needs can be met by online health knowledge resources such as UpToDate. However, finding relevant information in these resources often requires significant time and cognitive effort. Objective: To design and assess algorithms for extracting from UpToDate the sentences that represent the most clinically useful information for patient care decision making. Methods: We developed algorithms based on semantic predications extracted with SemRep, a semantic natural language processing parser. Two algorithms were compared against a gold standard composed of UpToDate sentences rated in terms of clinical usefulness. Results: Clinically useful sentences were strongly correlated with predication frequency (correlation= 0.95). The two algorithms did not differ in terms of top ten precision (53% vs. 49%; p=0.06). Conclusions: Semantic predications may serve as the basis for extracting clinically useful sentences. Future research is needed to improve the algorithms. PMID:24551389

  15. Parafoveal preview benefit in sentence reading: Independent effects of plausibility and orthographic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, Aaron; Andrews, Sally

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence from studies using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm has suggested that parafoveal preview benefit is contingent on the fit between a preview word and the sentence context. We investigated whether this plausibility preview benefit is modulated by preview-target orthographic relatedness. Participants' eye movements were recorded as they read sentences in which the parafoveal preview of a target word was manipulated. The nonidentical previews were plausible or implausible continuations of the sentence and were either orthographic neighbors of the target or unrelated to the target. All first-pass reading measures showed strong plausibility preview benefits. There was also a benefit from preview-target orthographic relatedness across the reading measures. These two preview effects did not interact for any fixation measure. We also found no evidence that the relatedness effect was caused by misperception of an orthographically similar preview as the target word. These data highlight the existence of two independent mechanisms underlying preview effects: a benefit from the contextual fit of the preview word in the sentence, and a benefit from the sublexical overlap between the preview and target words.

  16. Memory and disgust: Effects of appearance-congruent and appearance-incongruent information on source memory for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Laura; Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The present study was stimulated by previous findings showing that people preferentially remember person descriptions that violate appearance-based first impressions. Given that until now all studies used faces as stimuli, these findings can be explained by referring to a content-specific module for social information processing that facilitates social orientation within groups via stereotyping and counter-stereotyping. The present study tests whether the same results can be obtained with fitness-relevant stimuli from another domain--pictures of disgusting-looking or tasty-looking food, paired with tasty and disgusting descriptions. A multinomial model was used to disentangle item memory, guessing and source memory. There was an old-new recognition advantage for disgusting-looking food. People had a strong tendency towards guessing that disgusting-looking food had been previously associated with a disgusting description. Source memory was enhanced for descriptions that disconfirmed these negative, appearance-based impressions. These findings parallel the results from the social domain. Heuristic processing of stimuli based on visual appearance may be complemented by intensified processing of incongruent information that invalidates these first impressions.

  17. Electrophysiological signatures of phonological and semantic maintenance in sentence repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Jed A; Kielar, Aneta; Panamsky, Lilia; Links, Kira A; Deschamps, Tiffany; Leigh, Rosie C

    2017-08-01

    Verbal short-term memory comprises resources for phonological rehearsal, which have been characterized anatomically, and for maintenance of semantic information, which are less understood. Sentence repetition tasks tap both processes interactively. To distinguish brain activity involved in phonological vs. semantic maintenance, we recorded magnetoencephalography during a sentence repetition task, incorporating three manipulations emphasizing one mechanism over the other. Participants heard sentences or word lists and attempted to repeat them verbatim after a 5-second delay. After MEG, participants completed a cued recall task testing how much they remembered of each sentence. Greater semantic engagement relative to phonological rehearsal was hypothesized for 1) sentences vs. word lists, 2) concrete vs. abstract sentences, and 3) well recalled vs. poorly recalled sentences. During auditory perception and the memory delay period, we found highly left-lateralized activation in the form of 8-30 Hz event-related desynchronization. Compared to abstract sentences, concrete sentences recruited posterior temporal cortex bilaterally, demonstrating a neural signature for the engagement of visual imagery in sentence maintenance. Maintenance of arbitrary word lists recruited right hemisphere dorsal regions, reflecting increased demands on phonological rehearsal. Sentences that were ultimately poorly recalled in the post-test also elicited extra right hemisphere activation when they were held in short-term memory, suggesting increased demands on phonological resources. Frontal midline theta oscillations also reflected phonological rather than semantic demand, being increased for word lists and poorly recalled sentences. These findings highlight distinct neural resources for phonological and semantic maintenance, with phonological maintenance associated with stronger oscillatory modulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structuring Judicial Discretion in China: Exploring the 2014 Sentencing Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Julian V.; Pei, Wei

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, a range of western jurisdictions has introduced reforms designed to restrict and guide judicial discretion at sentencing. The reforms enacted include mandatory sentencing laws and guiding statutes prescribing sentencing purposes and principles as well as important aggravating and mitigating factors. However, formal guidelines are the most promising and well-studied innovation. We may now add China to the growing list of countries that have recognized the utility o...

  19. THE FUNCTION OF SIMPLE SENTENCE BETWEEN ALBANIAN AND ENGLISH

    OpenAIRE

    Shkelqim Millaku

    2017-01-01

    In Albanian and English we have same kind of sentences (simple, compound or complex sentence). The major of elements or constituents that can be found in clauses are subject, predicate, object, complement etc. For Albanian and English most linguists agree on the needs to recognize at least the following word classes: noun, verb, adjective, preposition, adverb, determinative and conjunction. Each of these words classes is illustrated in the sentence below. The noun or noun phrase can be subjec...

  20. Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.L.; Perfetti, C.A.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    In an event-related potentials (ERPs) study, we examined the comprehension of different types of Chinese (Mandarin) relative clauses (object vs. subject-extracted) to test the universality and language specificity of sentence comprehension processes. Because Chinese lacks morphosyntactic cues to

  1. Sentence production in rehabilitation of agrammatism: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silagi, Marcela Lima; Hirata, Fernanda Naito; de Mendonça, Lúcia Iracema Zanotto

    2014-01-01

    Agrammatism is characterized by morphosyntactic deficits in production of sentences. Studies dealing with the treatment of these deficits are scarce and their results controversial. The present study describes the rehabilitation of a case diagnosed as chronic Broca's aphasia, with agrammatism, using a method directed to sentence structural deficits. The method aims to expand the grammatical repertoire by training production of sentences with support from contexts that stimulate actions and dialogues. The patient showed positive results on all types of sentences trained and generalized the gains to spontaneous speech. However, these benefits were not sustained in the long term. PMID:29213917

  2. Interference between sentence processing and probabilistic implicit sequence learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezso Nemeth

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During sentence processing we decode the sequential combination of words, phrases or sentences according to previously learned rules. The computational mechanisms and neural correlates of these rules are still much debated. Other key issue is whether sentence processing solely relies on language-specific mechanisms or is it also governed by domain-general principles.In the present study, we investigated the relationship between sentence processing and implicit sequence learning in a dual-task paradigm in which the primary task was a non-linguistic task (Alternating Serial Reaction Time Task for measuring probabilistic implicit sequence learning, while the secondary task were a sentence comprehension task relying on syntactic processing. We used two control conditions: a non-linguistic one (math condition and a linguistic task (word processing task. Here we show that the sentence processing interfered with the probabilistic implicit sequence learning task, while the other two tasks did not produce a similar effect.Our findings suggest that operations during sentence processing utilize resources underlying non-domain-specific probabilistic procedural learning. Furthermore, it provides a bridge between two competitive frameworks of language processing. It appears that procedural and statistical models of language are not mutually exclusive, particularly for sentence processing. These results show that the implicit procedural system is engaged in sentence processing, but on a mechanism level, language might still be based on statistical computations.

  3. Interference between sentence processing and probabilistic implicit sequence learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Csifcsak, Gabor; Szvoboda, Gabor; Howard, James H; Howard, Darlene V

    2011-03-08

    During sentence processing we decode the sequential combination of words, phrases or sentences according to previously learned rules. The computational mechanisms and neural correlates of these rules are still much debated. Other key issue is whether sentence processing solely relies on language-specific mechanisms or is it also governed by domain-general principles. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between sentence processing and implicit sequence learning in a dual-task paradigm in which the primary task was a non-linguistic task (Alternating Serial Reaction Time Task for measuring probabilistic implicit sequence learning), while the secondary task were a sentence comprehension task relying on syntactic processing. We used two control conditions: a non-linguistic one (math condition) and a linguistic task (word processing task). Here we show that the sentence processing interfered with the probabilistic implicit sequence learning task, while the other two tasks did not produce a similar effect. Our findings suggest that operations during sentence processing utilize resources underlying non-domain-specific probabilistic procedural learning. Furthermore, it provides a bridge between two competitive frameworks of language processing. It appears that procedural and statistical models of language are not mutually exclusive, particularly for sentence processing. These results show that the implicit procedural system is engaged in sentence processing, but on a mechanism level, language might still be based on statistical computations.

  4. Sentence Comprehension as Mental Simulation: An Information-Theoretic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Vigliocco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that the mental representation resulting from sentence comprehension is not (just an abstract symbolic structure but a “mental simulation” of the state-of-affairs described by the sentence. We present a particular formalization of this theory and show how it gives rise to quantifications of the amount of syntactic and semantic information conveyed by each word in a sentence. These information measures predict simulated word-processing times in a dynamic connectionist model of sentence comprehension as mental simulation. A quantitatively similar relation between information content and reading time is known to be present in human reading-time data.

  5. Sentence alignment using feed forward neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, Mohamed Abdel; Ren, Fuji; Kuroiwa, Shingo

    2006-12-01

    Parallel corpora have become an essential resource for work in multi lingual natural language processing. However, sentence aligned parallel corpora are more efficient than non-aligned parallel corpora for cross language information retrieval and machine translation applications. In this paper, we present a new approach to align sentences in bilingual parallel corpora based on feed forward neural network classifier. A feature parameter vector is extracted from the text pair under consideration. This vector contains text features such as length, punctuate score, and cognate score values. A set of manually prepared training data has been assigned to train the feed forward neural network. Another set of data was used for testing. Using this new approach, we could achieve an error reduction of 60% over length based approach when applied on English-Arabic parallel documents. Moreover this new approach is valid for any language pair and it is quite flexible approach since the feature parameter vector may contain more/less or different features than that we used in our system such as lexical match feature.

  6. Sentence processing: linking language to motor chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Chersi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence in cognitive science and neuroscience is pointing towards the existence of a deep interconnection between cognition, perception and action. According to this embodied perspective language understanding is based on a mental simulation process involving a sensory-motor matching system known as the mirror neuron system. However, the precise dynamics underling the relation between language and action are not yet well understood. In fact, experimental studies are not always coherent as some report that language processing interferes with action execution while others find facilitation. In this work we present a detailed neural network model capable of reproducing experimentally observed influences of the processing of action-related sentences on the execution of motor sequences. The proposed model is based on three main points. The first is that the processing of action-related sentences causes the resonance of motor and mirror neurons encoding the corresponding actions. The second is that there exists a varying degree of crosstalk between neuronal populations depending on whether they encode the same motor act, the same effector or the same action-goal. The third is the fact that neuronal populations’ internal dynamics, which results from the combination of multiple processes taking place at different time scales, can facilitate or interfere with successive activations of the same or of partially overlapping pools.

  7. Nonnative accent discrimination with words and sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagi, Eriko; Bent, Tessa

    2017-01-01

    Background Accent detection studies have shown native listeners to be highly sensitive to the presence of nonnative accents. This study examined the robustness of this sensitivity. Methods We evaluated listeners’ accent discrimination performance when presented with a stimulus set consisting of multiple nonnative accents, as well as words and sentences that were unique in each trial. Listeners heard pairs of talkers reading the same word or sentence and indicated whether the talkers’ native languages were the same or different. Talkers included two native talkers and six nonnative talkers from three native language backgrounds. Results Listeners were highly sensitive to the difference between native and nonnative accents, confirming earlier findings, but were much less sensitive to the difference between two nonnative accents. Furthermore, while stimulus length affected listeners’ sensitivity to the difference between native and nonnative accents, this factor had a minimal effect on their sensitivity to the difference between two nonnative accents. Conclusion The findings suggest that task and stimulus characteristics have a significant effect on the degree of sensitivity to nonnative accents. PMID:28268232

  8. Endocrine Treatment of Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Wylie C; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Gooren, Louis; Hannema, Sabine E; Meyer, Walter J; Murad, M Hassan; Rosenthal, Stephen M; Safer, Joshua D; Tangpricha, Vin; T'Sjoen, Guy G

    2017-11-01

    To update the "Endocrine Treatment of Transsexual Persons: An Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline," published by the Endocrine Society in 2009. The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed task force of nine experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. The task force commissioned two systematic reviews and used the best available evidence from other published systematic reviews and individual studies. Group meetings, conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Endocrine Society committees, members and cosponsoring organizations reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of the guidelines. Gender affirmation is multidisciplinary treatment in which endocrinologists play an important role. Gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons seek and/or are referred to endocrinologists to develop the physical characteristics of the affirmed gender. They require a safe and effective hormone regimen that will (1) suppress endogenous sex hormone secretion determined by the person's genetic/gonadal sex and (2) maintain sex hormone levels within the normal range for the person's affirmed gender. Hormone treatment is not recommended for prepubertal gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons. Those clinicians who recommend gender-affirming endocrine treatments-appropriately trained diagnosing clinicians (required), a mental health provider for adolescents (required) and mental health professional for adults (recommended)-should be knowledgeable about the diagnostic criteria and criteria for gender-affirming treatment, have sufficient training and experience in assessing psychopathology, and be willing to participate in the ongoing care throughout the endocrine transition. We recommend treating gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent

  9. Child writers' construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-02-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development.

  10. Child writers’ construction and reconstruction of single sentences and construction of multi-sentence texts: contributions of syntax and transcription to translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Nagy, William; Beers, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Children in grades one to four completed two sentence construction tasks: (a) Write one complete sentence about a topic prompt (sentence integrity, Study 1); and (b) Integrate two sentences into one complete sentence without changing meaning (sentence combining, Study 2). Most, but not all, children in first through fourth grade could write just one sentence. The sentence integrity task was not correlated with sentence combining until fourth grade, when in multiple regression, sentence integrity explained unique variance in sentence combining, along with spelling. Word-level skills (morphology in first and spelling in second through fourth grade) consistently explained unique variance in sentence combining. Thus, many beginning writers have syntactic knowledge of what constitutes a complete sentence, but not until fourth grade do both syntax and transcription contribute uniquely to flexible translation of ideas into the syntax of a written sentence. In Study 3, eleven syntactic categories were identified in single- and multi- sentence composing from second to fifth grade. Complex clauses (independent plus subordinate) occurred more often on single-sentence composing, but single independent clauses occurred more often on multi-sentence composing. For multi-sentence text, more single, independent clauses were produced by pen than keyboard in grades 3 to 7. The most frequent category of complex clauses in multi-sentence texts varied with genre (relative for essays and subordinate for narratives). Thus, in addition to syntax-level sentence construction and word-level transcription, amount of translation (number of sentences), mode of transcription, and genre for multiple sentence text also influence translation of ideas into written language of child writers. Results of these studies employing descriptive linguistic analyses are discussed in reference to cognitive theory of writing development. PMID:21383865

  11. Neck Pain and Proprioception Revisited Using the Proprioception Incongruence Detection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Daniel S; Hillier, Susan; Madden, Victoria J; Smith, Ross T; Broecker, Markus; Meulders, Ann; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-05-01

    Proprioceptive imprecision is believed to contribute to persistent pain. Detecting imprecision in order to study or treat it remains challenging given the limitations of current tests. The aim of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive imprecision could be detected in people with neck pain by testing their ability to identify incongruence between true head motion and a false visual reference using the Proprioception Incongruence Detection (PID) Test. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Twenty-four people with neck pain and 24 matched controls repeatedly rotated to specific markers within a virtual world and indicated if their true head rotation was more or less than the rotation suggested by the visual feedback. Visual feedback was manipulated at 6 corrections, ranging from 60% of true movement to 140% of true movement. A standard repositioning error (RPE) test as undertaken for comparison. Healthy controls were better able to detect incongruence between vision and true head rotation (X̅=75.6%, SD=8.5%) than people with neck pain were (X̅=69.6%, SD=12.7%). The RPE test scores were not different between groups. The PID Test score related to self-reported pain intensity but did not relate to RPE test score. Causality cannot be established from this cross-sectional study, and further work refining the PID Test is needed for it to offer clinical utility. Proprioceptive precision for neck movement appears worse in people with neck pain than in those without neck pain, and the extent of the deficit appears to be related to usual pain severity. The PID Test appears to be a more sensitive test than the RPE test and is likely to be useful for assessment of proprioceptive function in research and clinical settings. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  12. Consequences of incongruency in diurnally varying resources for seedlings of Rumex crispus (Polygonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender-Bares, J M; Voss, P B; Bazzaz, F A

    1998-09-01

    The incongruency of diurnally varying resources essential to plants may detrimentally affect plants early in their development as indicated by reduced water use efficiency and carbon gain. Typical diurnal patterns of light and CO(2) availability in a midsized temperate herbaceous or forest gap were simulated in specially designed growth chambers. A sinusoidally varying CO(2) treatment (400 ppm minimum, 800 ppm maximum) approximated the diurnal cycle of CO(2) at the soil surface, while a steady-state CO(2) treatment (600 ppm) with the same average CO(2 )concentration provided a control. Crossed with these two CO(2) treatments were two light regimes, one with 3 h of high light (850 μmol·m·s) in the morning (west side of a gap), and the other with 3 h of high light in the afternoon (east side). All treatments received baseline low light (55 μmol·m·s) for 14 h during the day. Rumex crispus was selected as a model species because of its rosette leaves, which grow close to the ground where diurnal CO(2 )variation is greatest. The relative timing of diurnal variations in light and CO(2) significantly affected seedling water use efficiency, carbon gain, and morphology. Total biomass, photosynthetic rates, daily integrated carbon, water use efficiency, and leaf area were enhanced by morning exposure to high light. Seedlings that were exposed to peak values of light and CO(2) incongruently, i.e., those plants receiving intense afternoon light with diurnally varying CO(2), were detrimentally affected relative to control plants receiving intense afternoon light with steady-state CO(2). The results of this experiment indicate that the incongruent availability of required resources-such as light and CO(2)-can detrimentally affect performance relative to when resources are congruent. These contrasting resource regimes can occur on the east and west side of gaps.

  13. The importance of gestural communication: a study of human-dog communication using incongruent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Scandurra, Anna; Alterisio, Alessandra; Valsecchi, Paola; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

    2016-11-01

    We assessed how water rescue dogs, which were equally accustomed to respond to gestural and verbal requests, weighted gestural versus verbal information when asked by their owner to perform an action. Dogs were asked to perform four different actions ("sit", "lie down", "stay", "come") providing them with a single source of information (in Phase 1, gestural, and in Phase 2, verbal) or with incongruent information (in Phase 3, gestural and verbal commands referred to two different actions). In Phases 1 and 2, we recorded the frequency of correct responses as 0 or 1, whereas in Phase 3, we computed a 'preference index' (percentage of gestural commands followed over the total commands responded). Results showed that dogs followed gestures significantly better than words when these two types of information were used separately. Females were more likely to respond to gestural than verbal commands and males responded to verbal commands significantly better than females. In the incongruent condition, when gestures and words simultaneously indicated two different actions, the dogs overall preferred to execute the action required by the gesture rather than that required verbally, except when the verbal command "come" was paired with the gestural command "stay" with the owner moving away from the dog. Our data suggest that in dogs accustomed to respond to both gestural and verbal requests, gestures are more salient than words. However, dogs' responses appeared to be dependent also on the contextual situation: dogs' motivation to maintain proximity with an owner who was moving away could have led them to make the more 'convenient' choices between the two incongruent instructions.

  14. Community-Level Interventions for Reconciling Conflicting Religious and Sexual Domains in Identity Incongruity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboro, Renato M

    2015-08-01

    Two of the most unstable domains involved in identity formation, the religious and sexual domains, come into conflict when vulnerable populations of the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community experience oppression from the indoctrination of religious beliefs that persecute their sexual orientation. This conflict, aptly termed identity incongruity in this article's discourse, results in a schism that adversely affects these vulnerable populations. This paper investigates the roles of religion, spirituality and available institutional solutions to propose customized, culturally adapted, contextually based and collaborative community-level interventions that would facilitate the reconciliation of the conflicting identity domains.

  15. Exploring the function of relative sentences in New Testament Greek

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-14

    Aug 14, 2015 ... smart phone or mobile device to read online. Introduction. The relative construction, which commonly consists of an antecedent and a relative sentence, ... light of the above. The function of relative sentences in some modern languages. In many modern languages, the notion of 'restriction' has played an ...

  16. Sentence comprehension and word repetition : A positron emission tomography investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, L.A.; Paans, A.M.J.; Wijers, A.A.; Zwarts, F.; Mulder, G.; Vaalburg, W.

    1999-01-01

    Using positron emission tomography, visual presentation of sentences was shown to cause increased regional cerebral blood flow relative to word Lists in the left lateral anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, attributable to cognitive processes that occur during sentence comprehension in

  17. Focal F0 peak shape and sentence mode in Swedish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrazaitis, Gilbert; Buanzur, Tuarik C.; Niebuhr, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Shape characteristics of rising-falling accentual F0 peaks of Stockholm Swedish Accent I words in narrow focus are studied in a corpus of 287 read sentences. The corpus includes statements and three types of polar questions. Results reveal a clear effect of sentence mode on the shape of the accen...

  18. Grammar for College Writing: A Sentence-Composing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killgallon, Don; Killgallon, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Across America, in thousands of classrooms, from elementary school to high school, the time-tested sentence-composing approach has given students tools to become better writers. Now the authors present a much anticipated sentence-composing grammar worktext for college writing. This book presents a new and easier way to understand grammar: (1) Noun…

  19. 76 FR 41332 - Sentencing Guidelines for the United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(o), and specifies in what circumstances and by what amount sentences of... amendment to a policy statement and commentary made pursuant to its authority under 28 U.S.C. 994(a) and (u... as a Result of Amended Guideline Range) clarifying when, and to what extent, a sentencing reduction...

  20. Ambiguity resolution in a Neural Blackboard Architecture for sentence structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, Frank; de Kamps, Marc; Besold, Tarek R.; Kühnberger, Kai-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    We simulate two examples of ambiguity resolution found in human language processing in a neural blackboard architecture for sentence representation and processing. The architecture also accounts for a related garden path effect. The architecture represents and processes sentences in terms of

  1. Semantic Similarity, Predictability, and Models of Sentence Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Douglas; Yun, Hongoak; Koenig, Jean-Pierre; Mauner, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The effects of word predictability and shared semantic similarity between a target word and other words that could have taken its place in a sentence on language comprehension are investigated using data from a reading time study, a sentence completion study, and linear mixed-effects regression modeling. We find that processing is facilitated if…

  2. Paradoxical effects of compulsive perseveration : Sentence repetition causes semantic uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giele, Catharina L.; van den Hout, Marcel A.; Engelhard, Iris M.; Dek, Eliane C P

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) perform perseverative checking behavior to reduce uncertainty, but studies have shown that this ironically increases uncertainty. Some patients also tend to perseveratively repeat sentences. The aim of this study was to examine whether sentence

  3. Single Word and Sentence Intelligibility in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khwaileh, Fadwa A.; Flipsen, Peter, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the intelligibility of speech produced by 17 children (aged 4-11 years) with cochlear implants. Stimulus items included sentences from the Beginners' Intelligibility Test (BIT) and words from the Children Speech Intelligibility Measure (CSIM). Naive listeners responded by writing sentences heard or with two types of responses…

  4. Transformations. I. The Effect of DAF on Sentence Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, David

    1976-01-01

    A hypothesis based on the psycholinguistic derivation of sentences was tested. The task required that sentences temporarily stored in memory be transformed and spoken with delayed auditory feedback. Available from Plenum Publishing Corp., 227 W. 17th St., New York, NY 10011. (Author/RM)

  5. Community Sentencing of Petty Offenders: An Exploration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With such favourable attitudes, it is recommended that community sentencing be considered as an alternative to custodial sentencing of petty offenders. Thus, there is the urgent call for a reexamination of Ghana's criminal justice system towards embracing some forms of restorative justice such as community service.

  6. A comparison of two pedagogical systems of sentence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Ebensgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes, compares, and analyzes the slashes-and-vertical-lines model of sentence analysis and the SPOAC model, both of which were designed with pedagogical purposes in mind.......This paper describes, compares, and analyzes the slashes-and-vertical-lines model of sentence analysis and the SPOAC model, both of which were designed with pedagogical purposes in mind....

  7. The Effects of Syntactic Complexity on Processing Sentences in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rebecca; Ruigendijk, Esther

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of stationary (non-fluctuating) noise on processing and understanding of sentences, which vary in their syntactic complexity (with the factors canonicity, embedding, ambiguity). It presents data from two RT-studies with 44 participants testing processing of German sentences in silence and in noise. Results show a…

  8. Neural correlates of processing sentences and compound words in Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Bulut

    Full Text Available Sentence reading involves multiple linguistic operations including processing of lexical and compositional semantics, and determining structural and grammatical relationships among words. Previous studies on Indo-European languages have associated left anterior temporal lobe (aTL and left interior frontal gyrus (IFG with reading sentences compared to reading unstructured word lists. To examine whether these brain regions are also involved in reading a typologically distinct language with limited morphosyntax and lack of agreement between sentential arguments, an FMRI study was conducted to compare passive reading of Chinese sentences, unstructured word lists and disconnected character lists that are created by only changing the order of an identical set of characters. Similar to previous findings from other languages, stronger activation was found in mainly left-lateralized anterior temporal regions (including aTL for reading sentences compared to unstructured word and character lists. On the other hand, stronger activation was identified in left posterior temporal sulcus for reading unstructured words compared to unstructured characters. Furthermore, reading unstructured word lists compared to sentences evoked stronger activation in left IFG and left inferior parietal lobule. Consistent with the literature on Indo-European languages, the present results suggest that left anterior temporal regions subserve sentence-level integration, while left IFG supports restoration of sentence structure. In addition, left posterior temporal sulcus is associated with morphological compounding. Taken together, reading Chinese sentences engages a common network as reading other languages, with particular reliance on integration of semantic constituents.

  9. Neural correlates of processing sentences and compound words in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Talat; Hung, Yi-Hui; Tzeng, Ovid; Wu, Denise H

    2017-01-01

    Sentence reading involves multiple linguistic operations including processing of lexical and compositional semantics, and determining structural and grammatical relationships among words. Previous studies on Indo-European languages have associated left anterior temporal lobe (aTL) and left interior frontal gyrus (IFG) with reading sentences compared to reading unstructured word lists. To examine whether these brain regions are also involved in reading a typologically distinct language with limited morphosyntax and lack of agreement between sentential arguments, an FMRI study was conducted to compare passive reading of Chinese sentences, unstructured word lists and disconnected character lists that are created by only changing the order of an identical set of characters. Similar to previous findings from other languages, stronger activation was found in mainly left-lateralized anterior temporal regions (including aTL) for reading sentences compared to unstructured word and character lists. On the other hand, stronger activation was identified in left posterior temporal sulcus for reading unstructured words compared to unstructured characters. Furthermore, reading unstructured word lists compared to sentences evoked stronger activation in left IFG and left inferior parietal lobule. Consistent with the literature on Indo-European languages, the present results suggest that left anterior temporal regions subserve sentence-level integration, while left IFG supports restoration of sentence structure. In addition, left posterior temporal sulcus is associated with morphological compounding. Taken together, reading Chinese sentences engages a common network as reading other languages, with particular reliance on integration of semantic constituents.

  10. The Timing of Verb Selection in Japanese Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momma, Shota; Slevc, L. Robert; Phillips, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Many influential models of sentence production (e.g., Bock & Levelt, 1994; Kempen & Hoenkamp, 1987; Levelt, 1989) emphasize the central role of verbs in structural encoding, and thus predict that verbs should be selected early in sentence formulation, possibly even before the phonological encoding of the first constituent (Ferreira, 2000).…

  11. Sentence processing and grammaticality in functional linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    that reading-time methods can be used to obtain relevant data since difficulties with comprehending ungrammatical sentences presumably translate into prolonged reading-times. In Chapter 4, the phenomenon of non-WH extraction in Danish is presented. Such extraction is restricted, and linguistic theories...... processing, and I illustrate how the model can implement incremental processing. I then suggest which processing predictions can be derived for the linguistic theories of extraction constraints presented in Chapter 4. Chapter 6 presents two sets of acceptability-judgment and reading-time experiments...... on constraints on extraction out of adverbial clauses. The first set of experiments shows that difficulties with extraction out of adverbial clauses appear around the clause boundary. The second set of experiments investigated whether difficulties with extraction out of adverbial clauses are ameliorated when...

  12. Emotional Sentence Annotation Helps Predict Fiction Genre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samothrakis, Spyridon; Fasli, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fiction, a prime form of entertainment, has evolved into multiple genres which one can broadly attribute to different forms of stories. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that works of fiction can be characterised by the emotions they portray. To investigate this hypothesis, we use the work of fictions in the Project Gutenberg and we attribute basic emotional content to each individual sentence using Ekman's model. A time-smoothed version of the emotional content for each basic emotion is used to train extremely randomized trees. We show through 10-fold Cross-Validation that the emotional content of each work of fiction can help identify each genre with significantly higher probability than random. We also show that the most important differentiator between genre novels is fear.

  13. Emotional Sentence Annotation Helps Predict Fiction Genre.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Samothrakis

    Full Text Available Fiction, a prime form of entertainment, has evolved into multiple genres which one can broadly attribute to different forms of stories. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that works of fiction can be characterised by the emotions they portray. To investigate this hypothesis, we use the work of fictions in the Project Gutenberg and we attribute basic emotional content to each individual sentence using Ekman's model. A time-smoothed version of the emotional content for each basic emotion is used to train extremely randomized trees. We show through 10-fold Cross-Validation that the emotional content of each work of fiction can help identify each genre with significantly higher probability than random. We also show that the most important differentiator between genre novels is fear.

  14. Emotional Sentence Annotation Helps Predict Fiction Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samothrakis, Spyridon; Fasli, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Fiction, a prime form of entertainment, has evolved into multiple genres which one can broadly attribute to different forms of stories. In this paper, we examine the hypothesis that works of fiction can be characterised by the emotions they portray. To investigate this hypothesis, we use the work of fictions in the Project Gutenberg and we attribute basic emotional content to each individual sentence using Ekman’s model. A time-smoothed version of the emotional content for each basic emotion is used to train extremely randomized trees. We show through 10-fold Cross-Validation that the emotional content of each work of fiction can help identify each genre with significantly higher probability than random. We also show that the most important differentiator between genre novels is fear. PMID:26524352

  15. Complex evolution in Arundinarieae (Poaceae: Bambusoideae): incongruence between plastid and nuclear GBSSI gene phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiao; Zeng, Chun-Xia; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-06-01

    The monophyly of tribe Arundinarieae (the temperate woody bamboos) has been unequivocally recovered in previous molecular phylogenetic studies. In a recent phylogenetic study, 10 major lineages in Arundinarieae were resolved based on eight non-coding plastid regions, which conflicted significantly with morphological classifications both at the subtribal and generic levels. Nevertheless, relationships among and within the 10 lineages remain unclear. In order to further unravel the evolutionary history of Arundinarieae, we used the nuclear GBSSI gene sequences along with those of eight plastid regions for phylogenetic reconstruction, with an emphasis on Chinese species. The results of the plastid analyses agreed with previous studies, whereas 13 primary clades revealed in the GBSSI phylogeny were better resolved at the generic level than the plastid phylogeny. Our analyses also revealed many inconsistencies between the plastid DNA and the nuclear GBSSI trees. These results implied that the nuclear genome and the plastid genome had different evolutionary trajectories. The patterns of incongruence suggested that lack of informative characters, incomplete lineage sorting, and/or hybridization (introgression) could be the causes. Seven putative hybrid species were hypothesized, four of which are discussed in detail on the basis of topological incongruence, chromosome numbers, morphology, and distribution patterns, and those taxa probably resulted from homoploid hybrid speciation. Overall, our study indicates that the tribe Arundinarieae has undergone a complex evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Impact of the Indeterminate Sentence on an Inmate Social System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Clifford

    1983-01-01

    Describes how indeterminate sentencing creates unique adaptations on the part of inmates, creating different kinds of difficulties for the staff. Questions whether this type of sentencing facilitates rehabilitation any more than traditional mandatory sentencing. (JAC)

  17. Design of short Italian sentences to assess near vision performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calossi, Antonio; Boccardo, Laura; Fossetti, Alessandro; Radner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    To develop and validate 28 short Italian sentences for the construction of the Italian version of the Radner Reading Chart to simultaneously measure near visual acuity and reading speed. 41 sentences were constructed in Italian language, following the procedure defined by Radner, to obtain "sentence optotypes" with comparable structure and with the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Sentences were statistically selected and used in 211 normal, non-presbyopic, native Italian-speaking persons. The most equally matched sentences in terms of reading speed and number of reading errors were selected. To assess the validity of the reading speed results obtained with the 28 selected short sentences, we compared the reading speed and reading errors with the average obtained by reading two long 4th-grade paragraphs (97 and 90 words) under the same conditions. The overall mean reading speed of the tested persons was 189±26wpm. The 28 sentences more similar in terms of reading times were selected, achieving a coefficient of variation (the relative SD) of 2.2%. The reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. The correlation between the short sentences and the long paragraph was high (r=0.85, P<0.0001). The 28 short single Italian sentences optotypes were highly comparable in syntactical structure, number, position, and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. The resulting Italian Radner Reading Chart is precise (high consistency) and practical (short sentences) and therefore useful for research and clinical practice to simultaneously measure near reading acuity and reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Morphomechanics of the humero-ulnar joint: II. Concave incongruity determines the distribution of load and subchondral mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, F; Merz, B; Müller-Gerbl, M; Holzknecht, N; Pleier, M; Putz, R

    1995-11-01

    A deeper joint socket (concave incongruity) is found at most angles of flexion of the humero-ulnar joint and maintained over a wide range of physiological loading. It is, however, unclear how far this incongruity affects the distribution of load and subchondral mineralization of this joint as compared with a congruous configuration. Two nonlinear, axisymmetrical finite element models with two cartilage layers were constructed, one congruous and one incongruous, with a joint space of realistic magnitude. The distribution of subchondral mineralization was determined by computed tomography osteoabsorptiometry in the same six specimens that were investigated in the first part of the study, and compared with the biomechanical data obtained there and the predictions of the models. In the congruous case, the center of the socket is highly loaded, whereas the periphery does not experience mechanical stimulation. A central bone density maximum is predicted. With concave incongruity the position of the contact areas shifts from the joint margin towards the center as the load increases, and the peak stresses are considerably lower. A bicentric ventro-dorsal distribution pattern of subchondral mineralization is predicted, and this is actually found in the six specimens. Concave incongruity is shown to determine load transmission and subchondral mineralization of the humero-ulnar joint. It is suggested that this shape leads to a more even distribution of stress, provides intermittent stimulation of the cartilaginous tissue, and has beneficial effects on the metabolism, nutrition, and lubrication of the articular cartilage during cyclic loading.

