Sample records for strongly acidic cation-exchange

  1. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Reserpine Adsorption onto Strong Acidic Cationic Exchange Fiber (United States)

    Guo, Zhanjing; Liu, Xiongmin; Huang, Hongmiao


    The kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process of reserpine adsorbed onto the strong acidic cationic exchange fiber (SACEF) were studied by batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption capacity strongly depended on pH values, and the optimum reserpine adsorption onto the SACEF occurred at pH = 5 of reserpine solution. With the increase of temperature and initial concentration, the adsorption capacity increased. The equilibrium was attained within 20 mins. The adsorption process could be better described by the pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich isotherm model. The calculated activation energy Ea was 4.35 kJ/mol. And the thermodynamic parameters were: 4.97thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the adsorption was an endothermic, spontaneous and feasible process of physisorption within the temperature range between 283 K and 323 K and the initial concentration range between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. All the results showed that the SACEF had a good adsorption performance for the adsorption of reserpine from alcoholic solution. PMID:26422265

  2. Ion exchange removal of chromium (iii) from tannery wastes by using a strong acid cation exchange resin amberlite ir-120 h+ and its hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.


    A strong acid cation exchange resin Amberlite IR-120 H+ and its hybrids with Mn(OH)/sub 2/, Cu(OH)/sub 2/ and Fe(OH)/sub 3/ are used for the removal of chromium (III) from spent tannery bath. The experimental data give good fits with the Langmuir sorption model. The thermodynamic parameters entropy (delta S), enthalpy (delta H) and free energy (delta G) changes are computed, which reveal that the chromium removal from tannery wastes by ion exchangers is an endothermic, physical sorption and entropically driven process. The rate of sorption is found to increase with the increase of resin dosage, stirring speed and temperature. Different kinetic models such as film diffusion, particle diffusion and Lagergren pseudo first order are used to evaluate the mechanism of the process. It is found that the hybrid ion exchange resins have better removal capacity as compared to the parent ion exchanger. The increase in the removal capacity is found to be in the order of the corresponding PZC values of the hybrid ion exchangers. Further, it is suggested that the higher exchange capacity is the result of Donnan effect and specific adsorption of chromium by the oxides / hydroxides present inside the matrix of the organic cation exchanger. (author)

  3. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol using cationic exchange ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 15, 2017 ... Abstract. Dibutyl maleate is a perfumery ester used as an intermediate in the production of paints, adhesives, and copolymers. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol was studied in presence of acidic cation exchange resin as a catalyst. The objective of this work was to test the suitability and efficacy of ...

  4. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol using cationic exchange ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Nov 15, 2017 ... Special Issue on Recent Trends in the Design and Development of Catalysts and their Applications. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol using cationic exchange resin as ..... Thus, the mole ratio of maleic acid to n-butanol was also varied as 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5 keeping other parameters at a constant value ...

  5. Strong cation-exchange chromatography of proteins on a sulfoalkylated monolithic cryogel. (United States)

    Perçin, Işık; Khalaf, Rushd; Brand, Bastian; Morbidelli, Massimo; Gezici, Orhan


    A new strong cation exchanger (SCX) monolithic column was synthesized by at-line surface modification of a cryogel prepared by copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) and glycidylmethacrylate (GMA). Sodium salt of 3-Mercaptopropane sulfonic acid (3-MPS) was used as the ligand to transform the surface of the monolith into a strong cation exchanger. The obtained material was characterized in terms of elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) N2 adsorption, and used as a stationary phase for strong-cation exchange chromatography of some proteins, such as α-chymotrypsinogen, cytochrome c and lysozyme. Water permeability of the column was calculated according to Darcy's law (2.66×10(-13)m(2)). The performance of the monolithic cryogel column was evaluated on the basis of Height Equivalent to a Theoretical Plate (HETP). Retention behavior of the studied proteins was modeled on the basis of Yamamoto model to understand the role of the ion-exchange mechanism in retention behaviors. The considered proteins were successfully separated, and the obtained chromatogram was compared with that obtained with a non-functionalized cryogel column. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Separation of certain carboxylic acids utilizing cation exchange membranes (United States)

    Chum, Helena L.; Sopher, David W.


    A method of substantially separating monofunctional lower carboxylic acids from a liquid mixture containing the acids wherein the pH of the mixture is adjusted to a value in the range of from about 1 to about 5 to form protonated acids. The mixture is heated to an elevated temperature not greater than about C. and brought in contact with one side of a perfluorinated cation exchange membrane having sulfonate or carboxylate groups or mixtures thereof with the mixture containing the protonated acids. A pressure gradient can be established across the membrane with the mixture being under higher pressure, so that protonated monofunctional lower carboxylic acids pass through the membrane at a substantially faster rate than the remainder of the mixture thereby substantially separating the acids from the mixture.

  7. Sorption of elements on phosphonic acid cation exchanger from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razbash, A.A.; Sevast'yanov, Yu.G.; Bykhovskii, D.N.


    The coefficients of distribution of 25 elements between KRF-20t-60 macroporous phosphonic acid cation exchanger and 0.1-2.0 M nitric acid have been determined by a static method. The above cation exchanger has a high affinity for some multivalent metal ions like Fe (III) , In (III) , Ce (IV) , Ti (IV) , etc. A mechanism has been proposed which explains the increase in cerium(IV) sorption with the rise of acid concentration above 2 M. An example of separation of an artificial mixture of lead and bismuth has been given

  8. Adsorption Behavior of Charge Isoforms of Monoclonal Antibodies on Strong Cation Exchangers. (United States)

    Steinebach, Fabian; Wälchli, Ruben; Pfister, David; Morbidelli, Massimo


    In this work, the adsorption behavior of the different charge isoforms of the same monoclonal antibody (mAb) on strong cation-exchange resins is analyzed. While charge isoforms of the same antibody mainly differ in their effective charge, the similar structure and size allows developing a simplified model, which describes the adsorption behavior of mAb charge isoforms independently of the number of isoforms with only four parameters. In contrast to classical model-based descriptions of the adsorption isotherm, the proposed work enables retrieving some physical meaning in the definition of the model parameters. These model parameters are determined for several resin-antibody combinations. Thereby it is found that for mAbs on commercial cation exchangers an effective resin charge density of 0.22 ± 0.08 mmol mL -1 of solid phase is used for protein binding, which was found to be independent of the absolute resin charge density measured by titration. The presented results help to understand the adsorption behavior of mAbs on cation-exchangers, which is applicable both for the isolation of the main charge isoform or for preserving a certain charge isoform pattern during the polishing processes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Esterification of phenyl acetic acid withp-cresol using metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclay catalysts. (United States)

    Bhaskar, M; Surekha, M; Suma, N


    The liquid phase esterification of phenyl acetic acid with p -cresol over different metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclays yields p -cresyl phenyl acetate. Different metal cation exchanged montmorillonite nanoclays (M n +  = Al 3+ , Zn 2+ , Mn 2+ , Fe 3+ , Cu 2+ ) were prepared and the catalytic activity was studied. The esterification reaction was conducted by varying molar ratio of the reactants, reaction time and catalyst amount on the yield of the ester. Among the different metal cation exchanged catalysts used, Al 3+ -montmorillonite nanoclay was found to be more active. The characterization of the material used was studied under different techniques, namely X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The product obtained, p -cresyl phenyl acetate, was identified by thin-layer chromotography and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR. The regeneration activity of used catalyst was also investigated up to fourth generation.

  10. Performance of sulphonic cation exchangers in the recovery of ammonium from basic and slight acidic solutions. (United States)

    Gefeniene, A; Kauspediene, D; Snukiskis, J


    Two sulphonated polystyrene-divinylbenzene cation exchangers (gel type Purolite SGC 100 x 10 MBH and macroporous Purolite C160 MBH) have been investigated for NH(4)(+) ions uptake from the ammonium-rich simulated solutions, corresponding to the caustic condensate of the nitrogen fertilizers production. One component (NH(3) or NH(4)NO(3)) solutions and the mixtures with varying molar ratio of these compounds have been used at the total concentration 0.214 mol/L. Batch and column experiments have been conducted to establish the influence of the matrix structure on the performance of the cation exchangers investigated during the sorption and the desorption. Batch sorption isotherms and breakthrough curves have shown the similar behaviour of the cation exchangers in the removal of NH(4)(+) and NH(3). On decreasing the influent pH from 11.4 to 5.74 a decrease in breakthrough capacity (BC) from 2.57 to 1.93 mol/L was observed. The distribution coefficients (K(d)), calculated from the batch sorption isotherms, are higher for the basic feed solution than for slightly acidic one. Both the degree of the cation exchanger regeneration (N/N(0)) and the efficiency of the NH(4)(+) ions recovery (N(R)), obtained using 0.7 bed volume (BV) of eluent (20% nitric acid) are lower for Purolite C 160 MBH than those for Purolite SGC 100 x 10 MBH. Using 5 BV of eluent the efficiency of the ammonium recovery amounted to 100% for both cation exchangers investigated. With respect to the efficiency of NH(4)(+) ions sorption and regeneration cation exchangers investigated are applicable for the recovery of ammonium ions from caustic condensate in the nitrogen fertilizers production.

  11. Strong Cation Exchange Chromatography in Analysis of Posttranslational Modifications: Innovations and Perspectives (United States)

    Edelmann, Mariola J.


    Strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography has been utilized as an excellent separation technique that can be combined with reversed-phase (RP) chromatography, which is frequently used in peptide mass spectrometry. Although SCX is valuable as the second component of such two-dimensional separation methods, its application goes far beyond efficient fractionation of complex peptide mixtures. Here I describe how SCX facilitates mapping of the protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), specifically phosphorylation and N-terminal acetylation. The SCX chromatography has been mainly used for enrichment of these two PTMs, but it might also be beneficial for high-throughput analysis of other modifications that alter the net charge of a peptide. PMID:22174558

  12. Esterification of oleic acid with ethanol catalyzed by sulfonated cation exchange resin: Experimental and kinetic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yuwang; Lu, Jie; Sun, Kaian; Ma, Lingling; Ding, Jincheng


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Esterification of oleic acid with ethanol was investigated in the presence of sulfonated cation exchange resin. • We studied kinetic model of the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol according to experimental data. • The proposed kinetic model can well predict oleic acid conversion. - Abstract: This paper investigated the effects of ethanol to oleic acid molar ratio, reaction temperature, catalyst loading, water content and catalyst recycling on sulfonated cation exchange resin in a stirred batch reactor under atmospheric pressure. When the esterification was carried out with an ethanol to oleic acid (42.4 g) molar ratio of 9:1, reflux of ethanol at 82 °C, 20 g of catalyst and 8 h of reaction time, the oleic acid conversion rate reached approximately 93%. A pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model for describing the esterification of oleic acid with ethanol by the sulfonated cation exchange resin was developed on the basis of laboratorial results. The kinetic model can well predict the oleic acid conversion

  13. Determination of tropane alkaloids by heart cutting reversed phase - Strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Long, Zhen; Zhang, Yanhai; Gamache, Paul; Guo, Zhimou; Steiner, Frank; Du, Nana; Liu, Xiaoda; Jin, Yan; Liu, Xingguo; Liu, Lvye


    Current Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) standards apply liquid extraction combined with one dimensional liquid chromatography (1DLC) method for determining alkaloids in herbal medicines. The complex pretreatments lead to a low analytical efficiency and possible component loss. In this study, a heart cutting reversed phase - strong cation exchange two dimensional liquid chromatography (RP - SCX 2DLC) approach was optimized for simultaneously quantifying tropane alkaloids (anisodine, scopolamine and hyoscyamine) in herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets without further treatment of the filtered extract. The chromatographic conditions were systematically optimized in terms of column type, mobile phase composition and flow rate. To improve peak capacity and obtain symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, a polar group embedded C18 column combined with chaotropic salts was used in the first dimension. To remove the disturbance of non-alkaloids, achieve unique selectivity and acquire symmetric peak shape of alkaloids, an SCX column combined with phosphate buffer was used in the second dimension. Method validation was performed in terms of linearity, precision (0.54-0.82%), recovery (94.1-105.2%), limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the three analytes varied between 0.067-0.115mgL -1 and 0.195-0.268mgL -1 , respectively. The method demonstrated superiority over 1DLC method in respect of resolution (less alkaloid co-eluted), sample preparation (no pretreatment procedure) and transfer rate (minimum component loss). The optimized RP - SCX 2DLC approach was subsequently applied to quantify target alkaloids in five herbal medicines and herbal medicine tablets from three different manufactures. The results demonstrated that the developed heart cutting RP - SCX 2DLC approach represented a new, strategically significant methodology for the quality evaluation of tropane alkaloid in related herbal medicines that involve complex chemical matrix. Copyright

  14. [Preparation of strong cation-exchange monolithic column and its application in polypeptide separation by capillary electrochromatography]. (United States)

    Qi, Nan; Cui, Ruihong; You, Huiyan


    A strong cation-exchange monolithic column was prepared by polymerization inside the fused-silica capillary. The solution consisted of acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid as functional monomers, N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent, dimethyl suiphoxide and dodecanol, 1 , 4-butanediol as organic porogenic solvents and azobisisobutyronitrile as a suitable initiator. The effects of the applied voltage, concentrations of organic modifier and salt solution, pH value on the electroosmotic flow were investigated. The experimental results showed that there existed a good linear relationship between the applied voltage and electroosmotic flow with a correlation coefficient of 0.9981; When the concentration of organic modifier (acetonitrile, ACN) was less than 70%, the swelling degree of stationary phase played a main role and the electroosmotic flow was decreased abnormally with the increase of ACN concentration; The electroosmotic flow was decreased with the increase of the concentration of phosphate. When the pH value was in the range of 3-9, it did not exert a significant change in electroosmotic flow. These results were consistent with the theoretical role. At the same time, five peptides were separated successfully under the optimal experimental conditions on the monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography. The column has obvious advantages in polypeptide separation and will be favorable for the protein investigation.

  15. [Sulfonation modification-assisted enrichment and identification of histidine-containing peptides by strong cation exchange chromatography and mass spectrometry]. (United States)

    Cao, Dong; Zhou, Chunxi; Zhang, Yangjun; Han, Chunguang; Deng, Yulin; Qian, Xiaohong


    By the sulfonation at the N-terminal of peptides, the charge state of histidine-containing peptides is different from that of other peptides in pH sulfonated histidine-containing peptides from tryptic digest of proteins by strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS). Using the standard proteins containing histidines as the model, the methodology was evaluated. The results show that sulfonated histidine-containing peptides were efficiently enriched by SCX, and the N-terminal sulfonation of the peptides simplifies the interpretation of the acquired mass spectra and facilitates the sequencing of histidine-containing peptides by producing consecutive and predominant ions in positive mode MS2 spectra, which is thought to be the result of the charge neutralization of b ions by the N-terminal sulfonic acid group. The discrimination of b ions and y ions can greatly enhance the confidence in peptide and subsequent protein identification. It is feasible to isolate and enrich the histidine-containing peptides by using this method which has the potential applications in proteomics.

  16. Esterification of palm fatty acid distillate with epychlorohydrin using cation exchange resin catalyst (United States)

    Budhijanto, Budhijanto; Subagyo, Albertus F. P. H.


    Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) is one of the wastes from the conversion of crude palm oil (CPO) into cooking oil. The PFAD is currently only utilized as the raw material for low grade soap and biofuel. To improve the economic value of PFAD, it was converted into monoglyceride by esterification process. Furthermore, the monoglyceride could be polymerized to form alkyd resin, which is a commodity of increasing importance. This study aimed to propose a kinetics model for esterification of PFAD with epichlorohydrin using cation exchange resin catalyst. The reaction was the first step from a series of reactions to produce the monoglyceride. In this study, the reaction between PFAD and epichlorohydirne was run in a stirred batch reactor. The stirrer was operated at a constant speed of 400 RPM. The reaction was carried out for 180 minutes on varied temperatures of 60°C, 70°C, 80°C, dan 90°C. Cation exchange resin was applied as solid catalysts. Analysis was conducted periodically by measuring the acid number of the samples, which was further used to calculate PFAD conversion. The data were used to determine the rate constants and the equilibrium constants of the kinetics model. The kinetics constants implied that the reaction was reversible and controlled by the intrinsic surface reaction. Despite the complication of the heterogeneous nature of the reaction, the kinetics data well fitted the elementary rate law. The effect of temperature on the equilibrium constants indicated that the reaction is exothermic.

  17. Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography: Separation of highly basic proteins using volatile acidic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Oostwaard, Th.M.J.; Laat, S.W. de; Zoelen, E.J.J. van


    The chromatographic behavior of a number of globular proteins was studied on a Bio-Sil TSK CM-2-SW weak cation exchange HPLC column under acidic conditions. A linear gradient of O-I M NH₄Ac in I M HOAc, inducing a convex pH gradient from 2.4-4.8, resulted in an excellent separation of highly

  18. Integrated SDS removal and peptide separation by strong-cation exchange liquid chromatography for SDS-assisted shotgun proteome analysis. (United States)

    Sun, Difei; Wang, Nan; Li, Liang


    We report an improved shotgun method for analyzing proteomic samples containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This method is based on the use of strong-cation exchange (SCX) liquid chromatography (LC) for SDS removal that can be integrated with peptide separation as the first dimension of the two-dimensional LC tandem mass spectrometry workflow. To optimize the performance of SDS removal, various experimental conditions, including the concentrations of chemical reagents and salts in the sample, the SDS concentration, and the SCX mobile phase composition, were investigated. It was found that a peptide recovery rate of about 90% could be achieved while removing SDS efficiently. One key finding was that, by increasing the SDS concentration to a certain level (0.5%) in the digested peptide sample, the sample recovery rate could be increased. The peptide recovery rate of BSA digests was found to be 90.6 ± 1.0% (n = 3), and SDS in the SCX fractions collected was not detectable by pyrolysis GC-MS, i.e., below the detection limit of 0.00006% for the undesalted SCX fractions. The peptide recovery rates were found to be 90.9% ± 2.7 (n = 3) and 89.5% ± 0.5% (n = 3) for the digests of the membrane-protein-enriched fractions of E. coli cell lysates and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, respectively. Compared to the methods that use acid-labile surfactants, such as RapiGest and PPS, for the MCF-7 membrane fraction sample, the SDS method identified, on average (n = 3), more peptides (∼5%) and proteins (∼16%) than the RapiGest method, while the RapiGest method identified more peptides (∼21%) and proteins (∼7%) from the E. coli membrane fraction than the SDS method. In both cases, the two methods identified more peptides and proteins than the PPS method. Since SCX is widely used as the first dimension of 2D-LC MS/MS, integration of SDS removal with peptide separation in SCX does not add any extra steps to the sample handling process. We demonstrated the application of

  19. Fibrous polymer grafted magnetic chitosan beads with strong poly(cation-exchange) groups for single step purification of lysozyme. (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Gulay; Tekinay, Turgay; Ozalp, V Cengiz; Arica, M Yakup


    Lysozyme is an important polypetide used in medical and food applications. We report a novel magnetic strong cation exchange beads for efficient purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Magnetic chitosan (MCHT) beads were synthesized via phase inversion method, and then grafted with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (p(GMA)) via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Epoxy groups of the grafted polymer, were modified into strong cation-exchange groups (i.e., sulfonate groups) in the presence of sodium sulfite. The MCTH and MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were characterized by ATR-FTIR, SEM, and VSM. The sulphonate groups content of the modified MCTH-g-p(GMA)-4 beads was found to be 0.53mmolg(-1) of beads by the potentiometric titration method. The MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads were first used as an ion-exchange support for adsorption of lysozyme from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters such as pH, contact time, and temperature on the adsorption process was evaluated. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 208.7mgg(-1) beads. Adsorption of lysozyme on the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads fitted to Langmuir isotherm model and followed the pseudo second-order kinetic. More than 93% of the adsorbed lysozyme was desorbed using Na2CO3 solution (pH 11.0). The purity of the lysozyme was checked by HPLC and SDS gel electrophoresis. In addition, the MCTH-g-p(GMA)-SO3H beads prepared in this work showed promising potential for separation of various anionic molecules. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cation Exchange Efficiency Of Modified Bentonite Using In-Situ GAMMA Radiation Polymerization Of Acrylic Acid Or Acrylamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Modified bentonites as cation exchangers were prepared by treating raw bentonite with 3N NaOH at 95 0 C followed by in-situ polymerization using gamma irradiation as well as hydrogen peroxide initiation of acrylic acid or acrylamide in the matrix.Water swelling and acid capacity were determined and cation exchange capacity for Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Co 2+ was evaluated. It has been found that catiexchange capacity of treated bentonite was increased as result of formed polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide in the matrix. In case of acrylic acid, the maximum cation exchange capacities of 3.5, 3.1 and 2.5 mg equivalent/g were determined for Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Co 2+ , respectively, and for acrylamide, the corresponding capacities were 2.9, 2.8 and 2.6 mg equivalent/g, respectively. Water swelling was found to be associated with holding large amounts of water, for instance, 49 g of water was sorbed per one gram of the sodium salt form of polyacrylic acid in bentonite matrix, in other words the degree of swelling in water achieved 4500%.

  1. Uranium adsorption from the sulphuric acid leach liquor containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jun; Wang Zhaoguo; Chi Renqing; Niu Xuejun


    The feasibility of uranium adsorption was studied from the sulphuric acid leach liquor of a uranium ore containing more chlorides with cation-exchange resin SL-406. The influence of some factors on uranium adsorption was investigated. It was shown that the resin possesses better selectivity, stability and higher capacity. It can be effectively used to recovery uranium from leach liquors of uranium ores containing more chlorides

  2. The elution of erbium from a cation exchanger bed by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine triacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer Amezaga, S.


