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Sample records for strongly committed women

  1. Functional Flexibility in Women's Commitment-Skepticism Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Brown

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available If a woman overestimates her romantic partner's commitment, the cost to her fitness—reproduction without an investing partner—can be considerable. Error Management Theory predicts that women have an evolved bias to be skeptical of men's commitment in a relationship, which reduces the likelihood of making a costly false positive error. However, because error probabilities are inversely related, this commitment-skepticism bias simultaneously increases the likelihood of missed opportunities, or false negatives. False positives when gauging a partner's commitment are the more costly error for women, but missing an opportunity to secure a genuinely high-quality mate can also be quite costly. We predicted and found that women's mating cognitions are functionally flexible, such that women do not exhibit the commitment-skepticism bias when faced with behavioral evidence that a male partner is willing to commit (Study 1. This suggests that relationship-enhancing behaviors are one contextual cue that may lessen the bias. However, not all relationship-enhancing behaviors are equally diagnostic of a person's true commitment intent. When comparing men and women's commitment thresholds, we found that women require more behavioral evidence than men do to feel certain of their partner's commitment to them (Study 2.

  2. Generational Differences as a Determinant of Women's Perspectives on Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Marcella D.; Kirk, Amy Manning; Bruhn, Rick

    2012-01-01

    Differences between 116 graduate and undergraduate women, representing 4 generations (i.e., Baby Boomers, Transitionals, Generation Xers, and Millennials), were studied to categorize earliest awareness and definitions of commitment in relationships. More than 63% of participants in each generation viewed relationship commitment in terms of…

  3. The lived experience of discrimination of white women in committed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christopher R Stones

    The nature and impact of discrimination experienced by white women in committed interracial relationships with black men is thus multi-layered and both an intra-personal and an inter-personal phenomenon. Introduction. In South Africa, discrimination against interracial marriages has, historically, been both normative and.

  4. Young oung Women and Feminism: Indifference or Commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oralia Gómez-Ramírez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze the relationship between feminism and young women in Mexico. Our central purpose consists of analyzing whether there are young feminist women and, if so, what their participation and role in the Mexican feminist and women’s movements are. We argue that while feminism has undoubtedly impacted young women’s lives, only a small number of them self-identifies as feminists. This situation is disquieting; however, by participating either in local political movements or in the academia, some young women do commit themselves with feminisms, and thus, strengthen and/or generate autonomous and independent projects that allow them to express their points of view, among other means, by creating networks.

  5. Strong commitment to traditional Protestant religious beliefs is negatively related to beliefs in paranormal phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillstrom, E L; Strachan, M

    2000-02-01

    Numerous studies have yielded small, negative correlations between measures of paranormal and "traditional religious beliefs". This may partly reflect opinions of Christians in the samples who take biblical sanctions against many "paranormal" activities seriously. To test this, 391 college students (270 women and 121 men) rated their beliefs in various paranormal phenomena and were classified as Believers, Nominal Believers, and Nonbelievers on the strength of their self-rated commitment to key biblical (particularly Protestant) doctrines. As predicted, Believers were significantly less likely than Nominal Believers or Nonbelievers to endorse reincarnation, contact with the dead, UFOs, telepathy, prophecy, psychokinesis, or healing, while the beliefs of Nominal Believers were similar to those of Nonbelievers. Substantial percentages of Nominal and Nonbelievers (30-50%) indicated at least moderate acceptance of the paranormal phenomena surveyed.

  6. Acceptance and commitment therapy improves exercise tolerance in sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena; Jensen, Dennis; Cassoff, Jamie; Gu, Fei; Knäuper, Bärbel

    2015-06-01

    To test the efficacy of an acute intervention derived from acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for increasing high-intensity constant work rate (CWR) cycle exercise tolerance in a group of low-active women age 18-45 yr. The secondary goals were to examine whether ACT would reduce perceived effort and improve in-task affect during exercise and increase postexercise enjoyment. In a randomized controlled trial, 39 women were randomized to either the experimental (using ACT-based cognitive techniques and listening to music during the CWR exercise tests) or a control group (listening to music during the CWR exercise tests). Before (CWR-1) and after the intervention (CWR-2), participants completed a CWR cycle exercise test at 80% of maximal incremental work rate (Wmax) until volitional exhaustion. On average, ACT (n = 18) and control (n = 21) groups were matched for age, body mass index, weekly leisure activity scores, and Wmax (all P > 0.05). Exercise tolerance time (ETT) increased by 15% from CWR-1 to CWR-2 for the ACT group (392.05 ± 146.4 vs 459.39 ± 209.3 s; mean ± SD) and decreased by 8% (384.71 ± 120.1 vs 353.86 ± 127.9 s) for the control group (P = 0.008). RPE were lower (e.g., by 1.5 Borg 6-20 scale units at 55% of ETT, P ≤ 0.01) during CWR-2 in the ACT versus that in the control group. By contrast, ACT had no effect on in-task affect. Exercise enjoyment was higher after CWR-2 in the ACT group versus that in the control group (P active women. Further investigations of ACT as an effective intervention for enhancing the established health benefits of high-intensity exercise need to be provided.

  7. Types of criminal acts women are likely to commit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R J

    1996-10-01

    In their article, Trice and Lamb misrepresented my 1975 work on women and crime by suggesting that I predicted that there would be a big increase in violent crime among young women as they become more "masculinized." In fact, what was predicted was that as more women entered the labor force, there would be a significant increase in property offenses, mostly white collar and financial crimes on the part of women.

  8. The underrepresentation of women in science: differential commitment or the queen bee syndrom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellemers, N.; van den Heuvel, H.; de Gilder, T.C.; Maass, A.; Bonvini, A.

    2004-01-01

    We examined possible explanations for the underrepresentation of women among university faculty, in two different national contexts. In the Netherlands, a sample of doctoral students (N = 132) revealed no gender differences in work commitment or work satisfaction. Faculty members in the same

  9. Testosterone and romance: the association of testosterone with relationship commitment and satisfaction in heterosexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Ann E Caldwell; Gangestad, Steven W; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Bryan, Angela D

    2011-01-01

    The current study extends previous research on testosterone (T) and mating effort by examining whether relationship commitment and satisfaction explain variance in T beyond relationship status alone. Salivary testosterone and self-reported assessments of relationship commitment and satisfaction were assessed among 90 heterosexual men and women (age M = 23.57) in a cross-sectional community sample. Relationship commitment was significantly related to T among men (P 0.05). Controlling for relationship commitment, satisfaction did not predict T levels in men or women (P's > 0.18). The association of increasing relationship commitment with reduced T levels in men confirms and extends prior research linking T with mating effort. Together with previous research, this study suggests that T does not vary with relationship commitment or quality in monogamous, heterosexual women. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. How could she? Psychosocial analysis of ten homicide cases committed by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellen, Florence; Lange-Asschenfeldt, Christian; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Verhülsdonk, Sandra; Hartung, Benno

    2015-11-01

    Ten percent of all homicide perpetrators are female and homicidal acts committed by women are mostly a result of interpersonal conflicts. We carried out a retrospective psychosocial analysis of ten homicide cases committed by women with an urban mid-European background. We evaluated characteristic determinants regarding 1) deed circumstances and motives, 2) the perpetrators, and 3) the victims. Results were compared with the literature on female and male homicides. Autopsy records of the Institute of Legal Medicine of the University Hospital of Düsseldorf, Germany, during the time period from 2006 to 2011 were searched for homicides committed by female perpetrators. Prosecution files were reviewed for further information. The sample comprised N = 10 female homicide perpetrators and eleven victims. The mentioned determinants of the homicide were fairly consistent. All deeds occurred in the domestic context; they were mostly unplanned. All perpetrators were socially isolated and faced socially challenging situations. Most perpetrators were of low socioeconomic status. Furthermore, all victims were helpless and/or dependent on the perpetrator. The presence of a major psychiatric disorder was uncommon and, in contrast to male perpetrators, most women had no previous convictions. The potential value of these core findings in our sample regarding prevention is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Supporting aboriginal knowledge and practice in health care: lessons from a qualitative evaluation of the strong women, strong babies, strong culture program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Anne; Kildea, Sue; Liddle, Marlene; Cox, Barbara; Paterson, Barbara

    2015-02-05

    The Strong Women, Strong Babies, Strong Culture Program (the Program) evolved from a recognition of the value of Aboriginal knowledge and practice in promoting maternal and child health (MCH) in remote communities of the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Commencing in 1993 it continues to operate today. In 2008, the NT Department of Health commissioned an evaluation to identify enabling factors and barriers to successful implementation of the Program, and to identify potential pathways for future development. In this paper we focus on the evaluation findings related specifically to the role of Aborignal cultural knowledge and practice within the Program. A qualitative evaluation utilised purposive sampling to maximise diversity in program history and Aboriginal culture. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 76 participants were recorded in their preferred language with a registered Interpreter when required. Thematic analysis of data was verified or modified through further discussions with participants and members of the evaluation team. Although the importance of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is widely acknowledged, there has been considerable variation across time and location in the extent to which these cultural dimensions have been included in practice. Factors contributing to this variation are complex and relate to a number of broad themes including: location of control over Program activities; recognition and respect for Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a legitimate component of health care; working in partnership; communication within and beyond the Program; access to transport and working space; and governance and organisational support. We suggest that inclusion of Aboriginal knowledge and practice as a fundamental component of the Program is key to its survival over more than twenty years despite serious challenges. Respect for the legitimacy of Aboriginal knowledge and practice within health

  12. Undertreatment strongly decreases prognosis of breast cancer in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchardy, Christine; Rapiti, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gérald; Laissue, Paul; Neyroud-Caspar, Isabelle; Schäfer, Peter; Kurtz, John; Sappino, André-Pascal; Vlastos, Georges

    2003-10-01

    No consensus exists on therapy of elderly cancer patients. Treatments are influenced by unclear standards and are usually less aggressive. This study aims to evaluate determinants and effect of treatment choice on breast cancer prognosis among elderly patients. We reviewed clinical files of 407 breast cancer patients aged >/= 80 years recorded at the Geneva Cancer Registry between 1989 and 1999. Patient and tumor characteristics, general health status, comorbidity, treatment, and cause of death were considered. We evaluated determinants of treatment by logistic regression and effect of treatment on mortality by Cox model, accounting for prognostic factors. Age was independently linked to the type of treatment. Overall, 12% of women (n = 48) had no treatment, 32% (n = 132) received tamoxifen only, 7% (n = 28) had breast-conserving surgery only, 33% (n = 133) had mastectomy, 14% (n = 57) had breast-conserving surgery plus adjuvant therapy, and 2% (n = 9) received miscellaneous treatments. Five-year specific breast cancer survival was 46%, 51%, 82%, and 90% for women with no treatment, tamoxifen alone, mastectomy, and breast-conserving surgery plus adjuvant treatment, respectively. Compared with the nontreated group, the adjusted hazard ratio of breast cancer mortality was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.2 to 0.7) for tamoxifen alone, 0.4 (95% CI, 0.1 to 1.4) for breast-conserving surgery alone, 0.2 (95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7) for mastectomy, and 0.1 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.4) for breast-conserving surgery plus adjuvant treatment. Half of elderly patients with breast cancer are undertreated, with strongly decreased specific survival as a consequence. Treatments need to be adapted to the patient's health status, but also should offer the best chance of cure.

  13. Freud, Adler, and Women: Powers of the "Weak" and "Strong."

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVitis, Joseph L.

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses Freud's original psychoanalytic notions on women and morality and their influence on constructions of personality, power, culture, and socioeducational change. Also discussed is Freudian critic Alfred Adler's use of a larger external lens to focus women's lives in a wider context of "social interest" and social…

  14. The combination of work organizational climate and individual work commitment predicts return to work in women but not in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Ekbladh, Elin; Hensing, Gunnel; Dellve, Lotta

    2013-02-01

    To analyze if the combination of organizational climate and work commitment can predict return to work (RTW). This prospective Swedish study was based on 2285 participants, 19 to 64 years old, consecutively selected from the employed population, newly sick-listed for more than 14 days. Data were collected in 2008 through postal questionnaire and from register data. Among women, the combination of good organizational climate and fair work commitment predicted an early RTW with an adjusted relative risk of 2.05 (1.32 to 3.18). Among men, none of the adjusted variables or combinations of variables was found significantly to predict RTW. This study demonstrated the importance of integrative effects of organizational climate and individual work commitment on RTW among women. These factors did not predict RTW in men. More research is needed to understand the RTW process among men.

  15. Vulnerable and strong--lesbian women encountering maternity care.

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    Spidsberg, Bente Dahl

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a report of a study to describe the maternity care experiences narrated by a sample of lesbian couples. Pregnant and labouring women are dependent on the professional skill and caring ability of the healthcare provider. Studies show that lesbian women who reveal their sexual identity are exposed to homophobic prejudice and discrimination in midwifery care. A phenomenological hermeneutical study inspired by the French philosopher Paul Ricoeur was conducted. Six lesbian couples were recruited in Norway by a snowball method, reporting a total of eight children conceived by donor insemination. Joint interviews were performed in January 2006, and the participants were encouraged to share narratives about important events in their maternity care experiences. The fundamental life conditions of vulnerability, responsibility and caring permeated the narratives, and were related with the couples' decisions to be open about their sexual identity. Being exposed, they experienced under- and over-focusing on sexuality. They felt responsible for having the right attitude in interactions, which meant being open, but not over-assertive. They described genuinely caring situations as well as being content with less genuine care, and demonstrated that in addition to receiving care, they provided care in the encounters. Lesbian women are a vulnerable group when encountering maternity care. They took responsibility in caring situations because of healthcare providers' uncertainty and anxiety. Existential needs, such as being seen, being cared for and communicated with, should be considered equally important for lesbian women and heterosexual women in labour.

  16. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy on Depression and Body Image in Women with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Gholamhoseini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objective: From the perspective of psychology, obesity can lead to the negative attitude, stress and the increasing the risks of psychological disorders. From the viewpoint of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT, psychological disorders are due to the fusion of psychological and cognitive inflexibility. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an acceptance and commitment group therapy on improving the depression and body image among female with obesity.Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was performed through pre-posttest with the intervention and the control groups. The target population of this research was total obese women depression symptoms and negative body image who referred to nutrition and sports clubs in East of Tehran in 2014. 30 obese women with depression symptoms and negative body image were selected through purposeful sampling and randomly divided in the intervention and the control groups. The intervention group participated in acceptance and commitment group therapy sessions include once a week for two months (a total of 8 sessions.The control group received no intervention. All participants were evaluated in the first and last meeting by the Beck Depression Inventory and body image questionnaires. To analyze the data descriptive parameters such as frequency and standard deviation and statistical tests such as t-test for comparison two independent groups were used.Results: The results showed a significant reduction in depression scores (P<0.01 and a significant increase in body image scores (P=0.001 in patients of the intervention group compared to the control group.Conclusion: The study showed that acceptance and commitment group therapy in women with obesity lead to the reduction in depression and increase the desirable perception of body image, therefore, the use of this therapeutic approach is recommended in women with obesity. 

  17. Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among Black Women and the Relevance of the Strong Black Woman Archetype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman’s ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  18. Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, Dana; Medler-Liraz, Hana

    2017-10-01

    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees' surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee-customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The association between poor organizational climate and high work commitments, and sickness absence in a general population of women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel; Dellve, Lotta

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the association between organizational climate and work commitment, and sickness absence in a general population of workers and consecutively selected employed sick-listed. Questionnaire data used in this cross-sectional study consisted of two cohorts: (1) randomly selected individuals in a general working population cohort (2763) and (2) consecutively selected employed sick-listed cohort (3044) for more than 14 days over 2 months. Poor organizational climate was associated with increased odds of belonging to the employed sick-listed cohort among both women and men, while high work commitments were associated with increased odds only among women. The increased adjusted odds ratio for the combinations of poor organizational climate and high work commitment was 1.80 (confidence interval 1.36 to 2.37) among women and 2.74 (confidence interval 1.84 to 4.08) among men. These results support the magnitude of combining organizational climate and work commitment.

  20. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A randomized controlled trial of strong minds: A school-based mental health program combining acceptance and commitment therapy and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Rowan; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2016-08-01

    To date, most early intervention programs have been based on emotion regulation strategies that address dysfunctional cognitive appraisals, problem-solving skills, and rumination. Another emotion regulation strategy, 'acceptance' training, has largely been overlooked. To examine the efficacy of this strategy, a school-based mental health program combining positive psychology with acceptance and commitment therapy (Strong Minds) was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial with a sample of 267 Year 10 and 11 high-school students in Sydney, Australia. Mixed models for repeated measures examined whether the program led to reductions in symptoms amongst students who commenced the program with high depression, anxiety, and stress scores, and increased wellbeing scores amongst all students. Results demonstrated that compared to controls, participants in the Strong Minds condition with elevated symptom scores (n=63) reported significant reductions in depression (p=.047), stress (p=.01), and composite depression/anxiety symptoms (p=.02) with medium to strong effect sizes (Cohen's d=0.53, 0.74, and 0.57, respectively). Increased wellbeing (p=.03) in the total sample and decreased anxiety scores (p=.048) for students with elevated symptoms were significant for Year 10 students with medium effect sizes (Cohen's d=0.43 and 0.54, respectively). This study tentatively suggests that including the emotion regulation strategy of acceptance in early intervention programs may be effective in reducing symptoms and improving wellbeing in high school students. Further research to investigate the generalizability of these findings is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  3. State Department leader describes new U.S. commitment to women's rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    In March, 1994, US State Department counselor Timothy Wirth told a UN audience of US support for sustainable development, which includes issues of women's rights, reproductive health care, and rapid population growth. He mentioned that women's rights, well-being, and empowerment are key to attaining population and sustainable development goals. He described the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) as a link between the 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development and the 1995 World Summit for Social Development. Environmental destruction; inadequate access to maternal health care, contraception, and safe abortion; sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS; and human rights violations have replaced East-West military conflict and now determine global security. Continued rapid population growth is central to all these issues. Demands for natural resources by the affluent are exhausting forests and water supplies and producing global warming. Sustainable development cannot be achieved without women's total empowerment and complete engagement. Obstacles to sustainable development include lack of primary and reproductive health services, high rates of maternal and child mortality, insufficient educational opportunity, underappreciation of women's potential contribution to environmental goals, and political and economic gender bias. ICPD goals should be meeting the unmet demand for and expanding the range of reproductive health services, investing in women, creating respect for women's basic human rights, assuring women's economic rights, tackling unique problems of female adolescents, persuading men to become responsible for fertility, and involving women in the design and implementation of sustainable development strategies and programs. President Clinton aims to provide almost $600 million for 1995 population activities.

  4. Attractive Women Want it All: Good Genes, Economic Investment, Parenting Proclivities, and Emotional Commitment1

    OpenAIRE

    David M. Buss; Todd K. Shackelford

    2008-01-01

    The current research tests the hypothesis that women have an evolved mate value calibration adaptation that functions to raise or lower their standards in a long-term mate according to their own mate value. A woman's physical attractiveness is a cardinal component of women's mate value. We correlated observer-assessed physical attractiveness (face, body, and overall) with expressed preferences for four clusters of mate characteristics (N = 214): (1) hypothesized good-gene indicators (e.g., ma...

  5. Correlates of Sex Trading among Drug-Involved Women in Committed Intimate Relationships: A Risk Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwatram-Negrón, Tina; El-Bassel, Nabila

    2015-01-01

    Despite a slight decline in new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in New York, marked increases and concentrated epidemics continue among subsets of the population, including women engaged in sex trading. We examined the prevalence and correlates of sex trading among 346 low-income, HIV-negative women in HIV-concordant intimate relationships. Women and their long-term main partners were recruited to participate in an HIV prevention intervention. Baseline data were used in this article. Of the 346 women in the study, 28% reported sex trading during the prior 90 days. Multivariate analyses showed increased relative risk of sex trading by lifetime experience of severe intimate partner violence (IPV), drug, and alcohol use, and marginal significance for mental health hospitalization, partner drug dependency, and homelessness. These findings suggest an urgent need for HIV prevention and intervention efforts targeted toward women in intimate relationships who trade sex for money or drugs, with an emphasis on IPV, mental health, history of incarceration, and substance abuse. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Attractive Women Want it All: Good Genes, Economic Investment, Parenting Proclivities, and Emotional Commitment1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Buss

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research tests the hypothesis that women have an evolved mate value calibration adaptation that functions to raise or lower their standards in a long-term mate according to their own mate value. A woman's physical attractiveness is a cardinal component of women's mate value. We correlated observer-assessed physical attractiveness (face, body, and overall with expressed preferences for four clusters of mate characteristics (N = 214: (1 hypothesized good-gene indicators (e.g., masculinity, sexiness; (2 hypothesized good investment indicators (e.g., potential income; (3 good parenting indicators (e.g., desire for home and children, and (4 good partner indicators (e.g., being a loving partner. Results supported the hypothesis that high mate value women, as indexed by observer-judged physical attractiveness, expressed elevated standards for all four clusters of mate characteristics. Discussion focuses on potential design features of the hypothesized mate-value calibration adaptation, and suggests an important modification of the trade-off model of women's mating. A minority of women—notably those low in mate value who are able to escape male mate guarding and the manifold costs of an exposed infidelity—will pursue a mixed mating strategy, obtaining investment from one man and good genes from an extra-pair copulation partner (as the trade-off model predicts. Since the vast majority of women secure genes and direct benefits from the same man, however, most women will attempt to secure the best combination of all desired qualities from the same man.

  7. Las jóvenes y el feminismo: ¿Indiferencia o compromiso? Young women and feminism: indifference or commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oralia Gómez-Ramírez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo analizamos la relación entre el feminismo y las jóvenes en México. El eje rector responde a la interrogante de si existen jóvenes feministas y, de ser así, cuál es su participación y papel en los movimientos feministas del país. Si bien percibimos con toda claridad, por una parte, que el feminismo ha impactado directamente las vidas de las jóvenes; por otro lado, sólo un número minúsculo se asume como feminista. La situación en este sentido es inquietante, sin embargo, ya sea desde la política o la academia observamos que algunas jóvenes sí se comprometen con los feminismos, y son ellas quienes se integran a espacios establecidos o bien generan propuestas autónomas e independientes para dar expresión a sus posturas, entre otras, mediante la generación de redes.In this article we analyze the relationship between feminism and young women in Mexico. Our central purpose consists of analyzing whether there are young feminist women and, if so, what their participation and role in the Mexican feminist and women's movements are. We argue that while feminism has undoubtedly impacted young women's lives, only a small number of them self-identifies as feminists. This situation is disquieting; however, by participating either in local political movements or in the academia, some young women do commit themselves with feminisms, and thus, strengthen and/or generate autonomous and independent projects that allow them to express their points of view, among other means, by creating networks.

  8. Breast magnetic resonance imaging significance for breast cancer diagnostic in women with genetic predisposition and a strong family history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Karpova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening of breast cancer with mammography recommended to women over 40 has been shown to decrease breast cancer mortality. But mam- mography has much lower accuracy in young women with BRCA1/2 mutations and women with a strong family history. Therefore new screening methods in young high-risk women are necessary to detect early-stage cancer.

  9. Self-determination in sport commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariadis, Panayotis; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Alexandris, Konstantinos

    2006-04-01

    The study tested utility of self-determination and sport commitment theories to understanding young athletes' sport commitment. 343 young athletes (M= 13.5 yr., SD= +/- 1.1) from soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, and water polo teams volunteered to participate. All completed the Sport Motivation Scale and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire. Pearson correlations showed a strong relationship between commitment and intrinsic motivation scores. In contrast, extrinsic motivation scores were not significantly correlated to commitment, whereas amotivation scores showed a negative correlation to commitment. Path analysis resulted in strong positive association of intrinsic motivation and commitment. Amotivation had small negative relation to commitment. According to the model tested, social constraints and involvement opportunities were not significant contributors to sport commitment. An alternative model supported the mediating role of enjoyment to psychological commitment. The results showed that high self-determination is supportive of sport commitment, whereas low self-determination reduces sport commitment.

  10. Sexy versus Strong: What Girls and Women Think of Female Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has investigated girls' and college women's reactions to non-objectified media images of women, including those that depict women in instrumental activities like playing a sport. This study examined open-ended responses to images of performance athletes, sexualized athletes, and sexualized models. Participants were 258 adolescent…

  11. Women Reaching Women: A Story of Change. The Role of Narrative in Building Trust and Commitment during an Action Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Women Reaching Women was a three-year action research project aimed at raising awareness of world poverty, gender inequality and climate change. The project brought together the National Federation of Women's Institutes, Oxfam, the Everyone Foundation and a unique group of 28 women drawn from Women's Institutes across the country. The project…

  12. Living Learning Communities: An Intervention in Keeping Women Strong in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belichesky, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand on the current research pertaining to women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors, better understand the experiences of undergraduate women in the sciences, identify barriers to female persistence in their intended STEM majors, and understand the impact of the STEM co-educational…

  13. Codes of Commitment to Crime and Resistance: Determining Social and Cultural Factors over the Behaviors of Italian Mafia Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayli, Baris

    2016-01-02

    This article categorizes thirty-three women in four main Italian Mafia groups and explores social and cultural behaviors of these women. This study introduces the feminist theory of belief and action. The theoretical inquiry investigates the sometimes conflicting behaviors of women when they are subject to systematic oppression. I argue that there is a cultural polarization among the categorized sub-groups. Conservative radicals give their support to the Mafia while defectors and rebels resist the Mafia. After testing the theory, I assert that emancipation of women depends on the strength of their beliefs to perform actions against the Mafiosi culture.

  14. Codes of Commitment to Crime and Resistance: Determining Social and Cultural Factors over the Behaviors of Italian Mafia Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayli, Baris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article categorizes thirty-three women in four main Italian Mafia groups and explores social and cultural behaviors of these women. This study introduces the feminist theory of belief and action. The theoretical inquiry investigates the sometimes conflicting behaviors of women when they are subject to systematic oppression. I argue that there is a cultural polarization among the categorized sub-groups. Conservative radicals give their support to the Mafia while defectors and rebels resist the Mafia. After testing the theory, I assert that emancipation of women depends on the strength of their beliefs to perform actions against the Mafiosi culture. PMID:26806988

  15. The strong commitment. The government of Vietnam has invested nearly 30% of its budget for all the social programs such as education, health, population and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Phuong Lan

    1995-01-01

    Population and family planning activities first came into being in Vietnam in 1963 after a decree on fertility control was issued by the Council of Government on December 26, 1961. The Ministry of Health (MOH) was in charge of such activities, using its own network to provide services and mass organizations to garner public support for the acceptance of family planning. On May 13, 1979, the council transferred family planning activities to the new Committee for Maternal and Child Protection. However, that committee was soon disbanded, and family planning activities were returned to the auspices of the MOH. The National Committee for Population and Family Planning was created in 1984 under the MOH with the goal of mobilizing all social forces in population and family planning activities. Decrees of October 1988 and March 1989, and in 1991 and 1993, strengthened measures to reduce population growth and ensure that adequate family planning methods were available to couples. Vietnam's Population and Family Planning Program has strong political support. Indeed, the government of Vietnam has invested almost 30% of its budget into education, health, and population and family planning programs.

  16. Work values and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidron, A

    1978-06-01

    Dubin, Champoux and Porter (1975) found a strong relationship between central life interests of workers and their commitment to the organization. This paper extends their findings by investigating the relationship between work values, defined as the Protestant Ethic of the worker, and commitment to the organization. A distinction is made between moral and calculative commitment, and it is shown that work values are related more to moral than calculative involvement.

  17. [Associative commitments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulet, Marie-Claire

    2017-12-01

    Volunteering to serve the general interest, that is the profession of faith behind associative commitments. Notably, actions by associations undertaken in favour of organ donation today must, in their content and forms, reconcile tradition and modernity. But they keep their driving principles and values intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. THE BRICS COMMITMENT IN THE PROMOTION OF EQUALITY BETWEEN WOMEN AND MEN: ANALYSIS FROM THE HUMAN RIGHTS AND PEACE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Fernandez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of women to peace has been very relevant throughout history. The full and complete development of a country, the welfare of the world and the cause of peace require the maximum participation of women on equal terms with men in all fields. Gender equality has always been seen as an endless project, which should be realized by everyone around the world. The long-term effects of conflict and militarization create a culture of violence that renders women especially vulnerable in a post-war scenario. The interest in involving women and girls in the peace processes often stems from their experiences of armed conflicts, whether primarily as victims or as armed participants. They are aware of the potentials for transformation and reform in periods of peacemaking. Since 2008, the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the right of peoples to peace.’ Pursuant to resolutions 20/15 and 23/16, the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the open-ended working group (OEWG aimed atprogressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed, in its second session (July 2014, the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is essentially based on the promotion of equality between men and women, and the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  19. The metabolic syndrome in black hypertensive women - Waist circumference more strongly related than body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rheeder, P; Stolk, RP; Veenhouwer, JF; Grobbee, DE

    Objective. To examine the association between measures of. obesity and features of the metabolic syndrome in treated. black female hypertensive subjects. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. An urban primary health care centre in Mamelodi, Pretoria. Subjects. Women with hypertension and without

  20. Indigenous Australian Women's Leadership: Stayin' Strong against the Post-Colonial Tide

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nereda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on my experiences as an Indigenous woman researcher coming to grips with colonialism through a post-colonialism lens. I also discuss a study which examines the leadership journey of a group of Indigenous Australian women. The research, which includes an auto-ethnographic approach, was guided by an Indigenous worldview…

  1. More Women in Science and Technology: A Commitment to Sustainable Development Goals in Developing Countries: Sudan as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suad M. Sulaiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The debate on the fact that there are very fewwomen (less than 10% in the leading researchinstitutions was raised more than four decades ago. This has triggered several studies to document thecontribution of women to science and scientificdiscoveries. In 2010, the Royal Society of Londoncelebrated its 350th anniversary; but the historic absence of women scientists from the seminars,exhibitions and publications was noted. Although the Royal Society was founded in 1660, women were not permitted by statute to become fellows until 285 years later, in 1945. An exception was made for Queen Victoria, who was made a royal fellow. This situation was not unique for theBritish; it was the same for other elite science academies.....

  2. A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity in women with pelvic floor disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Gregg; Rogers, Rebecca G; Pauls, Rachel N; Kammerer-Doak, Dorothy; Thakar, Ranee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis We evaluated the associations between pelvic floor muscle strength and tone with sexual activity and sexual function in women with pelvic floor disorders. Methods This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter study of women with pelvic floor disorders from the US and UK performed to validate the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire, IUGA-Revised (PISQ-IR). Participants were surveyed about whether they were sexually active and completed the PISQ-IR and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaires to assess sexual function. Physical exams included assessment of pelvic floor strength by the Oxford Grading Scale, and assessment of pelvic floor tone per ICS guidelines. Results The cohort of 585 women was middle aged (mean age 54.9 +/−12.1) with 395 (67.5%) reporting sexual activity. Women with a strong pelvic floor (n=275) were more likely to report sexual activity than women with weak strength (n=280) (75.3 vs. 61.8%, ppelvic floor tone was not associated with sexual activity (68.8 vs. 60.2%, normal vs. hypoactive, p=0.08). After multivariable analysis, a strong pelvic floor remained predictive of sexual activity (OR 1.89, CI 1.18–3.03, ppelvic floor was associated with higher scores on the PISQ-IR domain of condition impact (Parameter Estimate 0.20+/−0.09, P=0.04), and FSFI orgasm domain (PE 0.51+/−0.17, P=0.004). Conclusion A strong pelvic floor is associated with higher rates of sexual activity as well as higher sexual function scores on the condition impact domain of the PISQ-IR and orgasm domain of the FSFI. PMID:25994625

  3. Uncontrolled pilot study of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Health at Every Size intervention for obese, depressed women: Accept Yourself!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Margit I; Morton, Stephanie N; Hegel, Mark T

    2016-12-01

    Depression and obesity frequently co-occur, but providing adequate treatment to depressed obese women is challenging because existing treatments for each problem in isolation are suboptimal, and treatments to address one problem may exacerbate the other. This study used an uncontrolled, pretreatment-to-posttreatment design, with 3-month follow-up, to evaluate the feasibility and outcome of a novel, self-acceptance-based treatment for obese women with depression, "Accept Yourself!" Accept Yourself! is an 11-week manualized, group-based intervention that integrates Health At Every Size (an evidence-based paradigm to enhance physical health) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (an evidence-based psychotherapy often used to treat depression and eating-related concerns) to improve the physical and mental health of obese, depressed women without encouraging weight loss. Twenty-one obese women with Major Depressive Disorder received the intervention; 18 completed at least seven sessions, a minimal dose of the intervention. Depressive symptoms, depression diagnosis, physical health outcomes (including physical activity and blood pressure), and obesity-related quality of life were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Weight was also monitored. Depression, blood pressure, and obesity-related quality of life significantly improved from pretreatment to posttreatment, and improvements were sustained over a 3-month follow-up. Participants did not gain significant weight during the intervention or at follow-up. These data, although preliminary and nonexperimental, suggest that Accept Yourself! could be a promising treatment for obese, depressed women, and support the value of larger randomized controlled trials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Literary Commitment in Bessie Head’s Maru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Odhiambo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This was a study of Bessie Head’s literary commitment. The objective of the study was to interrogate the extent to which the writer is committed as a woman and as a Third World person based on the text Maru. The study adopted the analytical research design. The data collected through content analysis was coded according to thematic concerns, stylistic choices, the mode of characterization and vision of the author. The postcolonial theory was employed in the reading analysis and interpretation of the selected text. The findings reveal that as a woman, Bessie Head is committed to reconstructing a positive image for her female characters by challenging stereotypical perception of women through dismantling of patriarchal structures that previously relegated women to subordinate roles. This is seen in the presentation of the female characters as strong willed, determined, assertive, independent and enterprising. In delineating the experiences of women as women, she explores their most personal convictions thereby presenting their perception of issues as women. As a Third World writer, Head is committed to social justice, exposition of suffering and dehumanization resulting from ethnic prejudice and superstition. She voices for the voiceless by advocating gender equity as a basis for development. On the political arena, she examines issues that ail African politics such as selfish and greedy leadership, oppression and discrimination on basis of race. The text particularly dwells on the racial prejudices and class difference in the society.

  5. Literary Commitment in Bessie Head’s Maru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Odhiambo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This was a study of Bessie Head’s literary commitment. The objective of the study was to interrogate the extent to which the writer is committed as a woman and as a Third World person based on the text Maru. The study adopted the analytical research design. The data collected through content analysis was coded according to thematic concerns, stylistic choices, the mode of characterization and vision of the author. The postcolonial theory was employed in the reading analysis and interpretation of the selected text. The findings reveal that as a woman, Bessie Head is committed to reconstructing a positive image for her female characters by challenging stereotypical perception of women through dismantling of patriarchal structures that previously relegated women to subordinate roles. This is seen in the presentation of the female characters as strong willed, determined, assertive, independent and enterprising. In delineating the experiences of women as women, she explores their most personal convictions thereby presenting their perception of issues as women. As a Third World writer, Head is committed to social justice, exposition of suffering and dehumanization resulting from ethnic prejudice and superstition. She voices for the voiceless by advocating gender equity as a basis for development. On the political arena, she examines issues that ail African politics such as selfish and greedy leadership, oppression and discrimination on basis of race. The text particularly dwells on the racial prejudices and class difference in the society. 

  6. Images of Commitment: 20th Century Women Artists. A Fine Art Print Program: Junior/Senior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordich, Diane D.

    This teacher's resource guide is designed to accompany resource packets that include fine art reproductions. The resource introduces students to the accomplishments and contributions of eight 20th century women artists: Isabel Bishop; Jenny Holzer; Kathe Kollwitz; Maya Ying Lin; Mary Ellen Mark; Maria Martinez; Alice Neel; and Faith Ringgold. This…

  7. Drexel University and Drexel University College of Medicine: an overview of their commitment to women through education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erica; Follen, Michele

    2012-02-01

    The Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania was a groundbreaking institution and an ancestor to the Drexel University College of Medicine. The tradition of the Woman's Medical College lives on in the form of education and leadership programs dedicated to medical training for women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke from husband more strongly impacts on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyama K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazuaki Suyama, Ryo Kozu, Takako Tanaka, Yuji Ishimatsu, Terumitsu Sawai Department of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki, Japan Background: The impact of airway obstruction of nonsmoking women caused by their husband’s smoking is unclear, despite the association between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure at home and obstructive pulmonary diseases among nonsmoking women. The aim of this study was to provide evidence that ETS exposure from the husband at home has a more significant influence on the airway obstruction of nonsmoking women than other housemates. Participants and methods: Nonsmoking women aged 40 years or older were recruited from the health checkup during May 2015–December 2016, Japan. They answered structured questionnaires, including ETS exposure from their husbands and other housemates (parents, siblings and dependants, and performed spirometry. We categorized the women with any history of ETS exposure from housemates into three groups (A = husband, B = others and C = both of husband and others and defined the control group as those with no ETS exposure from housemates. Results: A total of 811 nonsmoking women completed questionnaires and spirometry. The proportion of nonsmoking women who had airway obstruction (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <70% among Group A (7.5% was significantly higher than those in the control group (1.1%, p<0.01 and Group B (0.8%, p<0.01. The proportion of airway obstruction in Group C (6.4% was also higher than that in the control group (p<0.05 and Group B (p<0.05. ETS exposure from husband (odds ratio [OR], 3.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48–8.42 remained strongly associated with airway obstruction after multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, housemate’s smoking habits, family history and ETS exposure in childhood and at work. Conclusion: Nonsmoking

  9. Household income is strongly associated with health-related quality of life among Japanese men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Fukuhara, S; Suzukamo, Y

    2005-07-01

    As socio-economic status (SES) strongly reflects individual economic status, evaluating the association between SES and health could provide information that is important for planning integrated economic and public health policies. We examined the association between annual household income as a measure of SES and the eight scale scores of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) as a quantifier of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in Japan. Cross-sectional survey. Data were from the SF-36 national survey in Japan. A total of 4500 people aged 16 years or older were selected from the entire population of Japan using stratified-random sampling, and 3395 responded to the survey. Men with lower levels of annual household income had lower scores in all SF-36 domains. However, only 'general health perceptions' and 'social functioning' showed statistically significant trends among the women surveyed. In the subgroup of women working full-time, there were no domains that showed significant trends. A strong association exists between annual household income and SF-36 scores among men, but there is only a limited association among women. The employment and economic policies that affect annual household income potentially influence HRQOL.

  10. Work engagement, organizational commitment, self efficacy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The literature gathered shows that employees and organizational commitment could have strong relationship with self-efficacy. When an employee is engaged actively in his work, there is work commitment and organizational commitment leading to self –efficacy. In order to enhance employees work engagement, ...

  11. "Passive victim - strong survivor"? Perceived meaning of labels applied to women who were raped.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Papendick

    Full Text Available Three experiments (total N = 464 were conducted in parallel with English- and German-speaking participants to examine the perceived meanings and effects of the labels "victim" versus "survivor" (and their German equivalents when applied to a woman who was raped. In Study 1 (N = 179, participants read a rape vignette and then rated the meaning of the label it contained (either "victim" or "survivor" on a 15-item semantic differential. Independent of language and participant gender, "survivor" was perceived more positively overall (e.g., as strong, brave, active than was "victim" (weak, passive, but also innocent. In Study 2 (N = 95, labels were varied within items assessing judgments of an acquaintance-rape case (e.g., "Does the victim [survivor] … carry a certain responsibility for what happened?", focusing on short-term outcomes. Significant interaction effects of label and participants' gender emerged on case-related judgments. Participants in both language samples judged "survivor" to be a less appropriate term than "victim". In Study 3 (N = 190, participants read a text in which a woman who had been raped labeled herself as either "victim" or "survivor", focusing on the coping with sexual violence. As in Study 2, German-language participants showed no significant effects of the label on their case judgments but rejected the term "survivor" as inappropriate; English-language participants, by contrast, perceived the woman describing herself as "survivor" to be more psychologically stable and regarded the use of both labels as appropriate. Results are discussed in terms of their applied relevance for communicating about sexual violence.