  19. Non-LTR R2 element evolutionary patterns: phylogenetic incongruences, rapid radiation and the maintenance of multiple lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luchetti

    Full Text Available Retrotransposons of the R2 superclade specifically insert within the 28S ribosomal gene. They have been isolated from a variety of metazoan genomes and were found vertically inherited even if their phylogeny does not always agree with that of the host species. This was explained with the diversification/extinction of paralogous lineages, being proved the absence of horizontal transfer. We here analyze the widest available collection of R2 sequences, either newly isolated from recently sequenced genomes or drawn from public databases, in a phylogenetic framework. Results are congruent with previous analyses, but new important issues emerge. First, the N-terminal end of the R2-B clade protein, so far unknown, presents a new zinc fingers configuration. Second, the phylogenetic pattern is consistent with an ancient, rapid radiation of R2 lineages: being the estimated time of R2 origin (850-600 Million years ago placed just before the metazoan Cambrian explosion, the wide element diversity and the incongruence with the host phylogeny could be attributable to the sudden expansion of available niches represented by host's 28S ribosomal genes. Finally, we detect instances of coexisting multiple R2 lineages showing a non-random phylogenetic pattern, strongly similar to that of the "library" model known for tandem repeats: a collection of R2s were present in the ancestral genome and then differentially activated/repressed in the derived species. Models for activation/repression as well as mechanisms for sequence maintenance are also discussed within this framework.

  20. Mood-incongruent processing during the recall of a sad life event predicts the course and severity of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Kulessa, Dominika; Hautzinger, Martin; Bents, Hinrich; Backenstrass, Matthias

    2015-11-15

    Previous studies suggest that mood-incongruent processing constitutes an adaptive mood regulation strategy, and that difficulties in this process may contribute to the maintenance of depression. However, no study has yet examined whether mood-incongruent processing predicts the course and severity of clinical depression. To address this question, the present study used a prospective, longitudinal design to examine the effects of mood-incongruent processing in a sample of 59 clinically depressed patients. At baseline, participants were asked to recall and describe a sad and a happy life event. Participants' utterances were transcribed and analysed using computerized text analysis. Negated emotion words were excluded. The proportion of positive emotion words during sad memory recall was used as an indicator of mood-incongruent processing. After 6 months, participants were re-assessed for symptom levels and the criteria of major depressive disorder (MDD) during the follow-up period. Higher relative frequency of positive emotion words during sad memory recall was associated with less symptoms of depression at follow-up and shorter time to recovery from MDD, over and above baseline symptoms of depression. The effect was not just due to increased general positivity in emotional expression or emotional expressiveness per se. The sample size and the timeframe for the follow-up assessment were limited. Furthermore, it is unknown to which degree word use reflects the actual experience of the expressed emotions. The findings highlight the role of mood-incongruent processing in the maintenance of depression and advocate a stronger focus on mood-incongruent processing in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Dialect Variation Influences the Phonological and Lexical-Semantic Word Processing in Sentences. Electrophysiological Evidence from a Cross-Dialectal Comprehension Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanwermeyer, Manuela; Henrich, Karen; Rocholl, Marie J; Schnell, Hanni T; Werth, Alexander; Herrgen, Joachim; Schmidt, Jürgen E

    2016-01-01

    This event-related potential (ERP) study examines the influence of dialectal competence differences (merged vs. unmerged dialect group) on cross-dialectal comprehension between Southern German dialects. It focuses on the question as to whether certain dialect phonemes (/[Formula: see text]/, /[Formula: see text]/), which are attributed to different lexemes in two dialect areas (Central Bavarian, Bavarian-Alemannic transition zone) evoke increased neural costs during sentence processing. In this context, the phonological and semantic processing of lexemes is compared in three types of potentially problematic communication settings (misunderstanding, incomprehension, allophonic variation = potential comprehension). For this purpose, an oddball design including whole sentences was combined with a semantic rating task. Listeners from the unmerged Central Bavarian dialect area heard sentences including either native or non-native lexemes from the merged neighboring dialect. These had to be evaluated with regard to their context acceptability. The main difference between the lexemes can be attributed to the fact that they have different meanings in the respective dialect areas or are non-existent in the linguistic competence of the Central Bavarians. The results provide evidence for the fact that non-native lexemes containing the /[Formula: see text]/-diphthong lead to enhanced neural costs during sentence processing. The ERP results show a biphasic pattern (N2b/N400, LPC) for non-existent lexemes (incomprehension) as well as for semantically incongruous lexemes (misunderstanding), reflecting an early error detection mechanism and enhanced costs for semantic integration and evaluation. In contrast, allophonic /[Formula: see text]/ deviations show reduced negativities and no LPC, indexing an unproblematic categorization and evaluation process. In the light of these results, an observed change of /[Formula: see text]/ to /[Formula: see text]/ in the Bavarian

  2. Detection of sentence boundaries and abbreviations in clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In Western languages the period character is highly ambiguous, due to its double role as sentence delimiter and abbreviation marker. This is particularly relevant in clinical free-texts characterized by numerous anomalies in spelling, punctuation, vocabulary and with a high frequency of short forms. The problem is addressed by two binary classifiers for abbreviation and sentence detection. A support vector machine exploiting a linear kernel is trained on different combinations of feature sets for each classification task. Feature relevance ranking is applied to investigate which features are important for the particular task. The methods are applied to German language texts from a medical record system, authored by specialized physicians. Two collections of 3,024 text snippets were annotated regarding the role of period characters for training and testing. Cohen's kappa resulted in 0.98. For abbreviation and sentence boundary detection we can report an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure using a 10-fold cross validation of 0.97 for the training set. For test set based evaluation we obtained an unweighted micro-averaged F-measure of 0.95 for abbreviation detection and 0.94 for sentence delineation. Language-dependent resources and rules were found to have less impact on abbreviation detection than on sentence delineation. Sentence detection is an important task, which should be performed at the beginning of a text processing pipeline. For the text genre under scrutiny we showed that support vector machines exploiting a linear kernel produce state of the art results for sentence boundary detection. The results are comparable with other sentence boundary detection methods applied to English clinical texts. We identified abbreviation detection as a supportive task for sentence delineation.

  3. An adaptive Australian Sentence Test in Noise (AuSTIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Pam W; Hersbach, Adam A; Swanson, Brett A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this research is to describe the development of an adaptive Australian Sentence Test in Noise and to validate the test in terms of test-retest reliability and efficiency using data obtained from its clinical application. The relative intelligibility of 1264 Bamford-Kowal-Bench (BKB)-like sentences in the presence of competing four-talker babble was assessed with cochlear implant recipients. Intensity adjustments to the babble segments were made to reduce intersentence variability. Computer software was developed to administer an adaptive speech reception threshold (SRT) test using these adjusted sentence/babble pairs and test-retest SRT data from a separate group of 23 cochlear implant recipients was analyzed, comparing different SRT calculation and test stopping rules. The adjusted sentence/babble pairs were used in clinical studies to obtain an SRT by presenting 32 sentences. Analysis of test-retest pairs of SRT data from 23 recipients indicated that a psychometric fit SRT calculation rule provided better reliability than did the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) calculation rule, or rules based on mean turns. This rule, using the morpheme correct scores for each sentence, gave a standard deviation for a single SRT of 0.76 dB. Further analyses revealed that the test could be shortened to 20 sentences with an increase of 0.19 dB in variability, while reducing the median test time by approximately 2 min. This article reports validation data for a new Australian Sentence Test In Noise. When 20 BKB-like sentences are used with a psychometric fit calculation rule, a standard deviation of approximately 1 dB is obtained in approximately 3 min 36 sec.

  4. Sentence retrieval for abstracts of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Grace Y

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM requires clinicians to integrate their expertise with the latest scientific research. But this is becoming increasingly difficult with the growing numbers of published articles. There is a clear need for better tools to improve clinician's ability to search the primary literature. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs are the most reliable source of evidence documenting the efficacy of treatment options. This paper describes the retrieval of key sentences from abstracts of RCTs as a step towards helping users find relevant facts about the experimental design of clinical studies. Method Using Conditional Random Fields (CRFs, a popular and successful method for natural language processing problems, sentences referring to Intervention, Participants and Outcome Measures are automatically categorized. This is done by extending a previous approach for labeling sentences in an abstract for general categories associated with scientific argumentation or rhetorical roles: Aim, Method, Results and Conclusion. Methods are tested on several corpora of RCT abstracts. First structured abstracts with headings specifically indicating Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures are used. Also a manually annotated corpus of structured and unstructured abstracts is prepared for testing a classifier that identifies sentences belonging to each category. Results Using CRFs, sentences can be labeled for the four rhetorical roles with F-scores from 0.93–0.98. This outperforms the use of Support Vector Machines. Furthermore, sentences can be automatically labeled for Intervention, Participant and Outcome Measures, in unstructured and structured abstracts where the section headings do not specifically indicate these three topics. F-scores of up to 0.83 and 0.84 are obtained for Intervention and Outcome Measure sentences. Conclusion Results indicate that some of the methodological elements of RCTs are

  5. Structural bias in the sentencing of felony defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, John R

    2013-09-01

    As incarceration rates have risen in the US, so has the overrepresentation of African Americans and Latinos among prison inmates. Whether and to what degree these disparities are due to bias in the criminal courts remains a contentious issue. This article pursues two lines of argument toward a structural account of bias in the criminal law, focusing on (1) cumulative disadvantages that may accrue over successive stages of the criminal justice process, and (2) the contexts of racial disadvantage in which courts are embedded. These arguments are tested using case-level data on male defendants charged with felony crimes in urban US counties in 2000. Multilevel binary and ordinal logit models are used to estimate contextual effects on pretrial detention, guilty pleas, and sentence severity, and cumulative effects are estimated as conditional probabilities that are allowed to vary by race across all three outcomes. Results yield strong, but qualified, evidence of cumulative disadvantage accruing to black and Latino defendants, but do not support the contextual hypotheses. When the cumulative effects of bias are taken into account, the estimated probability of the average African American or Latino felon going to prison is 26% higher than that of the average Anglo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Incongruent Teen Pregnancy Attitudes, Coparenting Conflict, and Support Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, T; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2016-04-01

    The current longitudinal study examined whether differences between Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their mother figures ( N = 204 dyads) in attitudes on the status attained through teen pregnancy were associated with conflict in their coparenting relationship and whether coparenting conflict was associated with adolescent mothers' perceptions of social support. Findings revealed that when adolescents held more positive attitudes than their mother figures about the status gained through teen pregnancy, they tended to report greater coparenting conflict with their mother figures. Furthermore, greater coparenting conflict was significantly associated with decreases in adolescents' perceptions of social support (i.e., emotional, instrumental, companion support) 1 year later. Findings underscore the importance of incongruent attitudes and the quality of coparenting relationships between adolescent mothers and their mother figures in relation to support processes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' social support in the context of family subsystem attitudes and interactions.

  7. Correlates and consequences of parent-teen incongruence in reports of teens' sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2010-07-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, factors associated with incongruence between parents' and adolescents' reports of teens' sexual experience were investigated, and the consequences of inaccurate parental knowledge for adolescents' subsequent sexual behaviors were explored. Most parents of virgins accurately reported teens' lack of experience, but most parents of teens who had had sex provided inaccurate reports. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that many adolescent-, parent-, and family-level factors predicted the accuracy of parents' reports. Parents' accurate knowledge of their teens' sexual experience was not found to be consistently beneficial for teens' subsequent sexual outcomes. Rather, parents' expectations about teens' sexual experience created a self-fulfilling prophecy, with teens' subsequent sexual outcomes conforming to parents' expectations. These findings suggest that research on parent-teen communication about sex needs to consider the expectations being expressed, as well as the information being exchanged.

  8. Correlates and Consequences of Parent–Teen Incongruence in Reports of Teens’ Sexual Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, factors associated with incongruence between parents’ and adolescents’ reports of teens’ sexual experience were investigated, and the consequences of inaccurate parental knowledge for adolescents’ subsequent sexual behaviors were explored. Most parents of virgins accurately reported teens’ lack of experience, but most parents of teens who had had sex provided inaccurate reports. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that many adolescent-, parent-, and family-level factors predicted the accuracy of parents’ reports. Parents’ accurate knowledge of their teens’ sexual experience was not found to be consistently beneficial for teens’ subsequent sexual outcomes. Rather, parents’ expectations about teens’ sexual experience created a self-fulfilling prophecy, with teens’ subsequent sexual outcomes conforming to parents’ expectations. These findings suggest that research on parent–teen communication about sex needs to consider the expectations being expressed, as well as the information being exchanged. PMID:19431037

  9. Depression diagnoses following the identification of bipolar disorder: costly incongruent diagnoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Jennifer F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has documented that the symptoms of bipolar disorder are often mistaken for unipolar depression prior to a patient's first bipolar diagnosis. The assumption has been that once a patient receives a bipolar diagnosis they will no longer be given a misdiagnosis of depression. The objectives of this study were 1 to assess the rate of subsequent unipolar depression diagnosis in individuals with a history of bipolar disorder and 2 to assess the increased cost associated with this potential misdiagnosis. Methods This study utilized a retrospective cohort design using administrative claims data from 2002 and 2003. Patient inclusion criteria for the study were 1 at least 2 bipolar diagnoses in 2002, 2 continuous enrollment during 2002 and 2003, 3 a pharmacy benefit, and 4 age 18 to 64. Patients with at least 2 unipolar depression diagnoses in 2003 were categorized as having an incongruent diagnosis of unipolar depression. We used propensity scoring to control for selection bias. Utilization was evaluated using negative binomial models. We evaluated cost differences between patient cohorts using generalized linear models. Results Of the 7981 patients who met all inclusion criteria for the analysis, 17.5% (1400 had an incongruent depression diagnosis (IDD. After controlling for background differences, individuals who received an IDD had higher rates of inpatient and outpatient psychiatric utilization and cost, on average, an additional $1641 per year compared to individuals without an IDD. Conclusions A strikingly high proportion of bipolar patients are given the differential diagnosis of unipolar depression after being identified as having bipolar disorder. Individuals with an IDD had increased acute psychiatric care services, suggesting higher levels of relapses, and were at risk for inappropriate treatment, as antidepressant therapy without a concomitant mood-stabilizing medication is contraindicated in bipolar

  10. Pregnancy and the 40-Year Prison Sentence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Jose Santos Guardado

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Using the case of El Salvador, this article demonstrates how the anti-abortion catchphrase “abortion is murder” can become embedded in the legal practice of state judicial systems. In the 1990s, a powerful anti-abortion movement in El Salvador resulted in a new legal context that outlawed abortion in all circumstances, discouraged mobilization for abortion rights, and encouraged the prosecution of reproduction-related “crimes.” Within this context, Salvadoran women initially charged with the crime of abortion were convicted of “aggravated homicide” and sentenced to up to 40 years in prison. Court documents suggest that many of these women had not undergone abortions, but had suffered naturally occurring stillbirths late in their pregnancies. Through analysis of newspaper articles and court cases, this article documents how El Salvador came to prosecute obstetrical emergencies as “murder,” and concludes that activism on behalf of abortion rights is central to protecting poor pregnant women from prosecution for reproduction-related “crimes.” PMID:28630543

  11. The Time-Course of Sentence Meaning Composition. N400 Effects of the Interaction between Context-Induced and Lexically Stored Affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Cosentino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary semantic theories can be classified along two dimensions: (i the way and time-course in which contextual factors influence sentence truth-conditions; and (ii whether and to what extent comprehension involves sensory, motor and emotional processes. In order to explore this theoretical space, our ERP study investigates the time-course of the interaction between the lexically specified telic component of a noun (the function of the object to which the noun refers to, e.g., a funnel is generally used to pour liquids into containers and an ad-hoc affordance contextually induced by the situation described in the discourse. We found that, if preceded by a neutral discourse context, a verb incongruent with the noun's telic component as in “She uses the funnel to hang her coat” elicited an enhanced N400 compared to a congruent verb as in “She uses the funnel to pour water into a container.” However, if the situation introduced in the preceding discourse induced a new function for the object as an ad-hoc affordance (e.g., the funnel is glued to the wall and the agent wants to hang the coat, we observed a crossing-over regarding the direction of the N400 effect: comparing the ad-hoc affordance-inducing context with the neutral context, the N400 for the incongruent verb was significantly reduced, whereas the N400 for the congruent verb was significantly enhanced. We explain these results as a consequence of the incorporation of the contextually triggered ad-hoc affordance into the meaning of the noun. Combining these results with an analysis of semantic similarity values between test sentences and contexts, we argue that one possibility is that the incorporation of an ad-hoc affordance may be explained on the basis of the mental simulation of concurrent motor information.

  12. Impact of Background Noise and Sentence Complexity on Processing Demands during Sentence Comprehension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    in two levels of background noise both corresponding to high intelligibility. A digit span and a reading span test were used to assess individual differences in the participants’ working memory capacity (WMC). The results showed that the subjectively rated effort was mostly affected by the noise level...... and less by syntactic complexity. Conversely, pupil dilations increased with syntactic complexity but only showed a small effect of the noise level. Participants with higher WMC showed increased pupil responses in the higher-level noise condition but rated sentence comprehension as being less effortful...

  13. Normative data on audiovisual speech integration using sentence recognition and capacity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Nicholas; Hudock, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to use visual speech cues and integrate them with auditory information is important, especially in noisy environments and for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. Providing data on measures of integration skills that encompass accuracy and processing speed will benefit researchers and clinicians. The study consisted of two experiments: First, accuracy scores were obtained using City University of New York (CUNY) sentences, and capacity measures that assessed reaction-time distributions were obtained from a monosyllabic word recognition task. We report data on two measures of integration obtained from a sample comprised of 86 young and middle-age adult listeners: To summarize our results, capacity showed a positive correlation with accuracy measures of audiovisual benefit obtained from sentence recognition. More relevant, factor analysis indicated that a single-factor model captured audiovisual speech integration better than models containing more factors. Capacity exhibited strong loadings on the factor, while the accuracy-based measures from sentence recognition exhibited weaker loadings. Results suggest that a listener's integration skills may be assessed optimally using a measure that incorporates both processing speed and accuracy.

  14. Enhancement and suppression effects resulting from information structuring in sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Alison J S; Price, Jessica; Sanford, Anthony J

    2009-09-01

    Information structuring through the use of cleft sentences increases the processing efficiency of references to elements within the scope of focus. Furthermore, there is evidence that putting certain types of emphasis on individual words not only enhances their subsequent processing, but also protects these words from becoming suppressed in the wake of subsequent information, suggesting mechanisms of enhancement and suppression. In Experiment 1, we showed that clefted constructions facilitate the integration of subsequent sentences that make reference to elements within the scope of focus, and that they decrease the efficiency with reference to elements outside of the scope of focus. In Experiment 2, using an auditory text-change-detection paradigm, we showed that focus has similar effects on the strength of memory representations. These results add to the evidence for enhancement and suppression as mechanisms of sentence processing and clarify that the effects occur within sentences having a marked focus structure.

  15. Sentencing dangerous offenders: policy and practice in the Crown Court

    OpenAIRE

    Henham, R

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of Crown Courts' use of protective sentencing powers under s.80(2)(b), s.85, and s.109 of 2000 Act and whether preference for s.85 reflects fundamental flaw in leaving determination of "dangerousness" to judiciary.

  16. Research on sentencing: disparity, punishment and vocabularies of motives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raupp

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to present an overview of inter- national and national empirical studies on senten- cing. We aim to show this field’s trajectory, its main discussions and findings as well as its “blind spots”. The main goal of this article is to draw attention to how this field of research allows us to think about the problem of the disparity on sentencing as a criminal justice operation pattern. This problem has been identified by many studies, but also by the social re- presentation of the criminal justice. From a literature review on sentencing and an analysis of the main stu- dies identified, this article proposes a new direction to understand the problem of disparity on sentencing in criminal justice and indicates a new subject to be explored as well as new empirical research possibili- ties on sentencing.

  17. 76 FR 58564 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... pornography offenses and report to Congress as a result of such review. It is anticipated that any such report... guideline sentence; (B) a compilation of studies on, and analysis of, recidivism by child pornography...

  18. 75 FR 41927 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... legislation enacted during the 111th Congress. (6) Continuation of its review of child pornography offenses... guideline sentence; (B) a compilation of studies on, and analysis of, recidivism by child pornography...

  19. Mini-Mental State Examination sentence writing among community-dwelling elderly adults in Brazil: text fluency and grammar complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neri, Anita Liberalesso; Ongaratto, Lia Lopes; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2012-11-01

    In normal aging, the decrease in the syntactic complexity of written production is usually associated with cognitive deficits. This study was aimed to analyze the quality of older adults' textual production indicated by verbal fluency (number of words) and grammatical complexity (number of ideas) in relation to gender, age, schooling, and cognitive status. From a probabilistic sample of community-dwelling people aged 65 years and above (n = 900), 577 were selected on basis of their responses to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) sentence writing, which were submitted to content analysis; 323 were excluded as they left the item blank or performed illegible or not meaningful responses. Education adjusted cut-off scores for the MMSE were used to classify the participants as cognitively impaired or unimpaired. Total and subdomain MMSE scores were computed. 40.56% of participants whose answers to the MMSE sentence were excluded from the analyses had cognitive impairment compared to 13.86% among those whose answers were included. The excluded participants were older and less educated. Women and those older than 80 years had the lowest scores in the MMSE. There was no statistically significant relationship between gender, age, schooling, and textual performance. There was a modest but significant correlation between number of words written and the scores in the Language subdomain. Results suggest the strong influence of schooling and age over MMSE sentence performance. Failing to write a sentence may suggest cognitive impairment, yet, instructions for the MMSE sentence, i.e. to produce a simple sentence, may limit its clinical interpretation.

  20. Establishing Sentencing Guidelines for Military Courts-Martial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    sentences imposed for similar criminal offenses committed by similar offenders ”1. The act also created the United States Sentencing Commission and...of the offender and the offense, leading to a moral judgment imposed by judges with skill, experience, and wisdom [instead of] judges mechanically...fighting with her 17-year-old “troubled teen ” boyfriend. Wollard grabbed a gun and shot a warning shot through a wall to scare off the aggressor; these

  1. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Bockhorst

    Full Text Available Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  2. STUDENTS’ ABILITY FOR USING ELLIPTICAL CONSTRUCTION IN SENTENCES

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    Maria Ramasari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Grammar is a fundamental thing in a language. The researcher assumes based on her observation that the hardest part of making and writing sentence is to arrange the words in a good sentence. Students are still confused when they are going to arrange the words in right grammar. In mastering grammar, students need time, opportunity, exercise and good teaching of grammar. Unfortunately, grammar skill is still lack attention in teaching and learning process. This research is intended to investigate and describe students’ ability for using elliptical construction in sentences. In this research, the researcher used descriptive method. The data was evaluated and analyzed to find out students’ ability for using elliptical construction in sentences by using percentage formula. There were 34 of 73 students who were in very low category with percentage 46.5%. The result of this research showed that students’ ability for using elliptical construction in sentences to the fourth semester students of English Study Program at Muhammadiyah University of Bengkulu was very low. It meant that the fourth semester English students still had lack knowledge and understanding about grammar: elliptical construction.Keywords: Students’ Ability, Elliptical Construction,and Sentences.

  3. Chinese Sentence Classification Based on Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chengwei; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Chuang

    2017-10-01

    Sentence classification is one of the significant issues in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Feature extraction is often regarded as the key point for natural language processing. Traditional ways based on machine learning can not take high level features into consideration, such as Naive Bayesian Model. The neural network for sentence classification can make use of contextual information to achieve greater results in sentence classification tasks. In this paper, we focus on classifying Chinese sentences. And the most important is that we post a novel architecture of Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to apply on Chinese sentence classification. In particular, most of the previous methods often use softmax classifier for prediction, we embed a linear support vector machine to substitute softmax in the deep neural network model, minimizing a margin-based loss to get a better result. And we use tanh as an activation function, instead of ReLU. The CNN model improve the result of Chinese sentence classification tasks. Experimental results on the Chinese news title database validate the effectiveness of our model.

  4. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  5. Brain structural correlates of complex sentence comprehension in children

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    Anja Fengler

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior structural imaging studies found initial evidence for the link between structural gray matter changes and the development of language performance in children. However, previous studies generally only focused on sentence comprehension. Therefore, little is known about the relationship between structural properties of brain regions relevant to sentence processing and more specific cognitive abilities underlying complex sentence comprehension. In this study, whole-brain magnetic resonance images from 59 children between 5 and 8 years were assessed. Scores on a standardized sentence comprehension test determined grammatical proficiency of our participants. A confirmatory factory analysis corroborated a grammar-relevant and a verbal working memory-relevant factor underlying the measured performance. Voxel-based morphometry of gray matter revealed that while children's ability to assign thematic roles is positively correlated with gray matter probability (GMP in the left inferior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, verbal working memory-related performance is positively correlated with GMP in the left parietal operculum extending into the posterior superior temporal gyrus. Since these areas are known to be differentially engaged in adults’ complex sentence processing, our data suggest a specific correspondence between children's GMP in language-relevant brain regions and differential cognitive abilities that guide their sentence comprehension.

  6. Differential roles for medial prefrontal and medial temporal cortices in schema-dependent encoding : from congruent to incongruent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Beul, Sarah F; Takashima, Atsuko; Henson, Richard N; Ruiter, Dirk J; Fernández, Guillén

    2013-01-01

    Information that is congruent with prior knowledge is generally remembered better than incongruent information. This effect of congruency on memory has been attributed to a facilitatory influence of activated schemas on memory encoding and consolidation processes, and hypothesised to reflect a shift

  7. Is plant mitochondrial RNA editing a source of phylogenetic incongruence? An answer from in silico and in vivo data sets

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    Quagliariello Carla

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plant mitochondria, the post-transcriptional RNA editing process converts C to U at a number of specific sites of the mRNA sequence and usually restores phylogenetically conserved codons and the encoded amino acid residues. Sites undergoing RNA editing evolve at a higher rate than sites not modified by the process. As a result, editing sites strongly affect the evolution of plant mitochondrial genomes, representing an important source of sequence variability and potentially informative characters. To date no clear and convincing evidence has established whether or not editing sites really affect the topology of reconstructed phylogenetic trees. For this reason, we investigated here the effect of RNA editing on the tree building process of twenty different plant mitochondrial gene sequences and by means of computer simulations. Results Based on our simulation study we suggest that the editing ‘noise’ in tree topology inference is mainly manifested at the cDNA level. In particular, editing sites tend to confuse tree topologies when artificial genomic and cDNA sequences are generated shorter than 500 bp and with an editing percentage higher than 5.0%. Similar results have been also obtained with genuine plant mitochondrial genes. In this latter instance, indeed, the topology incongruence increases when the editing percentage goes up from about 3.0 to 14.0%. However, when the average gene length is higher than 1,000 bp (rps3, matR and atp1 no differences in the comparison between inferred genomic and cDNA topologies could be detected. Conclusions Our findings by the here reported in silico and in vivo computer simulation system seem to strongly suggest that editing sites contribute in the generation of misleading phylogenetic trees if the analyzed mitochondrial gene sequence is highly edited (higher than 3.0% and reduced in length (shorter than 500 bp. In the current lack of direct experimental evidence the results

  8. Electrophysiology of Sentence Processing in Aphasia: Prosodic Cues and Thematic Fit

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    Shannon M. Sheppard

    2015-05-01

    * [ ] Indicates prosodic contour Methods: Twenty-four healthy college-age control participants (YNCs and ten adults with a Broca’s aphasia participated in this study. Each sentence was presented aurally to the participants over headphones. ERP Data Recording & Analysis. ERPs were recorded from 32-electrode sites across the scalp according to the 10-20 system. ERPs were averaged (100ms prestimulus baseline from artifact free trials time-locked to critical words (i.e., the point of disambiguation “pleased” in the prosodic comparison, and the NP “the song”/”the beer” in the semantic comparison. Mean amplitudes were calculated in two windows: 300-500ms for the N400 effects and 500-1000ms for the P600 effects. Results: The data from our YNCs revealed a biphasic N400-P600 complex in the prosody comparison (Figure 1A. We also found an N400 effect immediately at the NP in the incongruent relative to congruent thematic fit comparison. For the prosodic comparison in the PWA group, a delayed N400 effect was found one word downstream relative to the YNC data in the prosody comparison (Figure 1B. Additionally, an N400 effect was observed in the thematic fit comparison. Discussion: The results suggests that PWA possess a delayed sensitivity to prosodic cues, which then may affect their ability to recover from misanalysis from an incorrect parse. The results also indicate that PWA are sensitive to thematic fit information and have the capacity to process this information similarly to YNCs.

  9. To Resolve or Not To Resolve, that Is the Question: The Dual-Path Model of Incongruity Resolution and Absurd Verbal Humor by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ru H; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chan, Yu C; Wu, Ching-Lin; Li, Ping; Cho, Shu L; Hu, Jon-Fan

    2017-01-01

    It is well accepted that the humor comprehension processing involves incongruity detection and resolution and then induces a feeling of amusement. However, this three-stage model of humor processing does not apply to absurd humor (so-called nonsense humor). Absurd humor contains an unresolvable incongruity but can still induce a feeling of mirth. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the neural mechanisms of absurd humor. Specifically, we aimed to investigate the neural substrates associated with the complete resolution of incongruity resolution humor and partial resolution of absurd humor. Based on the fMRI data, we propose a dual-path model of incongruity resolution and absurd verbal humor. According to this model, the detection and resolution for the incongruity of incongruity resolution humor activate brain regions involved in the temporo-parietal lobe (TPJ) implicated in the integration of multiple information and precuneus, likely to be involved in the ability of perspective taking. The appreciation of incongruity resolution humor activates regions the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), implicated in autobiographic or event memory retrieval, and parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), implying the funny feeling. By contrast, the partial resolution of absurd humor elicits greater activation in the fusiform gyrus which have been implicated in word processing, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) for the process of incongruity resolution and superior temporal gyrus (STG) for the pragmatic awareness.

  10. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Syllable and Sentence Productions in Normal Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cedric; Yang, Jin; Crawley, Brianna; Krishna, Priya; Murry, Thomas

    2018-01-08

    Aerodynamic measures of subglottic air pressure (Ps) and airflow rate (AFR) are used to select behavioral voice therapy versus surgical treatment for voice disorders. However, these measures are usually taken during a series of syllables, which differs from conversational speech. Repeated syllables do not share the variation found in even simple sentences, and patients may use their best rather than typical voice unless specifically instructed otherwise. This study examined the potential differences in estimated Ps and AFR in syllable and sentence production and their effects on a measure of vocal efficiency in normal speakers. Prospective study. Measures of estimated Ps, AFR, and aerodynamic vocal efficiency (AVE) were obtained from 19 female and four male speakers ages 22-44 years with no history of voice disorders. Subjects repeated a series of /pa/ syllables and a sentence at comfortable effort level into a face mask with a pressure-sensing tube between the lips. AVE varies as a function of the speech material in normal subjects. Ps measures were significantly higher for the sentence-production samples than for the syllable-production samples. AFR was higher during sentence production than syllable production, but the difference was not statistically significant. AVE values were significantly higher for syllable versus sentence productions. The results suggest that subjects increase Ps and AFR in sentence compared with syllable production. Speaking task is a critical factor when considering measures of AVE, and this preliminary study provides a basis for further aerodynamic studies of patient populations. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unscrambling jumbled sentences: An authentic task for English language assessment?

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    Betty Lanteigne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Jumbled sentence items in language assessment have been criticized by some authors as inauthentic. However, unscrambling jumbled sentences is a common occurrence in real-world communication in English as a lingua franca. Naturalistic inquiry identified 54 instances of jumbled sentence use in daily life in Dubai/Sharjah, where English is widely used as a lingua franca. Thus it is seen that jumbled sentence test items can reflect real-world language use. To evaluate scrambled sentence test items, eight test item types developed from one jumbled sentence instance (“Want taxi Dubai you?” were analyzed in terms of interactivity and authenticity. Items ranged from being completely decontextualized, non-interactive, and inauthentic to being fully contextualized, interactive, and authentic. To determine appropriate assessment standards for English tests in schools in this region, the English language standards for schools and English language requirements for university admission in the UAE were analyzed. Schools in Dubai/Sharjah use Inner Circle English varieties of English (e.g., British or American English as the standard for evaluation, as well as non-native-English-speaker varieties (e.g., Indian English(es. Also, students applying to English-medium universities in the UAE must meet the required scores on standardized English tests including the IELTS and TOEFL. Standards for evaluation of communication in English involving tasks of jumbled sentences in classroom tests must reflect the language learning goals of the school and community. Thus standards for classroom assessment of English in Dubai/Sharjah are determined by local schools’ and universities’ policies.

  12. Visual information constrains early and late stages of spoken-word recognition in sentence context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunellière, Angèle; Sánchez-García, Carolina; Ikumi, Nara; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2013-07-01

    Audiovisual speech perception has been frequently studied considering phoneme, syllable and word processing levels. Here, we examined the constraints that visual speech information might exert during the recognition of words embedded in a natural sentence context. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to words that could be either strongly or weakly predictable on the basis of the prior semantic sentential context and, whose initial phoneme varied in the degree of visual saliency from lip movements. When the sentences were presented audio-visually (Experiment 1), words weakly predicted from semantic context elicited a larger long-lasting N400, compared to strongly predictable words. This semantic effect interacted with the degree of visual saliency over a late part of the N400. When comparing audio-visual versus auditory alone presentation (Experiment 2), the typical amplitude-reduction effect over the auditory-evoked N100 response was observed in the audiovisual modality. Interestingly, a specific benefit of high- versus low-visual saliency constraints occurred over the early N100 response and at the late N400 time window, confirming the result of Experiment 1. Taken together, our results indicate that the saliency of visual speech can exert an influence over both auditory processing and word recognition at relatively late stages, and thus suggest strong interactivity between audio-visual integration and other (arguably higher) stages of information processing during natural speech comprehension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Attitudes of employees toward offenders sentenced to community service

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    Đurđević Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether alternative penalties served by offenders in the community will be successful can also largely depend on the general attitudes in the workplace where the offender will be serving his penalty. This study, conducted in Belgrade, Serbia, was aimed to determine the inclination and factor structure of attitudes towards offenders and ex-offenders, and their correlation with the respondents' age and education. The sample consisted of men from the general population (N=78, employed in companies where offenders serve community sentence. The study also considers the association between attitudes and the age and education of the respondents. The Scale for Attitudes toward Prisoners and Ex-Prisoners was used in the study. Research results showed that the respondents in general had positive attitude toward offenders. On the Scale of Attitudes, a statement 'I would socialize with a person who is on parole from prison' had the highest frequency, with which 44.90% of respondents 'mostly agree' (MOD=4. With most negatively formulated statements, the frequency of statements 'I strongly agree' is low, ranging from 7,70% to 15.60%. Factor analysis of the attitude scale indicated three respectable factors which were named: Rejection, Trust, and Perception of Penalty. The correlation between the demographic variables of age and education, and the expressed attitudes shows there was no significant correlation (p=0.93; p=0.86. The findings of the study have an important impact on practical psychosocial issues, such as that of preparing the community to accept offenders serving alternative punishments, as well as theoretical questions regarding the understanding of the structure, cause, origin, function, and form of attitudes toward offenders.

  14. Faces and bodies: perception and mimicry of emotionally congruent and incongruent facial and bodily expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska eKret

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional emotion theories stress the importance of the face in the expression of emotions but bodily expressions are becoming increasingly important. Here we tested the hypothesis that similar physiological responses can be evoked by observing emotional face and body signals and that the reaction to angry signals is amplified in anxious individuals. We designed three experiments in which participants categorized emotional expressions from isolated facial and bodily expressions and from emotionally congruent and incongruent face-body compounds. Participants’ fixations were measured and their pupil size recorded with eye-tracking equipment, and their facial reactions measured with electromyography (EMG. The behavioral results support our prediction that the recognition of a facial expression is improved in the context of a matching posture and importantly, also vice versa. From their facial expression, it appeared that observers acted with signs of negative emotionality (increased corrugator activity to angry and fearful facial expressions and with positive emotionality (increased zygomaticus to happy facial expressions. What we predicted and found, was that angry and fearful cues from the face or the body, attracted more attention than happy cues. We further observed that responses evoked by angry cues were amplified in individuals with high anxiety scores. In sum, we show that people process bodily expressions of emotion in a similar fashion as facial expressions and that the congruency between the emotional signals from the face and body ameliorates the recognition of the emotion.

  15. Tackling student binge drinking: Pairing incongruent messages and measures reduces alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Russell R C; Lawton, Rebecca; Pals, Elisah; O'Connor, Daryl B; McEachan, Rosemary R C

    2015-09-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is a persistent problem in Northern European cultures. Across a 2-week period, we tested the effect of varying message frames, message types, and response measures, in reducing alcohol consumption. Three hundred and twenty-three respondents were allocated to a 2 (message frame: gain vs. loss) × 2 (message type: health vs. social) × 2 (response type: engaging vs. refraining) mixed design. Binge drinking and units consumed were measured at Time 1 and Time 2 (2 weeks later). Participants read (following Time 1) a gain- or loss-framed message on binging emphasizing either social or health consequences and answered engaging in or refraining from drinking attitude measures. No main effects were identified. The key finding was that gain-framed messages, when used in conjunction with engage response measures (an incongruous pairing), were highly effective in reducing alcohol consumption 2 weeks later compared with the other message frame/response measure combinations. We suggest that for prevention behaviours, gain-framed messages, when paired with engage response measures, initiate an inconsistency resolution process. Together, our findings emphasize the importance of message frame and response type when seeking to reduce alcohol consumption using persuasive health messages. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Structural priming and frequency effects interact in Chinese sentence comprehension

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    Hang eWei

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research in several European languages has shown that the language processing system is sensitive to both structural frequency and structural priming effects. However, it is currently not clear whether these two types of effects interact during online sentence comprehension, especially for languages that do not have morphological markings. To explore this issue, the present study investigated the possible interplay between structural priming and frequency effects for sentences containing the Chinese ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 in a self-paced reading experiment. The sentences were disambiguated to either the more frequent/preferred NP structure or the less frequent VP structure. Each target sentence was preceded by a prime sentence of three possible types: NP primes, VP primes, and neutral primes. When the ambiguous construction V NP1 de NP2 was disambiguated to the dispreferred VP structure, participants experienced more processing difficulty following an NP prime relative to following a VP prime or a neutral baseline. When the ambiguity was resolved to the preferred NP structure, prime type had no effect. These results suggest that structural priming in comprehension is modulated by the baseline frequency of alternative structures, with the less frequent structure being more subject to structural priming effects. These results are discussed in the context of the error-based, implicit learning account of structural priming.

  17. Automatic sentence extraction for the detection of scientific paper relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibaroni, Y.; Prasetiyowati, S. S.; Miftachudin, M.

    2018-03-01

    The relations between scientific papers are very useful for researchers to see the interconnection between scientific papers quickly. By observing the inter-article relationships, researchers can identify, among others, the weaknesses of existing research, performance improvements achieved to date, and tools or data typically used in research in specific fields. So far, methods that have been developed to detect paper relations include machine learning and rule-based methods. However, a problem still arises in the process of sentence extraction from scientific paper documents, which is still done manually. This manual process causes the detection of scientific paper relations longer and inefficient. To overcome this problem, this study performs an automatic sentences extraction while the paper relations are identified based on the citation sentence. The performance of the built system is then compared with that of the manual extraction system. The analysis results suggested that the automatic sentence extraction indicates a very high level of performance in the detection of paper relations, which is close to that of manual sentence extraction.

  18. Combining language and space: sentence bisection in unilateral spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronelli, Laura; Guasti, Maria T; Arduino, Lisa S; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    In line bisection right-brain-damaged patients with left spatial neglect show a rightward deviation, with respect to the line's physical center. In word bisection ortho-phonological features of the stimulus' final (right-sided) part modulate performance of both patients and healthy participants (Veronelli, Vallar, Marinelli, Primativo, & Arduino, 2014). We investigated the role of linguistic factors in sentence bisection, in patients with and without neglect, and control participants. The effects of information in the right-sided part of the sentence (Experiment #1), and of lexical and syntactic violations (Experiment #2) were assessed. Neglect patients showed an overall rightward bias, larger than those of patients without neglect and controls. The neglect patients' bias was modulated by stimulus type, decreasing from lines, to letter strings and to all types of sentences. In sum, in visuo-manual sentence bisection a basic linguistic mechanism, such as sentence readability, brings about a more leftward appreciation of the stimulus, reducing the neglect patients' rightward bias. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The development of an automated sentence generator for the assessment of reading speed

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    Legge Gordon E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reading speed is an important outcome measure for many studies in neuroscience and psychology. Conventional reading speed tests have a limited corpus of sentences and usually require observers to read sentences aloud. Here we describe an automated sentence generator which can create over 100,000 unique sentences, scored using a true/false response. We propose that an estimate of the minimum exposure time required for observers to categorise the truth of such sentences is a good alternative to reading speed measures that guarantees comprehension of the printed material. Removing one word from the sentence reduces performance to chance, indicating minimal redundancy. Reading speed assessed using rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP of these sentences is not statistically different from using MNREAD sentences. The automated sentence generator would be useful for measuring reading speed with button-press response (such as within MRI scanners and for studies requiring many repeated measures of reading speed.

  20. Thai Language Sentence Similarity Computation Based on Syntactic Structure and Semantic Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Feng, Yinhan; Cheng, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Sentence similarity computation plays an increasingly important role in text mining, Web page retrieval, machine translation, speech recognition and question answering systems. Thai language as a kind of resources scarce language, it is not like Chinese language with HowNet and CiLin resources. So the Thai sentence similarity research faces some challenges. In order to solve this problem of the Thai language sentence similarity computation. This paper proposes a novel method to compute the similarity of Thai language sentence based on syntactic structure and semantic vector. This method firstly uses the Part-of-Speech (POS) dependency to calculate two sentences syntactic structure similarity, and then through the word vector to calculate two sentences semantic similarity. Finally, we combine the two methods to calculate two Thai language sentences similarity. The proposed method not only considers semantic, but also considers the sentence syntactic structure. The experiment result shows that this method in Thai language sentence similarity computation is feasible.

  1. Distinctiveness and encoding effects in online sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eHofmeister

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In explicit memory recall and recognition tasks, elaboration and contextual isolation both facilitate memory performance. Here, we investigate these effects in the context of sentence processing: targets for retrieval during online sentence processing of English object relative clause constructions differ in the amount of elaboration associated with the target noun phrase, or the homogeneity of superficial features (text color. Experiment 1 shows that greater elaboration for targets during the encoding phase reduces reading times at retrieval sites, but elaboration of non-targets has considerably weaker effects. Experiment 2 illustrates that processing isolated superficial features of target noun phrases --- here, a green word in a sentence with words colored white --- does not lead to enhanced memory performance, despite triggering longer encoding times. These results are interpreted in the light of the memory models of Nairne 1990, 2001, 2006, which state that encoding remnants contribute to the set of retrieval cues that provide the basis for similarity-based interference effects.

  2. Probabilistic modeling of discourse-aware sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Amit; Keller, Frank; Sturt, Patrick

    2013-07-01

    Probabilistic models of sentence comprehension are increasingly relevant to questions concerning human language processing. However, such models are often limited to syntactic factors. This restriction is unrealistic in light of experimental results suggesting interactions between syntax and other forms of linguistic information in human sentence processing. To address this limitation, this article introduces two sentence processing models that augment a syntactic component with information about discourse co-reference. The novel combination of probabilistic syntactic components with co-reference classifiers permits them to more closely mimic human behavior than existing models. The first model uses a deep model of linguistics, based in part on probabilistic logic, allowing it to make qualitative predictions on experimental data; the second model uses shallow processing to make quantitative predictions on a broad-coverage reading-time corpus. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. NOTE TAKING PAIRS TO IMPROVE STUDENTS‟ SENTENCE BASED WRITING ACHIEVEMENT

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    Testiana Deni Wijayatiningsih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Students had skill to actualize their imagination and interpret their knowledge through writing which could be combined with good writing structure. Moreover, their writing skill still had low motivation and had not reached the standard writing structure. Based on the background above, this research has purpose to know the influence Note Taking Pairs in improving students‘sentence based writing achievement. The subject of this research was the second semester of English Department in Muhammadiyah University of Semarang. It also used statistic non parametric method to analyze the students‘ writing achievement. The result of this research showed that Note Taking Pairs strategy could improve students‘sentence based writing achievement. Hopefully this research is recommended into learning process to improve students‘writing skill especially in sentence-based writing subject.

  4. Relation of affect control theory to the sentencing of criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoudis, O

    2000-08-01

    Past researchers (A. Blumstein, J. Cohen, S. E. Martin, & M. H. Tonry, 1983; A. Von Hirsch & H. Gross, 1981) have explored legal variables and demonstrated the significance of various criteria (e.g., criminal's prior record, seriousness of offense, influence of victim) on the sentencing of criminals. Affect control theory (D. R. Heise, 1979) focuses on inferences about the identity of the criminal. In the present study, the author examined the influence of the foregoing legal variables and affect control theory in sentencing decisions by using U.S. undergraduates' reactions to statements of criminals and of victims. Results of a 2 (criminal's emotion: sad vs. unconcerned) x 2 (victim's emotion: sad vs. unconcerned) x 2 (prior record: none vs. auto theft) factorial design supported affect control theory and demonstrated the significance of the victim's perceived identity in sentencing decisions, even when information about the prior record was provided.

  5. Encouraging prediction during production facilitates subsequent comprehension: Evidence from interleaved object naming in sentence context and sentence reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Florian; Meyer, Antje S; Huettig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that a supportive context facilitates language comprehension. A currently influential view is that language production may support prediction in language comprehension. Experimental evidence for this, however, is relatively sparse. Here we explored whether encouraging prediction in a language production task encourages the use of predictive contexts in an interleaved comprehension task. In Experiment 1a, participants listened to the first part of a sentence and provided the final word by naming aloud a picture. The picture name was predictable or not predictable from the sentence context. Pictures were named faster when they could be predicted than when this was not the case. In Experiment 1b the same sentences, augmented by a final spill-over region, were presented in a self-paced reading task. No difference in reading times for predictive versus non-predictive sentences was found. In Experiment 2, reading and naming trials were intermixed. In the naming task, the advantage for predictable picture names was replicated. More importantly, now reading times for the spill-over region were considerable faster for predictive than for non-predictive sentences. We conjecture that these findings fit best with the notion that prediction in the service of language production encourages the use of predictive contexts in comprehension. Further research is required to identify the exact mechanisms by which production exerts its influence on comprehension.

  6. What the Primary Care Pediatrician Needs to Know About Gender Incongruence and Gender Dysphoria in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Annelou L C; Klink, Daniel; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T

    2016-12-01

    The recognition and acknowledgment that gender identity and birth-assigned sex may be incongruent in children and adolescents have evolved in recent decades. Transgender care for children and adolescents has developed and is now more widely available. Controversies exist, however, around clinical management of gender dysphoria and gender incongruence in children and adolescents. Clinical guidelines are consensus based and research evidence is limited. Puberty suppression as part of clinical management has become a valuable element of adolescent transgender care, but long-term evidence of success is limited. These uncertainties should be weighed against the risk of harming a transgender adolescent when medical intervention is denied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproducing American Sign Language Sentences: Cognitive Scaffolding in Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted eSupalla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects’ recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies in the absence of linguistic knowledge. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are

  8. The Dangling model in the construction of compound sentences with regard to verb tenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehravaran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sentence is the most complete syntactic unit of a language. The construction of a sentence is the most comprehensive, controversial and fascinating syntactic issue in the language grammar. The message or intention is usually conveyed through a sentence. In fact, the communicative function of a language is carried out via a sentence. A sentence can be classified in to different categories from different perspectives: semantically, constructively or performatively either with a verb or without a verb and also with regard to the construction. With regard to the construction, a sentence is either simple or compound. A simple sentence is the one with a complete meaning which only has one verb. It must be born in mind that a sentence is a complete unit whit meaning and there can be a hesitation after that. There for units of speech that have a verb without a complete meaning and there can be no silence or hesitation after them cannot be regarded as a sentence. Since they are dependent upon another sentence to be completed. They are called phrases. Such phrases can be incorporated in compound sentences make main and subordinate clauses. Compound sentences are widely discussed whit in grammatical constructions, but their types and that how have been built their various constructions are less adequately discussed. With regard to the manner of construction of compound sentences, the widest linguistic amenities can be observed in the sentences. There is not such complexity or disagreement over simple sentences but compound sentences have been less adequately investigated and there is room for more discussion and debate. Because, in some grammars, without considering the construction criteria, all sentences that are connected to one another, whit connectives are called compound sentences. This paper has precisely investigated compound sentences and has elaborated on the construction criteria of compound sentences. The study has also pointed to

  9. The Dangling model in the construction of compound sentences with regard to verb tenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehravaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A sentence is the most complete syntactic unit of a language. The construction of a sentence is the most comprehensive, controversial and fascinating syntactic issue in the language grammar. The message or intention is usually conveyed through a sentence. In fact, the communicative function of a language is carried out via a sentence. A sentence can be classified in to different categories from different perspectives: semantically, constructively or performatively either with a verb or without a verb and also with regard to the construction. With regard to the construction, a sentence is either simple or compound. A simple sentence is the one with a complete meaning which only has one verb. It must be born in mind that a sentence is a complete unit whit meaning and there can be a hesitation after that. There for units of speech that have a verb without a complete meaning and there can be no silence or hesitation after them cannot be regarded as a sentence. Since they are dependent upon another sentence to be completed. They are called phrases. Such phrases can be incorporated in compound sentences make main and subordinate clauses. Compound sentences are widely discussed whit in grammatical constructions, but their types and that how have been built their various constructions are less adequately discussed. With regard to the manner of construction of compound sentences, the widest linguistic amenities can be observed in the sentences. There is not such complexity or disagreement over simple sentences but compound sentences have been less adequately investigated and there is room for more discussion and debate. Because, in some grammars, without considering the construction criteria, all sentences that are connected to one another, whit connectives are called compound sentences. This paper has precisely investigated compound sentences and has elaborated on the construction criteria of compound sentences. The study has also pointed to

  10. Tools students need to be skillful writers building better sentences

    CERN Document Server

    Hostmeyer, Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    Build stronger writers one sentence at a time.Imagine a classroom full of enthusiastic student writers, capable of reviewing their own work with a critical eye, then crafting a polished, convincing piece. This is possible, if you take writing instruction down to its basic building block-a solid sentence-and advance from there. Phyllis Hostmeyer can show you how with Tools Students Need to Be Skillful Writers, your blueprint for effective writing instruction and unit development. Packed with lessons across grades 3-12, this indispensable

  11. Cultural differences in the visual processing of meaning: detecting incongruities between background and foreground objects using the N400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Sharon G; Ando, Yumi; Huang, Carol; Yee, Alicia; Lewis, Richard S

    2010-06-01

    East Asians have been found to allocate relatively greater attention to background objects, whereas European Americans have been found to allocate relatively greater attention to foreground objects. This is well documented across a variety of cognitive measures. We used a modification of the Ganis and Kutas (2003) N400 event-related potential design to measure the degree to which Asian Americans and European Americans responded to semantic incongruity between target objects and background scenes. As predicted, Asian Americans showed a greater negativity to incongruent trials than to congruent trials. In contrast, European Americans showed no difference in amplitude across the two conditions. Furthermore, smaller magnitude N400 incongruity effects were associated with higher independent self-construal scores. These data suggest that Asian Americans are processing the relationship between foreground and background objects to a greater degree than European Americans, which is consistent with hypothesized greater holistic processing among East Asians. Implications for using neural measures, the role of semantic processing to understand cultural differences in cognition, and the relationship between self construal and neural measures of cognition are discussed.

  12. Physiological incongruity of the humero-ulnar joint: a functional principle of optimized stress distribution acting upon articulating surfaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, F; Löhe, F; Schulte, E; Müller-Gerbl, M; Milz, S; Putz, R

    1993-11-01

    Investigations into the distribution of subchondral bone density in the human elbow have suggested that the geometry of the trochlear notch deviates from a perfect fit with the trochlea, and that the load is transmitted ventrally and dorsally rather than through the centre of the humero-ulnar joint. We therefore decided to make a quantitative assessment of the degree of incongruity between the two components in 15 human specimens (age distribution 60 to 93 years) with different types of joint surface. Polyether casts of the joint cavity were prepared under loads of 10, 40, 160 and 640 N. The thickness of the casts was then measured at 50 predetermined points, and an area distribution of the width of the joint space represented in a two-dimensional template of the trochlear notch. The reproducibility of this procedure was tested by image analysis. At a load of 10 N, only a narrow space was present ventrally and dorsally in the joint, but in the depths of the trochlear notch a width of 0.5 to 1 mm was recorded in the centre, and up to 3 mm as its medial and lateral edges. Specimens with continuous articular cartilage showed a lower degree of incongruity than those with a divided articular surface. As the load was increased to 640 N, however, the original incongruity between the articular surfaces disappeared almost completely.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Investigating the Effects of a Sentence-Writing Strategy and a Self-Monitoring Procedure on the Writing Performance of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rago, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Writing is a tool students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can use to communicate and interact with other people socially and professionally. Strong writing skills may lead to social and economic success, as well as a sense of self-empowerment. Unfortunately, there is very little research related to the use of sentence-writing strategies and…

  14. Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

    In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion (such as fun, laughter, sadness, tears), like emoticons. It is a very simple and effective way to convey the senders' emotions and his/her thoughts to the receiver. In this research, we investigate the effects of emotional kanji characters by using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that both the right and left inferior frontal gyrus, which have been implicated on verbal and nonverbal information, were activated. We found that we detect a sentence with an emotional kanji character as the verbal and nonverval information, and a sentence with emotional kanji characters enrich communication between the sender and the reciever.

  15. Prosody and Children's Parsing of Sentences. Technical Report No. 123.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Glenn M.; And Others

    Parsing sentences into meaningful phrases and clauses is an essential step in language comprehension, and parsing difficulty is a common reading problem. Prosody (intonation, stress, and rhythm) provides information about phrase and clause boundaries in spoken language that is not available in written language. In an experiment to test whether…

  16. Exploring the function of relative sentences in New Testament Greek ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The traditional view of the function of relative sentences in the Greek New Testament differed markedly from that in many modern languages. This view was challenged in the mid-1980s and a number of striking correspondences with a variety of modern (and some classical) languages were pointed out, despite some ...

  17. Effects of Subvocal Suppression of Learning Disabled Readers' Sentence Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    1983-01-01

    The role of subvocalization in 12 learning disabled (LD) adolescent readers' comprehension difficulties was studied. Nondisabled and LD readers were compared on silent reading and listening comprehension of noun lexical, verb lexical, semantic, and inferential sentences under conditions of suppressed and nonsuppressed subvocalization. (Author/SW)

  18. Effects of reading speed on second-language sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith; Ballantyne, Jocelyn C.; Wijnen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    To test the effects of reading speed on second-language (L2) sentence processing and the potential influence of conflicting native language word order, we compared advanced L2 learners of English with native English speakers on a self-paced reading task. L2 learners read faster overall than native

  19. Addressing Injustice: The role of Indigenous sentencing courts in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    ELISE WEDROWICZ

    2018-01-01

    This thesis argues that Indigenous sentencing courts have played a vital role in Australia’s criminal justice system, as they allow for greater Indigenous participation in the delivery of justice to Indigenous communities and seek to establish a more productive relationship between the criminal justice system and Indigenous peoples.

  20. Grammatical Planning, Execution, and Control in Written Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottbusch, Guido

    2010-01-01

    In this study participants were asked to describe pictured events in one type-written sentence, containing one of two different syntactic structures (subordinated vs. coordinated subject noun phrases). According to the hypothesis, the larger subordinated structure (one noun phrase including a second, subordinated, one) should be cognitively more…

  1. Communicating with sentences: A multi-word naming game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yang; Chen, Guanrong; Hu, Jianwei

    2018-01-01

    Naming game simulates the process of naming an object by a single word, in which a population of communicating agents can reach global consensus asymptotically through iteratively pair-wise conversations. We propose an extension of the single-word model to a multi-word naming game (MWNG), simulating the case of describing a complex object by a sentence (multiple words). Words are defined in categories, and then organized as sentences by combining them from different categories. We refer to a formatted combination of several words as a pattern. In such an MWNG, through a pair-wise conversation, it requires the hearer to achieve consensus with the speaker with respect to both every single word in the sentence as well as the sentence pattern, so as to guarantee the correct meaning of the saying; otherwise, they fail reaching consensus in the interaction. We validate the model in three typical topologies as the underlying communication network, and employ both conventional and man-designed patterns in performing the MWNG.

  2. Elephant: Sequence Labeling for Word and Sentence Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evang, Kilian; Basile, Valerio; Chrupala, Grzegorz; Bos, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Tokenization is widely regarded as a solved problem due to the high accuracy that rule-based tokenizers achieve. But rule-based tokenizers are hard to maintain and their rules language specific. We show that high-accuracy word and sentence segmentation can be achieved by using supervised sequence

  3. Self-organizing word representations for fast sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frank, S.L.; French, R.M.; Thomas, E.

    2008-01-01

    Several psycholinguistic models represent words as vectors in a high-dimensional state space, such that distances between vectors encode the strengths of paradigmatic relations between the represented words. This chapter argues that such an organization develops because it facilitates fast sentence

  4. The exclamative sentences in Nafsat al-Masdur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Khazanehdarloo

    2016-09-01

    Of course, Nasavi, in some parts of the book, used exclamative sentences, especially reproach and scolding without demand, to criticize some rulers of Kharazm Shahian dynasty. These libelous parts which mainly reflect the conflicts, hostility and debate of writer against royal members and his rivals, can show the dark and unknown side of Nasavi's personality.

  5. Number Attraction Effects in Near-Native Spanish Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegerski, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Grammatical agreement phenomena such as verbal number have long been of fundamental interest in the study of second language (L2) acquisition. Previous research from the perspective of sentence processing has documented nativelike behavior among nonnative participants but has also relied almost exclusively on grammar violation paradigms. The…

  6. Sensing the Sentence: An Embodied Simulation Approach to Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    This article applies the neuroscientific concept of embodied simulation--the process of understanding language through visual, motor, and spatial modalities of the body--to rhetorical grammar and sentence-style pedagogies. Embodied simulation invigorates rhetorical grammar instruction by attuning writers to the felt effects of written language,…

  7. Concessions on custodial sentences: Learning from the New ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, in countries such as New Zealand, courts have handed down custodial sentences in cases of serious offences while giving due regard to RJ at the same time. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of the strategies that New Zealand courts have invoked to ensure that a balance is struck between retributive ...

  8. Training verb and sentence production in agrammatic Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, Petra; Hurkmans, Joost; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many aphasic speakers have problems producing verbs at both the word and the sentence level. A treatment programme called ACTION (Bastiaanse, Bunge, Perk, 2004; Bastiaanse, Jonkers, Quak, Varela Put, 1997) has been developed to train verb production of both fluent and non-fluent aphasic

  9. Foregrounding awareness of sentence construction-types in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foregrounding awareness of sentence construction-types in the interpretive analysis of legal writing: a case study of the statute of the University of Zululand ... and lexical structure of English to give circumstantial information, these circumstances are essential in enhancing the effectiveness and communicative potential of ...

  10. A simple DOP model for constituency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simplified Data-Oriented Parsing (DOP) formalism for learning the constituency structure of Italian sentences. In our approach we try to simplify the original DOP methodology by constraining the number and type of fragments we extract from the training corpus. We provide some examples

  11. [The hospital at Ilebu prison. From sentences 1945-50].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogstad, A C; Løvold, T V

    1999-06-30

    Ilebu Prison held the majority of men sentenced for treason in Norway after the Second World War. About one third of all prisoners convicted of treason served their sentence at Ilebu, which was one of the few prisons or camps which had a well organised hospital with a patient registration protocol. The protocols were recently (1995) brought to light; complete case records are stored in the National Archive. We have gone through a number of the case records and compared them with the protocols. The typical patient at Ilebu in 1945 was below 39 years of age, whereas in 1949 those over 40 were in majority. Average age and length of stay increased over the years as the oldest convicts also got the longest sentences. High age and long sentences contributed to increased morbidity, mental and psychosomatic disease as well as functional illness. The most common reason for admission was infectious disease. Ilebu Prison escaped serious epidemics, most likely because of good facilities for isolation as well as vaccination. However, the large number of prisoners suffering from tuberculosis was a cause for concern.

  12. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  13. 78 FR 51821 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... inserting ``However, the Supreme Court has held that the ex post facto clause applies to sentencing.... Ct. 2072, 2078 (2013) (holding that 'there is an ex post facto violation when a defendant is... ex post facto clause, in which case the court shall apply the Guidelines Manual in effect on the date...

  14. Sentence Complexity and Working Memory Effects in Ambiguity Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hyon; Christianson, Kiel

    2013-01-01

    Two self-paced reading experiments using a paraphrase decision task paradigm were performed to investigate how sentence complexity contributed to the relative clause (RC) attachment preferences of speakers of different working memory capacities (WMCs). Experiment 1 (English) showed working memory effects on relative clause processing in both…

  15. Delayed Justice - Macedonian Experience With Guilty Plea And Sentence Bargaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misoski Boban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bearing on mind the idea of the proverb “Justice Delayed is Justice Denied” Macedonian Legislator within the new Code of Criminal Procedure (CPC has introduced several legal mechanisms for accelerating the criminal procedure. The most important instruments among them, by all means, are the Guilty Plea and Sentence Bargaining.

  16. Phonological Planning During Sentence Production: Beyond the Verb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana T Schnur

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study addresses the extent of phonological planning during spontaneous sentence production. Previous work shows that at articulation, phonological encoding occurs for entire phrases, but encoding beyond the initial phrase may be due to the syntactic relevance of the verb in planning the utterance. I conducted three experiments to investigate whether phonological planning crosses multiple grammatical phrase boundaries (as defined by the number of lexical heads of phrase within a single phonological phrase. Using the picture-word interference paradigm, I found in two separate experiments a significant phonological facilitation effect to both the verb and noun of sentences like He opens the gate. I also altered the frequency of the direct object and found longer utterance initiation times for sentences ending with a low-frequency vs. high-frequency object offering further support that the direct object was phonologically encoded at the time of utterance initiation. That phonological information for post-verbal elements was activated suggests that the grammatical importance of the verb does not restrict the extent of phonological planning. These results suggest that the phonological phrase is unit of planning, where all elements within a phonological phrase are encoded before articulation. Thus, consistent with other action sequencing behavior, there is significant phonological planning ahead in sentence production.

  17. Using a Parallel Transcript/Subtitle Corpus for Sentence Compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandeghinste, V.; Tjong Kim Sang, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the collection of a parallel corpus (in Dutch) and its use in a sentence compression tool with the intention to automatically generate subtitles for the deaf from transcripts of a television program. First, the collection of the corpus is described, together with the

  18. 77 FR 31070 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ...; (3) to disseminate to defense attorneys, and to other professionals in the defense community... practitioners through appointment under the Criminal Justice Act of 1964, within the federal criminal justice... criminal sentences; and (3) is in good standing of the highest court of the jurisdiction or jurisdictions...

  19. 75 FR 54705 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...; (3) to disseminate to defense attorneys, and to other professionals in the defense community... practitioners through appointment under the Criminal Justice Act of 1964, within the federal criminal justice... criminal sentences; and (3) is in good standing of the highest court of the jurisdiction or jurisdictions...

  20. Learning vector representations for sentences: The recursive deep learning approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lê, Phong

    2016-01-01

    According to the principle of compositionality, the meaning of a sentence is computed from the meaning of its parts and the way they are syntactically combined. Unfortunately, unlike formal semantics, distributional semantics has no elegant compositional mechanisms like function application of

  1. Examining the Use of Community Service Orders as Alternatives to Short Prison Sentences in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Kate; Rogan, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s highly discretionary sentencing system provides a rare opportunity to study the behaviour of judges when relatively free of externally imposed constraints. While this is so, few studies have investigated sentencing trends.

  2. Ferret: a sentence-based literature scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Padmini; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Bouten, Roxane; Chang, Caren

    2015-06-20

    The rapid pace of bioscience research makes it very challenging to track relevant articles in one's area of interest. MEDLINE, a primary source for biomedical literature, offers access to more than 20 million citations with three-quarters of a million new ones added each year. Thus it is not surprising to see active research in building new document retrieval and sentence retrieval systems. We present Ferret, a prototype retrieval system, designed to retrieve and rank sentences (and their documents) conveying gene-centric relationships of interest to a scientist. The prototype has several features. For example, it is designed to handle gene name ambiguity and perform query expansion. Inputs can be a list of genes with an optional list of keywords. Sentences are retrieved across species but the species discussed in the records are identified. Results are presented in the form of a heat map and sentences corresponding to specific cells of the heat map may be selected for display. Ferret is designed to assist bio scientists at different stages of research from early idea exploration to advanced analysis of results from bench experiments. Three live case studies in the field of plant biology are presented related to Arabidopsis thaliana. The first is to discover genes that may relate to the phenotype of open immature flower in Arabidopsis. The second case is about finding associations reported between ethylene signaling and a set of 300+ Arabidopsis genes. The third case is on searching for potential gene targets of an Arabidopsis transcription factor hypothesized to be involved in plant stress responses. Ferret was successful in finding valuable information in all three cases. In the first case the bZIP family of genes was identified. In the second case sentences indicating relevant associations were found in other species such as potato and jasmine. In the third sentences led to new research questions about the plant hormone salicylic acid. Ferret successfully

  3. Intonation and Duration Curve in Persian Interrogative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: prosody is a very important factor in communication and includes such parameters as: duration, intonation, pitch, stress, rhythm etc. Intonation is the pitch variation in one sentence. Duration is the time taken to utter a voice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some parameters of prosody such as duration and intonation curve in interrogative sentences among normal Farsi speaking adults in order to determine the characteristics of this aspect of language with an emphasis on laboratory testing.Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional one. The participants included 134 male and female Farsi speaking individuals aging between 18-30 years. In this study two interrogative sentences with open and closed answers were used. The voice samples were analyzed by Dr.speech -real analysis software. Data analysis incorporated unilateral analysis of variance and an intonation curve was drawn for each sentence.Results: The parameter of duration among men and women was significantly different (p≤0.001. Duration in open questions was significantly longer than yes/no questions (p≤0.001. The intonation curve of the two groups were similar.Conclusion: Men and women use duration changes, for making difference in prosody. On the whole, duration among women is longer than men. In open questions, the duration of sentences is mostly due to the question word. The intonation curve in open questions has more amplitude. Women show much more changes in basic frequency for transferring interrogative state in their expressions.

  4. The sentence verification task: a reliable fMRI protocol for mapping receptive language in individual subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar; Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria; Belloch, Vicente; Villanueva, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)

  5. The sentence verification task: a reliable fMRI protocol for mapping receptive language in individual subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)

  6. Amphibole incongruent melting under Lithospheric Mantle conditions in spinel peridotites from Balaton area, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaflos, Theodoros; Abart, Rainer; Bizimis, Michel

    2017-04-01

    inclusions in second generation clinopyroxene within the melt pockets. Evidently the melt pockets represent amphibole, which have been incongruently molten. The necessary heat for the amphibole breakdown was derived from the host basalt. The estimated time for diffusive Ca exchange between matrix olivine and olivine overgrowth in contact with the melt pockets is very short, ranging between 21 and 200 days, indicating that amphibole breakdown took place immediately before or during the xenolith entrainment in the alkali basalt.

  7. Pedagogical incongruences facing international science teachers when they immigrate to teach in United States high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Charles Bartels

    international teacher to learn, in order to function effectively in their United States of America schools. In discussing the various themes, it became possible to make certain assertions, the primary one being that international science teachers face certain pedagogical incongruities when they immigrate to teach in United States high schools.

  8. Integrating a novel concept of sentence optotypes into the RADNER Reading Charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radner, Wolfgang; Radner, Stephan; Diendorfer, Gabriela

    2017-03-01

    To add a new set of 24 sentence optotypes to the German version of the RADNER reading charts and to investigate whether sentences constructed based upon an optimised concept of sentence optotypes can be used together with the original 38 sentences. Twenty-eight optimised sentence optotypes were constructed based upon the concept of sentence optotypes as established for the RADNER Reading Charts, with words having the same number of characters and syllables being placed in the same positions. The best comparable sentences were statistically selected in 30 volunteers. Reading speed and the number of errors were determined. Validity was analysed in comparison to a 111-word long standardised paragraph and 7 of the 38 original sentence optotypes. The mean reading speed obtained with the 28 sentences was 192.30±26.69 words per minute (wpm), as compared with 192.47±25.32 wpm for the 7 original sentence optotypes and 165.28±20.82 wpm for the long paragraph; 24 of the 28 optimised sentences met our selection criteria for reading speed/time (mean reading speed: 192.41±26.58). The mean number of reading errors was 0.10±0.30. The correlation between the 24 optimised sentence optotypes and the long paragraph was r=0.90. Reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's α coefficient of 0.992. The 24 new sentence optotypes can be integrated into the existing set of 38 original sentences. Since all the statistical results obtained were similar to those of the original sentences, the best possible reliability had apparently already been achieved with the original sentence optotypes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Using Discourse Strategies to Improve Sentence Alignment in Statistical Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Oblau, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The training process of the translation model in statistical machine translation requires a sentence-aligned parallel corpus of source and target language. Most available parallel corpora are at best document-aligned, so sentence alignment is performed on the document-aligned parallel corpus as a pre-processing step to word alignment and building the phrase translation table. In the process of sentence alignment, some data is discarded for "quality reasons", usually because of N:1 sentence al...

  10. How should inmates be released from prison? An assessment of parole versus fixed-sentence regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyana Kuziemko

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, many states have abolished parole boards, which traditionally have had the discretion to release inmates before the expiration of their full sentence, in favor of fixed-sentence regimes in which the original sentence is binding. However, if prison time lowers recidivism risk and if parole boards can accurately estimate inmates' recidivism risk, then relative to a fixed-sentence regime, parole can provide allocative-efficiency benefits (costly prison space is allocated ...

  11. Syntactic Priming and the Lexical Boost Effect during Sentence Production and Sentence Comprehension: An fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segaert, Katrien; Kempen, Gerard; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Hagoort, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral syntactic priming effects during sentence comprehension are typically observed only if both the syntactic structure and lexical head are repeated. In contrast, during production syntactic priming occurs with structure repetition alone, but the effect is boosted by repetition of the lexical head. We used fMRI to investigate the neuronal…

  12. Effects of Word Frequency and Modality on Sentence Comprehension Impairments in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: It is well known that people with aphasia have sentence comprehension impairments. The present study investigated whether lexical factors contribute to sentence comprehension impairments in both the auditory and written modalities using online measures of sentence processing. Method: People with aphasia and non brain-damaged controls…

  13. S v SN unreported, case no. 141114/14 (WCC) : Sentencing child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case note reflects on the approach that should be adopted by sentencing courts when imposing sentences on child offenders who turn 18 during proceedings. The Western Cape High Court recently considered the application of the sentencing principles in the Child Justice Act and section 28 of the Constitution to child ...

  14. Comparison of reading performance tests concerning difficulty of sentences and paragraphs and their reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussee, T.; van Nispen, R.M.A.; Klerkx, E.M.F.J.; Knol, D.L.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2015-01-01

    In research and practice, sentences or paragraphs of reading tests may be randomly chosen to assess reading performance. This means that in addition to test reliability, all sentences or paragraphs should be reliable and equally difficult to read. The sentences and paragraphs of five (un-)

  15. The impact of lexical frequency on sentence comprehension in children with specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve; Jacob, Laura; Maillart, Christelle

    2014-02-01

    Children with SLI generally exhibit poor sentence comprehension skills. We examined the specific impact of grammatical complexity and lexical frequency on comprehension performance, yielding contrasting results. The present study sheds new light on sentence comprehension in children with SLI by investigating a linguistic factor which has attracted little research interest: the impact of the lexical frequency of known words on sentence comprehension. We also examined the impact of grammatical complexity and sentence length by independently varying these two factors. Fifteen children with SLI, 15 age- and IQ-matched controls, and 15 controls matched on lexical and grammatical skills, performed sentence comprehension tasks in which three linguistic factors were manipulated: lexical frequency (sentences containing words of either low or high lexical frequency), grammatical complexity (sentence containing either a subject relative clause or an object relative clause) and sentence length (either short or long sentences). Results indicated that children with SLI performed more poorly overall compared to age- and IQ-matched children and to lexical and morphosyntactic age-matched children. However, their performance was not more affected by either sentence length or clause type than that of control children. Only lexical frequency affected sentence comprehension to a greater extent in children with SLI relative to the control groups, revealing that SLI children's sentence comprehension abilities are particularly affected by the presence of low-frequency but familiar words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sentence Production after Listener and Echoic Training by Prelingual Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfeto, Raquel M.; de Souza, Deisy G.

    2015-01-01

    Three children with neurosensory deafness who used cochlear implants were taught to match video clips to dictated sentences. We used matrix training with overlapping components and tested for recombinative generalization. Two 3?×?3 matrices generated 18 sentences. For each matrix, we taught 6 sentences and evaluated generalization with the…

  17. Localizing components of a complex task : sentence processing and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stowe, L.A.; Broere, C.A.J.; Paans, A.MJ; Wijers, A.A.; Mulder, G.; Vaalburg, W.; Zwarts, Frans

    1998-01-01

    THREE areas of the left hemisphere play different roles in sentence comprehension. An area of posterior middle and superior temporal gyrus shows activation correlated with the structural complexity of a sentence, suggesting that this area supports processing of sentence structure. The lateral

  18. Interdistrict Disparity in Sentencing in Three U.S. District Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jawjeong; Spohn, Cassia

    2010-01-01

    Research examining disparities in sentencing outcomes under federal sentencing guidelines has focused almost exclusively on aggregate national data. Although these studies contribute considerably to the criminological literature on sentencing disparity, their findings may have masked contextual variation in relation to case processing across…

  19. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jarillo, M; Caravaca-Sánchez, F; Sánchez-Alcaraz, C; Luna, A

    2016-10-01

    This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  20. Audiovisual sentence repetition as a clinical criterion for auditory development in Persian-language children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryadi-Zanjani, Mohammad Majid; Vahab, Maryam; Rahimi, Zahra; Mayahi, Anis

    2017-02-01

    It is important for clinician such as speech-language pathologists and audiologists to develop more efficient procedures to assess the development of auditory, speech and language skills in children using hearing aid and/or cochlear implant compared to their peers with normal hearing. So, the aim of study was the comparison of the performance of 5-to-7-year-old Persian-language children with and without hearing loss in visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual presentation of sentence repetition task. The research was administered as a cross-sectional study. The sample size was 92 Persian 5-7 year old children including: 60 with normal hearing and 32 with hearing loss. The children with hearing loss were recruited from Soroush rehabilitation center for Persian-language children with hearing loss in Shiraz, Iran, through consecutive sampling method. All the children had unilateral cochlear implant or bilateral hearing aid. The assessment tool was the Sentence Repetition Test. The study included three computer-based experiments including visual-only, auditory-only, and audiovisual. The scores were compared within and among the three groups through statistical tests in α = 0.05. The score of sentence repetition task between V-only, A-only, and AV presentation was significantly different in the three groups; in other words, the highest to lowest scores belonged respectively to audiovisual, auditory-only, and visual-only format in the children with normal hearing (P hearing aid (P children (r = 0.179, n = 92, P = 0.088), but audiovisual sentence repetition scores were found to be strongly correlated with auditory-only scores in all the 5-to-7-year-old children (r = 0.943, n = 92, P = 0.000). According to the study's findings, audiovisual integration occurs in the 5-to-7-year-old Persian children using hearing aid or cochlear implant during sentence repetition similar to their peers with normal hearing. Therefore, it is recommended that audiovisual

  1. [Disorders in memorizing sentences and texts in local brain lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikadze, Iu V

    1983-01-01

    Disturbances of memory for sentences and texts in patients with local brain damages are investigated. The peculiarities of reproducing the superficial (lexic) and deep (sense) structures of the sentences and texts are analyzed. On the basis of the analysis of errors in the reproduction of the "scheme" of the texts the peculiarities of the memory defects specific for the various localization of the brain damage were revealed. It is shown that in damages of the temporal and parietal divisions of the left hemisphere it is the superficial structure, while in damages of the frontal divisions of the same hemisphere it is the deep structure the reproduction of which is affected to the greatest degree. A comparison with the reproduction of both structures in patients with damages of the temporal and parietal divisions of the right hemisphere is presented. The results are discussed from the viewpoint of multi-channel coding of information being stored.

  2. Matrix sentence intelligibility prediction using an automatic speech recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädler, Marc René; Warzybok, Anna; Hochmuth, Sabine; Kollmeier, Birger

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of predicting the outcome of the German matrix sentence test for different types of stationary background noise using an automatic speech recognition (ASR) system was studied. Speech reception thresholds (SRT) of 50% intelligibility were predicted in seven noise conditions. The ASR system used Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as a front-end and employed whole-word Hidden Markov models on the back-end side. The ASR system was trained and tested with noisy matrix sentences on a broad range of signal-to-noise ratios. The ASR-based predictions were compared to data from the literature ( Hochmuth et al, 2015 ) obtained with 10 native German listeners with normal hearing and predictions of the speech intelligibility index (SII). The ASR-based predictions showed a high and significant correlation (R² = 0.95, p speech and noise signals. Minimum assumptions were made about human speech processing already incorporated in a reference-free ordinary ASR system.

  3. A hybrid approach to sentiment sentence classification in suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Torii, Manabu; Li, Dingcheng; Wagholikar, Kavishwar; Wu, Stephen; Liu, Hongfang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the sentiment classification system developed by the Mayo Clinic team for the 2011 I2B2/VA/Cincinnati Natural Language Processing (NLP) Challenge. The sentiment classification task is to assign any pertinent emotion to each sentence in suicide notes. We have implemented three systems that have been trained on suicide notes provided by the I2B2 challenge organizer-a machine learning system, a rule-based system, and a system consisting of a combination of both. Our machine learning system was trained on re-annotated data in which apparently inconsistent emotion assignment was adjusted. Then, the machine learning methods by RIPPER and multinomial Naïve Bayes classifiers, manual pattern matching rules, and the combination of the two systems were tested to determine the emotions within sentences. The combination of the machine learning and rule-based system performed best and produced a micro-average F-score of 0.5640.

  4. Making syntax of sense: number agreement in sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Kathleen M; Cutting, J Cooper; Bock, Kathryn

    2005-07-01

    Grammatical agreement flags the parts of sentences that belong together regardless of whether the parts appear together. In English, the major agreement controller is the sentence subject, the major agreement targets are verbs and pronouns, and the major agreement category is number. The authors expand an account of number agreement whose tenets are that pronouns acquire number lexically, whereas verbs acquire it syntactically but with similar contributions from number meaning and from the number morphology of agreement controllers. These tenets were instantiated in a model using existing verb agreement data. The model was then fit to a new, more extensive set of verb data and tested with a parallel set of pronoun data. The theory was supported by the model's outcomes. The results have implications for the integration of words and structures, for the workings of agreement categories, and for the nature of the transition from thought to language.

  5. Psychiatric disorder in women serving a prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, T; Swinton, M; Gunn, J

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a case-note and interview study of a cross-sectional sample comprising 25% of all women serving a prison sentence in England and Wales. A 5% sample of the male sentenced prison population was used for comparison. Diagnoses were assigned on clinical grounds and an assessment was made of the treatment needs of all 'cases'. The prevalence of psychosis, around 2%, was similar in the two groups but women had higher rates of mental handicap (6% v. 2%), personality disorder (18% v. 10%), neurosis (18% v. 10%) and substance abuse (26% v. 12%). There is a need for closer links between the NHS and prison health services. Women's prisons lack a therapeutic community of the Grendon type, which may be of benefit to a substantial minority of inmates.

  6. Cultural considerations in the criminal law: the sentencing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, James K; Schaefer, Michele N; Bloom, Joseph D

    2005-01-01

    In forensic psychiatry, there is increasing recognition of the importance of culture and ethnicity in the criminal justice process as the population becomes more culturally diverse. However, there has been little consideration of the role of cultural factors in the trial process for criminal defendants, particularly in the sentencing phase of trial. Using a capital murder case study, this article explores the role of cultural forensic psychiatric consultation, focusing on the sentencing phase of trial as the place where the full scope and power of a cultural evaluation can be brought most effectively to the attention of the court. Cultural psychiatric perspectives can enrich a core forensic evaluation and be maximally helpful to the court, by exploring family dynamics and psychological health influenced by cultural history, immigrant and refugee experiences, and sociocultural environment. Specific recommendations and cautions for effective cultural consultation in forensic psychiatry are discussed.

  7. Child molester gets new sentence after State breaks plea deal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-20

    In August of 1992, a child molester, [name removed], agreed to a plea bargain rather than be tried on three counts of sexual assault. At the sentencing, hearing prosecutors requested that [name removed] undergo HIV testing, with the results to be disclosed to the boy's parents. The circuit court judge imposed a five-year jail sentence with credit for time served and an HIV test. [Name removed]'s public defender appealed to Hawaii's Intermediate Court of Appeals. The appeals court ruled that once the terms of the plea agreement had been reached between prosecutors and [name removed], they could not be altered. The appeals court also stated that the circuit judge had no power under Hawaii law to compel the defendant to undergo HIV testing.

  8. Appeals panel vacates sentence of HIV-positive sex offender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-20

    The Ohio Court of Appeals rejected [name removed]'s arguments for a lighter sentence, but remanded the case for resentencing on other grounds. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to one count of corrupting a minor, a plea bargain with prosecutors in which they dropped rape and kidnapping charges. The case involved oral sex with a 13-year-old boy in which [name removed] did not disclose his HIV-positive status. The lower court erred in neglecting to explain its reason for giving [name removed] the maximum allowable sentence, and should not have raised Megan's Law concerns, as the crime took place before that statute was enacted. This was [name removed]'s first offense for a sex crime.

  9. Sentencing, community penalties and the role of the probation service

    OpenAIRE

    Canton, Robert; Mair, G.

    2007-01-01

    Willan has become a major publisher in criminology and criminal justice and this Handbook joins an impressive and influential series. Many leading academics in the field have contributed to this volume and Canton’s chapter, co-written with Professor George Mair (Liverpool John Moore’s), is an important part of the collection. Canton’s contribution is to apply the insights of ‘compliance’ to specific challenges of implementing community sentences.

  10. Automatic lymphoma classification with sentence subgraph mining from pathology reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Sohani, Aliyah R; Hochberg, Ephraim P; Szolovits, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Pathology reports are rich in narrative statements that encode a complex web of relations among medical concepts. These relations are routinely used by doctors to reason on diagnoses, but often require hand-crafted rules or supervised learning to extract into prespecified forms for computational disease modeling. We aim to automatically capture relations from narrative text without supervision. We design a novel framework that translates sentences into graph representations, automatically mines sentence subgraphs, reduces redundancy in mined subgraphs, and automatically generates subgraph features for subsequent classification tasks. To ensure meaningful interpretations over the sentence graphs, we use the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus to map token subsequences to concepts, and in turn sentence graph nodes. We test our system with multiple lymphoma classification tasks that together mimic the differential diagnosis by a pathologist. To this end, we prevent our classifiers from looking at explicit mentions or synonyms of lymphomas in the text. We compare our system with three baseline classifiers using standard n-grams, full MetaMap concepts, and filtered MetaMap concepts. Our system achieves high F-measures on multiple binary classifications of lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma, 0.8; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 0.909; follicular lymphoma, 0.84; Hodgkin lymphoma, 0.912). Significance tests show that our system outperforms all three baselines. Moreover, feature analysis identifies subgraph features that contribute to improved performance; these features agree with the state-of-the-art knowledge about lymphoma classification. We also highlight how these unsupervised relation features may provide meaningful insights into lymphoma classification. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Rational Suicides: Evidence from Changes in Inmates' Expected Sentence Length

    OpenAIRE

    Nadia Campaniello; Theodoros Diasakos; Giovanni Mastrobuoni

    2012-01-01

    Are suicides rational? At least since the 70's economists have been trying to shed light on this question by studying whether suicide rates are related to contemporaneous economic conditions. This paper goes one step further: we test whether suicides are linked to forward-looking behavior. In Italy, collective sentence reductions (pardons) often lead to massive releases of prisoners. More importantly, they are usually preceded by prolonged parliamentary activity (legislative proposals, discus...

  12. Effects of surprisal and locality on Danish sentence processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Kizach, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    increases with big changes in the relative entropy of possible parses, sometimes leading to anti-locality effects. We consider both lexicalised surprisal, expressed in conditional trigram probabilities, and syntactic surprisal expressed in the manipulation of the expectedness of the second NP in Danish...... in verb-final languages, while locality is a robust predictor of sentence processing. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media New York...

  13. Aristotle on Sentence Types and Forms of Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Bolonyai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the Hermeneutics, Ch. 4, the analysis of non-assertoric sentences such as wishes, commands, etc. belongs to rhetoric or poetics. They are, however, examined neither in the Rhetoric nor in the Poetics, where (Ch. 20 their treatment. is explicitly excluded from the art of poetry and referred to that of delivery or performance. The paper gives an explanation for this discrepancy, based on an interpretation of Aristotle's rejection of Protagoras' criticism of Homer. The sophist found fault with the first line of the Iliad where Homer invokes the Muse by the imperative Menin aeide, thea thus uttering a command while believing that he is expressing a prayer. Aristotle's grounds for rejecting this criticism remain implicit, but it appears very likely that he thought that, if uttered or performed in the right manner, the sentence could he taken as a prayer. From this observation, which is certainly valid in this particular case, he drew the conclusion that performative or vocal features in themselves, i.e. rhythm, intonation and volume of sound, are always sufficient to identify particular „figures of speech“, as he calls non-assertoric sentence types in the Poetics. This conclusion is, however, not entirely justified. Performative features are not always enough to differentiate between two `figures of speech'; the possible range of verbal moods and sentence types is likewise determined by morphological marks (e.g. mood signs, syntactical features (word-order, and lexical items (certain adverbs or particles. Aristotle’s decision to dismiss figures of speech altogether from the field of lexis may also have contributed to the later development of keeping linguistics and theory of style apart as two separate branches of inquiry.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder: diminished responsibility and mitigation of sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Russ

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to consider the implications of a recent Western Australia Court of Appeal decision in which an indigenous youth who had been sentenced for the manslaughter of his neonate child was later diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder. The increased use of the 2016 Australian guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder should be encouraged to enable clinicians to not only diagnose and manage Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder, but also counsel families to prevent it.

  15. Effects of speech clarity on recognition memory for spoken sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research shows that inter-talker variability (i.e., changing the talker) affects recognition memory for speech signals. However, relatively little is known about the consequences of intra-talker variability (i.e. changes in speaking style within a talker) on the encoding of speech signals in memory. It is well established that speakers can modulate the characteristics of their own speech and produce a listener-oriented, intelligibility-enhancing speaking style in response to communication demands (e.g., when speaking to listeners with hearing impairment or non-native speakers of the language). Here we conducted two experiments to examine the role of speaking style variation in spoken language processing. First, we examined the extent to which clear speech provided benefits in challenging listening environments (i.e. speech-in-noise). Second, we compared recognition memory for sentences produced in conversational and clear speaking styles. In both experiments, semantically normal and anomalous sentences were included to investigate the role of higher-level linguistic information in the processing of speaking style variability. The results show that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech lead to improved speech recognition in challenging listening conditions and, crucially, to a substantial enhancement in recognition memory for sentences.

  16. Relatedness of content and sentence formation in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Bekeš

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Leech (1983: 63-70 distinguishes two kinds of pragmatics, interpersonal prag­ matics and textual pragmatics.  Our article is concerned with textual pragmatics,  spe­ cifically with the textual motivations behind a format such as a sentence in Japanese. Studying spontaneous spoken discourse, Chafe (1980 proposed two units of spoken discourse on the basis of phonetical and intonational criteria, i.e. the "idea unit" and the "intonation sentence". He finds justification for both units in cognitive processes as follows. Idea units, most often verbalized as clauses, are the linguistic expression of cognitive units that Chafe calls "foci of consciousness". A focus of consciousness is a chunk of information small enough to be processed and verbalized in one step. Next, an intonation sentence, consisting usually of several idea units (or sometimes just one is the verbal expression of a larger cognitive unit, the "center of interest", a chunk of information too large to be verbalized in one step. Concerning the center of interest, Chafe puts forward the following hypothesis.

  17. iSentenizer-μ: multilingual sentence boundary detection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Derek F; Chao, Lidia S; Zeng, Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Sentence boundary detection (SBD) system is normally quite sensitive to genres of data that the system is trained on. The genres of data are often referred to the shifts of text topics and new languages domains. Although new detection models can be retrained for different languages or new text genres, previous model has to be thrown away and the creation process has to be restarted from scratch. In this paper, we present a multilingual sentence boundary detection system (iSentenizer-μ) for Danish, German, English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Finnish, and Swedish languages. The proposed system is able to detect the sentence boundaries of a mixture of different text genres and languages with high accuracy. We employ i (+)Learning algorithm, an incremental tree learning architecture, for constructing the system. iSentenizer-μ, under the incremental learning framework, is adaptable to text of different topics and Roman-alphabet languages, by merging new data into existing model to learn the new knowledge incrementally by revision instead of retraining. The system has been extensively evaluated on different languages and text genres and has been compared against two state-of-the-art SBD systems, Punkt and MaxEnt. The experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the other systems on all datasets.

  18. iSentenizer-μ: Multilingual Sentence Boundary Detection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek F. Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sentence boundary detection (SBD system is normally quite sensitive to genres of data that the system is trained on. The genres of data are often referred to the shifts of text topics and new languages domains. Although new detection models can be retrained for different languages or new text genres, previous model has to be thrown away and the creation process has to be restarted from scratch. In this paper, we present a multilingual sentence boundary detection system (iSentenizer-μ for Danish, German, English, Spanish, Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Finnish, and Swedish languages. The proposed system is able to detect the sentence boundaries of a mixture of different text genres and languages with high accuracy. We employ i+Learning algorithm, an incremental tree learning architecture, for constructing the system. iSentenizer-μ, under the incremental learning framework, is adaptable to text of different topics and Roman-alphabet languages, by merging new data into existing model to learn the new knowledge incrementally by revision instead of retraining. The system has been extensively evaluated on different languages and text genres and has been compared against two state-of-the-art SBD systems, Punkt and MaxEnt. The experimental results show that the proposed system outperforms the other systems on all datasets.

  19. Classification of clinically useful sentences in clinical evidence resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morid, Mohammad Amin; Fiszman, Marcelo; Raja, Kalpana; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    Most patient care questions raised by clinicians can be answered by online clinical knowledge resources. However, important barriers still challenge the use of these resources at the point of care. To design and assess a method for extracting clinically useful sentences from synthesized online clinical resources that represent the most clinically useful information for directly answering clinicians' information needs. We developed a Kernel-based Bayesian Network classification model based on different domain-specific feature types extracted from sentences in a gold standard composed of 18 UpToDate documents. These features included UMLS concepts and their semantic groups, semantic predications extracted by SemRep, patient population identified by a pattern-based natural language processing (NLP) algorithm, and cue words extracted by a feature selection technique. Algorithm performance was measured in terms of precision, recall, and F-measure. The feature-rich approach yielded an F-measure of 74% versus 37% for a feature co-occurrence method (pUpToDate sentences (p=0.62). The feature-rich approach significantly outperformed general baseline methods. This approach significantly outperformed classifiers based on a single type of feature. Different types of semantic features provided a unique contribution to overall classification performance. The classifier's model and features used for UpToDate generalized well to Medline abstracts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Engaging the Public in the Development of Sentencing Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Indermaur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the lack of confidence in the courts provides an opportunity for us to consider the question of how sentencing policy is formulated and whether there is room for improvement in the process. It is argued in this paper that the legitimacy of the courts and public satisfaction with sentencing can both be enhanced if we were to carefully provide for the inclusion of an informed and deliberating public into policy formulation. Such a strategy would not only quell the loose and ill-defined ‘public opinion’ that characterises the tabloids; it would also enhance the transparency and the public acceptance of policy. The paper considers the continuum of possibilities for including the public from the gratuitous exploitation of the public voice by populists and media entrepreneurs using top-of-the-head opinion polls through to informed public opinion, public consultation process and ultimately the democratisation of sentencing policy. It is argued that this continuum can be seen as reflecting both the amount of true power given to the public voice as well as the amount of respect given to public input. Much of the fear of public inclusion in elite circles concerns public opinion as depicted in the media which is largely ‘public emotion’. It is argued that, when properly integrated, the inclusion of the public voice in the policy formulation process will have the same salutary effect that the jury has on the criminal trial.

  1. Oscillatory brain dynamics during sentence reading: A Fixation-related spectral perturbation analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo eVignali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated oscillatory brain dynamics during self-paced sentence-level processing. Participants read fully correct sentences, sentences containing a semantic violation and sentences in which the order of the words was randomized. At the target word level, fixations on semantically unrelated words elicited a lower-beta band (13-18 Hz desynchronization. At the sentence level, gamma power (31-55 Hz increased linearly for syntactically correct sentences, but not when the order of the words was randomized. In the 300 to 900 ms time window after sentence onsets, theta power (4-7 Hz was greater for syntactically correct sentences as compared to sentences where no syntactic structure was preserved (random words condition. We interpret our results as conforming with a recently formulated predictive-coding framework for oscillatory neural dynamics during sentence-level language comprehension. Additionally, we discuss how our results relate to previous findings with serial visual presentation versus self-paced reading.

  2. Automatically extracting sentences from Medline citations to support clinicians' information needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha Reddy; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Medlin, Richard; Weir, Charlene; Fiszman, Marcelo; Mostafa, Javed; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Online health knowledge resources contain answers to most of the information needs raised by clinicians in the course of care. However, significant barriers limit the use of these resources for decision-making, especially clinicians' lack of time. In this study we assessed the feasibility of automatically generating knowledge summaries for a particular clinical topic composed of relevant sentences extracted from Medline citations. The proposed approach combines information retrieval and semantic information extraction techniques to identify relevant sentences from Medline abstracts. We assessed this approach in two case studies on the treatment alternatives for depression and Alzheimer's disease. A total of 515 of 564 (91.3%) sentences retrieved in the two case studies were relevant to the topic of interest. About one-third of the relevant sentences described factual knowledge or a study conclusion that can be used for supporting information needs at the point of care. The high rate of relevant sentences is desirable, given that clinicians' lack of time is one of the main barriers to using knowledge resources at the point of care. Sentence rank was not significantly associated with relevancy, possibly due to most sentences being highly relevant. Sentences located closer to the end of the abstract and sentences with treatment and comparative predications were likely to be conclusive sentences. Our proposed technical approach to helping clinicians meet their information needs is promising. The approach can be extended for other knowledge resources and information need types.

  3. A Deficit in Movement-Derived Sentences in German-Speaking Hearing-Impaired Children

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    Esther Ruigendijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing impairment (HI show disorders in syntax and morphology. The question is whether and how these disorders are connected to problems in the auditory domain. The aim of this paper is to examine whether moderate to severe hearing loss at a young age affects the ability of German-speaking orally trained children to understand and produce sentences. We focused on sentence structures that are derived by syntactic movement, which have been identified as a sensitive marker for syntactic impairment in other languages and in other populations with syntactic impairment. Therefore, our study tested subject and object relatives, subject and object Wh-questions, passive sentences, and topicalized sentences, as well as sentences with verb movement to second sentential position. We tested 19 HI children aged 9;5–13;6 and compared their performance with hearing children using comprehension tasks of sentence-picture matching and sentence repetition tasks. For the comprehension tasks, we included HI children who passed an auditory discrimination task; for the sentence repetition tasks, we selected children who passed a screening task of simple sentence repetition without lip-reading; this made sure that they could perceive the words in the tests, so that we could test their grammatical abilities. The results clearly showed that most of the participants with HI had considerable difficulties in the comprehension and repetition of sentences with syntactic movement: they had significant difficulties understanding object relatives, Wh-questions, and topicalized sentences, and in the repetition of object who and which questions and subject relatives, as well as in sentences with verb movement to second sentential position. Repetition of passives was only problematic for some children. Object relatives were still difficult at this age for both HI and hearing children. An additional important outcome of the study is that not all sentence structures

  4. Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood: Acceptability and Clinical Utility of the World Health Organization's Proposed ICD-11 Criteria.

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    Titia F Beek

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO is currently updating the tenth version of their diagnostic tool, the International Classification of Diseases (ICD, WHO, 1992. Changes have been proposed for the diagnosis of Transsexualism (ICD-10 with regard to terminology, placement and content. The aim of this study was to gather the opinions of transgender individuals (and their relatives/partners and clinicians in the Netherlands, Flanders (Belgium and the United Kingdom regarding the proposed changes and the clinical applicability and utility of the ICD-11 criteria of 'Gender Incongruence of Adolescence and Adulthood' (GIAA. A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (45.2%, 8 from Flanders (Belgium (1.3%, and 336 (53.5% from the UK. Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives (n = 522, 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs and 17 were both healthcare providers and (partners/relatives of transgender people. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Most participants were in favor of the proposed diagnostic term of 'Gender Incongruence' and thought that this was an improvement on the ICD-10 diagnostic term of 'Transsexualism'. Placement in a separate chapter dealing with Sexual- and Gender-related Health or as a Z-code was preferred by many and only a small number of participants stated that this diagnosis should be excluded from the ICD-11. In the UK, most transgender participants thought there should be a diagnosis related to being trans. However, if it were to be removed from the chapter on "psychiatric disorders", many transgender respondents indicated that they would prefer it to be removed from the ICD in its entirety. There were no large differences between the responses of the transgender participants (or their partners and relatives and HCPs. HCPs were generally positive about the GIAA diagnosis; most thought the diagnosis was clearly defined and

  5. Neurophysiological dynamics of phrase-structure building during sentence processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Matthew J; El Karoui, Imen; Giber, Kristof; Yang, Xiaofang; Cohen, Laurent; Koopman, Hilda; Cash, Sydney S; Naccache, Lionel; Hale, John T; Pallier, Christophe; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2017-05-02

    Although sentences unfold sequentially, one word at a time, most linguistic theories propose that their underlying syntactic structure involves a tree of nested phrases rather than a linear sequence of words. Whether and how the brain builds such structures, however, remains largely unknown. Here, we used human intracranial recordings and visual word-by-word presentation of sentences and word lists to investigate how left-hemispheric brain activity varies during the formation of phrase structures. In a broad set of language-related areas, comprising multiple superior temporal and inferior frontal sites, high-gamma power increased with each successive word in a sentence but decreased suddenly whenever words could be merged into a phrase. Regression analyses showed that each additional word or multiword phrase contributed a similar amount of additional brain activity, providing evidence for a merge operation that applies equally to linguistic objects of arbitrary complexity. More superficial models of language, based solely on sequential transition probability over lexical and syntactic categories, only captured activity in the posterior middle temporal gyrus. Formal model comparison indicated that the model of multiword phrase construction provided a better fit than probability-based models at most sites in superior temporal and inferior frontal cortices. Activity in those regions was consistent with a neural implementation of a bottom-up or left-corner parser of the incoming language stream. Our results provide initial intracranial evidence for the neurophysiological reality of the merge operation postulated by linguists and suggest that the brain compresses syntactically well-formed sequences of words into a hierarchy of nested phrases.

  6. Neural networks mediating sentence reading in the deaf

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    Elizabeth Ann Hirshorn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work addresses the neural bases of sentence reading in deaf populations. To better understand the relative role of deafness and English knowledge in shaping the neural networks that mediate sentence reading, three populations with different degrees of English knowledge and depth of hearing loss were included – deaf signers, oral deaf and hearing individuals. The three groups were matched for reading comprehension and scanned while reading sentences. A similar neural network of left perisylvian areas was observed, supporting the view of a shared network of areas for reading despite differences in hearing and English knowledge. However, differences were observed, in particular in the auditory cortex, with deaf signers and oral deaf showing greatest bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG recruitment as compared to hearing individuals. Importantly, within deaf individuals, the same STG area in the left hemisphere showed greater recruitment as hearing loss increased. To further understand the functional role of such auditory cortex re-organization after deafness, connectivity analyses were performed from the STG regions identified above. Connectivity from the left STG toward areas typically associated with semantic processing (BA45 and thalami was greater in deaf signers and in oral deaf as compared to hearing. In contrast, connectivity from left STG toward areas identified with speech-based processing was greater in hearing and in oral deaf as compared to deaf signers. These results support the growing literature indicating recruitment of auditory areas after congenital deafness for visually-mediated language functions, and establish that both auditory deprivation and language experience shape its functional reorganization. Implications for differential reliance on semantic vs. phonological pathways during reading in the three groups is discussed.

  7. INTERCONNECTION AND INTERACTION OF INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

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    Natalia Sklyarova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false RU X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 This paper presents the results of research devoted to one of significant aspects of interrogative sentences. The precise definitions of interconnection and interaction and the application of these terms to the language units helped to distinguish between interconnection and interaction of interrogative sentences in English. The existence of two different kinds of relations in the language, namely paradigmatic and syntagmatic, provided the basis for singling out two corresponding forms of interaction of English interrogative sentences. Contextual and distributional analyses of the material from authentic sources enabled to characterize the range and degree of their paradigmatic and syntagmatic interaction. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Обычная таблица"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  8. Sentence Comprehension and Its Association with Executive Functions in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

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    Katrien S. F. Colman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coexistent impairments in executive functions and language comprehension in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD have been repeatedly observed. In this study, the aim was to provide insights into the interaction between linguistic representation and processing and executive functioning. Therefore, sentence comprehension and executive functions were assessed in 28 Dutch-speaking PD patients and 28 healthy control subjects. Three aspects of the sentence materials were varied: (1 phrase structure complexity, (2 sentence length, and (3 picture congruence. PD patients with mild-to-moderate disease severity showed decreased sentence comprehension compared to healthy control subjects. The difficulties encountered by PD patients were not limited to one aspect of the sentence materials. The same pattern of results was present in healthy control subjects. Deficits in set-switching were specifically associated with the comprehension of passive sentences. Generally, our study confirms that there does not appear to be a language faculty encapsulated from the influence of executive functions.

  9. [TEFREP: repeating sentences Test in France and Quebec. Development, validation and standardization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, Josiane; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Forest, Martin; Monetta, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Sentence repetition is part of the assessment tasks used to better characterise aphasic patients' oral production. Moreover, impaired sentence and phrase repetition is a core feature of the logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia. The aim of this study is to present the TEFREP (TEst Français de RÉpétition de Phrases), a French sentence repetition task that manipulates psycholinguistic variables known to affect the performance of aphasic patients. The final version of the TEFREP consists of 24 sentences in which length, semantic reversibility and type of sentence have been manipulated. The task shows good psychometric properties (validity and reliability). Norms according to age and education level have been developed from a sample of 80 healthy adults and older adults. In conclusion, the TEFREP fulfills the current need for a reliable assessment tool of sentence repetition in Canadian French-speaking populations and contributes to the differential diagnosis of language impairment.

  10. Publisiteitsbevele as Vonnisopsie Vir Regspersone (Publicity Orders as Sentencing Option for Juristic Persons

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    Pieter du Toit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This contribution addresses the issue of adverse publicity orders as a possible supplementary sentencing option for corporate offenders. In South Africa fines are the primary sentencing option available to courts when imposing sentences on juristic persons. Fines, however, do not adequately serve the purposes of corporate sentencing. Publicity orders require the publication of an offender’s conviction, sentence and the details of the offence to individuals or a group of persons (such as shareholders. An adverse publication damages the corporate offender’s reputation – a valuable asset to a corporate entity. It therefore serves the purpose of corporate deterrence. In this contribution criticism is levelled against the fine as primary sentencing option for juristic persons; the notion of corporate reputation is considered from a social and legal perspective; a functional comparative study of adverse publication orders is presented and recommendations are made regarding the content of effective publication orders.

  11. Mapping Between Semantic Graphs and Sentences in Grammar Induction System

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    Laszlo Kovacs

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The proposed transformation module performs mapping be-
    tween two di®erent knowledge representation forms used in grammar induction systems. The kernel knowledge representation form is a special predicate centered conceptual graph called ECG. The ECG provides a semantic-based, language independent description of the environment. The other base representation form is some kind of language. The sentences of the language should meet the corresponding grammatical rules. The pilot project demonstrates the functionality of a translator module using this transformation engine between the ECG graph and the Hungarian language.

  12. The use of religion in death penalty sentencing trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Monica K; Bornstein, Brian H

    2006-12-01

    Both prosecutors and defense attorneys have presented religious appeals and testimony about a defendant's religious activities in order to influence capital jurors' sentencing. Courts that have objected to this use of religion fear that religion will improperly influence jurors' decisions and interfere with their ability to weigh aggravators and mitigators. This study investigated the effects of both prosecution and defense appeals. Prosecution appeals did not affect verdict decisions; however, use of religion by the defense affected both verdicts and the weighing of aggravators and mitigators. These results could be due to differences in perceived sincerity and remorse that are conveyed in the various appeals.

  13. Discourse Markers s Sentence Openers in Legal English

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    Onorina Botezat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Discourse markers can be defined as linguistic expressions of different length which carry pragmatic and propositional meaning, they are used to combine clauses or to connect sentence elements andthey appear in both speech and writing, and facilitate the discourse. Each discourse marker indicates a particular meaning relationship between two or more clauses. English is predominantly the language ofinternational legal practice and its importance to lawyers cannot be over-emphasized. The way in which one uses legal English can therefore be crucial to professional success. This paper stresses the importance of good usage of discourse markers in legal English.

  14. Temporal anaphora across and inside sentences: The function of participles

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    Corien Bary

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a formal account of the discourse behaviour of participles, which to some extent behave like main clauses in having semantically undetermined relations to their matrix clause, but which should nevertheless be integrated into the compositional semantics of complex sentences. The theory is developed on the basis of Ancient Greek participles and offers an account of their syntax, semantics and discourse behaviour (focusing on the temporal dimension of discourse, integrating Lexical-Functional Grammar, Compositional DRT and Segmented DRT using Glue semantics. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.4.8 BibTeX info

  15. Elaboration over a discourse facilitates retrieval in sentence processing

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    Melissa eTroyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Language comprehension requires access to stored knowledge and the ability to combine knowledge in new, meaningful ways. Previous work has shown that processing linguistically more complex expressions (‘Texas cattle rancher’ vs. ‘rancher’ leads to slow-downs in reading during initial processing, possibly reflecting effort in combining information. Conversely, when this information must subsequently be retrieved (as in filler-gap constructions, processing is facilitated for more complex expressions, possibly because more semantic cues are available during retrieval. To follow up on this hypothesis, we tested whether information distributed across a short discourse can similarly provide effective cues for retrieval. Participants read texts introducing two referents (e.g., two senators, one of whom was described in greater detail than the other (e.g., ‘The Democrat had voted for one of the senators, and the Republican had voted for the other, a man from Ohio who was running for president’. The final sentence (e.g., ‘The senator who the {Republican / Democrat} had voted for…’ contained a relative clause picking out either the Many-Cue referent (with ‘Republican’ or the One-Cue referent (with ‘Democrat’. We predicted facilitated retrieval (faster reading times for the Many-Cue condition at the verb region (‘had voted for’, where readers could understand that ‘The senator’ is the object of the verb. As predicted, this pattern was observed at the retrieval region and continued throughout the rest of the sentence. Participants also completed the Author/Magazine Recognition Tests (ART/MRT; Stanovich & West, 1989, providing a proxy for world knowledge. Since higher ART/MRT scores may index (a greater experience accessing relevant knowledge and/or (b richer/more highly-structured representations in semantic memory, we predicted it would be positively associated with effects of elaboration on retrieval. We did not observe

  16. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  17. Reliability of Visual-World Eyetracking for Lexical and Sentence Comprehension Tasks

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    Jennifer E. Mack

    2014-04-01

    The results indicate that eyetracking is a reliable measure of the latency of lexical access and sentence comprehension, even with a limited number of trials. Therefore, this method may prove useful for investigating lexical access and sentence comprehension changes as a result of treatment for aphasia. Figure 1. Proportion of fixations to the target picture across sessions in (a lexical access and (b sentence comprehension trials. Vertical lines indicate windows for statistical analyses.

  18. Neural basis of first and second language processing of sentence-level linguistic prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandour, Jackson; Tong, Yunxia; Talavage, Thomas; Wong, Donald; Dzemidzic, Mario; Xu, Yisheng; Li, Xiaojian; Lowe, Mark

    2007-02-01

    A fundamental question in multilingualism is whether the neural substrates are shared or segregated for the two or more languages spoken by polyglots. This study employs functional MRI to investigate the neural substrates underlying the perception of two sentence-level prosodic phenomena that occur in both Mandarin Chinese (L1) and English (L2): sentence focus (sentence-initial vs. -final position of contrastive stress) and sentence type (declarative vs. interrogative modality). Late-onset, medium proficiency Chinese-English bilinguals were asked to selectively attend to either sentence focus or sentence type in paired three-word sentences in both L1 and L2 and make speeded-response discrimination judgments. L1 and L2 elicited highly overlapping activations in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Furthermore, region of interest analyses revealed that for both languages the sentence focus task elicited a leftward asymmetry in the supramarginal gyrus; both tasks elicited a rightward asymmetry in the mid-portion of the middle frontal gyrus. A direct comparison between L1 and L2 did not show any difference in brain activation in the sentence type task. In the sentence focus task, however, greater activation for L2 than L1 occurred in the bilateral anterior insula and superior frontal sulcus. The sentence focus task also elicited a leftward asymmetry in the posterior middle temporal gyrus for L1 only. Differential activation patterns are attributed primarily to disparities between L1 and L2 in the phonetic manifestation of sentence focus. Such phonetic divergences lead to increased computational demands for processing L2. These findings support the view that L1 and L2 are mediated by a unitary neural system despite late age of acquisition, although additional neural resources may be required in task-specific circumstances for unequal bilinguals.

  19. Verb Transitivity Bias Affects On-line Sentence Reading in People with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeDe, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of sentence comprehension in non-disordered populations have convincingly demonstrated that probabilistic cues influence on-line syntactic processing. One well-studied cue is verb argument structure bias, which refers to the probability that a verb will occur in a particular syntactic frame. According to the Lexical Bias Hypothesis, people with aphasia have difficulty understanding sentences in which the verb’s argument structure bias conflicts with the sentence structure (e.g., a transitively biased verb in an intransitive sentence). This hypothesis may provide an account of why people with aphasia have difficulty understanding both simple and complex sentences. Aims The purpose of this study was to test the Lexical Bias Hypothesis using an on-line measure of written sentence comprehension, self-paced reading. Methods & Procedures The participants were ten people with aphasia and ten non-brain-damaged controls. The stimuli were syntactically simple transitive and intransitive sentences that contained transitively- or intransitively-biased verbs. For example, the transitively-biased verb “called” appeared in sentences such as “The agent called (the writer) from overseas to make an offer.” The intransitively-biased verb “danced” appeared in sentences such as “The couple danced (the tango) every Friday night last summer.” Outcomes & Results Both groups’ reading times for critical segments were longer when the verb’s transitivity bias did not match the sentence structure, particularly in intransitive sentences. Conclusions The results were generally consistent with the Lexical Bias Hypothesis, and demonstrated that lexical biases affect on-line processing of syntactically simple sentences in people with aphasia and controls. PMID:23554543

  20. The comprehension of sentences with unaccusative verbs in aphasia: a test of the intervener hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Natalie; Walenski, Matthew; Love, Tracy; Shapiro, Lewis P

    2017-01-01

    It is well accepted that individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have difficulty comprehending some sentences with filler-gap dependencies. While investigations of these difficulties have been conducted with several different sentence types (e.g., object relatives, Wh -questions), we explore sentences containing unaccusative verbs, which arguably have a single noun phrase (NP) that is base-generated in object position but then is displaced to surface subject position. Unaccusative verbs provide an ideal test case for a particular hypothesis about the comprehension disorder-the Intervener Hypothesis-that posits that the difficulty individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia have comprehending sentences containing filler-gap dependencies results from similarity-based interference caused by the presence of an intervening NP between the two elements of a syntactic chain. To assess a particular account of the comprehension deficit in agrammatic Broca's aphasia-the Intervener Hypothesis. We used a sentence-picture matching task to determine if listeners with agrammatic Broca's aphasia (LWBA) and age-matched neurologically unimpaired controls (AMC) have difficulty comprehending unaccusative verbs when placed in subject relative and complement phrase (CP) constructions. We found above-chance comprehension of both sentence constructions with the AMC participants. In contrast, we found above-chance comprehension of CP sentences containing unaccusative verbs but poor comprehension of subject relative sentences containing unaccusative verbs for the LWBA. These results provide support for the Intervener Hypothesis, wherein the presence of an intervening NP between two elements of a filler-gap dependency adversely affects sentence comprehension.

  1. Sentence-position effects on children's perception and production of English third person singular -s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Megha; Demuth, Katherine; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2011-02-01

    Two-year-olds produce third person singular -s more accurately on verbs in sentence-final position as compared with verbs in sentence-medial position. This study was designed to determine whether these sentence-position effects can be explained by perceptual factors. For this purpose, the authors compared 22- and 27-month-olds' perception and elicited production of third person singular -s in sentence-medial versus-final position. The authors assessed perception by measuring looking/listening times to a 1-screen display of a cartoon paired with a grammatical versus an ungrammatical sentence (e.g., She eats now vs. She eat now). Children at both ages demonstrated sensitivity to the presence/absence of this inflectional morpheme in sentence-final, but not sentence-medial, position. Children were also more accurate at producing third person singular -s sentence finally, and production accuracy was predicted by vocabulary measures as well as by performance on the perception task. These results indicate that children's more accurate production of third person singular -s in sentence-final position cannot be explained by articulatory factors alone but that perceptual factors play an important role in accounting for early patterns of production. The findings also indicate that perception and production of inflectional morphemes may be more closely related than previously thought.

  2. Constructive processes in skilled and less skilled comprehenders' memory for sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakhill, J

    1982-02-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate seven-eight-year-old children's memory for aurally presented sentences. A recognition-memory task was used to probe constructive memory processes in two groups differentiated by their ability at comprehending printed text. The recognition errors of both groups indicated that they constructed meanings implied by the original input sentences, whilst demonstrating poor memory for the syntactic form of the sentences. The tendency to construct meanings implied by the original input sentences was greater in children who scored higher on tests of reading comprehension of test. These results indicate that constructive memory processes are related to comprehension ability in young readers.

  3. Measuring vulnerability to depression: The Serbian scrambled sentences test - SSST

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    Novović Zdenka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to establish whether the SSST, a Serbian language scrambled sentences instrument, is a reliable measure of depressive cognitive bias, and whether it captures the suppression tendency as participants exert the additional cognitive effort of memorizing a six-digit number while completing the task. The sample consisted of 1071 students, randomly assigned into two groups. They completed the SSST divided into two blocks of 28 sentences, together with additional cognitive task during either the first or second block, and after that a number of instruments to establish validity of the SSST. The test was shown to be a reliable instrument of depressive cognitive bias. As a measure of suppression the SSST performed partly as expected, only when load was applied in the second half of the test, and fatigue and cognitive effort enhanced suppression. The advantages of the test versus self-description measures were discussed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179006: Hereditary, environmental, and psychological factors of mental health

  4. Juvenile prison: Remarks on the specific characteristics of regular sentencing

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    Miladinović-Stefanović Dušica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of the juvenile criminal law in the Republic of Serbia includes different mechanisms of social response to juvenile delinquency, including corrective orders, corrective measures and juvenile prison. This paper deals with the issue of determining a relevant sentence for juvenile offenders in trial proceedings. The legislator has provided a number of guidelines for these proceedings: the specific range of the juvenile prison sentence, the purpose of punishment, the degree of maturity of a juvenile offender, the time needed for his/her educational and vocational training, and all relevant circumstances envisaged in Article 54 of the Criminal Code. The previous statement reveals the focal points of examination and structural organization in this article, whose purpose is twofold: first, to explain the effect of the subject-specific legal provisions (aggravating and mitigating circumstances envisaged in the Act on Juvenile Criminal Offenders and Protection of Juveniles in Criminal Law and, second, to establish how the general provisions from the Criminal Code are applied in this case, with special emphasis on their specific manifestations.

  5. Healthy Aging and Compensation of Sentence Comprehension Auditory Deficits

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    Marcela Lima Silagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To analyze the effect of aging on sentence auditory comprehension and to study the relationship between this language skill and cognitive functions (attention, working memory, and executive functions. Methods. A total of 90 healthy subjects were divided into three groups: adults (50–59 years, young-old (60–69 years, and old-old (70–80 years. Subjects were assessed using the Revised Token Test. The measures used for performance analysis were number of correct answers (accuracy and execution time of commands on the different subtests. Results. Regarding accuracy, groups showed similar performance on the first blocks, but the young-old and old-old performed worse than adults on blocks 9 and 10. With respect to execution time, groups differed from block 2 (i.e., the groups differed for all blocks, except for block 1, with the worst performance observed in the old-old group, followed by that of the young-old group. Therefore, the elderly required more time to attain performance similar to that of adults, showing that time measurements are more sensitive for detecting the effects of age. Sentence comprehension ability is correlated with cognitive test performance, especially for global cognition and working memory tests. Conclusions. Healthy aging is characterized by the ability to compensate for difficulties in linguistic processing, which allows the elderly to maintain functional communication.

  6. Reduced Syntactic Processing Efficiency in Older Adults During Sentence Comprehension

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    Zude Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have frequently reported an age-related decline in semantic processing during sentence comprehension. However, it remains unclear whether syntactic processing also declines or whether it remains constant as people age. In the present study, 26 younger adults and 20 older adults were recruited and matched in terms of working memory, general intelligence, verbal intelligence and fluency. They were then asked to make semantic acceptability judgments while completing a Chinese sentence reading task. The behavioral results revealed that the older adults had significantly lower accuracy on measures of semantic and syntactic processing compared to younger adults. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that during semantic processing, older adults had a significantly reduced amplitude and delayed peak latency of the N400 compared to the younger adults. During syntactic processing, older adults also showed delayed peak latency of the P600 relative to younger adults. Moreover, while P600 amplitude was comparable between the two age groups, larger P600 amplitude was associated with worse performance only in the older adults. Together, the behavioral and ERP data suggest that there is an age-related decline in both semantic and syntactic processing, with a trend toward lower efficiency in syntactic ability.

  7. Attachment style in the context of clinical and health psychology : A proposal for the assessment of valence, incongruence, and accessibility of attachment representations in various working models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlsma, Coby; Luteijn, Frans

    By combining the Adult Attachment interview and the Autobiographical Memory Test, a structured interview was developed as a 'quick and dirty' measure for the assessment of attachment representations in clinical settings. The interview intends to assess valence, incongruence, and accessibility of the

  8. Acculturative Stress and Depressive Symptomatology among Mexican and Mexican American Students in the U.S.: Examining Associations with Cultural Incongruity and Intragroup Marginalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Castillo, Linda G.; Castro, Yessenia; de Dios, Marcel A.; Roncancio, Angelica M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations of intragroup marginalization and cultural incongruity with acculturative stress and depressive symptoms among 155 undergraduate U.S. college students of Mexican heritage. Findings indicate that perceived interpersonal distancing by the family (intragroup marginalization) and perceived lack of cultural fit between…

  9. INFLUENCE OF LENGTH OF SENTENCES ON THE FREQUENCY OF SPEECH DISFLUENCIES IN CHILDREN WHO STUTTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Begić

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether the length of sentences has influence on the frequency of speech disfluencies for children who stutter. The participants included 30 children who stutter 19 male participants and 13 female participants, whose age ranged between 4 years and 8 months to 6 years and 11 months (56 to 83 months of age. Research was conducted in kindergartens and primary schools in Tuzla Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina2 . The test consisted of 36 sentences. In relation to the length, sentences were divided into three groups: in the first group there were 9 sentences which included 3 to 5 words, in the second group, there were 14 sentences which included 6 to 8 words and in the third group there were 13 sentences which included 9 to 11 words. Testing was conducted so that the examiner was pronouncing one sentence after which the participant repeated the same sentence. Each participant was requested to repeat exactly what he/she had heard. Speech and language pathologist has recorded all speech disfluencies in all sentences. The results showed that the sentences containing 9 to 11 words had most effects on the overall dynamics of speech disfluencies in children who stutter. The results suggest that during the process of assessment and diagnosis of children who stutter, it should be required to assess the child's ability to use complex linguistic statements and to assess the frequency of disfluencies in relation to the complexity of the sentences. Precision diagnostics would provide guidelines for the treatment of stuttering in terms of implementation of approaches and strategies which include language treatment and gradually increasing the length and complexity of statements of children who stutter during speech.

  10. A shared neural substrate for mentalizing and the affective component of sentence comprehension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Hervé

    Full Text Available Using event-related fMRI in a sample of 42 healthy participants, we compared the cerebral activity maps obtained when classifying spoken sentences based on the mental content of the main character (belief, deception or empathy or on the emotional tonality of the sentence (happiness, anger or sadness. To control for the effects of different syntactic constructions (such as embedded clauses in belief sentences, we subtracted from each map the BOLD activations obtained during plausibility judgments on structurally matching sentences, devoid of emotions or ToM. The obtained theory of mind (ToM and emotional speech comprehension networks overlapped in the bilateral temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate cortex, right anterior temporal lobe, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and in the left inferior frontal sulcus. These regions form a ToM network, which contributes to the emotional component of spoken sentence comprehension. Compared with the ToM task, in which the sentences were enounced on a neutral tone, the emotional sentence classification task, in which the sentences were play-acted, was associated with a greater activity in the bilateral superior temporal sulcus, in line with the presence of emotional prosody. Besides, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was more active during emotional than ToM sentence processing. This region may link mental state representations with verbal and prosodic emotional cues. Compared with emotional sentence classification, ToM was associated with greater activity in the caudate nucleus, paracingulate cortex, and superior frontal and parietal regions, in line with behavioral data showing that ToM sentence comprehension was a more demanding task.

  11. Molecular phylogeny of Pasiphaeidae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Caridea) reveals systematic incongruence of the current classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yunshi; De Grave, Sammy; Ho, Tsz Wai; Ip, Brian H Y; Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Tin-Yam; Chu, Ka Hou

    2017-10-01

    Caridean shrimps constitute one of the most diverse groups of decapod crustaceans, notwithstanding their poorly resolved infraordinal relationships. One of the systematically controversial families in Caridea is the predominantly pelagic Pasiphaeidae, comprises 101 species in seven genera. Pasiphaeidae species exhibit high morphological disparity, as well as ecological niche width, inhabiting shallow to very deep waters (>4000m). The present work presents the first molecular phylogeny of the family, based on a combined dataset of six mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA, histone 3, sodium-potassium ATPase α-subunit, enolase and ATP synthase β-subunit) from 33 species belonged to six genera of Pasiphaeidae with 19 species from 12 other caridean families as outgroup taxa. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses conducted on the concatenated dataset of 2265bp suggest the family Pasiphaeidae is not monophyletic, with Psathyrocaris more closely related to other carideans than to the other five pasiphaeid genera included in this analysis. Leptochela occupies a sister position to the remaining genera and is genetically quite distant from them. At the generic level, the analysis supports the monophyly of Pasiphaea, Leptochela and Psathyrocaris, while Eupasiphae is shown to be paraphyletic, closely related to Parapasiphae and Glyphus. The present molecular result strongly implies that certain morphological characters used in the present systematic delineation within Pasiphaeidae may not be synapomorphies and the classification within the family needs to be urgently revised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Influence of Semantic Constraints on Bilingual Word Recognition during Sentence Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Eva; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter; Welvaert, Marijke; Hartsuiker, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates how semantic constraint of a sentence context modulates language-non-selective activation in bilingual visual word recognition. We recorded Dutch-English bilinguals' eye movements while they read cognates and controls in low and high semantically constraining sentences in their second language. Early and late…

  13. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this...

  14. EEG theta and gamma responses to semantic violations in online sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, L.A.; Bastiaansen, M.C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta (≈3–7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either semantically correct or

  15. The Magnetic Sentences Industry Game: A Competitive In-Class Experience of Business-Level Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casile, Maureen; Wheeler, Jane V.

    2005-01-01

    The Magnetic Sentences Industry Game is a high-energy in-class exercise designed to help students gain hands-on experience with setting, implementing, evaluating, and revising business-level strategy. Students compete in teams to create and market sentences using Magnetic Poetry (a product of Magnetic Poetry, Inc.). Revenues earned are highly…

  16. Production of Non-Canonical Sentences in Agrammatic Aphasia: Limits in Representation or Rule Application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchert, Frank; Meissner, Nadine; De Bleser, Ria

    2008-01-01

    The study reported here compares two linguistically informed hypotheses on agrammatic sentence production, the TPH [Friedmann, N., & Grodzinsky, Y. (1997). "Tense and agreement in agrammatic production: Pruning the syntactic tree." "Brain and Language," 56, 397-425.] and the DOP [Bastiaanse, R., & van Zonneveld, R. (2005). "Sentence production…

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Language Production in Parkinson's Disease Using a Cued Sentence Generation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; De Letter, Miet; Corthals, Paul; Van Borsel, John; Santens, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined language production skills in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. A unique cued sentence generation task was created in order to reduce demands on memory and attention. Differences in sentence production abilities according to disease severity and cognitive impairments were assessed. Language samples were obtained from 20…

  18. EEG theta and gamma responses to semantic violations in online sentence processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hald, L.A.; Bastiaansen, M.C.M.; Hagoort, P.

    2006-01-01

    We explore the nature of the oscillatory dynamics in the EEG of subjects reading sentences that contain a semantic violation. More specifically, we examine whether increases in theta (approximate to 3-7 Hz) and gamma (around 40 Hz) band power occur in response to sentences that were either

  19. Savry risk assessment in violent Dutch adolescents - Relation to sentencing and recidivism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodewijks, H.P.B.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; de Ruiter, C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive validity of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY) by examining relationships between SAVRY scores and violent reoffending during a 3-year period after sentencing. Two types of sentences were studied: a mandatory treatment order (N = 77) and a

  20. Automatic Generation and Evaluation of Sentence Graphs out of Word Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Priss, U.; Corbett, D.; Angelova, G.

    This paper reports on the development of a system that automatically constructs representations of the meaning of sentences using rules of grammar and a dictionary of word meanings. The meanings of words and sentences are expressed using an extension of knowledge graphs, a semantic network

  1. Reading Russian-English Homographs in Sentence Contexts: Evidence from ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Jared, Debra

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated whether Russian--English bilinguals activate knowledge of Russian when reading English sentences. Russian and English share only a few letters, but there are some interlingual homographs (e.g., POT, which means "mouth" in Russian). Critical sentences were written such that the Russian meaning of the…

  2. The On-Line Study of Sentence Comprehension: An Examination of Dual Task Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Janet; Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Hald, Lea

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents three studies which examine the susceptibility of sentence comprehension to intrusion by extra-sentential probe words in two on-line dual-task techniques commonly used to study sentence processing: the cross-modal lexical priming paradigm and the unimodal all-visual lexical priming paradigm. It provides both a general review…

  3. "If a Lion Could Speak ...": Online Sensitivity to Propositional Truth-Value of Unrealistic Counterfactual Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwland, Mante S.

    2013-01-01

    People can establish whether a sentence is hypothetically true even if what it describes can never be literally true given the laws of the natural world. Two event-related potential (ERP) experiments examined electrophysiological responses to sentences about unrealistic counterfactual worlds that require people to construct novel conceptual…

  4. Processing the noun phrase versus sentence coordination ambiguity : Thematic information does not completely eliminate processing difficulty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeks, John C. J.; Hendriks, Petra; Vonk, Wietske; Brown, Colin M.; Hagoort, Peter

    When faced with the noun phrase (NP) versus sentence (S) coordination ambiguity as in, for example, The thief shot the jeweller and the cop..., readers prefer the reading with NP-coordination (e.g., "The thief shot the jeweller and the cop yesterday") over one with two conjoined sentences (e.g.,

  5. 28 CFR 523.30 - What is educational good time sentence credit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is educational good time sentence credit? 523.30 Section 523.30 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INMATE ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER COMPUTATION OF SENTENCE District of Columbia Educational Good Time...

  6. 76 FR 24533 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the Short Term Sentences Acquisition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Sentences Acquisition Procurement AGENCY: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons. ACTION... contract to secure additional inmate bed space for the BOP's growing inmate population. As part of this action, known as the Short Term Sentences Acquisition procurement, the BOP has identified a specific...

  7. Corrections on Grammar, Sentence Variety and Developing Detail to Qualify Academic Essay of Indonesian Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Imroatus

    2017-01-01

    This experimental research examines: (1) significant differences of corrections on grammar, sentence variety and developing details on the quality of the essay by Indonesian learners; and (2) different effect of corrections on grammar, sentence variety, and developing details on the quality of the essay. Treatments for each were served as follows:…

  8. Sentence Repetition in Deaf Children with Specific Language Impairment in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Herman, Rosalind; Atkinson, Joanna; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform poorly on sentence repetition tasks across different spoken languages, but until now, this methodology has not been investigated in children who have SLI in a signed language. Users of a natural sign language encode different sentence meanings through their choice of signs and by altering…

  9. Children's Verbal Working Memory: Role of Processing Complexity in Predicting Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magimairaj, Beula M.; Montgomery, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the role of processing complexity of verbal working memory tasks in predicting spoken sentence comprehension in typically developing children. Of interest was whether simple and more complex working memory tasks have similar or different power in predicting sentence comprehension. Method: Sixty-five children (6- to…

  10. Comprehending Sentences with the Body: Action Compatibility in British Sign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, David; Perniss, Pamela; Fox, Neil; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies show that reading sentences about actions leads to specific motor activity associated with actually performing those actions. We investigate how sign language input may modulate motor activation, using British Sign Language (BSL) sentences, some of which explicitly encode direction of motion, versus written English, where motion…

  11. Generative re-ranking model for dependency parsing of Italian sentences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangati, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present a general framework for dependency parsing of Italian sentences based on a combination of discriminative and generative models. We use a state-of-the-art discriminative model to obtain a k-best list of candidate structures for the test sentences, and use the generative model to compute

  12. Sentencing in the Netherlands : taking risk-related offender characteristics into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingerden, Sigrid Geralda Clara van

    2014-01-01

    The sentencing decision of the judge might be the most important decision in the criminal proceedings, not only because of the impact the punishment has on the offender, but also because the sentencing decision is a cornerstone of the legitimacy of the entire criminal justice system. Nonetheless,

  13. 75 FR 62342 - Paroling, Recommitting, and Supervising Federal Prisoners: Prisoners Serving Sentences Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... minimum term required by his sentence or by operation of law. After the Commission makes a discretionary... supervision until the expiration of his sentence or his supervision is terminated early. Parole may be revoked... 25, 2002, that: ``Cocaine, in any form, produces the same effects once it reaches the brain. It...

  14. An Analysis of Errors in Written English Sentences: A Case Study of Thai EFL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sermsook, Kanyakorn; Liamnimit, Jiraporn; Pochakorn, Rattaneekorn

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study were to examine the language errors in a writing of English major students in a Thai university and to explore the sources of the errors. This study focused mainly on sentences because the researcher found that errors in Thai EFL students' sentence construction may lead to miscommunication. 104 pieces of writing…

  15. Saying What's on Your Mind: Working Memory Effects on Sentence Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slevc, L. Robert

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in sentence comprehension has received considerable interest, but little work has investigated how sentence production relies on memory mechanisms. Three experiments investigated speakers' tendency to produce syntactic structures that allow for early production of material that is accessible in memory. In Experiment…

  16. Courtroom Workgroups and Sentencing: The Effects of Similarity, Proximity, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins; Ruback, Barry; Cusick, Gretchen Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Sentencing decisions are the product of a group of courtroom actors, primarily judges and district attorneys. Although the structure of the courtroom workgroup and the interdependencies among members are assumed to be important determinants of sentencing decisions, the degree of this importance and the specific mechanisms through which workgroups…

  17. Criminal Sentencing Alternatives. A Report of a Wingspread Conference (Racine, WI, March 21-22, 1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Rod

    This publication contains the proceedings of a Wingspread conference held in Racine, Wisconsin in March 1977, dealing with the topic of criminal sentencing alternatives. The conference grew out of a controversy within the Wisconsin Council on Criminal Justice over "determinant" versus "indeterminant" sentencing. Under a…

  18. Influences of Sentence Length and Syntactic Complexity on the Speech Motor Control of Children Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Megan K.; Smith, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential effects of increased sentence length and syntactic complexity on the speech motor control of children who stutter (CWS). Method: Participants repeated sentences of varied length and syntactic complexity. Kinematic measures of articulatory coordination variability and movement duration during perceptually…

  19. Sentence Repetition as a Measure of Morphosyntax in Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeili, Mariam; Marshall, Chloe R.

    2013-01-01

    Bilingual children are frequently misdiagnosed as having Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Misdiagnosis may be minimized by tests with high degrees of sensitivity and specificity. The current study used a new test, the School-Age Sentence Imitation Test-English 32 (SASIT-E32), to investigate sentence repetition in monolingual and bilingual…

  20. 75 FR 81457 - Paroling, Recommitting, and Supervising Federal Prisoners: Prisoners Serving Sentences Under the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Supervising Federal Prisoners: Prisoners Serving Sentences Under the United States and District of Columbia...) organized crime offender; (3) national or unusual interest in the prisoner; and (4) long-term sentence. The prisoner could appeal a parole denial to the three national Board members in Washington, DC and some...

  1. Reading Journal Articles for Comprehension Using Key Sentences: An Exercise for the Novice Research Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nicole S.; Taubman, Brett F.

    2013-01-01

    We have incorporated an active-learning assignment, Reading Papers Using Key Sentences, in an upper-level Introduction to Chemical Research course. Although key sentences are typically used to help authors write with clarity and organization, we have found that this assignment helps students improve upon and practice reading journal articles for…

  2. Sentence Writing and Perception of Written Sentences in Hearing-Impaired and Normal-Hearing Primary School Students in Hamadan, Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Yaghobi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Learning language is acquired in early childhood and gradually developed by new words and new structures. Hearing sense is the most important acquisition for learning this skill. Hearing disorders are barriers for natural language learning. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among thirty hearing-impaired students with hearing loss of 70-90 dB and thirty normal hearing students. They were selected from 3rd grade primary school students in Hamadan, a large city in Western Iran. The language skills and non language information was assessed by questionnaire, Action Picture Test, and Sentence Perception Test.Results: Results showed that there was a significant relation between writing sentences and perception of written sentences in hearing impaired students (p<0.001, (r=0.8. This significant relation was seen in normal-hearing students as well (p<0.001, (r=0.7.Conclusion: Disability of hearing-impaired students in verbal communication is not only related to articulation and voice disorders but also is related to their disability to explore and use of language rules. They suffer lack of perception of written sentences, and they are not skilled to convey their feelings and thoughts in order to presenting themselves by using language structures.

  3. IASPEI PRESS RELEASE ON THE L’AQUILA SENTENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Article Editorial

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mw 6.3 earthquake, that occurred in L'Aquila, Central Italy on April 6, 2009, killed 309 people, 1500 citizens were injured, and 30000 people lost their homes. On October 22, 2012, an Italian court in L'Aquila convicted seven scientists for failing to adequately warn residents before the earthquake struck Central Italy. All are members of the National Great Risks Commission, and several are prominent Italian seismologists and disaster experts. They were accused of involuntary manslaughter, negligence and errors in the assessment of the earthquake precursors and sentenced to six years in prison and payment of monetary compensations to relatives of those killed and injured.

  4. A Contrastive Analysis of Interrogative Sentences in English and Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashlihatul Umami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the forms of questions in English and Indonesian in order to identify the similarities and differences between them. CA may look at linguistic structures in a twofold way: predictability power and wash back effect (Cheng, Watanabe & Curtis, 2004. The former deals with foreseeing the areas of problems the English learners may commit and the latter refers to the effect of diagnostic value of CA on improvement of teaching processes. In this case, the researcher emphasizes her study in analyzing CA based on the first perspective; this study focuses on interrogative sentences which are in the form of questions which play an important role in learning English among junior English students. This study has found the differences and similarities between Indonesian and English. Recognizing this will contribute to the accuracy of English questions made by the students.

  5. The Imperative Sentence Pattern “Vp+tsau” in the Mengjin Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lanyu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the Mengjin dialect, the imperative sentence “Vp+ʦau (‘go’” is a common sentence pattern, which has six major structural forms. The basic structure is “tɕhy412(‘go’+(Np+Vp+ʦau (‘go’”, and “ʦau” in this form is a marginalized directional verb. Containing the stronger power factor, the imperative sentence “Vp+ʦau” is often used in the relationship between the superior and the subordinate, which has a high degree of colloquialism. Nevertheless, the power factor can be ignored on condition that the relationship between the two parties of the communication is very close. Due to the division of the ancient Chinese political jurisdictions and the influence of population migration, the imperative “Vp+ʦau” is widely distributed. Two different imperative sentences being merged and weakened, this sentence pattern comes into being.

  6. How the conceptions of Chinese rhetorical expressions are derived from the corresponding generic sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhui

    2018-04-01

    Generic sentences are simple and intuitive recognition and objective description to the external world in terms of "class". In the long evolutionary process of human being's language, the concepts represented by generic sentences has been internalized to be the defaulted knowledge in people's minds. In Chinese, some rhetorical expressions supported by corresponding generic sentences can be accepted by people. The derivation of these rhetorical expressions from the corresponding generic sentences is an important way for language to evolution, which reflects human's creative cognitive competence. From the perspective of conceptual blend theory and the theory of categorization of the cognitive linguistics, the goal of this paper is to analysis the process of the derivation of the rhetorical expressions from the corresponding generic sentences, which can facilitate the Chinese metaphorical information processing and the corpus construction of Chinese emotion metaphors.

  7. Psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and compliance time remaining in prison sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Jarillo

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study shows the results obtained from evaluating the main psychosocial stressors perceived in the process of social reintegration and their relation to a remaining sentence time in prison. Material and methods: A questionnaire based on an ad hoc design was administered, using a Likert scale, with a total of 383 inmates serving sentences in southeast Spain. Results: Findings show that inmates with a remaining sentence period of more than one year, like those who had served more than a year of their sentence, showed greater concern about possible economic difficulties. Conclusions: The psychosocial stressors studied might provide relevant information to facilitate the process of social reintegration after the completion of a prison sentence.

  8. The Influence of Topic Status on Written and Spoken Sentence Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, H Wind; Ferreira, Victor S

    2011-12-01

    Four experiments investigate the influence of topic status and givenness on how speakers and writers structure sentences. The results of these experiments show that when a referent is previously given, it is more likely to be produced early in both sentences and word lists, confirming prior work showing that givenness increases the accessibility of given referents. When a referent is previously given and assigned topic status, it is even more likely to be produced early in a sentence, but not in a word list. Thus, there appears to be an early mention advantage for topics that is present in both written and spoken modalities, but is specific to sentence production. These results suggest that information-structure constructs like topic exert an influence that is not based only on increased accessibility, but also reflects mapping to syntactic structure during sentence production.

  9. Listening to factually incorrect sentences activates classical language areas and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Lang, Simone; Birbaumer, Niels; Kotchoubey, Boris

    2011-12-07

    Neurophysiological underpinnings of the integration of information during sentence comprehension have been studied since 1980. However, little is known about integrative processes in sentences containing a word that is semantically congruent, but factually incompatible with the context. In this study, we aimed at investigating the differences between the brain regions involved in responses to factually correct and incorrect sentences. Eighteen healthy volunteers underwent functional MRI while listening passively to 40 correct and 40 incorrect sentences. The contrast between factually correct and incorrect sentence endings revealed large activation areas in the left inferior frontal gyrus, the left middle/superior temporal gyrus, and smaller activations of these areas' homologs in the right hemisphere, in the thalamus, and Brodmann area 6.

  10. Motion verb sentences activate left posterior middle temporal cortex despite static context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, M; Ellegaard Lund, Torben; Østergaard, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The left posterior middle temporal region, anterior to V5/MT, has been shown to be responsive both to images with implied motion, to simulated motion, and to motion verbs. In this study, we investigated whether sentence context alters the response of the left posterior middle temporal region....... 'Fictive motion' sentences are sentences in which an inanimate subject noun, semantically incapable of self movement, is coupled with a motion verb, yielding an apparent semantic contradiction (e.g. 'The path comes into the garden.'). However, this context yields no less activation in the left posterior...... middle temporal region than sentences in which the motion can be applied to the subject noun. We speculate that the left posterior middle temporal region activity in fictive motion sentences reflects the fact that the hearer applies motion to the depicted scenario by scanning it egocentrically...

  11. On-line processing and comprehension of direct object pronoun sentences in Spanish-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbau, Dolors

    2017-01-01

    Eleven native Spanish-speaking children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) (8;3-10;11) and 11 typically developing children (8;7-10;8) received a comprehensive psycholinguistic evaluation. Participants listened to either Direct Object (DO) pronoun sentences or filler sentences without any pronoun, and they decided whether a picture on the screen (depicting the antecedent, another noun in the sentence, or an unrelated object) was 'alive'. They answered comprehension questions about pronoun sentences. Children with SLI showed significantly poorer comprehension of DO pronoun sentences when answering comprehension questions than children with Typical Language Development (TLD). This poor pronoun sentence understanding correlated significantly with poor auditory sentence completion, non-word repetition task and expressive vocabulary skills. Children with SLI were significantly slower in the animacy decisions than children with TLD across all pronoun and filler sentence conditions. Both groups exhibited high accuracy in the animacy decisions for any conditions. Clinical implications are discussed.

  12. Is imprisonment criminogenic. A comparative study of recidivism rates associated whith terms of imprisonment and suspended prison sentences

    OpenAIRE

    Cid Moliné, Josep

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the effects of custodial versus non-custodial sentences on recidivism. An 8-year follow-up study was conducted to track and compare rates of recidivism between former prisoners and offenders who had served a suspended prison sentence. Drawing upon a representative sample of 483 offenders sentenced in 1998 by the Criminal Courts of Barcelona, two subpopulations of offenders were selected. The first group consisted of offenders who were sentenced to prison (n=179) while th...

  13. The Impact of Sentencing on Offenders' Future Labour Market Outcomes and Re-offending- Community Work Versus Fines

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Morris; Charles Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    This study provides evidence to help inform sentencing policy by assessing the differential impact of two types of sentences (community work and fines) on adult offenders subsequent employment, benefit receipt and re-offending. This is the first study in New Zealand to examine post-sentencing employment outcomes and benefit receipt of such offenders. We focus on offences where we observe variation in sentencing after controlling for observable differences and examine outcomes for up to three ...

  14. Body integrity identity disorder: deranged body processing, right fronto-parietal dysfunction, and phenomenological experience of body incongruity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J; Bradshaw, John L; Nicholls, Michael E R; Hilti, Leonie M; Brugger, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is characterised by profound experience of incongruity between the biological and desired body structure. The condition manifests in "non-belonging" of body parts, and the subsequent desire to amputate, paralyse or disable a limb. Little is known about BIID; however, a neuropsychological model implicating right fronto-parietal and insular networks is emerging, with potential disruption to body representation. We argue that, as there is scant systematic research on BIID published to date and much of the research is methodologically weak, it is premature to assume that the only process underlying bodily experience that is compromised is body representation. The present review systematically investigates which aspects of neurological processing of the body, and sense of self, may be compromised in BIID. We argue that the disorder most likely reflects dysregulation in multiple levels of body processing. That is, the disunity between self and the body could arguably come about through congenital and/or developmental disruption of body representations, which, together with altered multisensory integration, may preclude the experience of self-attribution and embodiment of affected body parts. Ulimately, there is a need for official diagnostic criteria to facilitate epidemiological characterisation of BIID, and for further research to systematically investigate which aspects of body representation and processing are truly compromised in the disorder.

  15. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (phair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Phylogenetic incongruence in E. coli O104: understanding the evolutionary relationships of emerging pathogens in the face of homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong Hao

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli O104:H4 was identified as an emerging pathogen during the spring and summer of 2011 and was responsible for a widespread outbreak that resulted in the deaths of 50 people and sickened over 4075. Traditional phenotypic and genotypic assays, such as serotyping, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, permit identification and classification of bacterial pathogens, but cannot accurately resolve relationships among genotypically similar but pathotypically different isolates. To understand the evolutionary origins of E. coli O104:H4, we sequenced two strains isolated in Ontario, Canada. One was epidemiologically linked to the 2011 outbreak, and the second, unrelated isolate, was obtained in 2010. MLST analysis indicated that both isolates are of the same sequence type (ST678, but whole-genome sequencing revealed differences in chromosomal and plasmid content. Through comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of five O104:H4 ST678 genomes, we identified 167 genes in three gene clusters that have undergone homologous recombination with distantly related E. coli strains. These recombination events have resulted in unexpectedly high sequence diversity within the same sequence type. Failure to recognize or adjust for homologous recombination can result in phylogenetic incongruence. Understanding the extent of homologous recombination among different strains of the same sequence type may explain the pathotypic differences between the ON2010 and ON2011 strains and help shed new light on the emergence of this new pathogen.

  17. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  18. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  19. Data set incongruence and correlated character evolution: An example of functional convergence in the hind-limbs of stifftail diving ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, K.G.; Harshman, J.; Mcclellan, D.A.; Afton, A.D.

    1999-01-01

    The unwitting inclusion of convergent characters in phylogenetic estimates poses a serious problem for efforts to recover phylogeny. Convergence is not inscrutable, however, particularly when one group of characters tracks phylogeny and another set tracks adaptive history. In such cases, convergent characters may be correlated with one or a few functional anatomical units and readily identifiable by using comparative methods. Stifftail ducks (Oxyurinae) offer one such opportunity to study correlated character evolution and function in the context of phylogenetic reconstruction. Morphological analyses place stifftail ducks as part of a large clade of diving ducks that includes the sea ducks (Mergini), Hymenolaimus, Merganetta, and Tachyeres, and possibly the pochards (Aythyini). Molecular analyses, on the other hand, place stifftails far from other diving ducks and suggest, moreover, that stifftails are polyphyletic. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of eight stifftail species traditionally supposed to form a clade were compared with each other and with sequences from 50 other anseriform and galliform species. Stifftail ducks are not the sister group of sea ducks but lie outside the typical ducks (Anatinae). Of the four traditional stifftail genera, monophyly of Oxyura and its sister group relationship with Nomonyx are strongly supported. Heteronetta probably is the sister group of that clade, but support is weak. Biziura is not a true stifftail. Within Oxyura, Old World species (O. australis, O. leucocephala, O. mnccoa) appear to form a clade, with New World species (O. jamaicensis, O. vittata) branching basally. Incongruence between molecules and morphology is interpreted to be the result of adaptive specialization and functional convergence in the hind limbs of Biziura and true stifftails. When morphological characters are divided into classes, only hind-limb characters are significantly in conflict with the molecular tree. Likewise, null models of

  20. Court sentences in the aspect of theorems of validity, justice and certainty of bisectrixity

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    Sergey G. Ol’kov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to prove the theorems of validity justice and certainty of bisectrixity to elaborate the mathematical bases of the theory of court sentences. Methods observation deduction and induction applying the law of formal logic comparative analysis formaljuridical method mathematical methods. Results 1 theorems of validity justice and certainty of bisectrixity are proved and detailed 2 equally probable equilibrium and diagonal court sentences are viewed in the 2dimensional 3dimensional 4dimensional and 5dimensional space of criminal liability when the scope of punishment is determined by four variables y f x1 x2 x3 x4 where y ndash scope of punishment x1 ndash character and degree of the public danger of the deed x2 ndash category of a criminal public danger of the personality x3 ndash circumstances aggravating punishment x4 ndash circumstances extenuating punishment f ndash parameters of the equation connecting the left and right parts of the equation 3 aggravating and extenuating circumstances can be integrated into a single variable in the form of a fraction where the numerator is the scope of circumstances aggravating punishment x3 and thenbspdenominator is the extenuating circumstances x4 thus we obtain an integrated variable x3 x4 4 it is proved that the certainty of diagonal sentence is s c or v c times larger than the certainty of the equally probable sentence where с is the length of the diagonal s is the area of sentences vnbspis the space of sentences 5 it is proved that the bisectral sentence is the most optimal among the equilibrium ones as it equally takes into account the functions of the defense and the prosecution. Scientific novelty the newly obtained scientific results. Practical significance possibility to use the obtained scientific results for the development of criminallegal and criminalprocedural theories tonbspincrease the level of justice of the court sentences. Keywords Criminal procedure Theorem of validity Theorem

  1. The Effects of Linguistic Context on Word Recognition in Noise by Elderly Listeners Using Spanish Sentence Lists (SSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Teresa; Rosell, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the linguistic context on the recognition of words in noise in older listeners using the Spanish Sentence Lists. These sentences were developed based on the approach of the SPIN test for the English language, which contains high and low predictability (HP and LP) sentences. In addition, the relative contribution…

  2. The Impact of Age, Background Noise, Semantic Ambiguity, and Hearing Loss on Recognition Memory for Spoken Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeritzer, Margaret A.; Rogers, Chad S.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to determine how background noise, linguistic properties of spoken sentences, and listener abilities (hearing sensitivity and verbal working memory) affect cognitive demand during auditory sentence comprehension. Method: We tested 30 young adults and 30 older adults. Participants heard lists of sentences in…

  3. A FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING INVESTIGATION OF THE ROLES OF STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY AND TASK-DEMAND DURING AUDITORY SENTENCE PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tracy; Haist, Frank; Nicol, Janet; Swinney, David

    2009-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), this study directly examined an issue that bridges the potential language processing and multi-modal views of the role of Broca’s area: the effects of task-demands in language comprehension studies. We presented syntactically simple and complex sentences for auditory comprehension under three different (differentially complex) task-demand conditions: passive listening, probe verification, and theme judgment. Contrary to many language imaging findings, we found that both simple and complex syntactic structures activated left inferior frontal cortex (L-IFC). Critically, we found activation in these frontal regions increased together with increased task-demands. Specifically, tasks that required greater manipulation and comparison of linguistic material recruited L-IFC more strongly; independent of syntactic structure complexity. We argue that much of the presumed syntactic effects previously found in sentence imaging studies of L-IFC may, among other things, reflect the tasks employed in these studies and that L-IFC is a region underlying mnemonic and other integrative functions, on which much language processing may rely. PMID:16881268

  4. Criterion-related validity of the Test of Children's Speech sentence intelligibility measure for children with cerebral palsy and dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Megan; Gotzke, Carrie Lynne

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the criterion-related validity of the TOCS+ sentence measure (TOCS+, Hodge, Daniels & Gotzke, 2009 ) for children with dysarthria and CP by comparing intelligibility and rate scores obtained concurrently from the TOCS+ and from a conversational sample. Twenty children (3 to 10 years old) diagnosed with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) participated. Nineteen children also had a confirmed diagnosis of dysarthria. Children's intelligibility and speaking rate scores obtained from the TOCS+, which uses imitation of sets of randomly selected items ranging from 2-7 words (80 words in total) and from a contiguous 100-word conversational speech were compared. Mean intelligibility scores were 46.5% (SD = 26.4%) and 50.9% (SD = 19.1%) and mean rates in words per minute (WPM) were 90.2 (SD = 22.3) and 94.1 (SD = 25.6), respectively, for the TOCS+ and conversational samples. No significant differences were found between the two conditions for intelligibility or rate scores. Strong correlations were found between the TOCS+ and conversational samples for intelligibility (r = 0.86; p dysarthria. The results support the criterion validity of the TOCS+ sentence task as a time efficient procedure for measuring intelligibility and rate in children with CP, with and without confirmed dysarthria. Children varied in their relative performance on the two speaking tasks, reflecting the complexity of factors that influence intelligibility and rate scores.

  5. Effects of two error-correction procedures on oral reading errors. Word supply versus sentence repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N N

    1990-04-01

    The effects of two error-correction procedures on oral reading errors and a control condition were compared in an alternating treatments design with three students who were moderately mentally retarded. The two procedures evaluated were word supply and sentence repeat. The teacher supplied the reader with the correct word immediately after each student error during the word-supply condition. During the sentence-repeat condition, the teacher supplied the correct word immediately after each student error, required the student to repeat the correct word, complete reading the sentence, and then reread the entire sentence. Both word-supply and sentence-repeat procedures were effective in reducing oral reading errors when compared to a no-intervention control condition, but sentence repeat was superior to word supply. In addition, a similar relationship was found between the two procedures when the students were tested for retention on the same reading passages a week later. These results show that sentence repeat is more effective than is the commonly used word-supply procedure in remediating the oral reading errors of students with moderate mental retardation.

  6. Predicting Neural Activity Patterns Associated with Sentences Using a Neurobiologically Motivated Model of Semantic Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Andrew James; Binder, Jeffrey R; Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Conant, Lisa L; Aguilar, Mario; Wang, Xixi; Doko, Donias; Raizada, Rajeev D S

    2017-09-01

    We introduce an approach that predicts neural representations of word meanings contained in sentences then superposes these to predict neural representations of new sentences. A neurobiological semantic model based on sensory, motor, social, emotional, and cognitive attributes was used as a foundation to define semantic content. Previous studies have predominantly predicted neural patterns for isolated words, using models that lack neurobiological interpretation. Fourteen participants read 240 sentences describing everyday situations while undergoing fMRI. To connect sentence-level fMRI activation patterns to the word-level semantic model, we devised methods to decompose the fMRI data into individual words. Activation patterns associated with each attribute in the model were then estimated using multiple-regression. This enabled synthesis of activation patterns for trained and new words, which were subsequently averaged to predict new sentences. Region-of-interest analyses revealed that prediction accuracy was highest using voxels in the left temporal and inferior parietal cortex, although a broad range of regions returned statistically significant results, showing that semantic information is widely distributed across the brain. The results show how a neurobiologically motivated semantic model can decompose sentence-level fMRI data into activation features for component words, which can be recombined to predict activation patterns for new sentences. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Rapid L2 Word Learning through High Constraint Sentence Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found quantity of exposure, i.e., frequency of exposure (Horst et al., 1998; Webb, 2008; Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt, 2010, is important for second language (L2 contextual word learning. Besides this factor, context constraint and L2 proficiency level have also been found to affect contextual word learning (Pulido, 2003; Tekmen and Daloglu, 2006; Elgort et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2015. In the present study, we adopted the event-related potential (ERP technique and chose high constraint sentences as reading materials to further explore the effects of quantity of exposure and proficiency on L2 contextual word learning. Participants were Chinese learners of English with different English proficiency levels. For each novel word, there were four high constraint sentences with the critical word at the end of the sentence. Learners read sentences and made semantic relatedness judgment afterwards, with ERPs recorded. Results showed that in the high constraint condition where each pseudoword was embedded in four sentences with consistent meaning, N400 amplitude upon this pseudoword decreased significantly as learners read the first two sentences. High proficiency learners responded faster in the semantic relatedness judgment task. These results suggest that in high quality sentence contexts, L2 learners could rapidly acquire word meaning without multiple exposures, and L2 proficiency facilitated this learning process.

  8. Assessing Risk-Based Policies for Pretrial Release and Split Sentencing in Los Angeles County Jails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mericcan Usta

    Full Text Available Court-mandated downsizing of the CA prison system has led to a redistribution of detainees from prisons to CA county jails, and subsequent jail overcrowding. Using data that is representative of the LA County jail system, we build a mathematical model that tracks the flow of individuals during arraignment, pretrial release or detention, case disposition, jail sentence, and possible recidivism during pretrial release, after a failure to appear in court, during non-felony probation and during felony supervision. We assess 64 joint pretrial release and split-sentencing (where low-level felon sentences are split between jail time and mandatory supervision policies that are based on the type of charge (felony or non-felony and the risk category as determined by the CA Static Risk Assessment tool, and compare their performance to that of the policy LA County used in early 2014, before split sentencing was in use. In our model, policies that offer split sentences to all low-level felons optimize the key tradeoff between public safety and jail congestion by, e.g., simultaneously reducing the rearrest rate by 7% and the mean jail population by 20% relative to the policy LA County used in 2014. The effectiveness of split sentencing is due to two facts: (i convicted felony offenders comprised ≈ 45% of LA County's jail population in 2014, and (ii compared to pretrial release, split sentencing exposes offenders to much less time under recidivism risk per saved jail day.

  9. Sentence comprehension in aphasia: A noisy channel approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Walsh Dickey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic accounts of language understanding assume that comprehension involves determining the probability of an intended message (m given an input utterance (u (P(m|u; e.g. Gibson et al, 2013a; Levy et al, 2009. One challenge is that communication occurs within a noisy channel; i.e. the comprehender’s representation of u may have been distorted, e.g., by a typo or by impairment associated with aphasia. Bayes’ rule provides a model of how comprehenders can combine the prior probability of m (P(m with the probability that m would have been distorted to u (P(mu to calculate the probability of m given u (P(m|u  P(mP(mu. This formalism can capture the observation that people with aphasia (PWA rely more on semantics than syntax during comprehension (e.g., Caramazza & Zurif, 1976: given the high probability that their representation of the input is unreliable, they weigh message likelihood more heavily. Gibson et al. (2013a showed that unimpaired adults are sensitive to P(m and P(mu: they more often chose interpretations that increased message plausibility or involved distortions requiring fewer changes, and/or deletions instead of insertions (see Figure 1a for examples. Gibson et al. (2013b found PWA were also sensitive to both P(m and P(mu in an act-out task, but relied more heavily than unimpaired controls on P(m. This shows group-level optimization towards the less noisy (semantic channel in PWA. The current experiment (8 PWA; 7 age-matched controls investigated noisy channel optimization at the level of individual PWA. It also included active/passive items with a weaker plausibility manipulation to test whether P(m is higher for implausible than impossible strings. The task was forced-choice sentence-picture matching (Figure 1b. Experimental sentences crossed active versus passive (A-P structures with plausibility (Set 1 or impossibility (Set 2, and prepositional-object versus double-object structures (PO-DO: Set 3 with

  10. Applauding with closed hands: neural signature of action-sentence compatibility effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Aravena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral studies have provided evidence for an action-sentence compatibility effect (ACE that suggests a coupling of motor mechanisms and action-sentence comprehension. When both processes are concurrent, the action sentence primes the actual movement, and simultaneously, the action affects comprehension. The aim of the present study was to investigate brain markers of bidirectional impact of language comprehension and motor processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants listened to sentences describing an action that involved an open hand, a closed hand, or no manual action. Each participant was asked to press a button to indicate his/her understanding of the sentence. Each participant was assigned a hand-shape, either closed or open, which had to be used to activate the button. There were two groups (depending on the assigned hand-shape and three categories (compatible, incompatible and neutral defined according to the compatibility between the response and the sentence. ACEs were found in both groups. Brain markers of semantic processing exhibited an N400-like component around the Cz electrode position. This component distinguishes between compatible and incompatible, with a greater negative deflection for incompatible. Motor response elicited a motor potential (MP and a re-afferent potential (RAP, which are both enhanced in the compatible condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present findings provide the first ACE cortical measurements of semantic processing and the motor response. N400-like effects suggest that incompatibility with motor processes interferes in sentence comprehension in a semantic fashion. Modulation of motor potentials (MP and RAP revealed a multimodal semantic facilitation of the motor response. Both results provide neural evidence of an action-sentence bidirectional relationship. Our results suggest that ACE is not an epiphenomenal post-sentence comprehension process. In contrast, motor

  11. Measurement of reading speed with standardized texts: a comparison of single sentences and paragraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Elke Karin; Marx, Tobias; Nguyen, Nhung Xuan; Naumann, Aline; Trauzettel-Klosinski, Susanne

    2015-08-01

    We examined the influence of text length (single sentence versus a paragraph of several sentences) on the repeatability of reading speed measurements in normal-sighted subjects. We compared reading speeds for the German versions of the Radner charts (single sentences of 14 words each) and the International Reading Speed Texts (IReST) charts (paragraphs, on average 132 words) in 30 normal-sighted elderly subjects aged 51-81 years (mean 64.5 years ± 7.2 SD). Three texts each of both lengths were read aloud in random order. The influence of text length (single sentence or paragraph) and text sample (each single text) on reading speed was calculated by a regression model and Bland-Altman analysis. Mean reading speed (words per minute) showed no significant difference for single sentences (170 wpm ± 33 SD) and paragraphs (167 wpm ±31 SD). Differences in reading speeds within one type of reading material were higher between single sentences than between paragraphs. Correlation coefficients between speeds were higher for paragraphs (r = 0.96-0.98) than for single sentences (r = 0.69-0.78). Variations between reading speeds for three texts of each length were markedly lower for paragraphs than for single sentences: (median, interquartile range [IQR]): 6.7, IQR 13.9; 3.0, IQR 8.3; -2.0, IQR 9.7 versus -8.8, IQR 29.6; 15.6, IQR 29.4; 22.7, IQR 19.4, respectively. Since reading speeds assessed with paragraphs show lower variance among texts than those for single sentences, they are better suited for repeated measurements, especially for long-term monitoring of the course of reading performance and for assessing effects of interventions in subjects with reading disorders.

  12. Evaluating the use of different positional strategies for sentence selection in biomedical literature summarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Laura; Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Jorge

    2013-02-27

    The position of a sentence in a document has been traditionally considered an indicator of the relevance of the sentence, and therefore it is frequently used by automatic summarization systems as an attribute for sentence selection. Sentences close to the beginning of the document are supposed to deal with the main topic and thus are selected for the summary. This criterion has shown to be very effective when summarizing some types of documents, such as news items. However, this property is not likely to be found in other types of documents, such as scientific articles, where other positional criteria may be preferred. The purpose of the present work is to study the utility of different positional strategies for biomedical literature summarization. We have evaluated three different positional strategies: (1) awarding the sentences at the beginning of the document, (2) preferring those at the beginning and end of the document, and (3) weighting the sentences according to the section in which they appear. To this end, we have implemented two summarizers, one based on semantic graphs and the other based on concept frequencies, and evaluated the summaries they produce when combined with each of the positional strategies above using ROUGE metrics. Our results indicate that it is possible to improve the quality of the summaries by weighting the sentences according to the section in which they appear (≈17% improvement in ROUGE-2 for the graph-based summarizer and ≈20% for the frequency-based summarizer), and that the sections containing the more salient information are the Methods and Material and the Discussion and Results ones. It has been found that the use of traditional positional criteria that award sentences at the beginning and/or the end of the document are not helpful when summarizing scientific literature. In contrast, a more appropriate strategy is that which weights sentences according to the section in which they appear.

  13. Storage costs and heuristics interact to produce patterns of aphasic sentence comprehension performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Despite general agreement that aphasic individuals exhibit difficulty understanding complex sentences, the nature of sentence complexity itself is unresolved. In addition, aphasic individuals appear to make use of heuristic strategies for understanding sentences. This research is a comparison of predictions derived from two approaches to the quantification of sentence complexity, one based on the hierarchical structure of sentences, and the other based on dependency locality theory (DLT). Complexity metrics derived from these theories are evaluated under various assumptions of heuristic use. A set of complexity metrics was derived from each general theory of sentence complexity and paired with assumptions of heuristic use. Probability spaces were generated that summarized the possible patterns of performance across 16 different sentence structures. The maximum likelihood of comprehension scores of 42 aphasic individuals was then computed for each probability space and the expected scores from the best-fitting points in the space were recorded for comparison to the actual scores. Predictions were then compared using measures of fit quality derived from linear mixed effects models. All three of the metrics that provide the most consistently accurate predictions of patient scores rely on storage costs based on the DLT. Patients appear to employ an Agent-Theme heuristic, but vary in their tendency to accept heuristically generated interpretations. Furthermore, the ability to apply the heuristic may be degraded in proportion to aphasia severity. DLT-derived storage costs provide the best prediction of sentence comprehension patterns in aphasia. Because these costs are estimated by counting incomplete syntactic dependencies at each point in a sentence, this finding suggests that aphasia is associated with reduced availability of cognitive resources for maintaining these dependencies.

  14. Sentence Repetition Test for Measurement of Grammatical Development in Farsi Speaking Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kamali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: valid identification, prevention, and treatment of language disorders are a high priority for the speech and language professionals. One method for studying language development is sentence repetition that is faster to implement and analysis than other procedures. The aim of this project was constructing sentence repetition test as a quick measure of grammatical potency in 2.5 to 4 year old children.Methods: Sentences appropriate for 2.5 to 4 year old children were selected during several stages by speech and language pathologist and linguists. The validity of sentences was assessed by professional masters in this theme. Subsequently, 41 sentences including those with 80% high validity were selected as the test sentences. Appropriate pictures were also provided with sentences. The test was administrated to 72 children in 3 groups (2.5-3, 3-3.5, and 3.5-4 year olds, gender matched. The reliability was administered with a test-retest design across a 2 weeks interval.Results: Content validity Index for this test was 80%. "Test-retest reliability” was used for reliability of this test. The Interclass correlation coefficient for this test was 0.95 and standard error measurement was 7.45. The average of scores for sentence repetition, between groups was significant (p<0.001, p<0.001, p= 0.014.Conclusion: This sentence repetition test has the appropriate validity and reliability as well as the capability of proper and quick assessment (screening of grammatical development in 2.5 to 4 year old Persian speaking children.

  15. Semantic effects in sentence recall: the contribution of immediate vs delayed recall in language assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polišenská, Kamila; Chiat, Shula; Comer, Amanda; McKenzie, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Sentence recall is increasingly used to assess language. It is widely debated what the task is actually testing, but one rarely explored aspect is the contribution of semantics to sentence recall. The few studies that have examined the role of semantics in sentence recall have employed an 'intrusion paradigm', following Potter and Lombardi (1990), and their paradigm relies on interference errors with conclusions based on an analysis of error patterns. We have instead manipulated the semantic plausibility of whole sentences to investigate the effects of semantics on immediate and delayed sentence recall. In Study 1, adults recalled semantically plausible and implausible sentences either immediately or after distracter tasks varying in lexical retrieval demands (backward counting and picture naming). Results revealed significant effects of plausibility, delay, and a significant interaction indicating increasing reliance on semantics as the demands of the distracter tasks increased. Study 2, conducted with 6-year-old children, employed delay conditions that were modified to avoid floor effects (delay with silence and forward counting) and a similar pattern of results emerged. This novel methodology provided robust evidence showing the effectiveness of delayed recall in the assessment of semantics and the effectiveness of immediate recall in the assessment of morphosyntax. The findings from our study clarify the linguistic mechanisms involved in immediate and delayed sentence recall, with implications for the use of recall tasks in language assessment. The reader will be able to: (i) define the difference between immediate and delayed sentence recall and different types of distractors, (ii) explain the utility of immediate and delayed recall sentence recall in language assessment, (iii) discuss suitability of delayed recall for the assessment of semantics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  17. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  18. Sentence comprehension in adolescents with Down syndrome and typically developing children: role of sentence voice, visual context, and auditory-verbal short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miolo, Giuliana; Chapman, Robin S; Sindberg, Heidi A

    2005-02-01

    The authors evaluated the roles of auditory-verbal short-term memory, visual short-term memory, and group membership in predicting language comprehension, as measured by an experimental sentence comprehension task (SCT) and the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language--Third Edition (TACL-3; E. Carrow-Woolfolk, 1999) in 38 participants: 19 with Down syndrome (DS), age 12 to 21 years, and 19 typically developing (TD) children, age 3 to 5 years, matched on syntax comprehension, as measured by TACL-3 Subtests II and III. Of the 5 dependent measures of comprehension, auditory-verbal short-term memory accounted for significant amounts of variance in 4; group membership, 1 (semantic role assignment); and visual short-term memory, 0. In the group with DS, hearing status predicted variation in Grammatical Morphemes (TACL-3 Subtest II). Using the SCT, the authors also investigated the effects of varying sentence voice and supporting visual context on sentence comprehension. SCT performance was significantly poorer in terms of (a) referent selection and semantic role assignment, for passive (vs. active) sentences in both groups, and (b) semantic role assignment in all sentences for the group with DS (vs. the TD group). Vocabulary strengths in the group with DS were found with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test--Third Edition (L. M. Dunn & L. M. Dunn, 1997) but not the TACL-3 Vocabulary subtest.

  19. Sentence processing in an artificial language: Learning and using combinatorial constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael S; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2010-07-01

    A study combining artificial grammar and sentence comprehension methods investigated the learning and online use of probabilistic, nonadjacent combinatorial constraints. Participants learned a small artificial language describing cartoon monsters acting on objects. Self-paced reading of sentences in the artificial language revealed comprehenders' sensitivity to nonadjacent combinatorial constraints, without explicit awareness of the probabilities embedded in the language. These results show that even newly-learned constraints have an identifiable effect on online sentence processing. The rapidity of learning in this paradigm relative to others has implications for theories of implicit learning and its role in language acquisition. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Communicative dynamism and prosodic prominence in presentation sentences with initial rhematic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adam

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the theory of functional sentence perspective (Firbas 1992, the distinction between presentation and quality scale sentences plays a vital role. The present paper proposes to shed light on one of the most common configurations of presentation sentences, viz. structures with initial rhematic subject (e.g. an uninvited dwarf came, examining the way native speakers place the intonation centre in such structures, i.e. to map the correspondence between the degrees of communicative dynamism and prosodic prominence. For the purpose of the investigation selected chapters from Tolkien’s The Hobbit are used.

  1. The effect of a sentence comprehension treatment on discourse comprehension in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Swathi; Des Roches, Carrie; Villard, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2015-11-01

    While it is well understood that individuals with aphasia have difficulty with discourse comprehension, very few studies have examined the nature of discourse comprehension deficits in aphasia and the potential for improvement in discourse comprehension after rehabilitation. To address the first goal, we previously developed the Test of Syntactic Effects on Discourse Comprehension (TSEDC), which provides a measure of the extent to which a participant's sentence comprehension ability aids in comprehending passages (Levy et al., 2012). The goal of this study was to examine the effect of a sentence comprehension treatment on the TSEDC to assess if training participants to understand sentences of different syntactic complexity would improve their ability to understand passages that vary by their level of syntactic complexity. Forty participants with aphasia received sentence comprehension treatment using one of two syntactic comprehension tasks: object manipulation (OM) or sentence to picture matching (SPM). The dependent measure was improved sentence comprehension of one sentence type in one task-related protocol, with the order of task and structure counterbalanced across participants. Before and after treatment, participants also completed a self-paced auditory story comprehension task which involved 9 passages that contained either semantically reversible canonical sentences (simple passages) or semantically reversible noncanonical sentences (complex passages). At the end of each passage, participants were asked explicit or implicit questions about the story. Accuracy and reaction times were measured for each patient for each story before and after treatment. Analysis of the treatment data revealed that participants improved in their ability to understand trained sentences (both in terms of effect size and percent change on trained structure), irrespective of whether the trained task was SPM or OM. There was no significant relationship between treatment

  2. Do Resources, Justice Administration Practices And Federalism Have An Impact On Registered And Sentenced Crime Prevalence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Koller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution, based on a statistical approach, undertakes to link data on resources (personnel and financial means and the working of the administration of penal justice (prosecution, sentencing taking into account the nationality of those prosecuted. In order to be able to distinguish prosecution and sentencing practices of judicial authorities and possible processes of discrimination, diverse sources have been used such as data from court administrations, public finances and police forces, collected by the Swiss Federal Statistical Office and the Swiss Federal administration of finances. The authors discuss discrimination in prosecution and sentencing between Swiss residents and foreigners taking into account localization and resources regarding personnel and public finances.

  3. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  4. Gender Incongruence of Childhood: Clinical Utility and Stakeholder Agreement with the World Health Organization's Proposed ICD-11 Criteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titia F Beek

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO is revising the tenth version of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10. This includes a reconceptualization of the definition and positioning of Gender Incongruence of Childhood (GIC. This study aimed to: 1 collect the views of transgender individuals and professionals regarding the retention of the diagnosis; 2 see if the proposed GIC criteria were acceptable to transgender individuals and health care providers; 3 compare results between two countries with two different healthcare systems to see if these differences influence opinions regarding the GIC diagnosis; and 4 determine whether healthcare providers from high-income countries feel that the proposed criteria are clinically useful and easy to use. A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (NL; 45.2%, 8 from Flanders (Belgium; 1.3%, and 336 (53.5% from the United Kingdom (UK. Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives; TG (n = 522, 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs and 17 were both HCP and TG individuals. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Overall, the majority response from transgender participants (42.9% was that if the diagnosis would be removed from the mental health chapter it should also be removed from the ICD-11 completely, while 33.6% thought it should remain in the ICD-11. Participants were generally satisfied with other aspects of the proposed ICD-11 GIC diagnosis: most TG participants (58.4% thought the term Gender Identity Disorder should change, and most thought Gender Incongruence was an improvement (63.0%. Furthermore, most participants (76.1% did not consider GIC to be a psychiatric disorder and placement in a separate chapter dealing with Gender and Sexual Health (the majority response in the NL and selected by 37.5% of the TG participants overall or as a Z-code (the majority response

  5. Gender Incongruence of Childhood: Clinical Utility and Stakeholder Agreement with the World Health Organization’s Proposed ICD-11 Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Titia F.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Bouman, Walter P.; de Vries, Annelou L. C.; Steensma, Thomas D.; Witcomb, Gemma L.; Arcelus, Jon; Richards, Christina; De Cuypere, Griet; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is revising the tenth version of the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10). This includes a reconceptualization of the definition and positioning of Gender Incongruence of Childhood (GIC). This study aimed to: 1) collect the views of transgender individuals and professionals regarding the retention of the diagnosis; 2) see if the proposed GIC criteria were acceptable to transgender individuals and health care providers; 3) compare results between two countries with two different healthcare systems to see if these differences influence opinions regarding the GIC diagnosis; and 4) determine whether healthcare providers from high-income countries feel that the proposed criteria are clinically useful and easy to use. A total of 628 participants were included in the study: 284 from the Netherlands (NL; 45.2%), 8 from Flanders (Belgium; 1.3%), and 336 (53.5%) from the United Kingdom (UK). Most participants were transgender people (or their partners/relatives; TG) (n = 522), 89 participants were healthcare providers (HCPs) and 17 were both HCP and TG individuals. Participants completed an online survey developed for this study. Overall, the majority response from transgender participants (42.9%) was that if the diagnosis would be removed from the mental health chapter it should also be removed from the ICD-11 completely, while 33.6% thought it should remain in the ICD-11. Participants were generally satisfied with other aspects of the proposed ICD-11 GIC diagnosis: most TG participants (58.4%) thought the term Gender Identity Disorder should change, and most thought Gender Incongruence was an improvement (63.0%). Furthermore, most participants (76.1%) did not consider GIC to be a psychiatric disorder and placement in a separate chapter dealing with Gender and Sexual Health (the majority response in the NL and selected by 37.5% of the TG participants overall) or as a Z-code (the majority response

  6. Effects of aging, aphasia, and Parkinson’s disease on the time course of lemma selection during sentence production: evidence from eyetracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyeon Lee

    2015-05-01

    . No difference was noticed between young and older speakers (cf. Griffin & Spieler, 2006. For gaze duration measures before speech onset, all groups showed significantly longer gazes for low codable A than for high codable A. No codability effects were found for B and C across the groups, suggesting only the first lemma was prepared before speech onset. For gaze durations after speech onset, all four groups showed codability effects for B and C only. Additionally, aphasic speakers’ name-related gazes to each picture were longest in general. PD speakers showed longer name-related gazes than young, but not older speakers. The findings suggest that although speakers’ different cognitive-linguistic capacity affects the time that speakers take to prepare each objects’ names, there is a very strong consistency for the scope of word-preparation for all four groups. None of the older, PD, and aphasic groups adapted advanced word-preparation in order to reduce demands during speech, compared to young speakers. This word-by-word production might have compromised off-line sentence production accuracy to a greater extent in PD and aphasic speakers than healthy speakers.

  7. MRI of rotator cuff muscle atrophy in relation to glenohumeral joint incongruence in brachial plexus birth injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H.; Nietosvaara, Yrjaenae A.; Peltonen, Jari I.; Remes, Ville M.; Kirjavainen, Mikko O.; Lamminen, Antti E.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate rotator cuff muscles and the glenohumeral (GH) joint in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) using MRI and to determine whether any correlation exists between muscular abnormality and the development of glenoid dysplasia and GH joint incongruity. Thirty-nine consecutive BPBI patients with internal rotation contracture or absent active external rotation of the shoulder joint were examined clinically and imaged with MRI. In the physical examination, passive external rotation was measured to evaluate internal rotation contracture. Both shoulders were imaged and the glenoscapular angle, percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the greatest thickness of the subscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous muscles were measured. The muscle ratio between the affected side and the normal side was calculated to exclude age variation in the assessment of muscle atrophy. All muscles of the rotator cuff were atrophic, with the subscapular and infraspinous muscles being most severely affected. A correlation was found between the percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the extent of subscapular muscle atrophy (r s =0.45, P=0.01), as well as between its ratio (r s =0.5, P P=0.01). Severity of rotator cuff muscle atrophy correlated with increased glenoid retroversion and the degree of internal rotation contracture. Glenoid retroversion and subluxation of the humeral head are common in patients with BPBI. All rotator cuff muscles are atrophic, especially the subscapular muscle. Muscle atrophy due to neurogenic damage apparently results in an imbalance of the shoulder muscles and progressive retroversion and subluxation of the GH joint, which in turn lead to internal rotation contracture and deformation of the joint. (orig.)

  8. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI. Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV. Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  9. Incongruence in body image and body mass index: A surrogate risk marker in Black women for type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynal Devanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excess weight contributes to the development and progression of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Distorted body image amongst urban Black women and the perception that thinness is linked with HIV, may however be compounding the problem, particularly in areas with a high HIV burden.Objectives: This study aimed to compare the perception of body image in urban Black women with and without T2DM.Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 328 Black women systematically sampled into two groups (with and without T2DM. Body mass index (BMI (weight [kg]/height[m2] was determined and the adapted Stunkard Body Image Silhouettes for Black women was used to determine perceived body image (PBI.Results: Seventy-two per cent had T2DM and in this group 89% were obese, with a mean BMI of 39.5 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 8.5. In the non-diabetes group (NDG 44% were obese, with a mean BMIof 31.3 kg/m2 (s.d. ± 9.0 Black women underestimated their body image across all weight categories (p < 0.05. Both groups (99% of the study group also perceived thinness as being associated with HIV.Conclusions: This study identified an incongruence between PBI and actual BMI amongst urban Black women. This, combined with their belief that thinness is associated with HIV, places those with T2DM at risk of secondary complications arising from diabetes mellitus, and those without diabetes mellitus at a higher risk of developing T2DM. A discrepancy between PBI and BMI may therefore serve as a risk marker to alert clinicians to use a more ethno-cultural specific approach in engaging with urban Black women regarding weight loss strategies in the future.

  10. MRI of rotator cuff muscle atrophy in relation to glenohumeral joint incongruence in brachial plexus birth injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, PO Box 281, Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Nietosvaara, Yrjaenae A.; Peltonen, Jari I. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Remes, Ville M. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Surgical Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Kirjavainen, Mikko O. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki (Finland); Lamminen, Antti E. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, PO Box 281, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate rotator cuff muscles and the glenohumeral (GH) joint in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) using MRI and to determine whether any correlation exists between muscular abnormality and the development of glenoid dysplasia and GH joint incongruity. Thirty-nine consecutive BPBI patients with internal rotation contracture or absent active external rotation of the shoulder joint were examined clinically and imaged with MRI. In the physical examination, passive external rotation was measured to evaluate internal rotation contracture. Both shoulders were imaged and the glenoscapular angle, percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the greatest thickness of the subscapular, infraspinous and supraspinous muscles were measured. The muscle ratio between the affected side and the normal side was calculated to exclude age variation in the assessment of muscle atrophy. All muscles of the rotator cuff were atrophic, with the subscapular and infraspinous muscles being most severely affected. A correlation was found between the percentage of humeral head anterior to the middle of the glenoid fossa (PHHA) and the extent of subscapular muscle atrophy (r{sub s}=0.45, P=0.01), as well as between its ratio (r{sub s}=0.5, P P=0.01). Severity of rotator cuff muscle atrophy correlated with increased glenoid retroversion and the degree of internal rotation contracture. Glenoid retroversion and subluxation of the humeral head are common in patients with BPBI. All rotator cuff muscles are atrophic, especially the subscapular muscle. Muscle atrophy due to neurogenic damage apparently results in an imbalance of the shoulder muscles and progressive retroversion and subluxation of the GH joint, which in turn lead to internal rotation contracture and deformation of the joint. (orig.)

  11. Improbable predictions at capital sentencing: contrasting prison violence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Mark D; Sorensen, Jon R

    2010-01-01

    The postconviction prison disciplinary records of capital defendants (n = 73) who had been the subject of defense-sponsored violence risk assessments or risk-related testimony (1995-2007) that asserted an improbability of future serious prison violence were analyzed. During postconviction prison tenures averaging 4.4 years, none of the capital defendants was cited for accomplished serious assaults. The prevalence of misconduct was inversely related to severity: 54.8 percent were cited for some disciplinary misconduct, 27.4 percent for potentially violent disciplinary violations, 12.3 percent for assaultive misconduct, and 1.4 percent for attempted serious assault. Rates of misconduct among the capital offenders were equivalent to those among all inmates (n = 18,561, annual average) in high-security federal prisons (2001-2005). The accuracy rate of forecasts of improbability stands in sharp contrast to that of prosecution-sponsored expert testimony at capital sentencing that had asserted high rates of future violence.

  12. ERROR ANALYSIS ON INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS’ SENTENCE WRITING ASSIGNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rentauli Mariah Silalahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Students’ error analysis is very important for helping EFL teachers to develop their teaching materials, assessments and methods. However, it takes much time and effort from the teachers to do such an error analysis towards their students’ language. This study seeks to identify the common errors made by 1 class of 28 freshmen students studying English in their first semester in an IT university. The data is collected from their writing assignments for eight consecutive weeks. The errors found were classified into 24 types and the top ten most common errors committed by the students were article, preposition, spelling, word choice, subject-verb agreement, auxiliary verb, plural form, verb form, capital letter, and meaningless sentences. The findings about the students’ frequency of committing errors were, then, contrasted to their midterm test result and in order to find out the reasons behind the error recurrence; the students were given some questions to answer in a questionnaire format. Most of the students admitted that careless was the major reason for their errors and lack understanding came next. This study suggests EFL teachers to devote their time to continuously check the students’ language by giving corrections so that the students can learn from their errors and stop committing the same errors.

  13. Developmental differences in beta and theta power during sentence processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie M. Schneider

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although very young children process ongoing language quickly and effortlessly, research indicates that they continue to improve and mature in their language skills through adolescence. This prolonged development may be related to differing engagement of semantic and syntactic processes. This study used event related potentials and time frequency analysis of EEG to identify developmental differences in neural engagement as children (ages 10–12 and adults performed an auditory verb agreement grammaticality judgment task. Adults and children revealed very few differences in comprehending grammatically correct sentences. When identifying grammatical errors, however, adults displayed widely distributed beta and theta power decreases that were significantly less pronounced in children. Adults also demonstrated a significant P600 effect, while children exhibited an apparent N400 effect. Thus, when identifying subtle grammatical errors in real time, adults display greater neural activation that is traditionally associated with syntactic processing whereas children exhibit greater activity more commonly associated with semantic processing. These findings support previous claims that the cognitive and neural underpinnings of syntactic processing are still developing in adolescence, and add to them by more clearly identifying developmental changes in the neural oscillations underlying grammatical processing.

  14. Effect of lexical cues on the production of active and passive sentences in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2003-06-01

    This study compared the sentence production abilities of individuals with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia in an attempt to explore the extent to which impaired lexical retrieval impedes sentence production. The ability to produce active and passive reversible and non-reversible sentences was examined when varying amounts of lexical information was provided. The results showed that both Wernicke's and Broca's aphasic individuals were impaired in passive sentence production and that these difficulties were not overcome when lexical cues (the relevant nouns and uninflected verb) were provided. However when auxiliary and past tense morphemes were provided along with the verb stem, production of passive sentences improved drastically for both groups. Analysis of error patterns, however, revealed differences between the two groups, suggesting that Broca's aphasic subjects may find passive sentences difficult due to problems with retrieving the relevant grammatical morphemes. Subjects with Wernicke's aphasia may have been unable to automatically access the passive sentence structure.

  15. Commonality of neural representations of sentences across languages: Predicting brain activation during Portuguese sentence comprehension using an English-based model of brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Wang, Jing; Bailer, Cyntia; Cherkassky, Vladimir; Just, Marcel Adam

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to test the cross-language generative capability of a model that predicts neural activation patterns evoked by sentence reading, based on a semantic characterization of the sentence. In a previous study on English monolingual speakers (Wang et al., submitted), a computational model performed a mapping from a set of 42 concept-level semantic features (Neurally Plausible Semantic Features, NPSFs) as well as 6 thematic role markers to neural activation patterns (assessed with fMRI), to predict activation levels in a network of brain locations. The model used two types of information gained from the English-based fMRI data to predict the activation for individual sentences in Portuguese. First, it used the mapping weights from NPSFs to voxel activation levels derived from the model for English reading. Second, the brain locations for which the activation levels were predicted were derived from a factor analysis of the brain activation patterns during English reading. These meta-language locations were defined by the clusters of voxels with high loadings on each of the four main dimensions (factors), namely people, places, actions and feelings, underlying the neural representations of the stimulus sentences. This cross-language model succeeded in predicting the brain activation patterns associated with the reading of 60 individual Portuguese sentences that were entirely new to the model, attaining accuracies reliably above chance level. The prediction accuracy was not affected by whether the Portuguese speaker was monolingual or Portuguese-English bilingual. The model's confusion errors indicated an accurate capture of the events or states described in the sentence at a conceptual level. Overall, the cross-language predictive capability of the model demonstrates the neural commonality between speakers of different languages in the representations of everyday events and states, and provides an initial characterization of the common meta

  16. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  17. O wrażliwośco kontekstowej zdań typu 'S wie, że p' (ON CONTEXTUAL SENSITIVITY OF SENTENCE TYPE 'S KNOWS THAT P'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Palczewski

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Semantic contextualism is recently one of the most discussed epistemological theories. So far, the main part of discussion concerns contextualist solution of the skeptical problem. Nowadays it has become more clear that this theory needs strong and independent justification from a linguistic and language-philosophical point of view. In this paper The author outlines several treads concerning linguistic basis for contextualism. In part one there are presented some fundamental contextualism thesis and an example proposed by S. Cohen which has to support it. Next the following question is considered: which semantic feature is responsible for context dependence of knowledge ascription sentences? Is it indexicality, vagueness, ambiguity, ellipticity or unspecificity? Debate sketched in part three is concentrated on an analogy between linguistic behavior of knowledge ascription sentences and other context-dependent expressions, especially indexicals and gradable adjectives. The last part of this paper contains a new argument for contextualism proposed by K. De Rose. In addition such argument points out that contextualism does not confuse a truth conditions of knowledge ascribing sentences with their condition of warranted assertability.

  18. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  19. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive processingdemands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were recorded...... that increasing noise levels had a greater impact on the perceived difficulty than sentence complexity. In contrast, the processing of complex sentences resulted in greater and more prolonged pupil dilations. The results suggest that while pupil dilations may correlate with cognitive processing demands, acoustic...... in 19 normal-hearing participants while processing sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex and presented in either high- or low-level background noise. Furthermore, the participants were asked to rate the subjectively perceived difficulty of sentence comprehension. The results showed...

  20. Impact of background noise and sentence complexity on cognitive processing effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Dau, Torsten; Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Speech comprehension in adverse listening conditions requires cognitive pro- cessing demands. Processing demands can increase with acoustically degraded speech but also depend on linguistic aspects of the speech signal, such as syntactic complexity. In the present study, pupil dilations were...... showed that increasing noise levels had a greater impact on the perceived difficulty than sentence complexity. In contrast, the processing of complex sentences resulted in greater and more prolonged pupil dilations. The results suggest that while pupil dilations may correlate with cognitive processing...... recorded in 19 normal-hearing participants while processing sentences that were either syntactically simple or complex and presented in either high- or low-level background noise. Furthermore, the participants were asked to rate the sub- jectively perceived difficulty of sentence comprehension. The results...

  1. Training of Verbal Working Memory at Sentence Level Fails to Show Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fellman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, working memory (WM training has attracted considerable research attention, but its transfer to untrained tasks is still controversial. In a randomized controlled trial, we investigated the possible transfer effects of a novel sentence-level WM training regime. Sixty-eight healthy Finnish adults were randomized into either a WM training group or an active control group. The WM training group practiced for 4 weeks with two adaptive sentence-level WM training tasks, namely, a novel sentence-level updating task and a Reading span task. The active control group practiced on a quiz task that called for long-term memory but did not load on WM. There were no statistically significant training effects on the pre–post measures of near and far transfer. We suggest that the lack of training effects may reflect the specificity and automaticity of the sentence-processing system.

  2. Psychometric validation of the Sentence Verification Technique to assess L2 reading comprehension ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Pichette

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English teachers use the Sentence Verification Technique (Royer et al., 1979 to determine the readability of written material for their classes. This process requires students to read short passages from a book, followed by isolated sentences. These sentences can be either identical or different from the original passages, in their meaning as well as in their form. For each sentence, students must indicate whether or not itscontent corresponds to that of the original passage. This paper reports on the design and assessment of an SVT test created for measuring reading comprehension ability, based on four English texts. The instrument was administered to 171 adult English learners, of various levels of English proficiency. The data were analysed using both traditional psychometric methods and the Raschmodel. Results indicate that the test shows high internal consistency, that it respects the basic assumptions behind the Rasch model, and that it is in the recommended range of difficulty for that technique.

  3. Jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Crystal M; Spray, Beverly J; Pietz, Christina A

    2007-06-01

    The authors examined the relationship between jurors' locus of control and defendants' attractiveness in death penalty sentencing. Ninety-eight participants voluntarily served as mock jurors. The authors administered J. B. Rotter's (1966) Internal-External Locus of Control Scale to participants and then randomly assigned them to a group with either an attractive or an unattractive defendant (represented by photographs). Participants read a murder vignette and selected a punishment--either a lifetime jail sentence or the death penalty-for the defendant. Results indicated that neither jurors' locus of control nor defendants' attractiveness influenced sentencing. However, jurors' age and gender significantly influenced sentencing. Men, with the exception of the youngest men, were more likely than women to choose the death penalty. Additionally, young women were more likely than older women to select the death penalty. The authors discuss the implications of these results for the study of jury behavior and bias.

  4. A grammar-based semantic similarity algorithm for natural language sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming Che; Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to "artificial language", such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  5. Judge rules HIV may be grounds for reduction in prison sentence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-08

    A Federal judge in Ohio set precedent in August of 1995 when she ruled that a criminal defendant with symptomatic HIV disease is eligible for a reduced sentence because AIDS is considered an extraordinary physical impairment. The ruling does not apply to symptom-free HIV-positive defendants. The defendant, [name removed], remained in Federal prison because he had no other access to medical care. The judge used Section 5H1.4 of the sentencing guidelines to take advanced HIV disease into account for reducing his sentence. Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund officials, encouraged by the judge's ruling, suggest that defense lawyers rely not solely on an AIDS diagnosis, but also on medical testimony, to reduce a client's sentence.

  6. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia Wei; Hsieh, Tung Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure. PMID:24982952

  7. Cognate effects in sentence context depend on word class, L2 proficiency, and task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bultena, S.S.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.; Hell, J.G. van

    2014-01-01

    Noun translation equivalents that share orthographic and semantic features, called "cognates", are generally recognized faster than translation equivalents without such overlap. This cognate effect, which has also been obtained when cognates and noncognates were embedded in a sentence context,

  8. A Grammar-Based Semantic Similarity Algorithm for Natural Language Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Che Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a grammar and semantic corpus based similarity algorithm for natural language sentences. Natural language, in opposition to “artificial language”, such as computer programming languages, is the language used by the general public for daily communication. Traditional information retrieval approaches, such as vector models, LSA, HAL, or even the ontology-based approaches that extend to include concept similarity comparison instead of cooccurrence terms/words, may not always determine the perfect matching while there is no obvious relation or concept overlap between two natural language sentences. This paper proposes a sentence similarity algorithm that takes advantage of corpus-based ontology and grammatical rules to overcome the addressed problems. Experiments on two famous benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has a significant performance improvement in sentences/short-texts with arbitrary syntax and structure.

  9. Machine Learning from Garden Path Sentences: The Application of Computational Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiali Du

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of computational linguistics in the machine learning (ML system for the processing of garden path sentences. ML is closely related to artificial intelligence and linguistic cognition. The rapid and efficient processing of the complex structures is an effective method to test the system. By means of parsing the garden path sentence, we draw a conclusion that the integration of theoretical and statistical methods is helpful for the development of ML system.

  10. Electrophysiology of Sentence Processing in Aphasia: Prosodic Cues and Thematic Fit

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon M. Sheppard; Katherine J. Midgley; Tracy Love

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The building of semantic and syntactic representations during sentence processing can be influenced by probabilistic cues such as context, plausibility, and prosody (Garnsey, Pearlmutter, Myers & Lotocky, 1997; Kjelgaard & Speer, 1999). Consider the following: 1. While the band played the song pleased all the customers. This sentence contains a temporary direct object (DO)/sentential complement (SC) syntactic ambiguity because the verb “played” is an optionally tran...

  11. Sentence relevance and memory retrieval in discourse comprehension: N400 and Lr NERP effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amenta Simona

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the effect of different degrees of relevance in discourse comprehension by using ERPs analysis. A principle of pragmatic relevance is supposed to guide inferential mechanism underlying discourse processing. Discourse level comprehension needs a system of predictions about which information is more relevant in order to process the ongoing sentence meaning. This system should construct a specific mental model, where inferences related to the present sentence are stored and maintained. Three degrees of relevance of a new information (new sentence with respect to an old information (target sentence were manipulated: directly relevant; indirectly relevant; not relevant. Twenty-one subjects participated to the experiment and they were asked to try to comprehend a set of two paired sentences (old-new paired sentences based on their conceptual relevance. Two negative deflections, peaking respectively at about 410 msec post-stimulus (N400, more right anterior-centrally distributed, and at about 550 msec (late negativity, LrN, more right central localized, were found. Repeated measures ANOVA found that the amplitude of both the N400 and LrNis modulated by the degree of relevance and by the strength of the underlying associations between the two sentences. Indirect relevance resulted in increased negativities in comparison with direct relevance. Contrarily, non-relevant condition did not produce an increasing in N400 and LrNamplitude. Unrelevance of the knowledge related to the actual mental model of sentences may induce a rapid and costless discarding of non pertinent information. The conclusive inference is that a subset of neural processes responding to degree of relevance of information is separable and cortically more frontally and centrally localized. Functional differences between N400 and LrN for relevance were discussed.

  12. Evaluating Treatment and Generalization Patterns of Two Theoretically Motivated Sentence Comprehension Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Roches, Carrie A; Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Villard, Sarah; Tripodis, Yorghos; Caplan, David; Kiran, Swathi

    2016-12-01

    The current study examined treatment outcomes and generalization patterns following 2 sentence comprehension therapies: object manipulation (OM) and sentence-to-picture matching (SPM). Findings were interpreted within the framework of specific deficit and resource reduction accounts, which were extended in order to examine the nature of generalization following treatment of sentence comprehension deficits in aphasia. Forty-eight individuals with aphasia were enrolled in 1 of 8 potential treatment assignments that varied by task (OM, SPM), complexity of trained sentences (complex, simple), and syntactic movement (noun phrase, wh-movement). Comprehension of trained and untrained sentences was probed before and after treatment using stimuli that differed from the treatment stimuli. Linear mixed-model analyses demonstrated that, although both OM and SPM treatments were effective, OM resulted in greater improvement than SPM. Analyses of covariance revealed main effects of complexity in generalization; generalization from complex to simple linguistically related sentences was observed both across task and across movement. Results are consistent with the complexity account of treatment efficacy, as generalization effects were consistently observed from complex to simpler structures. Furthermore, results provide support for resource reduction accounts that suggest that generalization can extend across linguistic boundaries, such as across movement type.

  13. Do verb bias effects on sentence production reflect sensitivity to comprehension or production factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Victor S.; Schotter, Elizabeth R.

    2014-01-01

    Speakers should be motivated to produce easy-to-understand sentences, but they must successfully say harder-to-produce sentences. Four experiments assessed how verb bias influences the mention of the optional “that” in sentence-complement structures. Without the “that,” such sentences can be incorrectly interpreted as including direct objects (garden paths), and especially so after direct-object biased verbs (compared to embedded clause biased verbs). But direct-object biased verbs are rarely produced as sentence-complement structures and so they might be harder to produce as such. Experiments 1 and 2 show that speakers mention the “that” more after direct-object biased verbs than after embedded clause biased verbs. Experiment 3a shows that sentences with verbs biased toward neither direct objects nor embedded subjects were often produced with the “that,” and Experiment 3b shows that post-verbal noun phrases after neither-biased verbs are interpreted as direct objects less than direct-object biased verbs and so should cause a milder garden path. Thus, frequent “that” mention is not sensitive to the tendency of a verb to be followed by a direct object, but by how rarely the verb has been produced in the formulated structure. PMID:23286581

  14. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  15. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  16. Distinct neural correlates for pragmatic and semantic meaning processing: An event-related potential investigation of scalar implicature processing using picture-sentence verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Fiorentino, Robert; Jiang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the brain-level representation and composition of meaning in scalar quantifiers (e.g., some), which have both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). We adopted a picture-sentence verification design to examine event-related potential (ERP) effects of reading infelicitous quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was correct with respect to the context but the pragmatic meaning was not, compared to quantifiers for which the semantic meaning was inconsistent with the context and no additional pragmatic meaning is available. In the first experiment, only pragmatically inconsistent quantifiers, not semantically inconsistent quantifiers, elicited a sustained posterior negative component. This late negativity contrasts with the N400 effect typically elicited by nouns that are incongruent with their context, suggesting that the recognition of scalar implicature errors elicits a qualitatively different ERP signature than the recognition of lexico-semantic errors. We hypothesize that the sustained negativity reflects cancellation of the pragmatic inference and retrieval of the semantic meaning. In our second experiment, we found that the process of re-interpreting the quantifier was independent from lexico-semantic processing: the N400 elicited by lexico-semantic violations was not modulated by the presence of a pragmatic inconsistency. These findings suggest that inferential pragmatic aspects of meaning are processed using different mechanisms than lexical or combinatorial semantic aspects of meaning, that inferential pragmatic meaning can be realized rapidly, and that the computation of meaning involves continuous negotiation between different aspects of meaning. PMID:23103410

  17. Structure before meaning: sentence processing, plausibility, and subcategorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kizach

    Full Text Available Natural language processing is a fast and automatized process. A crucial part of this process is parsing, the online incremental construction of a syntactic structure. The aim of this study was to test whether a wh-filler extracted from an embedded clause is initially attached as the object of the matrix verb with subsequent reanalysis, and if so, whether the plausibility of such an attachment has an effect on reaction time. Finally, we wanted to examine whether subcategorization plays a role. We used a method called G-Maze to measure response time in a self-paced reading design. The experiments confirmed that there is early attachment of fillers to the matrix verb. When this attachment is implausible, the off-line acceptability of the whole sentence is significantly reduced. The on-line results showed that G-Maze was highly suited for this type of experiment. In accordance with our predictions, the results suggest that the parser ignores (or has no access to information about implausibility and attaches fillers as soon as possible to the matrix verb. However, the results also show that the parser uses the subcategorization frame of the matrix verb. In short, the parser ignores semantic information and allows implausible attachments but adheres to information about which type of object a verb can take, ensuring that the parser does not make impossible attachments. We argue that the evidence supports a syntactic parser informed by syntactic cues, rather than one guided by semantic cues or one that is blind, or completely autonomous.

  18. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  19. Alternating gender incongruity: a new neuropsychiatric syndrome providing insight into the dynamic plasticity of brain-sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Laura K; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2012-05-01

    Between the two extreme ends of human sexuality - male and female - lie a poorly understood and poorly studied spectrum of ambiguously defined sexual identities that are very much a part of the human condition but defy rigid classification. "Bigender" is a recently formed sub-category of transgenderism, describing individuals who experience a blending or alternation of gender states. While recognized nominally by the APA, no scientific work to our knowledge has addressed this fascinating condition, or proposed any physiological basis for it. In addition, the alternation aspect has not been proposed as a nosological entity distinct from blending. We present descriptive data suggesting that many bigender individuals experience an involuntary switching of gender states without any amnesia for either state. In addition, similar to transsexual individuals, the majority of bigender individuals experience phantom breasts or genitalia corresponding to the non-biologic gender when they are in a trans-gender state. Finally, our survey found decreased lateralization of handedness in the bigender community. These observations suggest a biologic basis of bigenderism and lead us to propose a novel gender condition, "alternating gender incongruity" (AGI). We hypothesize that AGI may be related to an unusual degree or depth of hemispheric switching and corresponding callosal suppression of sex appropriate body maps in parietal cortex- possibly the superior parietal lobule- and its reciprocal connections with the insula and hypothalamus. This is based on two lines of reasoning. First, bigender individuals in our survey sample reported an elevated rate of bipolar disorder, which has been linked to slowed hemispheric switching. We hypothesize that tracking the nasal cycle, rate of binocular rivalry, and other markers of hemispheric switching will reveal a physiological basis for AGI individuals' subjective reports of gender switches. Switching may also trigger hormonal cascades

  20. Sentence Comprehension in Adolescents with down Syndrome and Typically Developing Children: Role of Sentence Voice, Visual Context, and Auditory-Verbal Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miolo, Giuliana; Chapman, Robins S.; Sindberg, Heidi A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors evaluated the roles of auditory-verbal short-term memory, visual short-term memory, and group membership in predicting language comprehension, as measured by an experimental sentence comprehension task (SCT) and the Test for Auditory Comprehension of Language--Third Edition (TACL-3; E. Carrow-Woolfolk, 1999) in 38 participants: 19 with…

  1. Factors Affecting Sentence-in-Noise Recognition for Normal Hearing Listeners and Listeners with Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jung Sun; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Lee, Jae Hee

    2017-07-01

    Despite amplified speech, listeners with hearing loss often report more difficulties understanding speech in background noise compared to normalhearing listeners. Various factors such as deteriorated hearing sensitivity, age, suprathreshold temporal resolution, and reduced capacity of working memory and attention can attribute to their sentence-in-noise problems. The present study aims to determine a primary explanatory factor for sentence-in-noise recognition difficulties in adults with or without hearing loss. Forty normal-hearing (NH) listeners (23-73 years) and thirty-four hearing-impaired (HI) listeners (24-80 years) participated for experimental testing. For both NH and HI group, the younger, middle-aged, older listeners were included. The sentence recognition score in noise was measured at 0 dB signal-to-noise ratio. The ability of temporal resolution was evaluated by gap detection performance using the Gaps-In-Noise test. Listeners' short-term auditory working memory span was measured by forward and backward digit spans. Overall, the HI listeners' sentence-in-noise recognition, temporal resolution abilities, and digit forward and backward spans were poorer compared to the NH listeners. Both NH and HI listeners had a substantial variability in performance. For NH listeners, only the digit backward span explained a small proportion of the variance in their sentence-in-noise performance. For the HI listeners, all the performance was influenced by age, and their sentence-in-noise difficulties were associated with various factors such as high-frequency hearing sensitivity, suprathreshold temporal resolution abilities, and working memory span. For the HI listeners, the critical predictors of the sentence-in-noise performance were composite measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity and suprathreshold temporal resolution abilities. The primary explanatory factors for the sentence-in-noise recognition performance differ between NH and HI listeners. Factors

  2. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  3. The Integration of Vocabulary and Effective Sentence Mastery towards Students’ Argumentative Writing Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien Rafida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this result to reveal the integrated of vocabulary and effective sentence mastery against the argumentation writing skill students’ PBI-SU FITK UIN the hypothesis proposed in this results are : (1 vocabulary mastery contribute to the argument to the arguments writing skill of students; (2 effective sentence mastery contribute to the argument writing skill of student; (3 vocabulary mastery and effective sentence mastery together contribute to the argument writing skill of students. This result uses a quantitative approach. The population in this study is PBI UIN-SU as many as 6 classes. As for the samples in this result are students of class II. By using cluster random sampling, obtained a sample of 140 students. The instrument used is a test. These results indicate that: (1 vocabulary mastery contributed positively and significantly to the argument essay writing skills of students. The amount of contribution is 18.4%; (2 Effective sentence mastery contribute positively and significantly to the argument essay writing skills of students. The amount of contribution is 11.7%; (3 mastery of vocabulary and mastery of effective sentences together contributed positively and significantly to the argument essay writing skills of students. The major contribution is 26.5%; (4 mastering vocabulary to effectively contribute by 16.39% against the argument essay writing skills of students; (5 Mastery effective sentence effectively contribute 13.11% against the argument essay writing skills of students. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that the vocabulary and mastery of effective sentences are the two factors that influence the argument essay writing skills of students in addition to other factors. Therefore, the researchers suggest to all parties concerned to pay more attention to these two factors so that students' skills in essay writing can be further improved.

  4. When Language Switching has No Apparent Cost: Lexical Access in Sentence Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullifer, Jason W.; Kroll, Judith F.; Dussias, Paola E.

    2013-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English) and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed-language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed-language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + Model (Dijkstra and van Heuven, 2002) in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language non-selective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing. PMID:23750141

  5. Storage costs and heuristics interact to produce patterns of aphasic sentence comprehension performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Glenn Clark

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aphasic individuals exhibit greater difficulty understanding complex sentences, but there is little consensus regarding what makes one sentence more complicated than another. In addition, aphasic individuals might make use of heuristic strategies for understanding sentences. This research is a comparison of specific predictions derived from two approaches to the quantification of sentence complexity, one based on the hierarchical structure of sentences (trees, and the other based on Dependency Locality Theory (DLT. Complexity metrics derived from these theories are evaluated under various assumptions of heuristic use.Method: A set of complexity metrics was derived from each general theory of sentence complexity. Each metric was paired with assumptions of heuristic use. Probability spaces were generated that summarized the possible patterns of performance across 16 different sentence structures. The maximum likelihood of comprehension scores of 42 aphasic individuals was then computed for each probability space and the expected scores from the best-fitting points in the space were recorded for comparison to the actual scores. Predictions were then compared using measures of fit quality derived from linear mixed effects models.Results: All three of the metrics that provide the most consistently accurate predictions of patient scores rely on storage costs based on the DLT. Patients appear to employ an Agent-Theme heuristic, but vary in their tendency to accept heuristically generated interpretations. Furthermore, the ability to apply the heuristic may be degraded in proportion to aphasia severity. Conclusion: The results suggest that storage (i.e., allocation of cognitive resources for anticipated syntactic constituents is a key resource degraded by aphasia, but aphasic individuals may vary in their tendency to use or accept heuristically generated interpretations.

  6. When language switching has no apparent cost: Lexical access in sentence context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Gullifer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report two experiments that investigate the effects of sentence context on bilingual lexical access in Spanish and English. Highly proficient Spanish-English bilinguals read sentences in Spanish and English that included a marked word to be named. The word was either a cognate with similar orthography and/or phonology in the two languages, or a matched non-cognate control. Sentences appeared in one language alone (i.e., Spanish or English and target words were not predictable on the basis of the preceding semantic context. In Experiment 1, we mixed the language of the sentence within a block such that sentences appeared in an alternating run in Spanish or in English. These conditions partly resemble normally occurring inter-sentential code-switching. In these mixed language sequences, cognates were named faster than non-cognates in both languages. There were no effects of switching the language of the sentence. In Experiment 2, with Spanish-English bilinguals matched closely to those who participated in the first experiment, we blocked the language of the sentences to encourage language-specific processes. The results were virtually identical to those of the mixed language experiment. In both cases, target cognates were named faster than non-cognates, and the magnitude of the effect did not change according to the broader context. Taken together, the results support the predictions of the Bilingual Interactive Activation + Model (Dijkstra & Van Heuven, 2002 in demonstrating that bilingual lexical access is language nonselective even under conditions in which language-specific cues should enable selective processing. They also demonstrate that, in contrast to lexical switching from one language to the other, inter-sentential code-switching of the sort in which bilinguals frequently engage, imposes no significant costs to lexical processing.

  7. The Effect of Number and Presentation Order of High-Constraint Sentences on Second Language Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Tengfei; Chen, Ran; Dunlap, Susan; Chen, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experiment that investigated the effects of number and presentation order of high-constraint sentences on semantic processing of unknown second language (L2) words (pseudowords) through reading. All participants were Chinese native speakers who learned English as a foreign language. In the experiment, sentence constraint and order of different constraint sentences were manipulated in English sentences, as well as L2 proficiency level of participants. We found that the number of high-constraint sentences was supportive for L2 word learning except in the condition in which high-constraint exposure was presented first. Moreover, when the number of high-constraint sentences was the same, learning was significantly better when the first exposure was a high-constraint exposure. And no proficiency level effects were found. Our results provided direct evidence that L2 word learning benefited from high quality language input and first presentations of high quality language input.

  8. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  9. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  10. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  11. Sentence-based attention mechanisms in word learning: Evidence from a computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afra eAlishahi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available When looking for the referents of nouns, adults and young children are sensitive to cross- situational statistics (Yu & Smith, 2007; Smith & Yu, 2008. In addition, the linguistic context that a word appears in has been shown to act as a powerful attention mechanism for guiding sentence processing and word learning (Landau & Gleitman, 1985; Altmann & Kamide, 1999; Kako & Trueswell, 2000. Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011 investigate the interaction between cross-situational evidence and guidance from the sentential context in an adult language learning scenario. Their studies reveal that these learning mechanisms interact in a complex manner: they can be used in a complementary way when context helps reduce referential uncertainty; they influence word learning about equally strongly when cross-situational and contextual evidence are in conflict; and contextual cues block aspects of cross-situational learning when both mechanisms are independently applicable. To address this complex pattern of findings, we present a probabilistic computational model of word learning which extends a previous cross-situational model (Fazly et al., 2010 with an attention mechanism based on sentential cues. Our model uses a framework that seamlessly combines the two sources of evidence in order to study their emerging pattern of interaction during the process of word learning. Simulations of the experiments of Koehne & Crocker (2010, 2011 reveal an overall patterns of results that are in line with their findings. Importantly, we demonstrate that our model does not need to explicitly assign priority to either source of evidence in order to produce these results: learning patterns emerge as a result of a probabilistic interaction between the two types of cues. Moreover, using a computational model allows us to examine the developmental trajectory of the differential roles of cross-situational and sentential cues in word learning.

  12. Integrating age in the detection and mapping of incongruous patches in coffee (Coffea arabica) plantations using multi-temporal Landsat 8 NDVI anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemura, Abel; Mutanga, Onisimo; Dube, Timothy

    2017-05-01

    The development of cost-effective, reliable and easy to implement crop condition monitoring methods is urgently required for perennial tree crops such as coffee (Coffea arabica), as they are grown over large areas and represent long term and higher levels of investment. These monitoring methods are useful in identifying farm areas that experience poor crop growth, pest infestation, diseases outbreaks and/or to monitor response to management interventions. This study compares field level coffee mean NDVI and LSWI anomalies and age-adjusted coffee mean NDVI and LSWI anomalies in identifying and mapping incongruous patches across perennial coffee plantations. To achieve this objective, we first derived deviation of coffee pixels from the global coffee mean NDVI and LSWI values of nine sequential Landsat 8 OLI image scenes. We then evaluated the influence of coffee age class (young, mature and old) on Landsat-scale NDVI and LSWI values using a one-way ANOVA and since results showed significant differences, we adjusted NDVI and LSWI anomalies for age-class. We then used the cumulative inverse distribution function (α ≤ 0.05) to identify fields and within field areas with excessive deviation of NDVI and LSWI from the global and the age-expected mean for each of the Landsat 8 OLI scene dates spanning three seasons. Results from accuracy assessment indicated that it was possible to separate incongruous and healthy patches using these anomalies and that using NDVI performed better than using LSWI for both global and age-adjusted mean anomalies. Using the age-adjusted anomalies performed better in separating incongruous and healthy patches than using the global mean for both NDVI (Overall accuracy = 80.9% and 68.1% respectively) and for LSWI (Overall accuracy = 68.1% and 48.9% respectively). When applied to other Landsat 8 OLI scenes, the results showed that the proportions of coffee fields that were modelled incongruent decreased with time for the young age category and

  13. Uma visão geral das teorias do humor: aplicação da incongruência e da superioridade ao sarcasmo

    OpenAIRE

    Tabacaru, Sabina; Université Charles de Gaulle

    2015-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta uma revisão de duas grandes teorias do humor: a da Superioridade e a da Incongruência. Nós aplicamos essas duas teorias ao estudo do sarcasmo, que tem sido visto como um caso paradigmático de ironia (TOBIN & ISRAEL, 2012) ou uma subcategoria dela (KIHARA, 2005). A retomada dessas teorias ajuda a esclarecer o fenômeno do sarcasmo, pois explica como ele se apoia em certas características de ambas as perspectivas. Nós analisamos exemplos de duas séries de televisão, Hou...

  14. Alternatives to Custody :Lucy Baldwin ConsidersThe Recent Prison Reform Trust Paper on the Sentencing of Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Baldwin, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the Prison Reform Trust (PRT) discussion paper released in November 2015.The PRT paper highlights the main themes of the paper - which incorporates reference to the long and short term impact of sentencing of mothers to custody- on themselves and their children; the failure of sentencers to adhere to current guidelines in relation to sentencing those with dependants together with proposals for positive change with a view to better outcomes for mothers and their ch...

  15. Comparison of reading performance tests concerning difficulty of sentences and paragraphs and their reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussee, Tamara; van Nispen, Ruth M A; Klerkx, Edwin M F J; Knol, Dirk L; van Rens, Ger H M B

    2015-05-01

    In research and practice, sentences or paragraphs of reading tests may be randomly chosen to assess reading performance. This means that in addition to test reliability, all sentences or paragraphs should be reliable and equally difficult to read. The sentences and paragraphs of five (un-) standardised Dutch reading tests were investigated in this regard. Tests were performed with 71 normally sighted persons (mean age 55 [18-86] years). All sentences and paragraphs had equal print size. The relative difficulty of sentences and paragraphs from the five Dutch reading tests was tested with linear mixed models (reading speed) and generalised linear models (mistakes). Reading speed in standard words per min ranged from 179 (Radner) to 142 (De Nederlanders). Reading mistakes per 100 characters ranged from 0.25 (Radner) to 0.40 (Colenbrander). On the Colenbrander charts 7/24 sentences were read significantly faster vs 5/24 read slower (sentence reliability 0.56-0.87); International Reading Speed Texts 3/10 vs 3/10 [0.94-0.97]; Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology 14/55 vs 15/55 [0.64-0.92]; De Nederlanders 2/6 vs 3/6 [0.83-0.94]; Radner 4/24 vs 3/24 [0.73-0.87]. Agreement between tests differed from 1 to 36 standard words per minute and 0.01 to 0.14 mistakes per 100 characters. The Radner, with the highest number of equally difficult sentences, is appropriate to measure reading acuity as well as reading speed in a heterogeneous population; the International Reading Speed Texts, with the highest paragraph reliability, provides long paragraphs to measure reading speed. The Colenbrander and Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology are suitable for daily practice; however, for research or inspection purposes, reliable sentences must be chosen. Although the clinical relevance of the differences between the tests is debatable, use of the De Nederlanders as a reading test remains questionable. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of

  16. Predictive Big Data Analytics: A Study of Parkinson's Disease Using Large, Complex, Heterogeneous, Incongruent, Multi-Source and Incomplete Observations.

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    Ivo D Dinov

    Full Text Available A unique archive of Big Data on Parkinson's Disease is collected, managed and disseminated by the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI. The integration of such complex and heterogeneous Big Data from multiple sources offers unparalleled opportunities to study the early stages of prevalent neurodegenerative processes, track their progression and quickly identify the efficacies of alternative treatments. Many previous human and animal studies have examined the relationship of Parkinson's disease (PD risk to trauma, genetics, environment, co-morbidities, or life style. The defining characteristics of Big Data-large size, incongruency, incompleteness, complexity, multiplicity of scales, and heterogeneity of information-generating sources-all pose challenges to the classical techniques for data management, processing, visualization and interpretation. We propose, implement, test and validate complementary model-based and model-free approaches for PD classification and prediction. To explore PD risk using Big Data methodology, we jointly processed complex PPMI imaging, genetics, clinical and demographic data.Collective representation of the multi-source data facilitates the aggregation and harmonization of complex data elements. This enables joint modeling of the complete data, leading to the development of Big Data analytics, predictive synthesis, and statistical validation. Using heterogeneous PPMI data, we developed a comprehensive protocol for end-to-end data characterization, manipulation, processing, cleaning, analysis and validation. Specifically, we (i introduce methods for rebalancing imbalanced cohorts, (ii utilize a wide spectrum of classification methods to generate consistent and powerful phenotypic predictions, and (iii generate reproducible machine-learning based classification that enables the reporting of model parameters and diagnostic forecasting based on new data. We evaluated several complementary model

  17. Predictive Big Data Analytics: A Study of Parkinson's Disease Using Large, Complex, Heterogeneous, Incongruent, Multi-Source and Incomplete Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinov, Ivo D; Heavner, Ben; Tang, Ming; Glusman, Gustavo; Chard, Kyle; Darcy, Mike; Madduri, Ravi; Pa, Judy; Spino, Cathie; Kesselman, Carl; Foster, Ian; Deutsch, Eric W; Price, Nathan D; Van Horn, John D; Ames, Joseph; Clark, Kristi; Hood, Leroy; Hampstead, Benjamin M; Dauer, William; Toga, Arthur W

    2016-01-01

    A unique archive of Big Data on Parkinson's Disease is collected, managed and disseminated by the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). The integration of such complex and heterogeneous Big Data from multiple sources offers unparalleled opportunities to study the early stages of prevalent neurodegenerative processes, track their progression and quickly identify the efficacies of alternative treatments. Many previous human and animal studies have examined the relationship of Parkinson's disease (PD) risk to trauma, genetics, environment, co-morbidities, or life style. The defining characteristics of Big Data-large size, incongruency, incompleteness, complexity, multiplicity of scales, and heterogeneity of information-generating sources-all pose challenges to the classical techniques for data management, processing, visualization and interpretation. We propose, implement, test and validate complementary model-based and model-free approaches for PD classification and prediction. To explore PD risk using Big Data methodology, we jointly processed complex PPMI imaging, genetics, clinical and demographic data. Collective representation of the multi-source data facilitates the aggregation and harmonization of complex data elements. This enables joint modeling of the complete data, leading to the development of Big Data analytics, predictive synthesis, and statistical validation. Using heterogeneous PPMI data, we developed a comprehensive protocol for end-to-end data characterization, manipulation, processing, cleaning, analysis and validation. Specifically, we (i) introduce methods for rebalancing imbalanced cohorts, (ii) utilize a wide spectrum of classification methods to generate consistent and powerful phenotypic predictions, and (iii) generate reproducible machine-learning based classification that enables the reporting of model parameters and diagnostic forecasting based on new data. We evaluated several complementary model-based predictive approaches

  18. The Role of Working Memory in Planning and Generating Written Sentences

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    Ronald T. Kellogg

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning a sentence with concrete concepts whose referents can be mentally imaged has been shown in past work to require the limited resources of visual working memory. By contrast, grammatically encoding such concepts as lexical items in a syntactic structure requires verbal working memory. We report an experiment designed to demonstrate a double dissociation of these two stores of working memory by manipulating the difficulty of (1 planning by comparing related concepts to unrelated concepts and (2 grammatical encoding of an English sentence in active voice versus the more complex structure of the passive voice. College students (N = 46 composed sentences that were to include two noun prompts (related versus unrelated while concurrently performing either a visual or a verbal distracting task. Instructions to produce either active or passive sentences were manipulated between groups. The results surprisingly indicated that the supposedly easier planning with related concepts made a large demand on verbal working memory, rather than unrelated concepts demanding more visual working memory. The temporal dynamics of the sentence production process appear to best account for the unexpected findings.

  19. An Analysis of Use of conditional Sentences by Arab Students of English

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    Sadam Haza' Al Rdaat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conditional sentences are made of two clauses namely “if-clause” and “main clause”. Conditionals have been noted by scholars and grammarians as a difficult area of English for both teachers and learners. The two clauses of conditional sentences and their form, tense and meaning could be considered the main difficulty of conditional sentences. In addition, some of non-native speakers do not have sufficient knowledge of the differences between conditional sentences in the two languages and they tried to solve their problems in their second language by using their native language. The aim of this study was to analyse the use of conditional sentences by Arab students of English in semantic and syntactic situations. For the purpose of this study, 20 Arab students took part in the questionnaire, they were all studying different subjects and degrees (bachelor, master and PhD at Coventry University. The results showed that the use of type three conditionals and modality can be classified as the most difficult issues that students struggle to understand and use.

  20. Musical metaphors: evidence for a spatial grounding of non-literal sentences describing auditory events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Sibylla; Dudschig, Carolin; de la Vega, Irmgard; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated whether the spatial terms high and low, when used in sentence contexts implying a non-literal interpretation, trigger similar spatial associations as would have been expected from the literal meaning of the words. In three experiments, participants read sentences describing either a high or a low auditory event (e.g., The soprano sings a high aria vs. The pianist plays a low note). In all Experiments, participants were asked to judge (yes/no) whether the sentences were meaningful by means of up/down (Experiments 1 and 2) or left/right (Experiment 3) key press responses. Contrary to previous studies reporting that metaphorical language understanding differs from literal language understanding with regard to simulation effects, the results show compatibility effects between sentence implied pitch height and response location. The results are in line with grounded models of language comprehension proposing that sensory motor experiences are being elicited when processing literal as well as non-literal sentences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in Parkinson's disease: An event-related potential study.

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    Anthony J Angwin

    Full Text Available Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded to investigate lexical ambiguity resolution during sentence processing in 16 people with Parkinson's disease (PD and 16 healthy controls. Sentences were presented word-by-word on computer screen, and participants were required to decide if a subsequent target word was related to the meaning of the sentence. The task consisted of related, unrelated and ambiguous trials. For the ambiguous trials, the sentence ended with an ambiguous word and the target was related to one of the meanings of that word, but not the one captured by the sentence context (e.g., 'He dug with the spade', Target 'ACE'. Both groups demonstrated slower reaction times and lower accuracy for the ambiguous condition relative to the unrelated condition, however accuracy was impacted by the ambiguous condition to a larger extent in the PD group. These results suggested that PD patients experience increased difficulties with contextual ambiguity resolution. The ERP results did not reflect increased ambiguity resolution difficulties in PD, as a similar N400 effect was evident for the unrelated and ambiguous condition in both groups. However, the magnitude of the N400 for these conditions was correlated with a measure of inhibition in the PD group, but not the control group. The ERP results suggest that semantic processing may be more compromised in PD patients with increased response inhibition deficits.

  2. Semantic and pragmatic factors influencing deaf and hearing students' comprehension of english sentences containing numeral quantifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ronald R; Berent, Gerald P

    2011-01-01

    This research contrasted deaf and hearing students' interpretive knowledge of English sentences containing numeral quantifier phrases and indefinite noun phrases. A multiple-interpretation picture task methodology was used to assess 305 participants' judgments of the compatibility of sentence meanings with depicted discourse contexts. Participants' performance was assessed on the basis of hearing level (deaf, hearing) and grade level (middle school, high school, college). The deaf students were predicted to have differential access to specific sentence interpretations in accordance with the relative derivational complexity of the targeted sentence types. Hypotheses based on the pressures of derivational economy on acquisition were largely supported. The results also revealed that the deaf participants tended to overactivate pragmatic processes that yielded principled, though non-target, sentence interpretations. Collectively, the results not only contribute to the understanding of English acquisition under conditions of restricted access to spoken language input, they also suggest that pragmatic factors may play a broad role in influencing, and compromising, deaf students' reading comprehension and written expression.

  3. Animacy or case marker order?: priority information for online sentence comprehension in a head-final language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Takahashi, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that case marker information and animacy information are incrementally used to comprehend sentences in head-final languages. However, it is still unclear how these two kinds of information are processed when they are in competition in a sentence's surface expression. The current study used sentences conveying the potentiality of some event (henceforth, potential sentences) in the Japanese language with theoretically canonical word order (dative-nominative/animate-inanimate order) and with scrambled word order (nominative-dative/inanimate-animate order). In Japanese, nominative-first case order and animate-inanimate animacy order are preferred to their reversed patterns in simplex sentences. Hence, in these potential sentences, case information and animacy information are in competition. The experiment consisted of a self-paced reading task testing two conditions (that is, canonical and scrambled potential sentences). Forty-five native speakers of Japanese participated. In our results, the canonical potential sentences showed a scrambling cost at the second argument position (the nominative argument). This result indicates that the theoretically scrambled case marker order (nominative-dative) is processed as a mentally canonical case marker order, suggesting that case information is used preferentially over animacy information when the two are in competition. The implications of our findings are discussed with regard to incremental simplex sentence comprehension models for head-final languages.

  4. Neural circuits in the brain that are activated when mitigating criminal sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Camerer, Colin F; Fujie, Saori; Kato, Motoichiro; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Takano, Harumasa; Ito, Hiroshi; Suhara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2012-03-27

    In sentencing guilty defendants, jurors and judges weigh 'mitigating circumstances', which create sympathy for a defendant. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural activity in ordinary citizens who are potential jurors, as they decide on mitigation of punishment for murder. We found that sympathy activated regions associated with mentalising and moral conflict (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus and temporo-parietal junction). Sentencing also activated precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that mitigation is based on negative affective responses to murder, sympathy for mitigating circumstances and cognitive control to choose numerical punishments. Individual differences on the inclination to mitigate, the sentence reduction per unit of judged sympathy, correlated with activity in the right middle insula, an area known to represent interoception of visceral states. These results could help the legal system understand how potential jurors actually decide, and contribute to growing knowledge about whether emotion and cognition are integrated sensibly in difficult judgments.

  5. How Fuzzy-Trace Theory Predicts True and False Memories for Words, Sentences, and Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Corbin, Jonathan C; Weldon, Rebecca B; Brainerd, Charles J

    2016-03-01

    Fuzzy-trace theory posits independent verbatim and gist memory processes, a distinction that has implications for such applied topics as eyewitness testimony. This distinction between precise, literal verbatim memory and meaning-based, intuitive gist accounts for memory paradoxes including dissociations between true and false memory, false memories outlasting true memories, and developmental increases in false memory. We provide an overview of fuzzy-trace theory, and, using mathematical modeling, also present results demonstrating verbatim and gist memory in true and false recognition of narrative sentences and inferences. Results supported fuzzy-trace theory's dual-process view of memory: verbatim memory was relied on to reject meaning-consistent, but unpresented, sentences (via recollection rejection). However, verbatim memory was often not retrieved, and gist memory supported acceptance of these sentences (via similarity judgment and phantom recollection). Thus, mathematical models of words can be extended to explain memory for complex stimuli, such as narratives, the kind of memory interrogated in law.

  6. Does the punishment fit the crime? Judicial sentencing in adolescent and adult sexual assault cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Forte, Tania; Badgley, Robin F

    2008-06-01

    This is the first Canadian study to focus directly on whether factors commonly identified as reflecting the seriousness of a sexual assault are noted by judges, and in turn, related to the severity of the sentences they impose. We examined adolescent and adult female sexual assault cases heard in Ontario between 1993 and 2001. Two hundred twenty-one cases were identified using Quicklaw, Canada's most comprehensive on-line legal information system, with data extracted onto a coding instrument. In 201 (91%) of these cases, a perpetrator had been sentenced to prison or jail. Judges reported that in a substantial proportion of these women they had been penetrated (67%), forced (49%), coerced (50%), physically injured (33%), and psychologically harmed (65%). However, only two of the six offence seriousness factors examined were associated with a prison versus jail sentence: the occurrence of vaginal and/or anal penetration and the threat or use of a weapon(s).

  7. Comparative pathogenomic characterization of a non-invasive serotype M71 strain Streptococcus pyogenes NS53 reveals incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yun-Juan; Li, Yang; Liang, Zhong; Agrahari, Garima; Lee, Shaun W; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J

    2017-07-31

    The strains serotyped as M71 from group A Streptococcus are common causes of pharyngeal and skin diseases worldwide. Here we characterize the genome of a unique non-invasive M71 human isolate, NS53. The genome does not contain structural rearrangements or large-scale gene gains/losses, but encodes a full set of non-truncated known virulence factors, thus providing an ideal reference for comparative studies. However, the NS53 genome showed incongruent phenotypic implications from distinct genotypic markers. NS53 is characterized as an emm pattern D and FCT (fibronectin-collagen-T antigen) type-3 strain, typical of skin tropic strains, but is phylogenetically close to emm pattern E strains with preference for both skin and pharyngeal infections. We propose that this incongruence could result from recombination within the emm gene locus, or, alternatively, selection has been against those genetic alterations. Combined with the inability to select for CovS switching, a process is indicated whereby NS53 has been pre-adapted to specific host niches selecting against variations in CovS and many other genes. This may allow the strain to attain successful colonization and long-term survival. A balance between genetic variations and fitness may exist for this bacterium to form a stabilized genome optimized for survival in specific host environments. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The relation between thematic role computing and semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension.

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    Xiaoqing Li

    Full Text Available Sentence comprehension involves timely computing different types of relations between its verbs and noun arguments, such as morphosyntactic, semantic, and thematic relations. Here, we used EEG technique to investigate the potential differences in thematic role computing and lexical-semantic relatedness processing during on-line sentence comprehension, and the interaction between these two types of processes. Mandarin Chinese sentences were used as materials. The basic structure of those sentences is "Noun+Verb+'le'+a two-character word", with the Noun being the initial argument. The verb disambiguates the initial argument as an agent or a patient. Meanwhile, the initial argument and the verb are highly or lowly semantically related. The ERPs at the verbs revealed that: relative to the agent condition, the patient condition evoked a larger N400 only when the argument and verb were lowly semantically related; however, relative to the high-relatedness condition, the low-relatedness condition elicited a larger N400 regardless of the thematic relation; although both thematic role variation and semantic relatedness variation elicited N400 effects, the N400 effect elicited by the former was broadly distributed and reached maximum over the frontal electrodes, and the N400 effect elicited by the latter had a posterior distribution. In addition, the brain oscillations results showed that, although thematic role variation (patient vs. agent induced power decreases around the beta frequency band (15-30 Hz, semantic relatedness variation (low-relatedness vs. high-relatedness induced power increases in the theta frequency band (4-7 Hz. These results suggested that, in the sentence context, thematic role computing is modulated by the semantic relatedness between the verb and its argument; semantic relatedness processing, however, is in some degree independent from the thematic relations. Moreover, our results indicated that, during on-line sentence

  9. Syntactic parsing of clinical text: guideline and corpus development with handling ill-formed sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jung-wei; Yang, Elly W; Jiang, Min; Prasad, Rashmi; Loomis, Richard M; Zisook, Daniel S; Denny, Josh C; Xu, Hua; Huang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    To develop, evaluate, and share: (1) syntactic parsing guidelines for clinical text, with a new approach to handling ill-formed sentences; and (2) a clinical Treebank annotated according to the guidelines. To document the process and findings for readers with similar interest. Using random samples from a shared natural language processing challenge dataset, we developed a handbook of domain-customized syntactic parsing guidelines based on iterative annotation and adjudication between two institutions. Special considerations were incorporated into the guidelines for handling ill-formed sentences, which are common in clinical text. Intra- and inter-annotator agreement rates were used to evaluate consistency in following the guidelines. Quantitative and qualitative properties of the annotated Treebank, as well as its use to retrain a statistical parser, were reported. A supplement to the Penn Treebank II guidelines was developed for annotating clinical sentences. After three iterations of annotation and adjudication on 450 sentences, the annotators reached an F-measure agreement rate of 0.930 (while intra-annotator rate was 0.948) on a final independent set. A total of 1100 sentences from progress notes were annotated that demonstrated domain-specific linguistic features. A statistical parser retrained with combined general English (mainly news text) annotations and our annotations achieved an accuracy of 0.811 (higher than models trained purely with either general or clinical sentences alone). Both the guidelines and syntactic annotations are made available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/medicaltreebank. We developed guidelines for parsing clinical text and annotated a corpus accordingly. The high intra- and inter-annotator agreement rates showed decent consistency in following the guidelines. The corpus was shown to be useful in retraining a statistical parser that achieved moderate accuracy.

  10. Charity work of men sentenced to imprisonment in Lower Silesia – a research report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Sokołowska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the subject of charity work of men serving prison sentences in the District Inspectorate of Prison Service in Wrocław. The aim is to present the importance of charity work and to show how it can be used in penitentiary influences on the basis of collaboration between prisons and local communities, highlighting its comprehensive impact on convicted persons. The main research problem is the impact of charity work on the attitudes of men serving prison sentences and its influence on satisfying their needs, changing moral values, increasing self-esteem, motivation and commitment.

  11. Do sentences with unaccusative verbs involve syntactic movement? Evidence from neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Z K; van de Koot, H; McGettigan, C; Scott, S K

    2014-10-21

    This study focuses on the neural processing of English sentences containing unergative, unaccusative and transitive verbs. We demonstrate common responses in bilateral superior temporal gyri in response to listening to sentences containing unaccusative and transitive verbs compared to unergative verbs; we did not detect any activation that was specific to unaccusatives. Our findings indicate that the neural processing of unaccusative and transitive verbs is highly similar, and very different from the processing of unergative verbs. We discuss the consequences of these results for the linguistic analysis of movement phenomena.

  12. Brief Report: An Evaluation of an Instructional Package for Teaching Sentence Construction to Students with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Robert C; Rockhold, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated the effects of an instructional package on the construction of sentences writing by four children ages 6-9, with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We employed a multiple probe across behaviors design to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention package and also conducted probes to assess generalization and increases in the use of spoken sentences. Data indicated that the package was effective and produced variable levels of maintenance and generalized responding across three of the participants. Further, changes in vocal responding were observed in one of the participants.

  13. Strong expectations cancel locality effects: evidence from Hindi.

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    Samar Husain

    Full Text Available Expectation-driven facilitation (Hale, 2001; Levy, 2008 and locality-driven retrieval difficulty (Gibson, 1998, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005 are widely recognized to be two critical factors in incremental sentence processing; there is accumulating evidence that both can influence processing difficulty. However, it is unclear whether and how expectations and memory interact. We first confirm a key prediction of the expectation account: a Hindi self-paced reading study shows that when an expectation for an upcoming part of speech is dashed, building a rarer structure consumes more processing time than building a less rare structure. This is a strong validation of the expectation-based account. In a second study, we show that when expectation is strong, i.e., when a particular verb is predicted, strong facilitation effects are seen when the appearance of the verb is delayed; however, when expectation is weak, i.e., when only the part of speech "verb" is predicted but a particular verb is not predicted, the facilitation disappears and a tendency towards a locality effect is seen. The interaction seen between expectation strength and distance shows that strong expectations cancel locality effects, and that weak expectations allow locality effects to emerge.

  14. Influence of Second Language Proficiency and Syntactic Structure Similarities on the Sensitivity and Processing of English Passive Sentence in Late Chinese-English Bilinguists: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Wang, Pei

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on English passive sentence processing, the present ERP study asked 40 late Chinese-English bilinguals (27 females and 13 males, mean age = 23.88) with high or intermediate L2 proficiency to read the sentences carefully and to indicate for each sentence whether or not it was correct. Sentences were classified into literal translation sentences with the similar structure between the two languages and free translation sentences with the different structure. Behavioral data showed: shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates occurred in the high-proficient group than those in the intermediate-proficient group; shorter reaction times and higher accuracy rates were observed in literal translation sentences than those in free translation sentences. ERP results showed literal translation sentences elicited an enhanced P200 and P600 while free translation sentences elicited a larger N400. The high-proficient group showed a larger P600 in syntactic violations and double violations while the intermediate-proficient group evoked an enhanced N400 in semantic violations and double violations. Literal translation sentences caused a larger P200 while free translation sentences elicited more negative-going N400. Behavioral and ERP data revealed the influence of L2 proficiency and syntactic similarity on L2 sentence processing, and L2 proficiency played a predominate role.

  15. Discourse, Paragraph, and Sentence Structure in Selected Philippine Languages. Final Report. Volume I, Discourse and Paragraph Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Robert E.

    Twenty-five Philippine languages and dialects were studied to determine the manner in which words, clauses, sounds, and sentences group together to make up units larger than the sentence. Data obtained were analyzed according to tagmemic theory. The introduction to this volume (see also AL 002 032 and AL 002 033) gives a brief orientation to the…

  16. A Lag in Speech Motor Coordination during Sentence Production Is Associated with Stuttering Persistence in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usler, Evan; Smith, Anne; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if indices of speech motor coordination during the production of sentences varying in sentence length and syntactic complexity were associated with stuttering persistence versus recovery in 5- to 7-year-old children. Methods: We compared children with persistent stuttering (CWS-Per) with children…

  17. Declarative Sentence Pattern in "Laskar Pelangi" and "The Rainbow Troops": A Translation Study of Indonesian to English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuswoyo, Heri

    2014-01-01

    This study is entitled "declarative sentence pattern in 'Laskar Pelangi' and 'The Rainbow Troops': A Translation Study of Indonesian to English". In this study, the present writer discusses about the differences & similarities of declarative sentence between Indonesian novel and English translation novel. Further, the data were taken…

  18. Intermediate Traces and Intermediate Learners: Evidence for the Use of Intermediate Structure during Sentence Processing in Second Language French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study reports on a sentence processing experiment in second language (L2) French that looks for evidence of trace reactivation at clause edge and in the canonical object position in indirect object cleft sentences with complex embedding and cyclic movement. Reaction time (RT) asymmetries were examined among low (n = 20) and high (n = 20)…

  19. A Comparison of Alzheimer\\'s Patients and Healthy Elders in Relationship between Components of Working Memory and Sentence Comprehension

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    Raziyeh A'lemi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between working memory and sentence comprehension. Patients with Dementia of the Alzheimer´s type (DAT and matched older volunteers were tested on a battery of working memory tests, as well as on test of sentence comprehension. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Statistical population included all patients with Alzheimer disease who were registered in the center of Alzheimer (Imam Ali in Tehran.10 patients randomly were selected among them, according to inclusive and exclusive criteria. For data collection, epidemiological information questionnaire, Mental Mini State Examination (MMSE, working memory tests and sentence comprehension were applied. Data were analyzed by Independent T-test and correlation analyses. Results: Patients had impaired central executive processes in working memory (P=0.006, but showed normal effects of phonological and articulatory variables on span (P=0.480. On the sentence comprehension tasks (simple and complicated sentences, DAT patients showed significant differences with their peers (simple s. P=0.001, complicated s. P=0.004. Impairment in the central executive processes of working memory in DAT patients was correlated with the complicated sentences on the sentence comprehension tasks. Conclusion: The results suggest that patients with DAT have working memory impairments that are related to their ability to map the meaning on sentences on to depictions of events in the world.

  20. Role of auditory non-verbal working memory in sentence repetition for bilingual children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy

    2014-01-01

    Sentence repetition performance is attracting increasing interest as a valuable clinical marker for primary (or specific) language impairment (LI) in both monolingual and bilingual populations. Multiple aspects of memory appear to contribute to sentence repetition performance, but non-verbal memory has not yet been considered. To explore the relationship between a measure of non-verbal auditory working memory (NVWM) and sentence repetition performance in a sample of bilingual children with LI. Forty-seven school-aged Spanish-English bilingual children with LI completed sentence repetition and non-word repetition tasks in both Spanish and English as well as an NVWM task. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to predict sentence repetition in each language using age, non-word repetition and NVWM. NVWM predicted unique variance in sentence repetition performance in both languages after accounting for chronological age and language-specific phonological memory, as measured by non-word repetition. Domain-general memory resources play a unique role in sentence repetition performance in children with LI. Non-verbal working memory weaknesses may contribute to the poor performance of children with LI on sentence repetition tasks. © 2014 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.