    A physicochemical study of the phenomena resulting when erbium is eluted from a cation-exchanger bed at a steady by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine-triacetic acid (HEDTA) is made. Two different retaining beds are used, a hydrogen bed, in which no ammonium passes through, and a zinc bed, which leaks ammonium ion. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values by using the equations deduced for the concentrations of the main species has been achieved, with errors around 1-2% in most of the experiments. (Author) 69 refs

  3. High pH reversed-phase chromatography with fraction concatenation as an alternative to strong-cation exchange chromatography for two-dimensional proteomic analysis


    Yang, Feng; Shen, Yufeng; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.


    Orthogonal high-resolution separations are critical for attaining improved analytical dynamic range and protein coverage in proteomic measurements. High pH reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) followed by fraction concatenation affords better peptide analysis than conventional strong-cation exchange (SCX) chromatography applied for the two-dimensional proteomic analysis. For example, concatenated high pH reversed-phase liquid chromatography increased identification for peptides (1.8-fo...

  4. Measurement of acid dissociation constants of weak acids by cation exchange and conductometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Nara, Osamu (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA))


    A simple strategy is presented for the determination of acid dissociation constants based on the measurement of conductance of a known concentration of the acid and/or the conductance of a solution of its fully or partially neutralized alkali-metal salts. For an n-protic acid, 2n conductance measurements are minimally necessary. In the simplest case of a typical monoprotic acid, the conductance of its alkali salt solution is measured before and after passage through an H{sup +}-form exchanger. From these data both the pK{sub a} of the acid and the equivalent conductance of the anion can be computed. The underlying equations are rigorously solved for monoprotic acids and some diprotic acid systems. For other diprotic and multiprotic acid systems, initial estimates are obtained by making approximations; the complete data set is then subjected to multiparametric fitting. The method does not require pH measurements; conductance can generally be measured accurately at low enough ionic strengths to obviate the need for major activity correction. Several experimental measurements are presented and excellent agreement with literature pK{sub a} values is observed. The reliability of the equivalent conductance values computed in this fashion is limited, however.

  5. Separation of aliphatic carboxylic acids and benzenecarboxylic acids by ion-exclusion chromatography with various cation-exchange resin columns and sulfuric acid as eluent. (United States)

    Ohta, Kazutoku; Ohashi, Masayoshi; Jin, Ji-Ye; Takeuchi, Toyohide; Fujimoto, Chuzo; Choi, Seong-Ho; Ryoo, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Kwang-Pill


    The application of various hydrophilic cation-exchange resins for high-performance liquid chromatography (sulfonated silica gel: TSKgel SP-2SW, carboxylated silica gel: TSKgel CM-2SW, sulfonated polymethacrylate resin: TSKgel SP-5PW, carboxylated polymethacrylate resins: TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) as stationary phases in ion-exclusion chromatography for C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, isocaproic, caproic, 2-methylhexanoic and heptanoic acids) and benzenecarboxylic acids (pyromellitic, trimellitic, hemimellitic, o-phthalic, m-phthalic, p-phthalic, benzoic, salicylic acids and phenol) was carried out using diluted sulfuric acid as the eluent. Silica-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-2SW and TSKgel CM-2SW) were very suitable for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these benzenecarboxylic acids was achieved on a TSKgel SP-2SW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 17 min using a 2.5 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.4 as the eluent. Polymethacrylate-based cation-exchange resins (TSKgel SP-5PW, TSKgel CM-5PW and TSKgel OA-Pak A) acted as advanced stationary phases for the ion-exclusion chromatographic separation of these C1-C7 aliphatic carboxylic acids. Excellent simultaneous separation of these C1-C7 acids was achieved on a TSKgel CM-5PW column (150 x 6 mm I.D.) in 32 min using a 0.05 mM sulfuric acid at pH 4.0 as the eluent.

  6. Online coupling of hydrophilic interaction/strong cation exchange/reversed-phase liquid chromatography with porous graphitic carbon liquid chromatography for simultaneous proteomics and N-glycomics analysis. (United States)

    Zhao, Yun; Law, Henry C H; Zhang, Zaijun; Lam, Herman C; Quan, Quan; Li, Guohui; Chu, Ivan K


    In this study we developed a fully automated three-dimensional (3D) liquid chromatography methodology-comprising hydrophilic interaction separation as the first dimension, strong cation exchange fractionation as the second dimension, and low-pH reversed-phase (RP) separation as the third dimension-in conjunction downstream with additional complementary porous graphitic carbon separation, to capture non-retained hydrophilic analytes, for both shotgun proteomics and N-glycomics analyses. The performance of the 3D system alone was benchmarked through the analysis of the total lysate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, leading to improved hydrophilic peptide coverage, from which we identified 19% and 24% more proteins and peptides, respectively, relative to those identified from a two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and low-pH RP chromatography (HILIC-RP) system over the same mass spectrometric acquisition time; consequently, the 3D platform also provided enhanced proteome and protein coverage. When we applied the integrated technology to analyses of the total lysate of primary cerebellar granule neurons, we characterized a total of 2201 proteins and 16,937 unique peptides for this primary cell line, providing one of its most comprehensive datasets. Our new integrated technology also exhibited excellent performance in the first N-glycomics analysis of cynomolgus monkey plasma; we successfully identified 122 proposed N-glycans and 135 N-glycosylation sites from 122 N-glycoproteins, and confirmed the presence of 38 N-glycolylneuraminic acid-containing N-glycans, a rare occurrence in human plasma, through tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Esterification of oleic acid in a three-phase, fixed-bed reactor packed with a cation exchange resin catalyst. (United States)

    Son, Sung Mo; Kimura, Hiroko; Kusakabe, Katsuki


    Esterification of oleic acid was performed in a three-phase fixed-bed reactor with a cation exchange resin catalyst (Amberlyst-15) at high temperature, which was varied from 80 to 120 °C. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yields in the fixed-bed reactor were increased with increases in the reaction temperature, methanol flow rate and bed height. Moreover, the FAME yields were higher than those obtained using a batch reactor due to an equilibrium shift toward the product that resulted from continuous evaporation of the produced water. In addition, there was no catalyst deactivation during the esterification of oleic acid. However, addition of sunflower oil to the oleic acid reduced the FAME yield obtained from simultaneous esterification and transesterification. The FAME yield was 97.5% at a reaction temperature of 100 °C in the fixed-bed with a height of 5 cm when the methanol and oleic acid feed rates were 8.6 and 9.0 mL/h, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cation Exchange Water Softeners (United States)

    WaterSense released a notice of intent to develop a specification for cation exchange water softeners. The program has made the decision not to move forward with a spec at this time, but is making this information available.

  9. HTGR fuel development: loading of uranium on carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins using solvent extraction of nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.


    The reference fuel kernel for recycle of 233 U to HTGR's (High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors) is prepared by loading carboxylic acid cation-exchange resins with uranium and carbonizing at controlled conditions. The purified 233 UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 solution from a fuel reprocessing plant contains excess HNO 3 (NO 3 - /U ratio of approximately 2.2). The reference flowsheet for a 233 U recycle fuel facility at Oak Ridge uses solvent extraction of nitrate by a 0.3 M secondary amine in a hydrocarbon diluent to prepare acid-deficient uranyl nitrate. This nitrate extraction, along with resin loading and amine regeneration steps, was demonstrated in 14 runs. No significant operating difficulties were encountered. The process is controlled via in-line pH measurements for the acid-deficient uranyl nitrate solutions. Information was developed on pH values for uranyl nitrate solution vs NO 3 - /U mole ratios, resin loading kinetics, resin drying requirements, and other resin loading process parameters. Calculations made to estimate the capacities of equipment that is geometrically safe with respect to control of nuclear criticality indicate 100 kg/day or more of uranium for single nitrate extraction lines with one continuous resin loading contactor or four batch loading contactors. (auth)

  10. Sulfonation Process and Desalination Effect of Polystyrene/PVDF Semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network Cation Exchange Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-lin Lei


    Full Text Available With the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based strongly acidic cation exchange resins, polystyrene/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF alloy particles were sulfonated to obtain a cation exchange resin, which was then directly thermoformed to prepare a semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN cation exchange membrane. The effects of the swelling agent, sulfonation time and temperature and the relative contents of polystyrene and divinylbenzene (DVB in the alloy particles on the feasibility of the membrane formation are discussed. The results indicate that a favorable sulfonation degree above 80% and a suitable ion exchange capacity of 1.5–2.4 mmol/g can be gained, with concentrated sulfuric acid as the sulfonation agent and 1,2-dichloroethane as the swelling agent. The running electrical resistance and desalination effect of the prepared cation exchange membrane were measured in a pilot-scale electrodialyser and not only obviously exceeded a commercial heterogeneous cation exchange membrane, but was also very close to a commercial homogenous membrane. In this way, the authors have combined the classical sulfonation method of polystyrene-based cation exchange resins with the traditional thermoforming manufacturing process of heterogeneous cation exchange membranes, to successfully develop a novel, low-price, but relatively high-performance polystyrene/PVDF cation exchange membrane with the semi-IPN structure.

  11. Detachable strong cation exchange monolith, integrated with capillary zone electrophoresis and coupled with pH gradient elution, produces improved sensitivity and numbers of peptide identifications during bottom-up analysis of complex proteomes. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Yan, Xiaojing; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Dovichi, Norman J


    A detachable sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation-exchange monolith was synthesized in a fused silica capillary, and used for solid phase extraction with online pH gradient elution during capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) proteomic analysis. Tryptic digests were prepared in 50 mM formic acid and loaded onto the strong cation-exchange monolith. Fractions were eluted using a series of buffers with lower concentration but higher pH values than the 50 mM formic acid background electrolyte. This combination of elution and background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction and allows use of relatively large elution buffer volumes while maintaining reasonable peak efficiency and resolution. A series of five pH bumps were applied to elute E. coli tryptic peptides from the monolith, followed by analysis using CZE coupled to an LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer; 799 protein groups and 3381 peptides were identified from 50 ng of the digest in a 2.5 h analysis, which approaches the identification rate for this organism that was obtained with an Orbitrap Fusion. We attribute the improved numbers of peptide and protein identifications to the efficient fractionation by the online pH gradient elution, which decreased the complexity of the sample in each elution step and improved the signal intensity of low abundance peptides. We also performed a comparative analysis using a nanoACQUITY UltraPerformance LCH system. Similar numbers of protein and peptide identifications were produced by the two methods. Protein identifications showed significant overlap between the two methods, whereas peptide identifications were complementary.

  12. Sorption by cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.


    A procedure for introducing exchange into geochemical/surface complexation codes is described. Beginning with selectivity coefficients, K c , defined in terms of equivalent fractional ion occupancies, a general expression for the molar based exchange code input parameters, K ex , is derived. In natural systems the uptake of nuclides onto complex sorbents often occurs by more than one mechanism. The incorporation of cation exchange and surface complexation into a geochemical code therefore enables sorption by both mechanisms to be calculated simultaneously. The code and model concepts are tested against sets of experimental data from widely different sorption studies. A proposal is made to set up a data base of selectivity coefficients. Such a data base would form part of a more general one consisting of sorption mechanism specific parameters to be used in conjunction with geochemical/sorption codes to model and predict sorption. (author) 6 figs., 6 tabs., 26 refs

  13. Nearly 1000 Protein Identifications from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis Zygote Homogenate Using Online Sample Preparation on a Strong Cation Exchange Monolith Based Microreactor Coupled with Capillary Zone Electrophoresis. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenbin; Sun, Liangliang; Zhu, Guijie; Cox, Olivia F; Huber, Paul W; Dovichi, Norman J


    A sulfonate-silica hybrid strong cation exchange monolith microreactor was synthesized and coupled to a linear polyacrylamide coated capillary for online sample preparation and capillary zone electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry (CZE-MS/MS) bottom-up proteomic analysis. The protein sample was loaded onto the microreactor in an acidic buffer. After online reduction, alkylation, and digestion with trypsin, the digests were eluted with 200 mM ammonium bicarbonate at pH 8.2 for CZE-MS/MS analysis using 1 M acetic acid as the background electrolyte. This combination of basic elution and acidic background electrolytes results in both sample stacking and formation of a dynamic pH junction. 369 protein groups and 1274 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus laevis zygote homogenate, which is comparable with an offline sample preparation method, but the time required for sample preparation was decreased from over 24 h to less than 40 min. Dramatically improved performance was produced by coupling the reactor to a longer separation capillary (∼100 cm) and a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer. 975 protein groups and 3749 peptides were identified from 50 ng of Xenopus protein using the online sample preparation method.

  14. Distribution of 14 elements from two solutions simulating Hanford HLW Tank 102-SY (acid-dissolved sludge and acidified supernate) on four cation exchange resins and five anion exchange resins having different functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.


    As part of the Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated a series of cation exchange and anion exchange resins for their ability to remove hazardous components from radioactive high-level waste (HLW). The anion exchangers were Reillex TM HPQ, a polyvinyl pyridine resin, and four strong-base polystyrene resins having trimethyl, tri ethyl, tri propyl, and tributyl amine as their respective functional groups. The cation exchange resins included Amberlyst TM 15 and Amberlyst tM XN-1010 with sulfonic acid functionality, Duolite TM C-467 with phosphonic acid functionality, and poly functional Diphonix TM with di phosphonic acid, sulfonic acid, and carboxylic acid functionalities. We measured the distributions of 14 elements on these resins from solutions simulating acid-dissolved sludge (pH 0.6) and acidified supernate (pH 3.5) from underground storage tank 102-SY at the Hanford Reservation near Richland, Washington, USA. To these simulants, we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Ce, Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y), actinides (U, Pu, and Am), and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Zr). For each of the 252 element/resin/solution combinations, distribution coefficients (Kds) were measured for dynamic contact periods of 30 minutes, 2 hours, and 6 hours to obtain information about sorption kinetics from these complex media. Because we measured the sorption of many different elements, the tabulated results indicate which unwanted elements are most likely to interfere with the sorption of elements of special interest. On the basis of these 756 measured Kd values, we conclude that some of the tested resins appear suitable for partitioning hazardous components from Hanford HLW. (author). 10 refs., 11 tabs

  15. Removal and Recovery of Chromium from Solutions Simulating Tannery Wastewater by Strong Acid Cation Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulten Cetin


    Full Text Available The process in this study was conducted on removal of chromium(III in a solution simulating a typical spent chrome tanning bath by the resin having matrix of styrene-divinylbenzene-based macroporous sulphonate, Amberjet 1200Na. The column experiments were carried out with the bed volumes of the resin as 751 mL and 1016 mL for different installation systems of the laboratory-scale pilot plant. The feeding solutions in the bed volumes of 200 and 190 were used for each installation system. The regeneration behaviour of the resin was determined by using reverse regeneration procedure with the solution of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline. The regeneration kinetics of the exhausted resin was examined with a range of the solutions having different concentration series of the alkaline hydrogen peroxide. The solutions of the basic chromium sulphate were recycled for each installation system following the regeneration cycles. The chromium ions in effluent were quantitatively eluted, and satisfactory removal of chromium(III and recovery of chromium(VI were achieved.

  16. Removal and Recovery of Chromium from Solutions Simulating Tannery Wastewater by Strong Acid Cation Exchanger


    Cetin, Gulten; Kocaoba, Sevgi; Akcin, Goksel


    The process in this study was conducted on removal of chromium(III) in a solution simulating a typical spent chrome tanning bath by the resin having matrix of styrene-divinylbenzene-based macroporous sulphonate, Amberjet 1200Na. The column experiments were carried out with the bed volumes of the resin as 751 mL and 1016 mL for different installation systems of the laboratory-scale pilot plant. The feeding solutions in the bed volumes of 200 and 190 were used for each installation system. The ...

  17. Magnesium isotope fractionation in cation-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, T.; Yanase, S.; Kakihana, H.


    Band displacement chromatography of magnesium has been carried out successfully for the purpose of magnesium isotope separation by using a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin and the strontium ion as the replacement ion. A small but definite accumulation of the heavier isotopes ( 25 Mg, 26 Mg) has been observed at the front parts of the magnesium chromatograms. The heavier isotopes have been fractionated preferentially into the solution phase. The single-stage separation factors have been calculated for the 25 Mg/ 24 Mg and 26 Mg/ 24 isotopic pairs at 25 0 C. The reduced partition function ratios of magnesium species involved in the present study have been estimated

  18. Effect of the intercalated cation-exchanged on the properties of nanocomposites prepared by 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid with aniline and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toumi, I. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Benyoucef, A., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Yahiaoui, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique, Macromoleculaire et des Materiaux, Universite de Mascara, Bp 763 Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Quijada, C. [Departamento de Ingenieria Textil y Papelera, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Pza Ferrandiz i Carbonel, E-03801 Alcoy, Alicante (Spain); Morallon, E. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Materiales, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)


    Polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared. Intercalation of 2-aminobenzene sulfonic acid with aniline monomers into montmorillonite modified by cation was followed by subsequent oxidative polymerization of monomers in the interlayer spacing. The clay was prepared by cation exchange process between sodium cation in (M-Na) and copper cation (M-Cu). XRD analyses show the manifestation of a basal spacing (d-spacing) for M-Cu changes depending on the inorganic cation and the polymer intercalated in the M-Cu structure. TGA analyses reveal that polymer/M-Cu composites is less stable than M-Cu. The conductivity of the composites is found to be 10{sup 3} times higher than that for M-Cu. The microscopic examinations including TEM picture of the nanocomposite demonstrated an entirely different and more compatible morphology. Remarkable differences in the properties of the polymers have also been observed by UV-Vis and FTIR, suggesting that the polymer produced with presence of aniline has a higher degree of branching. The electrochemical behavior of the polymers extracted from the nanocomposites has been studied by cyclic voltammetry which indicates the electroactive effect of nanocomposite gradually increased with aniline in the polymer chain.

  19. Homogeneous cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolhe, Shailesh M.; G, Agathian; Ashok Kumar


    Preparation of a strong cation exchange membrane by radiation grafting of styrene on to polyethylene (LDPE) film by mutual irradiation technique in the presence of air followed by sulfonation is described. The grafting has been carried out in the presence of air and without any additive. Low dose rate has been seen to facilitate the grafting. Further higher the grafting percentage more is the exchange capacity. The addition of a swelling agent during the sulfonation helped in achieving the high exchange capacity. The TGA-MASS analysis confirmed the grafting and the sulfonation. (author)

  20. Direct modification of hydrogen/deuterium-terminated diamond particles with polymers to form reversed and strong cation exchange solid phase extraction sorbents. (United States)

    Yang, Li; Jensen, David S; Vail, Michael A; Dadson, Andrew; Linford, Matthew R


    We describe direct polymer attachment to hydrogen and deuterium-terminated diamond (HTD and DTD) surfaces using a radical initiator (di-tert-amyl peroxide, DTAP), a reactive monomer (styrene) and a crosslinking agent (divinylbenzene, DVB) to create polystyrene encapsulated diamond. Chemisorbed polystyrene is sulfonated with sulfuric acid in acetic acid. Surface changes were followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). Finally, both polystyrene-modified DTD and sulfonated styrene-modified DTD were used in solid phase extraction (SPE). Percent recovery and column capacity were investigated for both phenyl (polystyrene) and sulfonic acid treated polystyrene SPE columns. These diamond-based SPE supports are stable under basic conditions, which is not the case for silica-based SPE supports. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. The elution of erbium from a cation exchanger bed by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine triacetic acid; Mecanismo de la elucion del erbio en un cambiador cationico con el acido n-hidroxietil-etilen-diamono-triacetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer Amezaga, S.


    A physicochemical study of the phenomena resulting when erbium is eluted from a cation-exchanger bed at a steady by means of the N-hydroxyethyl-ethylene-diamine-triacetic acid (HEDTA) is made. Two different retaining beds are used, a hydrogen bed, in which no ammonium passes through, and a zinc bed, which leaks ammonium ion. Good agreement between experimental and calculated values by using the equations deduced for the concentrations of the main species has been achieved, with errors around 1-2% in most of the experiments. (Author) 69 refs.

  2. Test procedure for cation exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.D.


    The purpose of this test plan is to demonstrate the synthesis of inorganic antimonate ion exchangers and compare their performance against the standard organic cation exchangers. Of particular interest is the degradation rate of both inorganic and organic cation exchangers. This degradation rate will be tracked by determining the ion exchange capacity and thermal stability as a function of time, radiation dose, and chemical reaction

  3. A weak cation-exchange monolith as stationary phase for the separation of peptide diastereomers by CEC. (United States)

    Ludewig, Ronny; Nietzsche, Sandor; Scriba, Gerhard K E


    A CEC weak cation-exchange monolith has been prepared by in situ polymerization of acrylamide, methylenebisacrylamide and 4-acrylamidobutyric acid in a decanol-dimethylsulfoxide mixture as porogen. The columns were evaluated by SEM and characterized with regard to the separation of diastereomers and α/β-isomers of aspartyl peptides. Column preparation was reproducible as evidenced by comparison of the analyte retention times of several columns prepared simultaneously. Analyte separation was achieved using mobile phases consisting of acidic phosphate buffer and ACN. Under these conditions the peptides migrated due to their electrophoretic mobility but the EOF also contributed as driving force as a function of the pH of the mobile phase due to increasing dissociation of the carboxyl groups of the polymer. Raising the pH of the mobile phase also resulted in deprotonation of the peptides reducing analyte mobility. Due to these mechanisms each pair of diastereomeric peptides displayed the highest resolution at a different pH of the buffer component of the mobile phase. Comparing the weak-cation exchange monolith to an RP monolith and a strong cation-exchange monolith different elution order of some peptide diastereomers was observed, clearly illustrating that interactions with the stationary phase contribute to the CEC separations. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Separation of Gram-amounts of Lanthanides by Cation Exchange, using an aqueous Solution of α-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid as an Eluant. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, H.A.; Hoede, D.; Stigt, Ch.A. van; Zonderhuis, J.


    This report describes a procedure developed for the mutual separation of gram quantities of the lanthanides present in solutions of thermal fission products. A second aim was the purification of ''crude'' 147 Pm-sources. The method is based on column chromatography on Dowex - 50 W (50 - 100 mesh) with an aqueous solution of a-hydroxyisobutyric acid (AHIB) as an eluant. Due to the radioactivity of the samples, the process has to be performed in a shielded glove-box. Consequently, a considerably economy was exercised with respect to the volume of the apparatus. The process was successfully tested with labeled artificial mixtures of 20 grammes of the rare earths involved. The method has been applied to the purification of batches of ''crude'' 147 Pm. (author)

  5. Cobalt 60 cation exchange with mexican clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava Galve, R.G.


    Mexican clays can be used to remove radioactive elements from contaminated aqueous solutions. Cation exchange experiments were performed with 60 Co radioactive solution. In the present work the effect of contact time on the sorption of Co 2+ was studied. The contact time in hydrated montmorillonite was from 5 to 120 minutes and in dehydrated montmorillonite 5 to 1400 minutes. The Co 2+ uptake value was, in hydrated montmorillonite, between 0.3 to 0.85 m eq/g and in dehydrated montmorillonite, between 0.6 to 1.40 m eq/g. The experiments were done in a pH 5.1 to 5.7 and normal conditions. XRD patterns were used to characterize the samples. The crystallinity was determined by X-ray Diffraction and it was maintained before and after the cation exchange. DTA thermo grams showed the temperatures of the lost humidity and crystallization water. Finally, was observed that dehydrated montmorillonite adsorb more cobalt than hydrated montmorillonite. (Author)

  6. A determination method of Ru, Rh and Pd in high-level liquid waste (HLLW) by cation exchange separation and ICP-AES measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Desheng; Duan Shirong; Qin Fengzhou; Li Jinying; Zhang Huaili


    The authors describe a determination method of Ru, Rh and Pd in HLLW with cation-exchange separation and ICP-AES measurement. A sample of HLLW was treated with the hydrochloride acid containing enough sodium chloride, then passed through a strongly acidic cation-exchange resin column, the Ru, Rh and Pd as chloro-complexes go to the eluate while the interference elements are absorbed on the resins in the column. The Ru, Rh and Pd are collected and determined by ICP-AES. The obtained results show that the recovery is 90% and the relative standard deviation is 6% as the Ru content within the range (35-230) x 10 -6 ; the recovery is 106% and RSD is 10% as the Rh content within (2-20) x 10 -6 ; and the recovery of Pd is 72% as its content less than 2 x 10 -6

  7. Cation Exchange in the Presence of Oil in Porous Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farajzadeh, R.; Guo, H.; van Winden, J.L.; Bruining, J.


    Cation exchange is an interfacial process during which cations on a clay surface are replaced by other cations. This study investigates the effect of oil type and composition on cation exchange on rock surfaces, relevant for a variety of oil-recovery processes. We perform experiments in which brine

  8. Thermochemical stability of Soviet macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rukhlyada, N.N.; Plotnikova, V.P.; Roginskaya, B.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Zavodovskaya, A.S.; Dobrova, E.I.


    The purpose of this work was to study the influence of macroporosity on the thermochemical stability of sulfonated cation-exchangers. The investigations were carried out on commercial macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers based on styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers. Study of the thermochemical stability of macroporous sulfonated cation-exchangers in dilute hydrogen peroxide solutions showed that the type of macroporosity has virtually no influence on their stability. The determining factor in thermal stability of macroporous cation-exchangers, as of the gel type, is the degree of cross-linking of the polymer matrix. The capacity loss of macroporous cation-exchangers during oxidative thermolysis is caused by destruction of the macromolecular skeleton and elution of fragments of polar chains containing sulfo groups into the solution.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy and thermal analysis of prepared cation exchangers from cellulosic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, A.M.A.; EI-Sherief, S.; Nasr, A.; Kamel, M.


    Different cation exchangers were prepared by incorporation of phosphate and sulfate groups into acid or alkali treated wood pulp. The molecular structure of these cation exchangers were followed by infrared spectroscopy and thermal degradation analysis technique. From infrared spectra, a new bands are seen at 1200 and 980 cm-1 in phosphorylated wood pulp due to the formation of C-O-P bond. Another bands were seen at 1400, 1200 and 980 cm-1 in phospho sulfonated wood pulp due to the formation of CO- P and C-O-S bonds. Also, it is seen from infrared spectra that the crystallinity index for acid treated wood pulp has a higher value than untreated and alkali treated wood pulp. On the other hand, the acid treated and phosphorylated acid treated wood pulp have a higher activation energy than untreated and phosphorylated alkali treated wood pulp

  10. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chih-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Zhaohui, E-mail: [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin - Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Jiang, Wei-Teh, E-mail: [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)


    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca{sup 2+} as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK{sub a2} (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d{sub 001}) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water.

  11. Cation exchange interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite. (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Jen; Li, Zhaohui; Jiang, Wei-Teh; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Liu, Chia-Chuan


    Exploring the interactions between antibiotics and soils/minerals is of great importance in resolving their fate, transport, and elimination in the environment due to their frequent detection in wastewater, river water, sewage sludge and soils. This study focused on determining the adsorption properties and mechanisms of interaction between antibiotic ciprofloxacin and montmorillonite (SAz-1), a swelling dioctahedral mineral with Ca(2+) as the main interlayer cation. In acidic and neutral aqueous solutions, a stoichiometric exchange between ciprofloxacin and interlayer cations yielded an adsorption capacity as high as 330 mg/g, corresponding to 1.0 mmol/g. When solution pH was above its pK(a2) (8.7), adsorption of ciprofloxacin was greatly reduced due to the net repulsion between the negatively charged clay surfaces and the ciprofloxacin anion. The uptake of ciprofloxacin expanded the basal spacing (d(001)) of montmorillonite from 15.04 to 17.23 A near its adsorption capacity, confirming cation exchange within the interlayers in addition to surface adsorption. Fourier transform infrared results further suggested that the protonated amine group of ciprofloxacin in its cationic form was electrostatically attracted to negatively charged sites of clay surfaces, and that the carboxylic acid group was hydrogen bonded to the basal oxygen atoms of the silicate layers. The results indicate that montmorillonite is an effective sorbent to remove ciprofloxacin from water. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper experimentally investigates the performance and capacity of Purolite C100E commercial resin recommended for water softening applications in the food industry. The practical ion exchange capacity and the softening process efficiency are studied in batch mode as a function of the sorption specific process factors. Optimum operation conditions were determined as initial pH 7.1, resin dose 8 g dry resin•L-1, temperature 25 oC, contact time of 360 min, and in those conditions the retention capacity for the Ca2+ ions is 17.18 mg•g-1 that corresponds to a removal efficiency equal to 85.7%.

  13. Destruction of gel sulfonated cation-exchangers of the KU-2 type under the influence of hydrogen peroxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roginskaya, B.S.; Zavadovskaya, A.S.; Znamenskii, Yu.P.; Paskhina, N.A.; Dobrova, E.I.


    The purpose of this work was to study the mechanism of interaction of Soviet sulfonated cation-exchangers of the KU-2 type with hydrogen peroxide. It is shown that under the influence of hydrogen peroxide sulfonated cation-exchangers begin, after a certain induction period, to lose capacity and to release destruction products into water; the length of the induction period increases with the degree of cross-linking. In a given time of contact between the resin and the solution the degree of destruction falls with increase of cross-linking. The principal product of destruction of sulfonated cation-exchangers is an aromatic sulfonic acid containing oxidized groups in the side chains.

  14. The colloid fraction and cation-exchange capacity in the soils of Vojvodina, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available The colloidal complex of soil consists of humus and clay, the most important acidoids which are able to create the bonds between oppositely charged ions (cations through the forces strong enough to provide protection from leaching, and also weak enough to enable absorption through the plant root. This ability becomes more pronounced if the degree of dispersity is higher, i.e. if particles have smaller diameters. Total of 435 soil samples were collected from the surface horizon in 2011, for the purpose of soil fertility control in Vojvodina and prevention of its possible degradation in broader terms. This paper presents a part of study through selected representative soil samples, related to the research results of mechanical composition, basic chemical properties, and cation-exchange capacity in the most frequent types of soils in North Bačka and Banat (chernozem, fluvisol, semiglay, humoglay, solonchak, solonetz, due to the fact that soil fertility and its ecological function in environment protection largely depend on the studied properties. The average content of clay was 25.26%, ranging from 5.76 to 49.44%, the average content of humus was 3.10%, ranging between 1.02 and 4.30%, while the average value of CEC was 27.30 cmol/kg, ranging between 12.03 and 46.06 cmol/kg. Soils with higher content of clay and humus have greater cation-exchange capacity. According to the established average values of CEC in cmol/kg, the order of soil types is as follows: solonetz (40.06, semiglay (31.98, humoglay (30.98, solonchak (26.62, chernozem (22.72, and fluvisol (22.40. Research results have shown that cation-exchange capacity depends on clay fraction and humus content. Higher correlation coefficient between CEC and clay, compared to CEC and humus, indicates that clay content compared to humus content has greater effect on cation-exchange capacity.

  15. Tuning light emission of PbS nanocrystals from infrared to visible range by cation exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Binetti, Enrico


    Colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, with intense and sharp-line emission between red and near-infrared spectral regions, are of great interest for optoelectronic and bio-imaging applications. The growth of an inorganic passivation layer on nanocrystal surfaces is a common strategy to improve their chemical and optical stability and their photoluminescence quantum yield. In particular, cation exchange is a suitable approach for shell growth at the expense of the nanocrystal core size. Here, the cation exchange process is used to promote the formation of a CdS passivation layer on the surface of very small PbS nanocrystals (2.3 nm in diameter), blue shifting their optical spectra and yielding luminescent and stable nanostructures emitting in the range of 700–850 nm. Structural, morphological and compositional investigation confirms the nanocrystal size contraction after the cation-exchange process, while the PbS rock-salt crystalline phase is retained. Absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrate the growth of a passivation layer with a decrease of the PbS core size, as inferred by the blue-shift of the excitonic peaks. The surface passivation strongly increases the photoluminescence intensity and the excited state lifetime. In addition, the nanocrystals reveal increased stability against oxidation over time. Thanks to their absorption and emission spectral range and the slow recombination dynamics, such highly luminescent nano-objects can find interesting applications in sensitized photovoltaic cells and light-emitting devices.

  16. Fabrication of Cationic Exchange Polystyrene Nanofibers for Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trop J Pharm Res, February 2014; 13(2): 192. Many polymers are used to produce nanofibers by electrospinning. Polystyrene (PS) is one of polymers used to produce cation exchange fibers. [9]. PS nanofibers were successfully produced using the electrospinning method and it has been demonstrated that electrospun PS.

  17. Selective oxidation of propane over cation exchanged zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.


    This thesis focuses on investigation of the fundamental knowledge on a new method for selective oxidation of propane with O2 at low temperature (< 100°C). The relation between propane catalytic selective oxidation and physicochemical properties of cation exchanged Y zeolite has been studied. An

  18. Étude de la technique d'échange ionique avec compétition. Cas du dépôt de platine sur support solide acide par échange cationique Research on the Ion Exchange Technique with Competition. Case of Platinum Deposit on a Solid Acid Support by Cation Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro F.


    Full Text Available Cet article présente une étude détaillée de la technique de dépôt de platine sur support acide par échange cationique avec compétition. Cette technique permet d'obtenir à la fois une dispersion quasi atomique et une répartition macroscopique homogène du métal sur la surface du solide. En l'absence de limitations diffusionnelles extra-granulaires, les résultats expérimentaux sont en bon accord avec les prévisions théoriques . This article is a detailed examination of the technique of depositing platinum on an acid support by cation exchange with compétition. This technique produces both a quasi-atomic dispersion and a homogeneous macroscopic distribution of the métal onthe surface of the solid. In the absence of extragranular diffusion limitations, experimental findings are in good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  19. Cation-Exchanged Zeolitic Chalcogenides for CO2 Adsorption. (United States)

    Yang, Huajun; Luo, Min; Chen, Xitong; Zhao, Xiang; Lin, Jian; Hu, Dandan; Li, Dongsheng; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun; Wu, Tao


    We report here the intrinsic advantages of a special family of porous chalcogenides for CO 2 adsorption in terms of high selectivity of CO 2 /N 2 , large uptake capacity, and robust structure due to their first-ever unique integration of the chalcogen-soft surface, high porosity, all-inorganic crystalline framework, and the tunable charge-to-volume ratio of exchangeable cations. Although tuning the CO 2 adsorption properties via the type of exchangeable cations has been well-studied in oxides and MOFs, little is known about the effects of inorganic exchangeable cations in porous chalcogenides, in part because ion exchange in chalcogenides can be very sluggish and incomplete due to their soft character. We have demonstrated that, through a methodological change to progressively tune the host-guest interactions, both facile and nearly complete ion exchange can be accomplished. Herein, a series of cation-exchanged zeolitic chalcogenides (denoted as M@RWY) were studied for the first time for CO 2 adsorption. Samples were prepared through a sequential ion-exchange strategy, and Cs + -, Rb + -, and K + -exchanged samples demonstrated excellent CO 2 adsorption performance. Particularly, K@RWY has the superior CO 2 /N 2 selectivity with the N 2 adsorption even undetected at either 298 or 273 K. It also has the large uptake of 6.3 mmol/g (141 cm 3 /g) at 273 K and 1 atm with an isosteric heat of 35-41 kJ mol -1 , the best among known porous chalcogenides. Moreover, it permits a facile regeneration and exhibits an excellent recyclability, as shown by the multicycling adsorption experiments. Notably, K@RWY also demonstrates a strong tolerance toward water.

  20. Characterisation and applications of synthesised cation exchanger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemically modified guar gum sulphonic acid (GSA) resin was used for removal and pre-concentration of Zn2+, Cd2+, Fe2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions in aqueous solutions and steel industry effluent from Jodhpur, India. This type of ion exchange resin represents a new class of hybrid ion exchangers with higher stability, ...

  1. Quantitative electrochromatography of uranium and platinum on papers impregnated with thorium and antimony based cation exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.K.


    Electrochromatography of 32 metal ions have been studied on papers impregnated with thorium antimonate cation exchanger in aq. organic acids, aq. nitric acid as well as in EDTA buffers. On the basis of differential migration which depends on the ion exchange properties of thorium antimonate and nature of complexes formed with the electrolytes, some useful qualitative and quantitative separations of synthetic mixtures of metal ions have been achieved. The effect of some other physical parameter has also been discussed. Quantitative separation of platinum and uranium has been developed. (author). 13 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  2. Exploration of overloaded cation exchange chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification. (United States)

    Liu, Hui F; McCooey, Beth; Duarte, Tiago; Myers, Deanna E; Hudson, Terry; Amanullah, Ashraf; van Reis, Robert; Kelley, Brian D


    Cation exchange chromatography using conventional resins, having either diffusive or perfusive flow paths, operated in bind-elute mode has been commonly employed in monoclonal antibody (MAb) purification processes. In this study, the performance of diffusive and perfusive cation exchange resins (SP-Sepharose FF (SPSFF) and Poros 50HS) and a convective cation exchange membrane (Mustang S) and monolith (SO(3) Monolith) were compared. All matrices were utilized in an isocratic state under typical binding conditions with an antibody load of up to 1000 g/L of chromatographic matrix. The dynamic binding capacity of the cation exchange resins is typically below 100 g/L resin, so they were loaded beyond the point of anticipated MAb break through. All of the matrices performed similarly in that they effectively retained host cell protein and DNA during the loading and wash steps, while antibody flowed through each matrix after its dynamic binding capacity was reached. The matrices differed, though, in that conventional diffusive and perfusive chromatographic resins (SPSFF and Poros 50HS) demonstrated a higher binding capacity for high molecular weight species (HMW) than convective flow matrices (membrane and monolith); Poros 50HS displayed the highest HMW binding capacity. Further exploration of the conventional chromatographic resins in an isocratic overloaded mode demonstrated that the impurity binding capacity was well maintained on Poros 50HS, but not on SPSFF, when the operating flow rate was as high as 36 column volumes per hour. Host cell protein and HMW removal by Poros 50HS was affected by altering the loading conductivity. A higher percentage of host cell protein removal was achieved at a low conductivity of 3 mS/cm. HMW binding capacity was optimized at 5 mS/cm. Our data from runs on Poros 50HS resin also showed that leached protein A and cell culture additive such as gentamicin were able to be removed under the isocratic overloaded condition. Lastly, a MAb

  3. Cation Exchange in the Presence of Oil in Porous Media. (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Guo, H; van Winden, J; Bruining, J


    Cation exchange is an interfacial process during which cations on a clay surface are replaced by other cations. This study investigates the effect of oil type and composition on cation exchange on rock surfaces, relevant for a variety of oil-recovery processes. We perform experiments in which brine with a different composition than that of the in situ brine is injected into cores with and without remaining oil saturation. The cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of the rocks was calculated using PHREEQC software (coupled to a multipurpose transport simulator) with the ionic composition of the effluent histories as input parameters. We observe that in the presence of crude oil, ion exchange is a kinetically controlled process and its rate depends on residence time of the oil in the pore, the temperature, and kinetic rate of adsorption of the polar groups on the rock surface. The cation-exchange process occurs in two stages during two phase flow in porous media. Initially, the charged sites of the internal surface of the clays establish a new equilibrium by exchanging cations with the aqueous phase. At later stages, the components of the aqueous and oleic phases compete for the charged sites on the external surface or edges of the clays. When there is sufficient time for crude oil to interact with the rock (i.e., when the core is aged with crude oil), a fraction of the charged sites are neutralized by the charged components stemming from crude oil. Moreover, the positively charged calcite and dolomite surfaces (at the prevailing pH environment of our experiments) are covered with the negatively charged components of the crude oil and therefore less mineral dissolution takes place when oil is present in porous media.

  4. Effect of hydroxide polymenrs on cation exchange of montmorillonite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.P.T.; Bruggenwert, M.G.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.


    Al hydroxide polymers (AlHO) can significantly influence the cation exchange behaviour of clays. We have determined the effect of synthesized AlHO on Ca¿Na, Zn¿Na and Pb¿Na exchange for a series of exchanger compositions and two Al loadings at pH 6.0 and an ionic strength of 0.01 m. The preference

  5. Selective Facet Reactivity During Cation Exchange in Cadmium Sulfide Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis; Zheng, Haimei; Hughes, Steven; Merkle, Maxwell; Dahmen, Ulrich; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    The partial transformation of ionic nanocrystals through cation exchange has been used to synthesize nanocrystal heterostructures. We demonstrate that the selectivity for cation exchange to take place at different facets of the nanocrystal plays an important role in determining the resulting morphology of the binary heterostructure. In the case of copper I (Cu+) cation exchange in cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods, the reaction starts preferentially at the ends of the nanorods such that copper sulfide (Cu2S) grows inwards from either end. The resulting morphology is very different from the striped pattern obtained in our previous studies of silver I (Ag+) exchange in CdS nanorods where non-selective nucleation of silver sulfide (Ag2S) occurs. From interface formation energies calculated for several models of epitaxialconnections between CdS and Cu2S or Ag2S, we infer the relative stability of each interface during the nucleation and growth of Cu2S or Ag2S within the CdS nanorods. The epitaxial connections of Cu2S to the end facets of CdS nanorods minimize the formation energy, making these interfaces stable throughout the exchange reaction. However, as the two end facets of wurtzite CdS nanorods are crystallographically nonequivalent, asymmetric heterostructures can be produced.

  6. Assessing the role of cation exchange in controlling groundwater chemistry during fluid mixing in fractured granite at Aespoe, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.


    Geochemical modeling was used to simulate the mixing of dilute shallow groundwater with deeper more saline groundwater in the fractured granite of the Redox Zone at the Aespoe underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). Fluid mixing simulations were designed to assess the role that cation exchange plays in controlling the composition of fluids entering the HRL via fracture flow. Mixing simulations included provision for the effects of mineral precipitation and cation exchange on fluid composition. Because the predominant clay mineral observed in fractures in the Redox Zone has been identified as illite or mixed layer illite smectite, an exchanger with the properties of illite was used to simulate cation exchange. Cation exchange on illite was modeled using three exchange sites, a planar or basal plane site with properties similar to smectite, and two edge sites that have very high affinities for K, Rb, and Cs. Each site was assumed to obey an ideal Vanselow exchange model, and exchange energies for each site were taken from the literature. The predicted behaviors of Na, Ca, and Mg during mixing were similar to those reported in a previous study in which smectite was used as the model for the exchanger. The trace elements Cs and Rb were predicted to be strongly associated with the illite exchanger, and the predicted concentrations of Cs in fracture fill were in reasonable agreement with reported chemical analyses of exchangeable Cs in fracture fill. The results of the geochemical modeling suggest that Na, Ca, and Sr concentrations in the fluid phase may be controlled by cation exchange reactions that occur during mixing, but that Mg appears to behave conservatively. There is currently not enough data to make conclusions regarding the behavior of Cs and Rb

  7. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  8. Applications of pressurized cation exchange chromatography for fission yield determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shuheng; Lin Fa; Zhang Hongdi; Li Xueliang; Zhang Shulan


    In order to determine the fission yields of lanthanides precisely, lanthanides with carriers of 1-2 mg per element are separated from each other by means of pressurized cation exchange chromatography - αHIBA concentration gradient elution. The effect of initial loading technique, concentration gradient, flow rate, and temperature on separation were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions adapted according to the results given in this work, all the lanthanides can be completely separated within about 90 minutes with a recovery of more than 95% and purity higher than 99%. (author) 3 refs.; 6 figs

  9. Separation behavior of U(VI) and Th(IV) on a cation exchange column using 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid as a complexing agent and its application for the rapid separation and determination of U and Th by ion chromatography. (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Mishra, Vivekchandra Guruprasad; Das, Mrinal Kanti; Raut, Vaibhavi Vishwajeet; Sawant, Ramesh Mahadev; Ramakumar, Karanam Lakshminarayana


    The retention behavior of U and Th as their 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (PDCA) complexes on a cation exchange column was investigated under low pH conditions. Based on the observed retention characteristics, an ion chromatographic method for the rapid separation of uranium and thorium in isocratic elution mode using 0.08 mM PDCA and 0.24 M KNO(3) in 0.22 M HNO(3) as the eluent was developed. Both uranium and thorium were eluted as their PDCA complexes within 2 min, whereas the transition and lanthanide metal cations were eluted as an unresolved broad peak after thorium. Under the optimized conditions both U and Th have no interference either from alkali and alkaline earth elements up to a concentration ratio of 1:500 or from other elements up to 1:100. The detection limits (LOD) of U and Th were calculated as 0.04 and 0.06 ppm, respectively (S/N=3). The precision in the measurement of peak area of 0.5 ppm of both U and Th was better than 5% and a linear calibration in the concentration range of 0.25-25 ppm of U and Th was obtained. The method was successfully applied to determine U and Th in effluent water samples. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Cation Exchange Capacity of Biochar: An urgent method modification (United States)

    Munera, Jose; Martinsen, Vegard; Mulder, Jan; Tau Strand, Line; Cornelissen, Gerard


    A better understanding of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) values of biochar and its acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) is crucial when tailoring a single biochar for a particular soil and crop. Literature values for the CEC of biochar are surprisingly variable, commonly ranging from 5 to 50 cmol+/Kg even as high as 69 to 204 cmol+/Kg and often poorly reproducible, suggesting methodological problems. Ashes and very fine pores in biochar may complicate the analysis and thus compromise the results. Here, we modify and critically assess different steps in a common method for CEC determination in biochar and investigate how the measured CEC may be affected by slow cation diffusion from micro-pores. We modified the existing ammonium acetate (NH4-OAc) method (buffered at pH 7), based on displaced ammonium (NH4+) in potassium chloride (KCl) extracts after removing excess NH4-OAc with alcohol in batch mode. We used pigeon pea biochar (produced at 350 ˚C; particle size 0.5mm to 2mm) to develop the method and we tested its reproducibility in biochars with different ANC. The biochar sample (1.00g) was pH-adjusted to 7 after 2 days of equilibration, using hydrochloric acid (HCl), and washed with water until the conductivity of the water was replacing cations (NH4+ and K+) in micro-pores, we equilibrated the biochar with NH4-OAc for 1 and 7 days, and after washing with alcohol, for 1, 3 and 7 days with KCl. The effects of the washing volume of alcohol (15, 30 and 45 ml) and of the biochar to NH4OAc solution ratio (1:15, 1:30 and 1:45) were also tested. The CEC values were corrected for dry matter content and mass losses during the process. Results indicate that the measured CEC values of the modified method were highly reproducible and that 1 day shaking with NH4OAc and KCl is enough to saturate the exchange sites with NH4+ and subsequently with K+. The biochar to NH4OAc solution ratio did not affect the measured CEC. Three washings with at least 15 ml alcohol are required to

  11. The role of cell walls and pectins in cation exchange and surface area of plant roots. (United States)

    Szatanik-Kloc, A; Szerement, J; Józefaciuk, G


    We aimed to assess role of cell walls in formation of cation exchange capacity, surface charge, surface acidity, specific surface, water adsorption energy and surface charge density of plant roots, and to find the input of the cell wall pectins to the above properties. Whole roots, isolated cell walls and the residue after the extraction of pectins from the cell walls of two Apiaceae L. species (celeriac and parsnip) were studied using potentiometric titration curves and water vapor adsorption - desorption isotherms. Total amount of surface charge, as well as the cation exchange capacity were markedly higher in roots than in their cell walls, suggesting large contribution of other cell organelles to the binding of cations by the whole root cells. Significantly lower charge of the residues after removal of pectins was noted indicating that pectins play the most important role in surface charge formation of cell walls. The specific surface was similar for all of the studied materials. For the separated cell walls it was around 10% smaller than of the whole roots, and it increased slightly after the removal of pectins. The surface charge density and water vapor adsorption energy were the highest for the whole roots and the lowest for the cell walls residues after removal of pectins. The results indicate that the cell walls and plasma membranes are jointly involved in root ion exchange and surface characteristics and their contribution depends upon the plant species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Kikuo


    Not only inorganic and organic compounds but also natural substrances, such as accumulations in soil, are completely decomposed and distilled by heating with strong phosphoric acid for 30 to 50 minutes. As applications of strong phosphoric acid to radiochemistry, determination of uranium and boron by use of solubilization effect of this substance, titration of uranyl ion by use of sulfuric iron (II) contained in this substance, application to tracer experiment, and determination of radioactive ruthenium in environmental samples are reviewed. Strong phosphoric acid is also applied to activation analysis, for example, determination of N in pyrographite with iodate potassium-strong phosphoric acid method, separation of Os and Ru with sulfuric cerium (IV) - strong phosphoric acid method or potassium dechromate-strong phosphoric acid method, analysis of Se, As and Sb rocks and accumulations with ammonium bromide, sodium chloride and sodium bromide-strong phosphoric acid method. (Kanao, N.)

  13. Simplified in vitro refolding and purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor using protein folding cation exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Vemula, Sandeep; Dedaniya, Akshay; Thunuguntla, Rahul; Mallu, Maheswara Reddy; Parupudi, Pavani; Ronda, Srinivasa Reddy


    Protein folding-strong cation exchange chromatography (PF-SCX) has been employed for efficient refolding with simultaneous purification of recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). To acquire a soluble form of renatured and purified rhG-CSF, various chromatographic conditions, including the mobile phase composition and pH was evaluated. Additionally, the effects of additives such as urea, amino acids, polyols, sugars, oxidizing agents and their amalgamations were also investigated. Under the optimal conditions, rhG-CSF was efficaciously solubilized, refolded and simultaneously purified by SCX in a single step. The experimental results using ribose (2.0M) and arginine (0.6M) combination were found to be satisfactory with mass yield, purity and specific activity of 71%, ≥99% and 2.6×10(8)IU/mg respectively. Through this investigation, we concluded that the SCX refolding method was more efficient than conventional methods which has immense potential for the large-scale production of purified rhG-CSF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Radial variations in cation exchange capacity and base saturation rate in the wood of pedunculate oak and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbauts, J.; Penninckx, V.; Gruber, W.; Meerts, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Laboratoire de genetique et d' ecologie vegetales, Brussels (Belgium)


    Visual observation of pedunculate oak trees and European beech trees in a mixed forest stand in the Belgian Ardennes revealed decreasing cation concentration profiles in wood. In order to determine whether these profiles are attributable to endogenous factors or to decreased availability of cations in the soil, radial profiles of water-soluble, exchangeable and total cations were investigated. Cation exchange capacity of wood was also determined. Results showed wood cation exchange capacity to decrease from pith to bark in European beech and from pith to outer heartwood in pedunculate oak. Decreasing profiles of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in peduncular oak and exchangeable calcium in European beech were found to be strongly constrained by cation exchange capacity, and thus not related to environmental change. Base cation saturation rate showed no consistent radial change in either species. It was concluded that the results did not provide convincing evidence to attribute the decrease in divalent cation concentration in pedunculate oak and European beech in this location to be due to atmospheric pollution. 42 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  15. Esterification of maleic acid and butanol using cationic exchange ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    :// ... Various parameters deciding the conversion of reaction such as mole ratio, catalyst loading, molecular sieves, speed of agitation and effect of temperature were optimized for the ...

  16. Evaluation of a Weakly Cationic Exchange Poly (Methacrylic Acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Tablets made from PMD (thickness: 3.54 - 4.46 mm) were thicker than those of MCC (2.93 - 3.33 mm). At compression pressures ≥ 309 MPa, the crushing strength of PMD tablets was so high that it exceeded the capacity of the tester (500 N). PMD tablets rapidly disintegrated (0.43 - 9.56 min), but MCC tablets did ...

  17. Enhanced desorption of Cs from clays by a polymeric cation-exchange agent. (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Kim, Bo Hyun; Yang, Hee-Man; Seo, Bum-Kyoung; Lee, Kune-Woo


    We report on a new approach to increase the removal of cesium from contaminated clays based on the intercalation of a cationic polyelectrolyte into the clay interlayers. A highly charged cationic polyelectrolyte, polyethyleneimine (PEI), was shown to intercalate into the negatively charged interlayers and readily replaced Cs ions adsorbed on the interlayers of montmorillonite. The polycation desorbed significantly more Cs strongly bound to the clay than did single cations. Moreover, additional NH 4 + treatment following the PEI treatment enhanced desorption of Cs ions that were less accessible by the bulky polyelectrolyte. This synergistic effect of PEI with NH 4 + yielded efficient desorption (95%) of an extremely low concentration of radioactive 137 Cs in the clay, which is very difficult to remove by simple cation-exchange methods due to the increased stability of the binding of Cs to the clay at low Cs concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced Transport of U(Vi) and Th(IV) Through Cation Exchange Membrane Using Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, E.E.; Aly, H.F.


    Transport of ionic species through ion exchange membrane found several applications for water effluents purification and metal ion separation. To enhance the transport performance, the effect of electric field was introduced in this work. The transport of U (Vi) and Th(IV) species in nitric acid solutions across cation exchange membrane was investigated. In this concern, different parameters affecting the transport were studied. These parameters include; nitric acid concentration in the feed solution, stripping solution concentration and applied electric field. From the results obtained the permeability coefficient of U(Vi) and Th(IV) were calculated. Based on these information, a process for separation of thorium from uranium is developed

  19. Using satellite data for soil cation exchange capacity studies (United States)

    Ghaemi, M.; Astaraei, A. R.; Sanaeinejad, S. H.; Zare, H.


    This study was planned to examine the use of LandSat ETM+ images to develop a model for monitoring spatial variability of soil cation exchange capacity in a semi-arid area of Neyshaboor. 300 field data were collected from specific GPS registered points, 277 of which were error free, to be analysed in the soil laboratory.The statistical analysis showed that therewas a small R-Squared value, 0.17, when we used the whole data set. Visual interpretation of the graphs showed a trend among some of the data in the data set. Forty points were filtered based on the trends, and the statistical analysis was repeated for those data. It was discovered that the 40 series were more or less in the same environmental conditions; most of them were located in disturbed soils or abandoned lands with sparse vegetation cover. The soil was classified into high and medium salinity, with variable carbon (1.0 to 1.6%), heavy textured and with high silt and clay. Finally it was concluded that two different models could be fitted in the data based on their spatial dependency. The current models are able to explain spatial variability in almost 45 to 65% of the cases.

  20. Persorption of 35S-labelled cation exchangers in mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedek, W.; Grahl, R.; Mothes, B.; Reuter, H.; Sabrowski, E.; Moehring, M.


    Persorption rates were determined of 35 S-labelled cation exchangers (sulphonated polystyrene-divinyl benzene copolymerisate) in two particle sizes, between 80μm and 125μm and smaller than 45μm in diameter, following oral administration to pigs of one single dose of 5 g / 25 kg body weight. Maximum persorption rates were 5 x 10 -3 after 51 hours and 7 x 10 -4 after 35 days for the larger particle size. For the fine grain sample the persorption rate showed already after 51 hours a lower value of 2 x 10 -3 , after 35 days it reached with 5 x 10 -4 approximately the same value as it was observed with the large grain sample. About 80 per cent of all substance recorded had been absorbed by muscles. Only less than 1 x 10 -4 of water-soluble 35 S activity and less than 2 x 10 -5 of solid particles were recordable from urine and could be, as well, identified directly by means of autoradiography. The number of particles absorbed by fine grain samples was roughly a hundred times higher than that in large grain samples. However, absorbed amounts were approximately the same after 35 days, related to the SO 3 H group active in ion exchange. The conclusion was drawn that no dependence of persorption rates on particle size was any longer detectable, when 35 days had passed. (author)

  1. Iridium containing honeycomb Delafossites by topotactic cation exchange. (United States)

    Roudebush, John H; Ross, K A; Cava, R J


    We report the structure and magnetic properties of two new iridium-based honeycomb Delafossite compounds, Cu3NaIr2O6 and Cu3LiIr2O6, formed by a topotactic cation exchange reaction. The starting materials Na2IrO3 and Li2IrO3, which are based on layers of IrO6 octahedra in a honeycomb lattice separated by layers of alkali ions, are transformed to the title compounds by a topotactic exchange reaction through heating with CuCl below 450 °C; higher temperature reactions cause decomposition. The new compounds display dramatically different magnetic behavior from their parent compounds - Cu3NaIr2O6 has a ferromagnetic like magnetic transition at 10 K, while Cu3LiIr2O6 retains the antiferromagnetic transition temperature of its parent compound but displays significantly stronger dominance of antiferromagnetic coupling between spins. These results reveal that a surprising difference in the magnetic interactions between the magnetic Ir ions has been induced by a change in the non-magnetic interlayer species. A combination of neutron and X-ray powder diffraction is used for the structure refinement of Cu3NaIr2O6 and both compounds are compared to their parent materials.

  2. Method for in situ determination cation exchange capacities of subsurface formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertl, W.H.; Welker, D.W.


    A method is disclosed for the in situ examination of each subsurface formation penetrated by a borehole to ascertain the cation exchange capacity of such formations within a geological region. Natural γ ray logging is used to develop signals functionally related to the total γ radiation and to the potassium-40, uranium and thorium energy-band radiations. A first borehole is traversed by a potential γ ray spectrometer to provide selected measurements of natural γ radiation. Core samples are taken from the logged formation and laboratory tests performed to determine the cation exchange capacity thereof. The cation exchange capacities thus are developed then correlated with selected parameters provided by the γ ray spectrometer to establish functional relationships. Cation exchange capacities of formations in subsequent boreholes within the region are then determined in situ by use of the natural γ ray spectrometer and these established relationships. (author)

  3. Ca-Na cation exchange in zeolite A: a microscopic approach using molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suffritti, G.B.; Demontis, P.; Sale, R.; Gulin-Gonzalez, J.


    Molecular dynamics computer simulation technique was applied to the study of Ca-Na cation exchange in hydrated zeolite A, one of the most widely exploited cation exchange processes in practical applications. The exchange can occur only by breaking and reconstructing the coordination shell of the cations, so that some steps of the mechanism show a high activation energy, even if the overall energy difference between the starting and the final states of the process is relatively small. Therefore, special procedures such as umbrella sampling must be used to force the system to overcome the energy barriers. The cation exchange appeared to follow a highly coordinated mechanism, and a complete exploration of the free-energy hypersurface is required to obtain quantitative results. In this paper some interesting qualitative features of the cation exchange process arc anticipated.

  4. Synthesis of Grafted Hydrogels as Mono-Divalent Cation Exchange and Drug Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arnaouty, M.B.; Eid, M.


    ph-sensitive grafted poly vinyl alcohol-poly acrylic acid (PVA-PAA) hydrogels has been prepared by direct radiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) onto PVA hydrogels. The grafting percent increase as the monomer concentration and irradiation dose increase. The maximum grafting yield was obtained at monomer concentration 50 % and irradiation dose 50 kGy. The swelling, thermogravimetric analysis, activation energy and scanning electron microscope of the grafted copolymer hydrogels were studied. The swelling of co-polymeric hydrogel was studied at different ph, and the gel demonstrate high swelling at ph 6.8. The de swelling of the swollen hydrogel in Ni 2+ and Cu 2+ cations solution was explained on the basis of mono-divalent cation exchange. The hydrogel was loaded by antihistaminic chlorphenamine maleate hydrochloride (CPM) as drug model. The release of (CPM) was faster in stimulated gastric fluid (SGF) of ph 1.1 than in stimulated intestinal fluid (SIF) of ph 6.8

  5. The influence of temperature and P/P0 upon cationic exchange constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.; Vieillard, P.; Gailhanou, H.; Gaboreau, S.; Gaucher, E.C.; Giffaut, E.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. The knowledge of thermodynamic properties of clay minerals forming clay materials is important in the context of a disposal within clayey formations (Callovo-Oxfordian argillite) or for clayey barriers. Different experiments have been previously performed concerning the long term behavior of clay materials, indicating that strong transformations are influenced by the alkaline solutions issued from the cementitious materials. But the first stages of the transformations affect the hydration and exchange capacity of the mineral, which are closely related to their retention properties. This work aims at assessing the influence of temperature and relative humidity upon the thermodynamic functions related to cationic exchange and hydration reactions. It is carried out within the framework of the Thermochimie project, aiming at defining a consistent thermodynamic database for modeling purposes. This work is an extension of the thermodynamic of hydration study carried out by Vieillard et al. (2010). Using the same, regular, solid solution model developed by the authors, we first consider the influence of temperature on the hydration reaction by expressing the hydration constant LogK hyd (T) according to the enthalpy and entropy of hydration and to the gas constant. Predicted isotherms are then compared with experimental data acquired on the MX80 smectite at 40, 60, 75, 90 and 100 deg. C. We now consider a cationic exchange reaction between cations A+ and B+, with z cations per mole of smectite and y2 and y1 mole of water per mole of smectite for A and B end members, respectively. The exchange constant LogK A/B , for a given temperature and relative humidity, is expressed as a function of the difference between anhydrous end members, and of the difference between anhydrous end-members activities. A comparison with room temperature exchange constants derived from experiments suggests that discrepancies are related to

  6. Synthesis and characterization of carboxylic cation exchange bio-resin for heavy metal remediation. (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vihangraj V; Golder, Animes Kumar; Ghosh, Pranab Kumar


    A new carboxylic bio-resin was synthesized from raw arecanut husk through mercerization and ethylenediaminetetraacetic dianhydride (EDTAD) carboxylation. The synthesized bio-resin was characterized using thermogravimetric analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy, proximate & ultimate analyses, mass percent gain/loss, potentiometric titrations, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Mercerization extracted lignin from the vesicles on the husk and EDTAD was ridged in to, through an acylation reaction in dimethylformamide media. The reaction induced carboxylic groups as high as 0.735mM/g and a cation exchange capacity of 2.01meq/g functionalized mercerized husk (FMH). Potentiometric titration data were fitted to a newly developed single-site proton adsorption model (PAM) that gave pKa of 3.29 and carboxylic groups concentration of 0.741mM/g. FMH showed 99% efficiency in Pb(II) removal from synthetic wastewater (initial concentration 0.157mM), for which the Pb(II) binding constant was 1.73×10 3 L/mol as estimated from modified PAM. The exhaustion capacity was estimated to be 18.7mg/g of FMH. Desorption efficiency of Pb(II) from exhausted FMH was found to be about 97% with 0.1N HCl. The FMH simultaneously removed lead and cadmium below detection limit from a real lead acid battery wastewater along with the removal of Fe, Mg, Ni, and Co. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrathin Sicopion Composite Cation-Exchange Membranes: Characteristics and Electrodialytic Performance following a Conditioning Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Ayala-Bribiesca


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the properties of Sicopion membranes: an ultrathin (≈20 μm composite cation-exchange membrane (CEM made from sulphonated poly(ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK containing different levels of sulphonic-functionalized silica particles (SFSPs. Sicopion membranes were conditioned according to the French Normalization Association procedure, consisting in a series of acid and alkaline washes, and their electrodialytic characteristics were compared to an existent commercial food-grade membrane (CMX-SB. Electrical conductivity of Sicopion membranes was higher than that of CMX-SB membranes (9.92 versus 6.98 mS/cm, as well as their water content (34.0 versus 27.6%. As the SFSP level was reduced, the ion-exchange capacity (IEC of Sicopion membranes increased. Concerning their electrodialytic performances, Sicopion membranes presented a lower demineralization rate than CMX-SB membranes (35.9 versus 45.5%, due to an OH− leakage through the pores created by dislodging the SFSP particles during the conditioning procedure.

  8. Independent control of the shape and composition of ionic nanocrystals through sequential cation exchange reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Joseph Matthew; Zheng, Haimei; Sadtler, Bryce; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Size- and shape-controlled nanocrystal growth is intensely researched for applications including electro-optic, catalytic, and medical devices. Chemical transformations such as cation exchange overcome the limitation of traditional colloidal synthesis, where the nanocrystal shape often reflects the inherent symmetry of the underlying lattice. Here we show that nanocrystals, with established synthetic protocols for high monodispersity, can be templates for independent composition control. Specifically, controlled interconversion between wurtzite CdS, chalcocite Cu2S, and rock salt PbS occurs while preserving the anisotropic dimensions unique to the as-synthesized materials. Sequential exchange reactions between the three sulfide compositions are driven by the disparate solubilites of the metal ion exchange pair in specific coordinating molecules. Starting with CdS, highly anisotropic PbS nanorods are created, which serve as an important material for studying strong 2-dimensional quantum confinement, as well as for optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, interesting nanoheterostructures of CdS|PbS are obtained by precise control over ion insertion and removal.

  9. Separation of macro-quantities of actinide elements at Savannah River by high-pressure cation exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burney, G.A.


    Large-scale separation of actinides from fission products and from each other by pressurized cation exchange chromatography at Savannah River is reviewed. Several kilograms of 244 Cm have been separated, with each run containing as much as 150 g of 244 Cm. Dowex 50W-X8 (Dow Chemical Co.) cation resin, graded to 30-70 micron size range, is used, and separation is made by eluting with 0.05M diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) at a pH of 3. The effluent from the column is continuously monitored by a BF 3 detector, a NaI detector, and a lithium-drifted germanium detector and gamma spectrometer to guide collection of product fractions. Operating the columns at 300 to 1000 psi pressure eliminates resin bed disruption caused by radiolytically produced gases, and operating at increased flow rates decreases the radiolytic degradation of the resin per unit of product processed. A portion of the hot canyon of a production radiochemical separation plant was converted from a remote crane-operated facility to a master-slave manipulator-operated facility for separation and purification of actinide elements by pressurized cation exchange. It also contains an evaporator, furnaces, a calorimeter, and several precipitators and associated tanks. Actinide processing from target dissolution to packaging of purified product is planned in this facility

  10. Synthesis, dehydration studies, and cation-exchange behavior of a new phase of niobium(V) phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, M.; Ahmad, A.; Shakeel, N.A.; Gupta, A.P.


    Twenty-three samples of niobium(V) phosphate have been synthesized under different conditions using niobium sulfate and phosphoric acid solutions. The amorphous sample having the ion-exchange capacity of 1.06 mEq g -1 and niobium to phosphorus mole ratio of 0.670 was studied in detail for its cation-exchange behavior. Molar distribution coefficients for 25 cations have been studied on this gel at pH 1,2,3, and 5.5. Four quantitative separations of Mg 2+ -Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ -Ba 2+ , Zn 2+ -Cd 2+ , and Bi 3+ -Zn 2+ have successfully been achieved on it. The properties of this sample have been compared with those of niobium arsenate, niobium antimonate, and niobium molybdate. A tentative structural formula is proposed for this sample of niobium phosphate on the basis of chemical composition, cation-exchange capacity, pH-titration, IR spectra, T.G.A., water absorption, and heat treatment data. (author)

  11. Accurate determination of trace amounts of thorium in silicate rocks by cation-exchange chromatography and spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, A.H.; Strelow, F.W.E.


    Thorium in four of the South African NIMROC standards and in four secondary standards is determined accurately by means of spectrophotometry with arsenazo-III after a selective cation-exchange separation on an AG50W-X4 resin column. All other elements are eluted with 6 M hydrobromic acid before the final elution of thorium with 5 M nitric acid. Small amounts of zirconium which may be present in the thorium eluate, are effectively complexed with oxalic acid which also eliminates the spectrophotometric interferences caused by organic material leached from the resin column. The accuracy and precision of the method are demonstrated by the analysis of synthetic mixtures containing various amounts of thorium. Amounts of 10 and 100 μg of thorium can finally be determined with coefficients of variation of 1% and 0.2%, respectively. (Auth.)

  12. Application of mixed-mode, solid-phase extraction in environmental and clinical chemistry. Combining hydrogen-bonding, cation-exchange and Van der Waals interactions (United States)

    Mills, M.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Pedersen, M.J.


    Silica- and styrene-divinylbenzene-based mixed-mode resins that contain C8, C18 and sulphonated cation-exchange groups were compared for their efficiency in isolation of neutral triazine compounds from water and of the basic drug, benzoylecgonine, from urine. The triazine compounds were isolated by a combination of Van der Waals and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and benzoylecgonine was isolated by Van der Waals interactions and cation exchange. All analytes were eluted with a polar organic solvent contaning 2% ammonium hydroxide. Larger recoveries (95%) were achieved on copolymerized mixed-mode resins where C18 and sulfonic acid are in closer proximity than on 'blended' mixed-mode resins (60-70% recovery).

  13. Pure zeolite exchange to synthetic zeolite characterized by XRD to produce cation exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainab Ramli; Dewi Jamaliah Kamsiar; Hasidah Mohd Arsat


    In this study, natural mordenite was modified to other zeolites phases having low Si/ Al in order to increase the cation exchange capacity of the material. Modification was carried out hydrothermally at 100 degree Celsius in time range between 0 to 24 hours. The samples obtained were characterized by XRD and infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that a mixture of zeolite X and P were formed zeolite X was the dominant zeolite at 6 hrs heating time while zeolite P were dominant after 6 hrs. Ion Exchange capacity of natural mordenite, samples at 6 hr and 24 hrs heating, performed using Ca 2+ cation gave cation exchange in the decreasing order of 83.57 % , 72.50 %, 69.45 % for sample 24 hrs, 6 hrs and natural mordenite respectively. It indicates that sample having zeolite P phase is the best cation exchange capacity with 21 mg Ca 2+ / g zeolite with an increased of 23 % capacity compared to natural zeolite. (author)

  14. Measurement of cation exchange capacity (CEC) on natural zeolite by percolation method (United States)

    Wiyantoko, Bayu; Rahmah, Nafisa


    The cation exchange capacity (CEC)measurement has been carried out in natural zeolite by percolation method. The natural zeolite samples used for cation exchange capacity measurement were activated beforehand with physical activation and chemical activation. The physically activated zeolite was done by calcination process at 600 °C for 4 hours. The natural zeolite was activated chemically by using sodium hydroxide by refluxing process at 60-80 °C for 3 hours. In summary, cation exchange capacity (CEC) determination was performed by percolation, distillation and titration processes. Based on the measurement that has been done, the exchange rate results from physical activated and chemical activated of natural zeolite were 181.90cmol (+)/kg and 901.49cmol (+)/kg respectively.

  15. Separation of Pu and Nd from Uranium matrix by equilibrated cation exchanger for burnup measurement of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Jung Suk; Jeon, Young Shin; Han, Sun Ho; Eom, Tae Yoon


    Ion chromatographic method has been applied for burnup measurement of irradiated nuclear fuel by dynamic system using 1-octanesulfonate as a cation exchanger and α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as an eluant. A number of elution techniques were evaluated for the optimum separation of plutonium, uranium and neodymium. These elements were individually separated and collected by gradient elution between 0.05 M and 0.40 M of α-hydroxyisobutyric acid in a single column, and finally determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The burnup data from this method were compared with those from conventional anion exchange method. The results showed a good agreement within 3.5 % of difference between two methods. (Author)

  16. Rational methods for predicting human monoclonal antibodies retention in protein A affinity chromatography and cation exchange chromatography. Structure-based chromatography design for monoclonal antibodies. (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Hideaki; Tamada, Taro; Yamamoto, Shuichi


    Rational methods for predicting the chromatographic behavior of human monoclonal antibodies (hMabs) in protein A affinity chromatography and cation exchange chromatography from the amino acid sequences information were proposed. We investigated the relation between the structures of 28 hMabs and their chromatographic behavior in protein A affinity chromatography and cation exchange chromatography using linear gradient elution experiments. In protein A affinity chromatography, the elution pH of the hMabs was correlated with not only the structure of the Fc region (subclass), but also that of the variable region. The elution pH of hMabs that have LYLQMNSL sequences in between the CDR2 and CDR3 regions of the heavy chain became lower among the same subclass of hMabs. In cation exchange chromatography, the peak salt concentrations IR of hMabs that have the same sequences of variable regions (or that have a structural difference in their Fc region, which puts them into a subclass) were similar. The IR values of hMabs were well correlated with the equilibrium association constant Ke, and also with the surface positive charge distribution of the variable region of the heavy chain (corrected surface net positive charge (cN) of the VH region). Based on these findings, we developed rational methods for predicting the retention behavior, which were also tested with eight additional hMabs. By considering the information on the number of binding sites associated with protein adsorption as determined experimentally, and the surface positive charge distribution from the three-dimensional structure of Mab A, we hypothesized that hMabs is separated by cation exchange chromatography as the surface positive charge distribution of the VH region is recognized.

  17. Atomistic understanding of cation exchange in PbS nanocrystals using simulations with pseudoligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, Zhaochuan; Lin, Li-Chiang; Buijs, Wim; Vlugt, Thijs J.H.; van Huis, M.A.


    Cation exchange is a powerful tool for the synthesis of nanostructures such as core–shell nanocrystals, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Interactions of cations with ligands and solvent molecules are systematically ignored in simulations. Here, we introduce the concept of

  18. A simple method for estimating cation exchange capacity from water vapor sorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus


    Knowledge of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) is crucial for soil fertility considerations, sorption and release of polar and non-polar compounds, engineering applications, and other biogeochemical processes. Standard procedures such as the ammonium acetate or the BaCl2 compulsive exchange met...

  19. Ion transport resistance in Microbial Electrolysis Cells with anion and cation exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutels, T.H.J.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.


    Previous studies have shown that Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) perform better when an anion exchange membrane (AEM) than when a cation exchange membrane (CEM) separates the electrode chambers. Here, we have further studied this phenomenon by comparing two analysis methods for

  20. Studies of cation exchange for the isolation and concentration of trace level components of complex aqueous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczvinsky, J.R. Jr.


    Trace level organic bases are concentrated from aqueous solution by cation exchange on a column of sulfonated macroreticular XAD-4 resin. Washing of the column with organic solvents removes neutrals and acids. Ammonia gas is introduced into the column prior to elution of the basic organics with either methanol or ether containing ammonia. After solvent evaporation, the concentrated sample is analyzed by gas chromatography. Recoveries of over 85% are found with at least one of the eluents for over 50 bases tested at levels < 1 ppm. Improved recoveries and reproducibility are seen over a simple ether extraction procedure. Samples of river water, shale oil process water, and supernatant from an agricultural chemical disposal pit are analyzed. Preliminary studies of functionalized poly(styrene-divinylbenzene)s, coated exchangers, and liquid ion exchangers as possible approaches to nuclear waste decontamination are performed

  1. Fabrication of Cationic Exchange Polystyrene Nanofibers for Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: The nanofibers were prepared from 15% w/v polystyrene solution in dimethylacetamide (DMAc) containing 0.025 %w/v tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) using electrospinning technique, followed by crosslinking with sulfuric acid/formaldehyde in a ratio ranging from 100/0 to 50/50 v/v and sulfonation in sulfuric ...

  2. On the Structure-Property Relationships of Cation-Exchanged ZK-5 Zeolites for CO 2 Adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Trong D. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware 19716 USA; Hudson, Matthew R. [Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg Maryland 20899 USA; Brown, Craig M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware 19716 USA; Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg Maryland 20899 USA; Lobo, Raul F. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark Delaware 19716 USA


    The CO2 adsorption properties of cation-exchanged Li-, Na-, K-, and Mg-ZK-5 zeolites were correlated to the molecular structures determined by Rietveld refinements of synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction patterns. Li-, K-, and Na-ZK-5 all exhibited high isosteric heats of adsorption (Qst) at low CO2 coverage, with Na-ZK-5 having the highest Qst (ca. 49 kJ mol-1). Mg2+ was located at the center of the zeolite hexagonal prism with the cation inaccessible to CO2, leading to a much lower Qst (ca. 30 kJ mol-1) and lower overall uptake capacity. Multiple CO2 adsorption sites were identified at a given CO2 loading amount for all four cation-exchanged ZK-5 adsorbents. Site A at the flat eight-membered ring windows and site B/B* in the γ-cages were the primary adsorption sites in Li- and Na-ZK-5 zeolites. Relatively strong dual-cation adsorption sites contributed significantly to an enhanced electrostatic interaction for CO2 in all ZK-5 samples. This interaction gives rise to a migration of Li+ and Mg2+ cations from their original locations at the center of the hexagonal prisms toward the α-cages, in which they interact more strongly with the adsorbed CO2.

  3. Chemistry of sustainability-Part I: Carbon dioxide as an organic synthon and Part II: Study of thermodynamics of cation exchange reactions in semiconductor nanocrystals (United States)

    Sathe, Ajay A.

    Sustainability is an important part of the design and development of new chemical and energy conversion processes. Simply put sustainability is the ability to meet our needs without sacrificing the ability of the next generations to meet theirs. This thesis describes our efforts in developing two orthogonal strategies for the fixation of CO2 by utilizing high energy intermediates which are generated via oxidative or reductive processes on common organic substrates and of thermochemical measurements of cation exchange reactions which will aid the development of new materials relevant for energy conversion and storage. The first chapter lays a background for the challenges and opportunities for the use of CO2 in organic synthesis. The rapidly growing field of continuous flow processing in organic synthesis is introduced, and its importance in the development of sustainable chemical conversions is highlighted. The second chapter describes the development of a novel route to alpha-amino acids via reductive carboxylation of imines. A mechanistic proposal is presented and the reaction is shown to proceed through the intermediacy of alpha-amino alkyl metal species. Possible strategies for designing catalytic and enantioselective variants of the reaction are presented. The third chapter describes the development of a catalytic oxidative carboxylation of olefins to yield cyclic carbonates. The importance of flow chemistry and membrane separation is demonstrated by allowing the combination of mutually incompatible reagents in a single reaction sequence. While the use of carbon dioxide for synthesis of organic fine chemicals is not expected to help reduce the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, or tackle climate change, it certainly has the potential to reduce our dependence on non-sustainable carbon feedstocks, and help achieve a carbon neutral chemical life cycle. Having described the use of carbon dioxide and flow chemistry for sustainable chemical conversion, the fourth

  4. Reactive transport modeling of multicomponent cation exchange at the laboratory and field scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steefel, Carl I.


    Multicomponent ion exchange models have been successful in describing the chromatographic separation of cations in both laboratory and field settings. Their chief advantage lies in their ability to capture the competitive effects of other cations that may be present. By incorporating exchanger activity coefficients calculated on the basis of the Gibbs-Duhem equation applied to the exchanger phase, it is possible to correct for the non-ideality of exchange. The use of multiple exchange sites can also substantially improve the ability of the cation exchange models to describe adsorption and retardation. All of these benefits are associated with relatively little additional computational burden. Even where the cost of the multicomponent cation exchange calculations are considered too high, the models are useful in calculating distribution coefficients for the environmental conditions of interest

  5. Multicolour synthesis in lanthanide-doped nanocrystals through cation exchange in water

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Sanyang


    Meeting the high demand for lanthanide-doped luminescent nanocrystals across a broad range of fields hinges upon the development of a robust synthetic protocol that provides rapid, just-in-time nanocrystal preparation. However, to date, almost all lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials have relied on direct synthesis requiring stringent controls over crystal nucleation and growth at elevated temperatures. Here we demonstrate the use of a cation exchange strategy for expeditiously accessing large classes of such nanocrystals. By combining the process of cation exchange with energy migration, the luminescence properties of the nanocrystals can be easily tuned while preserving the size, morphology and crystal phase of the initial nanocrystal template. This post-synthesis strategy enables us to achieve upconversion luminescence in Ce3+ and Mn2+-activated hexagonal-phased nanocrystals, opening a gateway towards applications ranging from chemical sensing to anti-counterfeiting.

  6. Conventional resin cation exchangers versus EDI for CACE measurement in power plants. Feasibility and practical field results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Manuel [Swan Systeme AG, Hinwil (Switzerland)


    The conductivity measurement after a cation exchanger in power plants with steam turbines was introduced soon after 1950 by Larson and Lane. Due to the simple measuring principle, the sensitivity to ionic contaminations and to its high reliability, the conductivity measurement after a cation exchanger (CACE) has become the most commonly used online analytical method in power plants with steam generators. Swan has investigated electro deionisation (EDI) as substitution of the conventional cation exchange resin and has developed a new conductivity instrument using this principle. This paper provides a description of the conventional method for cation conductivity measurements as well as of the new AMI CACE using EDI method.

  7. Characterization of expandable clay minerals in Lake Baikal sediments by thermal dehydration and cation exchange

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Hrušková, Michaela; Novotná, Kateřina; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Pruner, Petr; Oberhansli, H.


    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2005), s. 389-400 ISSN 0009-8604 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3032401 Grant - others:European Commission(XE) EVK2-2000-00057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : cation exchange capacity * Lake Baikal * Lake Sediments Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.364, year: 2005

  8. Cation-exchange membranes: comparison of homopolymer, block copolymer, and heterogeneous membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schauer, Jan; Llanos, J.; Žitka, Jan; Hnát, J.; Bouzek, K.


    Roč. 124, SI 1 (2012), E66-E72 ISSN 0021-8995 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08005 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 212903 - WELTEMP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : cation-exchange membranes * poly(phenylene oxide) * poly(ether ketones) Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2012

  9. The role of cation exchange in controlling groundwater chemistry at Aspo, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.


    Construction-induced groundwater flow has resulted in the mixing of relatively dilute shallow groundwater with more concentrated groundwater at depth in the underground Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) at Aespoe, Sweden. The observed compositional variation of the mixed groundwater cannot be explained using a conservative mixing model. The geochemical modeling package EQ3/6, to which a cation-exchange model was added, was used to simulate mixing between the two fluids. The results of modeling simulations suggest that cation exchange between groundwater and fracture-lining clays can explain the major element fluid chemistry observed in the HRL. The quantity of exchanger required to match simulated with observed fluid chemistry is reasonable and is consistent with the observed fracture mineralogy. This preliminary study establishes cation exchange as a viable mechanism for controlling the chemical evolution of groundwaters in a fracture-dominated dynamic flow system. This modeling study also strengthens their confidence in the ability to model the potential effects of fracture-lining minerals on the transport of radionuclides in a high level nuclear waste repository

  10. Cation exchange in a temporally fluctuating thin freshwater lens on top of saline groundwater (United States)

    Eeman, S.; De Louw, P. G. B.; Van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.


    In coastal-zone fields with a high groundwater level and sufficient rainfall, freshwater lenses are formed on top of saline or brackish groundwater. The fresh and the saline water meet at shallow depth, where a transition zone is found. This study investigates the mixing zone that is characterized by this salinity change, as well as by cation exchange processes, and which is forced by seepage and by rainfall which varies as a function of time. The processes are first investigated for a one-dimensional (1D) stream tube perpendicular to the interface concerning salt and major cation composition changes. The complex sequence of changes is explained with basic cation exchange theory. It is also possible to show that the sequence of changes is maintained when a two-dimensional field is considered where the upward saline seepage flows to drains. This illustrates that for cation exchange, the horizontal component (dominant for flow of water) has a small impact on the chemical changes in the vertical direction. The flow's horizontal orientation, parallel to the interface, leads to changes in concentration that are insignificant compared with those that are found perpendicular to the interface, and are accounted for in the 1D flow tube. Near the drains, differences with the 1D considerations are visible, especially in the longer term, exceeding 100 years. The simulations are compared with field data from the Netherlands which reveal similar patterns.

  11. In vivo cation exchange in quantum dots for tumor-specific imaging. (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyou; Braun, Gary B; Qin, Mingde; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Sugahara, Kazuki N


    In vivo tumor imaging with nanoprobes suffers from poor tumor specificity. Here, we introduce a nanosystem, which allows selective background quenching to gain exceptionally tumor-specific signals. The system uses near-infrared quantum dots and a membrane-impermeable etchant, which serves as a cation donor. The etchant rapidly quenches the quantum dots through cation exchange (ionic etching), and facilitates renal clearance of metal ions released from the quantum dots. The quantum dots are intravenously delivered into orthotopic breast and pancreas tumors in mice by using the tumor-penetrating iRGD peptide. Subsequent etching quenches excess quantum dots, leaving a highly tumor-specific signal provided by the intact quantum dots remaining in the extravascular tumor cells and fibroblasts. No toxicity is noted. The system also facilitates the detection of peritoneal tumors with high specificity upon intraperitoneal tumor targeting and selective etching of excess untargeted quantum dots. In vivo cation exchange may be a promising strategy to enhance specificity of tumor imaging.The imaging of tumors in vivo using nanoprobes has been challenging due to the lack of sufficient tumor specificity. Here, the authors develop a tumor-specific quantum dot system that permits in vivo cation exchange to achieve selective background quenching and high tumor-specific imaging.

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction and separation of VIII group elements, especially ruthenium, by synergic combinations or aromatic polyimines and micellar cationic exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitart, X.


    This thesis aims to characterize and to quantify the chemical equilibria involved in d-elements liquid-liquid extraction systems, especially elements belonging to the VIII group (Fe, Ni, Co, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt). These systems are composed of synergic combination of aromatic polyimines and micellar cationic exchangers. Substitutions are first performed in aqueous acidic media by aromatic polyimines; then extractions are operated using micellic canionic exchangers. Chemical equilibria, selectivity effects, especially those due to ion-pair formations, kinetics, extractant behaviour are analysed and quantified [fr

  13. Lactic acid polymers: strong, degradable thermoplastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrenberg, R.H.


    Copolymers of lactic and glycolic acids are being developed by researchers at Battelle and elsewhere as renewable-resource plastics. Other uses include matrices for controlled release of drugs and pesticides as well as in prosthetic devices. In contrast to conventional plastics, lactic acid polymers are biodegradable, and after several months exposure to moisture, these materials convert back to natural harmless products. The properties of lactic acid polymers are examined.

  14. Concentration of ions Co(II), Ni(II) at the Tokem-250 carboxylic cation exchange for catalysts development (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Bobkova, Ludmila; Brichkov, Anton; Kozik, Vladimir


    Sorption and catalytic properties of the cation exchanger are investigated. It was found that the Tokem-250 has a wide operating range of pH. The value of the effective ionization constant of the functional groups of the cation exchanger (pKa) is 6.59. The Tokem-250 cation exchanger exhibits selectivity to Ni2+ ions to Co2+ (D˜103). This is probably due to the stability of ion-exchange complexes detected by the method of diffuse reflectance electron spectroscopy (ESDD). According to these data, for Co2+ ions, in contrast to Ni2+, tetragonal distortion of octahedral coordination is characteristic, which has a positive effect on the stability of complexes with Co2+. To obtain spherical catalysts on the basis of Tokem-250, cobalt-containing samples of cation exchanger were used. The developed spherical materials have catalytic activity in the reactions of deep and partial oxidation of n-heptane.

  15. Implications of cation exchange on clay release and colloid-facilitated transport in porous media. (United States)

    Bradford, Scott A; Kim, Hyunjung


    Column experiments were conducted to study chemical factors that influence the release of clay (kaolinite and quartz minerals) from saturated Ottawa sand of different sizes (710,360, and 240 microm). A relatively minor enhancement of clay release occurred when the pH was increased (5.8 to 10) or the ionic strength (IS) was decreased to deionized (DI) water. In contrast, clay release was dramatically enhanced when monovalent Na+ was exchanged for multivalent cations (e.g., Ca2+ and Mg2+) on the clay and sand and then the solution IS was reduced to DI water. This solution chemistry sequence decreased the adhesive force acting on the clay as a result of an increase in the magnitude of the clay and sand zeta potential with cation exchange, and expansion of the double layer thickness with a decrease in IS to DI water. The amount of clay release was directly dependent on the Na+ concentration of the exchanging solution and on the initial clay content of the sand (0.026-0.054% of the total mass). These results clearly demonstrated the importance of the order and magnitude of the solution chemistry sequence on clay release. Column results and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images also indicated that the clay was reversibly retained on the sand, despite predictions of irreversible interaction in the primary minimum. One plausible explanation is that adsorbed cations increased the separation distance between the clay-solid interfaces as a result of repulsive hydration forces. A cleaning procedure was subsequently developed to remove clay via cation exchange and IS reduction; SEM images demonstrated the effectiveness of this approach. The transport of Cu2+ was then shown to be dramatically enhanced by an order of magnitude in peak concentration by adsorption on clays that were released following cation exchange and IS reduction.

  16. Microchemical determination of nine rare earth elements in silicate rocks by cation-exchange preconcentration - ion-interaction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, K.; Sato, K.; Kuroda, R.


    A method of applying ion-interaction chromatography to the determination of the rare earth elements in silicate rocks on a 100 to 200 mg sample basis has been developed. The rare earths are first separated as a group from matrices by cation-exchange chromatography in hydrochloric acid-thiocyanate media and isolated in a small, defined volume (3.00 ml). Using fractions of this, on-column concentration of the rare earths on a C-18 bonded phase silica coated with 1-octanesulfonate and a subsequent concentration gradient elution with glycolate (0.05 to 0.35 M) at pH 3.5 allows the respective separation of La, Ce, Pr, Nd, and Y (100 μl aliquot used) and of Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu (2.00 ml aliquot used). Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, and Dy elute together, and Ho is not sufficiently well resolved from these middle rare earth elements. The eluted rare earth elements are detected and quantified by post-column reaction with Arsenazo III photometrically, using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 650 nm. The method is shown to be capable of determining nine of the rare earth elements in a variety of international reference rock samples with good precision and accuracy. (orig.)

  17. Influence of MgO template on carbon dioxide adsorption of cation exchange resin-based nanoporous carbon. (United States)

    Meng, Long-Yue; Park, Soo-Jin


    In this work, porous carbons with well-developed pore structures were directly prepared from a weak acid cation exchange resin (CER) by the carbonization of a mixture with Mg acetate in different ratios. The effect of the Mg acetate-to-CER ratio on the pore structure and CO(2) adsorption capacities of the obtained porous carbons was studied. The textural properties and morphologies of the porous carbons were analyzed via N(2)/77K adsorption/desorption isotherms, SEM, and TEM, respectively. The CO(2) adsorption capacities of the prepared porous carbons were measured at 298 K and 1 bar and 30 bar. By dissolving the MgO template, the porous carbons exhibited high specific surface areas (326-1276 m(2)/g) and high pore volumes (0.258-0.687 cm(3)/g). The CO(2) adsorption capacities of the porous carbons were enhanced to 164.4 mg/g at 1 bar and 1045 mg/g at 30 bar by increasing the Mg acetate-to-CER ratio. This result indicates that CER was one of the carbon precursors to producing the porous structure, as well as for improving the CO(2) adsorption capacities of the carbon species. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A solid-state cation exchange reaction to form multiple metal oxide heterostructure nanowires. (United States)

    Chen, Y H; Huang, C W; Yeh, P H; Chen, J Y; Lin, T Y; Chang, C F; Wu, W W


    Metal oxide nanostructures have been investigated extensively due to their wide range of physical properties; zinc oxide is one of the most promising materials. It exhibits fascinating functional properties and various types of morphologies. In particular, ZnO heterostructures have attracted great attention because their performance can be modified and further improved by the addition of other materials. In this study, we successfully transformed ZnO nanowires (NWs) into multiple ZnO/Al 2 O 3 heterostructure NWs via a solid-state cation exchange reaction. The experiment was carried out in situ via an ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscope (UHV-TEM), which was equipped with a video recorder. Moreover, we analyzed the structure and composition of the heterostructure NWs by Cs-corrected STEM equipped with EDS. Based on these experimental results, we inferred a cation exchange reaction ion path model. Additionally, we investigated the defects that appeared after the cation reaction, which resulted from the remaining zinc ions. These multiple heterostructure ZnO/Al 2 O 3 NWs exhibited excellent UV sensing sensitivity and efficiency.

  19. Chabazite: stable cation-exchanger in hyper alkaline concrete pore water. (United States)

    Van Tendeloo, Leen; Wangermez, Wauter; Kurttepeli, Mert; de Blochouse, Benny; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Martens, Johan A; Maes, André; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Breynaert, Eric


    To avoid impact on the environment, facilities for permanent disposal of hazardous waste adopt multibarrier design schemes. As the primary barrier very often consists of cement-based materials, two distinct aspects are essential for the selection of suitable complementary barriers: (1) selective sorption of the contaminants in the repository and (2) long-term chemical stability in hyperalkaline concrete-derived media. A multidisciplinary approach combining experimental strategies from environmental chemistry and materials science is therefore essential to provide a reliable assessment of potential candidate materials. Chabazite is typically synthesized in 1 M KOH solutions but also crystallizes in simulated young cement pore water, a pH 13 aqueous solution mainly containing K(+) and Na(+) cations. Its formation and stability in this medium was evaluated as a function of temperature (60 and 85 °C) over a timeframe of more than 2 years and was also asessed from a mechanistic point of view. Chabazite demonstrates excellent cation-exchange properties in simulated young cement pore water. Comparison of its Cs(+) cation exchange properties at pH 8 and pH 13 unexpectedly demonstrated an increase of the KD with increasing pH. The combined results identify chabazite as a valid candidate for inclusion in engineered barriers for concrete-based waste disposal.

  20. Preliminary studies of the total cation exchange capacity of sediments from two North Atlantic study sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydes, D.J.; Hill, N.C.; Clarke, H.; Carpenter, M.S.N.


    Initially four different methods of measuring total cation exchange capacity were compared. There were two chemical methods (ammonium saturation with displacement into seawater, and barium saturation followed by replacement with magnesium) and two radiochemical methods (sodium-22 and caesium-134 saturation). The barium-magnesium and sodium-22 methods were then applied to sediment samples from Core D10164Pound1K from the Nares Fracture Valley, and Core D10554Pound11K from the eastern flank of the Great Meteor Rise. The material at site 10164 is a pelagic clay whereas at site 10554 it is carbonate ooze. The total cation exchange capacities (T.C.E.C.) of samples from the two sites are similar when measured by the sodium-22 method, the mean for Core 10164 was 21.7 meq/100g and 24.4 meq/100g for Core 10554. However for Core 10554 the barium-magnesium method gives a mean of 42.8 meq/100g. The difference in T.C.E.C. measured by the two methods appears to be due to the high calcite content of core 10554 sediment. Measured exchange capacities are lower than in coastal sediments. In deep sea sediments organic matter either makes a very small contribution to the T.C.E.C. (core 10164) or actually blocks exchange sites (Core 10554). Amorphous oxides of iron and manganese contribute between 20 and 50% of the T.C.E.C. (author)

  1. Solubility and cation exchange in phosphate rock and saturated clinoptilolite mixtures (United States)

    Allen, E. R.; Hossner, L. R.; Ming, D. W.; Henninger, D. L.


    Mixtures of zeolite and phosphate rock (PR) have the potential to provide slow-release fertilization of plants in synthetic soils by dissolution and ion-exchange reactions. This study was conducted to examine solubility and cation-exchange relationships in mixtures of PR and NH4- and K-saturated clinoptilolite (Cp). Batch-equilibration experiments were designed to investigate the effect of PR source, the proportion of exchangeable K and NH4, and the Cp to PR ratio on solution N, P, K, and Ca concentrations. The dissolution and cation-exchange reactions that occurred after mixing NH4- and K-saturated Cp with PR increased the solubility of the PR and simultaneously released NH4 and K into solution. The more reactive North Carolina (NC) PR rendered higher solution concentrations of NH4 and K when mixed with Cp than did Tennessee (TN) PR. Solution P concentrations for the Cp-NC PR mixture and the Cp-TN PR mixture were similar. Solution concentrations of N, P, K, and Ca and the ratios of these nutrients in solution varied predictably with the type of PR, the Cp/PR ratio, and the proportions of exchangeable K and NH4 on the Cp. Our research indicated that slow-release fertilization using Cp/PR media may provide adequate levels of N, P, and K to support plant growth. Solution Ca concentrations were lower than optimum for plant growth.

  2. Cation exchange removal of Cd from aqueous solution by NiO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, T.; Saddique, M.T.; Naeem, A.; Mustafa, S.; Dilara, B.; Raza, Z.A.


    Graphical abstract: Sorption of Cd on NiO particles is described by modified Langmuir adsorption isotherms. - Abstract: Detailed adsorption experiments of Cd from aqueous solution on NiO were conducted under batch process with different concentrations of Cd, time and temperature of the suspension. The solution pH is found to play a decisive role in the metal ions precipitation, surface dissolution and adsorption of metal ions onto the NiO. Preliminary adsorption experiments show that the selectivity of NiO towards different divalent metal ions follows the trend Pb > Zn > Co > Cd, which is related to their first hydrolysis equilibrium constant. The exchange between the proton from the NiO surface and the metal from solution is responsible for the adsorption. The cation/exchange mechanism essentially remains the same for Pb, Zn, Co and Cd ions. The sorption of Cd on NiO particles is described by the modified Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The isosteric heat of adsorption (ΔH) indicates the endothermic nature of the cation exchange process. Spectroscopic analyses provide evidence that Cd is chemisorbed onto the surface of NiO.

  3. Obtention of the cation exchange capacity of a natural kaolinite with radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe I, A.; Badillo A, V.E.; Monroy G, F.


    One of the more used techniques for the elimination of the heavy metals present in water systems is to use adsorbent mineral phases like zeolites and clays, among others. The clays are able to exchange easily the fixed ions in the external surface of its crystals or well the ions present in the interlaminar spaces of the structures, for other existent ones in the encircling aqueous solutions for that the Cation exchange capacity (CIC) is defined as the sum of all the cations exchange that a mineral can possess independent to the physicochemical conditions. The CIC is equal to the measure of the total of negative charges of the mineral by mass of the solid (meq/g). In this investigation work, the value of the CIC equal to 2.5 meq/100 g is obtained, of a natural kaolinite from the State of Hidalgo studying the retention of the sodium in the kaolinite with the aid of the radioactive isotope 24 Na and of the selective electrodes technique, making vary the pH value. So is experimentally demonstrated that the CIC is an intrinsic property of the mineral independent of the pH value of the solution and of the charges origin. (Author)

  4. Solid cation exchange phase to remove interfering anthocyanins in the analysis of other bioactive phenols in red wine. (United States)

    da Silva, Letícia Flores; Guerra, Celito Crivellaro; Klein, Diandra; Bergold, Ana Maria


    Bioactive phenols (BPs) are often targets in red wine analysis. However, other compounds interfere in the liquid chromatography methods used for this analysis. Here, purification procedures were tested to eliminate anthocyanin interference during the determination of 19 red-wine BPs. Liquid chromatography, coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS), was used to compare the direct injection of the samples with solid-phase extractions: reversed-phase (C18) and strong cation-exchange (SCX). The HPLC-DAD method revealed that, out of 13BPs, only six are selectively analyzed with or without C18 treatment, whereas SCX enabled the detection of all BPs. The recovery with SCX was above 86.6% for eight BPs. Moreover, UPLC-MS demonstrated the potential of SCX sample preparation for the determination of 19BPs. The developed procedure may be extended to the analysis of other red wine molecules or to other analytical methods where anthocyanins may interfere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cu2Se and Cu Nanocrystals as Local Sources of Copper in Thermally Activated In Situ Cation Exchange

    KAUST Repository

    Casu, Alberto


    Among the different synthesis approaches to colloidal nanocrystals a recently developed toolkit is represented by cation exchange reactions, where the use of template nanocrystals gives access to materials that would be hardly attainable via direct synthesis. Besides, post-synthetic treatments, such as thermally activated solid state reactions, represent a further flourishing route to promote finely controlled cation exchange. Here, we report that, upon in situ heating in a transmission electron microscope, Cu2Se nanocrystals deposited on an amorphous solid substrate undergo partial loss of Cu atoms, which are then engaged in local cation exchange reactions with Cu “acceptors” phases represented by rod- and wire- shaped CdSe nanocrystals. This thermal treatment slowly transforms the initial CdSe nanocrystals into Cu2-xSe nanocrystals, through the complete sublimation of Cd and the partial sublimation of Se atoms. Both Cu “donor” and “acceptor” particles were not always in direct contact with each other, hence the gradual transfer of Cu species from Cu2Se or metallic Cu to CdSe nanocrystals was mediated by the substrate and depended on the distance between the donor and acceptor nanostructures. Differently from what happens in the comparably faster cation exchange reactions performed in liquid solution, this study shows that slow cation exchange reactions can be performed at the solid state, and helps to shed light on the intermediate steps involved in such reactions.

  6. Model Simulations of a Field Experiment on Cation Exchange-affected Multicomponent Solute Transport in a Sandy Aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Ammentorp, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    A large-scale and long-term field experiment on cation exchange in a sandy aquifer has been modelled by a three-dimensional geochemical transport model. The geochemical model includes cation-exchange processes using a Gaines-Thomas expression, the closed carbonate system and the effects of ionic...... by batch experiments and by the composition of the cations on the exchange complex. Potassium showed a non-ideal exchange behaviour with K&z.sbnd;Ca selectivity coefficients indicating dependency on equivalent fraction and K+ concentration in the aqueous phase. The model simulations over a distance of 35 m...

  7. Superparamagnetic cation-exchange adsorbents for bioproduct recovery from crude process liquors by high-gradient magnetic fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Justesen, S.F.L; Hobley, Timothy John


    of epichlorohydrin formed on the particle surface. The resultant cation-exchanger had a maximum lysozyme binding capacity of 272 mg g(-1) and a dissociation constant of 0.73 muM. Using lysozyme as a model protein in small-scale studies, appropriate conditions were then selected for the capture of lactoperoxidase......Different routes were screened for the preparation of superparamagnetic cation-exchange adsorbents for the capture of proteins using high-gradient magnetic fishing. Starting from a polyglutaraldehyde-coated base particle, the most successful of these involved attachment of sulphite to oligomers...

  8. Formation of ZnSe/Bi2Se3 QDs by surface cation exchange and high photothermal conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhi Jia


    Full Text Available Water-dispersed core/shell structure ZnSe/Bi2Se3 quantum dots were synthesized by ultrasonicwave-assisted cation exchange reaction. Only surface Zn ion can be replaced by Bi ion in ZnSe quantum dots, which lead to the ultrathin Bi2Se3 shell layer formed. It is significance to find to change the crystal of QDs due to the acting of ultrasonicwave. Cation exchange mechanism and excellent photothermal conversion properties are discussed in detail.

  9. Fully automated multidimensional reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem anion/cation exchange columns for simultaneous global endogenous tyrosine nitration detection, integral membrane protein characterization, and quantitative proteomics mapping in cerebral infarcts. (United States)

    Quan, Quan; Szeto, Samuel S W; Law, Henry C H; Zhang, Zaijun; Wang, Yuqiang; Chu, Ivan K


    Protein tyrosine nitration (PTN) is a signature hallmark of radical-induced nitrative stress in a wide range of pathophysiological conditions, with naturally occurring abundances at substoichiometric levels. In this present study, a fully automated four-dimensional platform, consisting of high-/low-pH reversed-phase dimensions with two additional complementary, strong anion (SAX) and cation exchange (SCX), chromatographic separation stages inserted in tandem, was implemented for the simultaneous mapping of endogenous nitrated tyrosine-containing peptides within the global proteomic context of a Macaca fascicularis cerebral ischemic stroke model. This integrated RP-SA(C)X-RP platform was initially benchmarked through proteomic analyses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, revealing extended proteome and protein coverage. A total of 27 144 unique peptides from 3684 nonredundant proteins [1% global false discovery rate (FDR)] were identified from M. fascicularis cerebral cortex tissue. The inclusion of the S(A/C)X columns contributed to the increased detection of acidic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic peptide populations; these separation features enabled the concomitant identification of 127 endogenous nitrated peptides and 137 transmembrane domain-containing peptides corresponding to integral membrane proteins, without the need for specific targeted enrichment strategies. The enhanced diversity of the peptide inventory obtained from the RP-SA(C)X-RP platform also improved analytical confidence in isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analyses.

  10. Cation exchange capacity of an oxisol amended with an effluent from domestic sewage treatment Capacidade de troca catiônica de um latossolo tratado com efluente de tratamento de esgoto doméstico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriel Ferreira da Fonseca


    Full Text Available The addition of Na-rich anthropogenic residues to tropical soils has stimulated the scientific community to study the role of sodium in both the soil solution and the exchange complex. In this study, several different methods were used to calculate the concentration of exchangeable and soluble cations and this data was then used to establish correlations between the level of these cations and both the accumulation of various elements and the dry weight of maize grown in a greenhouse under different conditions. In the closed environments of the pots, the most suitable method for calculating the effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC was the cation exchange capacity calculated by cations removed with barium chloride solution (CEC S. Then again, the actual cation exchange capacity (CEC A should be measured by using Mg adsorption to prevent ionic force from influencing electric charges. A strong positive correlation was obtained between the concentrations of Na in the 1:2 soil:water extracts and the accumulation of Na in the maize plants, indicating saline or double acid extractors are not needed when monitoring the Na concentration only.A disposição de resíduos antropogênicos ricos em sódio nos solos tropicais tem despertado o interesse da comunidade científica em estudar a participação deste elemento no complexo de troca, bem como na solução no solo. Objetivou-se neste trabalho estabelecer correlações entre as concentrações de cátions trocáveis e de cátions solúveis, obtidos por diferentes métodos, com o acúmulo de elementos e com a massa seca no milho. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, sob diferentes condições. Para experimentos em ambiente fechado (vasos, o método mais indicado para o cálculo da capacidade de troca catiônica efetiva (CTCe é a capacidade de troca catiônica calculada a partir dos cátions removidos com solução de cloreto de bário. Ainda, a capacidade de troca catiônica atual deve

  11. Luminescent CuInS2 quantum dots by partial cation exchange in Cu2- xS nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Stam, Ward; Berends, Anne C.; Rabouw, Freddy T.; Willhammar, Tom; Ke, Xiaoxing; Meeldijk, Johannes D.; Bals, Sara; De Mello Donega, Celso


    Here, we show successful partial cation exchange reactions in Cu2-xS nanocrystals (NCs) yielding luminescent CuInS2 (CIS) NCs. Our approach of mild reaction conditions ensures slow Cu extraction rates, which results in a balance with the slow In incorporation rate. With this method, we obtain CIS

  12. Structure-Selective Cation Exchange in the Synthesis of Zincblende MnS and CoS Nanocrystals. (United States)

    Fenton, Julie L; Schaak, Raymond E


    The ability to selectively form one crystal structure among several options in a polymorphic system is an important goal in solid-state synthesis. Nanocrystal cation exchange, which proceeds rapidly under mild conditions, can retain key structural features and yield otherwise inaccessible phases, but the extent to which crystal structure can be retained and therefore selectively targeted during such reactions has been limited. Here, we show that nanocrystals of digenite Cu 2-x S transform to zincblende MnS and CoS upon cation exchange. Zincblende MnS and CoS, which are metastable in bulk, retain both the tetrahedral cation coordination and cubic close packed anion sublattice of digenite Cu 2-x S. Comparison with wurtzite MnS and CoS, which have been accessed previously through analogous cation exchange of roxbyite Cu 2-x S, demonstrates the selective formation of the related zincblende vs. wurtzite polymorphs by cation exchange of structurally distinct templates. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Adsorption behavior of cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone-based fibrous adsorbents with bovine serum albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Yuzhong; Borneman, Zandrie; Koops, G.H.; Wessling, Matthias


    The cation-exchange resin-mixed polyethersulfone (PES)-based fibrous adsorbents were developed to study their adsorption behavior with bovine serum albumin (BSA). A fibrous adsorbent with an open pore surface had much better adsorption behavior with a higher adsorbing rate. The adsorption capacity

  14. Atomic resolution monitoring of cation exchange in CdSe-PbSe heteronanocrystals during epitaxial solid-solid-vapor growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcin, Anil O.; Fan, Zhaochuan; Goris, Bart; Li, Wun Fan; Koster, Rik S.; Fang, Changming; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Casavola, Marianna; Tichelaar, Frans D.; Bals, Sara; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Vlugt, Thijs J H; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Van Huis, Marijn A.


    Here, we show a novel solid-solid-vapor (SSV) growth mechanism whereby epitaxial growth of heterogeneous semiconductor nanowires takes place by evaporation-induced cation exchange. During heating of PbSe-CdSe nanodumbbells inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM), we observed that PbSe

  15. Atomic Resolution Monitoring of Cation Exchange in CdSe-PbSe Heteronanocrystals during Epitaxial Solid?Solid?Vapor Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yalcin, A.O.; Fan, Z.; Goris, B.; Li, W.F.; Koster, R.S.; Fang, C.M.; Van Blaaderen, A.; Casavola, M.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Bals, S.; Van Tendeloo, G.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Van Huis, M.A.


    Here, we show a novel solid?solid?vapor (SSV) growth mechanism whereby epitaxial growth of heterogeneous semiconductor nanowires takes place by evaporation-induced cation exchange. During heating of PbSe-CdSe nanodumbbells inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM), we observed that PbSe

  16. Preparation and characterization of monovalent ion selective cation exchange membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balster, J.H.; Krupenko, O.; Krupenko, O.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias


    This paper analyses the separation properties of various commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs) and tailor made membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly(ether sulphone) for binary electrolyte solutions containing protons and calcium ions. All membranes are thoroughly

  17. [Preparation of weak cation exchange monolithic column and its applications for on-line determination of nifedipine in human plasma]. (United States)

    Yang, Xinru; Yang, Gengliang; Zhu, Tao; Feng, Xiaojuan; Yang, Guanqun


    A cation exchange monolithic column was prepared with methylacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the cross linker. This column was applied to remove the matrix compounds and enrich the ionic medicines in human plasma with water as the mobile phase. As a result, the human plasma samples can be directly injected into chromatographic system. The relationship between the mobile phase flow rate and back pressure was studied. The results showed that the monolithic column had good performances in lower pressure and higher permeability. In addition, the maximum adsorption of nifedipine on this monolithic column was investigated. The on-line clean-up and enrichment of samples were carried out using this column as the solid-phase extraction material and the C18 column as the analytical column. The chromatography was performed on a C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic column with ultraviolet detection at 235 nm. The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol-water (70:30, v/v), and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. The linear range of nifedipine in human plasma was 5.0-75.0 microg/L. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were both less than 5.0%. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1 microg/L and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 4 microg/L. In this method tedious pretreatment procedure is not necessary. It is a fast, economical, reproducible and efficient method for assaying trace nifedipine in human plasma.

  18. Spectrum of haemoglobinopathies diagnosed by cation exchange-HPLC & modulating effects of nutritional deficiency anaemias from north India. (United States)

    Rao, Seema; Kar, Rakhee; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Chopra, Anita; Saxena, Renu


    The usefulness of cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) as a tool for detection of thalassaemia/haemoglobin variants was evaluated in a prospective study in a tertiary care centre in north India. We also tried to evaluate the effect of concurrent nutritional deficiency on the HPLC pattern in the local ethnic population. A total of 800 blood samples were analyzed on the Bio-Rad Variant HPLC system by β-thal short program. The retention times, proportion of the haemoglobin (%), and the peak characteristics for all haemoglobin fractions were recorded. Alkaline and acid haemoglobin electrophoresis was performed to document the identities of the haemoglobin variants, wherever necessary. Many cases were subjected to family studies for a definitive diagnosis. Among 800 samples tested, 553 (69.1%) were found to have normal HPLC pattern. Apart from β- thalassaemia, nine additional variants were encountered; HbS (2.8%), HbE (2.5%) and HbD (1.1%) being the most common variants present. Other variants included Hb Q-India, Hb-Lepore, δβ-thalassemia/ HPFH, HbD-Iran, HbJ-Meerut and HbH disease. There was a significant decrease in the level of HbA2 associated with iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) (P=0.004) and increase in megaloblastic anaemia (P<0.001) among subjects with normal HPLC pattern. HPLC was found to be a simple, rapid and reliable method for the detection of hemoglobin variants. An accurate diagnosis can be provided in majority of cases by use of retention time, proportion of total haemoglobin, and peak characteristics of HPLC. Haemoglobin electrophoresis and family studies play a valuable role in difficult cases. Concurrent nutritional deficiency also has an effect on HbA 2 levels.

  19. Morphologically Aligned Cation-Exchange Membranes by a Pulsed Electric Field for Reverse Electrodialysis. (United States)

    Lee, Ju-Young; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Hyuk; Kim, Seok; Moon, Seung-Hyeon


    A low-resistance ion-exchange membrane is essential to achieve the high-performance energy conversion or storage systems. The formation methods for low-resistance membranes are various; one of the methods is the ion channel alignment of an ion-exchange membrane under a direct current (DC) electric field. In this study, we suggest a more effective alignment method than the process with the DC electric field. First, an ion-exchange membrane was prepared under a pulsed electric field [alternating current (AC) mode] to enhance the effectiveness of the alignment. The membrane properties and the performance in reverse electrodialysis (RED) were then examined to assess the membrane resistance and ion selectivity. The results show that the membrane electrical resistance (MER) had a lower value of 0.86 Ω cm(2) for the AC membrane than 2.13 Ω cm(2) observed for the DC membrane and 4.30 Ω cm(2) observed for the pristine membrane. Furthermore, RED achieved 1.34 W/m(2) of maximum power density for the AC membrane, whereas that for the DC membrane was found to be 1.14 W/m(2) [a RED stack assembled with CMX, used as a commercial cation-exchange membrane (CEM), showed 1.07 W/m(2)]. Thereby, the novel preparation process for a remarkable low-resistance membrane with high ion selectivity was demonstrated.

  20. Predicting cation exchange capacity from hygroscopic moisture in agricultural soils of Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, J.; Campillo, M.C. del; Barrón, V.


    Soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) depends on the extent and negative charge density of surfaces of soil mineral and organic components. Soil water sorption also depends on the extent of such surfaces, giving thus way to significant relationships between CEC and hygroscopic moisture (HM) in many soils. In this work, we explored whether CEC could be accurately predicted from HM in agricultural soils of Mediterranean and humid temperate areas in Western Europe. For this purpose, we examined 243 soils across a wide variation range of their intrinsic properties. Soil CEC was determined using 1 M ammonium acetate at pH 7 and HM at an equilibrium air relative humidity (RH) of 43% (HM43). Most of the variation of soil CEC was explained by HM43 through a linear function (CEC = 1.4 + 0.78HM43; R2 = 0.962; standard deviation = 2.30 cmolc/kg). Coefficients of the regression equation were similar for subgroups of soils differing in moisture regime, clay mineralogy, carbonate content and organic carbon content. Therefore, soil hygroscopic moisture measurements at a fixed RH level provided a simple, robust, inexpensive method for predicting soil CEC. (Author)

  1. Facile and green fabrication of cation exchange membrane adsorber with unprecedented adsorption capacity for protein purification. (United States)

    Khan, M Kamran; Luo, Jianquan; Khan, Rashid; Fan, Jinxin; Wan, Yinhua


    Fabricating membrane adsorbers with high adsorption capacity and appreciable throughput for the separation and purification of protein products is challenging in biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel membrane adsorber by functionalizing a nylon microfiltration membrane with alginate dialdehyde (ADA) followed by sulphonic addition, without any solvent usage, and its successful application in the purification of lysozyme. Taking advantage of abundant dual cation exchange (CEX) groups on sulphonic-ADA (S-ADA) ligands, this novel S-ADA-nylon membrane adsorber showed an unprecedented static binding capicity of 286mg/mL for lysozyme adsorption. Meanwhile, the prepared membrane adsorber could be easily regenerated (complete protein elution) under mild conditions and be reused at least for five times. Featured with a unique selectivity, the S-ADA-nylon membrane also captured lysozyme from chicken egg white solution with a high purity (100%) and a high recovery of 98%. The purified lysozyme showed similar specific activity as commercial product. The present work provides a facile, green and low-cost approach for the preparation of high-performance membrane adsorbers, which has a great potential in protein production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Composite membranes prepared from cation exchange membranes and polyaniline and their transport properties in electrodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sata, Tshikatsu; Ishii, Yuuko; Kawamura, Kohei; Matsusaki, Koji [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube City, Yamaguchi (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Chemical Engineering


    A cation exchange membrane was modified with polyaniline by polymerizing aniline with ammonium peroxodisulfate on the membrane surfaces, producing a membrane with polyaniline layers on both surfaces or a membrane with a single polyaniline layer on the surface. The modified membranes, composite membranes, showed sodium ion permselectivity in electrodialysis compared with divalent cations at an optimum polymerization time. The electronic conductivity of dry membranes showed a maximum (ca. 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} S/cm) at the same polymerization time as the time to attain a maximum value of the sodium ion permselectivity. Because emeraldine-based polyaniline is conductive and has a cationic charge, the sodium ion permselectivity is based on the difference in the electrostatic repulsion forces of the cationic charge on the membrane surface of a desalting side to divalent cations and sodium ions. In fact, the selective permeation of sodium ions appeared only when the layer faced the desalting side of the membrane, and was affected by dissociation of polyaniline. Further oxidized polyaniline, pernigraniline-based polyaniline, did not affect the permselectivity between cations, and the diffusion coefficient of neutral molecules, urea, increased with increasing polymerization time. Sodium ion permselectivity was maintained with repeated electrodialysis.

  3. [Interactions between proteins and cation exchange adsorbents analyzed by NMR and hydrogen/deuterium exchange technique]. (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Hao, Dongxia; Qi, Shuting; Ma, Guanghui


    In silico acquirement of the accurate residue details of protein on chromatographic media is a bottleneck in protein chromatography separation and purification. Here we developed a novel approach by coupling with H/D exchange and nuclear magnetic resonance to observe hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) unfolding behavior adsorbed on cation exchange media (SP Sepharose FF). Analysis of 1D 1H-NMR shows that protein unfolding accelerated H/D exchange rate, leading to more loss of signal of amide hydrogen owing to exposure of residues and the more unfolding of protein. Analysis of two-dimensional hydrogen-hydrogen total correlation spectroscopy shows that lysozyme lost more signals and experienced great unfolding during its adsorption on media surface. However, for several distinct fragments, the protection degrees varied, the adsorbed lysozyme lost more signal intensity and was less protected at disorder structures (coil, bend, and turn), but was comparatively more protected against exchange at secondary structure domains (α-helix, β-sheet). Finally, the binding site was determined by electrostatic calculations using computer simulation methods in conjunction with hydrogen deuterium labeled protein and NMR. This study would help deeply understand the microscopic mechanism of protein chromatography and guide the purposely design of chromatographic process and media. Moreover, it also provide an effective tool to study the protein and biomaterials interaction in other applications.

  4. Surface modification of cation exchange membranes by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, Mahsa; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Bagheripour, Ehsan [Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madaeni, Sayed Siavash [Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Surface modification of polyvinylchloride based heterogeneous cation exchange membrane was performed by graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles. The ion exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. Spectra analysis confirmed graft polymerization clearly. SEM images illustrated that graft polymerization covers the membranes by simple gel network entanglement. The membrane water content was decreased by graft polymerization of PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles on membrane surface. Membrane transport number and selectivity declined initially by PAA graft polymerization and then began to increase by utilizing of composite nanoparticles in modifier solution. The sodium and barium flux was improved sharply by PAA and PAAco- 0.01%wt PANI/MWCNTs graft polymerization on membrane surface and then decreased again by more increase of PANI/MWCNTs nanoparticles content ratio in modifier solution. The electrodialysis experiment results in laboratory scale showed higher dialytic rate in heavy metals removal for grafted-PAA and grafted-PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs modified membrane compared to pristine one. Membrane areal electrical resistance was also decreased by introducing graft polymerization of PAA and PAA-co-PANI/MWCNTs NPs on membrane surface.

  5. Influence of Sulfonated-Kaolin On Cationic Exchange Capacity Swelling Degree and Morphology of Chitosan/Kaolin Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozi Adi Saputra


    Full Text Available Preparation of sulfonated-kaolin (sKao has been conducted and used as filler on chitosan matrix via solution casting method, namely chitosan/sKao (Cs/sKao. Swelling degree, cationic exchange capacity and thermal stability were evaluated to determine chitosan/sKao membranes performance as proton exchange membrane in fuel cell. Functional group analysis of chitosan, sKao and synthesized products were studied using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR spectroscopy. In this study, swelling degree and swelling area of Cs/sKao are also studied to determine of membrane ability to swelling which compare to unmodified chitosan/kaolin (Cs/Kao. The presence of sKao in chitosan matrix was able to improve cationic exchange capacity (CEC which proved by morphological study of membrane surface after CEC test. Moreover, Thermal stability of Cs/sKao showed the membrane has meet requirement for PEM application.

  6. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu


    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  7. Characteristics of resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.


    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of resin floc dispersion. The factors related to resin floc dispersion of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index in addition to the measurement of physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin. The effect of adsorption of iron oxide and polymer electrolyte and of ion exchange were determined. In addition, considered floc dispersion with adsorbing iron oxide, it was assumed that the amount and filling ratio of resin floc were related to summation and multiplication of surface electric charge respectively. An experimental expression was obtained for simulation of the change of specific settle volume of resin floc by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  8. Preparation of Cation-Exchange Particle Designed for High-Speed Collection of Proteins by Radiation-Induced Graft Polymerization (United States)

    Sekiya, Yuta; Shimoda, Yuichi; Umeno, Daisuke; Saito, Kyoichi; Furumoto, Goro; Shirataki, Hironobu; Shinohara, Naoyuki; Kubota, Noboru

    A cation-exchange polymer brush was immobilized onto a polyethylene-based particle with an average diameter of 35 μm by radiation-induced graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and subsequent sulfonation with sodium sulfite. A lysozyme solution was forced to flow through a bed (height 2 cm, cross-sectional area 0.61 cm2) charged with the resultant cation-exchange particles at a space velocity ranging from 500 to 2300 h-1. From a viewpoint of equilibrium binding capacity and elution percentage of lysozyme, the dose of electron beam and the degree of GMA grafting were optimized to be 200 kGy and 100%, respectively. The bed exhibited a constant dynamic binding capacity of lysozyme 14 mg⁄mL irrespective of space velocity due to negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance.

  9. How strong are strong poly(sulfonic acids)? An example of the poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gospodinova, Natalia; Tomšík, Elena; Omelchenko, Olga


    Roč. 74, January (2016), s. 130-135 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-14791S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyelectrolytes * strong poly(acids) * proton conductors Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  10. Anion- or Cation-Exchange Membranes for NaBH4/H2O2 Fuel Cells? (United States)

    Sljukić, Biljana; Morais, Ana L; Santos, Diogo M F; Sequeira, César A C


    Direct borohydride fuel cells (DBFC), which operate on sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as the fuel, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the oxidant, are receiving increasing attention. This is due to their promising use as power sources for space and underwater applications, where air is not available and gas storage poses obvious problems. One key factor to improve the performance of DBFCs concerns the type of separator used. Both anion- and cation-exchange membranes may be considered as potential separators for DBFC. In the present paper, the effect of the membrane type on the performance of laboratory NaBH4/H2O2 fuel cells using Pt electrodes is studied at room temperature. Two commercial ion-exchange membranes from Membranes International Inc., an anion-exchange membrane (AMI-7001S) and a cation-exchange membrane (CMI-7000S), are tested as ionic separators for the DBFC. The membranes are compared directly by the observation and analysis of the corresponding DBFC's performance. Cell polarization, power density, stability, and durability tests are used in the membranes' evaluation. Energy densities and specific capacities are estimated. Most tests conducted, clearly indicate a superior performance of the cation-exchange membranes over the anion-exchange membrane. The two membranes are also compared with several other previously tested commercial membranes. For long term cell operation, these membranes seem to outperform the stability of the benchmark Nafion membranes but further studies are still required to improve their instantaneous power load.

  11. Effect of cation exchange of major cation chemistry in the large scale redox experiment at Aespoe. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viani, B.E.; Bruton, C.J.


    Geochemical modeling was used to test the hypothesis that cation exchange with fracture-lining clays during fluid mixing in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory can significantly affect major element chemistry. Conservative mixing models do not adequately account for changes in Na, Ca and Mg concentrations during mixing. Mixing between relatively dilute shallow waters and more concentrated waters at depth along fracture zones was modeled using the EQ3/6 geochemical modeling package. A cation exchange model was added to the code to describe simultaneously aqueous speciation, mineral precipitation/dissolution, and equilibration between a fluid and a cation exchanger. Fluid chemistries predicted to result from mixing were compared with those monitored from boreholes intersecting the fracture zone. Modeling results suggest that less than 0.1 equivalent of a smectite exchanger per liter of groundwater is necessary to account for discrepancies between predictions from a conservative mixing model and measured Na and Ca concentrations. This quantity of exchanger equates to an effective fracture coating thickness of 20 microm or less given a fracture aperture width of 1,000 microm or less. Trends in cation ratios in the fluid cannot be used to predict trends in cation ratios on the exchanger because of the influence of ionic strength on heterovalent exchange equilibrium. It is expected that Na for Ca exchange will dominate when shallow waters such as HBHO2 are mixed with deeper waters. In contrast, Na for Mg exchange will dominate mixing between deeper waters

  12. Converting Hg-1212 to Tl-2212 via Tl-Hg cation exchange in combination with Tl cation intercalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hua; Wu, Judy Z


    In a cation exchange process developed recently for epitaxy of HgBa 2 CaCu 2 O 6 (Hg-1212) thin films, TlBa 2 CaCu 2 O 7 (Tl-1212) or Tl 2 Ba 2 CaCu 2 O 9 (Tl-2212) precursor films were employed as the precursor matrices and Hg-1212 was obtained by replacing Tl cations on the precursor lattice with Hg cations. The reversibility of the cation exchange dictates directly the underlying mechanism. Following our recent success in demonstrating a complete reversibility within '1212' structure, we show the conversion from Hg-1212 to Tl-2212 can be achieved via two steps: conversion from Hg-1212 to Tl-1212 followed by Tl intercalation to form double Tl-O plans in each unit cell. The demonstrated reversibility of the cation exchange process has confirmed the process is a thermal perturbation of weakly bonded cations on the lattice and the direction of the process is determined by the population ratio between the replacing cations and that to be replaced

  13. Ambient soil cation exchange capacity inversely associates with infectious and parasitic disease risk in regional Australia. (United States)

    Liddicoat, Craig; Bi, Peng; Waycott, Michelle; Glover, John; Breed, Martin; Weinstein, Philip


    Human contact with soil may be important for building and maintaining normal healthy immune defence mechanisms, however this idea remains untested at the population-level. In this continent-wide, cross-sectional study we examine the possible public health benefit of ambient exposures to soil of high cation exchange capacity (CEC), a surrogate for potential immunomodulatory soil microbial diversity. We compare distributions of normalized mean 2011/12-2012/13 age-standardized public hospital admission rates (cumulative incidence) for infectious and parasitic diseases across regional Australia (representing an average of 29,516 patients/year in 228 local government areas), within tertiles of socioeconomic status and soil exposure. To test the significance of soil CEC, we use probabilistic individual-level environmental exposure data (with or without soil), and group-level variables, in robust non-parametric multilevel modelling to predict disease rates in unseen groups. Our results show that in socioeconomically-deprived areas with high CEC soils, rates of infectious and parasitic disease are significantly lower than areas with low CEC soils. Also, health inequality (relative risk) due to socioeconomic status is significantly lower in areas with high CEC soils compared to low CEC soils (Δ relative risk = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.82). Including soil exposure when modelling rates of infectious and parasitic disease significantly improves prediction performance, explaining an additional 7.5% (Δ r 2  = 0.075; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.10) of variation in disease risk, in local government areas that were not used for model building. Our findings suggest that exposure to high CEC soils (typically high soil biodiversity) associates with reduced risk of infectious and parasitic diseases, particularly in lower socioeconomic areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dielectric loss property of strong acids doped polyaniline (PANi) (United States)

    Amalia, Rianti; Hafizah, Mas Ayu Elita; Andreas, Manaf, Azwar


    In this study, strong acid doped polyaniline (PANi) has been successfully fabricated through the chemical oxidative polymerization process with various polymerization times. Nonconducting PANi resulting from the polymerization process at various polymerization times were then doped by a strong acid HClO4 to generate dielectric properties. Ammonium Persulfate (APS) as an initiator was used during Polymerization process to develop dark green precipitates which then called Emeraldine Base Polyaniline (PANi-EB). The PANi-EB was successively doped by strong acid HClO4 with dopant and PANi ratio 10:1 to enhance the electrical conductivity. The conductivity of doped PANi was evaluated by Four Point Probe. Results of evaluation showed that the conductivity values of HClO4 doped PANi were in the range 337-363 mS/cm. The dielectric properties of doped PANi were evaluated by Vector Network Analyzer (VNA) which suggested that an increase in the permittivity value in the conducting PANi. It is concluded that PANi could be a potential candidate for electromagnetic waves absorbing materials.

  15. Microwave-assisted grafting polymerization modification of nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer fibers for enhanced weak cation exchange protein separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liuwei; Marcus, R. Kenneth, E-mail:


    A weak cation exchange liquid chromatography stationary phase (nylon-COOH) was prepared by grafting polyacrylic acid on to native nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers via a microwave-assisted radical polymerization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of applying microwave-assisted grafting polymerization to affect nylon material for protein separation. The C-CP fiber surfaces were characterized by attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anticipated carbonyl peak at 1722.9 cm{sup −1} was found on the nylon-COOH fibers, but was not found on the native fiber, indicating the presence of the polyacrylic acid on nylon fibers after grafting. The nylon-COOH phase showed a ∼12× increase in lysozyme dynamic binding capacity (∼12 mg mL{sup −1}) when compared to the native fiber phase (∼1 mg mL{sup −1}). The loading capacity of the nylon-COOH phase is nearly independent of the lysozyme loading concentration (0.05–1 mg mL{sup −1}) and the mobile phase linear velocity (7.3–73 mm s{sup −1}). The reproducibility of the lysozyme recovery from the nylon-COOH (RSD = 0.3%, n = 10) and the batch-to-batch variability in the functionalization (RSD = 3%, n = 5) were also investigated, revealing very high levels of consistency. Fast baseline separations of myoglobin, α-chymotrypsinogen A, cytochrome c and lysozyme were achieved using the nylon-COOH column. It was found that a 5× increase in the mobile phase linear velocity (7.3-to-36.5 mm s{sup −1}) had little effect on the separation resolution. The microwave-assisted grafting polymerization has great potential as a generalized surface modification methodology across the applications of C-CP fibers. - Highlights: • A microwave-assisted grafting method to attach acrylic acid is described for the first time for chromatographic phases. • A high-density, weak cation exchange surface is created on a nylon

  16. Big, strong, neutral, twisted, and chiral π acids. (United States)

    Zhao, Yingjie; Huang, Guangxi; Besnard, Celine; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan


    General synthetic access to expanded π-acidic surfaces of variable size, topology, chirality, and π acidity is reported. The availability of π surfaces with these characteristics is essential to develop the functional relevance of anion-π interactions with regard to molecular recognition, translocation, and transformation. The problem is that, with expanded π surfaces, the impact of electron-withdrawing substituents decreases and the high π acidity needed for strong anion-π interactions can be more difficult to obtain. To overcome this problem, it is herein proposed to build large surfaces from smaller fragments and connect these fragments with bridges that are composed only of single atoms. Two central surfaces for powerful anion-π interactions, namely, perfluoroarenes and naphthalenediimides (NDIs), were selected as fragments and coupled with through sulfide bridges. Their oxidation to sulfoxides and sulfones, as well as fluorine substitution in the peripheral rings, provides access to the full chemical space of relevant π acidities. According to cyclic voltammetry, LUMO levels range from -3.96 to -4.72 eV. With sulfoxide bridges, stereogenic centers are introduced to further enrich the intrinsic planar chirality of the expanded surfaces. The stereoisomers were separated by chiral HPLC and characterized by X-ray crystallography. Their topologies range from chairs to π boats, and the latter are reminiscent of the cation-π boxes in operational neuronal receptors. With pentafluorophenyl acceptors, the π acidity of NDIs with two sulfoxide groups in the core reaches -4.45 eV, whereas two sulfone moieties give a value of -4.72 eV, which is as low as with four ethyl sulfone groups, that is, a π superacid near the limit of existence. Beyond anion-π interactions, these conceptually innovative π-acidic surfaces are also of interest as electron transporters in conductive materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Recover of some rare earth elements from leach liquor of the Saghand uranium ore using combined precipitation and cation exchange methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanchi, A. R.; Rafati, H.; Rezvaniyanzadeh, M. R.


    In this research work, the recovery and separation of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III), Dy(III) and Nd(III) from Saghand uranium ore have been studied by precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography methods using Dowex 50 W-X 8 cation exchanger. At first, some preliminary and preconcentration experiments such as comminution, sieve analysis, gravity table and electrostatic in preconcentration of lanthanides were performed. Then, acidic digesting and leaching procedure were used. The results of experiments showed that rare earth elements, along with interfering ions such as Al(III), Fe(III), Mg(II) and Mn(II) present in the leach liquor solution. The investigation of separation process by precipitation method revealed that precipitation and then fast separation using centrifugal technique had the best results in the elimination of interference elements. In order to separate the lanthanides and to obtain their elution curves, the chromatographic column containing Dowex 50 W-X 8 resin was employed. For efficient separation of lanthanides from interference elements the hydrochloric acid with concentration of two and six molar was used respectively. Recovery of lanthanides from the leach liquor solution was achieved more than 85%

  18. Fast analysis of quaternary ammonium pesticides in food and beverages using cation-exchange chromatography coupled with isotope-dilution high-resolution mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Nardin, Tiziana; Barnaba, Chiara; Abballe, Franco; Trenti, Gianmaria; Malacarne, Mario; Larcher, Roberto


    A fast separation based on cation-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry is proposed for simultaneous determination of chlormequat, difenzoquat, diquat, mepiquat and paraquat in several food and beverage commodities. Solid samples were extracted using a mixture of water/methanol/formic acid (69.6:30:0.4, v/v/v), while liquid samples were ten times diluted with the same solution. Separation was carried out on an experimental length-modified IonPac CS17 column (2 × 15 mm 2 ) that allowed the use of formic acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. Detection limits for food and beverage matrices were established at 1.5 μg/L for chlormequat, difenzoquat and mepiquat, and 3 μg/L for diquat and paraquat, while for drinking water a pre-analytical sample concentration allowed detection limits of 9 and 20 ng/L, respectively. Precision, as repeatability (RSD%), ranged from 0.2 to 24%, with a median value of 6%, and trueness, as recovery, ranged from 64 to 118%, with a median value of 96%. The method developed was successfully applied to investigate the presence of herbicide residues in commercial commodities (mineral water, orange juice, beer, tea, green coffee bean, toasted coffee powder, cocoa bean, white corn flour, rice and sugar samples). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ring-opening metathesis polymerization for the preparation of norbornene-based weak cation-exchange monolithic capillary columns. (United States)

    Gatschelhofer, Christina; Mautner, Agnes; Reiter, Franz; Pieber, Thomas R; Buchmeiser, Michael R; Sinner, Frank M


    Functionalized monolithic columns were prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) within silanized fused silica capillaries with an internal diameter of 200 microm by in situ grafting. This procedure is conducted in two steps, the first of which is the formation of the basic monolithic structure by polymerization of norborn-2-ene (NBE) and 1,4,4a,5,8,8a-hexahydro-1,4,5,8-exo,endo-dimethanonaphthalene (DMN-H6) in a porogenic system (toluene and 2-propanol) using RuCl(2)(PCy(3))(2)(CHPh) as ROMP initiator. In the second step the still active initiator sites located on the surface of the structure-forming microglobules were used as receptor groups for the attachment ("grafting") of functional groups onto the monolithic backbone by flushing the monolith with 7-oxanorborn-2-ene-5,6-carboxylic anhydride (ONDCA). Functionalization conditions were first defined that did not damage the backbone of low polymer content (20%) monoliths allowing high-throughput chromatographic separations. Variation of the functionalization conditions was then shown to provide a means of controlling the degree of functionalization and resulting ion-exchange capacity. The maximum level of in situ ONDCA grafting was obtained by a 3h polymerization in toluene at 40 degrees C. The weak cation-exchange monoliths obtained provided good separation of a standard peptide mixture comprising four synthetic peptides designed specifically for the evaluation of cation-exchange columns. An equivalent separation was also achieved using the lowest capacity column studied, indicative of a high degree of robustness of the functionalization procedure. As well as demonstrably bearing ionic functional groups enabling analyte separation in the cation-exchange mode, the columns exhibited additional hydrophobic characteristics which influenced the separation process. The functionalized monoliths thus represent useful tools for mixed-mode separations.

  20. Effect of efficient microorganisms on cation exchange capacity in acacia seedlings (Acacia melanoxylon) for soil recovery in Mondonedo, Cundinamarca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barragan Olga Angelica; Montero Robayo Diana Mercedes; Lagos Caballero Jesus Alberto


    We determined the effect of efficient microorganisms (EM) on the cation exchange capacity for soil recovery in the municipality of Mondonedo, Cundinamarca. A greenhouse unit was installed in order to maintain stable conditions. After harvesting, sifted and homogenization of the soil sample, initial physical and chemical analyses were made. For the experimental units we used Acacia melanoxylon seedlings from Zabrinsky. A completely randomized design was done with eight treatments and three repetitions. For the maintenance and monitoring of the seedlings behaviour, a frequency of irrigation of three times per week was found. The application of the EM was done during three months: in the first month, it was applied four times (once a week); during the second month, it was applied twice (biweekly), and during the third month there was only one application. Additionally, every 15 days morphological analyses were made (number of leaves, branches and stem diameter). In the end, soil samples were taken from each plant pot. In the laboratory we analysed the cation exchange capacity, alkali ion exchange, saturation alkali, relations between elements and plant tissue. These were done using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses consisted on multiple comparisons test and variance tests, in order to find whether or not treatments exhibited significant differences. In that way, the best alternative for improving environmental quality of eroded soils as the Zabrinsky desert is the efficient microorganisms in 5% doses in irrigation water. Additionally, the cation exchange capacity must be enhanced using organic fertilizers (compost, mulch and gallinaza) in one pound doses, and chemical fertilizers: electrolytic Mn (0.0002 g), Cu (0.0002 g), Zn (0.0001 g), URFOS 44 (166.66 g) and klip-boro (5 g).

  1. Modelling of geochemical reactions and experimental cation exchange in MX 80 bentonite. (United States)

    Montes-H, G; Fritz, B; Clement, A; Michau, N


    Bentonites are widely used for waste repository systems because of their hydrodynamic, surface and chemical-retention properties. MX 80 bentonite (bentonite of Wyoming) contains approximately 85% Na/Ca-montmorillonite and 15% accessory minerals. The dominant presence of Na/Ca-montmorillonite in this clay mineral could cause it to perform exceptionally well as an engineered barrier for a radioactive waste repository because this buffer material is expected to fill up by swelling the void between canisters containing waste and the surrounding ground. However, the Na/Ca-montmorillonite could be transformed to other clay minerals as a function of time under repository conditions. Previous modelling studies based on the hydrolysis reactions have shown that the Na/Ca-montmorillonite-to-Ca-montmorillonite conversion is the most significant chemical transformation. In fact, this chemical process appears to be a simple cation exchange into the engineered barrier. The purpose of the present study was two-fold. Firstly, it was hoped to predict the newly formed products of bentonite-fluid reactions under repository conditions by applying a thermokinetic hydrochemical code (KIRMAT: Kinetic Reactions and Mass Transport). The system modelled herein was considered to consist of a 1-m thick zone of water-saturated engineered barrier. This non-equilibrated system was placed in contact with a geological fluid on one side, which was then allowed to diffuse into the barrier, while the other side was kept in contact with iron-charged water. Reducing initial conditions ( [P(O)2 approximately equals 0] ; Eh=-200 mV) and a constant reaction temperature (100 degrees C) were considered. Secondly, it was hoped to estimate the influence of inter-layer cations (Ca and Na) on the swelling behaviour of the MX 80 bentonite by using an isothermal system of water vapour adsorption and an environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) coupled with a digital image analysis (DIA) program. Here, the

  2. Facile preparation of acid-resistant magnetite particles for removal of Sb(?) from strong acidic solution


    Wang, Dong; Guan, Kaiwen; Bai, Zhiping; Liu, Fuqiang


    Abstract A new facile coating strategy based on the hydrophobicity of methyl groups was developed to prevent nano-sized magnetite particles from strong acid corrosion. In this method, three steps of hydrolysis led to three layers of protection shell coating Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Filled with hydrophobic methyl groups, the middle layer mainly prevented the magnetic core from strong acid corrosion. These magnetite particles managed to resist 1 M HCl solution and 2.5 M H2SO4 solution. The acid res...

  3. Preparation of cation-exchange stir bar sorptive extraction based on monolithic material and its application to the analysis of soluble cations in milk by ion chromatography. (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Lin, Jianbin; Yuan, Dongxing


    In this study, a new cation-exchange coating for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) based on poly (acrylic acid-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic material was synthesized. The effect of polymerization conditions such as the ratio of functional monomer to cross-linker and the content of porogenic solvent on the extraction efficiencies were investigated in detail. The monolithic material was characterized by elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the usability of the new coating for the extraction of inorganic cations, the analysis of soluble K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) in milk by ion chromatography with conductivity detection was selected as a paradigm. Several extractive parameters, including pH value in sample matrix, desorption solvent, extraction and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, low detection limits (S/N = 3) and quantification limits (S/N = 10) of the proposed method for the target cations were achieved within the range of 0.12-0.28 and 0.4-0.92 μg L(-1), respectively. The method also showed good linearity, simplicity, practicality and low cost for the extraction of inorganic cations. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to analyse three different trademarks of commercial milk samples with satisfactory recoveries in the range of 71.1% to 102.8%.

  4. Measurements on cation exchange capacity of bentonite in the long-term test of buffer material (LOT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.


    Determination of cation exchange capacity (CEC) of bentonite in the LOT experiment was the topic of this study. The measurements were performed using the complex of copper(II) ion with trietylenetetramine [Cu(trien)] 2+ as the index cation. Testing of the determination method suggested that (i) drying and wetting of the bentonite, and (ii) exchange time affect the obtained result. The real CEC measurements were carried out with the bentonite samples taken from the A2 parcel of the LOT experiment. The CEC values of the LOT samples were compared with those of the reference samples taken from the same bentonite batch before the compaction of the blocks for the experiment. The conclusions drawn have been made on the basis of the results determined with the wet bentonite samples using the direct exchange of two weeks with 0.01 M [Cu(trien)] 2+ solution because this method gave the most complete cation exchange in the CEC measurements. The differences between the samples taken from different places of the A2 parcel were quite small and close to the accuracy of the method. However, it seems that the CEC values of the field experiment are somewhat higher than the CEC of the reference samples and the values of the hot area are higher than those obtained from the low temperature area. It is also obvious that the variation of CEC increases with increasing temperature. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of gaseous oxidized Hg measured by KCl-coated denuders, and nylon and cation exchange membranes. (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Miller, Matthieu B; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Gustin, Mae Sexauer


    The chemical compounds that make up gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) in the atmosphere, and the reactions responsible for their formation, are not well understood. The limitations and uncertainties associated with the current method applied to measure these compounds, the KCl-coated denuder, are not known due to lack of calibration and testing. This study systematically compared the uptake of specific GOM compounds by KCl-coated denuders with that collected using nylon and cation exchange membranes in the laboratory and field. In addition, a new method for identifying different GOM compounds using thermal desorption is presented. Different GOM compounds (HgCl2, HgBr2, and HgO) were found to have different affinities for the denuder surface and the denuder underestimated each of these compounds. Membranes measured 1.3 to 3.7 times higher GOM than denuders in laboratory and field experiments. Cation exchange membranes had the highest collection efficiency. Thermodesorption profiles for the release of GOM compounds from the nylon membrane were different for HgO versus HgBr2 and HgCl2. Application of the new field method for collection and identification of GOM compounds demonstrated these vary as a function of location and time of year. Understanding the chemistry of GOM across space and time has important implications for those developing policy regarding this environmental contaminant.

  6. Uncertainties of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Measurements Using KCl-Coated Denuders, Cation-Exchange Membranes, and Nylon Membranes: Humidity Influences. (United States)

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Gustin, Mae Sexauer


    Quantifying the concentration of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and identifying the chemical compounds in the atmosphere are important for developing accurate local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles. The major hypothesis driving this work was that relative humidity affects collection of GOM on KCl-coated denuders and nylon membranes, both currently being applied to measure GOM. Using a laboratory manifold system and ambient air, GOM capture efficiency on 3 different collection surfaces, including KCl-coated denuders, nylon membranes, and cation-exchange membranes, was investigated at relative humidity ranging from 25 to 75%. Recovery of permeated HgBr2 on KCl-coated denuders declined by 4-60% during spikes of relative humidity (25 to 75%). When spikes were turned off GOM recoveries returned to 60 ± 19% of permeated levels. In some cases, KCl-coated denuders were gradually passivated over time after additional humidity was applied. In this study, GOM recovery on nylon membranes decreased with high humidity and ozone concentrations. However, additional humidity enhanced GOM recovery on cation-exchange membranes. In addition, reduction and oxidation of elemental mercury during experiments was observed. The findings in this study can help to explain field observations in previous studies.

  7. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tetsurou; Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu.


    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author)

  8. Characteristics of floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin in precoat filter using powdered ion exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Tetsurou (Nitto Denko Corp., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Sawa, Toshio; Shindoh, Toshikazu


    The filtration performance of mixed filter aid consisting of powdered anion and cation exchange resins used in the precoat filter is closely related to the characteristics of floc formation. The physical, chemical and electrochemical properties of powdered ion exchange resin were measured and the factors related to floc formation of anion and cation exchange resin were investigated by measuring the specific settle volume of resin floc as an evaluating index. It was found that these factors were mixing ratio, nature of resins and particle size of resins. In addition, it was assumed on the bases of these results that the amount of resin floc was related to sum of the surface electric charges of both resins. The filling ratio of resin floc was related to their product by multiplication and an experimental expression was obtained. The specific settle volume of resin floc could then be simulated by particle size, surface area, ion exchange capacity and degree of ionization of the powdered ion exchange resin. (author).

  9. An Investigation into the Effect of Cation-exchange on the Adsorption Performance of Indium-based Sodalite-ZMOF

    KAUST Repository

    Samin, Umer A.


    There is a pressing need for advanced solid-state materials that can be implemented in industrial gas separation processes to achieve separations with a significantly reduced energy input compared to what is typically required from current technologies. Although certain porous materials like zeolites bear some commercial significance for gas separation; their inherent lack of tunability limits the extent to which these materials may be exploited in industry. Zeolite-like Metal-Organic Frameworks (ZMOFs) are a sub-class of Metal-Organic Framework materials (MOFs) that show a structural semblance to zeolites while possessing the tunability advantages of MOF materials. ZMOFs which are topologically similar to certain zeolites can be functionalised and tuned in numerous ways to improve their gas separation properties. In this work, indium-based sod-ZMOF was tuned by cation-exchange and then characterised by different experimental tools such as single-crystal x-ray diffraction, elemental analysis and gas adsorption. It was found that various parameters like the choice of cation, the concentration of salt solution and the choice of solvent had a significant bearing on the cation-exchange of sod-ZMOF and its subsequent adsorption properties.

  10. Increments to chiral recognition facilitating enantiomer separations of chiral acids, bases, and ampholytes using Cinchona-based zwitterion exchanger chiral stationary phases. (United States)

    Wernisch, Stefanie; Pell, Reinhard; Lindner, Wolfgang


    The intramolecular distances of anion and cation exchanger sites of zwitterionic chiral stationary phases represent potential tuning sites for enantiomer selectivity. In this contribution, we investigate the influence of alkanesulfonic acid chain length and flexibility on enantiomer separations of chiral acids, bases, and amphoteric molecules for six Cinchona alkaloid-based chiral stationary phases in comparison with structurally related anion and cation exchangers. Employing polar-organic elution conditions, we observed an intramolecular counterion effect for acidic analytes which led to reduced retention times but did not impair enantiomer selectivities. Retention of amphoteric analytes is based on simultaneous double ion pairing of their charged functional groups with the acidic and basic sites of the zwitterionic selectors. A chiral center in the vicinity of the strong cation exchanger site is vital for chiral separations of bases. Sterically demanding side chains are beneficial for separations of free amino acids. Enantioseparations of free (un-derivatized) peptides were particularly successful in stationary phases with straight-chain alkanesulfonic acid sites, pointing to a beneficial influence of more flexible moieties. In addition, we observed pseudo-enantiomeric behavior of quinine and quinidine-derived chiral stationary phases facilitating reversal of elution orders for all analytes. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. High Ion-Exchange Capacity Semihomogeneous Cation Exchange Membranes Prepared via a Novel Polymerization and Sulfonation Approach in Porous Polypropylene. (United States)

    Jiang, Shanxue; Ladewig, Bradley P


    Semihomogeneous cation exchange membranes with superior ion exchange capacity (IEC) were synthesized via a novel polymerization and sulfonation approach in porous polypropylene support. The IEC of membranes could reach up to 3 mmol/g because of high mass ratio of functional polymer to membrane support. Especially, theoretical IEC threshold value agreed well with experimental threshold value, indicating that IEC could be specifically designed without carrying out extensive experiments. Also, sulfonate groups were distributed both on membrane surface and across the membranes, which corresponded well with high IEC of the synthesized membranes. In addition, the semifinished membrane showed hydrophobic property because of the formation of polystyrene. In contrast, the final membranes demonstrated super hydrophilic property, indicating the adequate sulfonation of polystyrene. Furthermore, when sulfonation reaction time increased, the conductivity of membranes also showed a tendency to increase, revealing the positive relationship between conductivity and IEC. Finally, the final membranes showed sufficient thermal stability for electrodialysis applications such as water desalination.

  12. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Pippa J. [Earth and Biosphere Institute, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)], E-mail:; Clark, Joanna M. [Earth and Biosphere Institute, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Reynolds, Brian [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Deiniol Road, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UP (United Kingdom); Adamson, John K. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster, Lancashire LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)


    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer. - Seasonal variations in soil solution ANC is controlled by seasonal variations in seasalt deposition and production of dissolved organic acids.

  13. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, Pippa J.; Clark, Joanna M.; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K.


    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer. - Seasonal variations in soil solution ANC is controlled by seasonal variations in seasalt deposition and production of dissolved organic acids

  14. Common Ion Effects In Zeoponic Substrates: Dissolution And Cation Exchange Variations Due to Additions of Calcite, Dolomite and Wollastonite (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, R. E.; Ming, D. W.; Galindo, C., Jr.


    c1inoptilolite-rich tuff-hydroxyapatite mixture (zeoponic substrate) has the potential to serve as a synthetic soil-additive for plant growth. Essential plant macro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, ammonium and potassium are released into solution via dissolution of the hydroxyapatite and cation exchange on zeolite charged sites. Plant growth experiments resulting in low yield for wheat have been attributed to a Ca deficiency caused by a high degree of cation exchange by the zeolite. Batch-equilibration experiments were performed in order to determine if the Ca deficiency can be remedied by the addition of a second Ca-bearing, soluble, mineral such as calcite, dolomite or wollastonite. Variations in the amount of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite resulted in systematic changes in the concentrations of Ca and P. The addition of calcite, dolomite or wollastonite to the zeoponic substrate resulted in an exponential decrease in the phosphorous concentration in solution. The exponential rate of decay was greatest for calcite (5.60 wt. % -I), intermediate for wollastonite (2.85 wt.% -I) and least for dolomite (1.58 wt.% -I). Additions of the three minerals resulted in linear increases in the calcium concentration in solution. The rate of increase was greatest for calcite (3.64), intermediate for wollastonite (2.41) and least for dolomite (0.61). The observed changes in P and Ca concentration are consistent with the solubilities of calcite, dolomite and wollastonite and with changes expected from a common ion effect with Ca. Keywords: zeolite, zeoponics, common-ion effect, clinoptilolite, hydroxyapatite

  15. Quantification of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Jacobine in Crassocephalum crepidioides by Cation Exchange High-Performance Liquid Chromatography. (United States)

    Rozhon, Wilfried; Kammermeier, Lukas; Schramm, Sebastian; Towfique, Nayeem; