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Sample records for strongly grounded autoepistemic

  1. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.

    1988-10-01

    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  2. Strong ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denolle, M A; Dunham, E M; Prieto, G A; Beroza, G C

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary basins increase the damaging effects of earthquakes by trapping and amplifying seismic waves. Simulations of seismic wave propagation in sedimentary basins capture this effect; however, there exists no method to validate these results for earthquakes that have not yet occurred. We present a new approach for ground motion prediction that uses the ambient seismic field. We apply our method to a suite of magnitude 7 scenario earthquakes on the southern San Andreas fault and compare our ground motion predictions with simulations. Both methods find strong amplification and coupling of source and structure effects, but they predict substantially different shaking patterns across the Los Angeles Basin. The virtual earthquake approach provides a new approach for predicting long-period strong ground motion.

  3. Strong ground motion spectra for layered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar, A.; Cakmak, A.S.; Engin, H.

    1977-01-01

    This article presents an analytic method and calculations of strong motion spectra for the energy, displacement, velocity and acceleration based on the physical and geometric ground properties at a site. Although earthquakes occur with large deformations and high stress intensities which necessarily lead to nonlinear phenomena, most analytical efforts to date have been based on linear analyses in engineering seismology and soil dynamics. There are, however, a wealth of problems such as the shifts in frequency, dispersion due to the amplitude, the generation of harmonics, removal of resonance infinities, which cannot be accounted for by a linear theory. In the study, the stress-strain law for soil is taken as tau=G 0 γ+G 1 γ 3 +etaγ where tau is the stress, γ is the strain, G 0 and G 1 are the elasticity coefficients and eta is the damping and are different in each layer. The above stress-strain law describes soils with hysterisis where the hysterisis loops for various amplitudes of the strain are no longer concentric ellipses as for linear relations but are oval shapes rotated with respect to each other similar to the materials with the Osgood-Ramberg law. It is observed that even slight nonlinearities may drastically alter the various response spectra from that given by linear analysis. In fact, primary waves cause resonance conditions such that secondary waves are generated. As a result, a weak energy transfer from the primary to the secondary waves takes place, thus altering the wave spectrum. The mathematical technique that is utilized for the solution of the nonlinear equation is a special perturbation method as an extension of Poincare's procedure. The method considers shifts in the frequencies which are determined by the boundedness of the energy

  4. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Success of earthquake resistant design practices critically depends on how accurately the future ground motion can be determined at a desired site. But very limited recorded data are available about ground motion in India for engineers to rely upon. To identify the needs of engineers, under such circumstances, in ...

  5. Assessment of strong ground motion records

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2003-05-01

    May 1, 2003 ... tos Nor-teamericanosy Japoneses; Revista DEL IDIEM 8,. Chile. Kalkan E and Gülkan P 2004 Site-dependent spectra derived from ground motion records in Turkey; Earthq. Spectra. 20(4) 853–882. Newmark N M and Hall W J 1982 Earthquake spectra and design; EERI Monograph Series, Earthquake ...

  6. Modeling and synthesis of strong ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Numerical examples are shown for illustration by taking Kutch earthquake-2001 as a case study. 1. ... Ground motion; source mechanism models; empirical Green's functions; seismological models; Kutch earthquake. J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117 ..... hybrid global search method which is a combi- nation of simulated annealing and ...

  7. French network and acquired experience on record strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrieux, H.; Mohammadioun, G.

    1988-03-01

    The network intended to record strong ground motion in continental France is composed for the most part of instrument packages incorporated into nuclear installations, which are supplemented by a certain number of accelerometers placed in the most highly seismic areas. In a country where the level of seismicity is relatively modest, such a network is not conductive to the acquisition of new data, which, instead, is obtained through spot studies of limited duration using more sensitive instruments or through the recording of strong ground motion in neighbouring countries [fr

  8. Analysis of strong ground motions to evaluate regional attenuation relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Montaldo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Italian attenuation relationships at regional scale have been refined using a data set of 322 horizontal components of strong ground motions recorded mainly during the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche, Central Italy, earthquake sequence. The data set includes records generated by events with local magnitude (M L ranging between 4.5 and 5.9, recorded at rock or soil sites and epicentral distance smaller than 100 km. Through a multiple step regression analysis, we calculated empirical equations for the peak ground acceleration and velocity, the Arias Intensity and for the horizontal components of the 5% damped velocity pseudo response spectra, corresponding to 14 frequencies ranging from 0.25 to 25 Hz. We compared our results with well known predictive equations, widely used on the national territory for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis. The results obtained in this study show smaller values for all the analyzed ground motion indicators compared to other predictive equations.

  9. Establishment of Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Özel, O.; Bikce, M.; Geneş, M. C.; Kacın, S.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Över, S.

    2009-04-01

    Turkey is located in one of the most active earthquake zones of the world. The cities located along the North Anatolian Fault (NAF) and the East Anatolian Fault (EAF) are exposed to significant earthquake hazard. The Hatay province near the southern terminus of the EAF has always experienced a significant seismic activity, since it is on the intersection of the northernmost segment of Dead Sea Fault Zone coming from the south, with the Cyprean Arc approaching from south-west. Historical records extending over the last 2000 years indicate that Antakya, founded in the 3rd century B.C., is effected by intensity IX-X earthquakes every 150 years. In the region, the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1872. Destructive earthquakes should be expected in the region in the near future similar to the ones that occurred in the past. The strong response of sedimentary basins to seismic waves was largely responsible for the damage produced by the devastating earthquakes of 1985 Michoacan Earthquake which severely damaged parts of Mexico City, and the 1988 Spitak Earthquake which destroyed most of Leninakan, Armenia. Much of this devastating response was explained by the conversion of seismic body waves to surface waves at the sediment/rock contacts of sedimentary basins. "Antakya Basin Strong Ground Motion Monitoring System" is set up with the aim of monitoring the earthquake response of the Antakya Basin, contributing to our understanding of basin response, contributing to earthquake risk assessment of Antakya, monitoring of regional earthquakes and determining the effects of local and regional earthquakes on the urban environment of Antakya. The soil properties beneath the strong motion stations (S-Wave velocity structure and dominant soil frequency) are determined by array measurements that involve broad-band seismometers. The strong motion monitoring system consists of six instruments installed in small buildings. The stations form a straight line along the short axis

  10. SM-ROM-GL (Strong Motion Romania Ground Level Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Sorin BORCIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The SM-ROM-GL database includes data obtained by the processing of records performed at ground level by the Romanian seismic networks, namely INCERC, NIEP, NCSRR and ISPH-GEOTEC, during recent seismic events with moment magnitude Mw ≥ 5 and epicenters located in Romania. All the available seismic records were re-processed using the same basic software and the same procedures and options (filtering and baseline correction, in order to obtain a consistent dataset. The database stores computed parameters of seismic motions, i.e. peak values: PGA, PGV, PGD, effective peak values: EPA, EPV, EPD, control periods, spectral values of absolute acceleration, relative velocity and relative displacement, as well as of instrumental intensity (as defined bz Sandi and Borcia in 2011. The fields in the database include: coding of seismic events, stations and records, a number of associated fields (seismic event source parameters, geographical coordinates of seismic stations, links to the corresponding ground motion records, charts of the response spectra of absolute acceleration, relative velocity, relative displacement and instrumental intensity, as well as some other representative parameters of seismic motions. The conception of the SM-ROM-GL database allows for an easy maintenance; such that elementary knowledge of Microsoft Access 2000 is sufficient for its operation.

  11. Uniform risk spectra of strong earthquake ground motion: NEQRISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, V.W.; Trifunac, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of uniform risk spectra of Anderson and Trifunac (1977) has been generalized to include (1) more refined description of earthquake source zones, (2) the uncertainties in estimating seismicity parameters a and b in log 10 N = a - bM, (3) to consider uncertainties in estimation of maximum earthquake size in each source zone, and to (4) include the most recent results on empirical scaling of strong motion amplitudes at a site. Examples of using to new NEQRISK program are presented and compared with the corresponding case studies of Anderson and Trifunac (1977). The organization of the computer program NEQRISK is also briefly described

  12. Synthetic strong ground motions for engineering design utilizing empirical Green`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.J.; Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Foxall, W.

    1996-04-11

    We present a methodology for developing realistic synthetic strong ground motions for specific sites from specific earthquakes. We analyzed the possible ground motion resulting from a M = 7.25 earthquake that ruptures 82 km of the Hayward fault for a site 1.4 km from the fault in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the Hayward fault earthquake and computed the corresponding strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to the site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we introduce a probabilistic component into the deterministic hazard calculation. Engineering parameters of synthesized ground motions agree with those recorded from the 1995 Kobe, Japan and the 1992 Landers, California earthquakes at similar distances and site geologies.

  13. Earthquake strong ground motion studies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ivan; Silva, W.; Darragh, R.; Stark, C.; Wright, D.; Jackson, S.; Carpenter, G.; Smith, R.; Anderson, D.; Gilbert, H.; Scott, D.

    1989-01-01

    Site-specific strong earthquake ground motions have been estimated for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory assuming that an event similar to the 1983 M s 7.3 Borah Peak earthquake occurs at epicentral distances of 10 to 28 km. The strong ground motion parameters have been estimated based on a methodology incorporating the Band-Limited-White-Noise ground motion model coupled with Random Vibration Theory. A 16-station seismic attenuation and site response survey utilizing three-component portable digital seismographs was also performed for a five-month period in 1989. Based on the recordings of regional earthquakes, the effects of seismic attenuation in the shallow crust and along the propagation path and local site response were evaluated. This data combined with a detailed geologic profile developed for each site based principally on borehole data, was used in the estimation of the strong ground motion parameters. The preliminary peak horizontal ground accelerations for individual sites range from approximately 0.15 to 0.35 g. Based on the authors analysis, the thick sedimentary interbeds (greater than 20 m) in the basalt section attenuate ground motions as speculated upon in a number of previous studies

  14. Designed microtremor array based actual measurement and analysis of strong ground motion at Palu city, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thein, Pyi Soe, E-mail: pyisoethein@yahoo.com [Geology Department, Yangon University (Myanmar); Pramumijoyo, Subagyo; Wilopo, Wahyu; Setianto, Agung [Geological Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Brotopuspito, Kirbani Sri [Physics Department, Gadjah Mada University (Indonesia); Kiyono, Junji; Putra, Rusnardi Rahmat [Graduate School of Global Environmental Studies, Kyoto University (Japan)

    2015-04-24

    In this study, we investigated the strong ground motion characteristics under Palu City, Indonesia. The shear wave velocity structures evaluated by eight microtremors measurement are the most applicable to determine the thickness of sediments and average shear wave velocity with Vs ≤ 300 m/s. Based on subsurface underground structure models identified, earthquake ground motion was estimated in the future Palu-Koro earthquake by using statistical green’s function method. The seismic microzonation parameters were carried out by considering several significant controlling factors on ground response at January 23, 2005 earthquake.

  15. Source characteristics of moderate-to-strong earthquakes in the Nantou area, Taiwan: insight from strong ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yi-Ying; Chao, Shen-Yu; Yen, Yin-Tung; Wen, Strong

    2017-09-01

    In Taiwan, the Nantou area is a seismically active region where several moderate events have occurred, causing some disasters during the past century. Here, we applied the strong ground motion simulation with the empirical Green's function method to investigate the source characteristics for the eight moderate blind-fault events that struck the Nantou area in 1999 and 2013. The results show that for these Nantou events, a high stress drop and focal depth dependence were noted, which might be related to the immature buried fault in this area. From the viewpoint of seismic hazard prevention and preparation, future earthquake scenarios that include high stress drop should be applied to more analyses, especially the moderate-to-large events originating from the immature blind faulting.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Prediction of strong ground motion based on scaling law of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamae, Katsuhiro; Irikura, Kojiro; Fukuchi, Yasunaga.

    1991-01-01

    In order to predict more practically strong ground motion, it is important to study how to use a semi-empirical method in case of having no appropriate observation records for actual small-events as empirical Green's functions. We propose a prediction procedure using artificially simulated small ground motions as substitute for the actual motions. First, we simulate small-event motion by means of stochastic simulation method proposed by Boore (1983) in considering pass effects such as attenuation, and broadening of waveform envelope empirically in the objective region. Finally, we attempt to predict the strong ground motion due to a future large earthquake (M 7, Δ = 13 km) using the same summation procedure as the empirical Green's function method. We obtained the results that the characteristics of the synthetic motion using M 5 motion were in good agreement with those by the empirical Green's function method. (author)

  17. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The effect of regional variation of seismic wave attenuation on the strong ground motion from earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1981-10-01

    Attenuation is caused by geometric spreading and absorption. Geometric spreading is almost independent of crustal geology and physiographic region, but absorption depends strongly on crustal geology and the state of the earth's upper mantle. Except for very high frequency waves, absorption does not affect ground motion at distances less than about 25 to 50 km. Thus, in the near-field zone, the attenuation in the eastern United States is similar to that in the western United States. Beyond the near field, differences in ground motion can best be accounted for by differences in attenuation caused by differences in absorption. The stress drop of eastern earthquakes may be higher than for western earthquakes of the same seismic moment, which would affect the high-frequency spectral content. But we believe this factor is of much less significance than differences in absorption in explaining the differences in ground motion between the East and the West. The characteristics of strong ground motion in the conterminous United States are discussed in light of these considerations, and estimates are made of the epicentral ground motions in the central and eastern United States. (author)

  19. Strong systematicity through sensorimotor conceptual grounding: an unsupervised, developmental approach to connectionist sentence processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Peter A.; Watter, Scott

    2012-03-01

    Connectionist language modelling typically has difficulty with syntactic systematicity, or the ability to generalise language learning to untrained sentences. This work develops an unsupervised connectionist model of infant grammar learning. Following the semantic boostrapping hypothesis, the network distils word category using a developmentally plausible infant-scale database of grounded sensorimotor conceptual representations, as well as a biologically plausible semantic co-occurrence activation function. The network then uses this knowledge to acquire an early benchmark clausal grammar using correlational learning, and further acquires separate conceptual and grammatical category representations. The network displays strongly systematic behaviour indicative of the general acquisition of the combinatorial systematicity present in the grounded infant-scale language stream, outperforms previous contemporary models that contain primarily noun and verb word categories, and successfully generalises broadly to novel untrained sensorimotor grounded sentences composed of unfamiliar nouns and verbs. Limitations as well as implications to later grammar learning are discussed.

  20. Chapter A. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Strong ground motion generated by the Loma Prieta, Calif., earthquake (MS~7.1) of October 17, 1989, resulted in at least 63 deaths, more than 3,757 injuries, and damage estimated to exceed $5.9 billion. Strong ground motion severely damaged critical lifelines (freeway overpasses, bridges, and pipelines), caused severe damage to poorly constructed buildings, and induced a significant number of ground failures associated with liquefaction and landsliding. It also caused a significant proportion of the damage and loss of life at distances as far as 100 km from the epicenter. Consequently, understanding the characteristics of the strong ground motion associated with the earthquake is fundamental to understanding the earthquake's devastating impact on society. The papers assembled in this chapter address this problem. Damage to vulnerable structures from the earthquake varied substantially with the distance from the causative fault and the type of underlying geologic deposits. Most of the damage and loss of life occurred in areas underlain by 'soft soil'. Quantifying these effects is important for understanding the tragic concentrations of damage in such areas as Santa Cruz and the Marina and Embarcadero Districts of San Francisco, and the failures of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge and the Interstate Highway 880 overpass. Most importantly, understanding these effects is a necessary prerequisite for improving mitigation measures for larger earthquakes likely to occur much closer to densely urbanized areas in the San Francisco Bay region. The earthquake generated an especially important data set for understanding variations in the severity of strong ground motion. Instrumental strong-motion recordings were obtained at 131 sites located from about 6 to 175 km from the rupture zone. This set of recordings, the largest yet collected for an event of this size, was obtained from sites on various geologic deposits, including a unique set on 'soft soil' deposits

  1. Addressing earthquakes strong ground motion issues at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.; Silva, W.J.; Stark, C.L.; Jackson, S.; Smith, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    In the course of reassessing seismic hazards at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), several key issues have been raised concerning the effects of the earthquake source and site geology on potential strong ground motions that might be generated by a large earthquake. The design earthquake for the INEL is an approximate moment magnitude (M w ) 7 event that may occur on the southern portion of the Lemhi fault, a Basin and Range normal fault that is located on the northwestern boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain and the INEL, within 10 to 27 km of several major facilities. Because the locations of these facilities place them at close distances to a large earthquake and generally along strike of the causative fault, the effects of source rupture dynamics (e.g., directivity) could be critical in enhancing potential ground shaking at the INEL. An additional source issue that has been addressed is the value of stress drop to use in ground motion predictions. In terms of site geology, it has been questioned whether the interbedded volcanic stratigraphy beneath the ESRP and the INEL attenuates ground motions to a greater degree than a typical rock site in the western US. These three issues have been investigated employing a stochastic ground motion methodology which incorporates the Band-Limited-White-Noise source model for both a point source and finite fault, random vibration theory and an equivalent linear approach to model soil response

  2. Peak ground motions, effective duration of strong motions and frequency content of Iranian earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehranizadeh, M.; Hamedi, F.

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of earthquake ground motion have great influences on the response of structures to the earthquakes. Peak ground motions, duration of strong motions and frequency content are important characteristics of earthquakes, which are studied in this paper. The relation between peak ground acceleration, velocity and displacement have been taken into account and the effects of magnitude, epicentral distance and recorded duration of earthquakes on peak ground acceleration have been presented as graphs. The frequency content of ground motion can be examined by power spectral density of accel ero grams. In this study the power spectral density of the records have been determined and normalized power spectral densities are compared. There are different formulas for the smoothed power spectral density function such as Kanai-Tajimi's model. In this study, comparing with Kanai-Tajim's formula, the extreme value model is suggested for the spectral density function. This model is evaluated for accel ero grams on different soil conditions and the smoothed mean power spectral density function are determined for each soil groups. The central frequency and predominant period of earthquakes are also estimated

  3. Assessment of potential strong ground motions in the city of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Malagnini

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available A methodology is used which combines stochastic generation of random series with a finite-difference technique to estimate the expected horizontal ground motion for the city of Rome as induced by a large earthquake in the Central Apennines. In this approach, source properties and long-path propagation are modelled through observed spectra of ground motion in the region, while the effects of the near-surface geology in the city are simulated by means of a finite-difference technique applied to 2-D models including elastic and anelastic properties of geologic materials and topographic variations. The parameters commonly used for earthquake engineering purposes are estimated from the simulated time histories of horizontal ground motion. We focus our attention on peak ground acceleration and velocity, and on the integral of the squared acceleration and velocity (that are proportional to the Arias intensity and seismic energy flux, respectively. Response spectra are analyzed as well. Parameter variations along 2-D profiles visualize the effects of the small-scale geological heterogeneities and topography irregularities on ground motion in the case of a strong earthquake. Interestingly, the largest amplification of peak ground acceleration and Arias intensity does not necessarily occur at the same sites where peak ground velocity and flux of seismic energy reach their highest values, depending on the frequency band of amplification. A magnitude 7 earthquake at a distance of 100 km results in peak ground accelerations ranging from 30 to 70 gals while peak ground velocities are estimated to vary from 5 to 7 cm/s; moreover, simulated time histories of horizontal ground motion yield amplitudes of 5% damped pseudovelocity response spectra as large as 15-20 cm/s for frequencies from 1to 3 Hz. In this frequency band, the mean value is 7 cm/s for firm sites and ranges from 10 to 13 cm/s for soil sites. All these results are in good agreement with predictions

  4. The Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco Miranda, J. M.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Aguilar Calderon, L. A.; Almora Mata, D.; Ayala Hernandez, M.; Castro Parra, G.; Molina Avila, I.; Mora, A.; Torres Noguez, M.; Vazquez Larquet, R.

    2014-12-01

    The coverage, design, operation and monitoring capabilities of the strong ground motion program at the Institute of Engineering (IE) of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) is presented. Started in 1952, the seismic instrumentation intended initially to bolster earthquake engineering projects in Mexico City has evolved into the largest strong ground motion monitoring system in the region. Today, it provides information not only to engineering projects, but also to the near real-time risk mitigation systems of the country, and enhances the general understanding of the effects and causes of earthquakes in Mexico. The IE network includes more than 100 free-field stations and several buildings, covering the largest urban centers and zones of significant seismicity in Central Mexico. Of those stations, approximately one-fourth send the observed acceleration to a processing center in Mexico City continuously, and the rest require either periodic visits for the manual recovery of the data or remote interrogation, for later processing and cataloging. In this research, we document the procedures and telecommunications systems used systematically to recover information. Additionally, we analyze the spatial distribution of the free-field accelerographs, the quality of the instrumentation, and the recorded ground motions. The evaluation criteria are based on the: 1) uncertainty in the generation of ground motion parameter maps due to the spatial distribution of the stations, 2) potential of the array to provide localization and magnitude estimates for earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Mw 5, and 3) adequacy of the network for the development of Ground Motion Prediction Equations due to intra-plate and intra-slab earthquakes. We conclude that the monitoring system requires a new redistribution, additional stations, and a substantial improvement in the instrumentation and telecommunications. Finally, we present an integral plan to improve the current network

  5. Fault Structural Control on Earthquake Strong Ground Motions: The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake as an Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Dongli; Li, Xiaojun; Huang, Bei; Zheng, Wenjun; Wang, Yuejun

    2018-02-01

    Continental thrust faulting earthquakes pose severe threats to megacities across the world. Recent events show the possible control of fault structures on strong ground motions. The seismogenic structure of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake is associated with high-angle listric reverse fault zones. Its peak ground accelerations (PGAs) show a prominent feature of fault zone amplification: the values within the 30- to 40-km-wide fault zone block are significantly larger than those on both the hanging wall and the footwall. The PGA values attenuate asymmetrically: they decay much more rapidly in the footwall than in the hanging wall. The hanging wall effects can be seen on both the vertical and horizontal components of the PGAs, with the former significantly more prominent than the latter. All these characteristics can be adequately interpreted by upward extrusion of the high-angle listric reverse fault zone block. Through comparison with a low-angle planar thrust fault associated with the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, we conclude that different fault structures might have controlled different patterns of strong ground motion, which should be taken into account in seismic design and construction.

  6. Earthquake Strong Ground Motion Scenario at the 2008 Olympic Games Sites, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Rohrbach, E. A.; Chen, Q.; Chen, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Historic earthquake record indicates mediate to strong earthquakes have been frequently hit greater Beijing metropolitan area where is going to host the 2008 summer Olympic Games. For the readiness preparation of emergency response to the earthquake shaking for a mega event in a mega city like Beijing in summer 2008, this paper tries to construct the strong ground motion scenario at a number of gymnasium sites for the 2008 Olympic Games. During the last 500 years (the Ming and Qing Dynasties) in which the historic earthquake record are thorough and complete, there are at least 12 earthquake events with the maximum intensity of VI or greater occurred within 100 km radius centered at the Tiananmen Square, the center of Beijing City. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation and surface strong ground motion is carried out by the pseudospectral time domain methods with viscoelastic material properties. To improve the modeling efficiency and accuracy, a multi-scale approach is adapted: the seismic wave propagation originated from an earthquake rupture source is first simulated by a model with larger physical domain with coarser grids. Then the wavefield at a given plane is taken as the source input for the small-scale, fine grid model for the strong ground motion study at the sites. The earthquake source rupture scenario is based on two particular historic earthquake events: One is the Great 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu Earthquake (M~8, Maximum Intensity XI at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center)) whose epicenter is about 60 km ENE of the city center. The other one is the 1730 Haidian Earthquake (M~6, Maximum Intensity IX at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center) with the epicentral distance less than 20 km away from the city center in the NW Haidian District. The exist of the thick Tertiary-Quaternary sediments (maximum thickness ~ 2 km) in Beijing area plays a critical role on estimating the surface ground motion at the Olympic Games sites, which

  7. Strongly correlated quasi-one-dimensional bands: Ground states, optical absorption, and phonons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.K.; Gammel, J.T.; Loh, E.Y. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Using the Lanczos method for exact diagonalization on systems up to 14 sites, combined with a novel ''phase randomization'' technique for extracting more information from these small systems, we investigate several aspects of the one-dimensional Peierls-Hubbard Hamiltonian, in the context of trans-polyacetylene: the dependence of the ground state dimerization on the strength of the electron-electron interactions, including the effects of ''off-diagonal'' Coulomb terms generally ignored in the Hubbard model; the phonon vibrational frequencies and dispersion relations, and the optical absorption properties, including the spectrum of absorptions as a function of photon energy. These three different observables provide considerable insight into the effects of electron-electron interactions on the properties of real materials and thus into the nature of strongly correlated electron systems. 29 refs., 11 figs

  8. Main factors affecting strong ground motion calculations: Critical review and assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadioun, B.; Pecker, A.

    1990-01-01

    In the interests of guarding lives and property against the effects of earthquakes, building codes are frequently enforced when erecting conventional structures, usually calling for simple, static calculations. Where more vulnerable facilities are involved, the failure of which, or of parts of which, could subject the environment to harmful substances, more sophisticated methods are used to compute or verify their design, often accompanied by safety margins intended to compensate for uncertainties encountered at various stages of the analysis that begins with input seismic data and culminates with an effective anti-seismic design. The forthcoming discussion will deal with what is known of the characteristics of strong ground motion, highly variable according to context, without entering into the problems raised by seismotectonic studies, which actually constitute the first aspect that must be addressed when performing such an analysis. Our conclusion will be devoted to cogent R and D work in this area

  9. Simulation of Strong Ground Motion of the 2009 Bhutan Earthquake Using Modified Semi-Empirical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep; Joshi, A.; Lal, Sohan; Kumar, Parveen; Sah, S. K.; Vandana; Kamal

    2017-12-01

    On 21st September 2009 an earthquake of magnitude ( M w 6.1) occurred in the East Bhutan. This earthquake caused serious damage to the residential area and was widely felt in the Bhutan Himalaya and its adjoining area. We estimated the source model of this earthquake using modified semi empirical technique. In the rupture plane, several locations of nucleation point have been considered and finalised based on the minimum root mean square error of waveform comparison. In the present work observed and simulated waveforms has been compared at all the eight stations. Comparison of horizontal components of actual and simulated records at these stations confirms the estimated parameters of final rupture model and efficacy of the modified semi-empirical technique (Joshi et al., Nat Hazards 64:1029-1054, 2012b) of strong ground motion simulation.

  10. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sato, H.; Koketsu, K.; Umeda, Y.; Iwata, T.; Kasahara, K.

    2003-12-01

    Introduction: After the 1995 Kobe earthquake, the Japanese government increased its focus and funding of earthquake hazards evaluation, studies of man-made structures integrity, and emergency response planning in the major urban centers. A new agency, the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture (MEXT) has started a five-year program titled as Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Urban Areas (abbreviated to Dai-dai-toku in Japanese) since 2002. The project includes four programs: I. Regional characterization of the crust in metropolitan areas for prediction of strong ground motion. II. Significant improvement of seismic performance of structure. III. Advanced disaster management system. IV. Investigation of earthquake disaster mitigation research results. We will present the results from the first program conducted in 2002 and 2003. Regional Characterization of the Crust in Metropolitan Areas for Prediction of Strong Ground Motion: A long-term goal is to produce map of reliable estimations of strong ground motion. This requires accurate determination of ground motion response, which includes a source process, an effect of propagation path, and near surface response. The new five-year project was aimed to characterize the "source" and "propagation path" in the Kanto (Tokyo) region and Kinki (Osaka) region. The 1923 Kanto Earthquake is one of the important targets to be addressed in the project. The proximity of the Pacific and Philippine Sea subducting plates requires study of the relationship between earthquakes and regional tectonics. This project focuses on identification and geometry of: 1) Source faults, 2) Subducting plates and mega-thrust faults, 3) Crustal structure, 4) Seismogenic zone, 5) Sedimentary basins, 6) 3D velocity properties We have conducted a series of seismic reflection and refraction experiment in the Kanto region. In 2002 we have completed to deploy seismic profiling lines in the Boso peninsula (112 km) and the

  11. Simulation of strong ground motion parameters of the 1 June 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toni, Mostafa

    2017-06-01

    This article aims to simulate the ground motion parameters of the moderate magnitude (ML 5.1) June 1, 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, which represents the largest instrumental earthquake to be recorded in the middle part of the Gulf of Suez up to now. This event was felt in all cities located on both sides of the Gulf of Suez, with minor damage to property near the epicenter; however, no casualties were observed. The stochastic technique with the site-dependent spectral model is used to simulate the strong ground motion parameters of this earthquake in the cities located at the western side of the Gulf of Suez and north Red Sea namely: Suez, Ain Sokhna, Zafarana, Ras Gharib, and Hurghada. The presence of many tourist resorts and the increase in land use planning in the considered cities represent the motivation of the current study. The simulated parameters comprise the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA), Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), and Peak Ground Displacement (PGD), in addition to Pseudo Spectral Acceleration (PSA). The model developed for ground motion simulation is validated by using the recordings of three accelerographs installed around the epicenter of the investigated earthquake. Depending on the site effect that has been determined in the investigated areas by using geotechnical data (e.g., shear wave velocities and microtremor recordings), the investigated areas are classified into two zones (A and B). Zone A is characterized by higher site amplification than Zone B. The ground motion parameters are simulated at each zone in the considered areas. The results reveal that the highest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Ras Gharib city (epicentral distance ∼ 11 km) as 67 cm/s2, 2.53 cm/s, and 0.45 cm respectively for Zone A, and as 26.5 cm/s2, 1.0 cm/s, and 0.2 cm respectively for Zone B, while the lowest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Suez city (epicentral distance ∼ 190 km) as 3.0 cm/s2, 0.2 cm/s, and 0.05 cm/s respectively for Zone A

  12. Identification and simulation of strong earthquake ground motion by using pattern recognition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.

    1981-01-01

    This report deals with a schematic investigation concerning an identification of nonstationary characteristics of strong earthquake acceleration motions and those simulation technique for practical use. Pattern recognition technique is introduced in order to identify time and frequency dependent ground motion's characteristics. First the running power spectrum density (RPSD) function is estimated by dividing the whole earthquake duration into certain 'stationary' segments. This RPSD can be described as 2-dimensional pattern image onto time-frequency domain. Second thus obtained RPSD patterns are classified into several representative groups based on (1) number of dominant peaks, (2) peak shape and (3) spacial relation between the most intensive peak and the second one. Then RPSD pattern corresponding to a specific group is artificially simulated by using 'peak function' which determines evolutionary feature for an arbitrary point in time-frequency plane. Using this function 8 typical artificial standard RPSD patterns are finally proposed. Identification can be performed by Complex Threshold Method which is generally used in the field of radio graphic technology. (orig./WL)

  13. SISMA (Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms): a Web-Database of Ground Motion Recordings for Engineering Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scasserra, Giuseppe; Lanzo, Giuseppe; D'Elia, Beniamino; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a new website called SISMA, i.e. Site of Italian Strong Motion Accelerograms, which is an Internet portal intended to provide natural records for use in engineering applications for dynamic analyses of structural and geotechnical systems. SISMA contains 247 three-component corrected motions recorded at 101 stations from 89 earthquakes that occurred in Italy in the period 1972-2002. The database of strong motion accelerograms was developed in the framework of a joint project between Sapienza University of Rome and University of California at Los Angeles (USA) and is described elsewhere. Acceleration histories and pseudo-acceleration response spectra (5% damping) are available for download from the website. Recordings can be located using simple search parameters related to seismic source and the recording station (e.g., magnitude, V s30 , etc) as well as ground motion characteristics (e.g. peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, peak ground displacement, Arias intensity, etc.)

  14. Estimation of strong ground motion and micro-zonation for the city of Rome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faeh, D.; Iodice, C.; Suhadolc, P.; Panza, G.F.

    1994-03-01

    A hybrid technique, based on mode summation and finite differences, is used to simulate the ground motion induced in the city of Rome by possible earthquakes occurring in the main seismogenetic areas surrounding the city: the Central Apennines and the Alban Hills. The results of the numerical simulations are used for a first order seismic micro-zonation in the city of Rome, which can be used for the retrofitting of buildings of special social and cultural value. Rome can be divided into six main zones: (1) the edge and (2) the central part of the alluvial basin of the river Tiber; (3) the edges and (4) the central part of the Paleotiber basin; the areas outside the large basins of the Tiber and Paleotiber, where we distinguish between (5) areas without, and (6) areas with a layer of volcanic rocks close to the surface. The strongest amplification effects have to be expected at the edges of the Tiber basin, with maximum spectral amplification of the order of 5 to 6, and strong amplifications occur inside the entire alluvial basin of the Tiber. The presence of a near-surface layer of rigid material is not sufficient to classify a location as a ''hard-rock site'', when the rigid material covers a sedimentary complex. The reason is that the underlying sedimentary complex causes amplifications at the surface due to resonance effects. This phenomenon can be observed in the Paleotiber basin, where spectral amplifications in the frequency range 0.3-1.0 Hz reach values of the order of 3 to 4. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  15. Methods for prediction of strong earthquake ground motion. Final technical report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trifunac, M.D.

    1977-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of the work on characterization of strong earthquake ground motion. The objective of this effort has been to initiate presentation of simple yet detailed methodology for characterization of strong earthquake ground motion for use in licensing and evaluation of operating Nuclear Power Plants. This report will emphasize the simplicity of the methodology by presenting only the end results in a format that may be useful for the development of the site specific criteria in seismic risk analysis, for work on the development of modern standards and regulatory guides, and for re-evaluation of the existing power plant sites

  16. Ground state of charged Base and Fermi fluids in strong coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, R.

    1982-03-01

    The ground state and excited states of the charged Bose gas were studied (wave function, equation of state, thermodynamics, application of Feynman theory). The ground state of the charged Fermi gas was also investigated together with the miscibility of charged Bose and Fermi gases at 0 deg K (bosons-bosons, fermions-bosons and fermions-fermions) [fr

  17. Clastic Pipes: Proxies of High Water Tables and Strong Ground Motion, Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, David; Chan, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Multiple soft sediment deformation features from bed-scale to basin-scale are well preserved within the Jurassic Carmel Formation of Southern Utah. Field mapping reveals thousands of small-scale clastic injectite pipes (10 cm to 10 m diameter, up to 20 m tall) in extremely high densities (up to 500+ pipes per 0.075 square kilometers). The pipes weather out in positive relief from the surrounding host strata of massive sandstone (sabkha) and crossbedded sands with minor conglomerate and shale (fluvial) deposits. The host rock shows both brittle and ductile deformation. Reverse, normal, and antithetical faulting is common with increased frequency, including ring faults, surrounding the pipes. The pipes formed from liquefaction and subsequent fluidization induced by strong ground motion. Down-dropped, graben blocks and ring faults surrounding pipes indicate initial sediment volume increase during pipe emplacement followed by sediment volume decrease during dewatering. Complex crosscutting relationships indicate several injection events where some pipe events reached the surface as sand blows. Multiple ash layers provide excellent stratigraphic and temporal constraints for the pipe system with the host strata deposited between 166 and 164 Ma. Common volcanic fragments and rounded volcanic cobbles occur within sandstone and conglomerate beds, and pipes. Isolated volcanic clasts in massive sandstone indicate explosive volcanic events that could have been the exogenic trigger for earthquakes. The distribution of pipes are roughly parallel to the Middle Jurassic paleoshoreline located in marginal environments between the shallow epicontinental Sundance Sea and continental dryland. At the vertical stratigraphic facies change from dominantly fluvial sediments to dominantly massive sabkha sediments, there is a 1-2 m-thick floodplain mudstone that was a likely seal for underlying, overpressurized sediments. The combination of loose porous sediment at a critical depth of water

  18. On development and improvement of evaluation techniques for strong ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Hideaki; Wu, Changjiang; Kobayashi, Genyu; Mamada, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    The NSC regulatory guide for reviewing seismic design, revised in September 2006 requires revision of evaluation method for design seismic ground motion. The new design seismic ground motion must be evaluated based on not only response spectra method but also fault model method. In the case of evaluation method using fault model, factors which affect ground motion (heterogeneous fault rupture, frequency dependence of radiation pattern on seismic waves and high-frequency reduction on observed spectrum (fmax)) were studied in order to apply the models to actual phenomenon. In the case of response spectra, attenuation relationships for earthquake response spectra on seismic basement, considering the earthquake source types (e.g. inter-plate, intra-plate and crustal types), were developed. In addition, in coping with the problems on evaluating ground motion amplification and attenuation in deep underground, JNES drills 3000 m deep boring and acquires the data for verification of new evaluation methods at deep borehole locating on sedimentary rock site in the Niigata Institute of Technology. Moreover JNES develops borehole seismometer enduring high temperature and high pressure and enabling multi-depth seismic observation system to perform vertical seismic array observation. (author)

  19. Procedure to predict the storey where plastic drift dominates in two-storey building under strong ground motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hibino, Y.; Ichinose, T.; Costa, J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    A procedure is presented to predict the storey where plastic drift dominates in two-storey buildings under strong ground motion. The procedure utilizes the yield strength and the mass of each storey as well as the peak ground acceleration. The procedure is based on two different assumptions: (1......) the seismic force distribution is of inverted triangular form and (2) the rigid-plastic model represents the system. The first and the second assumptions, respectively, lead to lower and upper estimates of the base shear coefficient under which the drift of the first storey exceeds that of the second storey...