  12. "Passive victim – strong survivor"? Perceived meaning of labels applied to women who were raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papendick, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Three experiments (total N = 464) were conducted in parallel with English- and German-speaking participants to examine the perceived meanings and effects of the labels "victim" versus "survivor" (and their German equivalents) when applied to a woman who was raped. In Study 1 (N = 179), participants read a rape vignette and then rated the meaning of the label it contained (either "victim" or "survivor") on a 15-item semantic differential. Independent of language and participant gender, "survivor" was perceived more positively overall (e.g., as strong, brave, active) than was "victim" (weak, passive, but also innocent). In Study 2 (N = 95), labels were varied within items assessing judgments of an acquaintance-rape case (e.g., "Does the victim [survivor] … carry a certain responsibility for what happened?"), focusing on short-term outcomes. Significant interaction effects of label and participants’ gender emerged on case-related judgments. Participants in both language samples judged "survivor" to be a less appropriate term than "victim". In Study 3 (N = 190), participants read a text in which a woman who had been raped labeled herself as either "victim" or "survivor", focusing on the coping with sexual violence. As in Study 2, German-language participants showed no significant effects of the label on their case judgments but rejected the term "survivor" as inappropriate; English-language participants, by contrast, perceived the woman describing herself as "survivor" to be more psychologically stable and regarded the use of both labels as appropriate. Results are discussed in terms of their applied relevance for communicating about sexual violence. PMID:28493976

  13. Sustainability Marketing Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollin, Karin; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    took a structural modelling approach to examine construct relationships, mediation, and moderation effects. Overall, the findings show that marketing capabilities associated with the innovation of new products, services, and business models constitute a strong driver to leverage sustainability......Corporate sustainability is an important strategy and value orientation for marketing, but scarce research addresses the organizational drivers and barriers to including it in companies’ marketing strategies and processes. The purpose of this study is to determine levels of commitment to corporate...... sustainability in marketing, processes associated with sustainability marketing commitment, drivers of sustainability marketing at the functional level of marketing, and its organizational context. Using survey data from 269 managers in marketing, covering a broad range of industries in Sweden and Denmark, we...

  14. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Watts, Charlotte; Yoshihama, Mieko; Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Deyessa, Negussie; Heise, Lori; Durand, Julia; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jansen, Henrica; Berhane, Yemane; Ellsberg, Mary; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal behaviours are one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease among women, but little is known about prevalence and modifiable risk factors in low and middle income countries. We use data from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and relationships between suicide attempts and mental health status, child sexual abuse, partner violence and other variables. Population representative cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from 2000-2003 in 13 provincial (more rural) and city (urban) sites in Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia, Thailand and Tanzania. 20967 women aged 15-49 years participated. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with suicide attempts in each site. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts ranged from 0.8% (Tanzania) to 12.0% (Peru city); lifetime thoughts of suicide from 7.2% (Tanzania province) to 29.0% (Peru province), and thoughts in the past four weeks from 1.9% (Serbia) to 13.6% (Peru province). 25-50% of women with suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks had also visited a health worker in that time. The most consistent risk factors for suicide attempts after adjusting for probable common mental health disorders were: intimate partner violence, non-partner physical violence, ever being divorced, separated or widowed, childhood sexual abuse and having a mother who had experienced intimate partner violence. Mental health policies and services must recognise the consistent relationship between violence and suicidality in women in low and middle income countries. Training health sector workers to recognize and respond to the consequences of violence may substantially reduce the health burden associated with

  15. Love Schemas, Preferences in Romantic Partners, and Reactions to Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bachman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have proposed that people possess different love schemas and that these schemas may shape romantic preferences and reactions to impending commitments.In Study 1, we tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Men and women will prefer potential dates who possess an “ideal” love schema (i.e., the secure. Hypothesis 2: If the ideal is unavailable, men and women will prefer potential dates whose love schemas are similar to their own. In order to test these hypotheses, men and women from the University of Hawaii, who varied in love schemas, were asked to indicate their preferences for potential romantic partners who varied in physical attractiveness, body type, and love schemas. It was found that people did indeed prefer the ideal (the secure and (secondarily those who were similar to them in attachment style—be it clingy, skittish, casual, or disinterested.Study 2 was designed to test Hypothesis 3: Participants’ love schemas will shape their cognitions, feelings, and behaviors when they find themselves on the brink of making a serious romantic commitment. In order to test this hypothesis, men and women from the University of Hawaii were surveyed. Again, as predicted, it was found that the more strongly men and women endorsed the secure schema, the more calm and confident (and the less fearful and trapped they felt when confronting pending commitments. The more strongly they endorsed the clingy, skittish, fickle, casual, and uninterested schemas, the less confident and calm and the more fearful and trapped they felt when confronting an impending commitment.

  16. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  17. A-FABP Concentration Is More Strongly Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and the Occurrence of Metabolic Syndrome in Premenopausal Than in Postmenopausal Middle-Aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stefanska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at the evaluation of the relationship between adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP and cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Additionally, we compared A-FABP with adipokines related to metabolic syndrome (MetS such as leptin and adiponectin. 94 premenopausal and 90 early postmenopausal middle-aged Caucasian women were subject to examinations. Postmenopausal women had higher A-FABP than premenopausal; this difference became insignificant after controlling for age. We found significantly higher correlation coefficients between A-FABP and TC/HDL-C ratio and number of MetS components in premenopausal women, compared to postmenopausal. Each 1 ng/dL increase in A-FABP concentration significantly increased the probability of occurrence of atherogenic lipid profile in premenopausal women, even after multivariate adjustment. All odds ratios became insignificant after controlling for BMI in postmenopausal women. A-FABP was more strongly associated with MetS than leptin and adiponectin in premenopausal women. Adiponectin concentration was a better biomarker for MetS after menopause. Our results suggest that the A-FABP is more strongly associated with some cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women. Higher values of A-FABP after menopause are mainly explained by the fact that postmenopausal women are older. Because of the limitation of study, these results should be interpreted with caution.

  18. The StrongWomen Change Clubs: Engaging Residents to Catalyze Positive Change in Food and Physical Activity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Seguin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The epidemic of obesity is a multifaceted public health issue. Positive policy and environmental changes are needed to support healthier eating and increased physical activity. Methods. StrongWomen Change Clubs (SWCCs were developed through an academic-community research partnership between researchers at Cornell University and Tufts University and community partners (cooperative extension educators in rural towns in seven U.S. states. Extension educators served as the local leader and each recruited 10–15 residents to undertake a project to improve some aspect of the nutrition or physical activity environment. Most residents had limited (or no experience in civic engagement. At 6 and 12 months after implementation, the research team conducted key informant interviews with SWCC leaders to capture their perceptions of program process, benchmark achievement, and self-efficacy. Results. At 12 months, each SWCC had accomplished one benchmark; the majority had completed three or more benchmarks. They described common processes for achieving benchmarks such as building relationships and leveraging stakeholder partnerships. Barriers to benchmark achievement included busy schedules and resistance to and slow pace of change. Conclusion. Findings suggest that community change initiatives that involve stakeholders, build upon existing activities and organizational resources, and establish feasible timelines and goals can successfully catalyze environmental change.

  19. Postmarket Requirements and Commitments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provides information to the public on postmarket requirements and commitments. The phrase postmarket requirements and commitments refers to studies and clinical...

  20. Gender and Climate Change. Input from Women to Governments Preparing their Submissions Regarding Article 3.9. Consideration of Commitments for Subsequent Periods for Annex I Parties of the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    The climate change debate in general, and the development of future commitments under the Kyoto Protocol needs to be set firmly into the context of Sustainable Development. Its three pillars - environmental, social and economic - and the Principles of the Rio Declaration should serve as the overall framework for developing fair and effective policies for mitigation and adaptation. Therefore, the preparations for the 2nd commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol need to draw upon experiences, indicators, and other tools developed in international sustainable development processes as well as regional and national sustainable development strategies. Despite its status and development within the United Nations international system, climate change policymaking has failed to adopt a gender-sensitive strategy. This failure not only generates concern in terms of respect for gender equity at the international level, it also leads to shortcomings in the efficiency and effectiveness of climate related measures and instruments. Without a gender-sensitive method of analysis, it is impossible to determine the full set of causes and potential effects of climate change. Furthermore, studies have shown that women and men experience climate change differently in terms of their adaptability, responsibility, vulnerability and aptitude for mitigation. Therefore, the international climate change negotiation process - as well as climate policies at regional, national and local levels - must adopt the principles of gender equity at all stages: from research, to analysis, and the design and implementation of mitigation and adaptation strategies. This applies in particular to the process towards a post-2012 climate protection system or 'regime'. Participation of women and gender experts in the international climate change has been minimal at most COPs (Conferences of Parties). However, in order to ensure gender mainstreaming in the post-2012 discussions, it is important to draw upon the

  1. "Strong beats skinny every time": Disordered eating and compulsive exercise in women who post fitspiration on Instagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Grace; Tiggemann, Marika

    2017-01-01

    Fitspiration is a recent Internet trend designed to motivate people to eat healthily and to exercise. The aim of the study was to investigate disordered eating and exercise in women who post fitspiration on Instagram. Participants were 101 women who post fitspiration images on Instagram and a comparison group of 102 women who post travel images. Both groups completed measures of disordered eating and compulsive exercise. Women who post fitspiration images scored significantly higher on drive for thinness, bulimia, drive for muscularity, and compulsive exercise. Almost a fifth (17.5%) of these women were at risk for diagnosis of a clinical eating disorder, compared to 4.3% of the travel group. Compulsive exercise was related to disordered eating in both groups, but the relationship was significantly stronger for women who post fitspiration images. For some women, posting fitspiration images on Instagram may signify maladaptive eating and exercise behaviors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:76-79). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Impact of Family and Job Content on Swedish Seafarers’ Occupational Commitment – A Gendered Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Hult

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing research has indicated important effects on seafarers’ occupational commitment due to gender and family situation. In this study, these findings have been elaborated further by controlling for the effect of perceived work content. Statistical analyses were employed, using a survey material of Swedish seafarers collected from a national register in 2010. The results showed that the effect on occupational commitment of having children at home is strongly positive and statistically significant for women. However, the significance was dependent on the level of satisfaction with the job content. It was suggested that the seafaring occupation could be viewed as a cooping strategy, although only appropriate if the job content is agreeable. Another important family effect was, as expected, the positive effect of having a relative working, or having worked, at sea. This effect was, however, only significant for male seafarers in the age group below the early 40’s. It was concluded that this effect is mainly emotionally driven and not particularly influenced by the actual job content. The results further showed that working in the catering department comes with a strong negative effect on commitment to the seafaring occupation for women. This effect, however, lost its significance after control for job content. It was concluded that the effect of satisfaction with job content on occupational commitment is generally important, with the exception of women, without children, working in the catering department.

  3. Factors Affecting Organizational Commitment in Navy Corpsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Kewley, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Renée G; Thomsen, Cynthia J

    2017-07-01

    Organizational commitment is a psychological state that has a strong impact on the likelihood that employees will remain with an organization. Among military personnel, organizational commitment is predictive of a number of important outcomes, including reenlistment intentions, job performance, morale, and perceived readiness. Because of the unique challenges and experiences associated with military service, it may be that organizational commitment is even more critical in the military than in civilian populations. Despite the essential role that they play in protecting the health of other service members, little is known about the factors that influence Navy Corpsmen's organizational commitment. This study investigated demographic and psychosocial factors that may be associated with organizational commitment among Corpsmen. Surveys of organizational commitment and possible demographic and psychosocial correlates of organizational commitment were completed by 1,597 male, active duty Navy Corpsmen attending Field Medical Training Battalion-West, Camp Pendleton, California. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to determine significant predictors of organizational commitment. Of the 12 demographic and psychosocial factors examined, 6 factors emerged as significant predictors of organizational commitment in the final model: preservice motivation to be a Corpsman, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, confidence regarding promotions, occupational self-efficacy, social support for a Corpsman career, and lower depression. Importantly, a number of the factors that emerged as significant correlates of organizational commitment in this study are potentially modifiable. These factors include confidence regarding promotions, positive perceptions of Corpsman training, and occupational self-efficacy. It is recommended that military leaders and policy-makers take concrete steps to address these factors, thereby strengthening

  4. Lean Mass Appears to Be More Strongly Associated with Bone Health than Fat Mass in Urban Black South African Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotunde, O F; Kruger, H S; Wright, H H; Havemann-Nel, L; Kruger, I M; Wentzel-Viljoen, E; Kruger, A; Tieland, M

    2015-06-01

    To examine the association between body composition (fat mass, lean mass and body mass index, BMI) and bone health (bone mineral density, BMD and fracture risk) in urban black South African women. A cross sectional study examining associations between body composition, dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire), habitual physical activity (Activity energy expenditure (AEE) measured using an accelerometer with combined heart rate monitor and physical activity questionnaire) and bone health (BMD using dual-energy X ray absorptiometry, DXA and fracture risk). Urban community dwellers from Ikageng in the North-West Province of South Africa. One hundred and eighty nine (189) healthy postmenopausal women aged ≥43 years. Fat mass and lean mass were significantly associated with BMD and fracture risk when adjusted for potential confounders. However, lean mass and not fat mass remained significantly associated with femoral neck BMD (β = 0.49, p South African women. Our finding suggests that increasing lean mass rather than fat mass is beneficial to bone health. Our study emphasises the importance of positive lifestyle changes, intake of calcium from dairy and adequate weight to maintain and improve bone health of postmenopausal women.

  5. NATO: Revisiting American Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    NATO: Revisiting American Commitment by Captain Thomas F Hurley II United States Navy United...STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT .33 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO: Revisiting American Commitment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...the 21st century. The strategic benefit to the United States may no longer be worth the commitment to the alliance. The U.S. should reevaluate its

  6. Beijing: a conference of commitments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S

    1996-05-01

    The author of this article holds the view that the Declaration and Platform for Action at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 was the product of the most highly participatory process ever organized under the auspices of the UN. The Declaration and Platform expressed the strongest views on gender equality, empowerment, and justice that governments have ever endorsed. These documents were the consolidation of gains made by women in previous UN conferences. The 135-page Platform can be used at all levels of decision making. Governments and international can be held accountable for its provisions. The Platform exposes the problems violence and exploitation against women and girls as well as the revelation that environmental destruction is due to an unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in developed countries. Conference participants included about 3000 nongovernmental groups (NGOs). The Women's Linkage Caucus and WEDO served to facilitate the advocacy process by providing briefings on text still under negotiation and providing on-line recommendations from the 1995 and 1994 Commission on the Status of Women preparatory committee meetings. A scoreboard that tracked government's commitment at the 1995 preparatory committee meetings was reinstated in Beijing. The information was conveyed on the Internet. The European Union is credited with diluting the language about government commitment to the Platform. Governments are still given responsibility for implementation, and the need for political will is stressed (paragraph 293). Paragraph 297 indicates the process for implementation of the Platform and coordination with NGOs. Although the Platform recognizes the importance of women's groups and other NGOs, the responsibility for implementation is still given to governments.

  7. Men without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships, women exhibit reduced partnership security - a reanalysis of previously published data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croy, Ilona; Bojanowski, Viola; Hummel, Thomas

    2013-02-01

    Olfactory function influences social behavior. For instance, olfaction seems to play a key role in mate choice and helps detecting emotions in other people. In a previous study, we showed that people who were born without a sense of smell exhibit enhanced social insecurity. Based on the comments to this article we decided to have a closer look to whether the absence of the sense of smell affects men and women differently. Under this focus questionnaire data of 32 patients, diagnosed with isolated congenital anosmia (10 men, 22 women) and 36 age-matched healthy controls (15 men, 21 women) was reanalyzed. In result, men and women without a sense of smell reported enhanced social insecurity, but with different consequences: Men who were born without a sense of smell exhibit a strongly reduced number of sexual relationships and women are affected such that they feel less secure about their partner. This emphasizes the importance of the sense of smell for intimate relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Calibrating collective commitments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R; Marik,; Muller, J; Pechoucek, M

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we aim to formally model the strongest motivational attitude occurring in teamwork, collective commitment. First, building on our previous work, a logical framework is sketched in which social commitments and collective intentions are formalized. Then, different versions of collective

  9. Implementing environmental commitments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victor, D.G.; Skolnikoff, E.B. [IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1997-08-01

    The article summarises the aims and results of a three-year project conducted at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis called `Implementation and effectiveness of international environmental commitments` (IEC) which analysed how many environmental commitments are implemented or how intentions are put into practice. Fourteen case studies were conducted on the following issues: conservation and preservation of fauna and flora; stratospheric ozone depletion; Baltic sea pollution; trade in hazardous chemicals and pesticides; acid rain in Europe; North Sea pollution; whaling; and marine dumping of nuclear waste. The research confirmed previous findings that compliance with legally binding commitments is high. However, IEC results suggest that high compliance reflects mainly that governments make special effort to adopt only those commitments with which they can comply. The influence of those commitments is often low. In contrast, compliance with nonbinding commitments has been low, but such commitments can often have a large influence on behavior. The findings differs sharply from conventional wisdom, which maintains that the most effective international commitments are legally binding. The research suggests more attention is needed to building systems for gathering and reviewing data on implementation and for handling implementation problems. Among IEC`s contributions to policy has been to apply this finding to the design of possible non-compliance procedures within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  10. Strong effect of SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene on bone phenotype of Caucasian postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Péter; Balla, Bernadett; Kósa, János P; Tóbiás, Bálint; Szili, Balázs; Kirschner, Gyöngyi; Győri, Gabriella; Kató, Karina; Lakatos, Péter; Takács, István

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify relationships between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genes of the Wnt pathway and bone mineral density (BMD) of postmenopausal women. We chose this pathway due to its importance in bone metabolism that was underlined in several studies. DNA samples of 932 Hungarian postmenopausal women were studied. First, their BMD values at different sites (spine, total hip) were measured, using a Lunar Prodigy DXA scanner. Thereafter, T-score values and the patients' body mass indices (BMIs) were calculated, while information about the fracture history of the sample population was also collected. We genotyped nine SNPs of the following three genes: LRP5, GPR177, and SP7, using a Sequenom MassARRAY Analyzer 4 instrument. The genomic DNA samples used for genotyping were extracted from the buccal mucosa of the subjects. Statistical analyses were carried out using the SPSS 21 and R package. The results of this analysis showed a significant association between SNP rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and total hip BMD values. We could not reveal any associations between the markers of GPR177, SP7, and bone phenotypes. We found no effect of these genotypes on fracture risk. We could demonstrate a significant gene-gene interaction between two SNPs of LRP5 (rs4988300 and rs634008, p = 0.009) which was lost after Bonferroni correction. We could firmly demonstrate a significant association between rs4988300 of the LRP5 gene and bone density of the hip on the largest homogeneous postmenopausal study group analyzed to date. Our finding corroborates the relationship between LRP5 genotype and bone phenotype in postmenopausal women, however, the complete mechanism of this relationship requires further investigations.

  11. Managing by commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sull, Donald N

    2003-06-01

    What makes a great manager great? Despite differences in their personal attributes, successful managers all excel in the making, honoring, and remaking of commitments. Managerial commitments take many forms, from capital investments to personnel decisions to public statements, but each exerts both immediate and enduring influence on a company. A leader's commitments shape a business's identity, define its strengths and weaknesses, establish its opportunities and limitations, and set its direction. Executives can all too easily forget that commitments are extraordinarily powerful. Caught up in the present, managers often take actions that, while beneficial in the near term, impose lasting constraints on their operations and organizations. When market or competitive conditions change, they can find themselves unable to respond effectively. Managers who understand the nature and power of their commitments can wield them more effectively throughout a company's life cycle. Entrepreneurs can avoid taking actions that imprint a new venture with a dysfunctional character. Managers in established enterprises can buttress past commitments that retain their currency and learn to recognize when commitments have become roadblocks to needed changes. The manager can then replace those roadblocks with new, rejuvenating commitments. That doesn't mean you should try to anticipate all the long-run consequences of every commitment--and it certainly doesn't mean you should shy away from making commitments. But it does mean that before making important decisions about, say, operating processes or partnerships, you should always ask yourself: Is this a process or relationship that we can live with in the future? Am I locking us into a course that we'll come to regret?

  12. Anthropometry at birth as a strong determinant factor of young women bone status: influence of high-level physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréban, Sophie; Chappard, Christine; Jaffré, Christelle; Briot, Karine; Benhamou, Claude-Laurent

    2011-03-01

    To analyze the influence of anthropometry at birth on bone status and physical activity aptitudes of adult women. Our population was composed of 70 women (17-29 years): 40 athletes and 30 controls. Athletes participated in various long-lasting and high-level weight-bearing sports (10.2 ± 2.2h ours/week). Birth weight and height were collected. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured by DXA, at whole body, lumbar spine, non dominant femur (total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN)) and tibia. The Hip Structural Analysis software was applied to assess cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI), section modulus (Z) and cortical thickness of three regions of the proximal femur: intertrochanter, narrow neck and femoral shaft. BMD and HSA measurements at all sites were significantly higher in athletes versus controls, as well as birth height (P = 0.009) and weight (P = 0.02). For the whole population, we found significant positive correlations between birth weight and BMDs (0.30 anthropometry, which can be used to predict fracture risk in later life. Predisposition to practice a weight-bearing sport could be related to the greater birth anthropometry described in athletes. The benefits of birth anthropometry on adult bone status appear to be maintained by sports. Copyright © 2010 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Practical Relativistic Bit Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2015-07-17

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Alice wishes to commit a secret bit to Bob. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through an asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is, however, possible when Alice and Bob each split into several agents exchanging classical information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. In this Letter we first revisit a previously proposed scheme [C. Crépeau et al., Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 7073, 407 (2011)] that realizes bit commitment using only classical communication. We prove that the protocol is secure against quantum adversaries for a duration limited by the light-speed communication time between the locations of the agents. We then propose a novel multiround scheme based on finite-field arithmetic that extends the commitment time beyond this limit, and we prove its security against classical attacks. Finally, we present an implementation of these protocols using dedicated hardware and we demonstrate a 2 ms-long bit commitment over a distance of 131 km. By positioning the agents on antipodal points on the surface of Earth, the commitment time could possibly be extended to 212 ms.

  14. Bidding to Commit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat Barclay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Economists and biologists have both theorized that individuals can benefit from committing to courses of action because it forces others to concede a greater share of any surpluses, but little experimental work has tested the actual benefits of such a strategy and people’s willingness to so “tie their hands.” Participants played a Battle-of-the-Sexes (Experiment 1 or Hawk–Dove game (Experiment 2, where one member of each pair could not change his or her action once played (committed, whereas the other could change actions in response (uncommitted. Committed players were more likely to achieve their preferred outcomes. When bidding to select roles, most participants preferred to be committed rather than uncommitted, though they bid slightly less than the committed role was actually worth. These results provide empirical support for people’s willingness to use commitment to their advantage and show that commitment devices (e.g., “irrational” emotions can bring long-term benefits.

  15. Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Home Current issue contents Alzheimer's: From Caring to Commitment From Caring to Commitment ... Caring to Commitment During her sister’s battle with Alzheimer’s, Anne Murphy stayed by her side and continues ...

  16. The Sense of Social Commitment and Well-being among Older Japanese Women: Focusing on the Reinterpretation and Exhibition of Bridal Noren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Taniguchi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ways in which elderly Japanese women’s sense of well-being relates to their sense of “social responsibility” and “deep involvement with society.” It is based on fieldwork conducted in Nanao City (Ishikawa Prefecture in 2010-2011. The local government of Nanao recently emphasized the development of a community welfare network and tourism resources in order to deal with depopulation and an aging community, and to reinvigorate the local economy. I describe various activities in the social and political context of Nanao, meant to revitalize the local community. One of these activities is performed by women in their sixties, who retreated from their roles as housewives and/or shop proprietors. These women’s activity reinterprets the given values of bridal noren (door curtain, a local object known for its beautiful sensuousness. When the women recently initiated activities to display bridal noren as objects of art, they become one of the main tourist attractions in the city. This paper concludes by demonstrating that elderly women expressed subjective well-being through involvement in their social world via social activities.

  17. Onderzoeksnotitie: Een vernieuwd meetinstrument voor organizational commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Evers, A.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing model in organizational commitment research is Allen and Meyer's (1990) 3-component model of organizational commitment. They developed three scales to measure commitment, the affective commitment scale (ACS), the continuance commitment scale (CCS) and the normative commitment scale

  18. Serum uric acid is more strongly associated with impaired fasting glucose in women than in men from a community-dwelling population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Serum uric acid (SUA levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components such as glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the relationship between SUA levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG and newly detected diabetes. We recruited 1,209 men aged 60±15 (range, 19-89 years and 1,636 women aged 63±12 (range, 19-89 years during their annual health examination from a single community. We investigated the association between SUA levels and six categories according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG level {normal fasting glucose (NFG, <100 mg/dL; high NFG-WHO, 100 to 109 mg/dL; IFG-WHO, 110 to 125 mg/dL; IFG-ADA, 100 to 125 mg/dL; newly detected diabetes, ≥126 mg/dL; known diabetes} SUA levels were more strongly associated with the different FPG categories in women compared with men. In women, the associations remained significant for IFG-WHO (OR, 1.23, 95% CI, 1.00-1.50 and newly detected diabetes (OR, 1.33, 95% CI, 1.03-1.72 following multivariate adjustment. However, in men all the associations were not significant. Thus, there was a significant interaction between gender and SUA level for newly detected diabetes (P = 0.005. SUA levels are associated with different categories of impaired fasting glucose in participants from community-dwelling persons, particularly in women.

  19. Political processes inside the women's movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter article summarized discussions on political processes held at the International Women's Health Conference for Cairo 1994. Although the political activists who participated in these discussions differed in terms of tactics and strategies, they were united by their support for reproductive rights and committed to solidarity against practices that dehumanize women. A key debate concerns working inside or outside of the official International Conference on Population and Development process. As long as women are able to maintain their own agenda, avoid co-optation, remain accountable to their constituencies, and not use their power to discredit those on the outside, there is potential for working inside of official bodies. Needed is a balanced scenario, where insiders are empowered by backing from the broader women's movement and outsiders benefit from having their voices heard inside the corridors of power. Women who work within population institutions must be especially vigilant that women's demands are not subsumed under population policies. Also resisted must be the practice of powerful international bodies to appoint, in a top-down manner, so-called experts on women's issues. Community and women's groups must hold female lobbyists and politicians accountable and monitor their actions. A crucial concept for the women's movement is transparency. This encompasses honesty, making commitments is public, clear rules in terms of decision making, and a strong commitment to shared values. Transparency implies acknowledging the power differentials that exist among women and struggling to transcend them through solidarity around a shared vision.

  20. The Fold of Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raastrup Kristensen, Anders; Pedersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper serves two purposes. First, a rereading of Douglas McGregor’s An uneasy look at performance appraisal serves to show how McGregor’s conceptualization of commitment as a question of integrating personal goals with organizational purpose has helped shape founding the modern understanding...

  1. Commitment to Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, Renilde

    1995-01-01

    This reprint from a 1985 issue of "The NAMTA Journal" discusses the ideas of Maria Montessori and Erich Fromm in relation to world peace and the role of education in promoting peace. Also examines the nature of conflict, war, and peace, and the need to commit oneself to peace. (MDM)

  2. Employee organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Života

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of research on organizational commitment as a type of attitudes that show the identification level of employees with their organizations and their willingness to leave them. The research has been conducted with intention to determine the level of organizational commitment on the territory of Novi Sad, as well as to question whether there is a difference between certain categories of examinees for each commitment base. The research comprised 237 examinees employed in organizations on the territory of Novi Sad. Status of independent variables have gained: gender, years of working experience, educational level, working experience in one or more organizations and estimation of level of personal potentials utility. The questionnaire used is taken from the Greenberg and Baron's 'Behaviour in Organizations', p. 170, done according to set of questions by Meyer and Allen, in 1991. The data have been worked on by calculating arithmetic mean, and by application of Pearson Chi-square test. The results have shown that there is a below average level of organizational (AS=2.88, with the most intensive continual (AS=3.23, and the least intensive normative organizational dedication (AS=2.41. The gender of examinees does not represent relevant source of differences in the levels of each type of three mentioned commitment. Years of working experience and level of educational attainment represent a significant source of differences for continual (YWE: Pearson Chi-square = 30,38; df = 8; p = .000 (LEA: Pearson Chi-square = 7,381; df = 2; p = .05 and normative (YWE: Pearson Chi- square = 20,67; df = 8; p = .000 (LEA: Pearson Chi-square = 10,79; df = 2; p = .00 base of commitment. Work in one or more organizations has shown as a significant source of differences in the level of continual commitment (Pearson Chi-square = 7, 59; df = 2; p = .05. The level of affective commitment is statistically significantly related only to the estimation

  3. The Making of a Good Woman: Extended Parental Leave Entitlements and Mothers' Work Commitment in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangl, Markus; Ziefle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between family policy and women's attachment to the labor market, focusing specifically on policy feedback on women's subjective work commitment. They utilize a quasi-experimental design to identify normative policy effects from changes in mothers' work commitment in conjunction with two policy changes that significantly extended the length of statutory parental leave entitlements in Germany. Using unique survey data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and difference-in-differences, triple-differenced, and instrumental variables estimators for panel data, they obtain consistent empirical evidence that increasing generosity of leave entitlements led to a decline in mothers' work commitment in both East and West Germany. They also probe potential mediating mechanisms and find strong evidence for role exposure and norm setting effects. Finally, they demonstrate that policy-induced shifts in mothers' preferences have contributed to. retarding women's labor force participation after childbirth in Germany, especially as far as mothers' return to full-time employment is concerned.

  4. Relevant Sex Appeals in Advertising: Gender and Commitment Context Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanseng, Even J

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates differences in men's and women's attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1) and a romantic prime (study 2). Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men's and women's evolved mating preferences.

  5. Effects of Gender on Engineering Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anne M.

    Engineering has been one of the most difficult fields for 'women to enter and in which to succeed. Although the percentage of female engineers has Increased, women are still seriously underrcpresented in the workforce. This study examined the effect offender on career commitment, success, satisfaction, and involvement in engineering, and the effect of personality and work environment on these variables. Alumni from an engineering school in the northeastern United States were surveyed. The questionnaire was analyzed using statistical and descriptive methods to determine relationships among these variables. Women's commitment scores were lower than men's when controlled for other variables, including satisfaction and involvement. Men had longer tenure as engineers than women, even when controlled for year of graduation, professional engineering status, and number of children. Women did not leave engineering in different proportions than men, but they did earn significantly less despite controlling for year of graduation and number of hours worked weekly. Some gender differences in workplace experience were also found, including having colleagues act protectively, being mistaken for secretaries, and seeing men progress faster in their careers than equally qualified women.

  6. Unit Commitment Solution Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeed Salam

    2007-01-01

    An effort to develop a unit commitment approach capable of handling large power systems consisting of both thermal and hydro generating units offers a large profitable return. In order to be feasible, the method to be developed must be flexible, efficient and reliable. In this paper, various proposed methods have been described along with their strengths and weaknesses. As all of these methods have some sort of weaknesses, a comprehensive algorithm that combines the stren...

  7. Predictors of organizational commitment among staff in assisted living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta

    2005-04-01

    This study examines the role of organizational culture, job satisfaction, and sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of organizational commitment among staff in assisted living. It is particularly important to examine organizational commitment, because of its close links to staff turnover. Data were collected from 317 staff members in 61 facilities, using self-administered questionnaires. The facilities were selected from licensed assisted living programs and were stratified into small, traditional, and new-model homes. Staff questionnaires were distributed by a researcher during 1-day visits to each facility. Organizational commitment was measured by the extent of staff identification, involvement, and loyalty to the organization. Organizational culture, job satisfaction, and education were strong predictors of commitment, together explaining 58% of the total variance in the dependent variable. Higher levels of organizational commitment were associated with more favorable staff perceptions of organizational culture and greater job satisfaction. In addition, more educated staff members tended to report higher levels of organizational commitment. Other than education, sociodemographic characteristics failed to account for a significant amount of variance in organizational commitment. Because job satisfaction and organizational culture were strong predictors of commitment, interventions aimed at increasing job satisfaction and creating an organizational culture that values and respects staff members could be most effective in producing higher levels of organizational commitment.

  8. Conflicting pressures on romantic relationship commitment for anxiously attached individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; MacDonald, Geoff; Shimotomai, Atsushi

    2011-02-01

    Anxious attachment predicts strong desires for intimacy and stability in romantic relationships, yet the relation between anxious attachment and romantic commitment is unclear. We propose that extant literature has failed to find a consistent relation because anxiously attached individuals experience conflicting pressures on commitment. Data from Australia (N=137) show that relationship satisfaction and felt security each act as suppressors of a positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment. Data from Japan (N=159) replicate the suppression effect of felt security and also demonstrate that the residual positive relation between anxious attachment and commitment can be partly explained by dependence on the partner. These findings suggest that anxiously attached individuals may be ambivalent about commitment. Dissatisfaction and worries about negative evaluation appear to exert downward pressure on commitment, counteracting the upward pressure that is exerted by factors such as relational dependency. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mujeres Fuertes y Corazones Saludables: adaptation of the StrongWomen -healthy hearts program for rural Latinas using an intervention mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; McCalmont, Jean C; Ward, Judy P; Menelas, Hannah-Dulya K; Jackson, Christie; De Witz, Jazmyne R; Solanki, Emma; Seguin, Rebecca A

    2017-12-28

    To describe our use of intervention mapping as a systematic method to adapt an evidence-based physical activity and nutrition program to reflect the needs of rural Latinas. An intervention mapping process involving six steps guided the adaptation of an evidence based physical activity and nutrition program, using a community-based participatory research approach. We partnered with a community advisory board of rural Latinas throughout the adaptation process. A needs assessment and logic models were used to ascertain which program was the best fit for adaptation. Once identified, we collaborated with one of the developers of the original program (StrongWomen - Healthy Hearts) during the adaptation process. First, essential theoretical methods and program elements were identified, and additional elements were added or adapted. Next, we reviewed and made changes to reflect the community and cultural context of the practical applications, intervention strategies, program curriculum, materials, and participant information. Finally, we planned for the implementation and evaluation of the adapted program, Mujeres Fuertes y Corazones Saludables, within the context of the rural community. A pilot study will be conducted with overweight, sedentary, middle-aged, Spanish-speaking Latinas. Outcome measures will assess change in weight, physical fitness, physical activity, and nutrition behavior. The intervention mapping process was feasible and provided a systematic approach to balance fit and fidelity in the adaptation of an evidence-based program. Collaboration with community members ensured that the components of the curriculum that were adapted were culturally appropriate and relevant within the local community context.

  10. [Acceptance and commitment therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducasse, D; Fond, G

    2015-02-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a third generation of cognitive-behavioral therapies. The point is to help patients to improve their psychological flexibility in order to accept unavoidable private events. Thus, they have the opportunity to invest energy in committed actions rather than struggle against their psychological events. (i) To present the ACT basic concepts and (ii) to propose a systematic review of the literature about effectiveness of this kind of psychotherapy. (i) The core concepts of ACT come from Monestès (2011), Schoendorff (2011), and Harris (2012); (ii) we conducted a systematic review of the literature using the PRISMA's criteria. The research paradigm was « acceptance and commitment therapy AND randomized controlled trial ». The bases of the MEDLINE, Cochrane and Web of science have been checked. Overall, 61 articles have been found, of which, after reading the abstracts, 40 corresponded to the subject of our study. (I) Psychological flexibility is established through six core ACT processes (cognitive defusion, acceptance, being present, values, committed action, self as context), while the therapist emphasizes on experiential approach. (II) Emerging research shows that ACT is efficacious in the psychological treatment of a wide range of psychiatric problems, including psychosis, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, generalized anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, eating disorders. ACT has also shown a utility in other areas of medicine: the management chronic pain, drug-dependence, smoking cessation, the management of epilepsy, diabetic self-management, the management of work stress, the management of tinnitus, and the management of multiple sclerosis. Meta-analysis of controlled outcome studies reported an average effect size (Cohen's d) of 0.66 at post-treatment (n=704) and 0.65 (n=580) at follow-up (on average 19.2 weeks later). In studies involving

  11. Organizational commitment of military physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Cesim; Sahin, Bayram; Teke, Kadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Kursun, Olcay

    2009-09-01

    An individual's loyalty or bond to his or her employing organization, referred to as organizational commitment, influences various organizational outcomes such as employee motivation, job satisfaction, performance, accomplishment of organizational goals, employee turnover, and absenteeism. Therefore, as in other sectors, employee commitment is crucial also in the healthcare market. This study investigates the effects of organizational factors and personal characteristics on organizational commitment of military physicians using structural equation modeling (SEM) on a self-report, cross-sectional survey that consisted of 635 physicians working in the 2 biggest military hospitals in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that professional commitment and organizational incentives contribute positively to organizational commitment, whereas conflict with organizational goals makes a significantly negative contribution to it. These results might help develop strategies to increase employee commitment, especially in healthcare organizations, because job-related factors have been found to possess greater impact on organizational commitment than personal characteristics.

  12. Synergy between intention recognition and commitments in cooperation dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, The Anh; Santos, Francisco C.; Lenaerts, Tom; Pereira, Luís Moniz

    2015-03-01

    Commitments have been shown to promote cooperation if, on the one hand, they can be sufficiently enforced, and on the other hand, the cost of arranging them is justified with respect to the benefits of cooperation. When either of these constraints is not met it leads to the prevalence of commitment free-riders, such as those who commit only when someone else pays to arrange the commitments. Here, we show how intention recognition may circumvent such weakness of costly commitments. We describe an evolutionary model, in the context of the one-shot Prisoner's Dilemma, showing that if players first predict the intentions of their co-player and propose a commitment only when they are not confident enough about their prediction, the chances of reaching mutual cooperation are largely enhanced. We find that an advantageous synergy between intention recognition and costly commitments depends strongly on the confidence and accuracy of intention recognition. In general, we observe an intermediate level of confidence threshold leading to the highest evolutionary advantage, showing that neither unconditional use of commitment nor intention recognition can perform optimally. Rather, our results show that arranging commitments is not always desirable, but that they may be also unavoidable depending on the strength of the dilemma.

  13. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND A RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    CENGİZ DEMİR; UMUT CAN ÖZTÜRK

    2013-01-01

    Organizational culture is the all values that shared by the whole of the organization. Organizational commitment is employees’ strength of bond for the organization which they work for. There should be shared values for mentioned about commitment. If those values are adopted by a large number of people and if they are strong, the level of commitment will increase. The main purpose of this study is to determine  the impact of organizational culture on commitment and the relationship. This stud...

  14. Relevant sex appeals in advertising: Gender and commitment context differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Even J. Lanseng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates differences in men’s and women’s attitudes toward ads featuring product-relevant sex appeals. It is found that women, but not men, were more negative toward an ad featuring an attractive opposite-sex model when their commitment thoughts were heightened. Women were also more negative toward an ad with an attractive same-sex model in the presence of commitment thoughts, but only when they scored high on sociosexuality. Men appeared unaffected, regardless of their level of sociosexuality. Commitment thoughts were manipulated by two types of prime, a parenting prime (study1 and a romantic prime (study 2.Results are explained by differences in how men and women react to sexual material and by differences in men’s and women’s evolved mating preferences.

  15. COMMITMENT AND SELF-CONTROL IN A PRISONER'S DILEMMA GAME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Matthew L; Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Humans often make seemingly irrational choices in situations of conflict between a particular smaller–sooner reinforcer and a more abstract, temporally extended, but larger reinforcer. In two experiments, the extent to which the availability of commitment responses—self-imposed restrictions on future choices—might improve self-control in such situations was investigated. Participants played a prisoner's dilemma game against a computer that played a tit-for-tat strategy—cooperating after a participant cooperated, defecting after a participant defected. Defecting produced a small–immediate reinforcer (consisting of points convertible to gift cards) whereas cooperating increased the amount of subsequent reinforcers, yielding a greater overall reinforcer rate. Participants were normally free to cooperate or defect on each trial. Additionally, they could choose to make a commitment response that forced their choice for the ensuing five trials. For some participants, the commitment response forced cooperation; for others, it forced defection. Most participants, with either commitment response available, chose to commit repeatedly despite a minor point loss for doing so. After extended exposure to these contingencies, the commit-to-cooperate group cooperated significantly more than a control group (with no commitment available). The commit-to-defect group cooperated significantly less than the control group. When both commitment alternatives were simultaneously available—one for cooperation and one for defection—cooperation commitment was strongly preferred. In Experiment 2, the commitment alternative was removed at the end of the session; gains in cooperation, relative to the control group, were not sustained in the absence of the self-imposed behavioral scaffold. PMID:22851793

  16. Organizational Climate and Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Stephen Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of school climate and teacher commitment in elementary schools in Alabama. A total of 67 elementary schools were surveyed and 1353 teachers voluntarily participated in the study. The instruments used in this study were the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).…

  17. Intelligence, democracy, and international environmental commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obydenkova, Anastassia; Salahodjaev, Raufhon

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of nations' commitment to environmental protection at the international level by focusing on the role of national intelligence and the level of democracy. The national intelligence is measured by nation's IQ scores. The findings based on a sample of 152 nations provide strong evidence that intelligence has statistically significant impact on ratification of international environmental agreements, and the countries with IQ 10-points above global average are 23% more likely to sign multilateral environmental agreements than others. The findings also demonstrate that it is the combination of high-level of intelligence of nations and democracy, that likely result in international environmental commitments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sociosexuality, Commitment, and Sexual Desire for an Attractive Person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Lopes, Diniz

    2017-04-01

    Sociosexuality refers to a personal predisposition to engage in uncommitted sex. Romantically involved individuals are more likely to engage in infidelity when more unrestricted in their sociosexuality and less committed to their current partners. However, commitment reliably predicts relationship maintenance and the activation of pro-relationship behaviors, regardless of sociosexuality levels. In two studies (Study 1: N = 566 heterosexuals; M age  = 21.24, SD = 4.45; Study 2: N = 168 heterosexuals; M age  = 23.28, SD = 5.60), the association between sociosexuality and commitment was examined. Replicating previous findings, men were more sociosexually unrestricted than women, and single individuals were more sociosexually unrestricted than their romantically involved counterparts (Study 1). Results also showed that more committed individuals were more restricted in their sociosexuality (Studies 1 and 2) and that commitment was negatively associated with physical and sexual attraction to an attractive person, regardless of sociosexuality levels (Study 2). Furthermore, commitment, but not sociosexuality, predicted sexual infidelity in the current relationship and this effect emerged even among sociosexually unrestricted individuals (Studies 1 and 2). No additional gender differences were found across studies. These results converge with findings suggesting that individuals shift their mating strategies and restrict their sociosexuality when in a romantic relationship and that commitment prevents relationship threatening behaviors such as sexual attraction or sexual infidelity.

  19. Athletic Trainers' Facilitators of Professional Commitment in the Collegiate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Christianne M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pitney, William A.

    2015-01-01

    -athletes and athletic training students. Maintaining commitment was influenced by a strong sense of coworker support. PMID:25761135

  20. The interplay between organizational commitment and personal values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Omar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of employee’s commitment is capturing the attention of managers and researchers. Besides being one of the most effective alternatives for achieving the organizational goals, the importance of organizational commitment (OC lies in its ability to influence the efficiency and the wellbeing of members of an organization. The article examines the relationships between personal values and components of OC. Participants were selected from twelve Argentinean organizations. Subjects completed a questionnaire of personal data, and two scales to measure individualism- collectivism (vertical and horizontal, and organizational commitment, respectively. All subjects were classified into eight subgroups, after dichotomizing by median each dimensions of values (HI: horizontal individualism; VI: vertical individualism; HC: horizontal collectivism, and HV: vertical collectivism. The four most representative subgroups (N= 162 were selected, that is, who exhibited high scores in one of the four dimensions and lows in the remaining three. In such subgroups were calculated analysis of variance, post-hoc comparison tests, and correlation analysis. The more significant findings can be summarized in the following items: a collectivists (HC or VC show a higher level of affective commitment, while individualists relate to their companies through normative or continuance commitment; b women and senior employees exhibit greater levels of affective and normative commitment; c managers, employees with higher academic degree, and employees of large companies, feel attached to their organizations through normative commitment; d continuance commitment seems to work differently than affective and normative commitment because it has no associations with any of the socio-demographic variables studied. Strengths and limitations of the study are discussed, and suggestions are made for future research. 

  1. IMPACT OF COMMITMENT TO BUSINESS ETHICS TO NONFINANCIAL BUSINESS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvija Vig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the relationship between commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance. Data of commitment to business ethics and nonfinancial business performance were collected from 100 participants through a questionnaire survey. The survey was conducted in 2015 in Croatian large and medium sized companies. The questionnaire for assessing commitment to business ethics contained nine different dimensions while the nonfinancial business performance contained three dimensions: client satisfaction, human resource management plus innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. Multiple regression methods were applied in the analysis. The empirical results of three multiple linear regression models show that certain dimension of commitment to business ethics had a positive influence on the nonfinancial performance of the companies. Motivation and rewarding policy for ethical behavior and responding to unethical behavior, as a dimension of commitment to business ethics, has distinctive effects on all three nonfinancial performance dimensions. It was also found that selecting suppliers based on the standards of ethics and compliance has a positive and strong influence on client satisfaction while using ethical criteria in the performance and efficiency evaluation of employees has a positive and significant influence on innovativeness and efficiency of business processes. This research leads to the conclusion that some dimensions of commitment to business ethics can be important predictors of nonfinancial business performance. Therefore, results of the research could be considered as valid motivation for further improvement of commitment to ethics in the business environment.

  2. Newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its associations with professional competence and work-related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numminen, Olivia; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Isoaho, Hannu; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    To explore newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its associations with their self-assessed professional competence and other work-related factors. As a factor affecting nurse turnover, newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its associations with work-related factors needs exploring to retain adequate workforce. Nurses' commitment has mainly been studied as organisational commitment, but newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment and its association with work-related factors needs further studying. This study used descriptive, cross-sectional, correlation design. A convenience sample of 318 newly graduated nurses in Finland participated responding to an electronic questionnaire. Statistical software, NCSS version 9, was used in data analysis. Frequencies, percentages, ranges, means and standard deviations summarised the data. Multivariate Analyses of Variance estimated associations between occupational commitment and work-related variables. IBM SPSS Amos version 22 estimated the model fit of Occupational Commitment Scale and Nurse Competence Scale. Newly graduated nurses' occupational commitment was good, affective commitment reaching the highest mean score. There was a significant difference between the nurse groups in favour of nurses at higher competence levels in all subscales except in limited alternatives occupational commitment. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between subscales of commitment and competence, turnover intentions, job satisfaction, earlier professional education and work sector, competence counting only through affective dimension. The association between occupational commitment and low turnover intentions and satisfaction with nursing occupation was strong. Higher general competence indicated higher overall occupational commitment. Managers' recognition of the influence of all dimensions of occupational commitment in newly graduated nurses' professional development is important. Follow

  3. Committed warming inferred from observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten; Pincus, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Due to the lifetime of CO2, the thermal inertia of the oceans, and the temporary impacts of short-lived aerosols and reactive greenhouse gases, the Earth’s climate is not equilibrated with anthropogenic forcing. As a result, even if fossil-fuel emissions were to suddenly cease, some level of committed warming is expected due to past emissions as studied previously using climate models. Here, we provide an observational-based quantification of this committed warming using the instrument record of global-mean warming, recently improved estimates of Earth’s energy imbalance, and estimates of radiative forcing from the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Compared with pre-industrial levels, we find a committed warming of 1.5 K (0.9-3.6, 5th-95th percentile) at equilibrium, and of 1.3 K (0.9-2.3) within this century. However, when assuming that ocean carbon uptake cancels remnant greenhouse gas-induced warming on centennial timescales, committed warming is reduced to 1.1 K (0.7-1.8). In the latter case there is a 13% risk that committed warming already exceeds the 1.5 K target set in Paris. Regular updates of these observationally constrained committed warming estimates, although simplistic, can provide transparent guidance as uncertainty regarding transient climate sensitivity inevitably narrows and the understanding of the limitations of the framework is advanced.

  4. Quantum bit commitment protocol without quantum memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Rubens Viana; Mendonca, Fabio Alencar

    2008-01-01

    Quantum protocols for bit commitment have been proposed and it is largely accepted that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment is not possible; however, it can be more secure than classical bit commitment. In despite of its usefulness, quantum bit commitment protocols have not been experimentally implemented. The main reason is the fact that all proposed quantum bit commitment protocols require quantum memory. In this work, we show a quantum bit commitment protocol that does not requir...

  5. Committing to marriage? The role of marriage attitudes and gender equality among young cohabiters in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wijk, Sofi Ohlsson; Brandén, Maria; Duvander, Ann-Zofie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: Marriage is commonly perceived as a more committed form of union than cohabitation. Individualization perspectives suggest that this makes couples refrain from marriage, while gender perspectives propose that gender equality within couples may increase the willingness to commit to a partner through marriage. We address these differing standpoints by studying the role of commitment and gender equality for marriage formation among cohabiting men and women born in Swe...

  6. A strong association between biologically active testosterone and leptin in non-obese men and women is lost with increasing (central) adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderberg, S; Olsson, T; Eliasson, M; Johnson, O; Brismar, K; Carlström, K; Ahrén, B

    2001-01-01

    In both humans and rodents, males have lower levels of leptin than females at any level of adiposity. Experimental data support the idea that testosterone exerts a negative influence on leptin levels. There are, however, major inconsistencies in available data concerning the possible association between androgenicity and leptin in humans. Reasons could be the influence of androgenicity on leptin production being dependent on body composition, and incomplete measures of biologically active testosterone levels. In the present study we have characterized the relationship between biologically active testosterone and leptin after careful stratification for gender and adiposity. Healthy subjects (n=158; 85 men and 73 pre- and postmenopausal women) from the Northern Sweden MONICA (Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) population were studied with a cross-sectional design. Anthropometric measurements (body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference) and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. Circulating levels of leptin, insulin, testosterone, androstenedione, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured by radioimmunoassays or microparticle enzyme immunoassays. Apparent concentrations of free testosterone and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were calculated. After adjustments for age, BMI and insulin, leptin levels were inversely correlated to testosterone levels in non-obese men (r=-0.56, Ptestosterone correlated in a positive manner in non-obese women (r=0.59, Plow waist circumference (r=-0.59, Plow levels of biologically active testosterone and SHBG in men with low and medium waist circumference, insulin in men with high waist circumference, high levels of testosterone and insulin in non-obese women, and BMI in obese women. We conclude that low leptin levels are associated with androgenicity in non-obese men and women and that the direction of this association is dependent on gender and body fat

  7. An Examination of the Independent and Joint Contributions of Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction on Employee Intentions to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explored the independent and joint effects of organizational commitment and job satisfaction on variables relevant to employees' withdrawal intentions. Participants (N=175) completed instruments relating to organizational commitment, job-facet satisfaction, and intention to quit. Results indicate commitment bears a strong relationship to…

  8. Depressive symptoms in middle-aged women are more strongly associated with physical health and social support than with socioeconomic factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, A R; Nyberg, N; Absetz, P

    2001-01-01

    The association of socioeconomic factors, health-related factors, and social support with depressive symptoms has been extensively studied. However, most epidemiological studies have focused on a few factors such as marital status, social class, and employment. In this study of middle-aged women we....... Socioeconomic, health-related, and social support factors were all measured with single items. All variables, except level of urbanization, were significantly associated with depressive symptoms in univariate analyses. Multivariate associations were examined with standard multiple regression analyses in three...

  9. Automated Quantification of the Morphological Atherosclerotic Calcification Distribution on X-Rays Is a Strong Predictor of Mortality in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten; Lauze, Francois Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Aortic calcification is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) related deaths. We investigated the relation between mortality and aspects of number, size, morphology and distribution of calcified plaques in the lumbar aorta of postmenopausal women. Methods: 308......: The newly established MACD-index provides a unique combination of morphology and distribution of aortic calcifications, factors that in a combination increase the biological relevance of the index by emphasizing that smaller plaques with a spread elongated morphology have a larger growth potential...

  10. Ontario's commitment to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    The title of this paper, 'Ontario's commitment to nuclear power', is significant because, as a publicly-owned company, Ontario Hydro will not be committed to nuclear power unless the Ontario public is also committed to nuclear power. In developing our strategic plan for generating electricity over the next 25 years, public acceptance was the big issue that we had to face, and it will be the underlying theme throughout this paper. In Ontario uranium is an indigenous fuel, and that is one of the reasons why Ontario adopted nuclear power in the first place, because it provides energy security. The uranium business is important to Canada, and to Ontario where we are 50% dependent on nuclear power at the current time. (author)

  11. Using commitment to improve environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, Anne Marike

    2009-01-01

    The making of commitments is often used as an intervention aimed at increasing pro-environmental behavior. Research shows that when people commit to changing their environmental behaviors, they tend to adhere to their commitments. In this dissertation it is investigated whether commitment making is

  12. Syncrude's commitment to Aboriginal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loader, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    Syncrude's program designed to maintain good relations with Aboriginal communities in all areas where Syncrude operation impact upon Aboriginal peoples and their traditional ways of life are described. The program extends from employment through education to business and community development, the preservation of traditional lifestyles, and the protection of the environment. As examples, some 13 per cent of Syncrude's workforce is made up of Aboriginal people, at an average annual salary of $58,000. The company offers $ 2,000 each, specifically to Aboriginal persons, wanting to further their education particularly in disciplines related to oil sands. A five-year $ 500,000 program has been established by Syncrude at the University of Alberta specifically for Aboriginal people to pursue careers in engineering, medicine , education and business. Other career programs are also offered through Keyano College, Athabasca University and the Northern Alberta Development Council, and there is a strong commitment by the company to encouraging adults to go back to school and for kids to stay in school. Last year the company spent $ 54 million with Aboriginal-owned and operated businesses; the company also support several programs to foster the appreciation of Aboriginal culture not only in Alberta but throughout the country. Environment is the fifth and final element of the Aboriginal Development Program. It involves consultation and working with local communities on environmental matters involving issues ranging from land reclamation to emission reduction. Some six million dollars are spent annually on reclaiming land and reintroducing native animal and plant species wherever possible. An outstanding example of this is the Wood Bison Trail on 210 hectares of reclaimed land managed by the Fort McKay First Nations. It is readily acknowledged that dealing with Aboriginal concerns has not been an easy road to travel and that there are still many things to do. Nevertheless, there

  13. 24 CFR 232.510 - Commitment and commitment fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... an amount which will aggregate $4.00 per thousand dollars of the amount of the requested increase. If... in an amount computed at the same dollar rate per thousand dollars of the amount of increase in... dollars of the amount of the expired commitment. If the reopening request is not received by the...

  14. Pledges of Commitment and Cooperation in Partnerships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan Deer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual’s: (1 opportunity to commit to their partner; (2 the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3 the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduction of relatively large and equally split costs yields similar gains. In contrast, when costs to dissolve committed partnerships fall solely on the individual choosing to break up, pledges of commitment fail to improve cooperation and welfare.

  15. Professional commitment: Does it buffer or intensify job demands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesje, Kjersti

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether professional commitment can be seen as a moderator in the relationship between job demands and emotional exhaustion among Norwegian nurses. Inspired by the job demands-resources model, this study explores whether having a strong commitment to the nursing profession can be seen as a resource that buffers the effect of job demands on emotional exhaustion or, conversely, intensifies the impact of job demands. A survey that comprised Norwegian nurses who had graduated three years previously (N = 388) was conducted. Multiple regression was performed to test the hypothesis. The results provide support to a buffering effect; thus, individuals with a higher degree of professional commitment conveyed a weaker association between job demands and emotional exhaustion compared with nurses with a lower degree of commitment. Developing a better understanding of the potential buffering effect of professional commitment is of great interest. The present study is the first to utilize professional commitment as a resource within the job demands-resources framework. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Employee commitment in MNCs: impacts of organizational culture, HRM and top management orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Sully; Levy, Orly; Beechler, Schon; Boyacıgiller, Nakiye Avdan; Boyacigiller, Nakiye Avdan

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of organizational culture and HRM system on employee commitment of core employees in multinational companies (MNCs). In addition, it identifies two top management team orientations global orientation and geocentric orientation that are seen as contributing uniquely to employee commitment in international firms. We found strong overall support for the model. The results also suggest that High Performance Work Practices have a positive impact on commitment r...

  17. Identity Styles and Religiosity: Examining the Role of Identity Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajales, Tevni E.; Sommers, Brittany

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the role of identity styles, identity commitment, and identity statuses in predicting religiosity in a sample of undergraduate students attending a Seventh-day Adventist university (N = 138). Two structural models were evaluated via path analysis. Results revealed two strong models for the prediction of religiosity. Identity…

  18. Pledges of commitment and cooperation in partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Lachlan Deer; Ralph-C. Bayer

    2015-01-01

    We use experimental methods to investigate whether pledges of commitment can improve cooperation in endogenously-formed partnerships facing a social dilemma. Treatments vary in terms of the individual's: (1) opportunity to commit to their partner; (2) the cost of dissolving committed partnerships; and (3) the distribution of these dissolution costs between partners. Our findings show that pledges of commitment alone can increase cooperation and welfare in committed partnerships. The introduct...

  19. Exploring the role nurses play at different stages of the birthing process. Developing strong and long-term relationships with women by examining relationship-building stages prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, J W; Schibrowski, J A; Westfall, J

    2000-01-01

    The health care community is becoming increasingly aware of the need to develop strong and long-term relationships with the women who make up the majority of the health care market. The perceived quality of obstetric care positively impacts future revenue streams by creating "family" loyalty for an umbrella of other health services offered by the provider organization. This article examines the differential impact that various service performance dimensions have on women's perceptions of quality for different stages of the birthing process, and how relationship-marketing principles can be utilized to develop loyal partnerships. The three distinct relationship-building stages are examined--birthing experiences prior to delivery, during delivery, and after delivery--along with their implications for perceptions of quality analyzed.

  20. Physical Education Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Hayri

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical education teachers' organizational commitment levels. The sample consisted of 204 physical education teachers working in the city center of Konya in the 2011 to 2012 academic year. The respondents were randomly selected in this research. Data collected for this research by using the Scale for…

  1. Cheat Sensitive Quantum Bit Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We give an example of an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive non-relativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  2. Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Lucien; Kent, Adrian

    2004-04-16

    We define cheat sensitive cryptographic protocols between mistrustful parties as protocols which guarantee that, if either cheats, the other has some nonzero probability of detecting the cheating. We describe an unconditionally secure cheat sensitive nonrelativistic bit commitment protocol which uses quantum information to implement a task which is classically impossible; we also describe a simple relativistic protocol.

  3. Quality Improvement with Trustee Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Seymour, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Total Quality Management is a comprehensive system for developing organizationwide participation in planning for and implementing continuous improvement in critical processes. In colleges, trustees can be central to the success of the method through their commitment and the development of supportive policy and procedures. (MSE)

  4. School Climate and Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larry Don

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between school climate and teacher commitment. The study focused on elementary schools in Northeast Alabama. Thirty-four elementary schools consisting of 522 teachers took part in the study. The teachers completed two survey instruments: the Organizational Climate Index (OCI) and the Organizational Commitment…

  5. Idiosyncratic Deals and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between idiosyncratic deals and organizational commitment. In particular, it examines how two individual differences which reflect self-worth (core self-evaluations and age) moderate that relationship. We predicted that employees with feelings of high self-worth will expect and will feel entitled to these…

  6. China's renewable energy policy: Commitments and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Feng; Yin Haitao; Li Shoude

    2010-01-01

    The passing of the Renewable Energy Law (REL) in 2005 demonstrated China's commitment to renewable energy development. In the 3 years after the REL, China's renewable electricity capacity grew rapidly. From 2006 to 2008, China's wind capacity installation more than doubled every year for 3 years in a row. However, three facts prevent us from being optimistic about China's renewable electricity future. First, considered as a share of total capacity, renewable electricity capacity is decreasing instead of increasing. This is due simply to the rapid growth of fossil fuel capacity. Second, a significant amount of renewable generation capacity is wasted because it is not connected to the electricity grid. Finally, renewable electricity plants are running at a low level of efficiency. Based on an in-depth analysis of China's existing renewable energy policy, we suggest that these challenges should be dealt with by introducing a market-based mandatory renewable portfolio requirement coupled with strong regulatory monitoring of grid enterprises.

  7. Internet criminality commited on children

    OpenAIRE

    Hulanová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on internet crime where children are the victims. In the theoretical part of this work, different types of internet crime are described, with a special focus on internet crimes committed on children. Furthermore, it summarizes the basic knowledge of the aggressors and perpetrators of this activity, the prevalence of this crime, and last but not least it gives information about their victims. The empirical part of this work is devoted to the qualitative study of the list of...

  8. Boards: Independent and Committed Directors?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Volonté

    2011-01-01

    Regulators, proxy advisors and shareholders are regularly calling for independent directors. However, at the same time, independent directors commonly engage in numerous outside activities potentially reducing their time and commitment with the particular firm. Using Tobin's Q as an approximation of market valuation and controlling for endogeneity, our empirical analysis reveals that neither is independence positively related to firm performance nor are outside activities negatively related t...

  9. Predicting Commitment Forms From Psychological Contract Breach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to be taken by management at equilibrating employees' psychological contract breach, reducing labour turnover and increasing commitment are suggested. Keywords: Mergers, acquisition, Commitment, psychological contract breach, and psychological contract violation, human resource management.

  10. How do different types of community commitment influence brand commitment? The mediation of brand attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Zhou, Zhi-min; Su, Chen-ting; Zhou, Nan

    2013-11-01

    Although previous research indicates that participation in a brand community may foster consumer loyalty to the brand in question, research has seldom examined the mediating effect of community commitment on brand commitment. Drawing from the typologies of organizational commitment, we divide community commitment into three components: continuance community commitment (continuance CC), affective community commitment (affective CC), and normative community commitment (normative CC). We then assess the mediating role of brand attachment in the relationship between these three components and brand commitment. We test the hypotheses using a sample of online mobile phone brand communities in China. The empirical results reveal that brand attachment exerts an indirect (but not mediated) effect on the relationship between continuance CC and brand commitment and on the relationship between normative CC and brand commitment. We also find that it exerts a partial mediating effect on the relationship between affective CC and brand commitment. The findings contribute to the branding literature and have important implications for brand community management.

  11. 24 CFR 203.7 - Commitment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commitment process. 203.7 Section 203.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance, and Commitments § 203.7 Commitment process. For single family mortgage programs that are not...

  12. COMMITMENT A Psychological Tie and Moral Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY COMMITMENT A Psychological Tie and Moral Value by Shelly L. Mendieta, Lieutenant Colonel, United...there are also psychological and behavioral aspects to commitment. The Meyers and Allen three- component model of organizational commitment...Eight readings are offered as a foundation of the psychological , philosophical, and ethical literature as well as distinguish the concept of

  13. Building commitment in a sports class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jens Christian

    The literature has traditionally considered commitment as an individual characteristic or condition of the individual. This means that one is inclined to think that it is those who have commitment who have the opportunity to become excellent performers within their sport. But what if commitment...

  14. EFFECT OF JOB SATISFACTION ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Azman ISMAIL,; Mohd Ridwan ABD RAZAK

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the association between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. This research was conducted at Fire and Rescue Department of Malaysia. The findings of this research discovered three significant findings. These are, job satisfaction was significantly associated with organizational commitment, intrinsic satisfaction was significantly associated with organizational commitment, and extrinsic satisfaction was significantly assoc...

  15. Anchors of Religious Commitment in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Emily; Dollahite, David C.; Hardy, Sam A.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores adolescent religious commitment using qualitative data from a religiously diverse (Jewish, Christian, Muslim) sample of 80 adolescents. A new construct, "anchors of religious commitment," grounded in interview data, is proposed to describe what adolescents commit to as a part of their religious identity. Seven anchors of…

  16. Work Engagement, Organizational Commitment, Self Efficacy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organizations need committed workers in order to face the worldwide economic competition. The need for factors that predict organizational commitment has become more critical. One of the factors that could lead to healthy organizational climate, increased morale, motivation and productivity is organizational commitment.

  17. An empirical investigation on relationship between social capital and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alikhani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social capital and organizational commitment. The study considers the relationship between social capital with three components of organizational commitment; namely, affective commitment, continuous and normative commitment. The study has been applied among a sample of 292 regular employees who worked for an Iranian bank located in city of Tehran, Iran. The implementation of Pearson correlation has indicated that there were positive and meaningful relationships between social capital and affective commitment (r = 0.197, Sig. = 0.01, continuous (r = 0.308, Sig. = 0.01 and normative commitment (r = 0.423, Sig. = 0.01. In addition, the study has detected that women had more commitment on their organization than men did. The proposed study of this paper has also considered a regression model where organizational commitment is dependent variable and trust and communication are considered as independent variables. According to the results of regression analysis, an increase of one unit in trust and social capital communication will increase organizational commitment by 0.189 and 0.204, respectively.

  18. Testing Error Management Theory: Exploring the Commitment Skepticism Bias and the Sexual Overperception Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsen, David Dryden; Henningsen, Mary Lynn Miller

    2010-01-01

    Research on error management theory indicates that men tend to overestimate women's sexual interest and women underestimate men's interest in committed relationships (Haselton & Buss, 2000). We test the assumptions of the theory in face-to-face, stranger interactions with 111 man-woman dyads. Support for the theory emerges, but potential boundary…

  19. Statistical secrecy and multibit commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Pedersen, Torben P.; Pfitzmann, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    We present and compare definitions of "statistically hiding" protocols, and we propose a novel statistically hiding commitment scheme. Informally, a protocol statistically hides a secret if a computationally unlimited adversary who conducts the protocol with the owner of the secret learns almost...... nothing about it. One definition is based on the L1-norm distance between probability distributions, the other on information theory. We prove that the two definitions are essentially equivalent. We also show that statistical counterparts of definitions of computational secrecy are essentially equivalent...

  20. Commitment to self-rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    People often overcome self-control problems by promising to reward themselves for accomplishing a task. Such strategies based on self-administered rewards however require the person to believe that she would indeed deny herself the reward if she should fail to achieve the desired outcome. Drawing...... on Koszegi and Rabin's (2006) model of endogenous reference point formation, we show how a rational forward-looking individual can achieve such internal commitment. But our results also demonstrate the limitations of self regulation based on self-rewards....

  1. Our Commitment to Bioenergy Sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) is committed to developing the resources, technologies, and systems needed to support a thriving bioenergy industry that protects natural resources and ad- vances environmental, economic, and social benefits. BETO’s Sustainability Technology Area proactively identifies and addresses issues that affect the scale-up potential, public acceptance, and long-term viability of advanced bioenergy systems; as a result, the area is critical to achieving BETO’s overall goals.

  2. <strong>Generic Patch Inferencestrong>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Lawall, Julia Laetitia

    2008-01-01

    A key issue in maintaining Linux device drivers is the need to update drivers in response to evolutions in Linux internal libraries. Currently, there is little tool support for performing and documenting such changes. In this paper we present a tool, spfind, that identifies common changes made...... developers can use it to extract an abstract representation of the set of changes that others have made. Our experiments on recent changes in Linux show that the inferred generic patches are more concise than the corresponding patches found in commits to the Linux source tree while being safe with respect...

  3. A single baseline ultrasound assessment of fibroid presence and size is strongly predictive of future uterine procedure: 8-year follow-up of randomly sampled premenopausal women aged 35-49 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, D D; Saldana, T M; Shore, D L; Hill, M C; Schectman, J M

    2015-12-01

    How well can a single baseline ultrasound assessment of fibroid burden (presence or absence of fibroids and size of largest, if present) predict future probability of having a major uterine procedure? During an 8-year follow-up period, the risk of having a major uterine procedure was 2% for those without fibroids and increased with fibroid size for those with fibroids, reaching 47% for those with fibroids ≥ 4 cm in diameter at baseline. Uterine fibroids are a leading indication for hysterectomy. However, when fibroids are found, there are few available data to help clinicians advise patients about disease progression. Women who were 35-49 years old were randomly selected from the membership of a large urban health plan; 80% of those determined to be eligible were enrolled and screened with ultrasound for fibroids ≥ 0.5 cm in diameter. African-American and white premenopausal participants who responded to at least one follow-up interview (N = 964, 85% of those eligible) constituted the study cohort. During follow-up (5822 person-years), participants self-reported any major uterine procedure (67% hysterectomies). Life-table analyses and Cox regression (with censoring for menopause) were used to estimate the risk of having a uterine procedure for women with no fibroids, small (value for interaction = 0.88). Once fibroid size at enrollment was accounted for, having a prior diagnosis at the time of ultrasound screening was not predictive of having a procedure. Exclusion of women with a submucosal fibroid had little influence on the results. The 8-year risk of a procedure based on lifetable analyses was 2% for women with no fibroids, 8, 23, and 47%, respectively, for women who had small, medium or large fibroids at enrollment. Given the strong association of fibroid size with subsequent risk of a procedure, these findings are unlikely to be due to chance. Despite a large sample size, the number of women having procedures during follow-up was relatively small. Thus

  4. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The delivery commitment schedule process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Standard Contract for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) (herein referred to as the Contract) tasked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with the development of a transportation system adequate to service both utilities and the waste management system (WMS). Due to the nature of the Contract, this development must take place prior to the utilities' final determination of the specific SNF that they will deliver during each allocation period. The Delivery Commitment Schedule (DCS) process is designed to initiate the identification of the SNF that will be delivered at a given time in order to aid in the development of the transportation system

  6. International Military Commitment Indicators: Operational Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    understandings between the engaged parties. These activities create general Images and expectations of international obligation and commitment . How each one of...H. Campbell, and Timothy Brock, v195 7) "The Effect of Commitment on Opinion Change Following Communication ," In Carl I. Hovland (ed.), THE...mmwmn wi 11 wmmmm^>—~~- I AD-A013 126 INTERNATIONAL MILITARY COMMITMENT INDICATORS: OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Wayne R

  7. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tianan; Guo, Yina; Ma, Mingxu; Li, Yaxin; Tian, Huilin; Deng, Jianwei

    2017-08-29

    Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p Challenge stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p Hindrance stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = -0.40; p challenge stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China.

  8. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingxu; Li, Yaxin; Tian, Huilin; Deng, Jianwei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Results: Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = −0.40; p stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China. PMID:28850081

  9. Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures-Only Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  10. Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders

    Data.gov (United States)

    Commodity Futures Trading Commission — The Disaggregated Futures and Options Commitments of Traders dataset provides a breakdown of each week's open interest for agriculture, energy, metals, lumber, and...

  11. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O. Gubbins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74% participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse’s family commitment, work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule, and job and career satisfaction. Married participants’ mean age was 48 (SD = 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74% completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males (p = 0.02 but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment (p < 0.01, when controlled for age, gender, number of dependents, work status, and practice setting. Higher work challenge was associated with higher career satisfaction. Higher job related stress was associated with lower job satisfaction. High work challenge and work load may negatively impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  12. Family Commitment and Work Characteristics among Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Ragland, Denise; Castleberry, Ashley N; Payakachat, Nalin

    2015-12-17

    Factors associated with family commitment among pharmacists in the south central U.S. are explored. In 2010, a cross-sectional mailed self-administered 70 item survey of 363 active licensed pharmacists was conducted. This analysis includes only 269 (74%) participants who reported being married. Outcome measures were family commitment (need for family commitment, spouse's family commitment), work-related characteristics (work challenge, stress, workload, flexibility of work schedule), and job and career satisfaction. Married participants' mean age was 48 (SD = 18) years; the male to female ratio was 1:1; 73% worked in retail settings and 199 (74%) completed the family commitment questions. Females reported a higher need for family commitment than males ( p = 0.02) but there was no significant difference in satisfaction with the commitment. Work challenge and work load were significantly associated with higher need for family commitment ( p impact family function since married pharmacists would need higher family commitment from their counterparts. The impact of work-family interactions on pharmacy career satisfaction should be further investigated.

  13. Cognitive commitments in health services marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1985-01-01

    Armed with valid information about what people expect, health care organizations can make commitments to current and prospective patients, thereby increasing their marketing success and improving patient satisfaction.

  14. EDF - 2012 full-year results: Strong results and commitments delivered. Confirmation of the solidity of EDF's integrated and diversified business model. Annual results 2012. Electricite de France S.A.: Statutory Auditors' Report on the consolidated financial statements. Management report 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    ; income taxes; basic earnings per share and diluted earnings per share; operating assets and liabilities, equity; goodwill; other intangible assets; property, plant and equipment operated under French public electricity distribution concessions; property, plant and equipment operated under concessions for other activities; property, plant and equipment used in generation and other tangible assets owned by the group; investments in associates; inventories; trade receivables; other receivables; equity; provisions; provisions related to nuclear generation - back-end nuclear cycle, plant decommissioning and last cores; provisions for decommissioning of non-nuclear facilities; provisions for employee benefits; other provisions; special French public electricity distribution concession liabilities; trade payable; other liabilities; current and non-current financial assets; cash and cash equivalents; current and non-current financial liabilities; fair value of financial instruments; management of financial risks; derivatives and hedge accounting; derivatives not classified as hedges; cash flows; off-balance sheet commitments; contingent liabilities; held-for-sale assets and liabilities; contribution of joint ventures; dedicated assets; related parties; environment; subsequent events; scope of consolidation

  15. System justification and the defense of committed relationship ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Kay, Aaron C; Holmes, John G; Napier, Jaime L

    2011-08-01

    A consequential ideology in Western society is the uncontested belief that a committed relationship is the most important adult relationship and that almost all people want to marry or seriously couple (DePaulo & Morris, 2005). In the present article, we investigated the extent to which the system justification motive may contribute to the adoption of this ideology. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined whether a heightened motive to maintain the status quo would increase defense of committed relationship values. In Study 3, we examined the reverse association, that is, whether a threat to committed relationship ideology would also affect sociopolitical system endorsement. As past research has found that the justification of political systems depends upon how much these systems are perceived as controlling, in Study 4 we tested whether the defense of the system of committed relationships would also increase when framed as controlling. Results from Studies 1-4 were consistent with our hypotheses, but only for men. In Study 5, using cross-cultural data, we sought to replicate these findings correlationally and probe for a cause of the gender effect. Results from more than 33,000 respondents indicated a relationship (for men) between defense of the sociopolitical system and defense of marriage in countries where the traditional advantages of men over women were most threatened. In Studies 6 and 7, we investigated when this gender difference disappears. Results revealed that when we measured (Study 6) or manipulated (Study 7) personal relationship identity rather than relationship ideology, effects also emerge for women.

  16. Dating and commitment choices as a function of ethnicity among American college students in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebert, Martin S; Nugent, Dusty; Hershberger, Scott L; Kasdan, Margo

    2004-06-01

    The incidence of interracial and interethnic dating and marriage in the United States has increased. This investigation examined dating and commitment choices as a function of ethnicity and sex among groups of Euro-American, Hispanic-American, Asian-American, and African-American college students. A convenience sample of college students comprising 329 heterosexual subjects (134 men, 195 women) was surveyed regarding their partner preferences for dating, visiting parents, marriage, and bearing children. It was hypothesized that subjects would consider dating partners from different ethnic groups, but when making a commitment to marriage and children would prefer members of their own group. This hypothesis was supported in half of the groups: Euro-American men, African-American men, Asian-American women, and African-American women. A discussion of dating and commitment choices among ethnic and sex groups is presented and discussed.

  17. Project on Elite Athlete Commitment (PEAK): IV. identification of new candidate commitment sources in the sport commitment model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Tara K; Russell, David G; Scanlan, Larry A; Klunchoo, Tatiana J; Chow, Graig M

    2013-10-01

    Following a thorough review of the current updated Sport Commitment Model, new candidate commitment sources for possible future inclusion in the model are presented. They were derived from data obtained using the Scanlan Collaborative Interview Method. Three elite New Zealand teams participated: amateur All Black rugby players, amateur Silver Fern netball players, and professional All Black rugby players. An inductive content analysis of these players' open-ended descriptions of their sources of commitment identified four unique new candidate commitment sources: Desire to Excel, Team Tradition, Elite Team Membership, and Worthy of Team Membership. A detailed definition of each candidate source is included along with example quotes from participants. Using a mixed-methods approach, these candidate sources provide a basis for future investigations to test their viability and generalizability for possible expansion of the Sport Commitment Model.

  18. Effects of Ethical Climate on Organizational Commitment, Professional Commitment, and Job Satisfaction of Auditor in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaiza Ismail

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of the ethical climate on the organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction of Malaysian auditors. Using a survey questionnaire comprising instruments about the ethical climate, organizational commitment, professional commitment and job satisfaction, 263 usable responses were received. To achieve the objectives, mean scores, standard deviations, correlations and multiple regressions were performed. The study revealed that a significant positive influence of a caring ethical climate on professional and organizational commitment as well as job satisfaction existed. There was also a positive significant association between the law and code ethical climate and professional commitment. On the other hand, the study discovered that the instrumental ethical climate type had a significant negative relationship with organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A significant negative relationship was also revealed between the independent ethical climate type and organizational and professional commitment. A significant negative relationship between the rules ethical climate and job satisfaction was also discovered.

  19. Sustainable human development: an educational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar AZNAR MÍNGUET

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Human Development (hereafter SHD is taking shape as a proposal for progress in the face of a crisis in civilization so complex and far-reaching that it is considered quite difficult to solve. The aim of this article is to offer a reasoned justification of the evolution of the concept of development and of the need for an educational commitment to be able to make progress towards it. Although it is still polemical and the object of criticism, SHD has become consolidated as a strongly ethical proposal to lead the change in the course of development, transversally affecting its multiple dimensions and advocating interdisciplinary and intercultural cooperation and dialogue. The article analyses the challenges posed by SHD to today’s global society, as well as some ways to respond to them from the field of educational action and research. It concludes with a reasoned structuring of the contents of the monograph and an analytical description of the contents of the different contributions.

  20. Motivation for entry, occupational commitment and intent to remain: a survey regarding Registered Nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Kathleen M

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships between Registered Nurses' motivation for entering the profession, occupational commitment and intent to remain with an employer until retirement. Identifying and supporting nurses who are strongly committed to their profession may be the single most influential intervention in combating the nursing shortage. An understanding of the characteristics these individuals possess could lead to a decline in the high attrition rates plaguing the profession. Using a survey design, Registered Nurses enrolled at the school of nursing and/or employed at the associated university medical centre of a large, not-for-profit state university were polled in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine how the variables of motivation for entry and occupational commitment could indicate intent to remain. The strongest indicators of intent to remain were normative commitment and age, with a 70% average rate of correctly estimating retention. Exp(B) values for normative commitment (1·09) and age (1·07) indicated that for each one-point increase on the normative commitment scale or one-point increase in age, the odds of remaining with an employer until retirement increased by 1·1%. Transformational changes in healthcare environments and nursing schools must be made to encourage loyalty and obligation, the hallmarks of normative commitment. Retention strategies should accommodate mature nurses as well as promote normative commitment in younger nurses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. JOB SATISFACTION FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO JOB PERFORMANCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouloud Kenioua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose: this study was to investigate the relation and correlation between job satisfaction, job performance, and organizational commitment among physical education teachers. Material: The participants where 100 physical educations teachers’ male and female from secondary schools. Job satisfaction, job performance, and organizational commitment were measured through a questionnaire has 05 axes. Results: The findings indicated that there was a strongly positive relationship between job satisfaction and job performance, and the same relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Conclusion: there is a need to create an appropriate environment to ensure the success of the professors of physical education as well as providing incentives and promotions through clear standards.

  2. Making Commitments to Racial Justice Actionable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, Rasha; Ferrel, Thomas; Godbee, Beth; Simpkins, Neil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we articulate a framework for making our commitments to racial justice actionable, a framework that moves from narrating confessional accounts to articulating our commitments and then acting on them through both self-work and work-with-others, a dialectic possibility we identify and explore. We model a method for moving beyond…

  3. The Influence of Culture on Teacher Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Razak, Nordin; Darmawan, I. Gusti Ngurah; Keeves, John P.

    2010-01-01

    Culture is believed to be an important factor that influences various aspects of human life, such as behaviour, thinking, perceptions and attitudes. This article examines the similarities and differences in the influence of culture on teacher commitment in three types of Malaysian primary schools. Since commitment to teaching has rarely been…

  4. Student-teachers' commitment to teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moses, I.

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigated factors related to student-teachers’ commitment to teaching and intention to enter the teaching profession after graduation. The study gives some explanations why some student-teachers are not committed to enter and stay in the teaching profession for a

  5. Employee commitment and performance of manufacturing firms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    445) between job satisfaction and employee organizational commitment. Multiple regression revealed that pay and job promotion are the important elements that influence employee commitment. It is recommended that manufacturing organizations should emphasize pay and job promotion to enhance higher employee ...

  6. Commitment: A Behavioral Approach to Job Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Yoash; Gechman, Arthur S.

    1977-01-01

    Work commitment behaviors were defined as a special class of socially acceptable work behaviors exceeding formal and/or normative expectations relevant to work. For a sample of 54 female elementary school teachers, work commitment measures demonstrated moderate correlations with two attitudinal measures of job involvement and a job satisfaction…

  7. Sexually Violent Predators and Civil Commitment Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer Kendall, Wanda D.; Cheung, Monit

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the civil commitment models for treating sexually violent predators (SVPs) and analyzes recent civil commitment laws. SVPs are commonly defined as sex offenders who are particularly predatory and repetitive in their sexually violent behavior. Data from policy literature, a survey to all states, and a review of law review…

  8. Navy Organizational Commitment and Non-response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    follow-up survey included some questions taken from the larger web-based survey, as well as organizational commitment questions and questions asking why...seem to be differences between enlisted completers and non-completers on organizational commitment , although few differences were found for officers.

  9. 7 CFR 3550.70 - Conditional commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., dealer-contractor, or seller must: (1) Have an adequate ownership interest in the property, as defined in... approval of an affirmative marketing plan. (b) Limitations. Conditional commitments for new or... as bad weather, materials shortages, or marketing difficulties. Conditional commitments may be...

  10. Understanding the Links between Work Commitment Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Rick D.; Lapierre, Laurent M.; Hausdorf, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    In a study of 852 nurses, work involvement (value of work in their lives) affected organizational and occupational commitment through its effect on job involvement. Job involvement indirectly affected intention to leave the organization or occupation. Work and job involvement and orgnanizational and occupational commitment were determined to be…

  11. Career Commitment: A Reexamination and an Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulet, Laurel R.; Singh, Parbudyal

    2002-01-01

    A model investigating effects on career commitment of job involvement, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction added the variables achievement need, work ethic, and extra-work factors (family involvement, number of dependents). Tested with 228 subjects, the model supported the effects of achievement need and work ethic but not extra-work…

  12. Identification of Determinants of Organizational Commitment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is on the identification of determinants of organizational commitment and employee job satisfaction. It is viewed as one of the basic concepts describing the relationship between an employee and an organization. In this paper determinants of organizational commitment, factors conditioning ...

  13. On Entry Deterrence and Imperfectly Observable Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We analyse a simple entry-deterrence game, where a `Potential Intruder' only imperfectly observes the decision of an `Incumbent' to commit or to not commit to fight any entry by the Potential Intruder. Our game generalises the one studied in Bonanno (1992) by allowing for a richer information...

  14. Involuntary Outpatient Commitment of the Mentally Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Ruta J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the issue of involuntary outpatient commitment, and its implications for social workers working in the health system. Describes a nationwide movement to establish a new system of involuntary outpatient commitment to address the failure of deinstitutionalization, mandating mental health treatment in the community for persons ineligible for…

  15. Transformational Leadership, Organizational Commitment, and Job Satisfaction: A Comparative Study of Kenyan and U.S. Financial Firms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walumbwa, Fred O.; Orwa, Bani; Wang, Peng; Lawler, John J.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the nature of the relationship between transformational leadership and two work-related attitudes, organizational commitment and job satisfaction, by comparing Kenya and the United States. The results show that transformational leadership has a strong and positive effect on organizational commitment and job satisfaction in both…

  16. Affective, Continuance, and Normative Commitment to the Organization: A Meta-analysis of Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, John P.; Stanley, David J.; Herscovitch, Lynne; Topolnytsky, Laryssa

    2002-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 155 research reports that used one of three commitment scales (affective, continuance, or normative) found strong correlations between the scales and correlates of jobs satisfaction, job involvement, and organizational commitment. All three were negatively related to withdrawal and turnover. Perceived organizational support had…

  17. EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT ON MOTIVATION VIA STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING: TURKISH ACADEMICIANS CASE

    OpenAIRE

    Saraçlı, Sinan; KESKINTURK, Timur; CİCEK, Mukades; GAZELOGLU, Cengiz

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies on motivation have all showed that there is a strong correlation between the organizational commitments and motivations of the workers. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of organizational commitment on individual’s extrinsic and intrinsic motivation which are effective factors of job motivation. With this purpose Explanatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) used to determine the effects of three sub factors of organizational commitm...

  18. The Role of Job Involvement as a Mediator in Employees’ Moral Values - Organizational Commitment Relationship: Bosnian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Sait Dinc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the joint effects of employees' moral values and job involvement on their organizational commitment. Data were collected via a questionnaire survey of private educational institutions in Bosnia and Herzegovina and a total of 100 valid responses were received. It was found that although both moral values and job involvement could enhance organizational commitment, once the effects of job involvement are accounted for, the direct effects of moral values on organizational commitment diminish to almost non-existent. This result provides strong evidence that the influence of employees’ moral values on organizational commitment is mediated by job involvement.

  19. Getting Women Into the Physics Leadership Structure Nationally and Internationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Elvira S.; Diaz, Lilliam Alvarez; Gebbie, Katharine B.; El-Sayed, Karimat

    2005-10-01

    The underrepresentation of women among physicists around the world, especially in leadership positions, has broad implications for industries and government agencies with a strong need for a technologically educated workforce. The dearth of women physicists in academia exacerbates the situation in that female students lack exposure to successful women in the field. Three years ago, an international group of women met for a round table discussion at the First IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics and discussed the importance of having women in leadership positions. They shared their experiences and successes, and drew up and reported a set of recommendations addressing the preparation of women for leadership, the selection process, and the responsibilities of institutions. They acknowledged that implementation of their recommendations would differ among countries. At the Second IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics an international group of women met again to review, revise, and move forward on revamped recommendations from the first conference. This is a report on the new set of revamped recommendations, which address why women should be in leadership positions, goal setting, best practices, commitments, and follow-up actions for the attendees of the second conference.

  20. Education: Commodity, Come-On, or Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2000-07-01

    July 4, and the glass art shown on pages 812-816, remind us that freedom is fragile. Through their governments, citizens of democracies have traditionally made strong commitments to education on grounds that without it individuals would not be able to act responsibly and to make wise decisions in voting booths and public meetings. All citizens have a stake in everyone's education, because a better-educated citizenry benefits all of society. In this country such a commitment has produced a system of public schools and public universities that offers opportunities to many who otherwise could not afford a level of education commensurate with their talents. But there are signs that this commitment to public education is flagging. Many students, teachers, and administrators view education as merely a way to enhance personal prosperity. How often have you heard the statistic that a college education pays for itself through increased earning power, even if it costs $20,000-30,000 per year? Investing in education pays off just as investing in the stock market does, provided you wait long enough. Attending a better school gets you a better job and a better income. In other words, a certified level of education is a commodity-something that is useful and can be turned to commercial advantage. Viewing education as a commodity has several consequences. First, if education is a means to better employment rather than better citizenship, why should anyone pay for it other than the person who benefits? Why should I pay taxes to help someone else get a better job when I could be spending the money for my own benefit? Education as a commodity makes such attitudes reasonable, though not commendable, and the result is lessened support for public education. Second, those who supply education as an economic good should be rewarded, and those who are much better at educating should be rewarded much more. Hence the fear of Arthur Levine, president of Teachers College, Columbia University

  1. The Impact of Trust on Organization Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As the global economy continues to spawn competitive forces, organizations have sought to become more competitive by cutting costs, eliminating non-value added work, and using more automation. Jobs have become broader and more flexible leading to a leaner workforce with higher-level knowledge and skills and more responsibility for day-to-day decisions. More than ever, organizations depend on employees as the innovators and designers of products and processes and as a source of strategic advantage. Therefore employee commitment among knowledge workers is needed to maintain organizational viability. It would seem that stronger relationships due to greater dependency, involvement, and investment would develop between employers and high-technology workers resulting in more committed employees. However, the opposite has been evidenced as key knowledge workers are changing jobs frequently. This may be due to a perceived lack of commitment by management to its employees. The notion of exchange may dominate the development of organizational commitment whereby an individual decides what to give a firm (commitment, extra effort, better performance, etc.) based on what the firm gives them (e.g., trust and security). It is the relationship between an employee's organizational commitment and the responding level of trust in the organization that is examined in this paper. An experiment is described that will seek to identify this relationship. Preliminary results are expected to show a positive relationship whereby employee commitment is positively correlated with organizational trust.

  2. Shaping of Organizational Identification by Organizational Commitment: Example of Private Education Institutions in Malatya and Tunceli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Çakınberk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the shaping of organizational identification concept by organizational commitment. Discussion continues within the literature on whether these are “different” or “the same” concepts. The present study was conducted in the light of the approach that “Identification and commitment are two different concepts and commitment is a predecessor of identification.” From this point of view, the problem statement of this study was defined as “Is organizational commitment a determiner of organizational identification?” and the main hypothesis was “organizational commitment is a strong determiner of organizational identification”. The Turkish literature lacks a sufficient number of studies analyzing “determiner” relationship between these two concepts and investigating whether these are two different concepts. Therefore, this study is thought to contribute to expanding the related literature. The study population comprised 232 teachers and administrators employed in private education institutions operating in the Malatya and Tunceli Provinces of Turkey. The study sample consists of the 135 teachers and administrator. A questionnaire was used as the data collection tool. To test the main hypothesis and answer the study questions, “single sample t-test”, “correlation test”, “multiple regression test”, “independent samples t-test” and “one-way ANOVA” were conducted. Identification levels of participants were found to be high. Mean affective commitment and normative commitment scores –two dimensions of commitment- among participants were found to be high while their continuance commitment scores were found to be at medium level. The regression model was found to be meaningful and the main hypothesis was suggested to be valid. Examination of identification and commitment values on the basis of demographic characteristics produced findings partially complying with the literature. This may have

  3. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  4. Collective dose commitments from nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1977-01-01

    The concepts of collective dose and collective dose commitment are discussed, particularly regarding their use to compare the relative importance of the exposure from several radiation sources and to predict future annual doses from a continuing practice. The collective dose commitment contributions from occupational exposure and population exposure due to the different components of the nuclear power fuel cycle are evaluated. A special discussion is devoted to exposures delivered over a very long time by released radionuclides of long half-lives and to the use of the incomplete collective dose commitment. The maximum future annual ''per caput'' doses from present and projected nuclear power programmes are estimated

  5. How Many Graduating Family Medicine Residents Have Chosen Financial Support for Service Commitments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Julie; Peterson, Lars E; Fang, Bo; Kovar-Gough, Iris; Phillips, Robert L

    2017-09-01

    New family physicians have opportunities to avoid accruing educational debt or have loans repaid by making a commitment to public service. Little information is available about the numbers of early career family physicians who have made service commitments to fund their education. The purpose of this study is to describe the proportion of graduating family medicine residents who have enrolled in US military and National Health Service Corps (NHSC) scholarship and loan repayment programs, thus obligating them to future public service. The study was a secondary analysis of de-identified data from the 2014 and 2015 American Board of Family Medicine examination registration questionnaire, which is required of all residents applying for board certification. Descriptive statistics were used to indicate the numbers and proportions of respondents who indicated military or NHSC financial support. Chi square analyses were used to analyze differences between groups. Of the 6,231 residents studied, 271 (4.4%) had either obtained military support (n=191, 3.1%) or enrolled in the NHSC (n=80, 1.3%). More men had enrolled in the military than women (4.2% vs 2.2%, P<0.01), but there was no significant NHSC gender difference. Underrepresented minorities (URM) were twice as likely to have enrolled in NHSC as non-URM residents (2.5% vs 1.0%, P<0.01). Only a small fraction of graduating family medicine residents have used either military enrollment or NHSC scholarships to fund their education. Family medicine should advocate strongly for expansion of the NHSC scholarship program, which receives many more applications than it can support.

  6. Let's get serious: communicating commitment in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua M; Griskevicius, Vladas; Li, Norman P

    2011-06-01

    Are men or women more likely to confess love first in romantic relationships? And how do men and women feel when their partners say "I love you"? An evolutionary-economics perspective contends that women and men incur different potential costs and gain different potential benefits from confessing love. Across 6 studies testing current and former romantic relationships, we found that although people think that women are the first to confess love and feel happier when they receive such confessions, it is actually men who confess love first and feel happier when receiving confessions. Consistent with predictions from our model, additional studies have shown that men's and women's reactions to love confessions differ in important ways depending on whether the couple has engaged in sexual activity. These studies have demonstrated that saying and hearing "I love you" has different meanings depending on who is doing the confessing and when the confession is being made. Beyond romantic relationships, an evolutionary-economics perspective suggests that displays of commitment in other types of relationships--and reactions to these displays--will be influenced by specific, functional biases. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Court based civil commitment of alcoholics and substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, E A; Beck, J C

    1991-01-01

    Problem. To study court ordered substance abuse commitment (SAC) in one jurisdiction. We investigated who was evaluated, by whom, and with what outcome. Is SAC primarily a purely civil procedure as originally intended? Are men and women being treated equally? Questionnaire survey of court clinicians to determine demographic and clinical status of persons evaluated, the process of evaluation, and the disposition. SAC is common and more frequent in criminal cases than in purely civil ones. SAC of women is clearly influenced by the restricted choices for disposition: either state prison or an unlocked facility. SAC is an important public health procedure, which courts are using in highly variable and at times unintended ways. SAC has emerged as an alternative to other dispositions in criminal cases involving substance-abusing defendants.

  8. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfister, Patrik L; Stocker, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO 2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max ) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3–7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7–25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%–80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%–18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015–2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes. (letter)

  9. Earth system commitments due to delayed mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Patrik L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    2016-01-01

    As long as global CO2 emissions continue to increase annually, long-term committed Earth system changes grow much faster than current observations. A novel metric linking this future growth to policy decisions today is the mitigation delay sensitivity (MDS), but MDS estimates for Earth system variables other than peak temperature (ΔT max) are missing. Using an Earth System Model of Intermediate Complexity, we show that the current emission increase rate causes a ΔT max increase roughly 3-7.5 times as fast as observed warming, and a millenial steric sea level rise (SSLR) 7-25 times as fast as observed SSLR, depending on the achievable rate of emission reductions after the peak of emissions. These ranges are only slightly affected by the uncertainty range in equilibrium climate sensitivity, which is included in the above values. The extent of ocean acidification at the end of the century is also strongly dependent on the starting time and rate of emission reductions. The preservable surface ocean area with sufficient aragonite supersaturation for coral reef growth is diminished globally at an MDS of roughly 25%-80% per decade. A near-complete loss of this area becomes unavoidable if mitigation is delayed for a few years to decades. Also with respect to aragonite, 12%-18% of the Southern Ocean surface become undersaturated per decade, if emission reductions are delayed beyond 2015-2040. We conclude that the consequences of delaying global emission reductions are much better captured if the MDS of relevant Earth system variables is communicated in addition to current trends and total projected future changes.

  10. Identity and Dating Commitment among Women and Men in College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matula, Kathleen E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Relative contributions of young adults' gender role attitudes, educational aspirations, certainty about careers, and importance of work and marriage as a life satisfaction source to their concurrent involvement in a dating relationship were explored for 56 male and 167 female college students. Results concern Erikson's identity development stages.…

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT WITH THE TRUST TO MANAGEMENT OF THE ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan ZORBA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine whether the relationship between organizational trust and organizational commitment. In order words, is intended to determine whether an effective factor on organizational commitment of the trusth levels to management of athletes. As research data collection tool is used the short form of Organizational trust Inventory developed by Bromiley and Cummings (1996. Tüzün (2006 has turned the Turkish and has tested of scale reliability and validity using the varimax rotated factor analysis. According to Alpha (Cronbach's alpha is designated as the reliability coefficient of 0.84. The obtained data are calculated frequency and percent values. In the analysis of data was used independent sample t tes t and One - way analysis of variance (ANOVA. In addition, is used "Personal Information Form" prepared by the researcher to achieve to some personal information of participants. The universe of this study, is creating licensed athletes in sports clubs, samp le; who voluntarily agree to participate in research constitutes 240 licensed athletes from sports club in Muğla. When examined by gender and organizational commitment status, although a have higher women than men organizational commitment scores, there is no commitment levels significant difference at the 0.05 level. Organizational commitment status was higher married participants than single participants also p <0.05 level has a significant difference. According to the education level, has a significant difference p<0.05 level among organizational commitment scores. As a result, a tendency to participate in high - level statements about the participants' emotional and cognitive organizational trust can say they play. We can say that the statements were und ecided about emotional commitment. Statements regarding the normative commitment and high level of participation is seen as unstable and exhibits a high level of participation towards their continued

  12. Green Supplier Network Manufacturer Commitment Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online form expressing interest in committing to be a Green Supplier; this form expresses your intent to participate in a confidential Green Suppliers Network assessment, implement recommended environmental improvements and complete a NIST MEP follow-up.

  13. Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfaction and Turnover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated organisational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intentions among records management personnel in Ondo State Civil Service, Akure, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw 240 subjects from a population size of 275 records management personnel.

  14. Third age university, social and institucional commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Moritz da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article brings reflections on the social commitment of permanent education programs for the elderly, at the universities, in the face of their institutional commitment to the plans. It was possible to rescue the responsibility concepts, social commitment and identify the elderly in the university, within the federal legislation, through bibliographical and documentary research. There was a survey of permanent education programs with at least 20 years, in 2016. It was carried out for the elderly in the 63 Brazilian Federal, and Public Universities and 17 cases were found. Thus, nine Pro-Rectors of Extension and a Unit Director accepted to participate in interviews by Skype or telephone, in the second semester of 2016, fulfilling the objective of describing the university authorities’ vision on the type of institutional support for such programs’ operation. Although it is possible to realize their relevance to the environment and the university, the institutional commitment is still far short of what is necessary.

  15. Gauging the Commitment of Clandestine Group Members

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Downs, Doneda D

    2006-01-01

    .... Until a few years ago, most research on individual commitment and organizational cohesion has been based primarily on questionnaires and open observations on groups that desire to be understood...

  16. Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Results: Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p < 0.05. Affective commitment was significantly and directly inversely correlated with presenteeism (β = −0.27; p < 0.001. Challenge stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p < 0.001 but not with presenteeism. Hindrance stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = −0.40; p < 0.001 but was significantly positively correlated with presenteeism (β = 0.26; p < 0.001. Conclusions: This study provides important empirical data on presenteeism among healthcare workers. Presenteeism can be addressed by increasing affective commitment and challenge stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China.

  17. Integrating extrinsic and intrinsic cues into a minimal model of lineage commitment for hematopoietic progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhosh Palani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Autoregulation of transcription factors and cross-antagonism between lineage-specific transcription factors are a recurrent theme in cell differentiation. An equally prevalent event that is frequently overlooked in lineage commitment models is the upregulation of lineage-specific receptors, often through lineage-specific transcription factors. Here, we use a minimal model that combines cell-extrinsic and cell-intrinsic elements of regulation in order to understand how both instructive and stochastic events can inform cell commitment decisions in hematopoiesis. Our results suggest that cytokine-mediated positive receptor feedback can induce a "switch-like" response to external stimuli during multilineage differentiation by providing robustness to both bipotent and committed states while protecting progenitors from noise-induced differentiation or decommitment. Our model provides support to both the instructive and stochastic theories of commitment: cell fates are ultimately driven by lineage-specific transcription factors, but cytokine signaling can strongly bias lineage commitment by regulating these inherently noisy cell-fate decisions with complex, pertinent behaviors such as ligand-mediated ultrasensitivity and robust multistability. The simulations further suggest that the kinetics of differentiation to a mature cell state can depend on the starting progenitor state as well as on the route of commitment that is chosen. Lastly, our model shows good agreement with lineage-specific receptor expression kinetics from microarray experiments and provides a computational framework that can integrate both classical and alternative commitment paths in hematopoiesis that have been observed experimentally.

  18. Change-related expectations and commitment to change of nurses: the role of leadership and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoghese, Igor; Galletta, Maura; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Saiani, Luisa; Penna, Maria Pietronilla; Allegrini, Elisabetta

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model linking the impact of expectations on commitment to change and to explore whether change-related communication is a mediating variable between leader-member exchange and expectations. Expectations for change outcomes are an important condition to increase nurses' commitment to change. To understand the role of leadership and communication in expectations development is crucial to promote commitment to change. A predictive, non-experimental design was used in a random sample of 395 nurses. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the hypothesized model. Positive expectations had a direct effect on affective commitment to change, whereas negative expectation had a direct effect on continuance commitment to change. Leader-member exchange and communication influenced nurse's expectations about change. Communication partially mediated the relationship between Leader-member exchange and expectations. These findings suggested that nurses' expectation about change were strongly linked to commitment to change. Furthermore, the enhancement of communication and relationship with leader contributed to the development of positive and negative expectations. Strategies to promote commitment to change include developing positive expectations about change outcomes and building high-quality leadership style oriented to the communication. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Women NGO's and Women Empowerment in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    world Conferences on women were held; Mexico City 1975, Copenhagen. 1980, Nairobi 1985 and 1995 Beijing Conference. These conferences directed the ... development plans due to corruption by government officials, bureaucratic bottleneck, lack of commitment by government officials etc. The failure of government ...

  20. NATO’s Prague Capabilities Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-22

    Order Code RS21659 Updated July 22, 2008 NATO’s Prague Capabilities Commitment Carl Ek Specialist in International Relations Foreign Affairs, Defense...quickly to crisis regions, to supply and protect those forces, and to equip them to engage an adversary effectively. At its 2002 summit, NATO...approved a new initiative, the Prague Capabilities Commitment (PCC), touted as a slimmed-down, more focused DCI, with quantifiable goals. Analysts cautioned

  1. Does smoking cannabis affect work commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyggen, Christer

    2012-07-01

      This study aimed to examine the associations between cannabis use and work commitment.   We used a 25-year panel survey initiated in 1985 with follow-ups in 1987, 1989, 1993, 2003 and 2010. Registered data from a range of public registers were matched with individual responses for the entire period.   The panel survey was a nation-wide study set in Norway.   A total of 1997 respondents born between 1965 and 1968 were included in the panel.   Work involvement scale (WIS) was used to assess work commitment. Involvement with cannabis was based on self-reported smoking of cannabis within the last 12 months and exposure to cannabis through friends. This information was categorized into 'abstaining', 'exposed', 'experimented' and 'involved'. Control measures included socio-economic background, mental health (HSCL-10), education, work satisfaction, unemployment, receipt of social assistance, consumption of alcohol, alcohol-related problems and use of other illicit drugs.   The level of work commitment was associated with involvement with cannabis. In 1993, when the respondents were in their mid-20s, those who were involved or had experimented with cannabis displayed lower levels of work commitment than those who were abstaining or merely exposed to cannabis through friends (P cannabis converged towards the levels reported by abstainers and the exposed as they grew older, whereas those involved reported decreasing work commitment into adulthood (P cannabis across the life-course and a lowering of work commitment was established. Results remained significant even when controlling for a range of other factors known to be related to work commitment, such as socio-economic background, education, labour market experiences, mental health and family characteristics (P cannabis is associated with a reduction in work commitment among adults. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Competency management: Balancing between commitment and control

    OpenAIRE

    Heinsman, Hanneke; de Hoogh, Annebel H. B.; Koopman, Paul L.; van Muijen, Jaap J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management by adopting the theory of planned behavior. Questionnaires were filled out by 43 human resource experts working in different organizations. We expected components of the theory of planned behavior to mediate the relationship between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management (behavior). Regression analysis showed that perceived behavioral control...

  3. Computational modelling of meiotic entry and commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Bhola, Tanvi; Kapuy, Orsolya; Vinod, P. K.

    2018-01-01

    In response to developmental and environmental conditions, cells exit the mitotic cell cycle and enter the meiosis program to generate haploid gametes from diploid germ cells. Once cells decide to enter the meiosis program they become irreversibly committed to the completion of meiosis irrespective of the presence of cue signals. How meiotic entry and commitment occur due to the dynamics of the regulatory network is not well understood. Therefore, we constructed a mathematical model of the re...

  4. Perceptions of Appropriate Punishment for Committing Date Rape: Male College Students Recommend Lenient Punishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Theodore W.; Kline, Linda M.

    2004-01-01

    Past research has shown that date rape is a crime that is committed with surprising frequency, particularly on college campuses, and that college men may hold a number of rape-tolerant attitudes that make this crime more likely. In the present research, 300 men and women college students read one of three vignettes, varying the type of descriptive…

  5. Mismatch in working hours and affective commitment : Differential relationships for distinct employee groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, I.J. Hetty van; Sanders, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – This study examined the relationship between two types of mismatch (i.e. non-correspondence between preferred and actual number of hours), and affective commitment. It was argued that specific groups of employees, i.e. women and part-time working employees, attach more importance to their

  6. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Self-Stigma around Sexual Orientation: A Multiple Baseline Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadavaia, James E.; Hayes, Steven C.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of 6 to 10 sessions of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for self-stigma around sexual orientation linked to same-sex attraction (what has generally been referred to as internalized homophobia; IH) in a concurrent multiple-baseline across-participants design. Three men and 2 women showed sizeable…

  7. Women scientists' scientific and spiritual ways of knowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Angela Cunningham

    While science education aims for literacy regarding scientific knowledge and the work of scientists, the separation of scientific knowing from other knowing may misrepresent the knowing of scientists. The majority of science educators K-university are women. Many of these women are spiritual and integrate their scientific and spiritual ways of knowing. Understanding spiritual women of science would inform science education and serve to advance the scientific reason and spirituality debate. Using interviews and grounded theory, this study explores scientific and spiritual ways of knowing in six women of science who hold strong spiritual commitments and portray science to non-scientists. From various lived experiences, each woman comes to know through a Passive knowing of exposure and attendance, an Engaged knowing of choice, commitment and action, an Mindful/Inner knowing of prayer and meaning, a Relational knowing with others, and an Integrated lifeworld knowing where scientific knowing, spiritual knowing, and other ways of knowing are integrated. Consequences of separating ways of knowing are discussed, as are connections to current research, implications to science education, and ideas for future research. Understanding women scientists' scientific/ spiritual ways of knowing may aid science educators in linking academic science to the life-worlds of students.

  8. Analysis of crimes committed against scheduled tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadse, Vivek P.; Akhil, P.; Anto, Christopher; Gnanasigamani, Lydia J.

    2017-11-01

    One of the curses to the society is a crime which has a deep impact on the society. Victims of crimes are the one who is impacted the most. All communities in the world are affected by crime and the criminal justice system, but largely impacted communities are the backward classes. There are many cases reported of crime committed against scheduled tribes from the year 2005 till date. This paper states the analysis of Crimes Committed against Scheduled Tribes in the year 2015 in various states and union territories in India. In this study, Multiple Linear regression techniques have been used to analyze the crimes committed against scheduled tribes’ community in India. This study compares the number of cases reported to the police station and rate of crime committed in different states in India. It also states the future prediction of the crime that would happen. It will also predict the number of cases of crime committed against the scheduled tribe that can be reported in future. The dataset which has been used in this study is taken from official Indian government repository for crimes which include different information of crimes committed against scheduled tribes in different states and union territories measured under the population census of the year 2011. This study will help different Indian states and union territory government to analyze and predict the future crimes that may occur and take appropriate measures against it before the actual crime would occur.

  9. Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelyn Geldenhuys

    2014-03-01

    Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships amongst psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment and to test for a possible mediation effect of work engagement on the relationship between psychological meaningfulness and organisational commitment. Motivation for the study: Managers have to rethink ways of improving productivity and performance at work, due to the diverse, and in some instances escalating, needs of employees (e.g. financial support to uphold their interest in and enjoyment of working. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative approach was employed to gather the data for the study, utilising a cross-sectional survey design. The sample (n = 415 consisted of working employees from various companies and positions in Gauteng, South Africa. Main findings: The results confirmed a positive relationship between psychological meaningfulness, work engagement and organisational commitment. Further, psychological meaningfulness predicts work engagement, whilst psychological meaningfulness and work engagement predict organisational commitment. Practical/managerial implications: Employers identifying their employees’ commitment patterns and mapping out strategies for enhancing those that are relevant to organisational goals will yield positive work outcomes (e.g. employees who are creative, seek growth or challenges for themselves. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the literature through highlighting the impact that meaningful work has on sustaining employee commitment to the organisation.

  10. Commitment and Switching Intentions: Customers and Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Werneck Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the relationship between a customer’s brand switching intentions and his commitment to a brand. Based on a literature review, constructs related to customer brand commitment were identified (affective and continuance commitment, trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness and their roles in the formation of brand switching intentions hypothesized. Through a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 201 smartphone users was collected to test the proposed relationships. Data analysis was carried out via structural equations modeling, with direct effects of trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness upon the different kinds of commitment being verified. Furthermore, both types of brand commitment (affective and continuance were found to negatively impact a customer’s intention to switch brands. Regarding enterprise customer strategies, the research findings suggest that, if firms are able to track customer brand commitment, they could use such knowledge to develop better relationship strategies, minimizing customer defection and further developing customer value to the company.

  11. Exploring the Relationship Between Professional Commitment and Job Satisfaction Among Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiu-Chin; Wang, Pao-Yu; Lin, Li-Hui; Shih, Whei-Mei; Lin, Mei-Hsiang

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the relationship between professional commitment and job satisfaction among nurses. A total of 132 registered nurses were recruited from a hospital in northern Taiwan. A self-reported structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Findings revealed significant differences among nurses in willingness to make an effort and their marital status, appraisal in continuing their careers, job level, and goals and values related to working shifts. Significant differences were found between inner satisfaction and work sector and marital status. Nurses' professional commitment was strongly related to job satisfaction; aspects of professional commitment explained 32% of the variance in job satisfaction. Study results may inform health care institutions about the importance of nurses' job satisfaction and professional commitment so hospital administration can improve these aspects of organizational environment. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND A RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CENGİZ DEMİR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is the all values that shared by the whole of the organization. Organizational commitment is employees’ strength of bond for the organization which they work for. There should be shared values for mentioned about commitment. If those values are adopted by a large number of people and if they are strong, the level of commitment will increase. The main purpose of this study is to determine  the impact of organizational culture on commitment and the relationship. This study composed of two main parts. The first part consists of theoretical framework which explains organizational culture and commitment’s relationship. The second part is devoted to empirical analysis. Survey study was made in this part which held on 189 employees in the province of İzmir.

  13. Putting the brakes on aggression toward a romantic partner: the inhibitory influence of relationship commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotter, Erica B; Finkel, Eli J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Lambert, Nathaniel M; Bodenhausen, Galen V; Fincham, Frank D

    2012-02-01

    Why do people behave aggressively toward romantic partners, and what can put the brakes on this aggression? Provocation robustly predicts aggression in both intimate and nonintimate relationships. Four methodologically diverse studies tested the hypothesis that provocation severity and relationship commitment interact to predict aggression toward one's romantic partner, with the aggression-promoting effects of provocation diminishing as relationship commitment increases. Across all four studies, commitment to one's romantic relationship inhibited aggression toward one's partner when individuals were severely (but not mildly) provoked. Study 4 tested the hypothesis that this Partner Provocation × Commitment interaction effect would be strong among individuals high in dispositional tendencies toward retaliation but weak (perhaps even nonexistent) among individuals low in such tendencies. Discussion emphasizes the importance of understanding instigating, impelling, and inhibiting processes in the perpetration of aggression toward intimate partners.

  14. NCAA Athletic Department Employee Perceptions of Workplace Related Burnout, Commitment, and Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Robert C.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine employees’ perceptions across National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA Divisions I, II, and III athletic departments of the following general categories and their respective subcategories: (a emotional intelligence consisting of appraisal of emotions, optimism, utilization of emotions, social skills, and emotional exhaustion; (b commitment consisting of affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment; and (c burnout outcomes consisting of exhaustion, and cynicism. The literature offers broad perspectives related to burnout, commitment, and emotional intelligence along with the respective subcategories (Cropanzano, Rupp, & Byrne 2003; Grichnik, Smeja, & Welpe 2010; Opengart 2005; Patzelt, & Shepherd 2011; Youssef, & Luthans 2007. An intercollegiate sport centered questionnaire was developed by the researchers, the content of which was grounded in seminal research studies related to emotional intelligence, commitment, and burnout outcomes. Feedback from five experts who held no less than 15 years of working experience in an NCAA athletic department helped support content validity. The questionnaire consisted of a demographic section followed by a 7 point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree, that included 49 total statements. Electronic mail was used to send the questionnaire to a random sample of 333 athletic department employees whose e-mail addresses were obtained from the publicly accessible National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics’ (NACDA National Directory of College Athletics. Of the 333 surveys mailed, 82 were returned for a 24.6% response rate. Descriptive statistics was applied to the data to arrive at findings related to athletic department employees’ responses to the subcategories of the general categories related to burnout, commitment, and emotional intelligence. Athletic department employees were found to

  15. As time goes by we improve a little more: relationship expectations of young women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this qualitative narrative study I explore expectations regarding male-female relationships and perceptions about intimate partner violence (IPV) with young urban women in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Carol Gilligan's work informed the analysis of the narratives. Themes identified follow: violence at home, resistance, and relational autonomy. The collective story these women tell is that they are familiar with violence in the home, they resist violence and gender inequality, they seek equality in intimate partner relationships, and they plan for futures where the centrality of family is valued in combination with a strong commitment to their own autonomy.

  16. Nursing Ethics: A Lifelong Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Jeschke, E Ann

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the health-care context as well as the roles and responsibilities of nurses have drastically changed. Leaders in nursing around the world recognize that the health-care system is stressed and the well-being of the nursing workforce plagued by the pressures and challenges it faces in everyday practice. We do not intend to make a strong normative argument for why nursing ethics education should be done in a certain way, but instead show from where we have come and to where we can go, so that educators are positioned to address some of the current shortcomings in ethics education. Our goal is to provide an illustration of ethics education as an interwoven, ongoing, and essential aspect of nursing education and professional development. By developing professional identity as character, we hope that professional nurses are given the skills to stand in the face of adversity and to act in a way that upholds the core competencies of nursing. Ultimately, health-care organizations will thrive because of the support they provide nurses and other health-care professionals.

  17. Civil commitment of the anorexic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, P S; Rumpf, T

    1998-07-01

    Involuntary commitment appears to be an infrequently used intervention with anorexic patients, in part because of clinicians' uncertainty about its applicability to this population. In contrast to overtly suicidal patients, anorexic patients typically fail to express an intent to harm themselves, although their actions may result in severe harm. Examination of the language of civil commitment statutes, however, suggests that when the behavior of anorexic patients endangers their lives, they will usually be committable under grave disability standards. This appears to comport with the practices of experts in the treatment of anorexia, and with practices in other countries as well. Involuntary commitment should be used as an approach of last resort, when patients decline voluntary hospitalization and their physical safety is at risk. Moreover, civil commitment should probably also be limited to circumstances in which therapeutic gain is likely from hospitalization. Many severely ill anorexic patients will lack competence to make treatment decisions on their own behalf, allowing involuntary feeding and other procedures to take place, if necessary. Civil commitment is a tool that can legitimately be used in emergent situations with anorexic patients.

  18. How high-commitment HRM relates to engagement and commitment : The moderating role of task proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, Corine; Kalshoven, Karianne

    2014-01-01

    In a multisource field study, we examine the relationship between employee perceptions of high-commitment human resource management (HRM), task proficiency, work engagement, and organizational commitment. Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we first propose that work engagement mediates

  19. How high-commitment HRM relates to engagement and commitment: the moderating role of task proficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.; Kalshoven, K.

    2014-01-01

    In a multisource field study, we examine the relationship between employee perceptions of high-commitment human resource management (HRM), task proficiency, work engagement, and organizational commitment. Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, we first propose that work engagement mediates

  20. A Modal Approach to Intentions, Commitments and Obligations:Intention plus Commitment yields Obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Mark A.; Dignum, F.; Meyer, J.-J.Ch.; Carmo, José; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Kuiper, R.

    In this paper we introduce some new operators that make it possible to reason about decisions and commitments to do actions. In our framework, a decision leads to an intention to do an action. The decision in itself does not change the state of the world; a commitment to actually perform the

  1. A modal approach to intentions, commitments and obligations: Intention plus commitment yields obligation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, R.; Dignum, F.P.M.; Meyer, J-J.Ch.; Kuiper, R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we introduce some new operators that make it possible to reason about decisions and commitments to do actions. In our framework, a decision leads to an intention to do an action. The decision in itself does not change the state of the world; a commitment to actually perform the

  2. Perceived Sacrifice and Few Alternatives Commitments: The Motivational Underpinnings of Continuance Commitment's Subdimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Christian; Panaccio, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Using work on self-concepts and Conservation of Resources theory, the present research examined the motivational underpinnings of continuance commitment's subcomponents of perceived sacrifice and few alternatives. Study 1 (N=208) found job scope to be positively related to perceived sacrifice commitment, and negatively related to few alternatives…

  3. Romantic Relationship Commitment and Its Linkages with Commitment to Parents and Friends during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Goede, Irene H. A.; Branje, Susan; van Duin, Jet; VanderValk, Inge E.; Meeus, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This five-wave longitudinal study examines linkages between adolescents' perceptions of romantic relationship commitment and the development of adolescents' perceptions of commitment to parents and friends. A total of 218 early-to-middle adolescents (39.0 percent boys) and 185 middle-to-late adolescents (30.8 percent boys) participated.…

  4. Understanding organizational commitment: A meta-analytic examination of the roles of the five-factor model of personality and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Daejeong; Oh, In-Sue; Colbert, Amy E

    2015-09-01

    We examined the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and three forms of organizational commitment (affective, normative, and continuance commitment) and their variability across individualistic and collectivistic cultures. Meta-analytic results based on 55 independent samples from 50 studies (N = 18,262) revealed that (a) all FFM traits had positive relationships with affective commitment; (b) all FFM traits had positive relationships with normative commitment; and (c) Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Openness to Experience had negative relationships with continuance commitment. In particular, Agreeableness was found to be the trait most strongly related to both affective and normative commitment. The results also showed that Agreeableness had stronger relationships with affective and normative commitment in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures. We provide theoretical and practical implications of these findings for personality, job attitudes, and employee selection and retention. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Policy Uncertainty, Investment and Commitment Periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Today's investment decisions in key sectors such as energy, forestry or transport have significant impacts on the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the coming decades. Given the economic and environmental long-term implications of capital investment and retirement, a climate mitigation regime should aim to encourage capital investment in climate-friendly technologies. Many factors affect technology choice and the timing of investment, including investor expectations about future prices and policies. Recent international discussions have focused on the importance of providing more certainty about future climate policy stringency. The design of commitment periods can play a role in creating this environment. This paper assesses how the length of commitment periods influences policy uncertainty and investment decisions. In particular, the paper analyses the relationship between commitment period length and near term investment decisions in climate friendly technology.

  6. Irreversible and irretrievable commitments of material resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    In accordance with 10 CFR Part 51, ''Licensing and Regulatory Policy and Procedures for Environmental Protection,'' applicants are required to discuss any irreversible and irretrievable commitments of resources that would be involved in a proposed action, should it be implemented. The construction and operation of nuclear power stations involve commitments of such resources as water, fuel, and materials. The guide presented identifies a report on material resources that forms a basis acceptable to the NRC staff for required discussions of irreversible and irretrievable commitments of material resources involved in the construction of a 1000 MWe pressurized water reactor. The guide describes numerical estimates useful in all such discussions. It also provides methods of computation that may be referenced

  7. Hubungan Work-Family Conflict Dengan Continuance Commitment Pada Wanita Yang Berperan Sebagai Single Parent

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Selvia Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Being single parent for women will provide a variety of issues. The main problemis related tothe economic problems. To overcome the problems occurred woman who acts as a single parent, they must work and survive in the organization where she worked. Commitment to remain in the work referred to as continuance commitment. The decision to work and take care of the family can cause conflicts are referred to work-family conflict. This study was conducted to see the relationship between work-fa...

  8. 28 CFR 522.11 - Civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil contempt commitments. 522.11..., CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.11 Civil contempt commitments. Inmates can come into Bureau custody for civil contempt commitments in two ways: (a) The U.S...

  9. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials...in which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  10. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  11. Career commitment of postprofessional athletic training program graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Thomas G; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Goodman, Ashley

    2015-04-01

    Choosing to pursue an advanced degree in athletic training appears to indicate professional commitment and passion for the profession. Currently, there is a paucity of information regarding why some athletic trainers pursue enrollment in a postprofessional athletic training program (PPATP), indicating commitment to the profession, but later depart for another primary role outside of athletic training. To understand why athletic trainers invested in advanced training via a PPATP but then decided to leave the profession. Qualitative study. Online data collection. Twelve graduates (8 women [67%], 4 men [33%], age = 31.58 ± 3.06 years) from PPATPs who no longer had primary employment as an athletic trainer. Recruits responded to an e-mail invitation to participate by completing a confidential online questionnaire. We analyzed data using a general inductive approach and secured trustworthiness using multiple-analyst triangulation, peer review, and member checks. Two higher-order themes emerged regarding the career commitment of former athletic trainers who were PPATP graduates: (1) departure from an athletic training career and (2) partial continuance in athletic training. Two second-order themes emerged from the reasons for departure: (1) decreased recognition of value and (2) work-life imbalance. Finally, we identified 2 third-order themes from the participants' reasons for departure because of a perceived lack of value: (1) low salary and (2) long, inconsistent hours worked. Most of our participants intended to stay in the profession when they chose to attend a PPATP. However, during role inductance in either the clinical experience of the PPATP they attended or early in their careers, they began to have thoughts of leaving mainly because of inadequate financial compensation, challenging work schedules, or both.

  12. The conversion model: A strategic market segmentation system based on customer commitment and potential to change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceurvorst, R.W. [Market Facts, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Deregulation of utilities will require providers of electric power to put the issue of competition at the top of their strategic planning agenda. The companies that will flourish in this new competitive environment are those that have strongly committed customers and potential to grow. {open_quotes}Commitment{close_quotes} is the complex psychological bond between a customer and a brand (or choice); it is critical to measure because it is the foundation of loyalty and brand equity. The Conversion Model is an established, validated strategic research tool that measures customer commitment and potential to change. It was designed to help marketers devise strategies to strengthen the commitment of current customers and to acquire new customers. The Model helps companies protect and grow their businesss by first quantifying the commitment of current customers and the potential to convert competitors` customers. Further, the Model provides managers with actionable insights about the demographic, behavioral and attitudinal factors that characterize customers who are secure in their commitment, those who are vulnerable to being lost, the non-customers who can be won over and those who are unavailable.

  13. Investigation of the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment of nurses in Zanjan hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Fereidoun; Siahkali, Soheila Rabie; Shoghli, Alireza; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh; Tafreshi, Mansoreh Zaghari

    2017-03-01

    The demanding nature of nursing work environments signals longstanding and growing concerns about nurses' health and job satisfaction and the provision of quality care. Specifically in health care settings, nurse leaders play an essential role in creating supportive work environments to avert these negative trends and increase nurse job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment of nurses. 491 nurses working in Zanjan hospitals participated in this descriptive-correlational study in 2010. Tools for data collection were Meyer and Allen's organizational commitment questionnaire and "Conditions for Work Effectiveness Questionnaire-II" (CWEQ-II). Data was analyzed by SPSS16. The statistical tests such as variance analysis, t-test, pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression were used for data analysis. According to the findings, the perception of nurses working in hospitals on "Structural Empowerment" was moderate (15.98±3.29). Nurses believed "opportunity" as the most important element in structural empowerment with the score of 3.18 ±0.79. Nurses working in non-academic hospitals and in non-teaching hospitals had higher organizational commitment than others. There was a significant relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment. Generally, structural empowerment (relatively strong) correlates with nurses' organizational commitment. We concluded that a high structural empowerment increases the organizational commitment of nurses.

  14. THE ASSOCIATION OF ISLAMIC BASED CARING MODEL AND COMMITMENT TO ORGANIZATION IN STAFF NURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuda Ayu Timorita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strong organizational commitment is needed by hospitals to attract and retain nursing staffs in order to consistently deliver good quality of nursing services. The decrease in organizational commitment among nurses can cause many losses to the organization, including increased organizational spending, breakdown in patient care, and cause performance trends that appear not for the benefit of the organization or unit, but more for personal self-interest. Objective: To analyze the relationship of the application of Islamic Based Caring (IBC model with organizational commitment among nurses. Methods: This was a correlation analytic research with cross sectional design. There were 108 nurses selected using a propotionate stratified random sampling. Islamic Based Caring was measured using a questionnaire developed based on the theory of Suhartini Ismail (2016, and organizational commitment was measured using a questionnaire developed based on the concept of Caldwell, O’Reilly & Chatmann (1990 and Mowday, Porter dan Steers (1982 in Asmaningrum (2009. Logistic regression and forward stepwise (conditional method were used for data analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant correlation of a healing presence (p=0.000, caring relationship (p=0.010, caring environment (p=0.045 and belief in God (p=0.000. Belief in God (Allah SWT has the highest correlation (OR=6.660 with organizational commitment among nurses. Conclusion: There is a positive and significant relationship between the implementation of Islamic Based Caring with the organization's commitment among nurses.

  15. Work climate, work values and professional commitment as predictors of job satisfaction in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Sala, Rachele La; Marletta, Giuseppe; Pelosi, Giulia; Ampollini, Monica; Fabbri, Anna; Ricchi, Alba; Scardino, Marcello; Artioli, Giovanna; Mancini, Tiziana

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effect of some psychosocial variables on nurses' job satisfaction. Nurses' job satisfaction is one of the most important factors in determining individuals' intention to stay or leave a health-care organisation. Literature shows a predictive role of work climate, professional commitment and work values on job satisfaction, but their conjoint effect has rarely been considered. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was adopted. Participants were hospital nurses and data were collected in 2011. Professional commitment and work climate positively predicted nurses' job satisfaction. The effect of intrinsic vs. extrinsic work value orientation on job satisfaction was completely mediated by professional commitment. Nurses' job satisfaction is influenced by both contextual and personal variables, in particular work climate and professional commitment. According to a more recent theoretical framework, work climate, work values and professional commitment interact with each other in determining nurses' job satisfaction. Nursing management must be careful to keep the context of work tuned to individuals' attitude and vice versa. Improving the work climate can have a positive effect on job satisfaction, but its effect may be enhanced by favouring strong professional commitment and by promoting intrinsic more than extrinsic work values. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Country actions to meet UN commitments on non-communicable diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonita, Ruth; Magnusson, Roger; Bovet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Strong leadership from heads of state is needed to meet national commitments to the UN political declaration on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and to achieve the goal of a 25% reduction in premature NCD mortality by 2025 (the 25 by 25 goal). A simple, phased, national response to the political...

  17. Delivery Commitments in Stochastic Service Networks: Case of Automobile Service

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Dulluri; Ganesh Muthusamy

    2013-01-01

    Service firms have become highly competitive in terms of providing the delivery. The delivery quality in terms of delivery commitments. Delivery commitments impact the customer in deciding for the service. Computing the delivery commitments in stochastic service systems is a real challenge. Delivery commitment forms a key parameter in formulating the service level agreements in B2B markets. In our current work we propose a queuing theoretic approach for computing the delivery commitments. The...

  18. Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees

    OpenAIRE

    K. R. Sowmya; N. Panchanatham

    2011-01-01

    Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the...

  19. Measuring Asian nurses' organizational commitment: a critical analysis of the psychometric properties of two organizational commitment instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Shwu-Ru; Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2013-01-01

    To analyze and compare the psychometric properties and cultural attributes of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire and the Organizational Commitment Scale to determine their appropriateness for measuring commitment of Asian nurses, the biggest portion of international nurses. The Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was cross-culturally cross-validated when compared with the Organizational Commitment Scale. Both instruments were not tested on Asian nurses. More studies are needed to validate the cultural properties of the Organizational Commitment Scale. Healthcare administrators can use culturally validated instruments, which concern cultural context, including languages and cultural values, to understand Asian nurses' organizational commitment and further lower turnover behavior among them. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Influencing Organizational Commitment through Office Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Paula C.; McElroy, James C.; Scheibe, Kevin P.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research on the effects of office redesign on work-related outcomes has been largely a theoretical and yielded mixed and conflicting findings. Expanding on individual reactions to office design changes as specified by social interference theory, we propose that office redesign affects organizational commitment and this relationship is…

  1. Job insecurity, organisational commitment and work engagement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education system. However, changes of this nature have direct and/or indirect effects on the well-being of employees and consequently the organisation as a whole. ... commitment and work engagement) within an open distance learning environment. The study ..... According to the COR theory, such resource losses,.

  2. Organizational Justice and Commitment in Interscholastic Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenant, Warren

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of three organizational justice dimensions on the commitment of high school student athletes (N = 480) to continue playing a referent sport. The athletes were asked to complete an instrument designed to assess their perceived levels of justice displayed by their coaches in three justice…

  3. Race, Commitment to Deviance, and Spoiled Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony R.

    1976-01-01

    Data generated by 234 young black and white inmates in 1971 challenge the assumption that spoiled identity is a necessary, socially invariant outcome of deviant commitment and self-definition. For blacks, the relationship between criminal self-typing and stability and esteem is negative but inconsequential; for whites, the relationship is negative…

  4. Articulating (Ultimate) Commitments: Historical, Factual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acknowledging that religion forms a constitutive part of human life is recently confirmed by Göbekli Tepe, an archaeological site in Turkey, from which it appears that religion is basic to all the other cultural developments within human society. This opened the way to illustrate the interplay between ultimate commitments and ...

  5. Compulsory outpatient treatment can prevent involuntary commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene Nørregård; Svensson, Eva Maria Birgitta; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette

    2014-01-01

    Compulsory outpatient treatment (co-pt) has been possible in Denmark since 2010. The aim is to secure necessary treatment, reduce involuntary commitment and improve quality of life for patients with a severe psychiatric illness. Co-pt has been brought into use in 33 cases. This case report...

  6. Religious Commitment and Superstitious Beliefs about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the combined and relative influence of secondary school students' religious commitment and superstitious beliefs about examinations on involvement in examination malpractices. A sample of 208 students randomly selected from the senior secondary school three classes in eight randomly selected ...

  7. Resistance, Justice, and Commitment to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Rex D.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on individual responses to organizational change by exploring the relationships among individual resistance, organizational justice, and commitment to change following organizational change implementations in three organizations. To accomplish this, Web-based questionnaires were used to gather individual-level quantitative…

  8. Personal factors affecting organizational commitment of records ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated personal factors affecting organizational commitment among records management personnel in the state universities in Nigeria. Simple cluster sampling with equal allocation method was used to select 180 records management personnel from the study population. A five item organizational ...

  9. Fuzzy Array Approach to Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Eliasson, Bo

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the unit commitment problem of Swedish power company Sydkraft as a constraint satisfaction problem. The power system is a simplified system with nuclear, thermal, and hydro generators as well as power interchange. In this paper we focus on soft constraints, for instance...

  10. Packaging of Sin Goods - Commitment or Exploitation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia

    to such self-control problems, and possibly exploit them, by offering different package sizes. In a competitive market, either one or three (small, medium and large) packages are offered. In contrast to common intuition, the large, and not the small package is a commitment device. The latter serves to exploit...

  11. Predictors of Organizational Commitment of Factory Employees ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This survey research investigated the predictive influence of organizational climate, self-efficacy and emotional intelligence on organizational commitment. Data were collected from 200randomly selected employees of Cocacola Factory who served as participants in this study using structured questionnaire. Results of the ...

  12. Organisational commitment and responses to planned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale employee resignations, suggesting a possible decline in organisational commitment as a result of the change. Organisational change is complex and is accompanied by cognitive, affective and behavioural responses from employees, but little research has been conducted to show how these responses are related to.

  13. Sport commitment in adolescent soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Belando Pedreño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to contribute to the postulates of the self-determination theory, the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation by Vallerand, and social goals. A structural regression model was estimated to analyze the relations between social goals (responsibility and relationships, praise for autonomous behavior, satisfaction of the basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation in commitment to sport. A sample of 264 young Spanish soccer players aged between 14 and 16 (M =14.74, SD =.77 participated in the study. Structural Equation Modeling results showed that the social responsibility goal, the social relationship goal and praise for autonomous behavior predicted perceived competence. Furthermore, the relationship goal also predicted the need for relatedness. Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for competence and relatedness predicted intrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation positively predicted future commitment to sport. These results highlighted the importance of social goals, praise for autonomous behavior and psychological mediators in encouraging greater commitment in young soccer players. Future research should focus on the coach’s role in generating greater commitment to sport through the development of intervention methodologies based on social goals.

  14. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  15. Robust unit commitment with dispatchable wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Espana, G.; Lorca, Álvaro; de Weerdt, M.M.

    The increasing penetration of uncertain generation such as wind and solar in power systems imposes new challenges to the unit commitment (UC) problem, one of the most critical tasks in power systems operations. The two most common approaches to address these challenges — stochastic and robust

  16. The Illinois Unit commitment information exchange experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honold, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a brief review of the 1989 operation of the Illinois Unit Commitment Information Exchange (UCIX) and the report prepared by Schultz and Associates. The report presents CSA's independent review and analysis of UCIX during 1989, the first full year of experimental operation

  17. Affective Commitment among Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehman, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Student affairs professionals in the United States were surveyed to determine the predictive value of overall job satisfaction, organizational support, organizational politics, and work/nonwork interaction on affective organizational commitment. Results indicate that a supportive work environment leads to increased affective attachment to the…

  18. The Changing Mood in America. Eroding Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Faustine Childress; And Others

    This book examines the current social climate in the United States to determine whether there is an eroding social commitment to equal opportunity for blacks and other minorities and the poor. It is concluded that there is a changing mood in the dominant society, in the black population, and in all three branches of the federal government, and it…

  19. Evolution of collective commitment during teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunin-Keplicz, B; Verbrugge, R

    In this paper we aim to describe dynamic aspects of social and collective attitudes in teams of agents involved in Cooperative Problem Solving (CPS). Particular attention is given to the strongest motivational attitude, collective commitment, and its evolution during team action. First, building on

  20. Competency management : Balancing between commitment and control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, H.; Hoogh, de A.H.B.; Muijen, van J.J.; Koopman, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between commitment and control approaches and the use of competency management by adopting the theory of planned behavior. Questionnaires were filled out by 43 human resource experts working in different organizations. We expected components of the theory of

  1. An Analysis of Organisational Commitment by Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate organisational commitment in the era of the new psychological contract, or the psychological environment created by an economic down turn in Zimbabwe. The psychological contract that exists between employees and organisations is brittle due to many organisational changes ...

  2. Managing Organizational Commitment: Insights from Longitudinal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Paula C.

    2011-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about the "active" management of affective organizational commitment (AOC) through a review of 58 studies employing longitudinal research designs. The review yields six broad categories of antecedents that have empirically demonstrated effects on AOC: socialization practices, organizational changes, human…

  3. Religious Commitment and Prejudicial Attitudes toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the issue of homosexuality has generated passionate discussion in Ghana making it obvious that Ghanaians are unaccepting of it and view it as against the culture, moral ethics and religions of Ghana. This study therefore aimed at determining the extent to which religious commitment will moderate prejudicial ...

  4. JOB ANXIETY, ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    behaviours have received significant attention from behavioural and management scientists around all corners of ... known fact that the success or failure of an organization and the pursuit of quality to a large extent depend not only ..... organizational commitment in the international tourist hotel industry. Journal of American ...

  5. Interfaith Marriage and Religious Commitment among Catholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Larry R.

    1986-01-01

    Examined assertion that interfaith marriages have secularizing effect on family members. Assessed effects of respondent's and his/her parents' type of religious marriage on 11 measures of religious commitment. Catholics married to non-Catholics scored lower on attending mass and receiving communion than Catholics in homogamous marriages, but most…

  6. Strong Arcwise Connectedness

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana

    2012-01-01

    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  7. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  8. Engaged, committed and helpful employees: the role of psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsinga, Irina; Sulea, Coralia; Sârbescu, Paul; Fischmann, Gabriel; Dumitru, Cătălina

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has been focused on the relationship among personality, empowerment, and outcomes, little is known about the incremental effect of empowerment on positive work outcomes. This article aims at exploring the relation between personality factors (i.e., extraversion and conscientiousness) and positive work outcomes (i.e., work engagement, affective organizational commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior), and at determining the incremental effect of psychological empowerment on these outcomes. A convenience sample from three organizations has been used for data collection (N = 258; 52% women, mean age 38.55 years, SD = 10.21). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicate that personality and psychological empowerment explain a significant amount of the variance in the positive organizational outcomes, and that psychological empowerment has a significant incremental value over demographics and personality for the studied outcomes.

  9. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.

    1992-01-01

    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  10. Formalizing the Relationship Between Commitment and Basic Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sree Vivek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Signcryption is a cryptographic primitive which offers the functionality of both digital signature and encryption with lower combined computational cost. On the other hand, commitment scheme allows an entity to commit to a value, where the entity reveals the committed value later during a decommit phase. In this paper, we explore the connection between commitment schemes, public key encryption, digital signatures and signcryption. We establish formal relationship between commitment and the other primitives. Our main result is that we show signcryption can be used as a commitment scheme with appropriate security notions. We show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is IND-CCA2 secure, then the hiding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Similarly, we show that if the underlying signcryption scheme is unforgeable, then the relaxed biding property of the commitment scheme is satisfied. Moreover, we prove that if the underlying signcryption scheme is NM-CCA2, then the commitment scheme is non-malleable.

  11. Commitment tracking in the licensing renewal process: A perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurican, Gregory M.; Breslauer, Stephen K.

    1991-01-01

    The NRC's proposed 10 CFR 54 defines 'Current licensing basis' as inclusive of all licensee commitments. During the last five years, the regulatory commitment tracking group (RCTG) has been developing guidance for member utilities to track such commitments. The RCTG guidance for commitment tracking assists utilities in developing a system to store and maintain commitments related to the CLB. But a majority believe it unlikely that any one commitment tracking system will capture all commitments contained in the proposed definition of a 'Current Licencing Basis'. For future renewal applications the NRC proposes that utilities must identify and compile all licensing basis commitments. In addition, utilities 'shall maintain...(them) in an auditable and retrievable form'. Some utilities are already compiling and tracking licensing basis commitments; others are not. (author)

  12. A study on the effect of organizational climate on organizational commitment: A case study of educational system

    OpenAIRE

    Bahman Saeidipou

    2013-01-01

    Building strong commitment among organizational employees plays an important role in reducing delays and displacement. It can also increase employee efficiency, employees' mental freshness and manifesting both organizational admirable targets and personal goals. The purpose of this study is to detect and to forecast the impact of organizational climate on level of organizational commitment among staff education in city of Kermanshah located in west part Iran. The survey designs questionnaires...

  13. Discourse of women on Unesa’s magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatiningsih, O.; Habibah, S. M.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to reveal the discourse of women in Unesa as mentioned in Unesa’s magazine that is Media of Information and Communication. The data are collected by using documentation technique. The objects of the study are archives, some articles of women published in the Unesa’s magazine. Since 2009, there are three editions of the magazines talked about women. The research used discourse analyses of Foucault. The results reveal that women have been holding large chance to work and having their success, but they must commit themselves to do their role as a wife and a mother. The dominant savoir is domestication of career women. Moreover, the savoir are (1) Women as the first and principal educators of their children; (2) the sacrifice of a wife is an expression of her devotion to her husband. The women’s main sphere is domestics and public is only as an additional sphere. This reflects that patriarchy gender ideology as dominant discourse placing women on their traditional role has been strongly running.

  14. Sociosexuality, Commitment, Sexual Infidelity, and Perceptions of Infidelity: Data From the Second Love Web Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Lopes, Diniz; Pereira, Marco

    2017-02-01

    This study explored the association between sociosexuality (behavior, attitudes, and desire) and commitment to understand sexual infidelity in current relationships. We also explored how these variables were associated with attitudes toward infidelity. Participants were romantically involved heterosexuals (N = 252; 51 women, 201 men; M age  = 41.13, SD = 9.82) registered on a dating Web site directed at romantically involved individuals. Results showed that sociosexuality, alongside commitment, was associated with sexual infidelity. Individuals who had (versus had not) previously engaged in infidelity reported more unrestricted sociosexuality, while reporting less commitment. For individuals reporting prior sexual infidelity, unrestricted sociosexual desire and lesser commitment were associated with more permissive perceptions of infidelity. For individuals reporting no prior sexual infidelity, greater commitment was always associated with more strict perceptions of infidelity. No gender differences emerged in the analyses. Also, no differences were found according to individual motivations (i.e., looking to know other people versus seeking casual sex) or relational motivations (i.e., individual registration versus registration as a couple) underlying individuals' registration on the Web site. These results are an important addition to the literature on infidelity by analyzing a specific sample motivated to engage in infidelity. Implications for future research are discussed.

  15. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  16. Factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Sowmya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational Commitment has been conceptualised & measured in different ways. This study is an attempt to identify the factors influencing organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Chennai. It is also important as suggestions can be given to the banking sector in order to bring an awareness of the commitment level of employees. Gaining awareness of commitment level and the respective influencing factor will help concentrate on increasing the commitment of employees. Using the measures developed by Mowday; Steers and Porter, the researchers have exploited Factor analysis by Principle Component Methodto identify the factors influencing the organizational commitment of employees of PSBs and NPSBs.

  17. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  18. Fourth World Conference on Women. Seeking action for equality, development, peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufert-barr, N

    1995-06-01

    There is a strong international push to secure broader rights for women. In the 20 years since the first global conference on women's issues was held in Mexico City, governments have adopted legislation which promotes equal opportunity, treatment, and rights, and women are entering the labor market in unprecedented numbers. There is evidence that investments in women have had an enormous impact upon society overall, but millions of individual women continue to face discrimination in social, economic, political, and cultural spheres. They are disproportionately denied access to positions of leadership, undereducated, underpaid, die from complications related to childbirth and unsafe abortions, and are battered and killed by men. The Fourth World Conference on Women will be held September 4-15, 1995, in Beijing, to allow participants to assess the progress and shortfalls of the past two decades and identify action to be taken into the next century. The UN-sponsored global meeting will offer governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and individuals the opportunity to review their efforts and renew their commitment to improve the equality and conditions of women and defend their human rights. The main objectives are to adopt a plan of action against obstacles to the advancement of women worldwide, to determine priority actions to be taken by the international community over the period 1996-2001, and to mobilize men and women at the grassroots level to achieve those objectives. A parallel nongovernmental organization forum on women will be held August 30 - September 8, also in Beijing.

  19. Competition with Variety Seeking and Habitual Consumption: Price Commitment or Quality Commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Xiong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates price and quality competition in a market where consumers seek variety and habit formation. Variety seeking is modeled as a decrease in the willingness to pay for product purchased on the previous occasion while habitual consumption may increase future marginal utility. We compare two competing strategies: price commitment and quality commitment. With a three-stage Hotelling-type model, we show that variety seeking intensifies while habitual consumption softens the competition. With price commitment, firms supply lower quality levels in period 1 and higher quality levels in period 2, while, with quality commitment, firms charge higher prices in period 1 and lower prices in period 2. However, the habitual consumption brings the opposite effect. In addition, with quality commitment variety seeking leads to a lower profit and a higher consumer surplus, while habitual consumption leads to the opposite results. On the other side, with price commitment these behaviors have no effect on the consumer surplus, although they still lower down the firm profits. Finally, we also identify conditions under which one strategy outperforms the other.

  20. Common Preposition Errors Committed by Iranian Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Yousefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.

  1. Regulation of Murine Natural Killer Cell Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Huntington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells can derive from the same precursors as B and T cells, however to achieve lineage specificity, several transcription factors need to be activated or annulled. While a few important transcription factors have identified for NK genesis the mechanisms of how this is achieved is far from resolved. Adding to the complexity of this, NK cells are found and potentially develop in diverse locations in vivo and it remains to be addressed if a common NK cell precursor seeds diverse niches and how transcription factors may differentially regulate NK cell commitment in distinct microenvironments. Here we will summarise some recent findings in NK cell commitment and discuss how a NK cell transcriptional network might be organised, while addressing some misconceptions and anomalies along the way.

  2. Commitment to personal values and guilt feelings in dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Alberto, Laura; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Vara, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Caregivers' commitment to personal values is linked to caregivers' well-being, although the effects of personal values on caregivers' guilt have not been explored to date. The goal of this study is to analyze the relationship between caregivers´ commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Participants were 179 dementia family caregivers. Face-to-face interviews were carried out to describe sociodemographic variables and assess stressors, caregivers' commitment to personal values and guilt feelings. Commitment to values was conceptualized as two factors (commitment to own values and commitment to family values) and 12 specific individual values (e.g. education, family or caregiving role). Hierarchical regressions were performed controlling for sociodemographic variables and stressors, and introducing the two commitment factors (in a first regression) or the commitment to individual/specific values (in a second regression) as predictors of guilt. In terms of the commitment to values factors, the analyzed regression model explained 21% of the variance of guilt feelings. Only the factor commitment to family values contributed significantly to the model, explaining 7% of variance. With regard to the regression analyzing the contribution of specific values to caregivers' guilt, commitment to the caregiving role and with leisure contributed negatively and significantly to the explanation of caregivers' guilt. Commitment to work contributed positively to guilt feelings. The full model explained 30% of guilt feelings variance. The specific values explained 16% of the variance. Our findings suggest that commitment to personal values is a relevant variable to understand guilt feelings in caregivers.

  3. Natural metrics and least-committed priors for articulated tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Sommer, Stefan Horst; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    angle space. However, the metric of the joint angle space is rather unintuitive as it ignores both bone lengths and how bones are connected. As Brownian motion is strongly linked with the underlying metric, this has severe impact on the predictive models. We introduce the spatial kinematic manifold...... of joint positions, which is embedded in a high dimensional Euclidean space. This Riemannian manifold inherits the metric from the embedding space, such that distances are measured as the combined physical length that joints travel during movements. We then develop a least-committed Brownian motion model...... on the manifold that respects the natural metric. This model is expressed in terms of a stochastic differential equation, which we solve using a novel numerical scheme. Empirically, we validate the new model in a particle filter based articulated tracking system. Here, we not only outperform the standard Brownian...

  4. Factors influencing job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Liana M

    2008-01-01

    To assess the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivational factors influencing job satisfaction and the perspective of frontline medical imaging staff in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The sample consisted of 359 registered radiologic technologists who were working as staff technologists in acute care health care facilities in the United States. The results of the study suggest that satisfaction with intrinsic and extrinsic motivators influences overall satisfaction with the work environment and job and commitment to the employer.

  5. Investment in workforce health: exploring the implications for workforce safety climate and commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearns, Kathryn; Hope, Lorraine; Ford, Michael T; Tetrick, Lois E

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between investment in employee health and non-health outcomes has received little research attention. Drawing from social exchange and climate theory, the current study uses a multilevel approach to examine the implications of worksite health investment for worksite safety and health climate and employee safety compliance and commitment to the worksite. Data were collected from 1932 personnel working on 31 offshore installations operating in UK waters. Installation medics provided corporate workforce health investment details for 20 of these installations. The findings provide support for a strong link between health investment practices and worksite safety and health climate. The results also found a relationship between health investment practices and organizational commitment among employees. These results suggest that health investment practices are associated with committed workforces and climates that reflect a priority on health and safety. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Professional Commitment and Professional Marginalism in Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov A.I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews teachers' attitudes towards the teaching profession which can be expressed both in professional commitment and in professional marginalism. The dominance of professional marginalism could affect destructively the students as well as the teacher’s personality, hence the issues related to the content of personal position of a marginal and the rate of marginalism among teachers. It was suggested that marginalism could be revealed in the study of professional commitment. The study involved 81 teachers of Sverdlovsk secondary schools aged 21—60 years with work experience ranging from 1 month to 39 years. The Professional Commitment Questionnaire was used as the study technique. The results showed that negative emotional attitude towards the profession and reluctance to leave the profession were grouped as a separate factor. The dispersion factor was 12,5%. The factor loadings ranged from 0.42 to 0.84. The study proved that professional marginalism in teachers includes dissatisfaction with work, feelings of resentment against profession and an unwillingness to leave the profession.

  7. Constructing rich false memories of committing crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia; Porter, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Memory researchers long have speculated that certain tactics may lead people to recall crimes that never occurred, and thus could potentially lead to false confessions. This is the first study to provide evidence suggesting that full episodic false memories of committing crime can be generated in a controlled experimental setting. With suggestive memory-retrieval techniques, participants were induced to generate criminal and noncriminal emotional false memories, and we compared these false memories with true memories of emotional events. After three interviews, 70% of participants were classified as having false memories of committing a crime (theft, assault, or assault with a weapon) that led to police contact in early adolescence and volunteered a detailed false account. These reported false memories of crime were similar to false memories of noncriminal events and to true memory accounts, having the same kinds of complex descriptive and multisensory components. It appears that in the context of a highly suggestive interview, people can quite readily generate rich false memories of committing crime.

  8. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.

    1984-03-01

    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  9. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.

    1981-01-01

    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  10. Commitment bias : mistaken partner selection or ancient wisdom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Back, Istvan H.

    Evidence across the social and behavioral sciences points to psychological mechanisms that facilitate the formation and maintenance of interpersonal commitment. In addition, evolutionary simulation studies suggest that a tendency for increased, seemingly irrational commitment is an important trait

  11. New graduate nurses professional commitment : Antecedents and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilroy, S.C.; Chênevert, Denis; Guerrero, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the factors that increase new graduate nurses' professional commitment and how this professional commitment in turn affects professional turnover intentions, anxiety, and physical health symptoms. Design: The study was carried out in association with the nursing

  12. The role of moral commitment within the Investment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, David; Lopes, Diniz

    2015-03-01

    The Investment Model (Rusbult, 1980) defines general commitment as a long-term orientation towards relationship maintenance and feelings of psychological attachment, influenced by satisfaction, quality of alternatives and intrinsic/extrinsic investments. We suggest the importance of additionally assessing moral commitment, defined by an intrapersonal predisposition to remain in the relationship (Johnson, 1991). We argue moral commitment's association to perceived intrinsic investments acting as internal barriers influencing general commitment and promoting relationship maintenance. A correlational study resorting to structural equation modelling showed that moral commitment predicted intrinsic investments, which in turn predicted general commitment (Model 1). No direct paths emerged from moral commitment to satisfaction or quality of alternatives (Model 2), nor it emerged as a fourth direct predictor of general commitment (Model 3). Results are discussed under relationships maintenance and dissolution frameworks. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed study of this paper extracts 24 variables and using factor analysis, we select the most important factors, which are grouped in four categories. The implementation of our factor analysis has revealed Affective commitment, Continuous commitment, Moral commitment and Enduring commitment are the most important factors influencing organizational commitment.

  14. Sociosexuality, commitment, sexual infidelity, and perceptions of infidelity: data from the second love web site

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, D.; Lopes, D.; Pereira, M.

    2017-01-01

    WOS:000393812800009 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) This study explored the association between sociosexuality (behavior, attitudes, and desire) and commitment to understand sexual infidelity in current relationships. We also explored how these variables were associated with attitudes toward infidelity. Participants were romantically involved heterosexuals (N = 252; 51 women, 201 men; Mage = 41.13, SD = 9.82) registered on a dating Web site directed at romantically involved individuals. Resu...

  15. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  16. Can the higher risk of disability onset among older people who live alone be alleviated by strong social relations? A longitudinal study of non-disabled men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rikke; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul; Avlund, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: to investigate if the increased risk of disability onset among older people who live alone could possibly be moderated by either high social participation or by being satisfied with the social relations. DESIGN AND METHODS: logistic regression models were tested using two waves in a study...... results were present concerning satisfaction with the social relations among men. There was no significant interaction for women. CONCLUSIONS: the study suggests that men who live alone can possibly alleviate their risk of disability onset by being socially active and by having access to satisfactory...

  17. Impact on community organisations that partnered with the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalleh, Geoffrey; Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert J; Laws, Amberlee

    2013-04-01

    A primary aim of the pilot phase of the Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion campaign was to form partnerships with community organisations. As a component of the broader campaign strategy, collaborating organisations promoted their activities under the Act-Belong-Commit banner in exchange for resources, promotional opportunities and capacity building in event management and funding. The impact of the Act-Belong-Commit campaign on the capacity and activities of collaborating organisations during the pilot phase was evaluated using self-completed mail surveys in 2006 and 2008. Collaboration with the campaign had a positive impact on community organisations' capacity, including staff expertise, media publicity and funding applications. Collaborating organisations had strong positive perceptions of Act-Belong-Commit officers and all expressed a willingness to collaborate in future events and activities. The partnership model used during the pilot phase of the Act-Belong-Commit campaign was successful in creating mutually beneficial exchanges with collaborating organisations. So what? Community partnerships are necessary for the effective delivery of mental health promotion campaigns at a local level. Successful partnerships involve the provision of real and valuable benefits to collaborating organisations in return for their cooperation in promoting health messages.

  18. Influence of work role and perceptions of climate on faculty organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormley, Denise K; Kennerly, Susan

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how organizational commitment is influenced by organizational climate and nurse faculty work role in departments/colleges of nursing. The research was based on Meyer and Allen's Multidimensional Model of Organizational Commitment. The sample was comprised of full-time tenure track, doctorally prepared nurse faculty. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize institutional and nursing program data. ANOVA and t-tests were performed to determine differences between faculty information and study variables. A significant difference was found between teaching work role, and role ambiguity, role conflict and organizational climate. Pearson correlation analyses examined relationships between nurse faculty work role balance, role ambiguity, role conflict, and affective, continuance, and normative organizational commitment. A moderately strong negative relationship was present between role ambiguity and role conflict, and affective and continuance organizational commitment. Significant relationships were observed between subscales of organizational climate and role ambiguity and role conflict. The study's findings offer interesting insights into the dynamic relationships between organizational commitment and climate, work role balance, role ambiguity, and role conflict.

  19. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    OpenAIRE

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf; Haridas Acharya

    2013-01-01

    By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS), in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message). The eff...

  20. Leadership style and job commitment of library personnel in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings, it was observed that library managers should evolve leadership styles that will motivate the job commitment of their subordinates. The study concludes that the respondents are committed to their job but the degree of commitment varies from one university to the other. The study recommends that the ...

  1. Frege's Commitment to an Infinite Hierarchy of Senses | Boisvert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though it has been claimed that Frege's commitment to expressions in indirect contexts not having their customary senses commits him to an infinite number of semantic primitives, Terrence Parsons has argued that Frege's explicit commitments are compatible with a two-level theory of senses. In this paper, we argue Frege ...

  2. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  3. Predicting Organizational Commitment from Organizational Culture in Turkish Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipek, Cemalettin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to describe organizational culture and commitment and to predict organizational commitment from organizational culture in Turkish primary schools. Organizational Culture Scale (Ipek "1999") and Organizational Commitment Scale (Balay "2000") were used in the data gathering process. The data were collected from…

  4. 28 CFR 522.14 - Inmates serving civil contempt commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmates serving civil contempt... ADMISSION, CLASSIFICATION, AND TRANSFER ADMISSION TO INSTITUTION Civil Contempt of Court Commitments § 522.14 Inmates serving civil contempt commitments. We treat inmates serving civil contempt commitments in...

  5. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  6. Commitment and Behavior Change: A Meta-analysis and Critical Review of Commitment Making Strategies in Environmental Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, A.M.; Werner, C.M.; Staats, H.; Dijk, van E.; Gale, J.

    2013-01-01

    Commitment making is commonly regarded as an effective way to promote proenvironmental behaviors. The general idea is that when people commit to a certain behavior, they adhere to their commitment, and this produces long-term behavior change. Although this idea seems promising, the results are

  7. Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zong-Jie

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a cheat-sensitive quantum bit commitment scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob’s probability of success at cheating as obtains the committed bit before the opening phase becomes close to \\frac{1}{2} (just like performing a guess) as the number of single photons used is increased. And if Alice alters her committed bit after the commitment phase, her cheating will be detected with a probability that becomes close to 1 as the number of single photons used is increased. The scheme is easy to realize with present day technology.

  8. Survey of generational aspects of nurse faculty organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lara; Candela, Lori; Gutierrez, Antonio P

    2011-01-01

    To describe organizational commitment and generational differences in nursing faculty. The study provides new knowledge on generational differences in organizational commitment among nursing faculty with regard to work values, perceived organizational support, perceived person-organization fit, developmental experiences, and global job satisfaction. A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used with random stratified sampling procedures. Surveys measuring organizational commitment and related constructs were sent electronically to 4886 faculty, yielding a 30% response rate. Significant differences were noted between generations of faculty regarding organizational commitment and related measures. Include specific strategies for fostering commitment from each generation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  10. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2009-01-01

    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  11. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  12. Group covariant protocols for quantum string commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurumaru, Toyohiro

    2006-01-01

    We study the security of quantum string commitment (QSC) protocols with group covariant encoding scheme. First we consider a class of QSC protocol, which is general enough to incorporate all the QSC protocols given in the preceding literatures. Then among those protocols, we consider group covariant protocols and show that the exact upperbound on the binding condition can be calculated. Next using this result, we prove that for every irreducible representation of a finite group, there always exists a corresponding nontrivial QSC protocol which reaches a level of security impossible to achieve classically

  13. Refugee Health: An Ongoing Commitment and Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy T; Bith-Melander, Pollie

    2018-01-13

    Refugees represent a diverse group of displaced individuals with unique health issues and disease risks. The obstacles facing this population have their origins in war, violence, oppression, exploitation, and fear of persecution. Regardless of country of origin, a common bond exists, with refugees often confronting inadequate healthcare resources, xenophobia, discrimination, and a complex web of legal barriers in their new homelands. In many cases, the plight of refugees is multigenerational, manifesting as mental health issues, abuse, poverty, and family disruption. The health trajectory of refugees remains an ongoing commitment and challenge.

  14. Fuzzy Array Approach to Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jan; Eliasson, Bo

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the unit commitment problem of Swedish power company Sydkraft as a constraint satisfaction problem. The power system is a simplified system with nuclear, thermal, and hydro generators as well as power interchange. In this paper we focus on soft constraints, for instance `ap...... `approximately equal`, `much larger than`, and `a little`. Several authors have recognized the significance of soft or fuzzy constraints. Our specific objective is to compute a power balance by means of fuzzy array logic in order to accommodate uncertainty....

  15. Committed equivalent organ doses and committed effective doses from intakes of radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Phipps, A W; Kendall, G M; Silk, T J; Stather, J W

    1991-01-01

    This report contains details of committed equivalent doses to individual organs for intakes by ingestion and inhalation of 1 mu m AMAD particles of 359 nuclides by infants aged 3 months, by children aged 1, 5, 10 and 15 years, and by adults. It complements NRPB-R245 which describes the changes which have taken place since the last NRPB compendium of dose per unit intake factors (dose coefficients) and gives summary tables. Information on the way committed doses increase with the integration period is given in NRPB-M289. The information given in these memoranda is also available as a microcomputer package - NRPB-SR245.

  16. Performance-based training: industry commitments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazour, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    During the 1980s the nuclear industry has made a major commitment to performance based training, investing in excess of one thousand person-years in the process. This commitment is evidenced in a variety of initiatives including: 1) the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's (INPO's) training accreditation program; 2) the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) ''Commission Policy Statement on Training and Qualifications of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel, which,''; 3) the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Order endorsement of ANSI/ANS 3.1 for Category A reactors and the initiation of Technical Safety Appraisals; 4) INPO's conduct of job and task analyses for nuclear power plant personnel and development of an on-line computer system to make the information available to all utilities; and 5) NRC's use of the INPO data base to develop performance-based licensing examinations for reactor operators. Each of the efforts is described briefly and some of the lessons learned through these efforts that can be applied to criticality safety training are discussed. Finally, it is shown how performance-based training is particularly related to the use of computers and simulators in training because the structured approach that is inherent in performance-based training provides the organization and sequencing of the training program and measurable standards of performance that are necessary to develop computer-based training

  17. Considering Maintenance Cost in Unit Commitment Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongon Park

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Electric power systems worldwide are receiving an increasing volume of wind power generation (WPG because of environmental concerns and cost declines associated with technological innovation. To manage the uncertainty of WPG, a system operator must commit sufficient conventional generators to provide an appropriate reserve. At times, frequent start and stop operations are applied to certain generators, which incurs maintenance costs associated with thermal-mechanical fatigue. In this paper, we suggest a comprehensive approach to unit commitment (UC that considers maintenance cost: the parameters of equivalent start (ES and equivalent base load hours (EBHs are adopted in the UC problem to determine optimal generation scheduling. A new formulation for the maintenance cost that can be readily combined with an existing mixed integer linear programming algorithm is presented. The effectiveness of the proposed UC method is verified through simulations based on an IEEE 118-bus test system. The simulation results show that considering maintenance cost in the UC problem effectively restricts frequent start and stop operation scheduling. Furthermore, the operating cost is reduced, the required reserve level is maintained, and the computational time is comparable with that of the conventional UC method.

  18. Rationales for the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Since natural and triggered lightning are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural lightning or triggering a lightning flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed Lightning Flight Commit Criteria in G417.

  19. Commitment and the New Employment Relationship : Exploring a Forgotten Perspective: Employers Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torka, Nicole; Looise, Jan Kees; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we have endeavoured to integrate the concept 'employers’ commitment' into the understanding of the new employment relationship. HRM scholars and practitioners assume that changes in (international) market and employee characteristics lead to a transformation of the employer-employee

  20. Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Religious Commitment of Full-Time University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donna; Sargeant, Marcel A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of job satisfaction and organizational and religious commitment among full time workers at Akra University (a pseudonym) based on a number of demographic factors. Analysis of variance using the Games-Howell procedure revealed that workers who were older than age 46 years had higher job satisfaction and…

  1. Religious Commitment and Well-Being in College Students: Examining Conditional Indirect Effects of Meaning in Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Kaiser Ahmad; Iqbal, Naved

    2017-12-29

    There is systematic and quantitative evidence that religious commitment is associated with indicators of well-being, such as positive emotions and moods, absence of negative emotions, and satisfaction with life; however, researchers remain far from a consensus regarding which mechanisms may account for these observed relationships. Although religious commitment influences well-being through many different mechanisms, meaning in life is probably the predominant one. Thus, we examined the bidimensional conceptualization of meaning in life as a potential mechanism between religious commitment and well-being. The study was cross-sectional in nature. Survey data were collected from 92 college students, aged 17-21. A battery of self-report measures was used for tapping religious commitment, well-being, and meaning in life. Even though presence of meaning, search for meaning, religious commitment, and well-being correlated moderately with each other, presence of meaning carried a substantial proportion of variance in predicting well-being for girls/women. This study suggests that religious commitment influences a person's sense of meaning in life, which, in turn, influences her/his well-being. And, we hope that these results encourage professionals to explore with their clients the fundamental questions of meaning and purpose in life.

  2. Sodium iron EDTA and ascorbic acid, but not polyphenol oxidase treatment, counteract the strong inhibitory effect of polyphenols from brown sorghum on the absorption of fortification iron in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Egli, Ines M; Zeder, Christophe; Hurrell, Richard F

    2014-02-01

    In addition to phytate, polyphenols (PP) might contribute to low Fe bioavailability from sorghum-based foods. To investigate the inhibitory effects of sorghum PP on Fe absorption and the potential enhancing effects of ascorbic acid (AA), NaFeEDTA and the PP oxidase enzyme laccase, we carried out three Fe absorption studies in fifty young women consuming dephytinised Fe-fortified test meals based on white and brown sorghum varieties with different PP concentrations. Fe absorption was measured as the incorporation of stable Fe isotopes into erythrocytes. In study 1, Fe absorption from meals with 17 mg PP (8·5%) was higher than that from meals with 73 mg PP (3·2%) and 167 mg PP (2·7%; P< 0·001). Fe absorption from meals containing 73 and 167 mg PP did not differ (P= 0·9). In study 2, Fe absorption from NaFeEDTA-fortified meals (167 mg PP) was higher than that from the same meals fortified with FeSO₄ (4·6 v. 2·7%; P< 0·001), but still it was lower than that from FeSO₄-fortified meals with 17 mg PP (10·7%; P< 0·001). In study 3, laccase treatment decreased the levels of PP from 167 to 42 mg, but it did not improve absorption compared with that from meals with 167 mg PP (4·8 v. 4·6%; P= 0·4), whereas adding AA increased absorption to 13·6% (P< 0·001). These findings suggest that PP from brown sorghum contribute to low Fe bioavailability from sorghum foods and that AA and, to a lesser extent, NaFeEDTA, but not laccase, have the potential to overcome the inhibitory effect of PP and improve Fe absorption from sorghum foods.

  3. The organizational commitment of emergency physicians in Spanish public hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval de la Torre, A; Bulchand Gidumal, J; Melián González, S

    2016-12-30

    Background. There are not too many studies that deal with the organizational commitment of emergency physicians. This commitment has been shown to impact organizational performance. The aim of this paper is to analyse the degree of commitment of the emergency physicians in Spanish public hospitals and the factors that may influence it. Method. Online survey using SurveyMonkey to emergency physicians in Spanish public hospitals. Results. Two hundred and five questionnaires were received, 162 from physicians and 43 from heads of the emergency service. Results show an intermediate level of commitment, with affective commitment showing the lowest level and continuance commitment showing the highest level. The capabilities of the physician have an influence on their affective commitment; specific training in emergency procedures and seniority has an influence on their continuance commitment; and the opinion they hold about the organization of their service influences affective commitment. Conclusions. Emergency physicians show an average involvement in the hospital in which they work (average 3.8 on a range of 1 to 5), feel an average affection for it (3.4), and have a high intention to keep working there (4.0). The resources the hospital has due to its level do not have an influence on this commitment, while the training and perceptions of the service do have an influence.

  4. A study on relationship between social entrepreneurship and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Hemmati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, organizational commitment has been a major concern in different types of business activities including banking industry. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the relationship between social entrepreneurship and organizational commitment. The proposed study of this paper adapts a standard questionnaire developed by Meyer and Allen [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1, 61-89]. Cronbach alpha has been calculated for affective commitment, employee engagement and normative commitment as 0.77, 0.79 and 0.61, respectively. The results of survey indicate that affective commitment, employee engagement and normative commitment have positively influenced organizational commitment, significantly. In addition, Freedman test has indicated that normative commitment is number one priority with mean rank of 2.85 followed by affective commitment with mean rank of 2.47 and employee engagement with the mean rank of 2.26.

  5. The Manhattan effect: when relationship commitment fails to promote support for partners' interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chin Ming; Finkel, Eli J; Fitzsimons, Gráinne M; Kumashiro, Madoka; Hofmann, Wilhelm

    2014-04-01

    Research on close relationships has frequently contrasted one's own interests with the interests of the partner or the relationship and has tended to view the partner's and the relationship's interests as inherently aligned. The present article demonstrated that relationship commitment typically causes people to support their partner's personal interests but that this effect gets weaker to the extent that those interests misalign or even threaten the relationship. Studies 1a and 1b showed that (a) despite their strong correlation, partner-oriented and relationship-oriented concerns in goal-directed behaviors are separable and (b) relationship commitment strengthens only the link between relationship-oriented motivation and the goal pursuit (not the link between partner-oriented motivation and the goal pursuit). The remaining 7 studies zero in on circumstances in which the partner's and the relationship's interests are in conflict, demonstrating that (c) relationship commitment reliably increases the tendency to support the partner's personal interests when those interests do not pose a strong threat to the relationship but that (d) this effect becomes weaker-and even reverses direction-as the relationship threat posed by the partner's interests becomes stronger. The reduction or reversal of the positive link between relationship commitment and propartner behaviors in such situations is termed the Manhattan effect. These findings suggest that the partner-versus-relationship conflicts provide fertile ground for novel theorizing and empirical investigations and that relationship commitment appears to be less of a partner-promoting construct than relationship science has suggested; instead, its role appears to be focused on promoting the interests of the relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Bit-commitment-based quantum coin flipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, Ashwin; Shor, Peter

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we focus on a special framework for quantum coin-flipping protocols, bit-commitment-based protocols, within which almost all known protocols fit. We show a lower bound of 1/16 for the bias in any such protocol. We also analyze a sequence of multiround protocols that tries to overcome the drawbacks of the previously proposed protocols in order to lower the bias. We show an intricate cheating strategy for this sequence, which leads to a bias of 1/4. This indicates that a bias of 1/4 might be optimal in such protocols, and also demonstrates that a more clever proof technique may be required to show this optimality

  7. Complicating food security: Definitions, discourses, commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ramp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food security is now commonly seen as one of the defining global issues of the century, intertwined with population and consumption shifts, climate change, environmental degradation, water scarcity, and the geopolitics attending globalization. Some analysts suggest that food security threats are so urgent that philosophical scruples must be set aside in order to concentrate all resources on developing and implementing radical strategies to avert a looming civilizational crisis. This article suggests that definitions of food security invoke commitments and have consequences, and that continued critical and conceptual attention to the language employed in food security research and policy is warranted.

  8. Unit Commitment Taking into Account Reactive Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangjun; Yamashiro, Susumu

    In this paper, a Voltage Magnitude Constrained OPF (VMC-OPF) algorithm to determine the reactive power injection from compensating equipment to load bus is developed. By introducing the proposed VMC-OPF to the real power related Unit Commitment (UC)(1), a novel daily UC method taking into account the reactive power to secure bus voltage magnitude is presented. The Transmission Access Charge (TAC) and Ancillary Services Charge (ASC) are included in the objective function for considering costs of using transmission network and supplying reactive power to maintain the voltage. Using the proposed UC, the difference between two schedules based on benefit maximization and cost minimization is also discussed. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed UC method, we demonstrate various simulation results for a model power system of IEEE-118 bus system.

  9. Nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raee, Zahra; Abedi, Heidarali; Shahriari, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although respecting human dignity is a cornerstone of all nursing practices, industrialization has gradually decreased the attention paid to this subject in nursing care. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate nurses’ commitment to respecting patient dignity in hospitals of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in hospitals of Isfahan. Overall, 401 inpatients were selected by cluster sampling and then selected simple random sampling from different wards. Data were collected through a questionnaire containing the components of patient dignity, that is, patient-nurse relationships, privacy, and independence. All items were scored based on a five-point Likert scale. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests. P dignity to an acceptable level. However, the conditions were less favorable in public hospitals and emergency departments. Nursing authorities and policy makers are thus required to introduce appropriate measures to improve the existing conditions. PMID:28546981

  10. ANTECEDENTS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF BANKING SECTOR EMPLOYEES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to check the association of factors like work environment, job security,pay satisfaction and participation in decision making; with organizational commitment of theemployees, working in the banking sector of Pakistan. Two hundred and fifteen (215 responses toquestionnaire-based survey were collected from managerial and non-managerial employees, andanalyzed. The analysis showed positive correlations between the dependent and independentvariables. The relation between job security and organizational commitment was the most significant,indicating that a secure job can yield higher level of commitment. Work environment also had asignificant relation with organizational commitment, showing that a healthy and friendly workenvironment may enhance an employee’s commitment towards his work and organization. Paysatisfaction and participation in decision-making had low correlations with organizationalcommitment. Age and tenure seemed to affect the commitment of employees, with highercommitment shown for higher age and tenure; whereas gender did not show significant change incommitment level of employees.

  11. Sociosexual orientation, commitment, and infidelity: a mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Brent A; Clark, Eddie M; Weidler, Daniel J; Bullock, Melinda; Hackathorn, Jana; Blankmeyer, Katheryn

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with an unrestricted sociosexual orientation (SO) are less committed to their romantic relationships and more likely to engage in infidelity. Furthermore, commitment is negatively associated with tendencies to cheat. However, no previous research has examined the possible mediating role of commitment in the relationship between SO and infidelity. The current study examined whether commitment mediated the relationship between SO and willingness to engage in three types of cheating behaviors (Ambiguous, Deceptive, and Explicit). Results suggested that commitment partially mediated the relationship between SO and infidelity, such that unrestricted individuals had lower commitment, which in turn led to a greater likelihood of cheating. Implications of this association and directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Experimental bit commitment based on quantum communication and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, T; Kaniewski, J; Bussières, F; Houlmann, R; Tomamichel, M; Kent, A; Gisin, N; Wehner, S; Zbinden, H

    2013-11-01

    Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive in which Bob wishes to commit a secret bit to Alice. Perfectly secure bit commitment between two mistrustful parties is impossible through asynchronous exchange of quantum information. Perfect security is however possible when Alice and Bob split into several agents exchanging classical and quantum information at times and locations suitably chosen to satisfy specific relativistic constraints. Here we report on an implementation of a bit commitment protocol using quantum communication and special relativity. Our protocol is based on [A. Kent, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 130501 (2012)] and has the advantage that it is practically feasible with arbitrary large separations between the agents in order to maximize the commitment time. By positioning agents in Geneva and Singapore, we obtain a commitment time of 15 ms. A security analysis considering experimental imperfections and finite statistics is presented.

  13. Philanthropic Commitment Traits for Waqf in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Khadijah, A. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Philanthropic commitment in the form of waqf is important particularly among younger working adults in ensuring sustainable flow of funds for charitable purposes. One of the vital usages of such funds is funding for higher education. A question is raised on the commitment of younger adults in such giving. This study examines waqf commitment traits among waqif (waqf contributors for higher education funding. The specific objective of this study is to measure the factors that influence the waqif to contribute their property or income into waqf for higher education fund. For the purpose of this study, 400 questionnaires have been distributed to working young adult respondents in the Klang Valley area. Waqf commitment attributes comprising of Religiosity, Trust, Altruism, Personal Characteristics, SelfImage, Psychological Benefits, Social Norms and Personal Satisfaction are examined. The findings reveal that Religiosity, Altruism, Personal Satisfaction and Commitment are significant attributes in explaining waqf commitment. However, Trust and Social Norm are not significant.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT ANDORGANIZATIONAL SILENCE: A CONCEPTUAL DISCUSSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitnat Nazlı Sayğan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the affective commitment that is oneof the components oforganizational commitment put forth by Allen and Meyer (Allen, Meyer 1996will be differentiated from the other commitment components. The importance ofcreating an emotional commitment to organizations will be examined and theorganizational factors needed to form organizational commitment will beinvestigated. Also, organizational silence is a situation that the company avoided.In the study, the reasons and the drawbacks of silence are focused on and thefactors that cause employees to remain silent are discussed.The aim of this study is intended to manifest the relationship of ‘organizationalsilence' with affective commitment’ which is one ofthe components of‘organizational commitment’ on the basis of literature. In this study, a negativecorrelation between affective commitment and organizational silence is suggested

  15. Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment: Affective Commitment Predictors in a Group of Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Maria Santa

    Job satisfaction and organizational commitment have long been identified as relevant factors for the well-being of individuals within an organization and the success of the organization itself. As the well-being can be, in principle, considered as emergent from the influence of a number of factors, the main goal of a theory of organizations is to identify these factors and the role they can play. In this regard job satisfaction and organizational commitment have been often identified with structural factors allowing an organization to be considered as a system, or a wholistic entity, rather than a simple aggregate of individuals. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that job satisfaction has a significant, direct effect on determining individuals' attachment to an organization and a significant but indirect effect on their intention to leave a company. However, a complete assessment of the role of these factors in establishing and keeping the emergence of an organization is still lacking, due to shortage of measuring instruments and to practical difficulties in interviewing organization members. The present study aims to give a further contribution to what is currently known about the relationship between job satisfaction and affective commitment by using a group of professionals, all at management level. A questionnaire to measure these constructs, following a pilot study, was designed and administered to 1042 participants who were all professionals and had the title of industrial manager or director. The factors relating to job satisfaction and the predictive value of these factors (to predict an employee's emotional involvement with their organization) were simultaneously tested by a confirmative factorial model. The results were generalized with a multi-sample procedure by using models of structural equations. This procedure was used to check whether these factors could be considered or not as causes producing the measured affective commitment. The results

  16. An Explanatory Study of MBA Students with Regards to Sustainability and Ethics Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Buil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The consequences of the recent economic crisis have shown the need for promoting certain key skills in future entrepreneurs to create enterprises that are capable of producing added value, generating employment and remaining solvent or growing in a competitive and highly volatile environment. Therefore, the issue is not simply a matter of creating more businesses, but rather, a model based on organizations with strong sustainable values in the long term. (2 Methods: The originality and new approach of this article is to establish, through an empirical approach, the link between the entrepreneurial skills and environmental and social commitment in times of crisis. Based on the analysis of a questionnaire answered by MBA students and using structural equation modelling, the relation between entrepreneurial skills, social and environment commitment are tested. (3 Results: The statistical analysis proved the existence of a positive relation between entrepreneurs’ skills and environmental and social commitment pointing out the importance of sustainability commitment as a source of high added value activities. (4 Conclusion: The paper demonstrates that investing in the promotion of entrepreneurial skills in education systems has positive effects on how future entrepreneurs will manage their firms. Therefore, this sustainably depends on the present education policies.

  17. Retention factors in relation to organisational commitment in medical and information technology services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette van Dyk

    2012-07-01

    Research purpose: The objectives of the study were to investigate empirically: (1 the relationship between employees’ satisfaction with organisational retention factors (measured by the Retention Factors Scale and their organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire and (2 whether gender, age, race and tenure groups differ significantly in terms of these variables. Motivation for the study: Medical and information technology professionals have specialised and hard to replace skills. They also have strong tendencies to leave their organisations and countries. Understanding the retention factors that will increase their organisational commitment may benefit the organisations who want to retain their valuable talent. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design to collect data from a purposive sample of 206 staff members who had scarce skills in a South African medical and information technology services company. Correlational and inferential statistics were computed to achieve the objectives. Main findings: The results showed that the participants’ satisfaction with retention factors has a significant relationship with their organisational commitment and that the biographical groups differ significantly in terms of the variables. Practical/managerial implications: The measured retention factors were all associated with human resource management practices that influence employees’ intentions to leave. Contribution/value-add: The results are important to managers who are interested in retaining staff who have scarce skills and provide valuable pointers for designing effective retention strategies.

  18. Counseling psychology trainees' perceptions of training and commitments to social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Amanda M; Spanierman, Lisa B; Greene, Jennifer C; Todd, Nathan R

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined social justice commitments of counseling psychology graduate trainees. In the quantitative portion of the study, a national sample of trainees (n = 260) completed a web-based survey assessing their commitments to social justice and related personal and training variables. Results suggested that students desired greater social justice training than what they experienced in their programs. In the qualitative portion, we used a phenomenological approach to expand and elaborate upon quantitative results. A subsample (n = 7) of trainees who identified as strong social justice activists were interviewed regarding their personal, professional, and training experiences. Eleven themes related to participants' meanings of and experiences with social justice emerged within 4 broad categories: nature of social justice, motivation for activism, role of training, and personal and professional integration. Thematic findings as well as descriptive statistics informed the selection and ordering of variables in a hierarchical regression analysis that examined predictors of social justice commitment. Results indicated that trainees' perceptions of training environment significantly predicted their social justice commitment over and above their general activist orientation and spirituality. Findings are discussed collectively, and implications for training and future research are provided. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Self esteem and organizational commitment among health information management staff in tertiary care hospitals in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ebrahimi, Kamal

    2014-12-12

    Self esteem (SE) and organizational commitment (OC)? have significant impact on the quality of work life. This study aims to gain a better understanding of the relationships between SE and OC among health information management staff in tertiary care hospitals in Tehran (Iran). This was a descriptive correlational and cross sectional study conducted on the health information management staff of tertiary care hospitals in Tehran, Iran. A total of 155 participants were randomly selected from 400 staff. Data were collected by two standard questionnaires. The SE and OC was measured using Eysenck SE scale and Meyer and Allen's three component model, respectively. The collected data were analyzed with the SPSS (version 16) using statistical tests of of independent T-test, Pearson Correlation coefficient, one way ANOVA and F tests. The OC and SE of the employees' were 67.8?, out of 120 (weak) and 21.0 out of 30 (moderate), respectively. The values for affective commitment, normative commitment, and continuance commitment were respectively 21.3 out of 40 (moderate), 23.9 out of 40 (moderate), and 22.7 out of 40 (moderate). The Pearson correlation coefficient test showed a significant OC and SE was statistically significant (Pwork experience with SE and OC. This research showed that SE and OC ?are moderate. SE and OC have strong correlation with turnover, critical thinking, job satisfaction, and individual and organizational improvement. Therefore, applying appropriate human resource policies is crucial to reinforce these measures.

  20. A study of the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention among hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Ferlie, Ewan; Rosenberg, Duska

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this descriptive, co-relational and cross-sectional study was to gain a better understanding of the relationships between job satisfaction and organizational commitment of employees, and their impact on turnover intention at Isfahan Hospitals, Isfahan, Iran, in 2005. Data were collected by the distribution of two questionnaires among 629 employees of these hospitals through a stratified random sampling method. The results of the paper indicate that hospital employees are moderately satisfied with their jobs and committed to their organization. Employees' job satisfaction and organizational commitment were closely inter-related and correlated with turnover intention (P turnover intention. This may be due to external factors, such as job market conditions, which may influence perceived opportunities for career advancement elsewhere. The impact of such external factors is outside the scope of this study, but will have to be investigated in further research. As job satisfaction and organizational commitment have strong correlation with turnover, it is very important to reinforce them by applying the right human resource policies.

  1. A study on relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Khalili

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between organizational culture and organization commitment. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring organizational commitment originally developed by Meyer and Allen (1991) [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991). A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1), 61-89.] and the other one for organizational culture developed by Denison and Spreitzer (1991)...

  2. Which serial killers commit suicide? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, David; White, John

    2012-11-30

    In a sample of 483 serial killers, 6.2% were documented to have committed suicide. Those who committed suicide were found to come from more dysfunctional homes characterized by more psychiatric disturbance in the parents. The sexual acts involved in the murders by the suicides seemed to be more deviant in some aspects, such as committing more bizarre sexual acts or more often taping the murder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A survey on critical factors influencing organizational commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Hamidreza Kheirkhah; Seyed Mohsen SeyedAliAkbar; Kiamars Fathi

    2014-01-01

    Organizational commitment is an important issue and organization attitude has become an area of study among many researchers in the fields of organizational behavior. In fact, there are many studies on human resource management where the effects of organizational commitment on other issues have been investigated and the purpose of this research is to find critical factors influencing on organizational commitment. Based on an exploration of the literature review and interviews, the proposed st...

  4. Women's Movements and Human Futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Betty

    1975-01-01

    Two strands of futurism share values of equality, development, and peace, and can catalyze each other into potentially transformational forces. The path is re-education: World order thinking provides an appropriate content for adult learning, and women's movements provide the energy of commitment and a worldwide network for communicating policies.…

  5. A study on the effect of organizational climate on organizational commitment: A case study of educational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Saeidipou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Building strong commitment among organizational employees plays an important role in reducing delays and displacement. It can also increase employee efficiency, employees' mental freshness and manifesting both organizational admirable targets and personal goals. The purpose of this study is to detect and to forecast the impact of organizational climate on level of organizational commitment among staff education in city of Kermanshah located in west part Iran. The survey designs questionnaires and collects necessary information using a descriptive survey. The statistical population includes all 921 employees who were either enrolled in administration level or work as teacher in all areas of city of Kermanshah. The study selects 300 individuals from the statistical population randomly. The proposed model of this paper uses factor analysis to determine the most important factors influencing organizational commitment and Cronbach alpha is used to validate the results. The results show that there is a significant relationship between the components of role and paying enough attention to goals, the variable organizational climate, and the whole variable dimensions of organizational commitment. The other observation is that there was a weak relationship with some components of social commitment, and there was not any significant relationship with other aspects. Results of multivariate regression analysis shows that there was a high correlation between organizational climate and social commitment (t-student=6.208.

  6. The Path from Ethical Organisational Culture to Employee Commitment: Mediating Roles of Value Congruence and Work Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Huhtala

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Following the Job Demands-Resources model’s motivational process, this study investigates the role of person-organisation fit and work engagement as mediating processes between ethical culture and employee commitment, where ethical culture is seen as an organisational resource. It was expected that the stronger the ethical values and practices are experienced to be, the more compatible employees feel with the organisation. A good person-organisation fit was further hypothesised to act as a personal job resource for the employees, who would consequently experience higher work engagement leading to stronger affective commitment and less turnover intentions. The study used questionnaire data gathered from 270 Finnish school psychologists. The analyses were performed by using SEM and mediation modelling with the bootstrapping method. Ethical organisational culture had a significant positive association with experienced person-organisation fit, which in turn was related to higher work engagement. Both person-organisation fit and work engagement were associated with higher affective commitment and with lower turnover intentions. This study contributes to understanding the mechanisms through which ethical culture affects employee commitment by integrating the concept of person-organisation fit with the Job Demands-Resources model. Organisations can retain committed and motivated workforce through fostering a strong ethical culture, which can support employees’ affective commitment to the organisation.

  7. Regulatory commitment management and the managing of licensing documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roxey, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Regulatory Commitment Management (RCM) Project was designed to strengthen Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric's (BG ampersand E's) ability to identify, implement, and maintain regulatory commitments. The first part of this project involved the development of a clear commitment management process. The second part was the development of a tool that enhances the ability to retrieve information from documents, and the third part of the project dealt with the actual identification of historical commitments. This paper represents the first opportunity for BG ampersand E to discuss some of the success of the second part and the preliminary findings of the third part of the project

  8. BENEFICIAL COALITIONS: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT OF EMPLOYEE COMMITMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Winkler

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Presently, knowledge is considered as the most strategic resource of organizations. The literature on the subject often raises the issues of commitment. The purpose of the article was to discuss the associations between knowledge management and employee commitment. The article presents the stages of knowledge management and describes the category of commitment, taking account of several criteria. In the opinion of the authors, from the point of view of knowledge management particular importance can be attained to the way qualifications, skills, predispositions and knowledge of employees will be used, which, in turn, depends on "quality" of their commitment (its type, intensity, dimension and direction in achieving organizational goals.

  9. Using Focus Groups to Modify the Workplace Affective Commitment Multidimensional Questionnaire (WACMQ) for use in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreira, Tyrone; Berta, Whitney

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Workplace Affective Commitment Multidimensional Questionnaire (W ACMQ) measures affective commitment towards eight work-related targets. While this questionnaire was developed in the business sector, we believe that the multi-target conceptualization of affective commitment has applicability to complex health care contexts where providers of care, in the production and delivery of care, likely develop commitment toward a multiplicity of targets. Affective commitment is a strong predictor of extra-role workplace behavior; indispensable behaviors which enable health systems to function. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this psychometric exercise is to content validate the WACMQ questions for use in health care. METHODS: Two focus groups were conducted, consisting of nurses working in acute care and emergency hospitals in Ontario. Linguistic validation and cognitive debriefing were used. RESULTS: A total of 14 modifications to the wording of items on the original WACMQ questionnaire were made. CONCLUSIONS: This modified version of the WACMQ reflects the need for researchers in health care settings to acknowledge the complex context of health care and the attendant complexities of worker attitudes. Health care workers can experience affective commitment toward leadership (clinical or administrative), co-workers (nurses or interprofessional), patients, their profession, organization, work or tasks. Further, in some health care settings, features like union membership may have important implications when examining affective commitment or behaviors. Psychometric properties of the modified WACMQ will be established in an upcoming study that will examine the relationships between extra-role behaviors, commitment, perceived organizational support and justice within acute care and emergency departments of hospitals operating in Ontario.

  10. Psychological type profile of religiously committed male and female Canadian Baptist youth: a study among participants at tidal impact

    OpenAIRE

    Fawcett, Bruce G.; Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 479 female and 274 male religiously committed Canadian youth over the age of 11 years completed the Adolescent Form of the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTSA) within the context of a weeklong mission and service event sponsored by the Convention of Atlantic Baptist Churches. The data demonstrated strong preferences for intuition among both males (75%) and females (66%), and strong preferences for feeling among both males (86%) and females (92%). Females demonstrated stronger...

  11. Representations of spacetime: Formalism and ontological commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Jonathan Stanley

    This dissertation consists of two parts. The first is on the relation between formalism and ontological commitment in the context of theories of spacetime, and the second is on scientific realism. The first part begins with a look at how the substantivalist/relationist debate over the ontological status of spacetime has been influenced by a particular mathematical formalism, that of tensor analysis on differential manifolds (TADM). This formalism has motivated the substantivalist position known as manifold substantivalism. Chapter 1 focuses on the hole argument which maintains that manifold substantivalism is incompatible with determinism. I claim that the realist motivations underlying manifold substantivalism can be upheld, and the hole argument avoided, by adopting structural realism with respect to spacetime. In this context, this is the claim that it is the structure that spacetime points enter into that warrants belief and not the points themselves. In Chapter 2, an elimination principle is defined by means of which a distinction can be made between surplus structure and essential structure with respect to formulations of a theory in two distinct mathematical formulations and some prior ontological commitments. This principle is then used to demonstrate that manifold points may be considered surplus structure in the formulation of field theories. This suggests that, if we are disposed to read field theories literally, then, at most, it should be the essential structure common to all alternative formulations of such theories that should be taken literally. I also investigate how the adoption of alternative formalisms informs other issues in the philosophy of spacetime. Chapter 3 offers a realist position which takes a semantic moral from the preceding investigation and an epistemic moral from work done on reliability. The semantic moral advises us to read only the essential structure of our theories literally. The epistemic moral shows us that such structure

  12. The Political Polarization of Women: Where Political Scientists Went Wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacManus, Susan A.

    Early research into women's political participation assumed erroneously that gender was more important than race, ethnicity, and class, that uniform commitment on women's issues would occur, and that only female officeholders could represent women. Based on attitudinal, participatory, and electoral data collected in Houston, Texas in 1977-78, this…

  13. Strengthening Gender Justice in Nigeria : a Focus on Women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This grant will allow the Initiative for Women's Studies in Nigeria, in collaboration with five women-centered organizations, to undertake an action research project on women's citizenship in practice, as distinct from the ideal enshrined in national legislation and international commitments. Researchers will examine how ...

  14. Growing women-owned businesses in Latin America and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Few resources exist that can provide women-owned and/or women-operated businesses with support to improve their capacity and growth, including connecting to large and international business. Policy makers and business service providers committed to supporting women-owned businesses have limited knowledge ...

  15. The relationships between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate, team commitment and intention to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A. Munyaka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment in a manufacturing organisation could have a significant impact on employee intention to quit. Research purpose: To determine the relationship between five positive organisational behaviour variables (authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment and their ultimate influence on an individual’s intention to quit. Thus, it is preceded by the determination of the structural invariance of the measurement instruments when applied to a South African sample. Justification for the study: The study sought to fill the gap in the literature in relation to understanding the effect of the relationship between psychological capital, authentic leadership, psychological climate and team commitment on the behaviour of employees in a manufacturing organisation and how this influences their decision to quit. Such a study has not previously been conducted in the South African manufacturing sector. Research design, approach and method: Utilising a non-experimental correlational approach, a self-administered composite questionnaire consisting of five psychological scales was distributed to 204 employees in the junior to senior management level at a global tyre manufacturing organisation in South Africa. Multivariate data analysis included the structural equation modelling. Main findings: There is a significantly strong positive relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on psychological capital and psychological climate. This results in a positive impact on organisational commitment, leading to employees’ intention to quit. Practical/managerial implications: Manufacturing organisations need to develop and implement collaborative leadership intervention strategies aimed at improving

  16. Robust Unit Commitment Including Frequency Stability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Pérez-Illanes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased use of variable generation technologies such as wind power and photovoltaic generation can have important effects on system frequency performance during normal operation as well as contingencies. The main reasons are the operational principles and inherent characteristics of these power plants like operation at maximum power point and no inertial response during power system imbalances. This has led to new challenges for Transmission System Operators in terms of ensuring system security during contingencies. In this context, this paper proposes a Robust Unit Commitment including a set of additional frequency stability constraints. To do this, a simplified dynamic model of the initial system frequency response is used in combination with historical frequency nadir data during contingencies. The proposed approach is especially suitable for power systems with cost-based economic dispatch like those in most Latin American countries. The study is done considering the Northern Interconnected System of Chile, a 50-Hz medium size isolated power system. The results obtained were validated by means of dynamic simulations of different system contingencies.

  17. Cellular Commitment in the Developing Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan eMarzban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian cerebellum is located in the posterior cranial fossa and is critical for motor coordination and non-motor functions including cognitive and emotional processes. The anatomical structure of cerebellum is distinct with a three-layered cortex. During development, neurogenesis and fate decisions of cerebellar primordium cells are orchestrated through tightly controlled molecular events involving multiple genetic pathways. In this review, we will highlight the anatomical structure of human and mouse cerebellum, the cellular composition of developing cerebellum, and the underlying gene expression programs involved in cell fate commitments in the cerebellum. A critical evaluation of the cell death literature suggests that apoptosis occurs in ~5% of cerebellar cells, most shortly after mitosis. Apoptosis and cellular autophagy likely play significant roles in cerebellar development, we provide a comprehensive discussion of their role in cerebellar development and organization. We also address the possible function of unfolded protein response in regulation of cerebellar neurogenesis. We discuss recent advancements in understanding the epigenetic signature of cerebellar compartments and possible connections between DNA methylation, microRNAs and cerebellar neurodegeneration. Finally, we then discuss genetic diseases associated with cerebellar dysfunction and their role in the aging cerebellum.

  18. CERN Confirms commitment to Open Access

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Library Information desk.At a meeting on the Wednesday before Easter, the Executive Committee endorsed a policy of open access to all the laboratory's results, as expressed in the document ‘Continuing CERN action on Open Access' (http://cds.cern.ch/record/828991/files/open-2005-006.pdf), released by its Scientific Information Policy Board (SIPB) earlier in the month. "This underlines CERN's commitment to sharing the excitement of fundamental research with as wide an audience as possible", said Guido Altarelli, current SIPB chairman. Open Access to scientific knowledge is today the goal of an increasing component of the worldwide scientific community. It is a concept, made possible by new electronic tools, which would bring enormous benefits to all readers by giving them free access to research results. CERN has implicitly supported such moves from its very beginning. Its Convention (http://cds.cern.ch/record/330625/files/cm-p00046871.pdf), adopted in 1953, requires openness, stipulating that "......

  19. Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Job anxiety, organizational commitment and job satisfaction: An empirical assessment of supervisors in the state of Eritrea. ... The findings of the present research revealed that (i) recognition and self-esteem facets of job anxiety were found to be significantly related to job satisfaction, (ii) facets of organizational commitment ...

  20. Motivated Reconstruction: The Effect of Brand Commitment on False Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Nicole Votolato; Rajagopal, Priyali

    2018-02-01

    Across 5 studies, we examine the effect of prior brand commitment on the creation of false memories about product experience after reading online product reviews. We find that brand commitment and the valence of reviews to which consumers are exposed, interact to affect the incidence of false memories. Thus, highly committed consumers are more susceptible to the creation of false experience memories on exposure to positive versus negative reviews, whereas low commitment consumers exhibit similar levels of false memories in response to both positive and negative reviews. Further, these differences across brand commitment are attenuated when respondents are primed with an accuracy motivation, suggesting that the biasing effects of commitment are likely because of the motivation to defend the committed brand. Finally, we find that differences in false memories subsequently lead to differences in intentions to spread word-of-mouth (e.g., recommend the product to friends), suggesting that the consequences of false product experience memories can be significant for marketers and consumers. Our findings contribute to the literatures in false memory and marketing by documenting a motivated bias in false memories because of brand commitment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Teachers: Emotional Intelligence, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anari, Nahid Naderi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and job satisfaction, between emotional intelligence and organizational commitment, and between job satisfaction and organizational commitment among high-school English teachers. Furthermore, the study aims to examine the role of gender and age in…

  2. How to retain consumers : A trust-commitment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, W.; Chen, R.; Ou, C.X.J.; Deng, H.; Standing, C.

    2013-01-01

    Although studies on the determinants of consumers’ continuance intention in e-marketplaces have grown in recent years, the research is predominantly related to unidimensional trust and commitment. In this research, we focus on the distinct roles of different types of consumer trust and commitment on

  3. Organisational commitment levels of faculty members in sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to reveal the organisational commitment levels of faculty members to teaching at higher education institutions in Turkey. To be able to obtain participants' views, the organisational commitment scale developed by Allen and Meyer in 1990 was used and data was analysed by means of the SPSS 17.0 ...

  4. Multi-Prover Commitments Against Non-Signaling Attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fehr (Serge); M.J. Fillinger (Max); R. Gennaro; M. Robshaw

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe reconsider the concept of two-prover (and more generally: multi-prover) commitments, as introduced in the late eighties in the seminal work by Ben-Or \\etal. As was recently shown by Cr{\\'e}peau \\etal., the security of known two-prover commitment schemes not only relies on the explicit

  5. Relevance and commitment in Ezenwa-Ohaeto's pidgin poetry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of relevance and commitment is a recurring one in African literature written in Standard English. This paper seeks to ask the same question with regards to poetry in Pidgin English. The question then becomes- is the poet who writes in pidgin English as committed to the social course of his society as his ...

  6. Of innocuousness and insolence: A dialogue on commitment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questioning repression and exploitation especially of the working class is the hallmark of committed writing. This paper looks at the relevance of literature or art to life with a focus on the Nigerian experience. Our commitment as dramatists is to capture socio political experiences in our environments by clearly expressing the ...

  7. Analysis of issues related to organizational commitment of extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organizational commitment of extension personnel in Oyo and Ogun States Agricultural Development Programmes was studied. Organizational commitment is the degree to which the organization members identify with the values and goals of their organization. A census of the extension personnel in both OYSADEP (312) ...

  8. A Framework For Efficient Homomorphic Universally Composable Commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Bernardo Machado

    Commitment schemes are a fundamental primitive in modern cryptography, serving as a building block for a myriad of complex protocols and applications. Universally composable commitment schemes are of particular interest, since they can be seamlessly combined with other universally composable prim...

  9. Transferability of Skills and Education and Thai Academics' Organisational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungruang, Parisa; Donohue, Ross

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have examined the links between perceived transferability of education or perceived transferability of skills and organisational commitment. This paper reports on a study examining the relationships between transferability of education and transferability of skills, and the three components of organisational commitment (affective,…

  10. Commitment to Community Practice among Social Work Students: Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Amnon; Cohen, Ayala

    2013-01-01

    It is important to develop commitment to community practice among social work students to encourage their engagement in this field as professionals later in life. This research examines factors that affect commitment to community practice among social work students. A structured questionnaire was administered to 277 social work students in one…

  11. Predictors of Organizational Commitment among Staff in Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska-Simmons, Elzbieta

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the role of organizational culture, job satisfaction, and sociodemographic characteristics as predictors of organizational commitment among staff in assisted living. It is particularly important to examine organizational commitment, because of its close links to staff turnover. Design and Methods: Data were collected…

  12. Investigation of the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Pala, Adem; Kumartasli, Mehmet; Günel, Ilker; Duyan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Organizational trust and organizational commitment are considered as the most important entraining factors for organizational success. The most important factor in the formation of organizational commitment is trust that employees have in their organizations. In this study, the relationship between organizational trust and organizational…

  13. Commitment to Study as a Technique to Improve Exam Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeming, Frank C.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a technique that could increase study time by reducing procrastination. Randomly selected college students (N=197) made written commitments to study for an exam. Students in the commitment condition reported significantly more study time than did students in a control group; they also performed significantly better on the exam. (RJM)

  14. A Longitudinal Investigation of Commitment Dynamics in Cohabiting Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study followed 120 cohabiting, opposite-sex couples over 8 months to test hypotheses derived from commitment theory about how two types of commitment (dedication and constraint) operate during cohabitation. In nearly half the couples, there were large differences between partners in terms of dedication. These differences were…

  15. 10 CFR 609.8 - Term sheets and conditional commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Project Sponsor and the Eligible Lender or other Holder express agreement with the terms and conditions... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Term sheets and conditional commitments. 609.8 Section 609... EMPLOY INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGIES § 609.8 Term sheets and conditional commitments. (a) DOE, after review and...

  16. Balancing organizational and professional commitments in Professional Service Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frances; Becker, Karen

    2015-01-01

    financial investment firms. Our findings suggest that in professional service firms, HR practices encourage high levels of organizational commitment primarily and most often through their influence on professional commitment and that HR practices related to flexible work design are essential in creating...

  17. Unconditionally secure commitment in position-based quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad

    2014-10-27

    A new commitment scheme based on position-verification and non-local quantum correlations is presented here for the first time in literature. The only credential for unconditional security is the position of committer and non-local correlations generated; neither receiver has any pre-shared data with the committer nor does receiver require trusted and authenticated quantum/classical channels between him and the committer. In the proposed scheme, receiver trusts the commitment only if the scheme itself verifies position of the committer and validates her commitment through non-local quantum correlations in a single round. The position-based commitment scheme bounds committer to reveal valid commitment within allocated time and guarantees that the receiver will not be able to get information about commitment unless committer reveals. The scheme works for the commitment of both bits and qubits and is equally secure against committer/receiver as well as against any third party who may have interests in destroying the commitment. Our proposed scheme is unconditionally secure in general and evades Mayers and Lo-Chau attacks in particular.

  18. Commitment, enjoyment and motivation in young soccer competitive players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mas, Alexandre; Palou, Pere; Gili, Margarita; Ponseti, Xavier; Borras, Pere A; Vidal, Josep; Cruz, Jaume; Torregrosa, Miquel; Villamarín, Francisco; Sousa, Catarina

    2010-11-01

    Building upon Deci's and Ryan (1985) Self-determination theory as well as the sportive behavioral correlates of the model of Commitment (Scanlan et al., 1976), this study tries to establish the relationship between motivation and commitment in youth sport. For this purpose 454 young competitive soccer players answered the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire (SCQ) during the regular season. The SMS measures the three dimensions of the Motivational continuum (the Amotivation, the Extrinsic Motivation and the Intrinsic Motivation). The SCQ measures the Sportive Commitment and its composing factors such as the Enjoyment, the Alternatives to the sport, and the Social Pressure. Our findings provided a clear pattern of the influence of motivation in sport enjoyment and commitment, outlining the positive contribution of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to enjoyment and commitment. Amotivation, contributes positively to alternatives to sport and negatively to enjoyment and commitment, It should be noted that extrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to enjoyment whereas intrinsic motivation has a higher contribution to commitment.

  19. 28 CFR 571.52 - Procedures-committed fines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the inmate's commitment, staff shall inform the inmate that there is a committed fine, or fine and costs on file, as part of the sentence. Staff shall then impound the inmate's trust fund account until the fine, or fine and costs is paid, except— (i) The inmate may spend money from his/her trust fund...

  20. The Relationship between Perceived Organizational Support and Teachers' Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayir, Funda

    2012-01-01

    Problem Statement: It can be said that one of the key factors ensuring teachers adaptation to developments is teachers' level of commitment to their schools. In this commitment, the teacher is expected to internalize the organizational objectives. The teacher's perception of organizational support is important for him to internalize the…

  1. The Relationship between Career Growth and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingxiong; McElroy, James C.; Morrow, Paula C.; Liu, Rongzhi

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the relationship between employees' career growth and organizational commitment. Career growth was conceptualized by four factors: career goal progress, professional ability development, promotion speed and remuneration growth, while organizational commitment was conceptualized using Meyer and Allen's (1997) three component…

  2. Considerations in civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, Alan A; Dolan, David

    2016-01-01

    Several states currently have enacted laws that allow for civil commitment for individuals diagnosed with severe substance use disorders. Civil commitment or involuntary commitment refers to the legal process by which individuals with mental illness are court-ordered into inpatient and/or outpatient treatment programs. Although initially civil commitment laws were intended for individuals with severe mental illness, these statutes have been extended to cover individuals with severe substance use disorders. Much of the recent legislation allowing for civil commitment of individuals with substance use disorders has come about in response to the heroin epidemic and is designed to provide an alternative to the unrelenting progression of opioid use disorders. Civil commitment also provides an opportunity for individuals with opioid use disorders to make informed decisions regarding ongoing or continued treatment. However, civil commitment also raises concerns regarding the potential violation of 14th Amendment rights, specifically pertaining to abuses of deprivation of liberty or freedom, which are guaranteed under the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution. This commentary examines these issues while supporting the need for effective brief civil commitment legislation in all states.

  3. Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solving unit commitment and economic load dispatch problems using modern optimization algorithms. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) and Unit Commitment (UC) are very important applications to predict the optimized cost of load in a power system.

  4. The Role of Cognitive Commitment Factors in Dieting and Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivy, Janet

    Although motivation has long been regarded as essential for behavior, very little research has been done on its role in behavior change. This paper focuses on this issue by examining motivations for eating and dieting in obese and anorexic patients. Measuring the commitment to eating and the commitment to dieting, the study finds that motivations…

  5. Impact of Satisfaction and Commitment on Teachers' Organizational Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesen, Harun; Basim, Nejat H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the impact of job satisfaction and organizational commitment on teachers' organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a structural equation model. The study was employed to a group of teachers and their supervisors. The results indicated that job satisfaction and commitment to the school had an impact on OCBs of the teachers…

  6. Commitment to Change Statements Can Predict Actual Change in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Jacqueline; Herbert, Carol P.; Maclure, Malcolm; Dormuth, Colin; Wright, James M.; Legare, Jeanne; Brett-MacLean, Pamela; Premi, John

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Statements of commitment to change are advocated both to promote and to assess continuing education interventions. However, most studies of commitment to change have used self-reported outcomes, and self-reports may significantly overestimate actual performance. As part of an educational randomized controlled trial, this study…

  7. State Involuntary Commitment Laws: Beyond Deinstitutionalization. Human Resources Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Rebecca T.; Paterson, Andrea

    1985-01-01

    Involuntary commitment laws, once seen as reform, now questioned as roadblocks to needed treatment, are discussed. The ineffectiveness of state's commitment laws, lack of community resources for treating the mentally ill, and homelessness among the mentally ill are discussed in the introduction. The history of the right of a state to commit…

  8. The influence of organisational justice on employees' commitment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... operation parameters in the workplace for greater benefits of trust and commitment of staffers. It is against this background that this study investigated the influence of organisational justice on organisational commitment in manufacturing firms in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design of ex-post ...

  9. 48 CFR 750.7106-4 - Informal commitments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... foreign policy interests of the United States by assuring persons that they will be treated fairly and... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7106-4 Informal commitments. Informal commitments may be...

  10. The personality dispositional approach to job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziner, Aharon; Waismal-Manor, Ronit; Vardi, Netanel; Brodman, Adiel

    2008-10-01

    The extent to which personality traits as defined by the Big Five model account for the unique variance in job satisfaction and organizational commitment was studied. Analyses of data obtained from 96 employees of two public institutions showed that 58 and 44% of the explained variance in job satisfaction and organizational commitment, respectively, were accounted for by factors in this personological framework.

  11. The Impact Of Demographic Factors On Organisational Commitment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Study Investigated the Impact of demographic factors on organization commitment among workers in selected work organizations in Lagos State of Nigeria. This was for the purpose of ascertaining the relevance of demographic factors on workers' commitment to organizations goal achievement in Nigeria. The ex-post ...

  12. What Factors Influence a Teacher's Commitment to Student Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannetta, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    Study of the personal, organizational, student-related factors influencing teacher commitment to student learning. Finds, for example, that among personal factors intrinsic rewards are more important than extrinsic rewards, that among organization factors collegiality is an important influence on commitment to student learning, and that among…

  13. Using internal marketing to improve organizational commitment and service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang; Wu, Shih-Wang

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this article was to explore the structural relationships among internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality and to practically apply the findings. Internal marketing is a way to assist hospitals in improving the quality of the services that they provide while executing highly labour-intensive tasks. Through internal marketing, a hospital can enhance the organizational commitment of its employees to attain higher service quality. This research uses a cross-sectional study to survey nursing staff perceptions about internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality. The results of the survey are evaluated using equation models. The sample includes three regional hospitals in Taiwan. Three hundred and fifty questionnaires were distributed and 288 valid questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 82.3%. The survey process lasted from 1 February to 9 March 2007. The data were analysed with SPSS 12.0, including descriptive statistics based on demographics. In addition, the influence of demographics on internal marketing, organizational commitment and service quality is examined using one-way anova. The findings reveal that internal marketing plays a critical role in explaining employee perceptions of organizational commitment and service quality. Organizational commitment is the mediator between internal marketing and service quality. The results indicate that internal marketing has an impact on both organizational commitment and service quality. Internal marketing should be emphasized to influence frontline nursing staff, thereby helping to create better organizational commitment and service quality. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Binge Drinking Drinking & Driving ... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Fact Sheets - Excessive Alcohol Use and Risks to Women's Health Recommend on ...

  15. Some questions about complicity in the committing crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turanjanin Veljko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author in this work elaborates some problems about complicity in the committing a crimes. Criminal act is the act committed mostly by one person. But, today, there is more and more felonies which who are committing by several peoples, or groups of people. Therefore, the sanction must be more rigorous. In this article, author discussed about a one side of the complicity, accordingly, about a assistance in committing a crimes. Through analyses theoretical postulates in Codex trans aspects of some other authors till jurisprudence, the author concludes that this subject matter is very good elaborate, and, there is no many problems in practice. The author propose a harmonization of solutions on some aspects between the countries in the ambience, and demand more severe regard from court. The assistance in committing crime is the easiest shape of the complicity, but no less remarkable.

  16. Nurses' perception of ethical climate and organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Jalali, Tayebe; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Haghdoost, Aliakbar

    2014-05-01

    The high turnover of nurses has become a universal issue. The manner in which nurses view their organization's ethical climate has direct bearing on their organizational commitment. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between nurses' perception of ethical climate and organizational commitment in teaching hospitals in the southeastern region of Iran. A descriptive analytical design was used in this study. The sample consisted of 275 nurses working in four teaching hospitals in the southeastern region of Iran. The instruments used in this study included a demographic questionnaire, Ethical Climate Questionnaire, and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using Pearson's correlation, t-test, and descriptive statistic through Statistical Package for Social Science, version 16. The result of this research indicated a positive correlation among professionalism, caring, rules, independence climate, and organizational commitment. Therefore, findings of this study are a guideline for researchers and managers alike who endeavor to improve organizational commitment.

  17. Unconditionally Secure and Universally Composable Commitments from Physical Assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Scafuro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    the usefulness of our compiler by providing two (constant-round) instantiations of ideal straight-line extractable commitment based on (malicious) PUFs [36] and stateless tamper-proof hardware tokens [26], therefore achieving the first unconditionally UC-secure commitment with malicious PUFs and stateless tokens......We present a constant-round unconditional black-box compiler that transforms any ideal (i.e., statistically-hiding and statistically-binding) straight-line extractable commitment scheme, into an extractable and equivocal commitment scheme, therefore yielding to UC-security [9]. We exemplify......, respectively. Our constructions are secure for adversaries creating arbitrarily malicious stateful PUFs/tokens. Previous results with malicious PUFs used either computational assumptions to achieve UC-secure commitments or were unconditionally secure but only in the indistinguishability sense [36]. Similarly...

  18. Commitment to Cooperation and Peer Punishment: Its Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Sasaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical studies have generally weighed the effect of peer punishment and pool punishment for sanctioning free riders separately. However, these sanctioning mechanisms often pose a puzzling tradeoff between efficiency and stability in detecting and punishing free riders. Here, we combine the key aspects of these qualitatively different mechanisms in terms of evolutionary game theory. Based on the dilemmatic donation game, we introduce a strategy of commitment to both cooperation and peer punishment. To make the commitment credible, we assume that those willing to commit have to make a certain deposit. The deposit will be refunded as long as the committers faithfully cooperate in the donation game and punish free riders and non-committers. It turns out that the deposit-based commitment offers both the efficiency of peer punishment and the stability of pool punishment and that the replicator dynamics lead to transitions of different systems: pool punishment to commitment to peer punishment.

  19. Trust, Commitment and Competitive Advantage in SMEs Export Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Daud Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of small businesses into international markets has intensified. However, despite the growing presence of small businesses in international markets, studies into their international behavior, particularly regarding the effect of international relationships on international outcomes, remain limited. This study investigates the cross-border relationships of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs by examining the effects of the dimensions of the key relationship on the competitive advantage and performance of SMEs in export markets. These dimensions include trust and commitment. Results indicate that trust is significantly related to commitment and export performance. Commitment is positively related to competitive advantage but not to export performance. Trust affects competitive advantage through commitment. The effect of commitment on export performance is mediated by competitive advantage. The methodology and results are presented. The conclusion, implications, and limitations of this study are also discussed.

  20. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand.

  1. Experiences of men who commit to romantic relationships with younger breast cancer survivors: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidus, Rachel A

    2017-01-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of men who committed to romantic relationships with women under 50, post-breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. Twelve men from throughout the United States, who were dating their partner for at least 6 months, participated in semistructured interviews. Findings focused on initial disclosure timing, previous experience/knowledge about the cancer, reacting with acceptance despite concerns, focusing on love/connection, respecting and admiring the survivor, and the ongoing impact of cancer on the relationship. Clinical implications are discussed, highlighting the systemic effect that breast cancer may have on a couple even after treatment is completed.

  2. Moral Commitment in Intimate Committed Relationships: A Conceptualization from Cohabiting Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Amber Leighann

    2010-01-01

    Diverse types of intimate committed relationships, namely cohabiting same-sex and opposite-sex partnerships, are increasingly prevalent in the United States (Bumpass & Lu, 2000; Garber, 2005; U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Given the rise in the number of individuals participating in intimate committed relationships outside of the marital context,…

  3. Effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling styles on situational self-determined motivation: some unexpected results of the commitment procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoura, Camille; Berjot, Sophie; Gillet, Nicolas; Caruana, Sylvain; Finez, Lucie

    2015-02-01

    Distinct and simultaneous effects of autonomy-supportive and controlling styles, usually considered as mutually exclusive, on situational self-determined motivation are tested. In Study 1, economics students (N = 100; 57 men, 43 women; M age = 21.5 yr.) were randomly assigned to one of the four experimental conditions (high vs. low) of autonomy supportive and/or controlling behaviors during a task. Results supported the independence of those constructs. An unexpected effect in regards to Self-determination Theory was found in the Low autonomy - High control condition in which self-determined motivation was observed. The interpretation for this specific condition, an effect due to the attempt to reduce cognitive dissonance triggered by the commitment procedure, was tested. In Study 2, sport students (N = 80, 44 men, 36 women; M age = 19.2 yr.) were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental conditions: No commitment, Commitment plus self-affirmation, and Commitment without self-affirmation. Results supported Study 1's interpretation: motivation was lower when participants were recruited without a commitment procedure or when they were invited to self-affirm than when participants recruited with a commitment procedure.

  4. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation Pledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Corporate voluntary pledges to improve the health of Americans have not been held to either explicit measurable outcomes or a framework for independent evaluation. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), whose members include 16 of the nation’s leading consumer packaged goods (CPG) food and beverage manufacturers, voluntarily pledged to collectively sell 1 trillion fewer calories in the U.S. marketplace by 2012 (against a 2007 baseline), and sell 1.5 trillion fewer calories by 2015. This paper presents the findings of an independent evaluation of the 2012 HWCF marketplace pledge, conducted in 2013. The 16 HWCF companies collectively sold approximately 6.4 trillion fewer calories (−10.6%) in 2012 than in the baseline year of 2007. Taking into account population changes over the 5-year period of 2007–2012, CPG caloric sales from brands included in the HWCF pledge declined by an average of 78 kcals/capita/day. CPG caloric sales from non-HWCF national brands during the same period declined by 11 kcals/capita/day, but there was little change in calories from private label products. Thus, the total reduction in CPG caloric sales between 2007 and 2012 was 87 kcals/capita/day. This independent evaluation is the first to evaluate food industry compliance with its calorie reduction pledges and to assess how sales from the CPG food and beverage sector are changing. An accompanying paper investigates the extent to which the HWCF pledge affected household-level changes in CPG calories purchased, controlling for important economic and sociodemographic factors affecting household food purchases over this period. PMID:25240967

  5. Intestinal lineage commitment of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li; Gibson, Jason D; Miyamoto, Shingo; Sail, Vibhavari; Verma, Rajeev; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Nelson, Craig E; Giardina, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Generating lineage-committed intestinal stem cells from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could provide a tractable experimental system for understanding intestinal differentiation pathways and may ultimately provide cells for regenerating damaged intestinal tissue. We tested a two-step differentiation procedure in which ESCs were first cultured with activin A to favor formation of definitive endoderm, and then treated with fibroblast-conditioned medium with or without Wnt3A. The definitive endoderm expressed a number of genes associated with gut-tube development through mouse embryonic day 8.5 (Sox17, Foxa2, and Gata4 expressed and Id2 silent). The intestinal stem cell marker Lgr5 gene was also activated in the endodermal cells, whereas the Msi1, Ephb2, and Dcamkl1 intestinal stem cell markers were not. Exposure of the endoderm to fibroblast-conditioned medium with Wnt3A resulted in the activation of Id2, the remaining intestinal stem cell markers and the later gut markers Cdx2, Fabp2, and Muc2. Interestingly, genes associated with distal gut-associated mesoderm (Foxf2, Hlx, and Hoxd8) were also simulated by Wnt3A. The two-step differentiation protocol generated gut bodies with crypt-like structures that included regions of Lgr5-expressing proliferating cells and regions of cell differentiation. These gut bodies also had a smooth muscle component and some underwent peristaltic movement. The ability of the definitive endoderm to differentiate into intestinal epithelium was supported by the vivo engraftment of these cells into mouse colonic mucosa. These findings demonstrate that definitive endoderm derived from ESCs can carry out intestinal cell differentiation pathways and may provide cells to restore damaged intestinal tissue. Copyright © 2010 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Employee organizational commitment and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kevin M; Tung, Amy; Yu, Yanjie

    2017-09-15

    There is widespread evidence of the purported benefits of employee organizational commitment (EOC) and its impact on both individual and organizational performance. This study contributes to this literature by providing a unique insight into this relationship, focusing on the interrelationship between EOC with hospital performance and the role of the provision of adequate facilities in eliciting EOC. The aim of this study was to introduce and empirically examine a new theoretical model in which it is argued that the performance of hospitals with regard to the provision of adequate facilities (medical facilities, support facilities, and staff resources) influences the level of EOC, which in turn influences hospital performance with regard to patient care and operational effectiveness. To examine the interrelationships between the provision of adequate facilities, EOC, and hospital performance, the study utilizes a survey of hospital managers. The findings support the theoretical model, with the provision of support facilities and staff resources positively indirectly associated with both patient care and operational effectiveness through their impact on EOC. The findings highlight the importance of providing adequate facilities and EOC within hospitals and suggest that CEOs and general managers should try to enhance the provision of such resources in an attempt to elicit EOC within their hospitals. The findings suggest that managers should try to enhance their provision of adequate facilities in order to elicit EOC and enhance hospital performance. With regard to medical facilities, they should consider and incorporate the latest technology and up-to-date equipment. They should also provide adequate staff resources, including appropriate numbers of beds, nurses, and doctors, to prevent "fatigue" (West, 2001, p. 41) and provide adequate support facilities.

  7. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.

    1983-01-01

    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  8. An unit commitment model for hydrothermal systems; Um modelo de unit commitment para sistemas hidrotermicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Thiago de Paula; Luciano, Edson Jose Rezende; Nepomuceno, Leonardo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: ra611191@feb.unesp.br, edson.joserl@uol.com.br, leo@feb.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A model of Unit Commitment to hydrothermal systems that includes the costs of start/stop of generators is proposed. These costs has been neglected in a good part of the programming models for operation of hydrothermal systems (pre-dispatch). The impact of the representation of costs in total production costs is evaluated. The proposed model is solved by a hybrid methodology, which involves the use of genetic algorithms (to solve the entire part of the problem) and sequential quadratic programming methods. This methodology is applied to the solution of an IEEE test system. The results emphasize the importance of representation of the start/stop in the generation schedule.

  9. Internalizing sexism within close relationships: Perceptions of intimate partners' benevolent sexism promote women's endorsement of benevolent sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Matthew D; Overall, Nickola C; Cross, Emily J

    2016-02-01

    The current research demonstrated that women's adoption of benevolent sexism is influenced by their perceptions of their intimate partners' agreement with benevolent sexism. In 2 dyadic longitudinal studies, committed heterosexual couples reported on their own sexism and perceptions of their partner's sexism twice across 9 months (Study 1) and 5 times across 1 year (Study 2). Women who perceived that their male partner more strongly endorsed benevolent sexism held greater and more stable benevolent sexism across time, whereas lower perceptions of partners' benevolent sexism predicted declines in women's benevolent sexism across time. Changes in men's endorsement of sexism were unrelated to perceptions of their partner's sexist attitudes. The naturalistic change in sexist attitudes shown in Studies 1 and 2 was supported by experimental evidence in Studies 3 and 4: Manipulations designed to increase perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism led women (but not men) to report greater benevolent sexism. Studies 3 and 4 also provided evidence that perceptions of partner's benevolent sexism fosters perceived regard and relationship security in women, but not men, and these relationship factors enhance attitude alignment. Discriminant analyses demonstrated that these effects were specific to women's perceptions of partner's, rather than societal, levels of sexism. In sum, these studies illustrate that women endorse benevolent sexism when they perceive that the reverence and security that benevolent sexism promises women are accessible in their relationships. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The Role of Minority Stressors in Lesbian Relationship Commitment and Persistence over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Renzo J; Eaton, Asia A; Veldhuis, Cindy B; Hughes, Tonda L

    2017-06-01

    The Investment Model of relationship commitment uses interpersonal investment, relationship satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and commitment to predict relationship longevity (Rusbult, 1980, 1983). Although ample support for the Investment Model has been found in heterosexual couples, it appears to be less powerful in predicting stability in same-sex relationships (Beals, Impett, & Peplau, 2002), potentially because the model does not account for factors unique to same-sex relationships, such as anti-gay discrimination. However, no research has tested the nature and power of sexual minority stress factors in predicting same-sex relationship stability over time. Using secondary, longitudinal data collected from a diverse sample of lesbian women in relationships ( N = 211), we examined how internalized homonegativity, sexual identity disclosure, and workplace discrimination affected the Investment Model antecedents of relationship persistence: satisfaction, quality of alternatives, and investment. We tested the influence of sexual minority stressors on Investment Model processes using structural equations modeling and found that sexual identity disclosure was positively associated with satisfaction and investment, internalized homonegativity was only negatively associated with satisfaction and investment, while workplace discrimination was negatively associated with alternatives. Moreover, both relationship satisfaction and investment influenced commitment which predicted persistence in these relationships over about seven years' time, demonstrating support for the Investment Model. Our findings support the addition of sexual minority stress variables to the Investment Model when examining same-sex relationships and implications are discussed.

  11. Sexual coercion, commitment, and partner violence among college students - Coerción sexual, compromiso y violencia en las relaciones de pareja de los universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hernández González

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the tactics of sexual coercion among university couples, and their association with the type of commitment with the relationship and experienced physical and sexual violence. Participants were 175 college students,79 women and 96 men. A new sexual coercion scale was developed, based on the DeGue and DiLillo´s (2005 proposal. The exploratory factor analyses showed three components: Insistence, Emotional Manipulation, and Blame. Sexual assault was measured with a single item. Commitment and experienced Physical Violence were measured using existing scales. Discriminant analysis confirmed that participants from the victimized group significantly differedfrom those of the non-victimized group. The variables that significantly contributed to the classification were Negative Commitment and Insistence for the victimized group and Positive Commitment for the non-victimized group. We discuss the implications of the results to prevent partner violence.

  12. Abnormal brain structure in youth who commit homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, L M; Ermer, E; Gaudet, L M; Steele, V R; Eckhardt, A L; Arbabshirani, M R; Caldwell, M F; Calhoun, V D; Kiehl, K A

    2014-01-01

    Violence that leads to homicide results in an extreme financial and emotional burden on society. Juveniles who commit homicide are often tried in adult court and typically spend the majority of their lives in prison. Despite the enormous costs associated with homicidal behavior, there have been no serious neuroscientific studies examining youth who commit homicide. Here we use neuroimaging and voxel-based morphometry to examine brain gray matter in incarcerated male adolescents who committed homicide (n = 20) compared with incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide (n = 135). Two additional control groups were used to understand further the nature of gray matter differences: incarcerated offenders who did not commit homicide matched on important demographic and psychometric variables (n = 20) and healthy participants from the community (n = 21). Compared with incarcerated adolescents who did not commit homicide (n = 135), incarcerated homicide offenders had reduced gray matter volumes in the medial and lateral temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and posterior insula. Feature selection and support vector machine learning classified offenders into the homicide and non-homicide groups with 81% overall accuracy. Our results indicate that brain structural differences may help identify those at the highest risk for committing serious violent offenses.

  13. The relationship between organizational commitment and nursing care behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghneh, Mohammad Hossein Khalilzadeh; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Naderi, Manijeh; Shakeri, Nehzat; Bolourchifard, Fariba; Goyaghaj, Naser Sedghi

    2017-07-01

    Nursing care encompasses physical, emotional, mental and social needs, in order to improve a patient's health and wellbeing. Caring is the central core and the essence of nursing. The important issue of care is access to proper care and increasing patients' satisfaction. Job performance of nurses is affected by many factors including organizational commitment. This study aimed to determine the relationship between organizational commitment and nurses caring behavior. In this cross-sectional study, 322 nurses from selected Hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran were randomly selected and enrolled in the study in 2015. The self-reported data by nurses were collected through demographic characteristics questionnaire, Meyer & Allen organizational commitment model and Caring Behavior Inventory (CBI). Data were analyzed with SPSS statistical software version 20, using t-test and ANOVA. The majority of nurses (63%) were female. The mean score and standard deviation of organizational commitment and caring behavior of nurses were 74.12±9.61 and 203.1±22.46, respectively. The results showed a significantly positive correlation between organizational commitment and caring behavior (p=0.001). In this study the caring behavior of nurses with higher organizational commitment were significantly better than the others. Managers and nurse leaders should pay more attention to improve organizational commitment of nurses, in order to improve nurses' performance.

  14. Internet Pornography Consumption and Relationship Commitment of Filipino Married Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Racidon P. Bernarte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Internet pornography has many adverse effects, especially to the relationship commitment. The use of pornography directly correlates to a decrease in sexual intimacy. Hence, this might lead to weakening of the relationship of their partner. To find out the relevance of the claim, the researchers aimed to explore the relationship of Internet pornography consumption to the relationship commitment of married individuals in the Philippines. Different factors such as level of satisfaction, investment, quality of alternatives, relationship stability and viewing habits were also considered in determining the relationship of watching online pornography and the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. The study used the descriptive-correlational design. A self-administered survey was distributed to 400.It is revealed that Internet pornography consumption has an adverse effect on the relationship commitment of married Filipino couples. Furthermore, watching porn online weakened the relationship commitment that leads to an unstable relationship. This investigation found out that internet pornography consumption has a nominal negative effect on the relationship commitment of Filipino married individuals. It is proven on this study that internet pornography consumption can weaken the relationship commitment of married individuals thus, it promotes knowledge about numerous effect of it, negatively and even positively. This paper also contributes to pornography related researches on the country which can give further awareness about the said area.

  15. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R

    1998-12-14

    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  16. Androgens inhibit adipogenesis during human adipose stem cell commitment to preadipocyte formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazenbalk, Gregorio; Singh, Prapti; Irge, Dana; Shah, Amy; Abbott, David H; Dumesic, Daniel A

    2013-09-01

    Androgens play a pivotal role in the regulation of body fat distribution. Adipogenesis is a process whereby multipotent adipose stem cells (ASCs) initially become preadipocytes (ASC commitment to preadipocytes) before differentiating into adipocytes. Androgens inhibit human (h) subcutaneous (SC) abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in both sexes, but their effects on hASC commitment to preadipocyte formation is unknown. We therefore examined whether androgen exposure to human (h) ASCs, isolated from SC abdominal adipose of nonobese women, impairs their commitment to preadipocyte formation and/or subsequent differentiation into adipocytes. For this, isolated hASCs from SC abdominal lipoaspirate were cultured in adipogenesis-inducing medium for 0.5-14days in the presence of testosterone (T, 0-100nM) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT, 0-50nM). Adipogenesis was determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and by quantification of adipogenically relevant transcriptional factors, PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ. We found that a 3-day exposure of hASCs to T (50nM) or DHT (5nM) in adipogenesis-inducing medium impaired lipid acquisition and decreased PPARγ, C/EBPα and C/EBPβ gene expression. The inhibitory effects of T and DHT at this early-stage of adipocyte differentiation, were partially and completely reversed by flutamide (F, 100nM), respectively. The effect of androgens on hASC commitment to a preadipocyte phenotype was examined via activation of Bone Morphogenic Protein 4 (BMP4) signaling. T (50nM) and DHT (5nM) significantly inhibited the stimulatory effect of BMP4-induced ASC commitment to the preadipocyte phenotype, as regards PPARγ and C/EBPα gene expression. Our findings indicate that androgens, in part through androgen receptor action, impair BMP4-induced commitment of SC hASCs to preadipocytes and also reduce early-stage adipocyte differentiation, perhaps limiting adipocyte numbers and fat storage in SC abdominal adipose. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  18. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.

    1995-03-06

    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  19. Does Money Buy Strong Performance in PISA? PISA in Focus. No. 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue will show that strong performers do not invest scarce resources in smaller classes, but in higher teachers' salaries. They are neither the countries that spend the most on education, nor are they the wealthiest countries; rather they are the countries that are committed to providing high-quality education to all students in the belief…

  20. Commentary: civil commitment statutes--40 years of circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William H; Grisso, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    There is a longstanding body of literature that describes how states' civil commitment statutes have been stretched or circumvented to accommodate institutional and systemic needs. The paper by Levitt and colleagues provides yet another example of this phenomenon: Arizona's use of its civil commitment statutes to detain unrestorable, incompetent criminal defendants for whom other provisions have not been developed. This commentary provides a brief overview of other examples of the stretching of commitment laws, providing a broader context for viewing the findings of Levitt and colleagues.

  1. Relationship between sport commitment and sport consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberta Elisa Fernandes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.

  2. Calculation of committed dose equivalent from intake of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, D.V.

    1978-08-01

    A new computerized method of calculating the committed dose equivalent from the intake of tritiated water at Harwell is described in this report. The computer program has been designed to deal with a variety of intake patterns and urine sampling schemes, as well as to produce committed dose equivalents corresponding to any periods for which individual monitoring for external radiation is undertaken. Details of retrospective doses are added semi-automatically to the Radiation Dose Records and committed dose equivalents are retained on a separate file. (author)

  3. Multilevel Analysis of Employee Satisfaction on Commitment to Organizational Culture: Case Study of Chinese State-Owned Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangtao Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of employee satisfaction and demographic indicators on employee commitment to organizational culture at the enterprise level. With data from a survey of 3029 employees from 27 state-owned enterprises (SOEs, a hierarchical linear model (HLM is used to identify the influencing factors of employee commitment to organizational culture at the enterprise level. An empirical study indicates that apart from the factors of employee satisfaction and demographic background, four contextual variables of enterprises, namely, comprehensive management, energy intensity, cost-income ratio, and capacity-load ratio, also influence commitment to organizational culture levels. Results show that applying HLM can substantially improve the explanatory power of employee satisfaction factors on commitment to organizational culture using nested enterprise contextual variables. Although measurement scales and satisfaction models have been proposed over the years, only a few studies have addressed the particular nature inherent in Chinese SOEs. HLM, which accounts for the nested data structure and determines the effects of employee satisfaction factors on commitment to organizational culture without bias, is developed in this study. Through an insider view based on empirical work, this research can improve the ability of senior managers to understand the culture and dynamics of organizations, to deliver strong leadership, and to enhance corporate internal management.

  4. Quality of clinical supervision and counselor emotional exhaustion: the potential mediating roles of organizational and occupational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M; Abraham, Amanda J

    2013-01-01

    Counselor emotional exhaustion has negative implications for treatment organizations as well as the health of counselors. Quality clinical supervision is protective against emotional exhaustion, but research on the mediating mechanisms between supervision and exhaustion is limited. Drawing upon data from 934 counselors affiliated with treatment programs in the National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trials Network (CTN), this study examined commitment to the treatment organization and commitment to the counseling occupation as potential mediators of the relationship between quality clinical supervision and emotional exhaustion. The final ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model, which accounted for the nesting of counselors within treatment organizations, indicated that these two types of commitment were plausible mediators of the association between clinical supervision and exhaustion. Higher quality clinical supervision was strongly correlated with commitment to the treatment organization as well as commitment to the occupation of SUD counseling. These findings suggest that quality clinical supervision has the potential to yield important benefits for counselor well-being by strengthening ties to both their employing organization as well the larger treatment field, but longitudinal research is needed to establish these causal relationships. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Titanium: light, strong, and white

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  6. The relationships of social support, uncertainty, self-efficacy, and commitment to prenatal psychosocial adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Choi, W H; Lee, G L; Chan, Celia H Y; Cheung, Ray Y H; Lee, Irene L Y; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2012-12-01

    To report a study of the relations of prenatal psychosocial adaptation, social support, demographic and obstetric characteristics, uncertainty, information-seeking behaviour, motherhood normalization, self-efficacy, and commitment to pregnancy. Prenatal psychosocial assessment is recommended to identify psychosocial risk factors early to prevent psychiatric morbidities of mothers and children. However, knowledge on psychosocial adaptation and its explanatory variables is inconclusive. This study was non-experimental, with a cross-sectional, correlational, prospective design. The study investigated Hong Kong Chinese women during late pregnancy. Convenience sampling methods were used, with 550 women recruited from the low-risk clinics of three public hospitals. Data was collected between January-April 2007. A self-reported questionnaire was used, consisting of a number of measurements derived from an integrated framework of the Life Transition Theory and Theory of Uncertainty in Illness. Explanatory variables of psychosocial adaptation were identified using a structural equation modelling programme. The four explanatory variables of the psychosocial adaptation were social support, uncertainty, self-efficacy, and commitment to pregnancy. In the established model, which had good fit indices, greater psychosocial adaptation was associated with higher social support, higher self-efficacy, higher commitment to pregnancy, and lower uncertainty. The findings give clinicians and midwives guidance in the aspects to focus on when providing psychosocial assessment in routine prenatal screening. Since there are insufficient reliable screening tools to assist that assessment, midwives should receive adequate training, and effective screening instruments have to be identified. The explanatory role of uncertainty found in this study should encourage inquiries into the relationship between uncertainty and psychosocial adaptation in pregnancy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Aboriginal women and Asian men: a maritime history of color in white Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In 1901, Broome—a port town on the northwest edge of the Australian continent—was one of the principal and most lucrative industrial pearling centers in the world and entirely dependent on Asian indentured labor. Relations between Asian crews and local Aboriginal people were strong, at a time when the project of White Australia was being pursued with vigorous, often fanatical dedication across the newly federated continent. It was the policing of Aboriginal women, specifically their relations with Asian men, that became the focus of efforts by authorities and missionaries to uphold and defend their commitment to the White Australia policy. This article examines the historical experience of Aboriginal women in the pearling industry of northwest Australia and the story of Asian-Aboriginal cohabitation in the face of oppressive laws and regulations. It then explores the meaning of “color” in contemporary Broome for the descendants of this mixed heritage today.

  8. Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday`s vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price.

  9. Estimating potential stranded commitments for U.S. investor-owned electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.

    1995-01-01

    New technologies, low natural gas prices, and federal and state utility regions are restructuring the electricity industry. Yesterday's vertically integrated utility with a retail monopoly franchise may be a very different organization in a few years. Conferences, regulatory-commission hearings, and other industry fora are dominated by debates over the extent and form of utility deintegration, wholesale competition, and retail wheeling. A key obstacle to restructuring the electricity industry is stranded commitments. Past investments, power-purchase contracts, and public-policy-driven programs that made sense in an era of cost-of-service regulation may not be cost-effective in a competitive power market. Regulators, utilities, and other parties face tough decisions concerning the mitigation and allocation of these stranded commitments. The authors developed and applied a simple method to calculate the amount of stranded commitments facing US investor-owned electric utilities. The results obtained with this method depend strongly on a few key assumptions: (1) the fraction of utility sales that is at risk with respect to competition, (2) the market price of electric generation, and (3) the number of years during which the utility would lose money because of differences between its embedded cost of production and the market price

  10. Hydrothermal unit commitment with AC constraints by a new solution method based on benders decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Reza Ansari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new HTUC model with AC constraints is presented. ► A new decomposition strategy for HTUC problem is suggested. ► A new Benders decomposition method is proposed. ► Effectiveness of the proposed solution strategy is extensively tested. - Abstract: This paper presents a new approach based on Benders decomposition (BD) to solve hydrothermal unit commitment problem with AC power flow and security constraints. The proposed method decomposes the problem into a master problem and two sets of sub-problems. The master problem applies integer programming method to solve unit commitment (UC) while the sub-problems apply nonlinear programming solution method to determine economic dispatch for each time period. If one sub-problem of the first set becomes infeasible, the corresponding sub-problem of the second set is called. Moreover, strong Benders cuts are proposed that reduce the number of iterations and CPU time of the Benders decomposition method. All constraints of the hydrothermal unit commitment problem can be completely satisfied with zero penalty terms by the proposed solution method. The methodology is tested on the 9-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. The obtained results confirm the validity of the developed approach.

  11. Exploratory Study Examining the Joint Impacts of Mentoring and Managerial Coaching on Organizational Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Rok Woo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of organizations have adopted coaching and mentoring interventions to discover and foster the potential capabilities of employees. These practices are seen as competitive drivers to cultivate innovation and creativity in turbulent business environments. However, the literature has not investigated the question of how coaching and mentoring are interrelated. By examining this connection, this study explores the joint effects of these practices on the organizational commitment of employees. The results from survey data of 247 employees, who were coachees as well as protégés at the same time, from 17 companies in South Korea suggested that mentoring moderates the positive relationship between managerial coaching and organizational commitment. In addition, the moderating effects also depended on the extent of the homogeneity of their coach and mentor. The positive relationship between managerial coaching and organizational commitment strongly increased with conditions of higher mentoring and lower homogeneity of coach and mentor. Conversely, the relationship became negative when both mentoring practice and the homogeneity of coach and mentor were low. These results could provide practical implications to organizations that are concurrently adopting both coaching and mentoring programs by helping managers to better understand their joint effects.

  12. Impact of culture on commitment, satisfaction, and extra-role behaviors among Canadian ER physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E S; Rondeau, K V; Francescutti, L H

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of hospital emergency department culture on the job satisfaction, patient commitment, and extra-role performance of Canadian emergency physicians. The conceptual model related four cultural archetypes from the competing valued model to the three outcome variables. In total, 428 Canadian emergency physicians responded to a national survey. The conceptual model was tested via structural equation modeling via LISREL 8. Culture had a relatively weak impact on the outcomes. Human resources culture related positively to job satisfaction while bureaucratic culture related positively to patient commitment. Patient commitment, but not job satisfaction strongly and positively related to extra-role behavior. A direct relationship between entrepreneurial culture and extra-role behavior emerged from an extended analysis. Organizational culture seems to have more distal relationships with outcome variables and its influence is likely to be mediated by more proximal workplace variables. Of value by showing that a key modern leadership challenge is to create the kind of work culture that can become a source of competitive advantage through generating particular organizational outcomes valued by stakeholders.

  13. JURISDICTION OVER CRIMES COMMITTED ON BOARD AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT UNDER THE TOKYO CONVENTION 1963

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Sopilko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the main aim of this paper is to clarify several issues of conflicting jurisdiction over crimes committed on board aircraft in flight. The study will examine the way in which the Tokyo Convention attempts to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and discuss its effectiveness in preventing such offences in the future. Methods: formal legal and case-study methods together with inductive reasoning, and comparison were used to analyse the legislation in the area of jurisdiction over crimes and other offences committed on board aircraft in flight. Results: it follows from the study that although the Tokyo Convention has contributed considerably to the establishing of clearer rules of jurisdiction over offences committed on board aircraft, considerable deficiencies of this treaty remain. The results have important implications for international policy-making. Discussion: the results of the study reveal several weaknesses of the Tokyo Convention. Firstly, it does not provide any definition or list of offences to which it applies, instead it relies on national penal laws to do so. In addition, the ‘freedom fighter exception’ and the lack of a strong enforcement mechanism may prove to impede the effective attainment of the Tokyo Convention’s main objectives – that is, to provide justice in the event of aviation security violations, and prevent such offences in the future. Therefore, further improvement in aviation security legislation is necessary to ensure that it is effective and adequate in the challenges faced today.

  14. Evaluation of environmental commitment tracking systems for use at CDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    "The purpose of this study is to review existing Environmental Tracking Systems (ETSs) used by other, : select state Departments of Transportation (DOTs), as well as the existing Environmental Commitment : Tracking System (ECTS) currently in use by C...

  15. The Management Team: A Structure or a Commitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegall, Hugh H.

    1980-01-01

    More important than the structure, formation or organizational plan of the school district's management team are the commitments of team members, particularly the superintendent and board members, to both the spirit and purposes of team management. (Author)

  16. Nominal Wage Contracts as a Commitment against Hyperbolic Discounting

    OpenAIRE

    Rhys ap Gwilym

    2010-01-01

    Economic agents with hyperbolic discount functions display time inconsistent preferences. In this paper, I show that for such agents fixed nominal wage contracts may represent a welfare enhancing commitment mechanism.

  17. A study on relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khalili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the relationship between organizational culture and organization commitment. The study uses two questionnaires, one for measuring organizational commitment originally developed by Meyer and Allen (1991 [Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991. A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment. Human resource management review, 1(1, 61-89.] and the other one for organizational culture developed by Denison and Spreitzer (1991 [Denison, D. R., & Spreitzer, G. M. (1991. Organizational culture and organizational development: A competing values approach. Research in organizational change and development, 5(1, 1-21.]. The study is accomplished among selected full time employees who work for an Iranian bank named Bank Saderat Iran. Using Pearson correlation test as well as linear regression methods, the study has determined that there were some positive and meaningful relationship between all components of organizational commitment and organizational culture.

  18. leadership style and job commitment of library personnel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Covenant University, Ota, Ogun State, and can be contacted through ... affect the level of commitment of personnel in a workplace (Blau, 2000). Leadership and leaders play a ..... of intent for inter role work transitions. Journal of Vocational ...

  19. RELIGIOUSITY COMMITMENT DALAM MEMODERASI HUBUNGAN BRAND AWARENESS TERHADAP NIAT PEMBELIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fakhruddin Mudzakkir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui 1. Pengaruh brand awareness terhadap niat pembelian pada toko roti merk Islami, 2. Pengaruh religousity commitment terhadap niat pembelian pada toko roti merk Islami, 3. Peranan religousity commitment sebagai variabel moderator yang dapat memperkuat pengaruh brand awareness terhadap niat pembelian pada toko roti merk Islami. Jenis penelitian adalah survey. Populasinya adalah konsumen yang melakukan  pembelian pada 3 toko roti Merk Islami di Kota/Kabupaten Malang, yaitu Toko Roti Amanah, Toko Roti As Sunnah, dan Toko Roti Madinah. Teknik pengambilan sampelnya adalah accidental sampling. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode analisis Moderated Regression Analysis. Hasil analisis menunjukkan variabel brand awareness  dan religousity commitment berpengaruh positif dan signifikan terhadap niat pembelian. Religousity commitment tidak dapat berperan sebagai variabel moderasi terhadap hubungan brand awareness terhadap niat pembelian merk produk Islam

  20. Dynamic Commitment: Wargaming Projected Forces Against the QDR Defense Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Clarence

    1997-01-01

    .... The Dynamic Commitment Wargame Series informed participants regarding the expected future demand on forces, such that Services were better able to articulate the effect of the examined force options...

  1. NAMMA SMART-COMMIT MOBILE LABORATORIES V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA SMART-COMMIT Mobile Laboratories dataset consists of data obtained from a suite of in situ and remote sensing instruments which measure parameters that...

  2. NAMMA SMART-COMMIT MOBILE LABORATORIES V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The SMART-COMMIT dataset consists of data obtained from a suite of insitu and remote sensing instruments which measures parameters that characterize constituents of...

  3. On the Complexity of Additively Homomorphic UC Commitments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifiletti, Roberto; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Frederiksen, Tore Kasper

    2016-01-01

    , we manage to add the additive homo- morphic property, while at the same time reducing the constants. In fact, when opening a large enough batch of commitments we achieve an amor- tized communication complexity converging to the length of the message committed to, i.e., we achieve close to rate 1...... as the commitment protocol by Garay \\emph{et al.} from Eurocrypt 2014. A main technical improvement over the scheme mentioned above, and other schemes based on using error correcting codes for UC commitment, we develop a new technique which allows to based the extraction property on erasure decoding as opposed...... to error correction. This allows to use a code with significantly smaller minimal distance and allows to use codes without efficient decoding. Our scheme only relies on standard assumptions. Specifically we require a pseudorandom number generator, a linear error correcting code and an ideal oblivious...

  4. Prevalence and differential profile of patients with drug addiction problems who commit intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Alfonso; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were, first, to explore the prevalence of aggressors with lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) among patients in the Proyecto Hombre of Navarra (Spain) addiction treatment programme; and second, to know the specific and differential characteristics of patients presenting IPV as aggressors. A sample of 162 patients (119 men and 43 women) was assessed. Data on socio-demographic and substance consumption characteristics, IPV variables, psychopathological symptoms, and personality variables were obtained. The profiles of patients in addiction treatment with and without a history of violence towards their partners were compared. The results showed that 33.6% of people in treatment for addiction had committed violence against their partners. This prevalence was significantly higher (χ(2)  = 15.6, p < .001) in women (63.3%) than in men (24.2%). In the 98.4% of the cases the IPV was bidirectional. Patients with a history of IPV perpetration showed greater severity in substance consumption variables, psychopathological symptoms, and personality traits. Gender, the family scale on the European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), and the aggressive-sadistic scale on the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) were the main variables related to the presence of IPV as aggressors. There was a differential profile in patients with IPV perpetration, showing more psychopathological and personality symptoms. Moreover, in this study being a woman was one of the main predictors of committing IPV. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Islamic Counselling Model to Increase Religious Commitment (Study of Students at the University UIN Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenti Hikmawati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to test the effectiveness of Islamic counseling model for helping the students to tight their religious commitment. The religious commitment is covered in three major Islamic teachings: Iman (faith, Islam (surrender to Allah, and lhsan (state of being observed by Allah. The model of Islamic counseling aims to tight students' religious commitment must to be applied immediately because the preface study reveals some students' religious commitment were not strong enough, their behavior and thinking symptoms tend to not appropriate yet with Islam norm among their association and conception toward the truth of God. To achieve the aim, the study was carried out with three steps: (1 designing a model of counseling; (2 trying out field study, using pretest-post test control group experimental design with 140 students of Islamic Religion Education, the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teaching, State Islamic University, Sunan Gunung Djati, Bandung. Of 140 students, 70 students are from the classes: A (32 people, B (38 people, involved in control group and the test; 37 people from class C, and 33 students from class D involved in the experiment group, and; (3 designing a final model by revising the model tried-out. The variable involved three major Islamic dimensions: the iman, Islam, and ihsan of the students. The model was designed based on the theory put forward by Musfir bin Said Az-Zalmmi, that is, an integrated counseling model. The model combines and employs the ideas from other concepts into a tightly united concept, called Islamic concept. Upon completing analysis, it was found that the new concept is significantly effective to enhance students' religious commitment. A Model of Islamic Counseling (MIC is an alternative-counseling model that can be employed for teenagers/ students to enhance their religious commitment. The study recommends that: (1 MIC can be applied to fifth semester students in the Faculty of Tarbiyah State Islamic

  6. Psychosocial and developmental characteristics of female adolescents who have committed sexual offenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C.; van Vugt, E.S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hendriks, J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed

  7. Psychosocial and developmental characteristics of female adolescents who have committed sexual offenses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Put, C; van Vugt, E.S.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Hendriks, J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine differences in psychosocial and developmental characteristics between Adolescent Females who have committed Sexual Offenses (AFSOs; n = 40), Adolescent Females who have committed nonsexual Violent Offenses (AFVOs; n = 533), and Adolescent Males who have committed

  8. Is There any Relationship between Narcissistic Personality and Organizational Commitment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin Cihangiroglu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at investigating whether there is a correlation between organizational commitment and narcissistic personalty traits. METHOD: In order to measure the GATA Occupation High School of Health Subordinate Officiers’ narcissistic personality traits Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI scala was used. In order to measure students’ organizational commitment Organizational Commitment Questionnaire was used. 229 questionnaire forms were distributed to the Occupation High School of Health Subordinate Officiers’ students, and 220 (%96 of them were returned. Totally 220 students were evaluated. FINDINGS: When students’ narcissistic scores were evaluated out of 16, it was found out that the highest narcissistic personality score (8,98 was taken by second year students, the highest score for organizational commitment (3,70 was taken by first year students, “exploitativeness” which is one of the sub-levels of narcissisim was observed at the highest level with an average of 0,73 out 1 full score, “entitlement” sub level was observed at the lowest level (0,29, “affective commitment” one of the sub-levels of commitment, had the highest average (3,84, “normative commitment” had the second highest average (3,71 and finally “continuance commitment” was observed at the lowest level (3,55. Statistically, there is no significant relationship found between narcissistic personality and organizational commitment. However, there is a significant relationship found between narcissistic personality and continuity commitment. There is a significant and opposite relationship found between organizational commitment and continuity commitment with superiority. There is similar relationship found between exploitation and continuity commitment. CONCLUSION: With respect to these findings, it is suggested that “Health Technicians” candidates’, who will be one of the indispensable constituents of health services

  9. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    McGonagle, Alyssa K.; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42...

  10. Development and Validation of the Elite Athlete Commitment Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadas, Sílvio

    2013-01-01

    Research has led to the development of a recent measure of sport commitment entitled the Elite Athlete Commitment Scale (EACS). This tool is based on three factors (school/employment dedication, social isolation and life discipline) and it was designed to assess to what extent athletes are willing to give up certain activities in order to increase their involvement in sport. In an initial study, a confirmatory factor analysis confirmed that these factors reflect the three different facets of ...

  11. Unit commitment for systems with significant wind penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Tuohy, Aidan; Meibom, Peter; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED The stochastic nature of wind alters the unit commitment and dispatch problem. By accounting for this uncertainty when scheduling the system, more robust schedules are produced, which should, on average, reduce expected costs. In this paper, the effects of stochastic wind and load on the unit commitment and dispatch of power systems with high levels of wind power are examined. By comparing the costs, planned operation and performance of the schedules produced, it is shown that st...

  12. Validating unit commitment models: A case for benchmark test systems

    OpenAIRE

    Melhorn, Alexander C.; Li, Mingsong; Carroll, Paula; Flynn, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing penetration of non-traditional power system resources; e.g. renewable generation, electric vehicles, demand response, etc. and computational power there has been an increased interest in research on unit commitment. It therefore may be important to take another look at how unit commitment models and algorithms are validated especially as improvements in solutions and algorithmic performance are desired to combat the added complexity of additional constraints. This paper expl...

  13. Human Resource Management Practices, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Murat KoC; Mustafa Fedai Cavus; Turgay Saracoglu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of human resource management (HRM) practices, job satisfaction and organizational commitment intentions of employees working in Turkish private organizations. A total of 200 employees participated in the study. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between HRM practices (recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and benefits, performance appraisals) and job satisfaction and organizational commitment....

  14. Literary Commitment in Bessie Head’s Maru

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Odhiambo; Dr. Jack Ogembo; Dr. Kitche Magak

    2013-01-01

    This was a study of Bessie Head’s literary commitment. The objective of the study was to interrogate the extent to which the writer is committed as a woman and as a Third World person based on the text Maru. The study adopted the analytical research design. The data collected through content analysis was coded according to thematic concerns, stylistic choices, the mode of characterization and vision of the author. The postcolonial theory was employed in the reading analysis and interpretation...

  15. Identity and Commitment: Sen's Conception of the Individual

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Davis

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a conception of personal identity for Amartya Sen's capability framework that emphasizes his self-scrutinizing aspect of the self and related concept of commitment, and compares this conception to the collective intentionality-based one advanced in Davis (2003c). The paper also distinguishes personal identity and social identity, and contrasts Sen's framework with recent standard economics¿ explanation of social identity in terms of conformity. Sen's concept of commitment ...

  16. [Volunteering in psychiatry: determining factors of attitude and actual commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, C; Nordt, C; Falcato, L; Rössler, W

    2000-10-01

    To assess public attitude, actual working commitment and the respective influence of demographic, psychological and sociological variables on voluntary help in psychiatry. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the results of a representative population survey in Switzerland. Public attitude is mostly positive, but the respective working commitment is small. Attitude depends on gender, psychological factors (social distance, stereotypes), and on attitude to community psychiatry. For the working commitment, clearly distinct predictors are found: age, emotions, participation, and perceived discrimination to the mentally ill. For both attitude and commitment, having a social profession and interest in mass media are predictors. Internationally compared, Switzerland has a positive attitude and a big commitment in lay helping in psychiatry. But attitude is different from actual commitment. Lay helpers' work must be limited to realizable tasks and they need professional recruitment, instruction, and supervision otherwise they tend to be over-burden. The unused potential of voluntary helpers has to be opened specifically, e.g. by involving mass media and opinion-makers.

  17. Swedish Seafarers' Commitment to Work in Times of Flagging out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hult

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study takes its departure in the difficulties to recruit and retain qualified senior seafarers in the Swedish shipping sector. The study focus is on seafarers' motivation at work for the specific shipping company (organizational commitment, and seafarers' motivation towards their occupation (occupational commitment, in times of flagging out. It was hypothesized that the youngest seafarers and the oldest may be most sensitive to foreign registration of ships. Statistical analyses were employed, using a survey material of 1,309 Swedish seafarers randomly collected in 2010 from a national register of seafarers. The results of the analyses show that flagging-out imposes a significant decline in organizational commitment for all seafarers. This decline is related to the perception of the social composition of crew. In addition, the oldest seafarers (age 55+ demonstrate diminished occupational commitment under a foreign flag. This decline is related to the degree of satisfaction with the social security structure. Occupational commitment among the youngest seafarers (age 19-30 is not affected by the nationality of flag. However, this type of commitment is decreasing by the time served on the same ship. This effect is partly related to a decline in satisfaction with the work content. In the concluding discussion, the findings are discussed in more details and recommendations are put forward.

  18. Predictors of nursing faculty members' organizational commitment in governmental universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussami, Mahmoud; Saleh, Mohammad Y N; Abdalkader, Raghed Hussein; Mahadeen, Alia I

    2011-05-01

    It is essential for all university leaders to develop and maintain an effective programme of total quality management in a climate that promotes work satisfaction and employee support. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship of faculty members' organizational commitment to their job satisfaction, perceived organizational support, job autonomy, workload, and pay. A quantitative study, implementing a correlational research design to determine whether relationships existed between organizational commitment and job satisfaction, perceived organizational support, job autonomy, workload and pay. Stepwise linear regression analysis was used to estimate the probability of recorded variables included significant sample characteristics namely, age, experience and other work related attributes. The outcome showed a predictive model of three predictors which were significantly related to faculty members' commitment: job satisfaction, perceived support and age.   Although the findings were positive toward organizational commitment, continued consideration should be given to the fact that faculty members remain committed as the cost associated with leaving is high. A study of this nature increases the compartment in which faculty administrators monitor the work climate, observe and identify factors that may increase or decrease job satisfaction and the work commitment. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Committed warming inferred from observations and an energy balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, R.; Mauritsen, T.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the lifetime of CO2 and thermal inertia of the ocean, the Earth's climate is not equilibrated with anthropogenic forcing. As a result, even if fossil fuel emissions were to suddenly cease, some level of committed warming is expected due to past emissions. Here, we provide an observational-based quantification of this committed warming using the instrument record of global-mean warming, recently-improved estimates of Earth's energy imbalance, and estimates of radiative forcing from the fifth IPCC assessment report. Compared to pre-industrial levels, we find a committed warming of 1.5K [0.9-3.6, 5-95 percentile] at equilibrium, and of 1.3K [0.9-2.3] within this century. However, when assuming that ocean carbon uptake cancels remnant greenhouse gas-induced warming on centennial timescales, committed warming is reduced to 1.1K [0.7-1.8]. Conservatively, there is a 32% risk that committed warming already exceeds the 1.5K target set in Paris, and that this will likely be crossed prior to 2053. Regular updates of these observationally-constrained committed warming estimates, though simplistic, can provide transparent guidance as uncertainty regarding transient climate sensitivity inevitably narrows and understanding the limitations of the framework is advanced.

  20. Retention factors in relation to organisational commitment in medical and information technology services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette van Dyk

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Retaining staff with scarce and critical skills in the medical and information technology (IT industry has become a top priority because of skills shortages.Research purpose: The objectives of the study were to investigate empirically: (1 the relationship between employees’ satisfaction with organisational retention factors (measured by the Retention Factors Scale and their organisational commitment (measured by the Organisational Commitment Questionnaire and (2 whether gender, age, race and tenure groups differ significantly in terms of these variables.Motivation for the study: Medical and information technology professionals have specialised and hard to replace skills. They also have strong tendencies to leave their organisations and countries. Understanding the retention factors that will increase their organisational commitment may benefit the organisations who want to retain their valuable talent.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a cross-sectional survey design to collect data from a purposive sample of 206 staff members who had scarce skills in a South African medical and information technology services company. Correlational and inferential statistics were computed to achieve the objectives.Main findings: The results showed that the participants’ satisfaction with retention factors has a significant relationship with their organisational commitment and that the biographical groups differ significantly in terms of the variables.Practical/managerial implications: The measured retention factors were all associated with human resource management practices that influence employees’ intentions to leave.Contribution/value-add: The results are important to managers who are interested in retaining staff who have scarce skills and provide valuable pointers for designing effective retention strategies.

  1. What would Mary Douglas do? A commentary on Kahan et al., "Cultural cognition and public policy: the case of outpatient commitment laws".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    Involuntary outpatient commitment is a highly controversial issue in mental health law. Strong supporters of outpatient commitment see it as a form of access to community-based mental health care and a less restrictive alternative to hospitalization for people with severe mental illness; vocal opponents see it as an instrument of social control and an unwarranted deprivation of individual liberty. Kahan and colleagues apply the theory of "cultural cognition" in an empirical study of how cultural worldviews influence support for outpatient commitment laws among the general public and shape perceptions of evidence for these laws' effectiveness. This article critiques Kahan et al. and offers an alternative perspective on the controversy, emphasizing particular social facts underlying stakeholders' positions on outpatient commitment laws.

  2. Landsat: building a strong future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, Thomas R.; Dwyer, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Conceived in the 1960s, the Landsat program has experienced six successful missions that have contributed to an unprecedented 39-year record of Earth Observations that capture global land conditions and dynamics. Incremental improvements in imaging capabilities continue to improve the quality of Landsat science data, while ensuring continuity over the full instrument record. Landsats 5 and 7 are still collecting imagery. The planned launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission in December 2012 potentially extends the Landsat record to nearly 50 years. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landsat archive contains nearly three million Landsat images. All USGS Landsat data are available at no cost via the Internet. The USGS is committed to improving the content of the historical Landsat archive though the consolidation of Landsat data held in international archives. In addition, the USGS is working on a strategy to develop higher-level Landsat geo- and biophysical datasets. Finally, Federal efforts are underway to transition Landsat into a sustained operational program within the Department of the Interior and to authorize the development of the next two satellites — Landsats 9 and 10.

  3. Osteoporosis: public awareness, commitment, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Margaret W M; Leung, H B; Lee, W M

    2008-06-01

    To explore public awareness of osteoporosis and willingness to manage the problem, with reference to a variety of socio-economic factors. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. A public hospital and a private health care clinic in Hong Kong. Two hundred and fifty postmenopausal women consisting of five equal cohorts recruited at random. The cohorts consisted of: patients with fragile fracture, their next-of-kin, patients (without fragile fractures) from a government primary health care clinic, patients from a government orthopaedic clinic, and patients from a private primary health care clinic. Only 81% of those interviewed had heard of the disease. Among these, 92% believed that the government was responsible for managing osteoporosis. Most (83%) were willing to self-finance treatment; a higher percentage were willing to do so among those with relatives having osteoporotic fractures. Most (87%) of the subjects underestimated the cost. Less than 40% expected to pay more than HK$ 1,200 annually. Given the current market price, only 66% would still consider undertaking the treatment. Notably, 99% of interviewees would commence treatment provided the cost was lower. Direct costs of managing osteoporosis deter the public from commencing treatment. If the cost of treatment could be lowered and publicised, a dramatic increase in self-financed treatment can be anticipated.

  4. Vietnamese women at solidarity meeting of world women in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes experiences of a Vietnamese delegation at a solidarity meeting of world women during April 13-16, 1998, in Cuba. The President of the Viet Nam Women's Union headed the delegation. The advisor was the vice-chairperson of the Vietnamese National Assembly. The delegation participated in 6 forums: women and sustainable economic development; women, health, education, and social security; women, communication and the mass media; women in politics and decision-making; women, violence and discrimination; and national independence, sovereignty, peace, and women. The delegation also participated in sessions on women's issues; implementation issues; women parliamentarians; and migrant and displaced women. The delegation met with delegates from other countries and participated in a world meeting and an Asian-Pacific meeting to support Cuban women. The entire delegation presented a stage show of songs, which was well received by the 3000 participants. The delegation met with Cuban delegates to discuss the formation of women's groups and to build better relations between the women of both countries. The delegation visited a training center of women cadres and the center for gender education. Participants adopted the Havana Declaration, which states the intention of world women to eradicate poverty and war and to promote peace, progress, and happiness in all countries. The Havana Declaration condemned the US embargo against Cuba. Fidel Castro spoke and expressed gratitude for the strong support from world women, especially Vietnamese women.

  5. What drives political commitment for nutrition? A review and framework synthesis to inform the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Hawkes, Corinna; Wingrove, Kate; Parkhurst, Justin; Thow, Anne Marie; Walls, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating country-level political commitment will be critical to driving forward action throughout the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016–2025). In this review of the empirical nutrition policy literature, we ask: what factors generate, sustain and constrain political commitment for nutrition, how and under what circumstances? Our aim is to inform strategic ‘commitment-building’ actions. Method We adopted a framework synthesis method and realist review protocol. An initial framework was derived from relevant theory and then populated with empirical evidence to test and modify it. Five steps were undertaken: initial theoretical framework development; search for relevant empirical literature; study selection and quality appraisal; data extraction, analysis and synthesis and framework modification. Results 75 studies were included. We identified 18 factors that drive commitment, organised into five categories: actors; institutions; political and societal contexts; knowledge, evidence and framing; and, capacities and resources. Irrespective of country-context, effective nutrition actor networks, strong leadership, civil society mobilisation, supportive political administrations, societal change and focusing events, cohesive and resonant framing, and robust data systems and available evidence were commitment drivers. Low-income and middle-income country studies also frequently reported international actors, empowered institutions, vertical coordination and capacities and resources. In upper-middle-income and high-income country studies, private sector interference frequently undermined commitment. Conclusion Political commitment is not something that simply exists or emerges accidentally; it can be created and strengthened over time through strategic action. Successfully generating commitment will likely require a core set of actions with some context-dependent adaptations. Ultimately, it will necessitate strategic actions by cohesive

  6. What drives political commitment for nutrition? A review and framework synthesis to inform the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Phillip; Hawkes, Corinna; Wingrove, Kate; Demaio, Alessandro Rhyl; Parkhurst, Justin; Thow, Anne Marie; Walls, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Generating country-level political commitment will be critical to driving forward action throughout the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition (2016-2025). In this review of the empirical nutrition policy literature, we ask: what factors generate, sustain and constrain political commitment for nutrition, how and under what circumstances? Our aim is to inform strategic 'commitment-building' actions. We adopted a framework synthesis method and realist review protocol. An initial framework was derived from relevant theory and then populated with empirical evidence to test and modify it. Five steps were undertaken: initial theoretical framework development; search for relevant empirical literature; study selection and quality appraisal; data extraction, analysis and synthesis and framework modification. 75 studies were included. We identified 18 factors that drive commitment, organised into five categories: actors; institutions; political and societal contexts; knowledge, evidence and framing; and, capacities and resources. Irrespective of country-context, effective nutrition actor networks, strong leadership, civil society mobilisation, supportive political administrations, societal change and focusing events, cohesive and resonant framing, and robust data systems and available evidence were commitment drivers. Low-income and middle-income country studies also frequently reported international actors, empowered institutions, vertical coordination and capacities and resources. In upper-middle-income and high-income country studies, private sector interference frequently undermined commitment. Political commitment is not something that simply exists or emerges accidentally; it can be created and strengthened over time through strategic action. Successfully generating commitment will likely require a core set of actions with some context-dependent adaptations. Ultimately, it will necessitate strategic actions by cohesive, resourced and strongly led nutrition actor

  7. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  8. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  9. The Perceptions and Expectations Toward the Social Responsibility of Hospitals and Organizational Commitment of Nursing Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Che; Chiu, Herng-Chia; Hsieh, Ya-Hui; Ho, Pei-Shen; Chen, Li-Chin; Chang, Wei-Chou

    2016-09-01

    The labor rights of medical workers in hospitals in Taiwan have been a key issue of discussion and controversy in recent years. Generally, poor work conditions and manpower shortages in hospitals have resulted in a vicious circle of severely overworked medical and healthcare staff and chronically low staffing and retention rates. This study employed corporate social responsibility as the conceptual framework of the social responsibility of hospitals to examine the perceptions and expectations of nurses toward the social responsibility practices of the hospital where they serve and to explore the relationship between these perceptions and organizational commitment (OC). The participants were all nurses who were employed by one medical group in southern Taiwan. Two hundred forty anonymous questionnaires, which included scales that were designed to measure the social responsibility of hospitals and OC, were distributed. Two hundred twenty-seven valid questionnaires were returned. Exploratory factor analysis was used to validate the dimension of the social responsibility of hospitals, and hierarchical multiregression analyses were used to verify the relationship between the perceptions of nurses with regard to the social responsibility practices of the hospital where nurses serve and OC. There were considerable differences between participants' perceptions and expectations toward the social responsibility of hospitals. The nurses with high perceptions toward the social responsibility practices of the hospital where they serve tended to have relatively high OC. Senior nurses who had high perceptions of the legal and rational, ethical, and economic dimensions of the social responsibility practices of the hospital where they serve exhibited relatively strong affective commitment. Nurses in junior positions who had high perceptions of the practices of ethical responsibilities exhibited relatively strong continuance commitment. Senior nurses who had high perceptions of the

  10. Determination of the Demographic Variables Predicting Accommodation Business Employees’ Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction through CHAID Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin ÜNGÜREN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to determine the demographic variables that affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment attitudes via CHAID analysis which is one of the decision tree techniques. CHAID analysis creates sub-clusters by grouping the factors that affect the dependant variable in line with their importance levels and allows the results to be understood and interpreted more easily by displaying the relationship between variables visually. The research was carried out with 821 employees working in five star accommodation businesses in Alanya, Turkey. Survey forms were used as data collection tool. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and CHAID analysis. The results of the research point a strong positive relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction. According to the CHAID analysis results, age was the dominant demographic variable influential on job satisfaction and organizational commitment attitudes. It was also found that job satisfaction and organizational commitment scores of the employees differ significantly in terms of department, marital status, education, status and gender. As a result of CHAID analysis it was determined that “the housekeeping, bar and kitchen department employees in the age range of 18 to 27" and "the married male employees in the age range of 28 to 37” predominantly have negative job satisfaction and organizational commitment attitude. Another result of CHAID analysis has also revealed that “high school and college graduate employees in the age range of 38 to 47” and “48 and over” totally have positive attitude in terms of job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

  11. Three components of organizational commitment and job satisfaction of hospital nurses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahangir, Fridoon; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2009-01-01

    To measure the relationship between job satisfaction and the 3 components of organizational commitment. Most of the research conducted in the West has shown a positive relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction of nurses; however, the relationship between the components of organizational commitment and job satisfaction is not well established in Iranian samples. This study aimed to investigate the level of organizational commitment and job satisfaction of the hospital nurses in Iran and the interrelationship between the 3 components of commitment and job satisfaction among them. Using the organizational commitment questionnaire developed by Meyer et al (J Appl Psychol. 1993;78:538-551), the 3 components of commitment were measured through a descriptive correlational design. Seven hundred eighty-six licensed nurses working in 12 hospitals participated in the study. One hundred ninety-eight of 220 returned questionnaires were identified as appropriate for the analysis. Affective commitment was positively related to job satisfaction, normative commitment, and experience in nursing, but it was negatively related to continuance commitment. Continuance commitment was negatively related to job satisfaction and affective commitment. Normative commitment was positively related to job satisfaction and affective commitment. The 3 components of commitment are variously related to job satisfaction. Nursing managers should pay attention to different components of commitment variously to promote the appropriate type of commitment needed for specific situation in which they work.

  12. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  13. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  14. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-08-02

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  15. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji

    2004-01-01

    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  16. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI Among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R; Golin, C E; Friedman, S R; Scheidell, J D; Adimora, A A; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, M M; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, K K; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, K P; Wohl, D A

    2015-08-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N = 207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42 %), concurrent partnerships (33 %), and buying sex (11 %) in the 6 months before incarceration, and 9 % tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3 %, gonorrhea: 0.5 %, trichomoniasis: 4.9 %). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio: 3.79, 95 % CI 1.19-12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis.

  17. STI/HIV Sexual Risk Behavior and Prevalent STI among Incarcerated African American Men in Committed Intimate Partnerships: The Significance of Poverty, Mood Disorders, and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, MR; Golin, CE; Friedman, SR; Scheidell, JD; Adimora, AA; Judon-Monk, S; Hobbs, MM; Dockery, G; Griffin, S; Oza, KK; Myers, D; Hu, H; Medina, KP; Wohl, DA

    2015-01-01

    African Americans face disproportionate sexually transmitted infection including HIV (STI/HIV), with those passing through a correctional facility at heightened risk. There is a need to identify modifiable STI/HIV risk factors among incarcerated African Americans. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study of incarcerated African American men recruited from September 2011 through January 2014 from prisons in North Carolina who were in committed partnerships with women at prison entry (N=207). During the baseline (in-prison) study visit, participants responded to a risk behavior survey and provided a urine specimen, which was tested for STIs. Substantial proportions reported multiple partnerships (42%), concurrent partnerships (33%), and buying sex (11%) in the six months before incarceration, and 9% tested positive for an STI at baseline (chlamydia: 5.3%, gonorrhea: 0.5%, trichomoniasis: 4.9%). Poverty and depression appeared to be strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Substance use was linked to prevalent STI, with binge drinking the strongest independent risk factor (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.79, 95% CI: 1.19–12.04). There is a continued need for improved prison-based STI testing, treatment, and prevention education as well as mental health and substance use diagnosis. PMID:25863467

  18. Organizational commitment and its impact on employees’ individual interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Dabir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizational commitment is one of the most widely researched topics in the field of organizational behavior. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of organizational commitment on individual interactions which was conducted in Municipality of Karaj. To achieve this objective, the data was collected using the Standard questionnaires applying descriptive statistics and inferential statistical methods within the population consisted of 400 employees of Karaj municipality. The present research is a descriptive and co relational study and is of applied type. The results indicated that there is a significant relationship between the dimensions of employees’ individual interaction and organizational commitment in Karaj Municipality. Besides, correlation with other variables of individual engagement and commitment were not verified. At the end, it is suggested to Karaj Municipality that regarding human force as human capital and before recruiting and employment and maintenance, make attempt to identify internal and personality features of them to design required plans in the promotion of organization commitment and drive tomore exploitation.

  19. Practice patterns and organizational commitment of inpatient nurse practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Janet; Brennan, Mary; Musil, Carol M; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J

    2016-07-01

    Nurse practitioners (NPs) deliver a wide array of healthcare services in a variety of settings. The purpose of this study was to examine the practice patterns and organizational commitment of inpatient NPs. A quantitative design was used with a convenience sample (n = 183) of NPs who attended the American Association of Nurse Practitioners (AANP) national conference. The NPs were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, the Practice Patterns of Acute Nurse Practitioners tool and the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Over 85% of inpatient practice time consists of direct and indirect patient care activities. The remaining nonclinical activities of education, research, and administration were less evident in the NP's workweek. This indicates that the major role of inpatient NPs continues to be management of acutely ill patients. Moderate commitment was noted in the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire. Supportive hospital/nursing leadership should acknowledge the value of the clinical and nonclinical roles of inpatient NPs as they can contribute to the operational effectiveness of their organization. By fostering the organizational commitment behaviors of identification, loyalty, and involvement, management can reap the benefits of these professionally dedicated providers. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  20. Nurses' job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and career intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Gail L; Olsan, Tobie; Drew-Cates, Jessie; DeVinney, Bonnie C; Davies, Jan

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to define the characteristics of the nursing work force of a mixed urban/rural region of New York state and to determine the nurses' level of job satisfaction and commitment to the work setting. Recent investigations suggest nurses are highly dissatisfied with the demands of the healthcare environment and are expressing increased likelihood of leaving the work setting. These factors, in combination with the increasing age of the current nursing work force, are contributing to serious concerns about the future of patient care. A random sample survey was mailed to registered nurses in the Finger Lakes Region of New York State in June 2000. Items in the questionnaire addressed nurse characteristics, reasons for leaving or staying with an employing agency, one- and five-year career intent, and level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Forty-six percent of the nurses returned completed questionnaires. Within this sample, most of the nurses were older, European American, and female. Personal and organizational characteristics contributed to differences in levels of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and 1- and 5-year intent. In addition, many of the most satisfied and committed nurses reported their intent to leave nursing within the next 5 years. Findings of this investigation suggest the organizational environment, educational preparation, and personal characteristics of currently employed registered nurses affect their current job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and plans for continuing as a nurse.

  1. Learning organizations, internal marketing, and organizational commitment in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yafang

    2014-04-04

    Knowledge capital is becoming more important to healthcare establishments, especially for hospitals that are facing changing societal and industrial patterns. Hospital staff must engage in a process of continual learning to improve their healthcare skills and provide a superior service to their patients. Internal marketing helps hospital administrators to improve the quality of service provided by nursing staff to their patients and allows hospitals to build a learning culture and enhance the organizational commitment of its nursing staff. Our empirical study provides nursing managers with a tool to allow them to initiate a change in the attitudes of nurses towards work, by constructing a new 'learning organization' and using effective internal marketing. A cross-sectional design was employed. Two hundred questionnaires were distributed to nurses working in either a medical centre or a regional hospital in Taichung City, Taiwan, and 114 valid questionnaires were returned (response rate: 57%). The entire process of distribution and returns was completed between 1 October and 31 October 2009. Hypothesis testing was conducted using structural equation modelling. A significant positive correlation was found between the existence of a 'learning organization', internal marketing, and organizational commitment. Internal marketing was a mediator between creating a learning organization and organizational commitment. Nursing managers may be able to apply the creation of a learning organization to strategies that can strengthen employee organizational commitment. Further, when promoting the creation of a learning organization, managers can coordinate their internal marketing practices to enhance the organizational commitment of nurses.

  2. Perceptions of job satisfaction relating to affective organisation commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papinczak, Tracey

    2012-10-01

    Affective organisation commitment, which refers to a psychological attachment to, and involvement with, an employing institution, is regarded as important because of its effects on employee identification with the employer and its causal effects on work effort and staff retention. This paper explores the experiences of casual tutors facilitating problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials and aims to identify aspects of their role that strengthen and detract from employee job satisfaction and affective commitment. Qualitative data were gathered from first- and second-year tutors (N = 13) through 2 focus groups. Both clinicians and non-clinicians were recruited, including highly experienced staff and those with organisation commitment; novel findings include the supportive and compensatory nature of the collegial relationships formed between casual tutors. Role attenuation, a job-related factor, was a predominant perception as it related to dysfunctional groups and increasing student disengagement with PBL. Within the unique learning environment of PBL, positive factors relating to job satisfaction may have an important role to play in improving tutors' commitment to their employing organisation. Aspects of the role which are viewed most negatively and relate most significantly to affective commitment need to be addressed promptly. Attention should be directed to supporting tutors to maximise the perceived benefits and providing professional development and improved communication to better address issues associated with difficult or disengaged students as well as isolation from decision-makers. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  3. Geological disposal of radioactive wastes: national commitment, local and regional involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-07-01

    Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, involves the construction of a limited number of facilities and it is therefore a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. Public information, consultation and/or participation in environmental or technological decision-making are today's best practice and must take place at the different geographical and political scales. Large-scale technology projects are much more likely to be accepted when stakeholders have been involved in making them possible and have developed a sense of interest in or responsibility for them. In this way, national commitment, and local and regional involvement are two essential dimensions of the complex task of securing continued societal agreement for the deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. Long-term radioactive waste management, including geological disposal, is a national challenge with a strong local/regional dimension. The national policy frameworks increasingly support participatory, flexible and accountable processes. Radioactive waste management institutions are evolving away from a technocratic stance, demonstrating constructive interest in learning and adapting to societal requirements. Empowerment of the local and regional actors has been growing steadily in the last decade. Regional and local players tend to take an active role concerning the siting and implementation of geological repositories. National commitment and local/regional involvement go hand-in-hand in supporting sustainable decisions for the geological disposal of radioactive waste

  4. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  5. Perfil da violência contra mulheres atendidas na Pousada de Maria Perfil de la violencia sufrida por mujeres atendidas en la Posada de María Profile of the violence committed against women assisted at Pousada de Maria lodging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Maria Labronici

    2010-03-01

    ísica, 24,15% psicológica, 14,22% violencia estructural. Las mujeres solteras, en concubinato y casadas deben ser insertadas como grupo de riesgo y objeto de atención por parte de los profesionales de la salud, en la planificación de acciones preventivas.This exploratory, retrospective study was performed at the Pousada de Maria lodging in Curitiba, Brazil in 2007, with the objective of characterizing the profile of the violence practiced against women staying at Pousada de Maria from 1993 to 2007. Data collection was performed by analyzing 886 records of the victims' registration and transcribed to an instrument formulated for the study. The victims were between 18 and 88 years old, with low education; they suffered physical, psychological, sexual and structural violence, mainly by their partners and acquaintances. They lived with violence to maintain their family union and decided to resolve the situation when they had access to social programs and shelters. Violence is a common phenomenon among single women with incomplete primary education; 24.6% suffered physical violence, 24.15% psychological, and 14.22% structural violence. Single women, whether in a common-law relationship or married, should be considered as an at-risk group and worthy subjects of attention by health professionals when planning preventive actions.

  6. Serial composition of quantum coin flipping and bounds on cheat detection for bit commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochon, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Quantum protocols for coin flipping can be composed in series in such a way that a cheating party gains no extra advantage from using entanglement between different rounds. This composition principle applies to coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity as well, and is used to derive two results: There are no quantum strong coin-flipping protocols with cheat sensitivity that is linear in the bias (or bit-commitment protocols with linear cheat detection) because these can be composed to produce strong coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias. On the other hand, it appears that quadratic cheat detection cannot be composed in series to obtain even weak coin flipping with arbitrarily small bias

  7. Emerging adults' expectations for pornography use in the context of future committed romantic relationships: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Spencer B; Negash, Sesen; Pasley, Kay; Fincham, Frank D

    2013-05-01

    Using qualitative content analysis from the written comments of 404 primarily heterosexual college students, we examined (1) their expectations for pornography use while married or in a committed long-term relationship and (2) variations by gender. Four prominent groups emerged. A majority of men (70.8 %) and almost half of women (45.5 %) reported circumstances (alone or with their partners) wherein pornography use was acceptable in a relationship and several conditions for, and consequences associated with, such use also emerged. Another group (22.3 % men; 26.2 % women) viewed pornography use as unacceptable because of being in a committed relationship whereas a third group (5.4 % men; 12.9 % women) reported that pornography use was unacceptable in any context or circumstance. A final group emerged of a few women (10.4 %) who stated that a partner's use of pornography was acceptable, but they did not expect to use it personally. Implications for relationship education among emerging adults and future research on pornography use within the context of romantic relationships are discussed.

  8. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  9. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  10. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo

    2012-01-01

    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  11. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  12. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  13. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Bal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible responding pattern, has yielded successful results.This article presents application of acceptance and commitment therapy step by step to a chronic smoker who quitted smoking at the end of therapy sessions. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 841-846

  14. Asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. Here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. Five species (great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit Poecile palustris, nuthatch Sitta europaea and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs) responded to each other's playbacks of mobbing calls. Commitment to mob was measured by minimum distance, response latency and uttering of calls. Commitment was higher when conspecific calls were broadcast. Yet, responses to heterospecific calls were significantly different between the five species. Chaffinches had the lowest commitment, and blue tits tended to have the highest. The communication network is asymmetric. Some species invest more than they receive from other species. As mobbing might incur costs, these are unequally distributed across the community.

  15. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-23

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  16. Security bound of cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guang Ping

    2015-03-01

    Cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) loosens the security requirement of quantum bit commitment (QBC), so that the existing impossibility proofs of unconditionally secure QBC can be evaded. But here we analyze the common features in all existing CSQBC protocols, and show that in any CSQBC having these features, the receiver can always learn a non-trivial amount of information on the sender's committed bit before it is unveiled, while his cheating can pass the security check with a probability not less than 50%. The sender's cheating is also studied. The optimal CSQBC protocols that can minimize the sum of the cheating probabilities of both parties are found to be trivial, as they are practically useless. We also discuss the possibility of building a fair protocol in which both parties can cheat with equal probabilities.

  17. Formation of Adult Lay Catholics for Commitment in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Stala

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of the Second Vatican Council develops an understanding of the Church as an integral entirety, present in the world and operating in accordance with its nature and purpose. Every personal commitment of a lay faithful, every effort made and each achievement has an impact on others and the whole Church. However, the commitment of adult Catholics to the world requires their appropriate preparation. Therefore, this article will first present the ecclesiological foundations of the lay faithful’s earthly commitment, and then, the process of their preparation, taking into consideration their personal and religious development. Finally it will also explore the meaning of the community as the place of their permanent formation.

  18. Management Commitment to Safety, Teamwork, and Hospital Worker Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGonagle, Alyssa K; Essenmacher, Lynnette; Hamblin, Lydia; Luborsky, Mark; Upfal, Mark; Arnetz, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Although many studies link teamwork in health care settings to patient safety, evidence linking teamwork to hospital worker safety is lacking. This study addresses this gap by providing evidence linking teamwork perceptions in hospital workers to worker injuries, and further, finds a linkage between manager commitment to safety and teamwork. Organizational records of worker injuries and survey responses regarding management commitment to safety and teamwork from 446 hospital workers within 42 work units in a multi-site hospital system were examined. Results underscored the particular importance of teamwork on worker injuries as well as the importance of management commitment to safety as relating to teamwork. To improve worker safety, organizational leaders and unit managers should work to maintain environments wherein teamwork can thrive.

  19. Asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. Here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. Five species (great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit Poecile palustris, nuthatch Sitta europaea and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs) responded to each other's playbacks of mobbing calls. Commitment to mob was measured by minimum distance, response latency and uttering of calls. Commitment was higher when conspecific calls were broadcast. Yet, responses to heterospecific calls were significantly different between the five species. Chaffinches had the lowest commitment, and blue tits tended to have the highest. The communication network is asymmetric. Some species invest more than they receive from other species. As mobbing might incur costs, these are unequally distributed across the community.

  20. Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction: What Are the Potential Relationships?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildes Raimunda Pitombo Leite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compared two different structural models regarding the direct or mediation role satisfaction has in the prediction of commitment bond, in the context of a public and traditional Brazilian organization, the Military Police. A quantitative and qualitative combination of methods was used to measure relationships between variables and to contextualize the results found from 10,052 surveyed workers. We conducted interviews with six high command officers and a focus group comprised of seven members from the three highest organizational levels. Content analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM were used in the analysis process. Evidence was found that satisfaction with relationships is an antecedent of commitment, which mediates its relationships with other variables, such as work and personal characteristics. Understanding the organization’s characteristics and the use of a substantial sample of its employees simultaneously allowed for testing complex structural models and investigating a labor segment that has been neglected by commitment research.