  20. Density-matrix-functional calculations for matter in strong magnetic fields: Ground states of heavy atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Yngvason, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    We report on a numerical study of the density matrix functional introduced by Lieb, Solovej, and Yngvason for the investigation of heavy atoms in high magnetic fields. This functional describes exactly the quantum mechanical ground state of atoms and ions in the limit when the nuclear charge Z...... and the electron number N tend to infinity with N/Z fixed, and the magnetic field B tends to infinity in such a way that B/Z4/3→∞. We have calculated electronic density profiles and ground-state energies for values of the parameters that prevail on neutron star surfaces and compared them with results obtained...... by other methods. For iron at B=1012 G the ground-state energy differs by less than 2% from the Hartree-Fock value. We have also studied the maximal negative ionization of heavy atoms in this model at various field strengths. In contrast to Thomas-Fermi type theories atoms can bind excess negative charge...

  1. Probabilistic seismic assessment of base-isolated NPPs subjected to strong ground motions of Tohoku earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmer; Hayah, Nadin Abu; Kim, Doo Kie [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Gook [R and D Center, JACE KOREA Company, Gyeonggido (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The probabilistic seismic performance of a standard Korean nuclear power plant (NPP) with an idealized isolation is investigated in the present work. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Wolsong site on the Korean peninsula is performed by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA) as an earthquake intensity measure. A procedure is reported on the categorization and selection of two sets of ground motions of the Tohoku earthquake, i.e. long-period and common as Set A and Set B respectively, for the nonlinear time history response analysis of the base-isolated NPP. Limit state values as multiples of the displacement responses of the NPP base isolation are considered for the fragility estimation. The seismic risk of the NPP is further assessed by incorporation of the rate of frequency exceedance and conditional failure probability curves. Furthermore, this framework attempts to show the unacceptable performance of the isolated NPP in terms of the probabilistic distribution and annual probability of limit states. The comparative results for long and common ground motions are discussed to contribute to the future safety of nuclear facilities against drastic events like Tohoku.

  2. PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC ASSESSMENT OF BASE-ISOLATED NPPS SUBJECTED TO STRONG GROUND MOTIONS OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMER ALI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic seismic performance of a standard Korean nuclear power plant (NPP with an idealized isolation is investigated in the present work. A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA of the Wolsong site on the Korean peninsula is performed by considering peak ground acceleration (PGA as an earthquake intensity measure. A procedure is reported on the categorization and selection of two sets of ground motions of the Tohoku earthquake, i.e. long-period and common as Set A and Set B respectively, for the nonlinear time history response analysis of the base-isolated NPP. Limit state values as multiples of the displacement responses of the NPP base isolation are considered for the fragility estimation. The seismic risk of the NPP is further assessed by incorporation of the rate of frequency exceedance and conditional failure probability curves. Furthermore, this framework attempts to show the unacceptable performance of the isolated NPP in terms of the probabilistic distribution and annual probability of limit states. The comparative results for long and common ground motions are discussed to contribute to the future safety of nuclear facilities against drastic events like Tohoku.

  3. Strong ground motion prediction applying dynamic rupture simulations for Beppu-Haneyama Active Fault Zone, southwestern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, M.; Matsushima, S.; Ando, R.; Miyake, H.; Imanishi, K.; Hayashida, T.; Takenaka, H.; Suzuki, H.; Matsuyama, H.

    2017-12-01

    We conducted strong ground motion prediction for the active Beppu-Haneyama Fault zone (BHFZ), Kyushu island, southwestern Japan. Since the BHFZ runs through Oita and Beppy cities, strong ground motion as well as fault displacement may affect much to the cities.We constructed a 3-dimensional velocity structure of a sedimentary basin, Beppu bay basin, where the fault zone runs through and Oita and Beppu cities are located. Minimum shear wave velocity of the 3d model is 500 m/s. Additional 1-d structure is modeled for sites with softer sediment: holocene plain area. We observed, collected, and compiled data obtained from microtremor surveys, ground motion observations, boreholes etc. phase velocity and H/V ratio. Finer structure of the Oita Plain is modeled, as 250m-mesh model, with empirical relation among N-value, lithology, depth and Vs, using borehole data, then validated with the phase velocity data obtained by the dense microtremor array observation (Yoshimi et al., 2016).Synthetic ground motion has been calculated with a hybrid technique composed of a stochastic Green's function method (for HF wave), a 3D finite difference (LF wave) and 1D amplification calculation. Fault geometry has been determined based on reflection surveys and active fault map. The rake angles are calculated with a dynamic rupture simulation considering three fault segments under a stress filed estimated from source mechanism of earthquakes around the faults (Ando et al., JpGU-AGU2017). Fault parameters such as the average stress drop, a size of asperity etc. are determined based on an empirical relation proposed by Irikura and Miyake (2001). As a result, strong ground motion stronger than 100 cm/s is predicted in the hanging wall side of the Oita plain.This work is supported by the Comprehensive Research on the Beppu-Haneyama Fault Zone funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), Japan.

  4. Validation of strong-motion stochastic model using observed ground motion records in north-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipok K. Bora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We focused on validation of applicability of semi-empirical technique (spectral models and stochastic simulation for the estimation of ground-motion characteristics in the northeastern region (NER of India. In the present study, it is assumed that the point source approximation in far field is valid. The one-dimensional stochastic point source seismological model of Boore (1983 (Boore, DM. 1983. Stochastic simulation of high frequency ground motions based on seismological models of the radiated spectra. Bulletin of Seismological Society of America, 73, 1865–1894. is used for modelling the acceleration time histories. Total ground-motion records of 30 earthquakes of magnitudes lying between MW 4.2 and 6.2 in NER India from March 2008 to April 2013 are used for this study. We considered peak ground acceleration (PGA and pseudospectral acceleration (response spectrum amplitudes with 5% damping ratio at three fundamental natural periods, namely: 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 s. The spectral models, which work well for PGA, overestimate the pseudospectral acceleration. It seems that there is a strong influence of local site amplification and crustal attenuation (kappa, which control spectral amplitudes at different frequencies. The results would allow analysing regional peculiarities of ground-motion excitation and propagation and updating seismic hazard assessment, both the probabilistic and deterministic approaches.

  5. Asymptotic dependence of Gross–Tulub polaron ground-state energy in the strong coupling region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Kashirina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of translationally invariant polaron functional have been investigated in the region of strong and extremely strong coupling. It has been shown that the Gross–Tulub polaron functional obtained earlier using the methods of field theory was derived only for the region , where is the Fröhlich constant of the electron-phonon coupling. Various representations of exact and approximate polaron functionals have been considered. Asymptotic dependences of the polaron energy have been obtained using a functional extending the Gross–Tulub functional to the region of extremely strong coupling. The asymptotic dependence of polaron energies for an extremely strong coupling are (for the one-parameter variational function fk, and (for a two-parameter function . It has been shown that the virial theorem 1:3:4 holds for the two-parameter function . Minimization of the approximate functional obtained by expanding the exact Gross–Tulub functional in a series on leads to a quadratic dependence of the polaron energy. This approximation is justified for . For a two-parameter function , the corresponding dependence has the form . However, the use of approximate functionals, in contrast to the strict variational procedure, when the exact polaron functional varies, does not guarantee obtaining the upper limit for the polaron energy.

  6. Estimation of the 2010 Mentawai tsunami earthquake rupture process from joint inversion of teleseismic and strong ground motion data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Joint inversion of teleseismic body-wave data and strong ground motion waveforms was applied to determine the rupture process of the 2010 Mentawai earthquake. To obtain stable solutions, smoothing and non-negative constraints were introduced. A total of 33 teleseismic stations and 5 strong ground motion stations supplied data. The teleseismic and strong ground motion data were separately windowed for 150 s and 250 s and band-pass filtered with frequencies of 0.001–1.0 Hz and 0.005–0.5 Hz, respectively. The finite-fault model was established with length and width of 190 km and 70 km, and the initial seismic source parameters were set by referring to centroid moment tensor (CMT solutions. Joint inversion results indicate that the focal mechanism of this earthquake is thrust fault type, and the strike, dip, and rake angles are generally in accordance with CMT results. The seismic moment was determined as 5.814 × 1020 Nm (Mw7.8 and source duration was about 102 s, which is greater than those of other earthquakes of similar magnitude. The rupture nucleated near the hypocenter and then propagated along the strike direction to the northwest, with a maximum slip of 3.9 m. Large uncertainties regarding the amount of slip retrieved using different inversion methods still exist; however, the conclusion that the majority of slip occurred far from the islands at very shallow depths was found to be robust. The 2010 Mentawai earthquake was categorized as a tsunami earthquake because of the long rupture duration and the generation of a tsunami much larger than was expected for an earthquake of its magnitude.

  7. Final report on repair procedure of strong ground motion data from underground nuclear tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnell, T.W.

    1995-04-01

    Certain difficulties arise when recording close-in around motion from underground nuclear explosions. Data quality can be compromised by a variety of factors, including electromagnetic pulse, noise spikes, direct current effect, and gauge clipping and gauge tilt. From March 1988 through September 1994, EG&G Energy Measurements repaired strong round-motion data (acceleration data) from underground nuclear tests for the Los Alamos National Laboratory using, an automated repair procedure. The automated repair determined and implemented the required repairs based on user input and a consistent set of criteria. A log was kept of each repair so that the repair procedure could be duplicated. This relaxed the requirement to save the repaired data. Developed for the VAX system, the procedure allowed the user to stack up a large number of repairs, plot the repaired data, and obtain hard copies. The plotted data could then be reviewed for a given test to determine the consistency of repair for a given underground test. This feature released the user to perform other tasks while the data were being repaired.

  8. Using a Full Complex Site Transfer Function to Estimate Strong Ground Motion in Port-au-Prince (Haiti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ST Fleur, S.; Courboulex, F.; Bertrand, E.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Hough, S. E.; Boisson, D.; Momplaisir, R.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the possible impact of a future earthquake in the urban area of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), we have implemented a simulation approach for complex ground motions produced by an earthquake. To this end, we have integrated local site effect in the prediction of strong ground motions in Port-au-Prince using the complex transfer functions method, which takes into account amplitude changes as well as phase changes. This technique is particularly suitable for basins where a conventional 1D digital approach proves inadequate, as is the case in Port-au-Prince. To do this, we use the results of the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) approach of St Fleur et al. (2016) to estimate the amplitude of the response of the site to a nearby rock site. Then, we determine the phase difference between sites, interpreted as changes in the phase of the signal related to local site conditions, using the signals of the 2010 earthquake aftershocks records. Finally, the accelerogram of the simulated earthquake is obtain using the technique of the inverse Fourier transform. The results of this study showed that the strongest soil motions are expected in neighborhoods of downtown Port-au-Prince and adjacent hills. In addition, this simulation method by complex transfer functions was validated by comparison with recorded actual data. Our simulated response spectra reproduce very well both the amplitude and the shape of the response spectra of recorded earthquakes. This new approach allowed to reproduce the lengthening of the signal that could be generated by surface waves at certain stations in the city of Port-au-Prince. However, two points of vigilance must be considered: (1) a good signal-to-noise ratio is necessary to obtain a robust estimate of the site-reference phase shift (ratio at least equal to 10); (2) unless the amplitude and phase changes are measured on strong motion records, this technique does not take non-linear effects into account.

  9. Strong ground motion in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, during the M7.0 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Susan E; Given, Doug; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Altidor, J.R.; Anglade, Dieuseul; Mildor, S-L.

    2011-01-01

    No strong motion records are available for the 12 January 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake. We use aftershock recordings as well as detailed considerations of damage to estimate the severity and distribution of mainshock shaking in Port-au-Prince. Relative to ground motions at a hard - rock reference site, peak accelerations are amplified by a factor of approximately 2 at sites on low-lying deposits in central Port-au-Prince and by a factor of 2.5 - 3.5 on a steep foothill ridge in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. The observed amplification along the ridge cannot be explained by sediment - induced amplification , but is consistent with predicted topographic amplification by a steep, narrow ridge. Although damage was largely a consequence of poor construction , the damage pattern inferred from analysis of remote sensing imagery provides evidence for a correspondence between small-scale (0.1 - 1.0 km) topographic relief and high damage. Mainshock shaking intensity can be estimated crudely from a consideration of macroseismic effects . We further present detailed, quantitative analysis of the marks left on a tile floor by an industrial battery rack displaced during the mainshock, at the location where we observed the highest weak motion amplifications. Results of this analysis indicate that mainshock shaking was significantly higher at this location (~0.5 g , MMI VIII) relative to the shaking in parts of Port-au-Prince that experienced light damage. Our results further illustrate how observations of rigid body horizontal displacement during earthquakes can be used to estimate peak ground accelerations in the absence of instrumental data .

  10. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia

    2015-09-01

    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A PHYSICAL MODEL OF THE EFFECT OF A SHALLOW WEAK LAYER ON STRONG GROUND MOTION FOR STRIKE-SLIP RUPTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAMES N. BRUNE AND ABDOLRASOOL ANOOSHEHPOOR

    1998-02-23

    We report results of foam-rubber modeling of the effect of a shallow weak layer on ground motion from strike-slip ruptures. Computer modeling of strong ground motion from strike-slip earthquakes has involved somewhat arbitrary assumptions about the nature of slip along the shallow part of the fault (e.g., fixing the slip to be zero along the upper 2 kilometers of the fault plane) in order to match certain strong motion accelerograms. Most modeling studies of earthquake strong ground motion have used what is termed kinematic dislocation modeling. In kinematic modeling the time function for slip on the fault is prescribed, and the response of the layered medium is calculated. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that the model and the prescribed slip are physically reasonable unless the true nature of the medium and its motions are known ahead of time. There is good reason to believe that in many cases faults are weak along the upper few kilometers of the fault zone and may not be able to maintain high levels of shear strain required for high dynamic energy release during earthquakes. Physical models of faulting, as distinct from numerical or mathematical models, are guaranteed to obey static and dynamic mechanical laws. Foam-rubber modeling studies have been reported in a number of publications. The object of this paper is to present results of physical modeling using a shallow weak layer, in order to verify the physical basis for assuming a long rise time and a reduced high frequency pulse for the slip on the shallow part of faults. It appears a 2-kilometer deep, weak zone along strike-slip faults could indeed reduce the high frequency energy radiated from shallow slip, and that this effect can best be represented by superimposing a small amplitude, short rise-time pulse at the onset of a much longer rise-time slip. A weak zone was modeled by inserting weak plastic layers of a few inches in thickness into the foam rubber model. For the 15 cm weak zone the average

  12. Ground characteristics at observation site of strong motion in Hachinohe Inst. Tech. Hachinohe, Aomori; Hachinohe Kodai konai ni secchishita kyoshin kansokuten no jiban tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakajiri, N. [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    Discussions were given on ground structures in the city of Hachinohe and vibration characteristics of the grounds during earthquakes. In order to identify ground structures and vibration characteristics thereof in the city of Hachinohe, strong motion seismographs were installed in five locations of the city and in the Tohoku University. At the Hachinohe Institute of Technology, strong motion seismographs were installed underground (-65 m) and on the ground, where S-wave logging experiments were performed using the plank hammering method. The records therefrom were used to estimate Q values, and the Q values were used to compare the computed ground amplification characteristics with the spectral ratio of seismic waves in and on the ground. The analysis has conducted the Q value estimation on each bed from a depth greater than 4 m, whereas relatively reasonable values were derived only from sections from 4 m to 13 m, and other sections showed no stable values. According to the result of observations derived from the seismographs installed in and on the ground, the maximum amplitude of the ground surface seismograph was found about five times greater than that of underground in the NS components, about eight times in the EW components, and about six times in vertical movements. The result indicates that the amplitude is obviously affected greatly by the characteristics of the ground. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Steel Moment-Resisting Frame Responses in Simulated Strong Ground Motions: or How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Big One

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This thesis studies the response of steel moment-resisting frame buildings in simulated strong ground motions. I collect 37 simulations of crustal earthquakes in California. These ground motions are applied to nonlinear finite element models of four types of steel moment frame buildings: six- or twenty-stories with either a stiffer, higherstrength design or a more flexible, lower-strength design. I also consider the presence of fracture-prone welds in each design. Since these b...

  14. Unusual strong quasi-monochromatic ground Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations in the recovery phase of November 2003 superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kleimenova

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Unusually large-amplitude morning Pc5 magnetic pulsations during the recovery phase of the huge magnetic storm in November 2003 have been studied by using ground-based multi-point observations. Two main spectral Pc5 enhancements were observed: at f≈2 mHz, which featured slowly increasing frequency with decreasing latitude, and at f≈3 mHz, which was latitude independent. The Pc5 pulsations were observed at wide range of latitudes (more than 10° with the same very strong amplitude (up to 500nT and with the same polarization. Only the 3-mHz peak was clearly seen in the spectra of pulsating auroral radio absorption, as observed by the Finnish riometer chain. Short and localized bursts of PiB (f~50–100 mHz magnetic pulsations and simultaneous short bursts of energetic electron precipitation were observed in the morning sector, as well. The beginning of the large-amplitude morning Pc5 activity occurred simultaneously with a substorm onset in the evening and midnight sectors. However, the spectra of pulsations in the morning and evening sectors were different. They were compared with spectra of IMF and solar wind parameters, measured by ACE spacecraft. The similarity between the spectra of morning Pc5 and IMF By was found, but the spectra of evening Pi3 pulsations were similar to the spectra of solar wind density variations. The Pc5 and PiB pulsations, as well as bursts of the auroral radio absorption, suddenly disappeared, when the solar wind density abruptly dropped. We suppose that the ~2-mHz Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations could be attributed to field line resonance (FLR, however, the 3-mHz oscillations were apparently non-resonance origin. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; Solar wind-magnetosphere interaction; Storms and substorms

  15. Unusual strong quasi-monochromatic ground Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations in the recovery phase of November 2003 superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kleimenova

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Unusually large-amplitude morning Pc5 magnetic pulsations during the recovery phase of the huge magnetic storm in November 2003 have been studied by using ground-based multi-point observations. Two main spectral Pc5 enhancements were observed: at f≈2 mHz, which featured slowly increasing frequency with decreasing latitude, and at f≈3 mHz, which was latitude independent. The Pc5 pulsations were observed at wide range of latitudes (more than 10° with the same very strong amplitude (up to 500nT and with the same polarization. Only the 3-mHz peak was clearly seen in the spectra of pulsating auroral radio absorption, as observed by the Finnish riometer chain. Short and localized bursts of PiB (f~50–100 mHz magnetic pulsations and simultaneous short bursts of energetic electron precipitation were observed in the morning sector, as well. The beginning of the large-amplitude morning Pc5 activity occurred simultaneously with a substorm onset in the evening and midnight sectors. However, the spectra of pulsations in the morning and evening sectors were different. They were compared with spectra of IMF and solar wind parameters, measured by ACE spacecraft. The similarity between the spectra of morning Pc5 and IMF By was found, but the spectra of evening Pi3 pulsations were similar to the spectra of solar wind density variations. The Pc5 and PiB pulsations, as well as bursts of the auroral radio absorption, suddenly disappeared, when the solar wind density abruptly dropped. We suppose that the ~2-mHz Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations could be attributed to field line resonance (FLR, however, the 3-mHz oscillations were apparently non-resonance origin.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; Solar wind-magnetosphere interaction; Storms and substorms

  16. Overview of the relations earthquake source parameters and the specification of strong ground motion for design purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.

    1977-08-01

    One of the most important steps in the seismic design process is the specification of the appropriate ground motion to be input into the design analysis. From the point-of-view of engineering design analysis, the important parameters are peak ground acceleration, spectral shape and peak spectral levels. In a few cases, ground displacement is a useful parameter. The earthquake is usually specified by giving its magnitude and either the epicentral distance or the distance of the closest point on the causitive fault to the site. Typically, the appropriate ground motion parameters are obtained using the specified magnitude and distance in equations obtained from regression analysis among the appropriate variables. Two major difficulties with such an approach are: magnitude is not the best parameter to use to define the strength of an earthquake, and little near-field data is available to establish the appropriate form for the attenuation of the ground motion with distance, source size and strength. These difficulties are important for designing a critical facility; i.e., one for which a very low risk of exceeding the design ground motion is required. Examples of such structures are nuclear power plants, schools and hospitals. for such facilities, a better understanding of the relation between the ground motion and the important earthquake source parameters could be very useful for several reasons

  17. Microtremor Array Measurement Survey and Strong Ground Motion observation activities of The SATREPS, MarDiM project -Part 3-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Seckin; Safa Arslan, Mehmet; Karagoz, Ozlem; Chimoto, Kosuke; Ozel, Oguz; Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Behiye Aksahin, Bengi; Hatayama, Ken; Sahin, Abdurrahman; Ohori, Michihiro; Safak, Erdal; Hori, Muneo

    2017-04-01

    Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured North Anatolian Fault (NAF) westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.4) and the Duzce (Ms=7.2) earthquakes in the eastern Marmara region, Turkey. On the other hand, the west of the Sea of Marmara an Mw7.4 earthquake ruptured the NAF' s Ganos segment in 1912. The only un-ruptured segments of the NAF in the last century are within the Sea of Marmara, and are identified as a "seismic gap" zone that its rupture may cause a devastating earthquake. In order to unravel the seismic risks of the Marmara region a comprehensive multidisciplinary research project The MarDiM project "Earthquake And Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in The Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey", has already been started since 2003. The project is conducted in the framework of "Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS)" sponsored by Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). One of the main research field of the project is "Seismic characterization and damage prediction" which aims to improve the prediction accuracy of the estimation of the damages induced by strong ground motions and tsunamis based on reliable source parameters, detailed deep and shallow velocity structure and building data. As for detailed deep and shallow velocity structure microtremor array measurement surveys were conducted in Zeytinburnu district of Istanbul, Tekirdag, Canakkale and Edirne provinces at about 140 sites on October 2013, September 2014, 2015 and 2016. Also in September 2014, 11 accelerometer units were installed mainly in public buildings in both Zeytinburnu and Tekirdag area and are currently in operation. Each accelerometer unit compose of a Network Sensor (CV-374A) by Tokyo Sokushin, post processing PC for data storage and power supply unit. The Network Sensor

  18. Stochastic strong ground motion simulations for the intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kkallas, Harris; Papazachos, Konstantinos; Boore, David; Margaris, Vasilis

    2015-04-01

    We have employed the stochastic finite-fault modelling approach of Motazedian and Atkinson (2005), as described by Boore (2009), for the simulation of Fourier spectra of the Intermediate-depth earthquakes of the south Aegean subduction zone. The stochastic finite-fault method is a practical tool for simulating ground motions of future earthquakes which requires region-specific source, path and site characterizations as input model parameters. For this reason we have used data from both acceleration-sensor and broadband velocity-sensor instruments from intermediate-depth earthquakes with magnitude of M 4.5-6.7 that occurred in the south Aegean subduction zone. Source mechanisms for intermediate-depth events of north Aegean subduction zone are either collected from published information or are constrained using the main faulting types from Kkallas et al. (2013). The attenuation parameters for simulations were adopted from Skarladoudis et al. (2013) and are based on regression analysis of a response spectra database. The site amplification functions for each soil class were adopted from Klimis et al., (1999), while the kappa values were constrained from the analysis of the EGELADOS network data from Ventouzi et al., (2013). The investigation of stress-drop values was based on simulations performed with the EXSIM code for several ranges of stress drop values and by comparing the results with the available Fourier spectra of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Significant differences regarding the strong-motion duration, which is determined from Husid plots (Husid, 1969), have been identified between the for-arc and along-arc stations due to the effect of the low-velocity/low-Q mantle wedge on the seismic wave propagation. In order to estimate appropriate values for the duration of P-waves, we have automatically picked P-S durations on the available seismograms. For the S-wave durations we have used the part of the seismograms starting from the S-arrivals and ending at the

  19. Strong ground motion data from the 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho earthquake recorded at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, S.M.; Boatwright, J.

    1985-01-01

    The 1983 Borah Peak, Idaho Earthquake was the largest normal faulting event to occur in the last 20 years. There were no near-field recordings of ground motion during the main shock, however, thirteen accelerographs in a permanent array at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) recorded the event at epicentral distances of 90-110 km. Peak horizontal accelerations (PGA) recorded at accelerographs above ground-floor level range from 0.037 to 0.187 g. Accelerographs at basement and free-field sites recorded as low as 0.022 g and as high as 0.078 g. Peak vertical accelerations range from 0.016 g ground level to 0.059 g above ground floor level. A temporary array of digital seismographs deployed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in the epicentral area recorded ground motion from six large aftershocks at epicentral distances of 4-45 km; the largest of these aftershocks also triggered four accelerographs in the INEL array. Two separate analyses were used to estimate near-field ground motion. The first analysis uses the attenuation of the aftershock PGA measurements to extrapolate the INEL main shock PGA measurements into the near-field. This estimates an upper limit of 0.8 g for near-field ground motion. In the second analysis, a set of main shock accelerograms were synthesized. Wave propagation effects were determined from aftershock recordings at one of the USGS portable stations and an INEL seismograph station. These effects were removed from one of the INEL main shock acceleration traces. The synthetic accelerograms were derived for a hypothetical station southwest of Mackay, Idaho. The PGA measured from the synthetic accelerograms were 0.08, 0.14, 0.15, 0.23 g. These estimates correlate well with ground motion expected for an area of Intensity VII. 12 references, 8 figures, 1 table

  20. Shake Warning: Helping People Stay Safe With Lots of Small Boxes in the Ground to Warn Them About Strong Shaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusch, M.

    2017-12-01

    A group of people at schools are joining with the group of people in control of making pictures of the state of rocks on the ground and water in our land. They are working on a plan to help all people be safe in the case of very big ground shaking (when ground breaks in sight or under ground). They will put many small boxes all over the states in the direction of where the sun sets to look for the first shake that might be a sign of an even bigger shake to come. They tell a big computer (with much power) in several large cities in those states. These computers will decide if the first shake is a sign of a very large and close ground shake, a far-away ground shake, a small but close ground shake, or even just a sign of a shake that people wanted to make. If it is a sign of a close and really big shake, then the computers will tell the phones and computers of many people to help them take safe steps before the big shaking arrives where they are. This warning might be several seconds or maybe a couple of minutes. People will be able to hide, take cover, and hold on under tables and desks in case things fall from walls and places up high in their home and work. Doctors will be able to pause hard work and boxes that move people up and down in homes, businesses, and stores will be able to stop on the next floor and open their doors to let people out and not get stuck. It will help slow down trains to be safe and not fly off of the track as well as it will help to shut off water and air that warms homes and is used for when you make food hot. To make this plan become real, people who work for these groups are putting more small boxes in areas where there are not enough and that there are many people. They are also putting small boxes in places where there are no boxes but the big shake might come from that direction. There are problems to get past such as needing many more small boxes, more people to help with this plan, and getting all people who live in these areas to

  1. Behavior of peak values and spectral ordinates of near-source strong ground motion over the smart 1 array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niazi, M.

    1990-06-01

    The array recordings are used to investigate several important properties of the seismic ground motions themselves. The results reported here address the question of the variability of the peak vertical and horizontal accelerations, velocities and displacements. Statistical treatment of the variability is feasible when ground motions are recorded, as in SMART 1, at a group of stations within a limited distance. The three rings of the SMART 1 array have radii of 200 m, 1 km and 2 km. Since it became operational in September 1980, it has recorded accelerations up to 0.33g and 0.34g on the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. At present there are over 3,000 accelerograms from 53 local earthquakes available. From the set of observations, 12 earthquakes have been selected providing more than 700 accelerograms for analysis and statistical treatment. Nonlinear regression procedure are used to fit the peak values to an attenuation form which has as parameters, earthquake magnitude and source-to-site distance. Spectral information on ground motion is included; correlations are made between spectral ordinate values at 23 discrete frequencies in the range of engineering interest. Among the notable results is the finding that the ratio of the vertical to horizontal response spectral ordinates is less than the often used value of 2/3 for periods longer than about 0.2 second, and also for all frequencies at distances greater than 30 km from the source.

  2. Investigation for Strong Ground Shaking across the Taipei Basin during the MW 7.0 Eastern Taiwan Offshore Earthquake of 31 March 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ling Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to reconstructed ground motion snapshots of the northern Taiwan area during the MW 7.0 eastern Taiwan offshore earthquake of 31 March 2002, the composite effects indicated complicated wave propagation behavior in the ground motion of the Taipei basin. A major low frequency pulse arose after the S-wave with the duration of about 20 seconds was observed in northern Taiwan and dominated the radial direction. Observed waveforms of a low frequency pulse show amplification during the seismic wave across the Taipei basin from its eastern edge to western portion. This effect has been considered to be generated by an unusual source radiation, deep Moho reflection or basin bottom surface. In this study, recorded ground motions from a dense seismic network were analyzed using a frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis for seismic wave propagation properties. We investigated temporal and spatial variations in strong shaking in different frequency bands. Results show that a simple pulse incident seismic wave strongly interacts with inside soft sediments and the surrounding topography of the Taipei basin which in turn extends its shaking duration. Evidence showed that seismic waves have been reflected back from its western boundary of basin with a dominant frequency near one Hz. Findings in this study have been rarely reported and may provide useful information to further constrain a three-dimensional numerical simulation for the basin response and velocity structure, and to predict ground motions of further large earthquakes.

  3. A comparative study of a stochastic and deterministic simulation of strong ground motion applied to the Kozani-Grevena (NW Greece 1995 sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Papaioannou

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a comparative study of two intrinsically different methodologies, a stochastic one and a deterministic one, performed to simulate strong ground motion in the Kozani area (NW Greece. Source parameters were calculated from empirical relations in order to check their reliability, in combination with the applied methodologies, to simulate future events. Strong ground motion from the Kozani mainshock (13 May, 1995, M w = 6.5 was synthesized by using both the stochastic method for finite-fault cases and the empirical Green’s function method. The latter method was also applied to simulate a Mw = 5.1 aftershock (19 May, 1995. The results of the two simulations computed for the mainshock are quite satisfactory for both methodologies at the frequencies of engineering interest (> ~ 2 Hz. This strengthens the idea of incorporating proper empirical relations for the estimation of source parameters in a priori simulations of strong ground motion from future earthquakes. Nevertheless, the results of the simulation of the smaller earthquake point out the need for further investigation of regional or local, if possible, relations for estimating source parameters at smaller magnitude ranges

  4. Strong lateral variation of ground temperature revealed by a large network of boreholes in the Slave Geological Province of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Stephan; Riddick, Julia; Brown, Nick; Karunaratne, Kumari; Kokelj, Steve V.

    2017-04-01

    The Slave Geological Province is a key region in the Canadian North. Its tundra areas form a large and resource-rich landscape in which comparably few systematic permafrost observations exist. Because the region contains layers of ice-rich till, the ground is susceptible to subsidence during thaw. Consequently, possible impacts of permafrost thawing on infrastructure and the natural environment motivate baseline investigations and simulation studies. In this context, the spatial variation of ground temperatures is relevant: How well can we extrapolate from one or few locations of observation? How well can we describe permafrost characteristics with coarse-grid (e.g., 50 km) models assuming relatively homogenous conditions? In July 2015, an observation network of more than 40 plots was installed to monitor ground thermal regime and to detect surface subsidence. Plots are within few tens of meters to few tens of kilometers from each other and were chosen to represent a distinct combination of surficial geology, vegetation, drainage conditions, and snow accumulation. In each plot (15 m x 15 m), temperatures are recorded in a borehole as well as about 10 cm deep at four locations. Data on surface and subsurface properties has been recorded as well. In September 2016, data was downloaded from the loggers and the conditions of the instruments were described. This contribution presents the first year of temperature data. In the annual averages, it reveals more than 7°C lateral variation between plots as well as within-plot variations of more than 2.5°C. This underscores the need for carefully designing measurement campaigns and methods when aiming to test coarse-scale permafrost simulations, even in gentle topography. The data resulting from this observational network will be made available publicly in the near future.

  5. Broadband Strong Ground Motion Simulation For a Potential Mw 7.1 Earthquake on The Enriquillo Fault in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Mavroeidis, G. P.; Calais, E.

    2015-12-01

    The devastating 2010 Haiti earthquake showed the need to be more vigilant toward mitigation for future earthquakes in the region. Previous studies have shown that this earthquake did not occur on the Enriquillo Fault, the main plate boundary fault running through the heavily populated Port-au-Prince region, but on the nearby and previously unknown Léogâne transpressional fault. Slip on that fault has increased stresses on the Enriquillo Fault mostly in the region closer to Port-au-Prince, the most populated city of the country. Here we investigate the ground shaking level in this region if a rupture similar to the Mw 7.0 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on the Enriquillo fault. We use a finite element method and assumptions on regional stress to simulate low frequency dynamic rupture propagation for a 53 km long segment. We introduce some heterogeneity by creating two slip patches with shear traction 10% greater than the initial shear traction on the fault. The final slip distribution is similar in distribution and magnitude to previous finite fault inversions for the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The high-frequency ground motion components are calculated using the specific barrier model, and the hybrid synthetics are obtained by combining the low-frequencies (f 1Hz) from the stochastic simulation using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The average horizontal peak ground acceleration, computed at several sites of interest through Port-au-Prince, has a value of 0.35g. We also compute response spectra at those sites and compare them to the spectra from the microzonation study.

  6. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouse, C.B.; Hileman, J.A.; Turner, B.E.; Martin, G.R.

    1980-09-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications. (author)

  7. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges: 1996 - 2003 and Strong Ground Motion Systhesis Along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Foxall, W; Kasameyer, P; larsen, S; Hayek, C; Tyler-Turpin, C; Aquilino, J; Long, L

    2005-04-22

    As a result of collaboration between the Berkeley Seismographic Station, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Caltrans, instrument packages have been placed in bedrock in six boreholes and two surface sites along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge. Since 1996 over 200 local earthquakes have been recorded. Prior to this study few seismic recording instruments existed in bed-rock in San Francisco Bay. We utilized the data to perform analysis of ground motion variability, wave passage, site response, and up-and down-hole wave propagation along the Bay Bridge. We also synthesized strong ground motion at nine locations along the Bay Bridge. Key to these studies is LLNL's effort to exploit the information available in weak ground motions (generally from earthquakes < M=4.0) to enhance predictions of seismic hazards. We found that Yerba Island has no apparent site response at the surface relative to a borehole site. The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method best revealed no site response, while the complex signal spectral ratio method had the lowest variance for spectral ratios and best predicted surface recordings when the borehole recording was used as input. Both methods identified resonances at about the same frequencies. Regional attenuation results in a significant loss of high frequencies in both surface and borehole recordings. Records are band limited at near 3 Hz. Therefore a traditional rock outcrop site response, flat to high frequency in displacement, is not available. We applied a methodology to predict and synthesize strong ground motion along the San Francisco/Oakland Bay Bridge from a M=7.25 earthquake along the Hayward fault, about12 km distant. We synthesized for three-components and broad-band (0.0-25.0 Hz) ground motion accelerations, velocities, and displacements. We examined two different possible rupture scenarios, a ''mean'' and ''one standard deviation'' model. We combined the high

  8. Measurement of the strong-interaction shift and broadening of the ground state of the panti p atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Duch, K.D.; Heel, M.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kayser, F.; Klempt, E.; Rieger, R.; Schreiber, O.; Straumann, U.; Weidenauer, P.; Ahmad, S.; Comyn, M.; Armenteros, R.; Bailey, D.; Barlag, S.; Gastaldi, U.; Landua, R.; Auld, E.G.; Axen, D.A.; Erdman, K.L.; Howard, B.; Howard, R.; White, B.L.; Beer, G.A.; Marshall, G.M.; Robertson, L.P.; Bizot, J.C.; Delcourt, B.; Jeanjean, J.; Nguyen, H.; Dahme, W.; Feld-Dahme, F.; Schaefer, U.; Wodrich, W.R.; Prevot, N.; Sabev, C.

    1988-01-01

    The K α X-rays from panti p atoms formed in H 2 gas at normal temperature and pressure are unambiguously identified by coincidences with L X-rays populating the 2P level. Background due to inner bremsstrahlung is suppressed by selecting events annihilating into neutral final states only. The K α line is observed with a significance of more than 25 standard deviations at an energy of 8.67(15) keV. From fits to the K α line we obtain a strong-interaction shift and width of the 1S level, averaged over the unresolved spin singlet and triplet contributions, of ΔE + iΓ/2 = [-0.70(15) + i0.80(2)] keV. (orig.)

  9. Estimation of strong ground motion in broad-frequency band based on a seismic source scaling model and an empirical Green's function technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kamae

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalized method for simulating strong ground motion from large earthquakes by summing subevent records to follow the ?2 law. The original idea of the method is based on a constant stress parameter between the target event and the subevent. It is applicable to a case where both events have a different stress drop after some manipulation. However, the simulation for a very large earthquake from a small event with this method has inevitably some deficiencies of spectral amplitudes in the intermediate frequency range deviating f`rom the ?2 model, although the high and low frequency motions match the scaling. We improve the simulation algorithm so as not to make spectral sags, introducing self-similar distribution of subfaults with different sizes in the fault plane, so-called fractal composite faulting model. We show successful simulations for intermediate-sized earthquakes (MJMA = 5.0, 6.0 and 6.1, the large aftershocks of the 1983 Akita-Oki earthquake. using the records of smaller aftershocks (MJMA = 3.9 and 5.0 as an empirical Green's function. Further, we attempted to estimate strong ground motion for the 1946 Nankai earthquake with Mw 8.2, using the records of a MJMA 5.1 earthquake occurring near the source region of the mainshock. We found that strong ground motions simulated for the fractal composite faulting model with two asperities radiating significantly high frequency motions matched well the observed data such as the near-field displacement record, the source spectrum estimated from the teleseismic record, and the seismic intensity distribution during the 1946 Nankai earthquake.

  10. Source process of the MW7.8 2016 Kaikoura earthquake in New Zealand and the characteristics of the near-fault strong ground motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, L.; Zang, Y.; Zhou, L.; Han, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The MW7.8 New Zealand earthquake of 2016 occurred near the Kaikoura area in the South Island, New Zealand with the epicenter of 173.13°E and 42.78°S. The MW7.8 Kaikoura earthquake occurred on the transform boundary faults between the Pacific plate and the Australian plate and with the thrust focal mechanism solution. The Kaikoura earthquake is a complex event because the significant difference, especially between the magnitude, seismic moment, radiated energy and the casualties. Only two people were killed, and twenty people injured and no more than twenty buildings are destroyed during this earthquake, the damage level is not so severe in consideration about the huge magnitude. We analyzed the rupture process according to the source parameters, it can be confirmed that the radiated energy and the apparent stress of the Kaikoura earthquake are small and minor. The results indicate a frictional overshoot behavior in the dynamic source process of Kaikoura earthquake, which is actually with sufficient rupture and more affluent moderate aftershocks. It is also found that the observed horizontal Peak Ground Acceleration of the strong ground motion is generally small comparing with the Next Generation Attenuation relationship. We further studied the characteristics of the observed horizontal PGAs at the 6 near fault stations, which are located in the area less than 10 km to the main fault. The relatively high level strong ground motion from the 6 stations may be produced by the higher slip around the asperity area rather than the initial rupture position on the main plane. Actually, the huge surface displacement at the northern of the rupture fault plane indicated why aftershocks are concentrated in the north. And there are more damage in Wellington than in Christchurch, even which is near the south of the epicenter. In conclusion, the less damage level of Kaikoura earthquake in New Zealand may probably because of the smaller strong ground motion and the rare

  11. Neighborhood-resources for the development of a strong SOC and the importance of understanding why and how resources work: a grounded theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruca Maass

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing individuals with psychosocial resources such as sense of coherence (SOC seems a beneficial strategy for health promotion in the neighborhood. In order to become a supporting theory for health promotion, Salutogenesis should renew its focus on resources for health, and explore how the development of a strong SOC can be facilitated. Methods Relevant issues were explored using a Grounded Theory- approach. Three focus-group-sessions and three in-depth interviews were conducted with strategically sampled participants. The transcripts of the focus groups were initially analyzed line-by-line to ensure that insights emerged from the data. We then applied focused and systemic analyses to achieve axial coding, and to include insights into how social interactions during focus groups may reveal social processes in real-life-neighborhoods. The data from the in-depth interviews were used to validate and fill emerging categories, as well as to ensure data-saturation. Results Findings indicate the importance of repeated experiences with resources and every-day-challenges to develop a strong SOC. Active engagement with resources is a favorable condition for significant experiences, which enhance the internalization of resources. Core experiences are characterized by a re-organization of resources. Participation in intellectual meaning-making through equal power dialogue seems to broaden perspectives and promote the strengthening of SOC. A strong SOC can also be described as a deeper understanding of how and why resources work, which allows for a more flexible use of resources, including replacing missing resources. Conclusion A new understanding of SOC as an intuitive understanding of how, why and under which circumstances resources work, as well as a new focus on everyday life and repeated experiences might facilitate new approaches to a purposeful strengthening of SOC through the planning and implementation of public measures.

  12. Possible Short-Term Precursors of Strong Crustal Earthquakes in Japan based on Data from the Ground Stations of Vertical Ionospheric Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsunova, L. P.; Khegai, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    We have studied changes in the ionosphere prior to strong crustal earthquakes with magnitudes of M ≥ 6.5 based on the data from the ground-based stations of vertical ionospheric sounding Kokobunji, Akita, and Wakkanai for the period 1968-2004. The data are analyzed based on hourly measurements of the virtual height and frequency parameters of the sporadic E layer and critical frequency of the regular F2 layer over the course of three days prior to the earthquakes. In the studied intervals of time before all earthquakes, anomalous changes were discovered both in the frequency parameters of the Es and F2 ionospheric layers and in the virtual height of the sporadic E layer; the changes were observed on the same day at stations spaced apart by several hundred kilometers. A high degree of correlation is found between the lead-time of these ionospheric anomalies preceding the seismic impact and the magnitude of the subsequent earthquakes. It is concluded that such ionospheric disturbances can be short-term ionospheric precursors of earthquakes.

  13. Rock mass response to strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events and blasting observed at the surface of the excavations in deep level gold mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milev, Alexander; Durrheim, Ray; Ogasawara, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The strong ground motion generated by mining induced seismic events was studied to characterize the rock mass response and to estimate the site effect on the surface of the underground excavations. A stand-alone instruments, especially designed for recording strong ground motions, were installed underground at a number of deep level gold mines in South Africa. The instruments were recording data at the surface of the stope hangingwalls. A maximum value of 3 m/s was measured. Therefore data were compared to the data recorded in the solid rock by the mine seismic networks to determine the site response. The site response was defined as the ratio of the peak ground velocity measured at the surface of the excavations to the peak ground velocity inferred from the mine seismic data measured in the solid rocks. The site response measured at all mines studied was found to be 9 ± 3 times larger on average. A number of simulated rockbursts were conducted underground in order to estimate the rock mass response when subjected to extreme ground motion and derive the attenuation factors in near field. The rockbursts were simulated by means of large blasts detonated in solid rock close to the sidewall of a tunnel. The numerical models used in the design of the simulated rockbursts were calibrated by small blasts taking place at each experimental site. A dense array of shock type accelerometers was installed along the blasting wall to monitor the attenuation of the strong ground motion as a function of the distance from the source. The attenuation of the ground motion was found to be proportional to the distance from the source following R^-1.1 & R^-1.7 for compact rock and R^-3.1 & R^-3.4 for more fractured rock close to the surface of the tunnel. In addition the ground motion was compared to the quasi-static deformations taking place around the underground excavations. The quasi-static deformations were measured by means of strain, tilt and closure. A good correspondence

  14. Simulation of broad-band strong ground motion for a hypothetical Mw 7.1 earthquake on the Enriquillo Fault in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douilly, Roby; Mavroeidis, George P.; Calais, Eric

    2017-10-01

    The devastating 2010 Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake demonstrated the need to improve mitigation and preparedness for future seismic events in the region. Previous studies have shown that the earthquake did not occur on the Enriquillo Fault, the main plate boundary fault running through the heavily populated Port-au-Prince region, but on the nearby and previously unknown transpressional Léogâne Fault. Slip on that fault has increased stresses on the segment of Enriquillo Fault to the east of Léogâne, which terminates in the ˜3-million-inhabitant capital city of Port-au-Prince. In this study, we investigate ground shaking in the vicinity of Port-au-Prince, if a hypothetical rupture similar to the 2010 Haiti earthquake occurred on that segment of the Enriquillo Fault. We use a finite element method and assumptions on regional tectonic stress to simulate the low-frequency ground motion components using dynamic rupture propagation for a 52-km-long segment. We consider eight scenarios by varying parameters such as hypocentre location, initial shear stress and fault dip. The high-frequency ground motion components are simulated using the specific barrier model in the context of the stochastic modeling approach. The broad-band ground motion synthetics are subsequently obtained by combining the low-frequency components from the dynamic rupture simulation with the high-frequency components from the stochastic simulation using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. Results show that rupture on a vertical Enriquillo Fault generates larger horizontal permanent displacements in Léogâne and Port-au-Prince than rupture on a south-dipping Enriquillo Fault. The mean horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA), computed at several sites of interest throughout Port-au-Prince, has a value of ˜0.45 g, whereas the maximum horizontal PGA in Port-au-Prince is ˜0.60 g. Even though we only consider a limited number of rupture scenarios, our results suggest more intense ground

  15. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

    1980-04-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  16. Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.D. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems.

  17. Application of bounding spectra to seismic design of piping based on the performance of above ground piping in power plants subjected to strong motion earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, J.D.

    1995-02-01

    This report extends the potential application of Bounding Spectra evaluation procedures, developed as part of the A-46 Unresolved Safety Issue applicable to seismic verification of in-situ electrical and mechanical equipment, to in-situ safety related piping in nuclear power plants. The report presents a summary of earthquake experience data which define the behavior of typical U.S. power plant piping subject to strong motion earthquakes. The report defines those piping system caveats which would assure the seismic adequacy of the piping systems which meet those caveats and whose seismic demand are within the bounding spectra input. Based on the observed behavior of piping in strong motion earthquakes, the report describes the capabilities of the piping system to carry seismic loads as a function of the type of connection (i.e. threaded versus welded). This report also discusses in some detail the basic causes and mechanisms for earthquake damages and failures to power plant piping systems

  18. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  19. Distribution of strong ground motion from uppermost crustal structure. Comparison with disaster from the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake; Yaya fukai chika kozo no henka ni yoru kyoshindo bunpu. Hyogoken nanbu jishin ni yoru higai bunpu tono hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Z.; Okubo, R. [Kawasaki Geological Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-22

    It was intended to elucidate characteristics of distribution of damages caused by an earthquake which occurs directly below an urban area. Therefore, numerical simulation using the pseudo-spectral method was performed on characteristics of seismic wave propagation in non-homogenous media composed of rock beds and sediment beds, and of seismic wave amplitudes on ground surface. The simulation has utilized information on underground structures disclosed by using the latest physical exploration method. The underground structure model assumed a two-dimensional model hypothesizing presence of upper, middle and lower beds in the Osaka bed group on granite, using as reference the information on S-wave velocity underground structure revealed by the microtremor exploration method. With an objective to elucidate characteristics of distribution of collapse ratio in the area from 8-chome, Okamoto, Higashinada Ward, Kobe City to 2-chome of Sakanasaki Minamicho, as damages suffered from the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake, a simulation has been performed varying the structure model based on the results derived by the microtremor exploration method and the reflection method. As a result, it was shown that the characteristics of the maximum amplitude distribution of displacement of ground surface, velocity and acceleration agree well with those of the collapse ratio distribution, and that the simulation using the pseudo-spectral method is an effective means to analyze the ground surface collapse ratio distribution. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  1. A strong steric hindrance effect on ground state, excited state, and charge separated state properties of a CuI-diimine complex captured by X-ray transient absorption spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, J.; Mara, M.W.; Stickrath, A.B.

    2014-01-01

    Photophysical and structural properties of a CuI diimine complex with very strong steric hindrance, [CuI(dppS)2]+ (dppS = 2,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline disulfonic acid disodium salt), are investigated by optical and X-ray transient absorption (OTA and XTA) spectroscopy. The bulky phenylsulfonic...... dynamics and structures as well as those of the charge separated state resulting from the interfacial electron injection from the MLCT state to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). The OTA results show the absence of the sub-picosecond component previously assigned as the time constant for flattening, while the two...... of metal complex/semiconductor NP hybrids but also provide guidance for designing efficient CuI diimine complexes with optimized structures for application in solar-to-electricity conversion. This journal is...

  2. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  3. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... such campaigns, New Jersey Democrat Linda Stender's and that of Democratic Congressman Jim Himes of Connecticut, who both ran for Congress in 2008. Rasmus Kleis Nielsen examines how American political operatives use "personalized political communication" to engage with the electorate, and weighs the implications...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...

  4. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz

    2016-01-01

    grounded approach to studying differences. This provides an opportunity, for scholars and practitioners, to reassess possible a priori given assumptions, and open up to new explorations beyond conventional identity theorization. Social implications – The paper suggests a need for an empirically grounded...... approach to studying social differences, which would not only create an opportunity to reassess common assumptions but also open up for explorations beyond conventional identity theorizations. Originality/value – The framework departs from traditional (critical) diversity scholarship, as it is process...

  5. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  6. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  7. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  8. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  9. Benjamin's Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Nägele

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin‘s reading of Hölderlin in one of his earliest essays already delineates some of the major constellations of his thought. Searching for the ground of language and of poetic language in particular, Benjamin sets out to lay the ground for the possibility of literary criticism. His text enters into a specific relationship with Hölderlin's theory of poetics and poetic language. The movement of this search leads through a metaphoric relationship of "surface" and "depth" toward an ever-receding ground that can be articulated ultimately only in relation to a non-representable abyss (Abgrund . A new topography of surface and writing emerges and replaces the surface/depth relationship. Both Hölderlin's poetics and Benjamin's criticism develop a model of representation based on a radical rethinking of writing and script, marked by a "cut" or "caesura" as the precondition of representation and of the possibility of any "thing" represented. In the recurring motif of waking up, Benjamin marks the threshold of that caesura and connects it at the same time with a specific trait of modern aesthetics as embodied in Kafka's work.

  10. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  11. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  12. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.

    2002-01-01

    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  13. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...

  14. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  15. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  16. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  17. Stochastic finite-fault modelling of strong earthquakes in Narmada ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stochastic finite fault modelling of strong earthquakes. 839. 1983). It has been widely used to predict the ground motion around the globe where earthquake recordings are scanty. The conventional point source approximation is unable to characterize key features of ground motions from large earthquakes, such as their ...

  18. Spectral confinement and current for atoms in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren

    2007-01-01

    e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B<3......e study confinement of the ground state of atoms in strong magnetic fields to different subspaces related to the lowest Landau band. Using the results on confinement we can calculate the quantum current in the entire semiclassical region B

  19. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  20. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  1. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  2. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  3. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  4. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  5. Electrodynamics of a hydrogenlike atom in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovarskij, V.A.; Perel'man, N.F.

    1974-01-01

    The quasienergy spectrum of the hydrogen atom in strong electromagnetic radiation is studied, the luminescence of the atom under these conditions is considered. It is shown that in a strong field the atom, being even in the ground state, radiates a spectrum of frequencies corresponding to transitions from the ground state into excited states, the strong field photons being involved. The intensity of such a luminescence is basically a non-linear function of the strong field. The exposure of the atom to two strong electromagnetic fields Ω and ω (Ω>>ω) is considered, the Ω coinciding with one of the natural frquencies of the atom. The effct of modulation of the resonance shift for an atomic level by the ω-field strength is predicted. The dependence of Ω-absorption in the ω-field on the statistic properties of the latter is investigated. (author)

  6. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  7. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  8. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  9. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  10. The INGV Real Time Strong Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Marco; D'Alema, Ezio; Mascandola, Claudia; Lovati, Sara; Scafidi, Davide; Gomez, Antonio; Carannante, Simona; Franceschina, Gianlorenzo; Mirenna, Santi; Augliera, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    The INGV real time strong motion data sharing is assured by the INGV Strong Motion Database. ISMD (http://ismd.mi.ingv.it) was designed in the last months of 2011 in cooperation among different INGV departments, with the aim to organize the distribution of the INGV strong-motion data using standard procedures for data acquisition and processing. The first version of the web portal was published soon after the occurrence of the 2012 Emilia (Northern Italy), Mw 6.1, seismic sequence. At that time ISMD was the first European real time web portal devoted to the engineering seismology community. After four years of successfully operation, the thousands of accelerometric waveforms collected in the archive need necessary a technological improvement of the system in order to better organize the new data archiving and to make more efficient the answer to the user requests. ISMD 2.0 was based on PostgreSQL (www.postgresql.org), an open source object- relational database. The main purpose of the web portal is to distribute few minutes after the origin time the accelerometric waveforms and related metadata of the Italian earthquakes with ML≥3.0. Data are provided both in raw SAC (counts) and automatically corrected ASCII (gal) formats. The web portal also provide, for each event, a detailed description of the ground motion parameters (i.e. Peak Ground Acceleration, Velocity and Displacement, Arias and Housner Intensities) data converted in velocity and displacement, response spectra up to 10.0 s and general maps concerning the recent and the historical seismicity of the area together with information about its seismic hazard. The focal parameters of the events are provided by the INGV National Earthquake Center (CNT, http://cnt.rm.ingv.it). Moreover, the database provides a detailed site characterization section for each strong motion station, based on geological, geomorphological and geophysical information. At present (i.e. January 2017), ISMD includes 987 (121

  11. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  12. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  13. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  14. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    OpenAIRE

    Glaser, Barney G.

    2007-01-01

    In meinem Beitrag greife ich zurück auf den ausgezeichneten und inspirierenden Artikel von CHARMAZ zu konstruktivistischer Grounded Theory, um an diesem Beispiel zu diskutieren, dass und warum die Grounded Theory kein konstruktivistisches Unterfangen ist. Ich versuche zu zeigen, dass "konstruktivistische Daten" bzw. konstruktivistische Anwendungen der Grounded Theory, sofern sie überhaupt existieren bzw. sinnvoll sein könnten, nur einen verschwindend kleinen Teil der Grounded Theory ausmachen...

  15. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  16. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  17. Charge frustration and quantum criticality for strongly correlated fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijse, L.; Halverson, J.; Fendley, P.; Schoutens, K.

    2008-01-01

    We study a model of strongly correlated electrons on the square lattice which exhibits charge frustration and quantum critical behavior. The potential is tuned to make the interactions supersymmetric. We establish a rigorous mathematical result which relates quantum ground states to certain tiling

  18. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  19. Earthquake source model using strong motion displacement as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The strong motion displacement records available during an earthquake can be treated as the response of the earth as the a structural system to unknown forces acting at unknown locations. Thus, if the part of the earth participating in ground motion is modelled as a known finite elastic medium, one can attempt to model the ...

  20. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  1. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  2. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  3. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  4. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  5. Strongly coupled band in 140Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, Kπ = 8 - isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in 128 Xe, 130 Ba, 132 Ce, 134 Nd, 136 Sm, and 138 Gd[. In 140 Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an Iπ = 8 - state. This could be the first case of a Kπ = 8 - state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the Kπ = 8 - isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The 140 Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in 140 Gd

  6. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  7. Strong interaction studies with kaonic atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marton J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong interaction of antikaons (K− with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy regime represents an active research field connected intrinsically with few-body physics. There are important open questions like the question of antikaon nuclear bound states - the prototype system being K−pp. A unique and rather direct experimental access to the antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths is provided by precision X-ray spectroscopy of transitions in low-lying states of light kaonic atoms like kaonic hydrogen isotopes. In the SIDDHARTA experiment at the electron-positron collider DAΦNE of LNF-INFN we measured the most precise values of the strong interaction observables, i.e. the strong interaction on the 1s ground state of the electromagnetically bound K−p atom leading to a hadronic shift ϵ1s and a hadronic broadening Γ1s of the 1s state. The SIDDHARTA result triggered new theoretical work which achieved major progress in the understanding of the low-energy strong interaction with strangeness. Antikaon-nucleon scattering lengths have been calculated constrained by the SIDDHARTA data on kaonic hydrogen. For the extraction of the isospin-dependent scattering lengths a measurement of the hadronic shift and width of kaonic deuterium is necessary. Therefore, new X-ray studies with the focus on kaonic deuterium are in preparation (SIDDHARTA2. Many improvements in the experimental setup will allow to measure kaonic deuterium which is challenging due to the anticipated low X-ray yield. Especially important are the data on the X-ray yields of kaonic deuterium extracted from a exploratory experiment within SIDDHARTA.

  8. NMR study of strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Y.; Tou, H.; Zheng, G.-q.; Ishida, K.; Asayama, K.; Kobayashi, T. C.; Kohda, A.; Takeshita, N.; Amaya, K.; Onuki, Y.; Geibel, G.; Schank, C.; Steglich, F.

    1995-02-01

    Various types of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems have been systematically investigated by means of NMR/NQR at low temperatures under high magnetic field and pressure. We focus on two well-known heavy-electron families, CeCu 2X 2 (X = Si and Ge) (Ce(122)) and UM 2Al 3 (M = Ni and Pd) (U(123)). The Cu NQR experiments on CeCu 2X 2 under high pressure indicate that the physical property of CeCu 2Ge 2 at high pressure, i.e. above the transition at 7.6 GPa from antiferromagnetic (AF) to superconductivity, are clearly related to tha CeCu 2Si 2 at ambient pressure. In addition to the H-T phase diagram established below 7 T, NMR and specific heat experiments on polycrystal CeCu 2.05Si 2 have revealed the presence of a new phase above 7 T. In a high-quality polycrystal of UPd 2Al 3 with a record high- Tc of 2 K at ambient pressure and the narrowest Al NQR line width, the nuclear-spin lattice relaxation rate, 27(1/ T1) measured in zero field has been found to obey the T3 law down to 0.13 K, giving strong evidence that the energy gap vanishes along lines on the Fermi surface. Thus it seems that all heavy-electron superconductors exhibit lines of zero gap, regardless of their different magnetic properties.

  9. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  10. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  11. Towards Integrated Marmara Strong Motion Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durukal, E.; Erdik, M.; Safak, E.; Ansal, A.; Ozel, O.; Alcik, H.; Mert, A.; Kafadar, N.; Korkmaz, A.; Kurtulus, A.

    2009-04-01

    Array (72 ch. dense accelerometric array to be installed in 2010) - Gemlik Array (a dense basin array of 8 stations, to be installed in 2010) The objectives of these systems and networks are: (1) to produce rapid earthquake intensity, damage and loss assessment information after an earthquake (in the case of IERREWS), (2) to monitor conditions of structural systems, (3) to develop real-time data processing, analysis, and damage detection and location tools (in the case of structural networks) after an extreme event, (4) to assess spatial properties of strong ground motion and ground strain, and to characterise basin response (in the case of special arrays), (5) to investigate site response and wave propagation (in the case of vertical array). Ground motion data obtained from these strong motion networks have and are being used for investigations of attenuation, spatial variation (coherence), simulation benchmarking, source modeling, site response, seismic microzonation, system identification and structural model verification and structural health control. In addition to the systems and networks outlined above there are two temporary networks: KIMNET - a dense urban noise and microtremor network consisting of 50 broadband stations expected to be operational in mid 2009, and SOSEWIN - a 20-station, self-organizing structural integrated array at Ataköy in Istanbul.

  12. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  13. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  14. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  15. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  16. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  17. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  18. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  19. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  20. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  2. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  3. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  4. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  5. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  6. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  7. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  8. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  9. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  10. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  11. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  12. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  13. On slippery ground:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2018-01-01

    , as researchers, found ourselves on slippery and emotionally charged ground. Using a critical, reflexive approach informed by poststructuralism, our ambition was to deconstruct gaps between rhetoric and practice and critique normative understandings of the nature of ethically sound coproduction processes...

  14. Strongly coupled band in {sup 140}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falla-Sotelo, F.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Rao, M.N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] (and others)

    2005-07-01

    Several high-K states are known to exist in the mass 130-140 region. For the N=74 even-even isotopes, K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomers, with lifetimes ranging from ns to ms, are known in {sup 128}Xe, {sup 130}Ba, {sup 132}Ce, {sup 134}Nd, {sup 136}Sm, and {sup 138}Gd[. In {sup 140}Gd, we have observed for the first time a band also based on an I{pi} = 8{sup -} state. This could be the first case of a K{pi} = 8{sup -} state observed in an N=76 even-even isotope. The systematics of the K{pi} = 8{sup -} isomeric states in N=74 isotopes has been studied by A.M. Bruce et al. These states decay towards the K = 0 ground state band, and the transitions are K-forbidden. The {sup 140}Gd case presents strong similarities but also some significant differences with relation to the N=74 isotopes. We propose the same configuration but with larger deformation in {sup 140}Gd.

  15. Strongly correlated superconductivity and quantum criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    Doped Mott insulators and doped charge-transfer insulators describe classes of materials that can exhibit unconventional superconducting ground states. Examples include the cuprates and the layered organic superconductors of the BEDT family. I present results obtained from plaquette cellular dynamical mean-field theory. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo evaluation of the hybridization expansion allows one to study the models in the large interaction limit where quasiparticles can disappear. The normal state which is unstable to the superconducting state exhibits a first-order transition between a pseudogap and a correlated metal phase. That transition is the finite-doping extension of the metal-insulator transition obtained at half-filling. This transition serves as an organizing principle for the normal and superconducting states of both cuprates and doped organic superconductors. In the less strongly correlated limit, these methods also describe the more conventional case where the superconducting dome surrounds an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. Sponsored by NSERC RGPIN-2014-04584, CIFAR, Research Chair in the Theory of Quantum Materials.

  16. Grounding, shielding, and bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrysse, J.

    1991-06-01

    In the electromagnetic compatibility design (EMC) of systems and circuits, both grounding and shielding are related to the coupling mechanisms of the system with (radiated) electromagnetic fields. Grounding is more related to the source or victim circuit (or system) and determines the characteristic of the coupling mechanism between fields and currents/voltages. Shielding is a way of interacting in the radiation path of an electromagnetic field. The basic principles and practical design rules are discussed.

  17. Ground-motion prediction from tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltay, Annemarie S.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of tremor, coupled with its frequency content and location, provides an exceptional opportunity to test and improve strong ground-motion attenuation relations for subduction zones. We characterize the amplitude of thousands of individual 5 min tremor events in Cascadia during three episodic tremor and slip events to constrain the distance decay of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV). We determine the anelastic attenuation parameter for ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) to a distance of 150 km, which is sufficient to place important constraints on ground-motion decay. Tremor PGA and PGV show a distance decay that is similar to subduction-zone-specific GMPEs developed from both data and simulations; however, the massive amount of data present in the tremor observations should allow us to refine distance-amplitude attenuation relationships for use in hazard maps, and to search for regional variations and intrasubduction zone differences in ground-motion attenuation.

  18. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  19. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin

    1999-01-01

    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  20. Probability densities in strong turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor

    2006-03-01

    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  1. Moderately strong pump-induced ultrafast dynamics in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H.F. [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Zhang, Yizhu, E-mail: zhangyz@sari.ac.cn [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Yan, T.-M., E-mail: yantm@sari.ac.cn [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang, Z.Y. [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China); Jiang, Y.H., E-mail: jiangyh@sari.ac.cn [Shanghai Advanced Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University (China)

    2016-09-12

    Graphical abstract: Moderately strong pump pulse is applied to the transient absorption spectrum. The pump and dump processes (resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering) finished in one single pump pulse in moderately strong regime make the observation of high-lying excited state dynamics possible. - Highlights: • The pulse intensity in transient absorption spectrum are experimentally studied. • The higher nonlinear susceptibility responses are observed. • The resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering. • New dynamics information in strong pump field. - Abstract: The transient transmittance spectra of laser dye IR144 in methanol were investigated experimentally in the moderately strong pump-probe field. Observed emission spectra in the red edge of the incident-field bandwidth, created by resonant impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (RISRS), display significant nonlinear intensity dependence as the pulse intensity increases. Dynamic perspectives of RISRS spectra can be understood well in a wavepacket picture. The excitation of high vibrational levels in the ground electronic state leading to the redshift of emissions presents high dependence of the pump-pulse intensity and ultrafast dynamical features, mapping the spatial overlap and separation of ground and excited wave functions and resolving the ultrafast vibrational relaxation in the femtosecond regime.

  2. Grounding word learning in space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa K Samuelson

    Full Text Available Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  3. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  4. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  5. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  6. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  7. Grounding of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  8. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  9. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.

    1999-05-01

    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  10. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  11. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  12. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  13. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  14. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  15. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  16. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  17. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  18. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  19. City of Bingöl in May 2003: Assessment of strong ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    U Çeken1 G Beyhan2 H H Selim3. Prime Ministry, Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency, Earthquake Department, 06520, Ankara, Turkey. Department of Geophysical Engineering, Sakarya University, 54187, Sakarya, Turkey. Department of Jewellery Engineering, Istanbul Commerce University, 34840, Istanbul, ...

  20. H2+ molecular ion in a strong magnetic field: Ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbiner, A. V.; Lopez Vieyra, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the system of two protons and one electron (ppe) placed in magnetic field ranging from 10 9 -4.414x10 13 G is presented. The present study is focused on the question of the existence of the molecular ion H 2 + in a magnetic field. A variational method with an optimization of the form of the vector potential (optimal gauge fixing) is used as a tool. It is shown that in the domain of applicability of the nonrelativistic approximation the (ppe) system in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation has a well-pronounced minimum in the total energy at a finite interproton distance for B(less-or-similar sign)10 11 G, thus manifesting the existence of H 2 + . For B(greater-or-similar sign)10 11 G and large inclinations (of the molecular axis with respect to the magnetic line) the minimum disappears and hence the molecular ion H 2 + does not exist. It is shown that the most stable configuration of H 2 + always corresponds to protons situated along the magnetic line. With magnetic field growth the H 2 + ion becomes more and more tightly bound and compact, and the electronic distribution evolves from a two-peak to a one-peak pattern. The domain of inclinations where the H 2 + ion exists reduces with magnetic field increase and finally becomes 0 degree sign -25 degree sign at B=4.414x10 13 G. Phase-transition-type behavior of variational parameters for some interproton distances related to the beginning of the chemical reaction H 2 + ↔H+p is found

  1. Simulation of strong ground motion parameters of the 1 June 2013 Gulf of Suez earthquake, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Toni

    2017-06-01

    The results reveal that the highest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Ras Gharib city (epicentral distance ∼ 11 km as 67 cm/s2, 2.53 cm/s, and 0.45 cm respectively for Zone A, and as 26.5 cm/s2, 1.0 cm/s, and 0.2 cm respectively for Zone B, while the lowest values of PGA, PGV, and PGD are observed at Suez city (epicentral distance ∼ 190 km as 3.0 cm/s2, 0.2 cm/s, and 0.05 cm/s respectively for Zone A, and as 1.3 cm/s2, 0.1 cm/s, and 0.024 cm respectively for Zone B. Also the highest PSA values are observed in Ras Gharib city as 200 cm/s2 and 78 cm/s2 for Zone A and Zone B respectively, while the lowest PSA values are observed in Suez city as 7 cm/s2 and 3 cm/s2 for Zone A and Zone B respectively. These results show a good agreement with the earthquake magnitude, epicentral distances, and site characterizations as well.

  2. Anomalous radon emission as precursor of medium to strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Anomalous radon (Rn222) emissions enhanced by forthcoming earthquakes is considered to be a precursory phenomenon related to an increased geotectonic activity in seismic areas. Rock microfracturing in the Earth's crust preceding a seismic rupture may cause local surface deformation fields, rock dislocations, charged particle generation and motion, electrical conductivity changes, radon and other gases emission, fluid diffusion, electrokinetic, piezomagnetic and piezoelectric effects as well as climate fluctuations. Space-time anomalies of radon gas emitted in underground water, soil and near the ground air weeks to days in the epicentral areas can be associated with the strain stress changes that occurred before the occurrence of medium and strong earthquakes. This paper aims to investigate temporal variations of radon concentration levels in air near or in the ground by the use of solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) CR-39 and LR-115 in relation with some important seismic events recorded in Vrancea region, Romania.

  3. Earthquake Intensity and Strong Motion Analysis Within SEISCOMP3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J.; Weber, B.; Ghasemi, H.; Cummins, P. R.; Murjaya, J.; Rudyanto, A.; Rößler, D.

    2017-12-01

    Measuring and predicting ground motion parameters including seismic intensities for earthquakes is crucial and subject to recent research in engineering seismology.gempa has developed the new SIGMA module for Seismic Intensity and Ground Motion Analysis. The module is based on the SeisComP3 framework extending it in the field of seismic hazard assessment and engineering seismology. SIGMA may work with or independently of SeisComP3 by supporting FDSN Web services for importing earthquake or station information and waveforms. It provides a user-friendly and modern graphical interface for semi-automatic and interactive strong motion data processing. SIGMA provides intensity and (P)SA maps based on GMPE's or recorded data. It calculates the most common strong motion parameters, e.g. PGA/PGV/PGD, Arias intensity and duration, Tp, Tm, CAV, SED and Fourier-, power- and response spectra. GMPE's are configurable. Supporting C++ and Python plug-ins, standard and customized GMPE's including the OpenQuake Hazard Library can be easily integrated and compared. Originally tailored to specifications by Geoscience Australia and BMKG (Indonesia) SIGMA has become a popular tool among SeisComP3 users concerned with seismic hazard and strong motion seismology.

  4. Strong Motion Seismograph Based On MEMS Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    application program layer mainly concludes: earthquake parameter module, local database managing module, data transmission module, remote monitoring, FTP service and so on. The application layer adopted multi-thread process. The whole strong motion seismograph was encapsulated in a small aluminum box, which size is 80mm×120mm×55mm. The inner battery can work continuesly more than 24 hours. The MEMS accelerograph uses modular design for its software part and hardware part. It has remote software update function and can meet the following needs: a) Auto picking up the earthquake event; saving the data on wave-event files and hours files; It may be used for monitoring strong earthquake, explosion, bridge and house health. b) Auto calculate the earthquake parameters, and transferring those parameters by 3G wireless broadband network. This kind of seismograph has characteristics of low cost, easy installation. They can be concentrated in the urban region or areas need to specially care. We can set up a ground motion parameters quick report sensor network while large earthquake break out. Then high-resolution-fine shake-map can be easily produced for the need of emergency rescue. c) By loading P-wave detection program modules, it can be used for earthquake early warning for large earthquakes; d) Can easily construct a high-density layout seismic monitoring network owning remote control and modern intelligent earthquake sensor.

  5. Ground vortex flow field investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Delfrate, John H.; Eshleman, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Flow field investigations were conducted at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flow Visualization Facility (water tunnel) to investigate the ground effect produced by the impingement of jets from aircraft nozzles on a ground board in a STOL operation. Effects on the overall flow field with both a stationary and a moving ground board were photographed and compared with similar data found in other references. Nozzle jet impingement angles, nozzle and inlet interaction, side-by-side nozzles, nozzles in tandem, and nozzles and inlets mounted on a flat plate model were investigated. Results show that the wall jet that generates the ground effect is unsteady and the boundary between the ground vortex flow field and the free-stream flow is unsteady. Additionally, the forward projection of the ground vortex flow field with a moving ground board is one-third less than that measured over a fixed ground board. Results also showed that inlets did not alter the ground vortex flow field.

  6. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  7. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  8. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  9. Earthquake Ground Motion Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Nonlinear analyses of soils, structures, and soil-structure systems offer the potential for more accurate characterization of geotechnical and structural response under strong earthquake shaking. The increasing use of advanced performance-based desig...

  10. Remodeling Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines my concerns with Qualitative Data Analysis’ (QDAnumerous remodelings of Grounded Theory (GT and the subsequent eroding impact. I cite several examples of the erosion and summarize essential elements of classic GT methodology. It is hoped that the article will clarify my concerns with the continuing enthusiasm but misunderstood embrace of GT by QDA methodologists and serve as a preliminary guide to novice researchers who wish to explore the fundamental principles of GT.

  11. Rrsm: The European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauzzi, C.; Clinton, J. F.; Sleeman, R.; Domingo Ballesta, J.; Kaestli, P.; Galanis, O.

    2014-12-01

    We introduce the European Rapid Raw Strong-Motion database (RRSM), a Europe-wide system that provides parameterised strong motion information, as well as access to waveform data, within minutes of the occurrence of strong earthquakes. The RRSM significantly differs from traditional earthquake strong motion dissemination in Europe, which has focused on providing reviewed, processed strong motion parameters, typically with significant delays. As the RRSM provides rapid open access to raw waveform data and metadata and does not rely on external manual waveform processing, RRSM information is tailored to seismologists and strong-motion data analysts, earthquake and geotechnical engineers, international earthquake response agencies and the educated general public. Access to the RRSM database is via a portal at http://www.orfeus-eu.org/rrsm/ that allows users to query earthquake information, peak ground motion parameters and amplitudes of spectral response; and to select and download earthquake waveforms. All information is available within minutes of any earthquake with magnitude ≥ 3.5 occurring in the Euro-Mediterranean region. Waveform processing and database population are performed using the waveform processing module scwfparam, which is integrated in SeisComP3 (SC3; http://www.seiscomp3.org/). Earthquake information is provided by the EMSC (http://www.emsc-csem.org/) and all the seismic waveform data is accessed at the European Integrated waveform Data Archive (EIDA) at ORFEUS (http://www.orfeus-eu.org/index.html), where all on-scale data is used in the fully automated processing. As the EIDA community is continually growing, the already significant number of strong motion stations is also increasing and the importance of this product is expected to also increase. Real-time RRSM processing started in June 2014, while past events have been processed in order to provide a complete database back to 2005.

  12. Quantum Glassiness in Strongly Correlated Clean Systems: An Example of Topological Overprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    This Letter presents solvable examples of quantum many-body Hamiltonians of systems that are unable to reach their ground states as the environment temperature is lowered to absolute zero. These examples, three-dimensional generalizations of quantum Hamiltonians proposed for topological quantum computing, (1)have no quenched disorder, (2)have solely local interactions, (3)have an exactly solvable spectrum, (4)have topologically ordered ground states, and (5)have slow dynamical relaxation rates akin to those of strong structural glasses.

  13. Ground and airborne methane measurements with an optical parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Riris, Haris; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Kawa, Stephan R.; Dawsey, Martha; Ramanathan, Anand; Mao, Jianping; Krainak, Michael; Abshire, James

    2012-06-01

    We report on ground and airborne atmospheric methane measurements with a differential absorption lidar using an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and its accurate global mapping is urgently needed to understand climate change. We are developing a nanosecond-pulsed OPA for remote measurements of methane from an Earth-orbiting satellite. We have successfully demonstrated the detection of methane on the ground and from an airplane at ~11-km altitude.

  14. Ground and Airborne Methane Measurements with an Optical Parametric Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    We report on ground and airborne atmospheric methane measurements with a differential absorption lidar using an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Methane is a strong greenhouse gas on Earth and its accurate global mapping is urgently needed to understand climate change. We are developing a nanosecond-pulsed OPA for remote measurements of methane from an Earth-orbiting satellite. We have successfully demonstrated the detection of methane on the ground and from an airplane at approximately 11-km altitude.

  15. Near-Field Ground Motion Modal versus Wave Propagation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Cichowicz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The response spectrum generally provides a good estimate of the global displacement and acceleration demand of far-field ground motion on a structure. However, it does not provide accurate information on the local shape or internal deformation of the response of the structure. Near-field pulse-like ground motion will propagate through the structure as waves, causing large, localized deformation. Therefore, the response spectrum alone is not a sufficient representation of near-field ground motion features. Results show that the drift-response technique based on a continuous shear-beam model has to be employed here to estimate structure-demand parameters when structure is exposed to the pulse like ground motion. Conduced modeling shows limited applicability of the drift spectrum based on the SDOF approximation. The SDOF drift spectrum approximation can only be applied to structures with smaller natural periods than the dominant period of the ground motion. For periods larger than the dominant period of ground motion the SDOF drift spectra model significantly underestimates maximum deformation. Strong pulse-type motions are observed in the near-source region of large earthquakes; however, there is a lack of waveforms collected from small earthquakes at very close distances that were recorded underground in mines. The results presented in this paper are relevant for structures with a height of a few meters, placed in an underground excavation. The strong ground motion sensors recorded mine-induced earthquakes in a deep gold mine, South Africa. The strongest monitored horizontal ground motion was caused by an event of magnitude 2 at a distance of 90 m with PGA 123 m/s2, causing drifts of 0.25%–0.35%. The weak underground motion has spectral characteristics similar to the strong ground motion observed on the earth's surface; the drift spectrum has a maximum value less than 0.02%.

  16. Atoms and clusters in strong laser fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchenko, T.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes experimental and theoretical studies on the interaction of strong infrared laser fields with atoms and atomic clusters. Part I provides an overview of the main strong-field phenomena in atoms, molecules and clusters and describes the state-of-the-art in strong-field science.

  17. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  18. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise the supplemental definition of ``strong sensitizer'' due to advancements in the science of sensitization that have... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding...

  19. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  20. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  1. Patterns in Frozen Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Fletcher, R. C.

    2005-12-01

    The expansion and contraction of ice-cemented soils, due to seasonal and shorter term temperature fluctuations, or to the growth and decay of ice lenses in soils, produce some of the most striking geometric patterns in nature. These patterns, known as patterned ground, have diverse surface expressions including local relief, soil cracks, size-segregated mineral material, and spatial variations in vegetation density and species composition. They can be subdivided into sorted patterns, which range in size from 0.1 to 3 m and are defined by spatial differentiation of soil material according to grain size, and non-sorted patterns that may be 10's of meters in size. The processes underlying the pattern development have been elucidated through detailed observations and measurements in the field, as well as instructive numerical simulations. Substantial mechanistic insight has also been gained from recent advances in the fundamental physics of ice in porous media and in the nonlinear dynamics of granular media. Current research activity is focused on polygonal patterned ground in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica where distinct 10 to 30 m polygons are ubiquitous; they are characteristically outlined by vertical cracks that become infilled with wedges of sand. This patterned ground is of particular interest because it resembles patterns seen on the surface of Mars and because a long-term, high-resolution record exists of soil temperatures and thermal strains. The crack network, which is very similar to the networks of contraction cracks in drying mud and other contracting materials, self-organizes through interactions between thermal stresses, fracture, and the evolving pattern of cracks bounding the polygons. Initially, these cracks tend to curve to join pre-existing cracks at right angles due to the influence of these early cracks on the stress field. The evolution of the patterns toward 5 or 6-sided polygons with straight-sided cracks that join at symmetric triple junctions

  2. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...... educational background and job rotation....

  3. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  4. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...... and the splitting increased rapidly as the transition temperature was approached in accordance with the predictions of the RPA-theory. The dispersion is analysed in terms of a phenomenological model using interactions up to the fourth nearest neighbour....

  5. Designing as Middle Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian; Binder, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors in...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  6. PRISM software—Processing and review interface for strong-motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher D.; Ng, Peter

    2017-11-28

    Rapidly available and accurate ground-motion acceleration time series (seismic recordings) and derived data products are essential to quickly providing scientific and engineering analysis and advice after an earthquake. To meet this need, the U.S. Geological Survey National Strong Motion Project has developed a software package called PRISM (Processing and Review Interface for Strong-Motion data). PRISM automatically processes strong-motion acceleration records, producing compatible acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series; acceleration, velocity, and displacement response spectra; Fourier amplitude spectra; and standard earthquake-intensity measures. PRISM is intended to be used by strong-motion seismic networks, as well as by earthquake engineers and seismologists.

  7. Ground Penetrating Radar in Hydrogeophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Susan; Lambot, S.; Binley, A.; Slob, E.; Hubbard, S.

    2008-01-15

    To meet the needs of a growing population and to provide us with a higher quality of life, increasing pressures are being placed on our environment through the development of agriculture, industry, and infrastructures. Soil erosion, groundwater depletion, salinization, and pollution have been recognized for decades as major threats to ecosystems and human health. More recently, the progressive substitution of fossil fuels by biofuels for energy production and climate change have been recognized as potential threats to our water resources and sustained agricultural productivity. The vadose zone mediates many of the processes that govern water resources and quality, such as the partition of precipitation into infiltration and runoff , groundwater recharge, contaminant transport, plant growth, evaporation, and energy exchanges between the Earth's surface and its atmosphere. It also determines soil organic carbon sequestration and carbon-cycle feedbacks, which could substantially impact climate change. The vadose zone's inherent spatial variability and inaccessibility precludes direct observation of the important subsurface processes. In a societal context where the development of sustainable and optimal environmental management strategies has become a priority, there is a strong prerequisite for the development of noninvasive characterization and monitoring techniques of the vadose zone. In particular, hydrogeophysical approaches applied at relevant scales are required to appraise dynamic subsurface phenomena and to develop optimal sustainability, exploitation, and remediation strategies. Among existing geophysical techniques, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is of particular interest for providing high-resolution subsurface images and specifically addressing water-related questions. Ground penetrating radar is based on the transmission and reception of VHF-UHF (30-3000 MHz) electromagnetic waves into the ground, whose propagation is determined by

  8. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo

    1977-01-01

    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  9. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  10. Deep convolutional neural networks as strong gravitational lens detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C.; Geiger, M.; Kuntzer, T.; Kneib, J.-P.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Future large-scale surveys with high-resolution imaging will provide us with approximately 105 new strong galaxy-scale lenses. These strong-lensing systems will be contained in large data amounts, however, which are beyond the capacity of human experts to visually classify in an unbiased way. Aim. We present a new strong gravitational lens finder based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The method was applied to the strong-lensing challenge organized by the Bologna Lens Factory. It achieved first and third place, respectively, on the space-based data set and the ground-based data set. The goal was to find a fully automated lens finder for ground-based and space-based surveys that minimizes human inspection. Methods: We compared the results of our CNN architecture and three new variations ("invariant" "views" and "residual") on the simulated data of the challenge. Each method was trained separately five times on 17 000 simulated images, cross-validated using 3000 images, and then applied to a test set with 100 000 images. We used two different metrics for evaluation, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score, and the recall with no false positive (Recall0FP). Results: For ground-based data, our best method achieved an AUC score of 0.977 and a Recall0FP of 0.50. For space-based data, our best method achieved an AUC score of 0.940 and a Recall0FP of 0.32. Adding dihedral invariance to the CNN architecture diminished the overall score on space-based data, but achieved a higher no-contamination recall. We found that using committees of five CNNs produced the best recall at zero contamination and consistently scored better AUC than a single CNN. Conclusions: We found that for every variation of our CNN lensfinder, we achieved AUC scores close to 1 within 6%. A deeper network did not outperform simpler CNN models either. This indicates that more complex networks are not needed to model the simulated lenses. To verify this, more

  11. The ground surface energy balance in modelling horizontal ground heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoloni, M.; Bottarelli, M.; Su, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of horizontal ground heat exchangers (HGHEs) is strongly dependent on climatic conditions, due to the low installation depth. In numerical modelling of HGHEs, the estimation of shallow soil temperature distribution is a key issue, therefore the boundary condition (BC) at the ground surface should be assigned carefully. With this in mind, a model of the energy balance at the ground surface (GSEB), based on weather variables, was developed. The model was tested as the 3rd kind BC at ground surface in modelling HGHEs by means of the FEM code Comsol Multiphysics, solving the unsteady heat transfer problem in a 2D domain. The GSEB model was calibrated and validated with the observed soil temperature at different depths. In addition, the effect on numerical solutions of different BCs, when assigned at the ground surface, was analysed. Three different simulations were carried out applying the GSEB model, the equivalent surface heat flux and temperature as boundary conditions of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd kind, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the use of the GSEB model is a preferable approach to the problem and that the use of the equivalent surface temperature can be considered as a reasonable simplification.

  12. Ground penetrating radar for underground sensing in agriculture: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiuwei; Dong, Xuejun; Leskovar, Daniel I.

    2016-10-01

    Belowground properties strongly affect agricultural productivity. Traditional methods for quantifying belowground properties are destructive, labor-intensive and pointbased. Ground penetrating radar can provide non-invasive, areal, and repeatable underground measurements. This article reviews the application of ground penetrating radar for soil and root measurements and discusses potential approaches to overcome challenges facing ground penetrating radar-based sensing in agriculture, especially for soil physical characteristics and crop root measurements. Though advanced data-analysis has been developed for ground penetrating radar-based sensing of soil moisture and soil clay content in civil engineering and geosciences, it has not been used widely in agricultural research. Also, past studies using ground penetrating radar in root research have been focused mainly on coarse root measurement. Currently, it is difficult to measure individual crop roots directly using ground penetrating radar, but it is possible to sense root cohorts within a soil volume grid as a functional constituent modifying bulk soil dielectric permittivity. Alternatively, ground penetrating radarbased sensing of soil water content, soil nutrition and texture can be utilized to inversely estimate root development by coupling soil water flow modeling with the seasonality of plant root growth patterns. Further benefits of ground penetrating radar applications in agriculture rely on the knowledge, discovery, and integration among differing disciplines adapted to research in agricultural management.

  13. On slippery ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft

    2018-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical complexity and dilemmas, which arise in the coproduction of knowledge between researchers and other participants. Design/methodology/approach The starting-point for the article is a narrative from a conference we attended where we......, as researchers, found ourselves on slippery and emotionally charged ground. Using a critical, reflexive approach informed by poststructuralism, our ambition was to deconstruct gaps between rhetoric and practice and critique normative understandings of the nature of ethically sound coproduction processes...... in collaborative research. More specifically, at the conference, we sought to expose and discuss the gap between our good intentions and our own practice as researchers in a collaborative research project at a major hospital. However, instead of reflexive discussions with the research community, we experienced...

  14. On the Spent Coffee Grounds Biogas Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the strict legislation currently in use for landfilling, anaerobic digestion has a strong potential as an alternative treatment for biodegradable waste. Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and spent coffee grounds (SCG are generated in a considerable amount as a processing waste during making the coffee beverage. Chemical composition of SCG, presence of polysaccharides, proteins, and minerals makes from the SCG substrates with high biotechnological value, which might be used as valuable input material in fermentation process. The methane production ranged from 0.271–0.325 m3/kg dry organic matter.

  15. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  16. Strongly correlating liquids and their isomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Ulf R.; Gnan, Nicoletta; Bailey, Nicholas P.; Schröder, Thomas B.; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the properties of strongly correlating liquids, i.e., liquids with strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations at constant volume. We proceed to focus on the experimental predictions for strongly correlating glass-forming liquids. These predictions include i) density scaling, ii) isochronal superposition, iii) that there is a single function from which all frequency-dependent viscoelastic response functions may be calculated, iv) that...

  17. Atom collisions in a strong electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.S.; Chaplik, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the long-range part of interatomic interaction is considerably altered in a strong electromagnetic field. Instead of the van der Waals law the potential asymptote can best be described by a dipole-dipole R -3 law. Impact broadening and the line shift in a strong nonresonant field are calculated. The possibility of bound states of two atoms being formed in a strong light field is discussed

  18. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  19. The ShakeOut earthquake source and ground motion simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, R.W.; Houston, Douglas B.; Hudnut, K.W.

    2011-01-01

    The ShakeOut Scenario is premised upon the detailed description of a hypothetical Mw 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault and the associated simulated ground motions. The main features of the scenario, such as its endpoints, magnitude, and gross slip distribution, were defined through expert opinion and incorporated information from many previous studies. Slip at smaller length scales, rupture speed, and rise time were constrained using empirical relationships and experience gained from previous strong-motion modeling. Using this rupture description and a 3-D model of the crust, broadband ground motions were computed over a large region of Southern California. The largest simulated peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) generally range from 0.5 to 1.0 g and 100 to 250 cm/s, respectively, with the waveforms exhibiting strong directivity and basin effects. Use of a slip-predictable model results in a high static stress drop event and produces ground motions somewhat higher than median level predictions from NGA ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs).

  20. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and ... also important applications in nonlinear analysis [2]. The theory was brought to ..... for each t > 0 since each set on the right-hand side of the relation (3.1) belongs to I. Thus, by Definition 2.11 and the ...

  1. Large N baryons, strong coupling theory, quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakita, B.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that in QCD the large N limit is the same as the static strong coupling limit. By using the static strong coupling techniques some of the results of large N baryons are derived. The results are consistent with the large N SU(6) static quark model. (author)

  2. Optimization of strong and weak coordinates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new scheme for the geometry optimization of equilibrium and transition state structures that can be used for both strong and weak coordinates. We use a screening function that depends on atom-pair distances to differentiate strong coordinates from weak coordinates. This differentiation

  3. Strong decays of nucleon and delta resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels. (Author)

  4. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  5. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.

    1999-02-26

    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  6. Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2010-01-01

    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events...

  7. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  8. Bose condensation in an attractive fermion gas: From weak to strong coupling superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozieres, P.; Schmitt-Rink, S.

    1985-01-01

    We consider a gas of fermions interacting via an attractive potential. We study the ground state of that system and calculate the critical temperature for the onset of superconductivity as a function of the coupling strength. We compare the behavior of continuum and lattice models and show that the evolution from weak to strong coupling superconductivity is smooth

  9. Strongly Correlated Electron Systems in The Half Filled Band of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strong correlation of interacting electrons has been widely studied under the single band Hubbard model with the aid of several techniques. These numerous studies have been carried out at different band filling. In this work, the ground state properties in the half filled band in one dimension are studied employing a ...

  10. Site response zones and short-period earthquake ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A deterministic seismic hazard analysis was conducted to address the effect of local soil conditions on earthquake-induced strong ground motion in the Las Vegas Basin, Nevada (US). Using a large geological and geotechnical database, two response units were defined: a fine-grained unit, predominantly clay; and a ...

  11. Enhancing jump ground reaction forces in children through jump ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing jump ground reaction forces in children through jump training. ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... These improvements following simple jumps requiring minimal equipment strongly support the use of jump training to enhance athletic performance in children.

  12. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2010-03-01

    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  13. Grounding as a Side-Effect of Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Staffan

    2018-01-22

    In relation to semantics, "grounding" has (at least) two relevant meanings. "Symbol grounding" is the process of connecting symbols (e.g., words) to perception and the world. "Communicative grounding" is the process of interactively adding to common ground in dialog. Strategies for grounding in human communication include, crucially, strategies for resolving troubles caused by various kinds of miscommunication. As it happens, these two processes of grounding are closely related. As a side-effect of grounding an utterance, dialog participants (DPs) may adjust the meanings they assign to linguistic expressions, in a process of semantic coordination. Meanings of at least some expressions (e.g., concrete nouns) include perceptual aspects which enable DPs to classify entities as falling under the expression or not based on their perception of those entities. We show how perceptual grounding of symbols can be achieved in a process of interactively adding to common ground. This requires that perceptual aspects of meaning can be updated as a result of participating in linguistic interaction, thereby enabling fine-grained semantic coordination of perceptually grounded linguistic meanings. A formal semantics for low-level perceptual aspects of meaning is presented, tying these together with the logical-inferential aspects of meaning traditionally studied in formal semantics. The key idea is to model perceptual meanings as classifiers of perceptual input. This requires a framework where intensions are (a) represented independently of extensions, and (b) structured objects which can be modified as a result of learning. We use Type Theory with Records (TTR), a formal semantics framework which starts from the idea that information and meaning are founded on our ability to perceive and classify the world, that is, to perceive objects and situations as being of types. As an example of our approach, we show how a simple classifier of spatial information based on the Perceptron can

  14. Classical ground states of symmetric Heisenberg spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Heinz-Juergen; Luban, Marshall

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the ground states of classical Heisenberg spin systems which have point group symmetry. Examples are the regular polygons (spin rings) and the seven quasi-regular polyhedra including the five Platonic solids. For these examples, ground states with special properties, e.g. coplanarity or symmetry, can be completely enumerated using group-theoretical methods. For systems having coplanar (anti-) ground states with vanishing total spin we also calculate the smallest and largest energies of all states having a given total spin S. We find that these extremal energies depend quadratically on S and prove that, under certain assumptions, this happens only for systems with coplanar S = 0 ground states. For general systems the corresponding parabolas represent lower and upper bounds for the energy values. This provides strong support and clarifies the conditions for the so-called rotational band structure hypothesis which has been numerically established for many quantum spin systems

  15. Classical ground states of symmetric Heisenberg spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, H J

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the ground states of classical Heisenberg spin systems which have point group symmetry. Examples are the regular polygons (spin rings) and the seven quasi-regular polyhedra including the five Platonic solids. For these examples, ground states with special properties, e.g. coplanarity or symmetry, can be completely enumerated using group-theoretical methods. For systems having coplanar (anti-) ground states with vanishing total spin we also calculate the smallest and largest energies of all states having a given total spin S. We find that these extremal energies depend quadratically on S and prove that, under certain assumptions, this happens only for systems with coplanar S = 0 ground states. For general systems the corresponding parabolas represent lower and upper bounds for the energy values. This provides strong support and clarifies the conditions for the so-called rotational band structure hypothesis which has been numerically established for many quantum spin systems.

  16. Sufficiency Grounded as Sufficiently Free: A Reply to Shlomi Segall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    be grounded on (i) any personal value, nor (ii) any impersonal value. Consequently, sufficientarianism is groundless. This article contains a rejoinder to this critique. Its main claim is that the value of autonomy holds strong potential for grounding sufficiency. It argues, firstly, that autonomy carries...... both personal value for its recipient as well as impersonal value, and that both of these values are suitable for grounding sufficiency. It thus follows that we should reject both (i) and (ii). Secondly, although autonomy is presumably the strongest candidate for grounding sufficiency, the article...... provides some counterargument to Segall’s rejection of the other candidates—the impersonal value of virtue; the personal value for the allocator; and the personal value for others. If the arguments are sound, they show that we need not worry about sufficientarianism being groundless....

  17. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  18. Impurity screening in strongly coupled plasma systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kyrkos, S

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of the problem of screening of an impurity in a strongly coupled one-component plasma within the framework of the linear response (LR) theory. We consider 3D, 2D and quasi-2D layered systems. For a strongly coupled plasma the LR can be determined by way of the known S(k) structure functions. In general, an oscillating screening potential with local overscreening and antiscreening regions emerges. In the case of the bilayer, this phenomenon becomes global, as overscreening develops in the layer of the impurity and antiscreening in the adjacent layer. We comment on the limitations of the LR theory in the strong coupling situation.

  19. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  20. An integral-field spectroscopic strong lens survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burles, Scott [Department of Physics and Kavli Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    We present the observational results of a survey for strong gravitational lens systems consisting of extended emission-line galaxies lensed by intervening early-type galaxies, conducted using integral field units (IFUs) of the Magellan IMACS and Gemini GMOS-N spectrographs. These data are highly valuable for corroborating the lensing interpretation of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We show that in many cases, ground-based IFU spectroscopy is in fact competitive with space-based imaging for the measurement of the mass model parameters of the lensing galaxy. We demonstrate a novel technique of three-dimensional gravitational lens modeling for a single lens system with a resolved lensed rotation curve. We also describe the details of our custom IFU data analysis software, which performs optimal multi-fiber extraction, relative and absolute wavelength calibration to a few hundredths of a pixel RMS and nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction.

  1. An integral-field spectroscopic strong lens survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, Adam S; Burles, Scott

    2007-01-01

    We present the observational results of a survey for strong gravitational lens systems consisting of extended emission-line galaxies lensed by intervening early-type galaxies, conducted using integral field units (IFUs) of the Magellan IMACS and Gemini GMOS-N spectrographs. These data are highly valuable for corroborating the lensing interpretation of Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We show that in many cases, ground-based IFU spectroscopy is in fact competitive with space-based imaging for the measurement of the mass model parameters of the lensing galaxy. We demonstrate a novel technique of three-dimensional gravitational lens modeling for a single lens system with a resolved lensed rotation curve. We also describe the details of our custom IFU data analysis software, which performs optimal multi-fiber extraction, relative and absolute wavelength calibration to a few hundredths of a pixel RMS and nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction

  2. Muon spin relaxation studies in strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Luke, G. M.

    1993-05-01

    We describe recent progress of muon spin relaxation (μSR) studies in heavy-fermion (HF) and other strongly correlated electron systems. Measurements of the magnetic field penetration depth λ in HF superconductors UPt 3, URu 2Si 2, UPd 2Al 3 and U 2PtC 2 have revealed that these systems are characterized by large ratios Tc/ TF = 0.1-0.01 of Tc vs Fermi temperature TF derived from λ. This feature is common to high- Tc cuprate and other exotic superconductors. Zero-field μSR studies of magnetic order have elucidated a cross-over from spin glass ordering to nonmagnetic ground states in the ‘quadrupolar Kondo regime’ of (Y 1- xU x)Pd 3, and also suggested a possibility of incommensurate spin-density-wave (SDW) ordering in UNi 2Al 3.

  3. Spin and Angular Momentum in Strong-Field Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, D.; Hartung, A.; Eckart, S.; Trinter, F.; Kalinin, A.; Schöffler, M.; Schmidt, L. Ph. H.; Jahnke, T.; Kunitski, M.; Dörner, R.

    2018-01-01

    The spin polarization of electrons from multiphoton ionization of Xe by 395 nm circularly polarized laser pulses at 6 ×1013 W /cm2 has been measured. At this photon energy of 3.14 eV the above-threshold ionization peaks connected to Xe+ ions in the ground state (J =3 /2 , ionization potential Ip=12.1 eV ) and the first excited state (J =1 /2 , Ip=13.4 eV ) are clearly separated in the electron energy distribution. These two combs of above-threshold ionization peaks show opposite spin polarizations. The magnitude of the spin polarization is a factor of 2 higher for the J =1 /2 than for the J =3 /2 final ionic state. In turn, the data show that the ionization probability is strongly dependent on the sign of the magnetic quantum number.

  4. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included by...

  5. English for Airport Ground Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  6. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...

  7. Grounded Theory: Research as Praxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnotto, Joyce Neff

    In the mid-1960s, social scientists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss developed grounded theory as a systematic and rigorous method of qualitative data analysis leading to "the discovery of theory from data." In grounded theory, the researcher applies a set of coding procedures to the data until a provisional theory emerges inductively.…

  8. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...... for grounding on soft bottoms....

  9. Why Common Ground Thinking Works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Wayne

    2000-01-01

    Modesto (California) City Schools discovered common-ground thinking during a crisis over a safe-schools policy. Instead of shunning controversy, schools should face issues, invite all stakeholders, get training, formulate and approve policy, and train staff and the community to understand common-ground (religious neutrality) thinking. (MLH)

  10. Electrochemical stabilization of clayey ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhanitzin, B.A.; Sokoloff, V.P.

    1947-01-01

    Recently developed new methods of stabilization of weak grounds (e.g. the silicate treatment) are based on injection of chemical solutions into the ground. Such methods are applicable accordingly only to the kinds of ground that have the coefficient of filtration higher than 2 meters per 24 hours and permit penetration of the chemical solutions under pressure. This limit, however, as it is shown by our experience in construction, excludes a numerous and an important class of grounds, stabilization of which is indispensable in many instances. For example, digging of trenches and pits in clayey, silty, or sandy ground shows that all these types act like typical "floaters" (sluds? -S) in the presence of the ground water pressure. There were several instances in the canalization of the city of Moskow where the laying of trenches below the ground water level has led to extreme difficulties with clayey and silty ground. Similar examples could be cited in mining, engineering hydrology, and railroad construction. For these reasons, the development of methods of stabilizing such difficult types of ground has become an urgent problem of our day. In 1936, the author began his investigations, at the ground Stabilization Laboratory of VODGEO Institute, with direct electrical current as the means of stabilization of grounds. Experiments had shown that a large number of clayey types, following passage of direct electrical current, undergoes a transformation of its physico-chemical properties. It was established that the (apparent -S) density of the ground is substantially increased in consequence of the application of direct electrical current. The ground loses also its capacity to swell and to soften in water. Later, after a more detailed study of the physico-chemical mechanism of the electrical stabilization, it became possible to develop the method so as to make it applicable to sandy and silty as well as to clayey ground. By this time (1941, S.), the method has already been

  11. Grounded action: Achieving optimal and sustainable change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, Ph.D.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Grounded action is the application and extension of grounded theory for the purpose of designing and implementing practical actions such as interventions, program designs, action models, social and organizational policies, and change initiatives. Grounded action is grounded theory with an added action component in which actions are systematically derived from a systematically derived explanatory grounded theory. Actions are grounded in the grounded theory in the same way that grounded theories are grounded in data. Grounded actionwas designed by the authors to address complex, multi-dimensionalorganizational and social problems and issues.

  12. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom...... compartment layout, in an attempt to determine the probability of exceeding the design requirements. Distributions for the extent of damage, such as damage length, height and width, are determined. Furthermore, attempts are made at identifying the governing grounding scenarios and deriving a formula...

  13. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  14. Strong Coupling Corrections in Quantum Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perarnau-Llobet, M.; Wilming, H.; Riera, A.; Gallego, R.; Eisert, J.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum systems strongly coupled to many-body systems equilibrate to the reduced state of a global thermal state, deviating from the local thermal state of the system as it occurs in the weak-coupling limit. Taking this insight as a starting point, we study the thermodynamics of systems strongly coupled to thermal baths. First, we provide strong-coupling corrections to the second law applicable to general systems in three of its different readings: As a statement of maximal extractable work, on heat dissipation, and bound to the Carnot efficiency. These corrections become relevant for small quantum systems and vanish in first order in the interaction strength. We then move to the question of power of heat engines, obtaining a bound on the power enhancement due to strong coupling. Our results are exemplified on the paradigmatic non-Markovian quantum Brownian motion.

  15. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  16. The Charm and Beauty of Strong Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bennich, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    We briefly review common features and overlapping issues in hadron and flavor physics focussing on continuum QCD approaches to heavy bound states, their mass spectrum and weak decay constants in different strong interaction models.

  17. Atomica ionization by strong coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, H.S.; Davidovich, L.

    1979-07-01

    The relation among the three most frequently used non-perturbative methods proposed to study the ionization of atoms by strong electromagnetic fields is established. Their range of validity is also determined. (Author) [pt

  18. Perturbation of an exact strong gravity solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, S.A.

    1982-10-01

    Perturbations of an exact strong gravity solution are investigated. It is shown, by using the new multipole expansions previously presented, that this exact and static spherically symmetric solution is stable under odd parity perturbations. (author)

  19. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  20. Calculating hadronic properties in strong QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This talk gives a brief review of the progress that has been made in calculating the properties of hadrons in strong QCD. In keeping with this meeting I will concentrate on those properties that can be studied with electromagnetic probes. Though perturbative QCD is highly successful, it only applies in a limited kinematic regime, where hard scattering occur, and the quarks move in the interaction region as if they are free, pointlike objects. However, the bulk of strong interactions are governed by the long distance regime, where the strong interaction is strong. It is this regime of length scales of the order of a Fermi, that determines the spectrum of light hadrons and their properties. The calculation of these properties requires an understanding of non-perturbative QCD, of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  1. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  2. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  3. Building strong brands – does it matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Aure, Kristin Gaaseide; Nervik, Kristine Dybvik

    2014-01-01

    Brand equity has proven, through several decades of research, to be a primary source of competitive advantage and future earnings (Yoo & Donthu, 2001). Building strong brands has therefore become a priority for many organizations, with the presumption that building strong brands yields these advantages (Yasin et al., 2007). A quantitative survey was conducted at Sunnmøre in Norway in order to answer the two developed research questions. - Does the brand equity dimensions; brand...

  4. Algebra of strong and electroweak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolokhov, S.V.; Vladimirov, Yu.S.

    2004-01-01

    The algebraic approach to describing the electroweak and strong interactions is considered within the frames of the binary geometrophysics, based on the principles of the Fokker-Feynman direct interparticle interaction theories of the Kaluza-Klein multidimensional geometrical models and the physical structures theory. It is shown that in this approach the electroweak and strong elementary particles interaction through the intermediate vector bosons, are characterized by the subtypes of the algebraic classification of the complex 3 x 3-matrices [ru

  5. Manipulating light with strongly modulated photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notomi, Masaya

    2010-01-01

    Recently, strongly modulated photonic crystals, fabricated by the state-of-the-art semiconductor nanofabrication process, have realized various novel optical properties. This paper describes the way in which they differ from other optical media, and clarifies what they can do. In particular, three important issues are considered: light confinement, frequency dispersion and spatial dispersion. First, I describe the latest status and impact of ultra-strong light confinement in a wavelength-cubic volume achieved in photonic crystals. Second, the extreme reduction in the speed of light is reported, which was achieved as a result of frequency dispersion management. Third, strange negative refraction in photonic crystals is introduced, which results from their unique spatial dispersion, and it is clarified how this leads to perfect imaging. The last two sections are devoted to applications of these novel properties. First, I report the fact that strong light confinement and huge light-matter interaction enhancement make strongly modulated photonic crystals promising for on-chip all-optical processing, and present several examples including all-optical switches/memories and optical logics. As a second application, it is shown that the strong light confinement and slow light in strongly modulated photonic crystals enable the adiabatic tuning of light, which leads to various novel ways of controlling light, such as adiabatic frequency conversion, efficient optomechanics systems, photon memories and photons pinning.

  6. Deep Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) WIPL-D Models of Buried Sub-Surface Radiators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norgard, John D; Wicks, Michael C; Musselman, Randy L

    2005-01-01

    .... A new Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) concept is proposed in this paper to use subsurface radiators, delivered as earth penetrating non-explosive, electronic e-bombs, as the source of strong radiated transmissions for GPR experiments...

  7. Thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) abruptly terminated by negative cloud-to-ground lightnings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Khanikyanc, G.; Pokhsraryan, D.; Soghomonyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of lightnings and particle fluxes in the thunderclouds is not fully understood to date. Using the particle beams (the so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements – TGEs) generated in the lower part of clouds by the strong electric fields as a probe, we investigate the characteristics of the related atmospheric discharges. The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux. We demonstrate that among 12 atmospheric discharges that abruptly terminated TGE all are the negative cloud-to-ground lightnings. The flux termination and lightning occurred at one and the same second. With new precise electronics on millisecond time scales we can see that particle flux decline occurred simultaneously with abrupt increase of electrostatic field after the return stroke of the lightning. Therefore, the declining of particle flux is connected with rearranging of charge centers in the cloud involving removal of the Lower Positive Charged Region (LPCR). (author)

  8. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  9. The extended reciprocity: Strong belief outperforms persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2017-05-21

    The existence of cooperation is a mysterious phenomenon and demands explanation, and direct reciprocity is one key potential explanation for the evolution of cooperation. Direct reciprocity allows cooperation to evolve for cooperators who switch their behavior on the basis of information about the opponent's behavior. Here, relevant to direct reciprocity is information deficiency. When the opponent's last move is unknown, how should players behave? One possibility is to choose cooperation with some default probability without using any further information. In fact, our previous paper (Kurokawa, 2016a) examined this strategy. However, there might be beneficial information other than the opponent's last move. A subsequent study of ours (Kurokawa, 2017) examined the strategy which uses the own last move when the opponent's last move is unknown, and revealed that referring to the own move and trying to imitate it when information is absent is beneficial. Is there any other beneficial information else? How about strong belief (i.e., have infinite memory and believe that the opponent's behavior is unchanged)? Here, we examine the evolution of strategies with strong belief. Analyzing the repeated prisoner's dilemma game and using evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) analysis against an invasion by unconditional defectors, we find the strategy with strong belief is more likely to evolve than the strategy which does not use information other than the opponent player's last move and more likely to evolve than the strategy which uses not only the opponent player's last move but also the own last move. Strong belief produces the extended reciprocity and facilitates the evolution of cooperation. Additionally, we consider the two strategies game between strategies with strong belief and any strategy, and we consider the four strategies game in which unconditional cooperators, unconditional defectors, pessimistic reciprocators with strong belief, and optimistic reciprocators with

  10. Antarctic grounding-line migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T.; Konrad, H.; Shepherd, A.; Gilbert, L.; Hogg, A.; McMillan, M.; Muir, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Knowledge of grounding-line position is critical for quantifying ice discharge into the ocean, as a boundary condition for numerical models of ice flow, and as an indicator of ice sheet stability. Although geological investigations have documented extensive grounding-line retreat since the period of the Last Glacial Maximum, observations of grounding line migration during the satellite era are restricted to a handful of locations. We combine satellite altimeter observations of ice-elevation change and airborne measurements of ice geometry to track movement of the Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding line. Based on these data, we estimate that 22%, 3%, and 10% of the West Antarctic, East Antarctic, and Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet grounding lines are retreating at rates faster than the typical pace since the Last Glacial Maximum, and that the continent loses over 200 km2 of grounded-ice area per year. Although by far the fastest rates of retreat occurred in the Amundsen Sea Sector, the Pine Island Glacier grounding line has stabilized - likely as a consequence of abated ocean forcing during the survey period.

  11. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  12. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  13. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Jimenez-Berni

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR (r2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association (r2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02 at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI and 3D profile index (3DPI. The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass (r2 = 0.93 and r2 = 0.92 for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  14. High Throughput Determination of Plant Height, Ground Cover, and Above-Ground Biomass in Wheat with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Berni, Jose A; Deery, David M; Rozas-Larraondo, Pablo; Condon, Anthony Tony G; Rebetzke, Greg J; James, Richard A; Bovill, William D; Furbank, Robert T; Sirault, Xavier R R

    2018-01-01

    Crop improvement efforts are targeting increased above-ground biomass and radiation-use efficiency as drivers for greater yield. Early ground cover and canopy height contribute to biomass production, but manual measurements of these traits, and in particular above-ground biomass, are slow and labor-intensive, more so when made at multiple developmental stages. These constraints limit the ability to capture these data in a temporal fashion, hampering insights that could be gained from multi-dimensional data. Here we demonstrate the capacity of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), mounted on a lightweight, mobile, ground-based platform, for rapid multi-temporal and non-destructive estimation of canopy height, ground cover and above-ground biomass. Field validation of LiDAR measurements is presented. For canopy height, strong relationships with LiDAR ( r 2 of 0.99 and root mean square error of 0.017 m) were obtained. Ground cover was estimated from LiDAR using two methodologies: red reflectance image and canopy height. In contrast to NDVI, LiDAR was not affected by saturation at high ground cover, and the comparison of both LiDAR methodologies showed strong association ( r 2 = 0.92 and slope = 1.02) at ground cover above 0.8. For above-ground biomass, a dedicated field experiment was performed with destructive biomass sampled eight times across different developmental stages. Two methodologies are presented for the estimation of biomass from LiDAR: 3D voxel index (3DVI) and 3D profile index (3DPI). The parameters involved in the calculation of 3DVI and 3DPI were optimized for each sample event from tillering to maturity, as well as generalized for any developmental stage. Individual sample point predictions were strong while predictions across all eight sample events, provided the strongest association with biomass ( r 2 = 0.93 and r 2 = 0.92) for 3DPI and 3DVI, respectively. Given these results, we believe that application of this system will provide new

  15. Pesticides in ground water: distribution, trends, and governing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbash, Jack; Resek, Elizabeth A.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive review of published information on the distribution and behavior of pesticides and their transformation products in ground water indicates that pesticides from every chemical class have been detected in ground waters of the United States. Many of these compounds are commonly present at low concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural land. Little information is available on their occurrence beneath non-agricultural land, although the intensity of their use in such areas (on lawns, golf courses, rights of way, timberlands, etc.) is often comparable to, or greater than agricultural use. Information on pesticides in ground water is not sufficient to provide either a statistically representative view of pesticide occurrence in ground water across the United States, or an indication of long-term trends or changes in the severity or extent of this contamination over the past three decades. This is largely due to wide variations in analytical detection limits, well selection procedures, and other design features among studies conducted in different areas or at different times. Past approaches have not been well suited for distinguishing "point source" from "nonpoint source" pesticide contamination. Among the variety of natural and anthropogenic factors examined, those that appear to be most strongly associated with the intensity of pesticide contamination of ground water are the depth, construction and age of the sampled wells, the amount of recharge (by precipitation or irrigation), and the depth of tillage. Approaches commonly employed for predicting pesticide distributions in the subsurface--including computer simulations, indicator solutes (e.g., nitrate or tritium), and ground-water vulnerability assessments--generally provide unreliable predictions of pesticide occurrence in ground water. Such difficulties may arise largely from a general failure to account for the preferential transport of pesticides in the subsurface. Significant

  16. Sensitivities and uncertainties of modeled ground temperatures in mountain environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gubler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Model evaluation is often performed at few locations due to the lack of spatially distributed data. Since the quantification of model sensitivities and uncertainties can be performed independently from ground truth measurements, these analyses are suitable to test the influence of environmental variability on model evaluation. In this study, the sensitivities and uncertainties of a physically based mountain permafrost model are quantified within an artificial topography. The setting consists of different elevations and exposures combined with six ground types characterized by porosity and hydraulic properties. The analyses are performed for a combination of all factors, that allows for quantification of the variability of model sensitivities and uncertainties within a whole modeling domain. We found that model sensitivities and uncertainties vary strongly depending on different input factors such as topography or different soil types. The analysis shows that model evaluation performed at single locations may not be representative for the whole modeling domain. For example, the sensitivity of modeled mean annual ground temperature to ground albedo ranges between 0.5 and 4 °C depending on elevation, aspect and the ground type. South-exposed inclined locations are more sensitive to changes in ground albedo than north-exposed slopes since they receive more solar radiation. The sensitivity to ground albedo increases with decreasing elevation due to shorter duration of the snow cover. The sensitivity in the hydraulic properties changes considerably for different ground types: rock or clay, for instance, are not sensitive to uncertainties in the hydraulic properties, while for gravel or peat, accurate estimates of the hydraulic properties significantly improve modeled ground temperatures. The discretization of ground, snow and time have an impact on modeled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT that cannot be neglected (more than 1 °C for several

  17. Database for earthquake strong motion studies in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasserra, G.; Stewart, J.P.; Kayen, R.E.; Lanzo, G.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an Italian database of strong ground motion recordings and databanks delineating conditions at the instrument sites and characteristics of the seismic sources. The strong motion database consists of 247 corrected recordings from 89 earthquakes and 101 recording stations. Uncorrected recordings were drawn from public web sites and processed on a record-by-record basis using a procedure utilized in the Next-Generation Attenuation (NGA) project to remove instrument resonances, minimize noise effects through low- and high-pass filtering, and baseline correction. The number of available uncorrected recordings was reduced by 52% (mostly because of s-triggers) to arrive at the 247 recordings in the database. The site databank includes for every recording site the surface geology, a measurement or estimate of average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30), and information on instrument housing. Of the 89 sites, 39 have on-site velocity measurements (17 of which were performed as part of this study using SASW techniques). For remaining sites, we estimate Vs30 based on measurements on similar geologic conditions where available. Where no local velocity measurements are available, correlations with surface geology are used. Source parameters are drawn from databanks maintained (and recently updated) by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and include hypocenter location and magnitude for small events (M< ??? 5.5) and finite source parameters for larger events. ?? 2009 A.S. Elnashai & N.N. Ambraseys.

  18. Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yih-Min; Kanamori, Hiroo

    2008-01-09

    As urbanization progresses worldwide, earthquakes pose serious threat to livesand properties for urban areas near major active faults on land or subduction zonesoffshore. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) can be a useful tool for reducing earthquakehazards, if the spatial relation between cities and earthquake sources is favorable for suchwarning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages.An EEW system forewarns an urban area of forthcoming strong shaking, normally with afew sec to a few tens of sec of warning time, i.e., before the arrival of the destructive Swavepart of the strong ground motion. Even a few second of advanced warning time willbe useful for pre-programmed emergency measures for various critical facilities, such asrapid-transit vehicles and high-speed trains to avoid potential derailment; it will be alsouseful for orderly shutoff of gas pipelines to minimize fire hazards, controlled shutdown ofhigh-technological manufacturing operations to reduce potential losses, and safe-guardingof computer facilities to avoid loss of vital databases. We explored a practical approach toEEW with the use of a ground-motion period parameter τc and a high-pass filtered verticaldisplacement amplitude parameter Pd from the initial 3 sec of the P waveforms. At a givensite, an earthquake magnitude could be determined from τ c and the peak ground-motionvelocity (PGV) could be estimated from Pd. In this method, incoming strong motion acceleration signals are recursively converted to ground velocity and displacement. A Pwavetrigger is constantly monitored. When a trigger occurs, τ c and Pd are computed. Theearthquake magnitude and the on-site ground-motion intensity could be estimated and thewarning could be issued. In an ideal situation, such warnings would be available within 10sec of the origin time of a large earthquake whose subsequent ground motion may last fortens of seconds.

  19. Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroo Kanamori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available As urbanization progresses worldwide, earthquakes pose serious threat to livesand properties for urban areas near major active faults on land or subduction zonesoffshore. Earthquake Early Warning (EEW can be a useful tool for reducing earthquakehazards, if the spatial relation between cities and earthquake sources is favorable for suchwarning and their citizens are properly trained to respond to earthquake warning messages.An EEW system forewarns an urban area of forthcoming strong shaking, normally with afew sec to a few tens of sec of warning time, i.e., before the arrival of the destructive Swavepart of the strong ground motion. Even a few second of advanced warning time willbe useful for pre-programmed emergency measures for various critical facilities, such asrapid-transit vehicles and high-speed trains to avoid potential derailment; it will be alsouseful for orderly shutoff of gas pipelines to minimize fire hazards, controlled shutdown ofhigh-technological manufacturing operations to reduce potential losses, and safe-guardingof computer facilities to avoid loss of vital databases. We explored a practical approach toEEW with the use of a ground-motion period parameter τc and a high-pass filtered verticaldisplacement amplitude parameter Pd from the initial 3 sec of the P waveforms. At a givensite, an earthquake magnitude could be determined from τc and the peak ground-motionvelocity (PGV could be estimated from Pd. In this method, incoming strong motion acceleration signals are recursively converted to ground velocity and displacement. A Pwavetrigger is constantly monitored. When a trigger occurs, τc and Pd are computed. Theearthquake magnitude and the on-site ground-motion intensity could be estimated and thewarning could be issued. In an ideal situation, such warnings would be available within 10sec of the origin time of a large earthquake whose subsequent ground motion may last fortens of seconds.

  20. A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Successful description of robust collective flow phenomena at RHIC by ideal hydrodynamics, recent observations of bound c-barc,q-barq states on the lattice, and other theoretical developments indicate that QGP produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region T{sub c} < T < 4T{sub c}, is not a weakly coupled quasiparticle gas as believed previously. We discuss how strong the interaction is and why it seems to generate hundreds of binary channels with bound states, surviving well inside the QGP phase. We in particular discuss their effect on pressure and viscosity. We conclude by reviewing the similar phenomena for other 'strongly coupled systems', such as (i) strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length, tuned to Feschbach resonances.

  1. Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Bellessa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed.

  2. A theory of the strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The most promising candidate for a fundamental microscopic theory of the strong interactions is a gauge theory of colored quarks-Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). There are many excellent reasons for believing in this theory. It embodies the broken symmetries, SU(3) and chiral SU(3)xSU(3), of the strong interactions and reflects the success of (albeit crude) quark models in explaining the spectrum of the observed hadrons. The hidden quantum number of color, necessary to account for the quantum numbers of the low lying hadrons, plays a fundamental role in this theory as the SU(3) color gauge vector 'gluons' are the mediators of the strong interactions. The absence of physical quark states can be 'explained' by the hypothesis of color confinement i.e. that hadrons are permanently bound in color singlet bound states. Finally this theory is unique in being asymptotically free, thus accounting for the almost free field theory behvior of quarks observed at short distances. (Auth.)

  3. Electromagnetic processes in strong crystalline fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  4. Patterns of Strong Coupling for LHC Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Da; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Riva, Francesco

    2016-11-23

    Even though the Standard Model (SM) is weakly coupled at the Fermi scale, a new strong dynamics involving its degrees of freedom may conceivably lurk at slightly higher energies, in the multi TeV range. Approximate symmetries provide a structurally robust context where, within the low energy description, the dimensionless SM couplings are weak, while the new strong dynamics manifests itself exclusively through higher-derivative interactions. We present an exhaustive classification of such scenarios in the form of effective field theories, paying special attention to new classes of models where the strong dynamics involves, along with the Higgs boson, the SM gauge bosons and/or the fermions. The IR softness of the new dynamics suppresses its effects at LEP energies, but deviations are in principle detectable at the LHC, even at energies below the threshold for production of new states. Our construction provides the so far unique structurally robust context where to motivate several searches in Higgs physics, d...

  5. Electronic Structure of Strongly Correlated Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Anisimov, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure and physical properties of strongly correlated materials containing elements with partially filled 3d, 4d, 4f and 5f electronic shells is analyzed by Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (DMFT). DMFT is the most universal and effective tool used for the theoretical investigation of electronic states with strong correlation effects. In the present book the basics of the method are given and its application to various material classes is shown. The book is aimed at a broad readership: theoretical physicists and experimentalists studying strongly correlated systems. It also serves as a handbook for students and all those who want to be acquainted with fast developing filed of condensed matter physics.

  6. Aperture averaging in strong oceanic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, Muhsin Caner; Baykal, Yahya

    2018-04-01

    Receiver aperture averaging technique is employed in underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) systems to mitigate the effects of oceanic turbulence, thus to improve the system performance. The irradiance flux variance is a measure of the intensity fluctuations on a lens of the receiver aperture. Using the modified Rytov theory which uses the small-scale and large-scale spatial filters, and our previously presented expression that shows the atmospheric structure constant in terms of oceanic turbulence parameters, we evaluate the irradiance flux variance and the aperture averaging factor of a spherical wave in strong oceanic turbulence. Irradiance flux variance variations are examined versus the oceanic turbulence parameters and the receiver aperture diameter are examined in strong oceanic turbulence. Also, the effect of the receiver aperture diameter on the aperture averaging factor is presented in strong oceanic turbulence.

  7. Electromagnetic Processes in strong Crystalline Fields

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    We propose a number of new investigations on aspects of radiation from high energy electron and positron beams (10-300 GeV) in single crystals and amorphous targets. The common heading is radiation emission by electrons and positrons in strong electromagnetic fields, but as the setup is quite versatile, other related phenomena in radiation emission can be studied as well. The intent is to clarify the role of a number of important aspects of radiation in strong fields as e.g. observed in crystals. We propose to measure trident 'Klein-like' production in strong crystalline fields, 'crystalline undulator' radiation, 'sandwich' target phenomena, LPM suppression of pair production as well as axial and planar effects in contributions of spin to the radiation.

  8. 46 CFR 129.375 - System grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.375 System grounding. (a) If a grounded distribution system... nonmetallic vessel with a grounded distribution system, the common ground plate must have— (1) Only one... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false System grounding. 129.375 Section 129.375 Shipping COAST...

  9. Entanglement-enhanced information transfer through strongly correlated systems and its application to optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Song [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, 230026 (China); Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    We show that the inherent entanglement of the ground state of strongly correlated systems can be exploited for both classical and quantum communications. Our strategy is based on a single-qubit rotation that encodes information in the entangled nature of the ground state. In classical communication, our mechanism conveys more than one bit of information in each shot, just as dense coding does, without demanding long-range entanglement. In our scheme for quantum communication, the quality is higher than the widely studied attaching scenarios. Moreover, we propose to implement this way of communication in optical lattices.

  10. Experimental investigation of strong field trident production

    CERN Document Server

    Esberg, J; Knudsen, H; Thomsen, H D; Uggerhøj, E; Uggerhøj, U I; Sona, P; Mangiarotti, A; Ketel, T J; Dizdar, A; Dalton, M M; Ballestrero, S; Connell, S H

    2010-01-01

    We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single crystals. For the amorphous material our data are in good agreement with theory, whereas a discrepancy with theory on the magnitude of the trident enhancement is found in the precisely aligned case where the strong electric field acts.

  11. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  12. Strong boundedness of analytic functions in tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D. Carmichael

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain classes of analytic functions in tube domains TC=ℝn+iC in n-dimensional complex space, where C is an open connected cone in ℝn, are studied. We show that the functions have a boundedness property in the strong topology of the space of tempered distributions g′. We further give a direct proof that each analytic function attains the Fourier transform of its spectral function as distributional boundary value in the strong (and weak topology of g′.

  13. Including virtual photons in strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusetsky, A.

    2003-01-01

    In the perturbative field-theoretical models we investigate the inclusion of the electromagnetic interactions into the purely strong theory that describes hadronic processes. In particular, we study the convention for splitting electromagnetic and strong interactions and the ambiguity of such a splitting. The issue of the interpretation of the parameters of the low-energy effective field theory in the presence of electromagnetic interactions is addressed, as well as the scale and gauge dependence of the effective theory couplings. We hope, that the results of these studies are relevant for the electromagnetic sector of ChPT. (orig.)

  14. Thermodynamical instabilities under strong magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. J.

    2017-03-01

    The thermodynamical instabilities of low densities in the n p matter and n p e matter are studied within several relativistic nuclear models under some values of magnetic fields. The results are compared between each other and the effects of the symmetry energy slope at saturation density on the instability are investigated. The instability regions can exhibit bands due to the presence of Landau levels for very strong magnetic fields of the order of 1017 G, while for weaker magnetic fields, the bands are replaced by many diffused or scattered pieces. It also shows that the proton fraction in the inner crust of neutron stars may be complex under strong magnetic fields.

  15. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    OpenAIRE

    El-Naggar, A.M.; Ismail, G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε)α=α(ε) is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter εε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to αα. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance m...

  18. De Sitter vacua of strongly interacting QFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchel, Alex [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada); Karapetyan, Aleksandr [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario,London, Ontario N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2017-03-22

    We use holographic correspondence to argue that Euclidean (Bunch-Davies) vacuum is a late-time attractor of the dynamical evolution of quantum gauge theories at strong coupling. The Bunch-Davies vacuum is not an adiabatic state, if the gauge theory is non-conformal — the comoving entropy production rate is nonzero. Using the N=2{sup ∗} gauge theory holography, we explore prospects of explaining current accelerated expansion of the Universe as due to the vacuum energy of a strongly coupled QFT.

  19. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  20. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  1. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  2. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  3. Comb-Line Filter with Coupling Capacitor in Ground Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kitamura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comb-line filter with a coupling capacitor in the ground plane is proposed. The filter consists of two quarter-wavelength microstrip resonators. A coupling capacitor is inserted into the ground plane in order to build strong coupling locally along the resonators. The filtering characteristics are investigated through numerical simulations as well as experiments. Filtering characteristics that have attenuation poles at both sides of the passband are obtained. The input susceptances of even and odd modes and coupling coefficients are discussed. The filters using stepped impedance resonators (SIRs are also discussed, and the effects of the coupling capacitor for an SIR structure are shown.

  4. Flexible propulsors in ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Daniel B; Smits, Alexander J; Lauder, George V

    2014-01-01

    We present experimental evidence for the hydrodynamic benefits of swimming ‘in ground effect’, that is, near a solid boundary. This situation is common to fish that swim near the substrate, especially those that are dorsoventrally compressed, such as batoids and flatfishes. To investigate flexible propulsors in ground effect, we conduct force measurements and particle image velocimetry on flexible rectangular panels actuated at their leading edge near the wall of a water channel. For a given actuation mode, the panels swim faster near the channel wall while maintaining the same propulsive economy. In conditions producing net thrust, panels produce more thrust near the ground. When operating in resonance, swimming near the ground can also increase propulsive efficiency. Finally, the ground can act to suppress three-dimensional modes, thereby increasing thrust and propulsive efficiency. The planform considered here is non-biological, but the hydrodynamic benefits are likely to apply to more complex geometries, especially those where broad flexible propulsors are involved such as fish bodies and fins. Such fish could produce more thrust by swimming near the ground, and in some cases do so more efficiently. (paper)

  5. Disorder effects in strongly correlated uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suellow, S.; Maple, M.B.; Tomuta, D.; Nieuwenhuys, G.J.; Menovsky, A.A.; Mydosh, J.A.; Chau, R.

    2001-01-01

    Moderate levels of crystallographic disorder can dramatically affect the ground-state properties of heavy fermion compounds. In particular, the role of disorder close to a quantum critical point has been investigated in detail. However, crystallographic disorder is equally effective in altering the properties of magnetically ordered heavy fermion compounds like URh 2 Ge 2 , where disorder-induced spin-glass behavior has been observed. In this system, moreover, the magnetic ground state can be tuned from a spin-glass to a long-range ordered antiferromagnetic one by means of an annealing treatment. The transformation of the magnetic state is accompanied by a transition in the transport properties from 'quasi-insulating' (dρ/dT 2 Ge 2 will be discussed. Of particular interest is the resistivity of as-grown URh 2 Ge 2 , which resembles the Non-Fermi-liquid system UCu 4 Pd, suggesting that a common mechanism - the crystallographic disorder - controls the transport properties of these materials

  6. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    probes like photons, pions or protons or the heated and compressed hadronic matter generated in a heavy-ion collision. Leaving any nuclear medium without strong final-state interactions, dileptons are the optimum decay channel as they avoid any final-state distortion of the 4- momenta of the decay products entering eq.

  7. Vector mesons in strongly interacting matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of hadrons in strongly interacting matter provide a link between quantum chromodynamics in the ... Top: Spectral function of the ρ-meson at normal nuclear matter density as a function of mass and ... directly but folded with the branching ratio ΓV →p1+p2 /Γtot into the specific final channel one is investigating.

  8. Strong industrial base vital for economic revival

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At the inauguration of a 2-day conference on nuclear technology in Islamabad, the chairman of PAEC said that Pakistan needs to develop a strong industrial base and capability to export equipment to improve the economic condition of the country. He descibed how Pakistan has already had a breakthrough with the export of equipment to CERN, Geneva (1 page).

  9. Chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ye; Liu Weiqing; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhan Meng

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of chaos desynchronization in strongly coupled oscillator systems is studied. We find a new bifurcation from synchronous chaotic state, chaotic short wave bifurcation, i.e. a chaotic desynchronization attractor is new born in the systems due to chaos desynchronization. In comparison with the usual periodic short wave bifurcation, very rich but distinct phenomena are observed

  10. Strong wind climatic zones in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kruger, AC

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper South Africa is divided into strong wind climate zones, which indicate the main sources of annual maximum wind gusts. By the analysis of wind gust data of 94 weather stations, which had continuous climate time series of 10 years...

  11. Reducing Weak to Strong Bisimilarity in CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Aristizábal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent constraint programming (ccp is a well-established model for concurrency that singles out the fundamental aspects of asynchronous systems whose agents (or processes evolve by posting and querying (partial information in a global medium. Bisimilarity is a standard behavioural equivalence in concurrency theory. However, only recently a well-behaved notion of bisimilarity for ccp, and a ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding the strong version of this equivalence have been proposed. Weak bisimiliarity is a central behavioural equivalence in process calculi and it is obtained from the strong case by taking into account only the actions that are observable in the system. Typically, the standard partition refinement can also be used for deciding weak bisimilarity simply by using Milner's reduction from weak to strong bisimilarity; a technique referred to as saturation. In this paper we demonstrate that, because of its involved labeled transitions, the above-mentioned saturation technique does not work for ccp. We give an alternative reduction from weak ccp bisimilarity to the strong one that allows us to use the ccp partition refinement algorithm for deciding this equivalence.

  12. Morphological modelling of strongly curved islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, D.; Den Heijer, C.; Van Thiel De Vries, J.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Land reclamations and island coasts often involve strongly curved shorelines, which are challenging to be properly modeled by numerical morphological models. Evaluation of the long term development of these types of coasts as well as their response to storm conditions requires proper representation

  13. Nonlinear Electron Waves in Strongly Magnetized Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1980-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear dispersive electron waves in strongly magnetized plasma are considered. A modified nonlinear Schrodinger equation is derived taking into account the effect of particles resonating with the group velocity of the waves (nonlinear Landau damping). The possibility of including the ion...

  14. Strong and Reversible Monovalent Supramolecular Protein Immobilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Young, Jacqui F.; Nguyen, Hoang D.; Yang, Lanti; Huskens, Jurriaan; Jonkheijm, Pascal; Brunsveld, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Proteins with an iron clasp: Site-selective incorporation of a ferrocene molecule into a protein allows for easy, strong, and reversible supramolecular protein immobilization through a selective monovalent interaction of the ferrocene with a cucurbit[7]uril immobilized on a gold surface. The

  15. Experimental investigation of strong field trident production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esberg, J.; Kirsebom, K.; Knudsen, H.; Thomsen, H.D.; Uggerhøj, E.; Uggerhøj, U.I.; Sona, P.; Mangiarotti, A.; Ketel, T.J.; Ditzdar, A.; Dalton, M.M.; Ballestrero, S.; Connell, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    We show by experiment that an electron impinging on an electric field that is of critical magnitude in its rest frame, may produce an electron-positron pair. Our measurements address higher-order QED, using the strong electric fields obtainable along particular crystallographic directions in single

  16. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hanced values needed to interpret the data at higher energies point towards the importance of strong-coupling effects. ... when all secondary particles have been created. For short times in the initial phase ... It is decisive for a proper representation of the available data for relativistic heavy-ion collisions at and beyond SPS.

  17. Bottomonia: open bottom strong decays and spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santopinto E.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present our results for the bottomonium spectrum with self energy corrections. The bare masses used in the calculation are computed within Godfrey and Isgur’s relativized quark model. We also discuss our results for the open bottom strong decay widths of higher bottomonia in the 3P0 pair-creation model.

  18. Controlling Josephson dynamics by strong microwave fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chesca, B.; Savel'ev, E.; Rakhmanov, A.L.; Smilde, H.J.H.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.

    2008-01-01

    We observe several sharp changes in the slope of the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of thin-film ramp-edge Josephson junctions between YBa2Cu3O7−delta and Nb when applying strong microwave fields. Such behavior indicates an intriguing Josephson dynamics associated with the switching from a

  19. Strong-coupling diffusion in relativistic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Different from the early universe, heavy-ion collisions at very high energies do not reach statistical equilibrium, although thermal models explain many of their features. To account for nonequilibrium strong-coupling effects, a Fokker–Planck equation with time-dependent diffusion coefficient is proposed. A schematic model ...

  20. Weak and strong nonlinearities in magnetic bearings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 7 (2004), s. 779-795 ISSN 0094-114X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/1471; GA AV ČR IBS2076301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : weak nonlinearitiy * strong nonlinearity * magnetics bearings Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.605, year: 2004

  1. Rotating compressible fluids under strong stratification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feireisl, Eduard; Lu, Y.; Novotný, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, October (2014), s. 11-18 ISSN 1468-1218 Keywords : rotating fluid * compressible Navier-Stokes * strong stratification Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1468121814000212#

  2. Super-strong Magnetic Field in Sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    Sunspots are the most notable structure on the solar surface with strong magnetic fields. The field is generally strongest in a dark area (umbra), but sometimes stronger fields are found in non-dark regions, such as a penumbra and a light bridge. The formation mechanism of such strong fields outside umbrae is still puzzling. Here we report clear evidence of the magnetic field of 6250 G, which is the strongest field among Stokes I profiles with clear Zeeman splitting ever observed on the Sun. The field was almost parallel to the solar surface and located in a bright region sandwiched by two opposite-polarity umbrae. Using a time series of spectral data sets, we discuss the formation process of the super-strong field and suggest that this strong field region was generated as a result of compression of one umbra pushed by the horizontal flow from the other umbra, such as the subduction of the Earth’s crust in plate tectonics.

  3. Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.

  4. A Note on Strongly Dense Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Hall, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (2015), s. 721-730 ISSN 2199-675X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : strongly dense matrix * Boolean matrix * nonnegative matrix * idempotent matrix * intrinsic product * generalized complementary basic matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  5. Strongly 2-connected orientations of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We prove that a graph admits a strongly 2-connected orientation if and only if it is 4-edge-connected, and every vertex-deleted subgraph is 2-edge-connected. In particular, every 4-connected graph has such an orientation while no cubic 3-connected graph has such an orientation....

  6. The Shape of Strongly Disturbed Dayside Magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei V. Dmitriev Alla V. Suvorova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During strong geomagnetic disturbances, the Earth¡¦s magnetosphere exhibits unusual and nonlinear interaction with the incident flow of magnetized solar wind plasma. Global Magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD modeling of the magnetosphere predicts that the storm-time effects at the magnetopause result from the abnormal plasma transport and/or extremely strong field aligned currents. In-situ observations of the magnetospheric boundary, magnetopause, by Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES allowed us to find experimentally such effects as a saturation of the dayside reconnection, unusual bluntness and prominent duskward skewing of the nose magnetopause. The saturation and duskward skewing were attributed to the storm-time magnetopause formation under strong southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. The unusual bluntness was observed during both high solar wind pressure and strong southward IMF. We suggest that these phenomena are caused by a substantial contribution of the cross-tail current magnetic field and the hot magnetospheric plasma from the asymmetrical ring current into the pressure balance at the dayside magnetopause.

  7. Solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events and the related solar-terrestrial phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Guiming; Yang, Xingxing; Ding, Liuguang; Liu, Yonghua; Lu, Yangping; Chen, Minhao

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the solar cycle distribution of strong solar proton events (SPEs, peak flux ≥1000 pfu) and the solar-terrestrial phenomena associated with the strong SPEs during solar cycles 21-23. The results show that 37 strong SPEs were registered over this period of time, where 20 strong SPEs were originated from the super active regions (SARs) and 28 strong SPEs were accompanied by the X-class flares. Most strong SPEs were not associated with the ground level enhancement (GLE) event. Most strong SPEs occurred in the descending phases of the solar cycles. The weaker the solar cycle, the higher the proportion of strong SPES occurred in the descending phase of the cycle. The number of the strong SPEs that occurred within a solar cycle is poorly associated with the solar cycle size. The intensity of the SPEs is highly dependent of the location of their source regions, with the super SPEs (≥20000 pfu) distributed around solar disk center. A super SPE was always accompanied by a fast shock driven by the associated coronal mass ejection and a great geomagnetic storm. The source location of strongest GLE event is distributed in the well-connected region. The SPEs associated with super GLE events (peak increase rate ≥100%) which have their peak flux much lower than 10000 pfu were not accompanied by an intense geomagnetic storm.

  8. Ground-source heat pump barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    In Europe the ground-source heat pump market contracted for the second year running by 2.9% between 2009 and 2010. Around 103.000 units were sold in 2010, taking the number of installed units over one million. The 3 European countries with the most sales are Sweden (31953 units, +16%), Germany (25516 units, -13%) and France (12250 units, -21%). The drop in sales is generally due to market contraction on the current recession but some specificities exist: for instance the insufficient training of the installers has led to under-performance and to a bad image of this energy in France. The Swedish and German manufacturers are in a very strong position and are increasing their market share in the main European markets. (A.C.)

  9. The NTS Ground Motion Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    App, F.N.

    1994-04-01

    The NTS (Nevada Test Site) Ground Motion Data Base is composed of strong motion data recorded during the normal execution of the US underground test program. It contains surface, subsurface, and structure motion data as digitized waveforms. Currently the data base contains information from 148 underground explosions This represents about 4200 measurements and nearly 12,000 individual digitized waveforms. Most of the data was acquired by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in connection with LANL sponsored underground tests. Some was acquired by Los Alamos on tests conducted by the Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and there are some measurements which were acquired by the other test sponsors on their events and provided to us for inclusion in this data base. Included in the data set is the Los Alamos motion data from the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE).

  10. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  11. Simple variational ground state and pure-cat-state generation in the quantum Rabi model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, C.; Govia, L. C. G.; Clerk, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a simple, physically motivated variational ground state for the quantum Rabi model and demonstrate that it provides a high-fidelity approximation of the true ground state in all parameter regimes (including intermediate- and strong-coupling regimes). Our variational state is constructed using Gaussian cavity states and nonorthogonal qubit pointer states and contains only three variational parameters. We use our state to develop a heuristic understanding of how the ground state evolves with increasing coupling and find a parameter regime where the ground state corresponds to the cavity being in a nearly pure Schrödinger cat state.

  12. Strong negative terahertz photoconductivity in photoexcited graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maixia; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) response of a chemical vapor deposited graphene on a quartz substrate has been investigated by using an ultrafast optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy. Without photoexcitation, the frequency-dependence optical conductivity shows a strong carrier response owing to the intrinsically doped graphene. Upon photoexcitation, an enhancement in THz transmission is observed and the transmission increases nonlinearly with the increase of pump power, which is rooted in a reduction of intrinsic conductivity arising from the strong enhancement of carrier scattering rather than THz emission occurrence. The modulation depth of 18.8% was experimentally achieved, which is more than four times greater than that of the previous reported. The photoinduced response here highlights the variety of response possible in graphene depending on the sample quality, carrier mobility and doping level. The graphene provides promising applications in high-performance THz modulators and THz photoelectric devices.

  13. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies......, but it is based on well understood physics and unlike distance ladder methods there are no calibration issues. Moreover, it has an advantage over some of the leading methods (such as Type Ia SNe) in that it is a purely cosmological approach. In this thesis, the property of strong gravitational lensing - time...

  14. Gallstone ileus resulting in strong intestinal obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Szajnbok

    Full Text Available Mechanic intestinal obstruction, caused by the passage of biliary calculus from vesicle to intestine, through fistulization, although not frequent, deserve study due to the morbi-mortality rates. Incidence in elder people explains the association with chronic degenerative diseases, increasing complexity in terms of therapy decision. Literature discusses the need and opportunity for the one or two-phase surgical attack of the cholecystenteric fistule, in front of the resolution on the obstructive urgency and makes reference to Gallstone Ileus as an exception for strong intestinal obstruction. The more frequent intestinal obstruction observed is when it occurs a Gallstone Ileus impacting in terms of ileocecal valve. The authors submit a Gallstone Ileus manifestation as causing strong intestinal obstruction, discussing aspects regarding diagnostic and treatment.

  15. Strong gauge boson scattering at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Rindani, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the standard model with electroweak symmetry breaking through the Higgs mechanism, electroweak gauge-boson scattering amplitudes are large if the Higgs boson is heavy, and electroweak gauge interactions become strong. In theories with electroweak symmetry breaking through alternative mechanisms, there could be a strongly interacting gauge sector, possibly with resonances in an accessible energy region. In general, the scattering of longitudinally polarized massive gauge bosons can give information on the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. At energies below the symmetry breaking scale, the equivalence theorem relates the scattering amplitudes to those of the "would-be" Goldstone modes. In the absence of Higgs bosons, unitarity would be restored by some new physics which can be studied through WW scattering. Some representatives models are discussed. Isolating WW scattering at a hadron collider from other contributions involving W emission from parton lines needs a good understanding of the backgrou...

  16. Strong spin-photon coupling in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkharadze, N; Zheng, G; Kalhor, N; Brousse, D; Sammak, A; Mendes, U C; Blais, A; Scappucci, G; Vandersypen, L M K

    2018-03-09

    Long coherence times of single spins in silicon quantum dots make these systems highly attractive for quantum computation, but how to scale up spin qubit systems remains an open question. As a first step to address this issue, we demonstrate the strong coupling of a single electron spin and a single microwave photon. The electron spin is trapped in a silicon double quantum dot, and the microwave photon is stored in an on-chip high-impedance superconducting resonator. The electric field component of the cavity photon couples directly to the charge dipole of the electron in the double dot, and indirectly to the electron spin, through a strong local magnetic field gradient from a nearby micromagnet. Our results provide a route to realizing large networks of quantum dot-based spin qubit registers. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  17. Cosmogenic photons strongly constrain UHECR source models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Vliet Arjen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the newest version of our Monte Carlo code for ultra-high-energy cosmic ray (UHECR propagation, CRPropa 3, the flux of neutrinos and photons due to interactions of UHECRs with extragalactic background light can be predicted. Together with the recently updated data for the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB by Fermi LAT, it is now possible to severely constrain UHECR source models. The evolution of the UHECR sources especially plays an important role in the determination of the expected secondary photon spectrum. Pure proton UHECR models are already strongly constrained, primarily by the highest energy bins of Fermi LAT’s IGRB, as long as their number density is not strongly peaked at recent times.

  18. Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.

    2015-04-01

    Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.

  19. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Rytaro Yamashita

    2015-01-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together...... however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced....... This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can...

  20. Quantum Transport in Strongly Correlated Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Dan

    2007-01-01

    the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method. We present two DMRG setups for calculating the linear conductance of strongly correlated nanostructures in the infinitesimal source-drain voltage regime. The first setup describes the leads by modified real-space tight-binding chains, whereas the second...... screening plays a much less significant role than in bulk systems due to the reduced size of the objects, therefore making it necessary to consider the importance of correlations between electrons. The work presented in this thesis deals with quantum transport through strongly correlated systems using....... Thus both coherence and correlation effects are important in this model, and the methods applied should be able to handle both these effects rigorously. We present the DMRG setup for this model and benchmark against existing Greens function results for the model. Then we present initial DMRG results...

  1. Hydrogen atoms in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.R. dos.

    1975-07-01

    The energies and wave functions of the 14 lowest states of a Hydrogen atom in a strong magnetic field are calculated, using a variational scheme. The equivalence between the atomic problem and the problems related with excitons and impurities in semiconductors in the presence of a strong magnetic field are shown. The calculations of the energies and wave functions have been divided in two regions: the first, for the magnetic field ranging between zero and 10 9 G; in the second the magnetic field ranges between 10 9 and 10 11 G. The results have been compared with those obtained by previous authors. The computation time necessary for the calculations is small. Therefore this is a convenient scheme to obtain the energies and wave functions for the problem. Transition probabilities, wavelengths and oscillator strengths for some allowed transitions are also calculated. (Author) [pt

  2. Strong Josephson Coupling in Planar Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinho; Lee, Gil-Ho; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Takane, Yositake; Imura, Ken-Ichiro; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Lee, Hu-Jong

    A recent breakthrough of processing graphene, employing encapsulation by hexagonal boron nitride layers (BGB structure), allows realizing the ballistic carrier transport in graphene. Thereafter, ballistic Josephson coupling has been studied by closely edge-contacted BGB structure with two superconducting electrodes. Here, we report on the strong Josephson coupling with planar graphene junction in truly short and ballistic regime. Our device showed high transmission probability and the junction critical current (IC) oscillating for sweeping the gate voltage along with the normal conductance oscillation (Fabry-Perot oscillations), providing a direct evidence for the ballistic nature of the junction pair current. We also observed the convex-upward shape of decreasing critical currents with increasing temperature, canonical properties of the short Josephson coupling. By fitting these curves into theoretical models, we demonstrate the strong Josephson coupling in our devices, which is also supported by the exceptionally large value of ICRN ( 2 Δ / e RNis the normal resistance).

  3. Electroweak and Strong Interactions Phenomenology, Concepts, Models

    CERN Document Server

    Scheck, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Electroweak and Strong Interaction: Phenomenology, Concepts, Models, begins with relativistic quantum mechanics and some quantum field theory which lay the foundation for the rest of the text. The phenomenology and the physics of the fundamental interactions are emphasized through a detailed discussion of the empirical fundamentals of unified theories of strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions. The principles of local gauge theories are described both in a heuristic and a geometric framework. The minimal standard model of the fundamental interactions is developed in detail and characteristic applications are worked out. Possible signals of physics beyond that model, notably in the physics of neutrinos are also discussed. Among the applications scattering on nucleons and on nuclei provide salient examples. Numerous exercises with solutions make the text suitable for advanced courses or individual study. This completely updated revised new edition contains an enlarged chapter on quantum chromodynamics an...

  4. Frictional Coulomb drag in strong magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønsager, Martin Christian; Flensberg, Karsten; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang

    1997-01-01

    A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21) is eval......A treatment of frictional Coulomb drag between two two-dimensional electron layers in a strong perpendicular magnetic field, within the independent electron picture, is presented. Assuming fully resolved Landau levels, the linear response theory expression for the transresistivity rho(21......) is evaluated using diagrammatic techniques. The transresistivity is given by an integral over energy and momentum transfer weighted by the product of the screened interlayer interaction and the phase space for scattering events. We demonstrate, by a numerical analysis of the transresistivity, that for well...

  5. Orbits in weak and strong bars

    CERN Document Server

    Contopoulos, George

    1980-01-01

    The authors study the plane orbits in simple bar models embedded in an axisymmetric background when the bar density is about 1% (weak), 10% (intermediate) or 100% (strong bar) of the axisymmetric density. Most orbits follow the stable periodic orbits. The basic families of periodic orbits are described. In weak bars with two Inner Lindblad Resonances there is a family of stable orbits extending from the center up to the Outer Lindblad Resonance. This family contains the long period orbits near corotation. Other stable families appear between the Inner Lindblad Resonances, outside the Outer Lindblad Resonance, around corotation (short period orbits) and around the center (retrograde). Some families become unstable or disappear in strong bars. A comparison is made with cases having one or no Inner Lindblad Resonance. (12 refs).

  6. Strong sum distance in fuzzy graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Mini; Sunitha, Muraleedharan Shetty

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the idea of strong sum distance which is a metric, in a fuzzy graph is introduced. Based on this metric the concepts of eccentricity, radius, diameter, center and self centered fuzzy graphs are studied. Some properties of eccentric nodes, peripheral nodes and central nodes are obtained. A characterisation of self centered complete fuzzy graph is obtained and conditions under which a fuzzy cycle is self centered are established. We have proved that based on this metric, an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree G is a fuzzy end node of G and a node is an eccentric node of a fuzzy tree if and only if it is a peripheral node of G and the center of a fuzzy tree consists of either one or two neighboring nodes. The concepts of boundary nodes and interior nodes in a fuzzy graph based on strong sum distance are introduced. Some properties of boundary nodes, interior nodes and complete nodes are studied.

  7. Analytical solution of strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. El-Naggar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new perturbation technique is employed to solve strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators, in which a new parameter α=α(ε is defined such that the value of α is always small regardless of the magnitude of the original parameter ε. Therefore, the strongly nonlinear Duffing oscillators with large parameter ε are transformed into a small parameter system with respect to α. Approximate solution obtained by the present method is compared with the solution of energy balance method, homotopy perturbation method, global error minimization method and lastly numerical solution. We observe from the results that this method is very simple, easy to apply, and gives a very good accuracy not only for small parameter εbut also for large values of ε.

  8. SUSY strong production (leptonic) with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Tomoyuki; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the most motivated scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model. This article summarizes recent ATLAS results on searches for supersymmetry in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV at LHC, which target supersymmetric particles produced by strong interaction in events with leptonic fi nal states. No signi ficant excess above the Standard Model expectation is observed and exclusion limits have been set on squark and gluino masses in various scenarios.

  9. Strong coupling QED with two fermionic flavors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, K.C.

    1990-11-01

    We report the recent results of our simulation of strong coupling QED, with non-compact action, on lattices 10{sup 4} and 16{sup 4}. Since we are dealing with two staggered fermionic flavors, we use hybrid algorithm to do the simulation. In addition to the measurement of the chiral order parameter {l angle}{bar {psi}}{psi}{r angle}, we also measure magnetic monopole susceptibility, {chi}, throughout the region of chiral transition. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Magnetic properties of strongly asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, M.; Wojcik, W.

    1988-01-01

    We investigate stability of neutron matter containing a small proton admixture with respect to spin fluctuations. We establish conditions under which strongly asymmetric nuclear matter could acquire a permanent magnetization. It is shown that if the protons are localized, the system becomes unstable to spin fluctuations for arbitrarily weak proton-neutron spin interactions. For non-localized protons there exists a threshold value of the spin interaction above which the system can develop a spontaneous polarization. 12 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  11. Strong coupling analogue of the Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1989-10-01

    In a given partial wave, the strength of the centrifugal term to be incorporated into the WKBA solutions in different spatial regions can be adjusted so as to make the first order wave functions everywhere smooth and, in strong coupling, exactly reproduce Quantum Mechanics throughout the space. The relevant higher order approximations supply an absolute convergent series expansion of the exact scattering state. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Strong-Q-sequences and small d

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodounský, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 3 (2012), s. 2942-2946 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Katowice problem * strong-Q-sequence * dominating number Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002222

  13. Superbainite. A novel very strong bainitic microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Mateo, C.; Caballero, E. G.; Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.

    2005-01-01

    In this work very recent results are how that reveals the possibility of obtaining bainite by isothermal transformation at very low temperatures, of about 150 degree centigree, in high carbon high silicon steels. The microstructure thus obtained is a mixture of fine plates of bainite ferrite (20-40 nm thickness) and thin films of carbon enriched austenite. These microstructures are very hard (600 HV) and strong (2.5 GPa). (Author) 18 refs

  14. Strong decays of nonstrange q3 baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.; Iachello, F.; Leviatan, A.

    1997-01-01

    We study strong decays of nonstrange baryons by making use of the algebraic approach to hadron structure. Within this framework we derive closed expressions for decay widths in an elementary-meson emission model and use these to analyze the experimental data for N * →N+π, N * →Δ+π, N * →N+η, Δ * →N+π, Δ * →Δ+π, and Δ * →Δ+η decays. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  15. Electromotive force in strongly compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, N.

    2017-12-01

    Variable density fluid turbulence is ubiquitous in geo-fluids, not to mention in astrophysics. Depending on the source of density variation, variable density fluid turbulence may be divided into two categories: the weak compressible (entropy mode) turbulence for slow flow and the strong compressible (acoustic mode) turbulence for fast flow. In the strong compressible turbulence, the pressure fluctuation induces a strong density fluctuation ρ ', which is represented by the density variance ( denotes the ensemble average). The turbulent effect on the large-scale magnetic-field B induction is represented by the turbulent electromotive force (EMF) (u': velocity fluctuation, b': magnetic-field fluctuation). In the usual treatment in the dynamo theory, the expression for the EMF has been obtained in the framework of incompressible or weak compressible turbulence, where only the variation of the mean density , if any, is taken into account. We see from the equation of the density fluctuation ρ', the density variance is generated by the large mean density variation ∂ coupled with the turbulent mass flux . This means that in the region where the mean density steeply changes, the density variance effect becomes relevant for the magnetic field evolution. This situation is typically the case for phenomena associated with shocks and compositional discontinuities. With the aid of the analytical theory of inhomogeneous compressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, the expression for the turbulent electromotive force is investigated. It is shown that, among others, an obliqueness (misalignment) between the mean density gradient ∂ and the mean magnetic field B may contribute to the EMF as ≈χ B×∂ with the turbulent transport coefficient χ proportional to the density variance (χ ). This density variance effect is expected to strongly affect the EMF near the interface, and changes the transport properties of turbulence. In the case of an interface under the MHD slow

  16. Quantum glassiness in clean strongly correlated systems: an example of topological overprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamon, Claudio

    2005-03-01

    Describing matter at near absolute zero temperature requires understanding a system's quantum ground state and the low energy excitations around it, the quasiparticles, which are thermally populated by the system's contact to a heat bath. However, this paradigm breaks down if thermal equilibration is obstructed. I present solvable examples of quantum many-body Hamiltonians of systems that are unable to reach their ground states as the environment temperature is lowered to absolute zero. These examples, three dimensional generalizations of quantum Hamiltonians proposed for topological quantum computing, 1) have no quenched disorder, 2) have solely local interactions, 3) have an exactly solvable spectrum, 4) have topologically ordered ground states, and 5) have slow dynamical relaxation rates akin to those of strong structural glasses.

  17. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-12-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  18. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  19. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontani, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ., Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, {tau}, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.

  20. Simulation of turbulent flows containing strong shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryxell, Bruce; Menon, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent flows with strong shocks is a computationally challenging problem. The requirements for a method to produce accurate results for turbulence are orthogonal to those needed to treat shocks properly. In order to prevent an unphysical rate of decay of turbulent structures, it is necessary to use a method with very low numerical dissipation. Because of this, central difference schemes are widely used. However, computing strong shocks with a central difference scheme can produce unphysical post-shock oscillations that corrupt the entire flow unless additional dissipation is added. This dissipation can be difficult to localize to the area near the shock and can lead to inaccurate treatment of the turbulence. Modern high-resolution shock-capturing methods usually use upwind algorithms to provide the dissipation necessary to stabilize shocks. However, this upwind dissipation can also lead to an unphysical rate of decay of the turbulence. This paper discusses a hybrid method for simulating turbulent flows with strong shocks that couples a high-order central difference scheme with a high-resolution shock-capturing method. The shock-capturing method is used only in the vicinity of discontinuities in the flow, whereas the central difference scheme is used in the remainder of the computational domain. Results of this new method will be shown for a variety of test problems. Preliminary results for a realistic application involving detonation in gas-particle flows will also be presented.

  1. Status of Ground Motion Mitigation Techniques for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Snuverink, J; Collette, C; Duarte Ramos, F; Gaddi, A; Gerwig, H; Janssens, S; Pfingstner, J; Schulte, D; Balik, G; Brunetti, L; Jeremie, A; Burrows, P; Caron, B; Resta-Lopez, J

    2011-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) accelerator has strong stability requirements on the position of the beam. In particular, the beam position will be sensitive to ground motion. A number of mitigation techniques are proposed - quadrupole stabilisation and positioning, final doublet stabilisation as well as beam based orbit and interaction point (IP) feedback. Integrated studies of the impact of the ground motion on the CLIC Main Linac (ML) and Beam Delivery System (BDS) have been performed, which model the hardware and beam performance in detail. Based on the results future improvements of the mitigation techniques are suggested and simulated. It is shown that with the current design the tight luminosity budget for ground motion effects is fulfilled and accordingly, an essential feasibility issue of CLIC has been addressed.

  2. Uncertainty and Spatial Correlation of Earthquake Ground Motion in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sokolov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed characteristics of aleatory variability with regard to intra-event and inter-event components in the prediction of peak ground acceleration in Taiwan and the spatial (site-to-site correlation of ground motion residuals. The characteristics are very important for an assessment of seismic hazard and loss for regionally located building assets (portfolio and spatially distributed systems (lifelines and ShakeMap generation. The strong-motion database collected by the TSMIP network in Taiwan, which includes about 4650 records from 66 shallow earthquakes (ML > 4.5, focal depth < 30 km occurred in 1993 - 2004, was used for this purpose. The results of the analysis show that the ground motion correlation structure is highly dependent on local geology and on peculiarities of the propagation path (azimuth-dependent attenuation. Thus, a single generalized spatial correlation model may not be adequate for all of Taiwan territory or similar large areas.

  3. Engaging Military Fathers in a Reflective Parenting Program: Lessons from Strong Families Strong Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Ellen R.; Paris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Through Strong Families Strong Forces, a reflective parenting program for military families with young children, we were privileged to work with contemporary military fathers who served in the post-9/11 conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Due to this work, the authors gained valuable insight into the complexity of fathering during wartime, the…

  4. 77 FR 16131 - Establishing a White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-20

    ... Order 13602 of March 15, 2012 Establishing a White House Council on Strong Cities, Strong Communities By... enable them to develop and implement economic strategies to become more competitive, sustainable, and inclusive, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1. Policy. Cities, towns, and regions across our Nation...

  5. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  6. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo [KEK, High Energy Alccelerator Research Organization (Japan); Tsuneya, Tsubokawa [National Astronomical Observatory, Mizusawa Astrogeodynamics Observatory (Japan); Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1999-07-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10{sup 33} to 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  7. Free Swimming in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Carney, Jackson; Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    A free-swimming potential flow analysis of unsteady ground effect is conducted for two-dimensional airfoils via a method of images. The foils undergo a pure pitching motion about their leading edge, and the positions of the body in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are determined by the equations of motion of the body. It is shown that the unconstrained swimmer is attracted to a time-averaged position that is mediated by the flow interaction with the ground. The robustness of this fluid-mediated equilibrium position is probed by varying the non-dimensional mass, initial conditions and kinematic parameters of motion. Comparisons to the foil's fixed-motion counterpart are also made to pinpoint the effect that free swimming near the ground has on wake structures and the fluid-mediated forces over time. Optimal swimming regimes for near-boundary swimming are determined by examining asymmetric motions.

  8. Ground-state properties of a supersymmetric fermion chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendley, Paul; Hagendorf, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the ground state of a strongly interacting fermion chain with a supersymmetry. We conjecture a number of exact results, such as a hidden duality between weak and strong couplings. By exploiting a scale-free property of the perturbative expansions, we find exact expressions for the order parameters, yielding the critical exponents. We show that the ground state of this fermion chain and another model in the same universality class, the XYZ chain along a line of couplings, are both written in terms of the same polynomials. We demonstrate this explicitly for up to N = 24 sites and provide consistency checks for large N. These polynomials satisfy a recursion relation related to the Painlevé VI differential equation and, using a scale-free property of these polynomials, we derive a simple and exact formula for their N→∞ limit

  9. Thermal Phase Transitions of Strongly Correlated Bosons with Spin-Orbit Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Ciarán; Paramekanti, Arun

    2014-12-01

    Experiments on ultracold atoms have started to explore lattice effects and thermal fluctuations for two-component bosons with spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Motivated by this, we derive and study a t J model for lattice bosons with equal Rashba-Dresselhaus SOC and strong Hubbard repulsion in a uniform Zeeman magnetic field. Using the Gutzwiller ansatz, we find strongly correlated ground states with stripe superfluid (SF) order. We formulate a finite temperature generalization of the Gutzwiller method, and show that thermal fluctuations in the doped Mott insulator drive a two-step melting of the stripe SF, revealing a wide regime of a stripe normal fluid.

  10. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 183.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral... generator to ground before the generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power...

  11. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 120.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each...

  12. Direct URCA-processes in neutron star quark core with strong magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyaev Vasily

    2017-01-01

    In evaluations, the strength of magnetic field corresponds to the case, where the quarks of medium occupy a lot of Landau levels, while the electrons are in ground Landau level. The analytical dependence of neutrino emissivity on chemical potentials of quarks and electrons, temperature and magnetic field strength is obtained and briefly discussed. The result could be important in application to a massive strongly magnetized neutron star with quark core.

  13. Kinematic description of the rupture from strong motion data: strategies for a robust inversion

    OpenAIRE

    Lucca, Ernestina

    2011-01-01

    We present a non linear technique to invert strong motion records with the aim of obtaining the final slip and rupture velocity distributions on the fault plane. In this thesis, the ground motion simulation is obtained evaluating the representation integral in the frequency. The Green’s tractions are computed using the discrete wave-number integration technique that provides the full wave-field in a 1D layered propagation medium. The representation integral is computed through a finite elemen...

  14. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  15. Renormalization in theories with strong vector forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocic, A.

    1991-01-01

    There are not many field theories in four dimensions that have sensible ultraviolet and interesting (non-trivial) infrared behavior. At present, asymptotically free theories seem to have deserved their legitimacy and there is a strong prejudice that they might be the only ones to have such a distinction. This belief stems mostly from the fact that most of the knowledge of field theory in four dimensions comes from perturbation theory. However, nonperturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that are perturbative studies of the lower dimensional theories reveal a host of interesting phenomena that perturbatively inaccessible. The lack of asymptotic freedom implies that the coupling constant grows at short distances and perturbation theory breaks down. Thus, in such theories, ultraviolet behavior requires nonperturbative treatment. Recently, the interest in strongly coupled gauge theories has been revived. In particularly, four dimensional quantum electrodynamics has received considerable attention. This was motivated by the discovery of an ultraviolet stable fixed point at strong couplings. If this fixed point would turn out to be non-gaussian, then QED would be the first nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory in four dimensions. The importance of such a result would be twofold. First, the old question of the existence of QED could be settled. Of course, this would be the case provided that the low energy limit of the theory actually describes photons and electrons; apriori, there is no reason to assume this. Second, the discovery of a nontrivial nonasymptotically free theory would be of great paradigmatic value. The theories which quenched QED resembles the most are nonabelian gauge theories with many flavors with beta-function positive or vanishing at weak couplings. These theories are at present considered as viable candidates for technicolor unification schemes

  16. Bound states in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, C. S.; Navarra, F. S.; Noronha, J.; Oliveira, E. G.; Ferreira Filho, L. G.

    2013-01-01

    We expect a strong magnetic field to be produced in the perpendicular direction to the reaction plane, in a noncentral heavy-ion collision . The strength of the magnetic field is estimated to be eB∼m 2 π ∼ 0.02 GeV 2 at the RHIC and eB∼ 15m 2 π ∼ 0.3 GeV 2 at the LHC. We investigate the effects of the magnetic field on B 0 and D 0 mesons, focusing on the changes of the energy levels and of the mass of the bound states.

  17. Strong signatures of right-handed compositeness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [INFN, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Sanz, Veronica [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Vries, Maikel de; Weiler, Andreas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Right-handed light quarks could be significantly composite, yet compatible with experimental searches at the LHC and precision tests on Standard Model couplings. In these scenarios, that are motivated by flavor physics, one expects large cross sections for the production of new resonances coupled to light quarks. We study experimental strong signatures of right-handed compositeness at the LHC, and constrain the parameter space of these models with recent results by ATLAS and CMS. We show that the LHC sensitivity could be significantly improved if dedicated searches were performed, in particular in multi-jet signals.

  18. The Dark Side of Strongly Coupled Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Christoforos

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of dark matter search experiments on the different candidates emerging from the minimal quasi-conformal strong coupling theory with fermions in the adjoint representation. For one candidate, the current limits of CDMS exclude a tiny window of masses around 120 GeV. We...... also investigate under what circumstances the newly proposed candidate composed of a -2 negatively charged particle and a $^4He^{+2}$ can explain the discrepancy between the results of the CDMS and DAMA experiments. We found that this type of dark matter should give negative results in CDMS, while...

  19. Fundamental Structure of Matter and Strong Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian-Ping Chen

    2011-11-01

    More than 99% of the visible matter in the universe are the protons and neutrons. Their internal structure is mostly governed by the strong interaction. Understanding their internal structure in terms of fundamental degrees-of-freedom is one of the most important subjects in modern physics. Worldwide efforts in the last few decades have lead to numerous surprises and discoveries, but major challenges still remain. An overview of the progress will be presented with a focus on the recent studies of the proton and neutron's electromagnetic and spin structure. Future perspectives will be discussed.

  20. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme

  1. Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)

  2. Wormhole effect in a strong topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G.; Guo, H.-M.; Franz, M.

    2010-07-01

    An infinitely thin solenoid carrying magnetic flux Φ (a “Dirac string”) inserted into an ordinary band insulator has no significant effect on the spectrum of electrons. In a strong topological insulator, remarkably, such a solenoid carries protected gapless one-dimensional fermionic modes when Φ=hc/2e . These modes are spin-filtered and represent a distinct bulk manifestation of the topologically nontrivial insulator. We establish this “wormhole” effect by both general qualitative considerations and by numerical calculations within a minimal lattice model. We also discuss the possibility of experimental observation of a closely related effect in artificially engineered nanostructures.

  3. Strong piezoelectricity in bioinspired peptide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholkin, Andrei; Amdursky, Nadav; Bdikin, Igor; Gazit, Ehud; Rosenman, Gil

    2010-02-23

    We show anomalously strong shear piezoelectric activity in self-assembled diphenylalanine peptide nanotubes (PNTs), indicating electric polarization directed along the tube axis. Comparison with well-known piezoelectric LiNbO(3) and lateral signal calibration yields sufficiently high effective piezoelectric coefficient values of at least 60 pm/V (shear response for tubes of approximately 200 nm in diameter). PNTs demonstrate linear deformation without irreversible degradation in a broad range of driving voltages. The results open up a wide avenue for developing new generations of "green" piezoelectric materials and piezonanodevices based on bioactive tubular nanostructures potentially compatible with human tissue.

  4. Development of a strong electromagnet wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, M.J.; Deis, G.A.; Holmes, R.H.; Van Maren, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1987-01-01

    The Strong Electromagnet (SEM) wiggler is a permanent magnet-assisted electromagnet under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as part of the Induction Linac Free-Electron-Laser (IFEL) program. This concept uses permanent magnets within the wiggler to provide a reverse bias flux in the iron and thus delay the onset of magnetic saturation. The electromagnet coils determine the wiggler field and operate at low current densities by virtue of their placement away from the midplane. We describe here the design approach used and test data from a 7-period wiggler prototype that includes curved pole tips to provide wiggle-plane focusing. 7 refs

  5. Strong Interactions Physics at BaBar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioppi, M.

    2005-03-14

    Recent results obtained by BABAR experiment and related to strong interactions physics are presented, with particular attention to the extraction of the first four hadronic-mass moments and the first three lepton-energy moments in semileptonic decays. From a simultaneous fit to the moments, the CKM element |V{sub cb}|, the inclusive B {yields} X{sub c}lv and other heavy quark parameters are derived. The second topic is the ambiguity-free measurement of cos(2{beta}) in B {yields} J/{Psi}K* decays. With approximately 88 million of B{bar B} pairs, negative solutions for cos(2{beta}) are excluded at 89%.

  6. Phase diagram of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zverev, M.V.; Khodel', V.A.; Baldo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Phase transitions in uniform Fermi systems with repulsive forces between the particles caused by restructuring of quasiparticle filling n(p) are analyzed. It is found that in terms of variables, i.e. density ρ, nondimensional binding constant η, phase diagram of a strongly correlated Fermi system for rather a wide class of interactions reminds of a puff-pastry pie. Its upper part is filled with fermion condensate, the lower one - with normal Fermi-liquid. They are separated by a narrow interlayer - the Lifshits phase, characterized by the Fermi multibound surface [ru

  7. Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Kirsch, J.

    1981-05-01

    We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)

  8. Strong Interaction Studies with PANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönning, Karin

    2016-10-01

    The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany, provides unique possibilities for a new generation of nuclear-, hadron- and atomic physics experiments. The future PANDA experiment at FAIR will offer a broad physics programme with emphasis on different aspects of hadron physics. Understanding the strong interaction in the perturbative regime remains one of the greatest challenges in contemporary physics and hadrons provide several important keys. In these proceedings, PANDA will be presented along with some high-lights of the planned physics programme.

  9. 30 CFR 77.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 77.801 Section 77.801...-Voltage Distribution § 77.801 Grounding resistors. The grounding resistor, where required, shall be of the proper ohmic value to limit the voltage drop in the grounding circuit external to the resistor to not...

  10. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements. ...

  11. Ground motion modeling of Hayward fault scenario earthquakes II:Simulation of long-period and broadband ground motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, B T; Graves, R W; Rodgers, A; Brocher, T M; Simpson, R W; Dreger, D; Petersson, N A; Larsen, S C; Ma, S; Jachens, R C

    2009-11-04

    We simulate long-period (T > 1.0-2.0 s) and broadband (T > 0.1 s) ground motions for 39 scenarios earthquakes (Mw 6.7-7.2) involving the Hayward, Calaveras, and Rodgers Creek faults. For rupture on the Hayward fault we consider the effects of creep on coseismic slip using two different approaches, both of which reduce the ground motions compared with neglecting the influence of creep. Nevertheless, the scenario earthquakes generate strong shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area with about 50% of the urban area experiencing MMI VII or greater for the magnitude 7.0 scenario events. Long-period simulations of the 2007 Mw 4.18 Oakland and 2007 Mw 4.5 Alum Rock earthquakes show that the USGS Bay Area Velocity Model version 08.3.0 permits simulation of the amplitude and duration of shaking throughout the San Francisco Bay area, with the greatest accuracy in the Santa Clara Valley (San Jose area). The ground motions exhibit a strong sensitivity to the rupture length (or magnitude), hypocenter (or rupture directivity), and slip distribution. The ground motions display a much weaker sensitivity to the rise time and rupture speed. Peak velocities, peak accelerations, and spectral accelerations from the synthetic broadband ground motions are, on average, slightly higher than the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) ground-motion prediction equations. We attribute at least some of this difference to the relatively narrow width of the Hayward fault ruptures. The simulations suggest that the Spudich and Chiou (2008) directivity corrections to the NGA relations could be improved by including a dependence on the rupture speed and increasing the areal extent of rupture directivity with period. The simulations also indicate that the NGA relations may under-predict amplification in shallow sedimentary basins.

  12. Iterative solutions of nonlinear equations with strongly accretive or strongly pseudocontractive maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1994-03-01

    Let E be a real q-uniformly smooth Banach space. Suppose T is a strongly pseudo-contractive map with open domain D(T) in E. Suppose further that T has a fixed point in D(T). Under various continuity assumptions on T it is proved that each of the Mann iteration process or the Ishikawa iteration method converges strongly to the unique fixed point of T. Related results deal with iterative solutions of nonlinear operator equations involving strongly accretive maps. Explicit error estimates are also provided. (author). 38 refs

  13. Towards TDDFT for Strongly Correlated Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shree Ram Acharya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present some details of our recently-proposed Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT for strongly-correlated materials in which the exchange-correlation (XC kernel is derived from the charge susceptibility obtained using Dynamical Mean-Field Theory (the TDDFT + DMFT approach. We proceed with deriving the expression for the XC kernel for the one-band Hubbard model by solving DMFT equations via two approaches, the Hirsch–Fye Quantum Monte Carlo (HF-QMC and an approximate low-cost perturbation theory approach, and demonstrate that the latter gives results that are comparable to the exact HF-QMC solution. Furthermore, through a variety of applications, we propose a simple analytical formula for the XC kernel. Additionally, we use the exact and approximate kernels to examine the nonhomogeneous ultrafast response of two systems: a one-band Hubbard model and a Mott insulator YTiO3. We show that the frequency dependence of the kernel, i.e., memory effects, is important for dynamics at the femtosecond timescale. We also conclude that strong correlations lead to the presence of beats in the time-dependent electric conductivity in YTiO3, a feature that could be tested experimentally and that could help validate the few approximations used in our formulation. We conclude by proposing an algorithm for the generalization of the theory to non-linear response.

  14. The Athens Acropolis Strong Motion Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogeras, I. S.; Evangelidis, C. P.; Melis, N. S.; Boukouras, K.

    2012-04-01

    During the last decades, extensive restoration works through a dedicated "Acropolis Restoration Service" (YSMA) take place in the Acropolis, the greatest sanctuary of ancient Athens. Since 2008, a permanent strong motion array was deployed by the Institute of Geodynamics, National Observatory of Athens (NOA-IG) in collaboration with YSMA. Free field installations were decided at sites showing various characteristics, aiming to investigate differences in geotechnical properties as well as the structure response of Parthenon itself. The installation phase is presented, with the techniques used to overcome difficulties (i.e. extreme weather conditions, power and communication limitations, restoration works and visitors) and the special care taken for the specific archaeological site. Furthermore, indicative examples of seismic events recorded by the array are analyzed and the complexity of the hill and the monument is made apparent. Among them, the long distance events of Tohoku, Japan 2010 and Van, Turkey 2011, some regional moderate earthquakes in Greece and some weak earthquakes from the vicinity. Continuous ambient noise monitoring using PQLX software gives some first indicative results, showing a variety of characteristics at installation sites. Finally, further developments and future steps are presented such as: the extension of the array, the integration of seismic data within the GIS platform of YSMA at the site and the use of strong motion records, in conjunction with data from other monitoring systems operating in Acropolis for the study of specific monuments.

  15. Relativistically strong electromagnetic radiation in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Kondo, K.

    2016-03-01

    Physical processes in a plasma under the action of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves generated by high-power lasers have been briefly reviewed. These processes are of interest in view of the development of new methods for acceleration of charged particles, creation of sources of bright hard electromagnetic radiation, and investigation of macroscopic quantum-electrodynamical processes. Attention is focused on nonlinear waves in a laser plasma for the creation of compact electron accelerators. The acceleration of plasma bunches by the radiation pressure of light is the most efficient regime of ion acceleration. Coherent hard electromagnetic radiation in the relativistic plasma is generated in the form of higher harmonics and/or electromagnetic pulses, which are compressed and intensified after reflection from relativistic mirrors created by nonlinear waves. In the limit of extremely strong electromagnetic waves, radiation friction, which accompanies the conversion of radiation from the optical range to the gamma range, fundamentally changes the behavior of the plasma. This process is accompanied by the production of electron-positron pairs, which is described within quantum electrodynamics theory.

  16. Strong Double Higgs Production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Contino, Roberto; Moretti, Mauro; Piccinini, Fulvio; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    2010-01-01

    The hierarchy problem and the electroweak data, together, provide a plausible motivation for considering a light Higgs emerging as a pseudo-Goldstone boson from a strongly-coupled sector. In that scenario, the rates for Higgs production and decay differ significantly from those in the Standard Model. However, one genuine strong coupling signature is the growth with energy of the scattering amplitudes among the Goldstone bosons, the longitudinally polarized vector bosons as well as the Higgs boson itself. The rate for double Higgs production in vector boson fusion is thus enhanced with respect to its negligible rate in the SM. We study that reaction in pp collisions, where the production of two Higgs bosons at high pT is associated with the emission of two forward jets. We concentrate on the decay mode hh -> WW^(*)WW^(*) and study the semi-leptonic decay chains of the W's with 2, 3 or 4 leptons in the final states. While the 3 lepton final states are the most relevant and can lead to a 3 sigma signal significa...

  17. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc/sup 2//k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10/sup 11/ /sup 0/K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light.

  18. Finite temperature system of strongly interacting baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.; Wheeler, J.W.

    1976-07-01

    A fully relativistic finite temperature many body theory is constructed and used to examine the bulk properties of a system of strongly interacting baryons. The strong interactions are described by a two parameter phenomenological model fit to a simple description of nuclear matter at T = 0. The zero temperature equation of state for such a system which has already been discussed in the literature was developed to give a realistic description of nuclear matter. The model presented here is the exact finite temperature extension of that model. The effect of the inclusion of baryon pairs for T greater than or equal to 2mc 2 /k is discussed in detail. The phase transition identified with nuclear matter vanishes for system temperatures in excess of T/sub C/ = 1.034 x 10 11 0 K. All values of epsilon (P,T) correspond to systems that are causal in the sense that the locally determined speed of sound never exceeds the speed of light

  19. Holographic gauge mediation via strongly coupled messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Sumitomo, Yoske

    2010-01-01

    We consider a relative of semidirect gauge mediation where the hidden sector exists at large 't Hooft coupling. Such scenarios can be difficult to describe using perturbative field theory methods but may fall into the class of holographic gauge mediation scenarios, meaning that they are amenable to the techniques of gauge/gravity duality. We use a recently found gravity solution to examine one such case, where the hidden sector is a cascading gauge theory resulting in a confinement scale not much smaller than the messenger mass. In the original construction of holographic gauge mediation, as in other examples of semidirect gauge mediation at strong coupling, the primary contributions to visible sector soft terms come from weakly coupled messenger mesons. In contrast to these examples, we describe the dual of a gauge theory where there are significant contributions from scales in which the strongly coupled messenger quarks are the effective degrees of freedom. In this regime, the visible sector gaugino mass can be calculated entirely from holography.

  20. Factors Influencing the Thermal Efficiency of Horizontal Ground Heat Exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloisa Di Sipio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of very shallow geothermal systems (VSGs, interesting the first 2 m of depth from ground level, is strongly correlated to the kind of sediment locally available. These systems are attractive due to their low installation costs, less legal constraints, easy maintenance and possibility for technical improvements. The Improving Thermal Efficiency of horizontal ground heat exchangers Project (ITER aims to understand how to enhance the heat transfer of the sediments surrounding the pipes and to depict the VSGs behavior in extreme thermal situations. In this regard, five helices were installed horizontally surrounded by five different backfilling materials under the same climatic conditions and tested under different operation modes. The field test monitoring concerned: (a monthly measurement of thermal conductivity and moisture content on surface; (b continuous recording of air and ground temperature (inside and outside each helix; (c continuous climatological and ground volumetric water content (VWC data acquisition. The interactions between soils, VSGs, environment and climate are presented here, focusing on the differences and similarities between the behavior of the helix and surrounding material, especially when the heat pump is running in heating mode for a very long time, forcing the ground temperature to drop below 0 °C.

  1. Anomalous electrodynamics of neutral pion matter in strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, Tomáš [Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Stavanger,N-4036 Stavanger (Norway); Kadam, Saurabh V. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER),Pune 411008 (India)

    2017-03-03

    The ground state of quantum chromodynamics in sufficiently strong external magnetic fields and at moderate baryon chemical potential is a chiral soliton lattice (CSL) of neutral pions https://arxiv.org/abs/1609.05213. We investigate the interplay between the CSL structure and dynamical electromagnetic fields. Our main result is that in presence of the CSL background, the two physical photon polarizations and the neutral pion mix, giving rise to two gapped excitations and one gapless mode with a nonrelativistic dispersion relation. The nature of this mode depends on the direction of its propagation, interpolating between a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave https://www.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.93.085036 and a neutral pion surface wave, which in turn arises from the spontaneously broken translation invariance. Quite remarkably, there is a neutral-pion-like mode that remains gapped even in the chiral limit, in seeming contradiction to the Goldstone theorem. Finally, we have a first look at the effect of thermal fluctuations of the CSL, showing that even the soft nonrelativistic excitation does not lead to the Landau-Peierls instability. However, it leads to an anomalous contribution to pressure that scales with temperature and magnetic field as T{sup 5/2}(B/f{sub π}){sup 3/2}.

  2. High-frequency filtering of strong-motion records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, J.; Boore, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of noise in strong-motion records is most problematic at low and high frequencies where the signal to noise ratio is commonly low compared to that in the mid-spectrum. The impact of low-frequency noise (5 Hz) on computed pseudo-absolute response spectral accelerations (PSAs). In contrast to the case of low-frequency noise our analysis shows that filtering to remove high-frequency noise is only necessary in certain situations and that PSAs can often be used up to 100 Hz even if much lower high-cut corner frequencies are required to remove the noise. This apparent contradiction can be explained by the fact that PSAs are often controlled by ground accelerations associated with much lower frequencies than the natural frequency of the oscillator because path and site attenuation (often modelled by Q and κ, respectively) have removed the highest frequencies. We demonstrate that if high-cut filters are to be used, then their corner frequencies should be selected on an individual basis, as has been done in a few recent studies.

  3. Anomalous transport phenomena in Fermi liquids with strong magnetic fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontani, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    In this paper, we present recent developments in the theory of transport phenomena based on the Fermi liquid theory. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticles relaxation time, {tau}, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems. The most famous example would be high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. This issue has been one of the most significant unresolved problems in HTSCs for a long time. Similar anomalous transport phenomena have been observed in metals near their antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The main goal of this study is to demonstrate whether the anomalous transport phenomena in HTSC is evidence of a non-Fermi liquid ground state, or just RTA violation in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. Another goal is to establish a unified theory of anomalous transport phenomena in metals with strong magnetic fluctuations. For these purposes, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. In a Fermi liquid, an excited quasiparticle induces other excited quasiparticles by collision, and current due to these excitations is called a current vertex correction (CVC). Landau noticed the existence of CVC first, which is indispensable for calculating transport coefficients in accord with the conservation laws. Here, we develop a transport theory involving resistivity and the Hall coefficient on the basis of the microscopic Fermi liquid theory, by considering the CVC. In nearly AF Fermi liquids, we find that the strong backward scattering due to AF fluctuations induces the CVC with prominent momentum dependence. This feature of the CVC can account for the significant enhancement in the Hall coefficient

  4. Anomalous transport phenomena in Fermi liquids with strong magnetic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent developments in the theory of transport phenomena based on the Fermi liquid theory. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticles relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems. The most famous example would be high-T c superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. This issue has been one of the most significant unresolved problems in HTSCs for a long time. Similar anomalous transport phenomena have been observed in metals near their antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The main goal of this study is to demonstrate whether the anomalous transport phenomena in HTSC is evidence of a non-Fermi liquid ground state, or just RTA violation in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. Another goal is to establish a unified theory of anomalous transport phenomena in metals with strong magnetic fluctuations. For these purposes, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. In a Fermi liquid, an excited quasiparticle induces other excited quasiparticles by collision, and current due to these excitations is called a current vertex correction (CVC). Landau noticed the existence of CVC first, which is indispensable for calculating transport coefficients in accord with the conservation laws. Here, we develop a transport theory involving resistivity and the Hall coefficient on the basis of the microscopic Fermi liquid theory, by considering the CVC. In nearly AF Fermi liquids, we find that the strong backward scattering due to AF fluctuations induces the CVC with prominent momentum dependence. This feature of the CVC can account for the significant enhancement in the Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance

  5. COMPILATION OF GROUND WATER MODELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The full report presents an overview of currently available computer-based simulation models for ground-water flow, solute and heat transport, and hydrogeochemistry in both porous media and fractured rock. Separate sections address multiphase flow and related chemical species tra...

  6. Maintenance Sourcebook: Landscaping and Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Carol; Gomulka, Ken; Harper, Wayne; Conry, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that facility managers need continual education in many subjects to keep their campuses in excellent condition, highlighting four areas related to landscaping and maintenance: landscaping care; athletic field care; grounds care; and equipment care. Lists of relevant professional organizations are included. (SM)

  7. Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Anthony Finn; Adam Jacoff; Mike...these metrics against the detailed choreography of the challenge to prevent teams ‘gaming’ the result (i.e. devising technical solutions that were

  8. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  9. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining synth...

  10. TARDEC's Intelligent Ground Systems overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Jeffrey F.

    2009-05-01

    The mission of the Intelligent Ground Systems (IGS) Area at the Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) is to conduct technology maturation and integration to increase Soldier robot control/interface intuitiveness and robotic ground system robustness, functionality and overall system effectiveness for the Future Combat System Brigade Combat Team, Robotics Systems Joint Project Office and game changing capabilities to be fielded beyond the current force. This is accomplished through technology component development focused on increasing unmanned ground vehicle autonomy, optimizing crew interfaces and mission planners that capture commanders' intent, integrating payloads that provide 360 degree local situational awareness and expanding current UGV tactical behavior, learning and adaptation capabilities. The integration of these technology components into ground vehicle demonstrators permits engineering evaluation, User assessment and performance characterization in increasingly complex, dynamic and relevant environments to include high speed on road or cross country operations, all weather/visibility conditions and military operations in urban terrain (MOUT). Focused testing and experimentation is directed at reducing PM risk areas (safe operations, autonomous maneuver, manned-unmanned collaboration) and transitioning technology in the form of hardware, software algorithms, test and performance data, as well as User feedback and lessons learned.

  11. Stride Leg Ground Reaction Forces Predict Throwing Velocity in Adult Recreational Baseball Pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Michael P; Borstad, John D; Oñate, James A; Chaudhari, Ajit M W

    2015-10-01

    Ground reaction forces produced during baseball pitching have a significant impact in the development of ball velocity. However, the measurement of only one leg and small sample sizes in these studies curb the understanding of ground reaction forces as they relate to pitching. This study aimed to further clarify the role ground reaction forces play in developing pitching velocity. Eighteen former competitive baseball players with previous high school or collegiate pitching experience threw 15 fastballs from a pitcher's mound instrumented to measure ground reaction forces under both the drive and stride legs. Peak ground reaction forces were recorded during each phase of the pitching cycle, between peak knee height and ball release, in the medial/lateral, anterior/posterior, and vertical directions, and the peak resultant ground reaction force. Stride leg ground reaction forces during the arm-cocking and arm-acceleration phases were strongly correlated with ball velocity (r2 = 0.45-0.61), whereas drive leg ground reaction forces showed no significant correlations. Stepwise linear regression analysis found that peak stride leg ground reaction force during the arm-cocking phase was the best predictor of ball velocity (r2 = 0.61) among drive and stride leg ground reaction forces. This study demonstrates the importance of ground reaction force development in pitching, with stride leg forces being strongly predictive of ball velocity. Further research is needed to further clarify the role of ground reaction forces in pitching and to develop training programs designed to improve upper extremity mechanics and pitching performance through effective force development.

  12. Enhanced thermal photon and dilepton production in strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Kiminad A.

    2013-08-01

    We calculate the DC conductivity tensor of strongly coupled = 4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) plasma in a presence of a strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2 by using its gravity dual and employing both the RG flow approach and membrane paradigm which give the same results. We find that, since the magnetic field B induces anisotropy in the plasma, different components of the DC conductivity tensor have different magnitudes depending on whether its components are in the direction of the magnetic field B. In particular, we find that a component of the DC conductivity tensor in the direction of the magnetic field B increases linearly with B while the other components (which are not in the direction of the magnetic field B) are independent of it. These results are consistent with the lattice computations of the DC conductivity tensor of the QCD plasma in an external magnetic field B. Using the DC conductivity tensor, we calculate the soft or low-frequency thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in the presence of the strong external magnetic field B ≫ T 2. We find that the strong magnetic field B enhances both the thermal photon and dilepton production rates of the strongly coupled = 4 SYM plasma in a qualitative agreement with the experimentally observed enhancements at the heavy-ion collision experiments.

  13. Below-ground plant–fungus network topology is not congruent with above-ground plant–animal network topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2015-01-01

    In nature, plants and their pollinating and/or seed-dispersing animals form complex interaction networks. The commonly observed pattern of links between specialists and generalists in these networks has been predicted to promote species coexistence. Plants also build highly species-rich mutualistic networks below ground with root-associated fungi, and the structure of these plant–fungus networks may also affect terrestrial community processes. By compiling high-throughput DNA sequencing data sets of the symbiosis of plants and their root-associated fungi from three localities along a latitudinal gradient, we uncovered the entire network architecture of these interactions under contrasting environmental conditions. Each network included more than 30 plant species and hundreds of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi belonging to diverse phylogenetic groups. The results were consistent with the notion that processes shaping host-plant specialization of fungal species generate a unique linkage pattern that strongly contrasts with the pattern of above-ground plant–partner networks. Specifically, plant–fungus networks lacked a “nested” architecture, which has been considered to promote species coexistence in plant–partner networks. Rather, the below-ground networks had a conspicuous “antinested” topology. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that terrestrial plant community dynamics are likely determined by the balance between above-ground and below-ground webs of interspecific interactions. PMID:26601279

  14. Procedures for evaluation of vibratory ground motions of soil deposits at nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    According to USNRC requirements set forth in Appendix A, 10 CFR, Part 100, vibratory ground motion criteria for a nuclear plant must be based on local soil conditions, as well as on the seismicity, geology, and tectonics of the region. This report describes how such criteria can be developed by applying the latest technology associated with analytical predictions of site-dependent ground motions and with the use of composite spectra obtained from the current library of strong motion records. Recommended procedures for defining vibratory ground motion criteria contain the following steps: (1) geologic and seismologic studies; (2) site soils investigations; (3) site response sensitivity studies; (4) evaluation of local site response characteristics; (5) selection of site-matched records; and (6) appraisal and selection of seismic input criteria. An in-depth discussion of the engineering characteristics of earthquake ground motions including parameters used to characterize earthquakes and strong motion records, geologic factors that influence ground shaking, the current strong motion data base, and case histories of the effects of past earthquake events is presented. Next, geotechnical investigations of the seismologic, geologic, and site soil conditions required to develop vibratory motion criteria are briefly summarized. The current technology for establishing vibratory ground motion criteria at nuclear plant sites, including site-independent and site-dependent procedures that use data from strong motion records and from soil response analyses is described. (auth)

  15. Convex Modeling of Interactions with Strong Heredity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Asad; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the task of fitting a regression model involving interactions among a potentially large set of covariates, in which we wish to enforce strong heredity. We propose FAMILY, a very general framework for this task. Our proposal is a generalization of several existing methods, such as VANISH [Radchenko and James, 2010], hierNet [Bien et al., 2013], the all-pairs lasso, and the lasso using only main effects. It can be formulated as the solution to a convex optimization problem, which we solve using an efficient alternating directions method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. This algorithm has guaranteed convergence to the global optimum, can be easily specialized to any convex penalty function of interest, and allows for a straightforward extension to the setting of generalized linear models. We derive an unbiased estimator of the degrees of freedom of FAMILY, and explore its performance in a simulation study and on an HIV sequence data set.

  16. Strong Turbulence in Low-beta Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchen, C. M.; Pécseli, Hans; Larsen, Søren Ejling

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the spectral structure of turbulence in a plasma confined by a strong homogeneous magnetic field was made by means of a fluid description. The turbulent spectrum is divided into subranges. Mean gradients of velocity and density excite turbulent motions, and govern the production...... subrange. The spectra of velocity and potential fluctuations interact in the coupling subrange, and the energy is transferred along the spectrum in the inertia subrange. Applying the method of cascade decomposition, the spectral laws k-3, k-3, k-2 are obtained for the velocity fluctuations, and k-3, k-5, k......-3/2 for the potential fluctuations in the production, coupling and inertia subranges, respectively. The coefficient of Bohm diffusion is reproduced, and its role in electrostatic coupling is derived. Comparison is made with measured power laws reported in the literature, from Q-devices, hot...

  17. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju

    2010-01-01

    find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal7, 8, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation...... plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium’s ideal strength9, 10. We develop a ‘stimulated slip’ model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning....... The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 relevant for applications....

  18. Thomson scattering in strong external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varró, S.; Ehlotzky, F.

    1992-09-01

    In the present paper we shall investigate relativistic Thomson scattering in two external fields. A free classical electron will be embedded in a strong, constant and homogeneous magnetic field and in a powerful electromagnetic field. Both fields will be considered in the Redmond configuration, in which case the electromagnetic wave is circularly polarized and propagates in the direction of the homogeneous magnetic field. The electron will be allowed to have arbitrary initial conditions and the electromagnetic wave will be switched on either suddenly or adiabatically. We shall present the exact solution of the Lorentz equation of motion in the above external field configuration and we shall evaluate the spectrum and cross sections of the scattered radiation. In particular, we shall consider scattering close to resonance and we shall compare our results with the findings of earlier work.

  19. Strongly Interacting Matter at High Energy Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLerran, L.

    2008-01-01

    This lecture concerns the properties of strongly interacting matter (which is described by Quantum Chromodynamics) at very high energy density. I review the properties of matter at high temperature, discussing the deconfinement phase transition. At high baryon density and low temperature, large N c arguments are developed which suggest that high baryonic density matter is a third form of matter, Quarkyonic Matter, that is distinct from confined hadronic matter and deconfined matter. I finally discuss the Color Glass Condensate which controls the high energy limit of QCD, and forms the low x part of a hadron wavefunction. The Glasma is introduced as matter formed by the Color Glass Condensate which eventually thermalizes into a Quark Gluon Plasma

  20. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Pors, A.; Gravesen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schro¨dinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz...... equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important...... to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear...

  1. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  2. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, \\tau, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical poi...

  3. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown......One of the most intriguing recent results in physics is the growing evidence that an unknown energy field and an unknown kind of matter are the major components of the Universe (70% and 30%, respectively; see e.g. Riess et al. 1998, Spergel et al. 2007). Understanding and estimating the precise...... by Refsdal (1964), H0, !m and !! can be measured based on the time delay ("t) between multiply lensed images of QSOs, because "t depends on H0 and on the distances to lens and source, hence!m and !!. Determination of cosmological parameters using gravitational lensing suffers from some degeneracies...

  4. Weak and strong typicality in quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Rigol, Marcos

    2012-07-01

    We study the properties of mixed states obtained from eigenstates of many-body lattice Hamiltonians after tracing out part of the lattice. Two scenarios emerge for generic systems: (i) The diagonal entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a few sites are traced out (weak typicality); and (ii) the von Neumann (entanglement) entropy becomes equivalent to the thermodynamic entropy when a large fraction of the lattice is traced out (strong typicality). Remarkably, the results for few-body observables obtained with the reduced, diagonal, and canonical density matrices are very similar to each other, no matter which fraction of the lattice is traced out. Hence, for all physical quantities studied here, the results in the diagonal ensemble match the thermal predictions.

  5. Machine Learning Phases of Strongly Correlated Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ch’ng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Machine learning offers an unprecedented perspective for the problem of classifying phases in condensed matter physics. We employ neural-network machine learning techniques to distinguish finite-temperature phases of the strongly correlated fermions on cubic lattices. We show that a three-dimensional convolutional network trained on auxiliary field configurations produced by quantum Monte Carlo simulations of the Hubbard model can correctly predict the magnetic phase diagram of the model at the average density of one (half filling. We then use the network, trained at half filling, to explore the trend in the transition temperature as the system is doped away from half filling. This transfer learning approach predicts that the instability to the magnetic phase extends to at least 5% doping in this region. Our results pave the way for other machine learning applications in correlated quantum many-body systems.

  6. The new <Strong Italian Earthquakes>>

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Valensise

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new catalogue of strong ltalian earthquakes that the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica in collaboration with SGA, has recently made available to the international scientific community and to the general public. The new catalogue differs from previous efforts in that for each event the usual seismic parameters are complemented by a list of intensity rated localities, a complete list of relevant references, a series of synoptic comments describing different aspects of the earthquake phenomenology. and in most cases even the text of the original written sources. The printed part of the catalogue has been published as a special monograph which contains also a computer version of the full database in the form of a CD-ROM. The software package includes a computer program for retrieving, selecting and displaying the catalogue data.

  7. Strong curvature effects in Neumann wave problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willatzen, M.; Pors, A.; Gravesen, J.

    2012-01-01

    Waveguide phenomena play a major role in basic sciences and engineering. The Helmholtz equation is the governing equation for the electric field in electromagnetic wave propagation and the acoustic pressure in the study of pressure dynamics. The Schrödinger equation simplifies to the Helmholtz equation for a quantum-mechanical particle confined by infinite barriers relevant in semiconductor physics. With this in mind and the interest to tailor waveguides towards a desired spectrum and modal pattern structure in classical structures and nanostructures, it becomes increasingly important to understand the influence of curvature effects in waveguides. In this work, we demonstrate analytically strong curvature effects for the eigenvalue spectrum of the Helmholtz equation with Neumann boundary conditions in cases where the waveguide cross section is a circular sector. It is found that the linear-in-curvature contribution originates from parity symmetry breaking of eigenstates in circular-sector tori and hence vanishes in a torus with a complete circular cross section. The same strong curvature effect is not present in waveguides subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions where curvature contributions contribute to second-order in the curvature only. We demonstrate this finding by considering wave propagation in a circular-sector torus corresponding to Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions, respectively. Results for relative eigenfrequency shifts and modes are determined and compared with three-dimensional finite element method results. Good agreement is found between the present analytical method using a combination of differential geometry with perturbation theory and finite element results for a large range of curvature ratios.

  8. Is It Possible to Predict Strong Earthquakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Y. S.; Ryabinin, G. V.; Solovyeva, A. B.; Timashev, S. F.

    2015-07-01

    The possibility of earthquake prediction is one of the key open questions in modern geophysics. We propose an approach based on the analysis of common short-term candidate precursors (2 weeks to 3 months prior to strong earthquake) with the subsequent processing of brain activity signals generated in specific types of rats (kept in laboratory settings) who reportedly sense an impending earthquake a few days prior to the event. We illustrate the identification of short-term precursors using the groundwater sodium-ion concentration data in the time frame from 2010 to 2014 (a major earthquake occurred on 28 February 2013) recorded at two different sites in the southeastern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The candidate precursors are observed as synchronized peaks in the nonstationarity factors, introduced within the flicker-noise spectroscopy framework for signal processing, for the high-frequency component of both time series. These peaks correspond to the local reorganizations of the underlying geophysical system that are believed to precede strong earthquakes. The rodent brain activity signals are selected as potential "immediate" (up to 2 weeks) deterministic precursors because of the recent scientific reports confirming that rodents sense imminent earthquakes and the population-genetic model of K irshvink (Soc Am 90, 312-323, 2000) showing how a reliable genetic seismic escape response system may have developed over the period of several hundred million years in certain animals. The use of brain activity signals, such as electroencephalograms, in contrast to conventional abnormal animal behavior observations, enables one to apply the standard "input-sensor-response" approach to determine what input signals trigger specific seismic escape brain activity responses.

  9. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  10. Noise Spectroscopy in Strongly Correlated Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaqqa, Ali M.

    Strongly correlated materials are an interesting class of materials, thanks to the novel electronic and magnetic phenomena they exhibit as a result of the interplay of various degrees of freedom. This gives rise to an array of potential applications, from Mott-FET to magnetic storage. Many experimental probes have been used to study phase transitions in strongly correlated oxides. Among these, resistance noise spectroscopy, together with conventional transport measurements, provides a unique viewpoint to understand the microscopic dynamics near the phase transitions in these oxides. In this thesis, utilizing noise spectroscopy and transport measurements, four different strongly correlated materials were studied: (1) neodymium nickel oxide (NdNiO 3) ultrathin films, (2) vanadium dioxide (VO2) microribbons, (3) copper vanadium bronze (CuxV2O 5) microribbons and (4) niobium triselenide (NbSe3) microribbons. Ultra thin films of rare-earth nickelates exhibit several temperature-driven phase transitions. In this thesis, we studied the metal-insulator and Neel transitions in a series of NdNiO3 films with different lattice mismatches. Upon colling down, the metal-insulator phase transition is accompanied by a structural (orthorohombic to monoclinic) and magnetic (paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic) transitions as well, making the problem more interesting and complex at the same time. The noise is of the 1/f type and is Gaussian in the high temperature phase, however deviations are seen in the low temperature phases. Below the metal-insulator transition, noise magnitude increases by orders of magnitude: a sign of inhomogeneous electrical conduction as result of phase separation. This is further assured by the non-Gaussian noise signature. At very low temperatures (T thesis, we tried to answer this question by utilizing three different tuning parameters: temperature, voltage bias and strain. Our results point to an unusual noise behavior in the high-temperature metallic phase

  11. STRONG MAGNETIC-X-RAY DICHROISM IN 2P ABSORPTION-SPECTRA OF 3D TRANSITION-METAL IONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERLAAN, G; THOLE, BT

    1991-01-01

    From atomic calculations in crystal-field symmetry we find a very strong circular and linear dichroism in the 2p x-ray absorption edges of magnetically ordered 3d transition-metal ions. The spectral shape changes drastically with the character of the ground state, which is determined by the presence

  12. Grounding Visual Explanations (Extended Abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Lisa Anne; Hu, Ronghang; Darrell, Trevor; Akata, Zeynep

    2017-01-01

    Existing models which generate textual explanations enforce task relevance through a discriminative term loss function, but such mechanisms only weakly constrain mentioned object parts to actually be present in the image. In this paper, a new model is proposed for generating explanations by utilizing localized grounding of constituent phrases in generated explanations to ensure image relevance. Specifically, we introduce a phrase-critic model to refine (re-score/re-rank) generated candidate e...

  13. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  14. Radon determination in ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S.

    1991-08-01

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and 226 Ra- supported 222 Rn. Some of them were also studied for 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  15. Radon determination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia A, N.; Bulbulian G, S

    1991-08-15

    Studies on natural radioactivity in ground water were started in Mexico in San Luis Potosi state followed by samplings from deep wells and springs in the states of Mexico and Michoacan. The samples were analyzed for solubilized and {sup 226} Ra- supported {sup 222} Rn. Some of them were also studied for {sup 234} U/ {sup 238} U activity ratio. In this paper we discuss the activities obtained and their relationship with the geologic characteristics of the studied zones. (Author)

  16. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  17. Ground-State of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Emily; Carey, Mike; Fessatidis, Vassilios; Mancini, Jay D.; Bowen, Samuel P.

    2002-03-01

    The study of the ground-state properties of molecular systems has long been the focus of both quantum chemists as well as physicists. In general, most of the calculational methods are dependent on the use of high-power computers to generate large basis states. Such schemes as the full-configuration-interaction method, coupled-pair functionals and its modification, Moller-Plesset perturbation theory as well as both the restricted and unrestricted Hartree-Fock schemes have been used not only for ground-state calculations but also to calculate electron correlation energies. In general such schemes are limited to those basis which are constructed from single Slatter determinant. Here we wish to study the ground-state of water as well as hydrogen fluoride using the recently developed canonical sequence scheme which is a calculational cousin of the Connected Moments Expansion of Cioslowski. Comparisons are then made with other methods [for example P.J. Knowles Chem. Phys. Lett. 134, 512 (1987)].

  18. Grounding information security in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana; Antunes, Luis; Chadwick, David; Correia, Ricardo

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to show that grounded theory (GT), together with mixed methods, can be used to involve healthcare professionals in the design and enhancement of access control policies to Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems. The mixed methods applied for this research included, in this sequence, focus groups (main qualitative method that used grounded theory for the data analysis) and structured questionnaires (secondary quantitative method). Results showed that the presented methodology can be used to involve healthcare professionals in the definition of access control policies to EMR systems and explore these issues in a diversified and integrated way. The methodology allowed for the generation of great amounts of data in the beginning of the study and in a short time span. Results from the applied methodology revealed a first glimpse of the theories to be generated and integrated, with future research, into access control policies. The methodological research described in this paper is very rarely, if ever, applied in developing security tools such as access control. Nevertheless, it can be an effective way of involving healthcare professionals in the definition and enhancement of access control policies and in making information security more grounded into their workflows and daily practices. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radon in ground water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.L.; Lee, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    In September 1986, the System Water Quality Department of the American Water Works Service Co. began conducting a radon survey that was designed to determine the levels of radon in American ground water supplies, and to assess the radon removal efficiency of existing treatment processes such as filtration through granular activated carbon (GAC) and various forms of aeration. The survey found that companies in the northeastern part of the country experienced the highest levels of radon in ground water supplies. The highest concentrations were in individual wells in New Hampshire, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and California. The analytical results from the occurrence phase of the survey seemed to correlate well with the known geology of the aquifer materials from which samples of ground water were drawn. The highest levels were associated with formations of uranium-bearing granitic rocks. GAC can effectively reduce radon concentrations in drinking water supplies to very low levels. However, the amount of contact time within the carbon bed required to do so would be prohibitive to many water utilities from an operational and economic standpoint. Further, disposal of the spent GAC as a low-level radioactive waste may be required. Aeration is very effective in the removal of radon from drinking water. Packed tower aerators achieved > 95% reduction in radon concentrations and conventional cascading tray aerators achieved > 75% reduction in radon concentrations. 7 refs., 6 tabs

  20. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  1. Demand for Neste's City products grows strongly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Finland's oil, chemicals, and gas company, Neste Corporation, is well on the road to better financial performance after a very difficult year in 1992. Among the factors contributing to this optimism are Neste's pioneering low environmental impact traffic fuels. Neste Corporation's net sales in 1993 rose 9.9 % on 1992 figures to USD 11,011 million. Investments totalled USD 681 million. Profitability also improved during 1993, and the operating margin rose by 57 %, despite the recession affecting the Finnish economy and the instability of the international market. The operational loss for the year before extraordinary items, reserves, and taxes was USD 265 million, one-third less than in 1992. Neste's strategy has been to achieve a strong position in the Baltic Rim region by becoming the quality and cost leader in oil refining, and by expanding Neste's position in its key markets. A total of 3.3 million tonnes of petroleum products were exported from Finland in 1993. Neste's most important export markets were Sweden, Germany, Poland, the Baltic countries, and the St. Petersburg region. Some 20 % of exports went to customers outside Europe. In addition to Finland, Neste has concertedly developed its service station network in Poland and the Baltic countries

  2. Strong Correlation Physics in Aromatic Hydrocarbon Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Massimo; Giovannetti, Gianluca

    2012-02-01

    We show, by means of ab-initio calculations, that electron-electron correlations play an important role in doped aromatic hydrocarbon superconductors, including potassium doped picene with Tc= 18K [1], coronene and phenanthrene [2]. For the case of picene the inclusion of exchange interactions by means of hybrid functionals reproduces the correct gap for the undoped compound and predicts an antiferromagnetic state for x=3, where superconductivity has been observed [3]. The latter finding is compatible with a sizable value of the correlation strength. The differences between the different compounds are analyzed and results of Dynamical Mean-Field Theory including both correlation effects and electron-phonon interactions are presented. Finally we discuss the consequences of strong correlations in an organic superconductor in relation to the properties of Cs3C60, in which electron correlations drive an antiferromagnetic state [4] but also lead to an enhancement of superconductivity [5]. 1. R. Mitsuhashi et al. Nature 464, 76 (2010)2. X.F. Wang et al, Nat. Comm. 2, 507 (2011)3. G. Giovannetti and M. Capone, Phys. Rev. B 83, 134508 (2011)4. Y. Takabayashi et al., Science 323, 1585 (2009)5. M. Capone et al. Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 943 (2009

  3. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  4. Quasinormal Modes and Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Costa, João L.; Destounis, Kyriakos; Hintz, Peter; Jansen, Aron

    2018-01-01

    The fate of Cauchy horizons, such as those found inside charged black holes, is intrinsically connected to the decay of small perturbations exterior to the event horizon. As such, the validity of the strong cosmic censorship (SCC) conjecture is tied to how effectively the exterior damps fluctuations. Here, we study massless scalar fields in the exterior of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black holes. Their decay rates are governed by quasinormal modes of the black hole. We identify three families of modes in these spacetimes: one directly linked to the photon sphere, well described by standard WKB-type tools; another family whose existence and time scale is closely related to the de Sitter horizon; finally, a third family which dominates for near-extremally charged black holes and which is also present in asymptotically flat spacetimes. The last two families of modes seem to have gone unnoticed in the literature. We give a detailed description of linear scalar perturbations of such black holes, and conjecture that SCC is violated in the near extremal regime.

  5. Strong coupling from the Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahan, Joseph A.

    2006-10-01

    It was recently observed that the one-dimensional half-filled Hubbard model reproduces the known part of the perturbative spectrum of planar {\\cal N}=4 super Yang Mills in the SU(2) sector. Assuming that this identification is valid beyond perturbation theory, we investigate the behaviour of this spectrum as the 't Hooft parameter λ becomes large. We show that the full dimension Δ of the Konishi superpartner is the solution of a sixth-order polynomial while Δ for a bare dimension 5 operator is the solution of a cubic. In both cases, the equations can be solved easily as a series expansion for both small and large λ and the equations can be inverted to express λ as an explicit function of Δ. We then consider more general operators and show how Δ depends on λ in the strong coupling limit. We are also able to distinguish those states in the Hubbard model which correspond to the gauge-invariant operators for all values of λ. Finally, we compare our results with known results for strings on AdS5 × S5, where we find agreement for a range of R-charges.

  6. Stable states in a strong IR field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Changchun; Robicheaux, Francis

    2015-05-01

    It is found that 10% of atoms stay in the quasi-stable states after being exposed to intense laser or microwave (MW) pulses, even though the pulses' intensity is much stronger than that needed for static fields ionization. The reason why atoms survive those strong pulses has attracted growing attentions. A. Arakelyan et al. have observed the optical spectra of the surviving Lithium atoms after interaction with intense 38-GHz MW fields for more than 1000 cycles, and the spectra exhibit a periodic train of peaks 38 GHz apart. It suggests that those weakly bound Rydberg electrons seldom go back to the ionic core, where the cycle average energy exchange happens. In this study, we are interested in the electron behavior in the presence of intense infrared fields with a much shorter wavelength (1000 nm). By solving the full 3D time dependent Schrodinger equation, we calculate the spectra of the surviving atoms under intense IR fields. Our numerical calculations show atoms survive the intense field in quasi-stable states for a long time, and the optical spectra are obviously modulated by the IR frequency. Through tuning the ponderomotive energy, we see how field parameters affect the behavior of electrons. Different atoms, such as Hydrogen, Helium, Lithium, and Sodium, are tested to see how atom's energy structures influence the results.

  7. Strong reinforcing selection in a Texas wildflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Guerrero, Rafael F; Rausher, Mark D; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2014-09-08

    Reinforcement, the process of increased reproductive isolation due to selection against hybrids, is an important mechanism by which natural selection contributes to speciation [1]. Empirical studies suggest that reinforcement has generated reproductive isolation in many taxa (reviewed in [2-4]), and theoretical work shows it can act under broad selective conditions [5-11]. However, the strength of selection driving reinforcement has never been measured in nature. Here, we quantify the strength of reinforcing selection in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii using a strategy that weds a population genetic model with field data. Reinforcement in this system is caused by variation in two loci that affect flower color [12]. We quantify sharp clines in flower color where this species comes into contact with its congener, Phlox cuspidata. We develop a spatially explicit population genetic model for these clines based on the known genetics of flower color. We fit our model to the data using likelihood, and we searched parameter space using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that selection on flower color genes generated by reinforcement is exceptionally strong. Our findings demonstrate that natural selection can play a decisive role in the evolution of reproductive isolation through the process of reinforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congxin Wei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1 There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2 There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3 Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4 Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  9. Quantum centipedes with strong global constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Pascal

    2017-06-01

    A centipede made of N quantum walkers on a one-dimensional lattice is considered. The distance between two consecutive legs is either one or two lattice spacings, and a global constraint is imposed: the maximal distance between the first and last leg is N  +  1. This is the strongest global constraint compatible with walking. For an initial value of the wave function corresponding to a localized configuration at the origin, the probability law of the first leg of the centipede can be expressed in closed form in terms of Bessel functions. The dispersion relation and the group velocities are worked out exactly. Their maximal group velocity goes to zero when N goes to infinity, which is in contrast with the behaviour of group velocities of quantum centipedes without global constraint, which were recently shown by Krapivsky, Luck and Mallick to give rise to ballistic spreading of extremal wave-front at non-zero velocity in the large-N limit. The corresponding Hamiltonians are implemented numerically, based on a block structure of the space of configurations corresponding to compositions of the integer N. The growth of the maximal group velocity when the strong constraint is gradually relaxed is explored, and observed to be linear in the density of gaps allowed in the configurations. Heuristic arguments are presented to infer that the large-N limit of the globally constrained model can yield finite group velocities provided the allowed number of gaps is a finite fraction of N.

  10. Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, F.

    1993-12-07

    Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric (LCP) compositions of matter are described. LCP backbones are combined with liquid crystalline (LC) side chains in a manner which maximizes molecular ordering through interdigitation of the side chains, thereby yielding materials which are predicted to have superior mechanical properties over existing LCPs. The theoretical design of LCPs having such characteristics includes consideration of the spacing distance between side chains along the backbone, the need for rigid sections in the backbone and in the side chains, the degree of polymerization, the length of the side chains, the regularity of the spacing of the side chains along the backbone, the interdigitation of side chains in sub-molecular strips, the packing of the side chains on one or two sides of the backbone to which they are attached, the symmetry of the side chains, the points of attachment of the side chains to the backbone, the flexibility and size of the chemical group connecting each side chain to the backbone, the effect of semiflexible sections in the backbone and the side chains, and the choice of types of dipolar and/or hydrogen bonding forces in the backbones and the side chains for easy alignment. 27 figures.

  11. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  12. Toward a Strongly Interacting Scalar Higgs Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, Abouzeid M.; El-Houssieny, M.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory. Rather than the corresponding Hermitian theory and due to the asymptotic freedom property of the theory, the vacuum energy does not blow up for large energy scales which is a good sign to solve the hierarchy problem when using this model to break the U(1)xSU(2) symmetry in the standard model. The theory is strongly interacting and in fact, all the dimensionful parameters in the theory like mass and energy are finite even for very high energy scales. Moreover, relative to the vacuum energy for the Hermitian φ 4 theory, the vacuum energy of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 theory is tiny, which is a good sign toward the solution of the cosmological constant problem. Remarkably, these features of the non-Hermitian and PT symmetric (-gφ 4 ) 2+1 scalar field theory make it very plausible to be employed as a Higgs mechanism in the standard model instead of the problematic Hermitian Higgs mechanism

  13. Intense Shock Waves and Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir

    2005-07-01

    The report presents the recent results of experimental investigations of equations of state, compositions, thermodynamical and transport properties, electrical conductivity and opacity of strongly coupled plasmas generated by intense shock and rarefaction waves. The experimental methods for generation of high energy densities in matter, drivers for shock waves and fast diagnostic tools are discussed. Application of intense shock waves to solid and porous targets generates nonideal plasmas in megabar-gigabar pressure range. Compression of plasma by a series of reverberating shock waves allows us to decrease irreversible heating effects. To increase the irreversibility effects and to generate high temperature plasma states the experiments on shock compression of porous samples (fine metal powder, aerogels) were performed. The adiabatic expansion of matter initially compressed by intense shocks up to megabars allows investigating the intermediate region between the solid and vapor phase of nonideal plasmas, including the metal-insulator transition phase and the high temperature saturation curve with critical points of metals. The shock-wave-induced non-equilibrium phenomena at fast melting, spallation and adiabatic condensation are analyzed in the framework of the interspinodal decomposition model. The spall strength of single and polycrystal metals at extremely fast deformation produced by fast shock waves is discussed. The ``pressure ionization'' phenomena in hydrogen, helium, argon, xenon, krypton, neon, iodine, silica, sulfur, fullerenes, and some metals are analyzed on the base of multiple shock compression experiments. For some simple metals (Li, Na, Ca) the effect of ``dielectrization'' as a result of multiple shock compression are discussed.

  14. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  15. Operating function tests of the PWR type RHR pump for engineering safety system under simulated strong ground excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uga, Takeo; Shiraki, Kazuhiro; Homma, Toshiaki; Inazuka, Hisashi; Nakajima, Norifumi.

    1979-08-01

    Results are described of operating function verification tests of a PWR RHR pump during an earthquake. Of the active reactor components, the PWR residual heat removal pump was chosen from view points of aseismic classification, safety function, structural complexity and past aseismic tests. Through survey of the service conditions and structure of this pump, seismic test conditions such as acceleration level, simulated seismic wave form and earthquake duration were decided for seismicity of the operating pump. Then, plans were prepared to evaluate vibration chracteristics of the pump and to estimate its aseismic design margins. Subsequently, test facility and instrumentation system were designed and constructed. Experimental results could thus be acquired on vibration characteristics of the pump and its dynamic behavior during different kinds and levels of simulated earthquake. In conclusion: (1) Stiffeners attached to the auxiliary system piping do improve aseismic performance of the pump. (2) The rotor-shaft-bearing system is secure unless it is subjected to transient disturbunces having high frequency content. (3) The motor and pump casing having resonance frequencies much higher than frequency content of the seismic wave show only small amplifications. (4) The RHR pump possesses an aseismic design margin more than 2.6 times the expected ultimate earthquake on design basis. (author)

  16. Extreme ground motions and Yucca Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Baker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Board, Mark; Brune, James N.; Cornell, C. Allin; Whitney, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Yucca Mountain is the designated site of the underground repository for the United States' high-level radioactive waste (HLW), consisting of commercial and military spent nuclear fuel, HLW derived from reprocessing of uranium and plutonium, surplus plutonium, and other nuclear-weapons materials. Yucca Mountain straddles the western boundary of the Nevada Test Site, where the United States has tested nuclear devices since the 1950s, and is situated in an arid, remote, and thinly populated region of Nevada, ~100 miles northwest of Las Vegas. Yucca Mountain was originally considered as a potential underground repository of HLW because of its thick units of unsaturated rocks, with the repository horizon being not only ~300 m above the water table but also ~300 m below the Yucca Mountain crest. The fundamental rationale for a geologic (underground) repository for HLW is to securely isolate these materials from the environment and its inhabitants to the greatest extent possible and for very long periods of time. Given the present climate conditions and what is known about the current hydrologic system and conditions around and in the mountain itself, one would anticipate that the rates of infiltration, corrosion, and transport would be very low—except for the possibility that repository integrity might be compromised by low-probability disruptive events, which include earthquakes, strong ground motion, and (or) a repository-piercing volcanic intrusion/eruption. Extreme ground motions (ExGM), as we use the phrase in this report, refer to the extremely large amplitudes of earthquake ground motion that arise at extremely low probabilities of exceedance (hazard). They first came to our attention when the 1998 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Yucca Mountain was extended to a hazard level of 10-8/yr (a 10-4/yr probability for a 104-year repository “lifetime”). The primary purpose of this report is to summarize the principal results of the ExGM research program

  17. Removal of Sr-90 from ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostapczuk, P.; Hobig, J.; Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Results of a preliminary study for clean-up of the water from a ground water contaminated by Sr-90 using two different ion-exchange resins and co-precipitation are presented. The analytical data for the studied water is shown. The measured Sr-90 content is higher than the limit for water in Germany. Three methods of removal of Sr-90 from ground-water have been compared. DOWEX C-75 NG, H-form is a strong acid cation exchange resin and highly selective for Cs and Co. Our experiments have demonstrated that these resins is also selective for Sr. It was possible to clean-up 550 ml of contaminated ground water with only 1 g of these resins. The concentration of Sr-90 after clean-up is below 0.02 Bq/l. Disadvantage of these procedure was the change of pH of water to 2.5 after clean-up and high price (if the resin is not regenerated). CARBION is a product manufactured by careful phosphorylation and carabamidation of cellulose fibre according to a patented process with ion-exchanging characteristics. In opposite to DOWEX C-75 NG (H) this product is biodegradable. Obtained results have demonstrated that using CARBION it is also possible to clean-up the water sample from Sr-90 below the detection limit of 0.02 Bq/l. The ion-exchange process is not so quick and need significant more time than in case of the use of DOWEX C-75 NG. CARBION does not change the natural pH of water. The calculated price needed for the amount of these resin necessary for cleanup the same volume of contaminated water was about 2 times higher than in case of DOWEX C-75 NG. In the third method the natural high pH level of the studied water sample (pH = 7.88) and the high natural concentration of Ca, Mg and Sr ions make it also possible to co-participate Sr-90 with phosphates. After addition of appropriate amounts of Na 2 HPO 4 it was possible to reduce the Sr-90 content to about 1.3 Bq/l which is below the required limit. The advantages of these methods are simplicity, short time and low

  18. Precision determination of the strong interaction shift and width in pionic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, D.F.; Covita, D.D.S.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Schmid, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Gotta, D.; Hennebach, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Indelicato, P.; Jensen, T.; Bigot, E.O. Le; Trassinelli, M.; Simons, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The new pionic hydrogen experiment at PSI aims at an improvement in the determination of the strong interaction ground state shift and width of the pionic hydrogen atom. High precision x-ray crystal spectroscopy is used to extract isospin separated scattering lengths with accuracies on the percent level. Compared to previous efforts, the energy resolution and statistics could be improved considerably and the background is much reduced. The response function of the Johann-type crystal spectrometer has been determined with a novel method with unprecedented accuracy. The inherent difficulties of the exotic atom's method result, from the fact that the formation of a sufficient amount of pionic hydrogen atoms requires a hydrogen target pressure of several bar at least. For the extraction of a strong interaction shift, an extrapolation method to vacuum conditions proved to be successful. This contribution mostly discusses the strategy to extract a result for the strong interaction width from the data.(author)

  19. Rolling and pitching oscillating foil propulsion in ground effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Matthew D; Elles, Dane; Badlissi, George; Mivehchi, Amin; Dahl, Jason; Licht, Stephen

    2017-09-04

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of operating near a solid boundary on the forces produced by harmonically oscillating thrust generating foils. A rolling and pitching foil was towed in a freshwater tank in a series of experiments with varying kinematics. Hydrodynamic forces and torques were measured in the free stream and at varying distances from a solid boundary, and changes in mean lift and thrust were found when the foil approached the boundary. The magnitude of this ground effect exhibited a strong nonlinear dependence on the distance between the foil and the boundary. Significant effects were found within three chord lengths of the boundary, and ground effect can be induced at greater distances from the boundary by biasing the tip of the foil toward the boundary. Lift coefficients changed by as much as 0.2 at the closest approach to the ground, with changes ≥0.05 for all cases across Strouhal number ranging from 0.3 to 0.6, and nominal maximum angle of attack ranging from 20° to 40°. The ubiquity of the ground effect in high thrust kinematics suggests that the ground effect can provide a passive obstacle avoidance capability for foil propelled vehicles. By comparison to previous experimental work, we find that the ground effect experienced by a high-aspect ratio rolling and pitching foil is a fully three-dimensional phenomenon, as it is not accurately predicted when two-dimensional flow and/or two-dimensional kinematics are enforced. While two dimensional foil kinematics are more easily modeled for numerical studies, three-dimensional foil kinematics may be more practical for real world implementation in underwater vehicles. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Strong Coupling Gauge Theories in LHC ERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaya, H.; Harada, M.; Tanabashi, M.; Yamawaki, K.

    2011-01-01

    Higgs, or techni-dilaton - composite Higgs near conformality / Koichi Yamawaki -- Phase diagram of strongly interacting theories / Francesco Sannino -- Resizing conformal windows / O. Antipin and K. Tuominen -- Nearly conformal gauge theories on the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Going beyond QCD in lattice gauge theory / G. T. Fleming -- Phases of QCD from small to large N[symbol]: (some) lattice results / A. Deuzeman, E. Pallante and M. P. Lombardo -- Lattice gauge theory and (quasi)-conformal technicolor / D. K. Sinclair and J. B. Kogut -- Study of the running coupling constant in 10-flavor QCD with the Schrodinger functional method / N. Yamada ... [et al.] -- Study of the running coupling in twisted Polyakov scheme / T. Aoyama ... [et al.].Running coupling in strong gauge theories via the lattice / Zoltan Fodor ... [et al.] -- Higgsinoless supersymmetry and hidden gravity / Michael L. Graesser, Ryuichiro Kitano and Masafumi Kurachi -- The latest status of LHC and the EWSB physics / S. Asai -- Continuum superpartners from supersymmetric unparticles / Hsin-Chia Cheng -- Review of minimal flavor constraints for technicolor / Hidenori S. Fukano and Francesco Sannino -- Standard model and high energy Lorentz violation / Damiano Anselmi -- Dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking and fourth family / Michio Hashimoto -- Holmorphic supersymmetric Nambu-Jona-Lasino model and dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking / Dong-Won Jung, Otto C. W. Kong and Jae Sik Lee -- Ratchet model of Baryogenesis / Tatsu Takeuchi, Azusa Minamizaki and Akio Sugamoto -- Classical solutions of field equations in Einstein Gauss-Bonnet gravity / P. Suranyi, C. Vaz and L. C. R. Wijewardhana -- Black holes constitute all dark matter / Paul H. Frampton -- Electroweak precision test and Z [symbol] in the three site Higgsless model / Tomohiro Abe -- Chiral symmetry and BRST symmetry breaking, quaternion reality and the lattice simulation / Sadataka Furui -- Holographic techni-dilaton, or

  1. Strong Algerian Earthquake Strikes Near Capital City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, A.; Maouche, S.; Harbi, A.; Meghraoui, M.; Beldjoudi, H.; Oussadou, F.; Mahsas, A.; Benouar, D.; Heddar, A.; Rouchiche, Y.; Kherroubi, A.; Frogneux, M.; Lammali, K.; Benhamouda, F.; Sebaï, A.; Bourouis, S.; Alasset, P. J.; Aoudia, A.; Cakir, Z.; Merahi, M.; Nouar, O.; Yelles, A.; Bellik, A.; Briole, P.; Charade, O.; Thouvenot, F.; Semane, F.; Ferkoul, A.; Deramchi, A.; Haned, S. A.

    On 21 May 2003, a damaging earthquake of Mw 6.8 struck the region of Boumerdes 40 km east of Algiers in northern Algeria (Figure 1). The mainshock, which lasted ~ 36-40 s, had devastating effects and claimed about 2300 victims, caused more than 11,450 injuries, and left about 200,000 people homeless. It destroyed and seriously damaged around 180,000 housing units and 6000 public buildings with losses estimated at $5 billion. The mainshock was widely felt within a radius of ~ 400 km in Algeria. To the north, the earthquake was felt in southeastern Spain, including the Balearic Islands, and also in Sardinia and in southern France. The mainshock location, which was calculated at 36.91°N, 3.58°E (15 km offshore of Zemmouri; Figure 1), and the local magnitude (Md 6.4) are from seismic records of local stations. International seismological centers obtained Mw 6.8 (NEIC) with a thrust focal mechanism solution and 1.83 × 1026 dyne.cm for the seismic moment. A sequence of aftershocks affected the epicentral area with two strong shocks reaching Mw 5.8 on 27 and 29 May 2003. Field investigations allowed us to assign a maximum intensity X (European Macroseismic Scale 98) and to report rockfalls, minor surface cracks, and liquefaction phenomena. The mainshock was not associated with inland surface faulting, but one of the most striking coseismic effects is the coastal uplift and the backwash along the littoral of the Mitidja basin.

  2. Strong economic growth driving increased electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiusanen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish economy is growing faster today than anyone dared hope only a few years ago. Growth estimates for 2000 have already had to be raised. This strong level of economic growth has been reflected in electricity consumption, which has continued to increase, despite the exceptionally warm winter. A major part of this increased electricity usage has so far been met through imports. The continued growth in electricity imports has largely been a result of the fact that the good water level situation in Sweden and Norway, together with the mild winter, has kept electricity prices exceptionally low on the Nordic electricity exchange. The short period of low temperatures seen at the end of January showed, however, that this type of temperature fluctuation, combined with the restrictions that exist in regard to transfer capacity, can serve to push Nordic exchange electricity prices to record levels. This increase in price also highlights the fact that we are approaching a situation in which capacity will be insufficient to meet demand. A truly tough winter has not been seen since the Nordic region's electricity markets were deregulated. The lesson that needs to be learnt is that Finland needs sufficient capacity of her own to meet demand even during particularly cold winters. Finland used 77.9 billion kWh of electricity last year, up 1.6% or 1.3 billion kWh on 1998. This growth was relatively evenly distributed among different user groups. This year, electricity consumption is forecast to grow by 2-3%

  3. Kinetic theory for strongly coupled Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufty, James; Wrighton, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The calculation of dynamical properties for matter under extreme conditions is a challenging task. The popular Kubo-Greenwood model exploits elements from equilibrium density-functional theory (DFT) that allow a detailed treatment of electron correlations, but its origin is largely phenomenological; traditional kinetic theories have a more secure foundation but are limited to weak ion-electron interactions. The objective here is to show how a combination of the two evolves naturally from the short-time limit for the generator of the effective single-electron dynamics governing time correlation functions without such limitations. This provides a theoretical context for the current DFT-related approach, the Kubo-Greenwood model, while showing the nature of its corrections. The method is to calculate the short-time dynamics in the single-electron subspace for a given configuration of the ions. This differs from the usual kinetic theory approach in which an average over the ions is performed as well. In this way the effective ion-electron interaction includes strong Coulomb coupling and is shown to be determined from DFT. The correlation functions have the form of the random-phase approximation for an inhomogeneous system but with renormalized ion-electron and electron-electron potentials. The dynamic structure function, density response function, and electrical conductivity are calculated as examples. The static local field corrections in the dielectric function are identified in this way. The current analysis is limited to semiclassical electrons (quantum statistical potentials), so important quantum conditions are excluded. However, a quantization of the kinetic theory is identified for broader application while awaiting its detailed derivation.

  4. The limits of earthquake early warning: Timeliness of ground motion estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Minson, Sarah E.; Meier, Men-Andrin; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Hanks, Thomas C.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2018-01-01

    The basic physics of earthquakes is such that strong ground motion cannot be expected from an earthquake unless the earthquake itself is very close or has grown to be very large. We use simple seismological relationships to calculate the minimum time that must elapse before such ground motion can be expected at a distance from the earthquake, assuming that the earthquake magnitude is not predictable. Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems are in operation or development for many regions aroun...

  5. Double perovskites with strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ashley M.

    We first present theoretical analysis of powder inelastic neutron scattering experiments in Ba2FeReO6 performed by our experimental collaborators. Ba2FeReO6, a member of the double perovskite family of materials, exhibits half-metallic behavior and high Curie temperatures Tc, making it of interest for spintronics applications. To interpret the experimental data, we develop a local moment model, which incorporates the interaction of Fe spins with spin-orbital locked magnetic moments on Re, and show that it captures the experimental observations. We then develop a tight-binding model of the double perovskite Ba 2FeReO6, a room temperature ferrimagnet with correlated and spin-orbit coupled Re t2g electrons moving in the background of Fe moments stabilized by Hund's coupling. We show that for such 3d/5d double perovskites, strong correlations on the 5d-element (Re) are essential in driving a half-metallic ground state. Incorporating both strong spin-orbit coupling and the Hubbard repulsion on Re leads to a band structure consistent with ab initio calculations. The uncovered interplay of strong correlations and spin-orbit coupling lends partial support to our previous work, which used a local moment description to capture the spin wave dispersion found in neutron scattering measurements. We then adapt this tight-binding model to study {111}-grown bilayers of half-metallic double perovskites such as Sr2FeMoO6. The combination of spin-orbit coupling, inter-orbital hybridization and symmetry-allowed trigonal distortion leads to a rich phase diagram with tunable ferromagnetic order, topological C= +/-1, +/-2 Chern bands, and a C = +/-2 quantum anomalous Hall insulator regime. We have also performed theoretical analysis of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments to investigate the magnetic excitations in the weakly distorted face-centered-cubic (fcc) iridate double perovskites La2ZnIrO 6 and La2MgIrO6. Models with dominant Kitaev exchange seem to most naturally

  6. Transport Theory for Plasmas that are Strongly Magnetized and Strongly Coupled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalrud, Scott; Daligault, Jerome

    2016-10-01

    Plasmas with components that are magnetized, strongly coupled, or both arise in a variety of frontier plasma physics experiments including magnetized dusty plasmas, nonneutral plasmas, magnetized ICF concepts, as well as from self-generated fields in ICF. Here, a species is considered strongly magnetized if the gyroradius is smaller than the spatial scale over which Coulomb interactions occur. A theory for transport properties is described that treats a wide range of both coupling and magnetization strengths. The approach is based on an extension of the recent effective potential transport theory to include a strong magnetic field. The underlying kinetic theory is based on an extension of the Boltzmann equation to include a strong magnetic field in the dynamics of binary scattering events. Corresponding magnetohydrodynamic equations are derived by solving the kinetic equation using a Chapman-Enskog like spectral method. Results are compared with classical molecular dynamics simulations of self-diffusion of the one component plasmas, and with simulations of parallel to perpendicular temperature equilibration of an initially anisotropic distribution. This material is based upon work supported by AFOSR Award FA9550-16-1-0221 and DOE OFES Award DE-SC0016159.

  7. ''Strong gammas''. List of strong gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides. Documentation of the PC diskette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimiya, T.; Narita, T.; Kitao, K.

    1994-01-01

    The PC diskette containing the ''List of strong gamma-rays emitted from radionuclides'' as published by T. Narita et al. in the report JAERI-M-94-059, March 1994, is described. The diskette is available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, costfree, upon request. (author)

  8. Strong Feller solutions to SPDEďs are strong Feller in the weak topology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maslowski, Bohdan; Seidler, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 2 (2001), s. 111-129 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/98/1454 Keywords : strong Feller property% stochastic parabolic equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2001

  9. Strong-field ionization of polar molecules: Stark-shift-corrected strong-field approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Martiny, Christian P. J.; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2010-01-01

    We extend the molecular strong-field approximation for ionization, in the tunneling limit, to include systematically the linear and quadratic static Stark shifts of the ionizing molecular orbital. This approach, simple to implement, is capable of describing the essential physics of the process of...

  10. Airport Ground Resource Planning Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertakes the creation of an Airport Ground Resource Planning (AGRP) tool. Little or no automation is currently available to support airport ground...

  11. The Future of Ground Fire Support Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beckinger, Robert

    2002-01-01

    .... The potential of these and future systems, such as armed Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and micro-robotic platforms, signal the demise of at least ground fire support systems if not conventional ground forces...

  12. Strongly-correlated ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Tung-Lam

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the theoretical study of strongly correlated quantum states of ultra-cold fermionic atoms trapped in optical lattices. This field has grown considerably in recent years, following the experimental progress made in cooling and controlling atomic gases, which has led to the observation of the first Bose-Einstein condensation (in 1995). The trapping of these gases in optical lattices has opened a new field of research at the interface between atomic physics and condensed matter physics. The observation of the transition from a superfluid to a Mott insulator for bosonic atoms paved the way for the study of strongly correlated phases and quantum phase transitions in these systems. Very recently, the investigation of the Mott insulator state of fermionic atoms provides additional motivation to conduct such theoretical studies. This thesis can be divided broadly into two types of work: - On the one hand, we have proposed a new type of spectroscopy to measure single-particle correlators and associated physical observables in these strongly correlated states. - On the other hand, we have studied the ground state of the fermionic Hubbard model under different conditions (mass imbalance, population imbalance) by using analytical techniques and numerical simulations. In a collaboration with J. Dalibard and C. Salomon (LKB at the ENS Paris) and I. Carusotto (Trento, Italy), we have proposed and studied a novel spectroscopic method for the measurement and characterization of single particle excitations (in particular, the low energy excitations, namely the quasiparticles) in systems of cold fermionic atoms, with energy and momentum resolution. This type of spectroscopy is an analogue of angular-resolved photoemission in solid state physics (ARPES). We have shown, via simple models, that this method of measurement can characterize quasiparticles not only in the 'conventional' phases such as the weakly interacting gas in the lattice or in Fermi

  13. Chitah: Strong-gravitational-lens hunter in imaging surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, James H. H.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Chiueh, Tzihong; More, Anupreeta; Marshall, Philip J.; Coupon, Jean; Oguri, Masamune; Price, Paul

    2015-07-07

    Strong gravitationally lensed quasars provide powerful means to study galaxy evolution and cosmology. Current and upcoming imaging surveys will contain thousands of new lensed quasars, augmenting the existing sample by at least two orders of magnitude. To find such lens systems, we built a robot, Chitah, that hunts for lensed quasars by modeling the configuration of the multiple quasar images. Specifically, given an image of an object that might be a lensed quasar, Chitah first disentangles the light from the supposed lens galaxy and the light from the multiple quasar images based on color information. A simple rule is designed to categorize the given object as a potential four-image (quad) or two-image (double) lensed quasar system. The configuration of the identified quasar images is subsequently modeled to classify whether the object is a lensed quasar system. We test the performance of Chitah using simulated lens systems based on the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. For bright quads with large image separations (with Einstein radius ${r}_{\\mathrm{ein}}\\gt 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 1$) simulated using Gaussian point-spread functions, a high true-positive rate (TPR) of $\\sim 90\\%$ and a low false-positive rate of $\\sim 3\\%$ show that this is a promising approach to search for new lens systems. We obtain high TPR for lens systems with ${r}_{\\mathrm{ein}}\\gtrsim 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5$, so the performance of Chitah is set by the seeing. We further feed a known gravitational lens system, COSMOS 5921+0638, to Chitah, and demonstrate that Chitah is able to classify this real gravitational lens system successfully. Our newly built Chitah is omnivorous and can hunt in any ground-based imaging surveys.

  14. Empirically grounding grounded cognition: the case of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsel, Ben D; Urbach, Thomas P; Kutas, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Grounded cognition theories hold that the neural states involved in experiencing objects play a direct functional role in representing and accessing object knowledge from memory. However, extant data marshaled to support this view are also consistent with an opposing view that perceptuo-motor activations occur only following access to knowledge from amodal memory systems. We provide novel discriminating evidence for the functional involvement of visuo-perceptual states specifically in accessing knowledge about an object's color. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while manipulating the visual contrast of monochromatic words ("lime") in a semantic decision task: responses were made for valid colors ("green") and locations ("kitchen") and withheld for invalid colors and locations. Low contrast delayed perceptual processing for both color and location. Critically, low contrast slowed access to color knowledge only. This finding reveals that the visual system plays a functional role in accessing object knowledge and uniquely supports grounded views of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characterized by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper develops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the entropy ...

  16. 30 CFR 75.801 - Grounding resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 75.801 Section 75.801... resistors. [Statutory Provisions] The grounding resistor, where required, shall be of the proper ohmic value to limit the voltage drop in the grounding circuit external to the resistor to not more than 100...

  17. 7 CFR 65.160 - Ground chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground chicken. 65.160 Section 65.160 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.160 Ground chicken. Ground chicken means...

  18. Ground water pollution through air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichorowski, G.; Michel, B.; Versteegen, D.; Wettmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to determine the significance of air pollutants for ground water quality and ground water use. The report summarizes present knowledge and assesses statements with a view to potential ground water pollution from the air. In this context pollution paths, the spreading behaviour of pollutants, and 'cross points' with burden potentials from other pollutant sources are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course must...

  20. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characteri- zed by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper deve- lops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the.

  1. 46 CFR 129.370 - Equipment grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment grounding. 129.370 Section 129.370 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.370 Equipment grounding. (a) On a metallic vessel... grounding conductor must be sized to comply with section 250-95 of NEC (NFPA 70). (d) Each nonmetallic mast...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.809 - Grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grounding. 3280.809 Section 3280... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.809 Grounding. (a) General. Grounding of both electrical and nonelectrical metal parts in a manufactured home shall be...

  3. [Facial prosthetics: grounds and techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirven, R; Lieben, G; Bouwman, S; Wolterink, R; van den Brekel, M W M; Lohuis, P J F M

    2017-09-01

    Surgical treatment of advanced facial tumours is often physically, functionally and emotionally debilitating. The resulting defects often give grounds for surgical reconstruction, prosthetic reconstruction or a combination of both. During the past two decades, huge advances have been achieved in the development of prostheses. This has led to improved rehabilitation of facial defects. In the clinic of the Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, both adhesive- and implant-retained facial prostheses are used. In recent decades, implant-retained prostheses have been used increasingly often. Patient satisfaction rates are very high for both types of prostheses.

  4. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  5. Ground level cosmic ray observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements); Grimani, C.; Brunetti, M.T.; Codino, A. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Papini, P.; Massimo Brancaccio, F.; Piccardi, S. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Basini, G.; Bongiorno, F. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Hof, M. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    1995-09-01

    Cosmic rays at ground level have been collected using the NMSU/Wizard - MASS2 instrument. The 17-hr observation run was made on September 9. 1991 in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, Usa. Fort Sumner is located at 1270 meters a.s.l., corresponding to an atmospheric depth of about 887 g/cm{sup 2}. The geomagnetic cutoff is 4.5 GV/c. The charge ratio of positive and negative muons and the proton to muon ratio have been determined. These observations will also be compared with data collected at a higher latitude using the same basic apparatus.

  6. Assessing the importance of frustration in a narrow-band strongly correlated electronic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Siddhartha; Laad, Mukul S.

    2007-08-01

    We study a one-dimensional extended Hubbard model with longer-range Coulomb interactions at quarter-filling in the strong coupling limit. In this limit, we find the one dimensional transverse field Ising model (TFIM) to be the effective Hamiltonian governing the dynamics of the charge degrees of freedom. We find two different charge-ordered (CO) ground states as the strength of the longer range interactions is varied. At lower energies, these CO states drive two different spin-ordered ground states. A variety of response functions computed here bear a remarkable resemblance to recent experimental observations for organic TMTSF systems, and so we propose that these systems are proximate to a QCP associated with T = 0 charge order. (author)

  7. Scaling of turbulence spectra measured in strong shear flow near the Earth’s surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Within the lowest kilometer of the Earth's atmosphere, in the so-called atmospheric boundary layer, winds are often gusty and turbulent. Nearest to the ground, the turbulence is predominately generated by mechanical wall-bounded wind shear, whereas at higher altitudes turbulent mixing of heat......) their generation; (2) the cascade of energy across the spectrum from large- to small-scale; and (3) the eventual decay of turbulence into heat owing to viscosity effects on the Kolmogorov microscale, in which the eddy size is only a fraction of a millimeter. This paper addresses atmospheric turbulence spectra...... in the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer—the so-called surface layer—where the wind shear is strong owing to the nonslip condition at the ground. Theoretical results dating back to Tchen's early work in 1953 'on the spectrum of energy in turbulent shear flow' led Tchen to predict a shear production...

  8. Long Range Order and Spin-Fluctuations in Strongly Correlated Electron System with Valence Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, P. A.; Menushenkov, A. P.; Mignot, J.-M.; Nemkovski, K. S.; Yaroslavtsev, A. A.; Kozlenko, D. P.

    Rare-earth based strongly correlated electron systems (SCES) exhibit a large variety of different ground states, ranging from the simple paramagnetism of crystal-field-split f-electron multiplets to highly unconventional Kondo-insulator states with a combination of charge gap, spin gap and valence instability, in which long-range magnetic order can eventually arise from an initially singlet state. The physical background for these properties of the electron subsystem may be clarified by performing detailed neutron scattering experiments, namely magnetic neutron scattering spectroscopy and diffraction. This report reviews the results of the previous and new experimental studies on a number of rare-earth intermetallic compounds, which shed light on peculiar features of those unusual ground states.

  9. OBSERVATION OF STRONG - STRONG AND OTHER BEAM - BEAM EFFECTS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISCHER, W.; BLASKIEWICZ, M.; BRENNAN, J.M.; CAMERON, P.; CONNOLLY, R.; MONTAG, C.; PEGGS, S.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; TEPIKIAN, S.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VAN ZEIJTS, J.

    2003-01-01

    RHIC is currently the only hadron collider in which strong-strong beam-beam effects can be seen. For the first time, coherent beam-beam modes were observed in a bunched beam hadron collider. Other beam-beam effects in RHIC were observed in operation and in dedicated experiments with gold ions, deuterons and protons. Observations include measurements of beam-beam induced tune shifts, lifetime and emittance growth measurements with and without beam-beam interaction, and background rates as a function of tunes. During ramps unequal radio frequencies in the two rings cause the crossing points to move longitudinally. Thus bunches experience beam-beam interactions only in intervals and the tunes are modulated. In this article we summarize the most important beam-beam observations made so far

  10. Strong earthquakes can be predicted: a multidisciplinary method for strong earthquake prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Z. Li

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The imminent prediction on a group of strong earthquakes that occurred in Xinjiang, China in April 1997 is introduced in detail. The prediction was made on the basis of comprehensive analyses on the results obtained by multiple innovative methods including measurements of crustal stress, observation of infrasonic wave in an ultra low frequency range, and recording of abnormal behavior of certain animals. Other successful examples of prediction are also enumerated. The statistics shows that above 40% of 20 total predictions jointly presented by J. Z. Li, Z. Q. Ren and others since 1995 can be regarded as effective. With the above methods, precursors of almost every strong earthquake around the world that occurred in recent years were recorded in our laboratory. However, the physical mechanisms of the observed precursors are yet impossible to explain at this stage.

  11. Strong Convergence for Hybrid Implicit S-Iteration Scheme of Nonexpansive and Strongly Pseudocontractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Let K be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Banach space E, let S:K→K be nonexpansive, and let  T:K→K be Lipschitz strongly pseudocontractive mappings such that p∈FS∩FT=x∈K:Sx=Tx=x and x-Sy≤Sx-Sy and x-Ty≤Tx-Ty for all x, y∈K. Let βn be a sequence in 0, 1 satisfying (i ∑n=1∞βn=∞; (ii limn→∞⁡βn=0. For arbitrary x0∈K, let xn be a sequence iteratively defined by xn=Syn, yn=1-βnxn-1+βnTxn, n≥1. Then the sequence xn converges strongly to a common fixed point p of S and T.

  12. Nonlinear dynamic failure process of tunnel-fault system in response to strong seismic event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhihua; Lan, Hengxing; Zhang, Yongshuang; Gao, Xing; Li, Langping

    2013-03-01

    Strong earthquakes and faults have significant effect on the stability capability of underground tunnel structures. This study used a 3-Dimensional Discrete Element model and the real records of ground motion in the Wenchuan earthquake to investigate the dynamic response of tunnel-fault system. The typical tunnel-fault system was composed of one planned railway tunnel and one seismically active fault. The discrete numerical model was prudentially calibrated by means of the comparison between the field survey and numerical results of ground motion. It was then used to examine the detailed quantitative information on the dynamic response characteristics of tunnel-fault system, including stress distribution, strain, vibration velocity and tunnel failure process. The intensive tunnel-fault interaction during seismic loading induces the dramatic stress redistribution and stress concentration in the intersection of tunnel and fault. The tunnel-fault system behavior is characterized by the complicated nonlinear dynamic failure process in response to a real strong seismic event. It can be qualitatively divided into 5 main stages in terms of its stress, strain and rupturing behaviors: (1) strain localization, (2) rupture initiation, (3) rupture acceleration, (4) spontaneous rupture growth and (5) stabilization. This study provides the insight into the further stability estimation of underground tunnel structures under the combined effect of strong earthquakes and faults.

  13. Radium 226 in filter sludges from ground water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberer, K.

    1999-01-01

    Sludge waters from 80 different water works in Germany have been investigated on the content of radium 226, which appears wide-spread in ground water in very low concentrations, but heavily enriched in treatment sludges. The radium 226 contents of the sludge waters from treatment facilities for iron and manganese removal and in some cases for softening and flocculation were related to the dry residues separately determined. The specific Ra 226-activities of the dry residues fit to a log-norm distribution with a median value of 500 Bq/kg and a deviation of 1.7. 90% of the values were below 1200 Bq/kg. Radium 226 is strongly fixed to the sludges and will not be washed out, as elution experiments showed. Further investigations and calculations of the radium 226 content in the treated ground water proved the plausibility of the results. (orig.) [de

  14. Ground-truth aerosol lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansmann, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Upcoming multiyear satellite lidar aerosol observations need strong support by a worldwide ground-truth lidar network. In this context the question arises as to whether the ground stations can deliver the same results as obtained from space when the Klett formalism is applied to elastic backscatter lidar data for the same aerosol case. This question is investigated based on simulations of observed cases of simple and complex aerosol layering. The results show that the differences between spaceborne and ground-based observations can be as large as20% for the backscatter and extinction coefficients and the optimum estimates of the column lidar ratios. In cases with complex aerosol layering, the application of the two-layer approach can lead to similar results (space, ground) and accurate products provided that horizontally homogeneous aerosol conditions are given

  15. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Peled

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  16. The grounding of temporal metaphors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H

    2016-03-01

    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Robot locomotion on weak ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Feifei; Li, Chen; Umbanhowar, Paul; Goldman, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Natural substrates like sand, soil, and leaf litter vary widely in penetration resistance. Little is known about how animals (and increasingly robots) respond to this variation. To address this deficit, we built an air fluidized bed trackway, in which we control penetration resistance of 1mm granular substrates down to zero by increasing the upward flow rate, Q , to the fluidization transition. Using a 2 . 5 kg bio-inspired hexapedal robot as our model locomotor, we systematically study how locomotion performance (average forward speed, v) varies with penetration resistance, limb kinematics, and foot morphology. Average robot speed decreases with increasing Q, and decreases faster for robots with higher leg frequency or narrower leg width. A previously developed model, which captured the robot's performance on granular media with Q = 0 , also captures the observed performance for weakened states with Q > 0 . A single dimensionless control parameter from the model, which combines gait and ground parameters, determines v for all penetration resistances. Our ground control technique and modeling approach provide a way to probe and understand the limits of locomotor performance on yielding substrates.

  18. Inhomogeneities in a strongly correlated d-wave superconductors in the limit of strong disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The complex interplay of the strong correlations and impurities in a high temperature superconductor is analyzed within a Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory, augmented with Gutzwiller approximation for taking care of the strong electronic repulsion. The inclusion of such correlations is found to play a crucial role in reducing inhomogeneities in both qualitative and quantitative manner. This difference is comprehended by investigating the underlying one-particle ``normal states'' that includes the order parameters in the Hartree and Fock channels in the absence of superconductivity. This amounts to the renormalization of disorder both on the lattice sites and also on links. These two components of disorder turn out to be spatially anti-correlated through self-consistency. Interestingly, a simple pairing theory in terms of these normal states is found to describe the complex behaviors of dirty cuprates with reasonable accuracy. However, this framework needs modifications in the limit where disorder strengths are comparable to the band width. We will discuss appropriate updates in the formalism to describe physics of inhomogeneities with strong disorder.

  19. Strong-Motion Data From the Parkfield Earthquake of September 28, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakal, A. F.; Borcherdt, R. D.; Graizer, V.; Haddadi, H.; Huang, M.; Lin, K.; Stephens, C.

    2004-12-01

    Very complex ground motion with high spatial variability was recorded in the near field of the M6 Parkfield earthquake of 9/28/04 by a strong motion array. The array provided the highest density of recording stations in the near field of any earthquake recorded to date. A total of 56 stations were located within 20 km of the fault; 48 were within 10 km of the fault, more than for many other earthquakes combined. Most (45) of the stations were part of a specialized array of classic analog instruments installed by CGS in the early 1980s, and 11 were digital high resolution instruments installed by the USGS. The set of recordings obtained provide a wealth of information on near field ground motion. Processing and analysis of the strong-motion data, available at www.cisn-edc.org, is underway. The spatial variation of the ground motion, even over relatively short distances, is great. For example, a peak acceleration of 0.30 g was recorded in the town of Parkfield, but several stations, within about 2 km, that surround this station recorded acceleration levels well over 1 g. The strong shaking at these stations, near the termination end of the rupture, is consistent with directivity focusing, as the rupture propagated from the epicenter near Gold Hill to the northwest. However, some of the strongest shaking occurs well south of the rupture, at stations near Hwy 46 at the south end of the Cholame Valley, incompatible with directivity focusing from a simple rupture. An additional aspect is that several near-fault stations have very low shaking, despite being directly over the rupturing fault. This may provide a quantitative basis to understand observed cases of low-strength buildings immediately near a fault being only slightly damaged.

  20. U.S. Geological Survey National Strong-Motion Project strategic plan, 2017–22

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Brad T.; Celebi, Mehmet; Gee, Lind; Graves, Robert; Jaiswal, Kishor; Kalkan, Erol; Knudsen, Keith L.; Luco, Nicolas; Smith, James; Steidl, Jamison; Stephens, Christopher D.

    2017-12-11

    The mission of the National Strong-Motion Project is to provide measurements of how the ground and built environment behave during earthquake shaking to the earthquake engineering community, the scientific community, emergency managers, public agencies, industry, media, and other users for the following purposes: Improving engineering evaluations and design methods for facilities and systems;Providing timely information for earthquake early warning, damage assessment, and emergency response action; andContributing to a greater understanding of the mechanics of earthquake rupture, groundmotion characteristics, and earthquake effects.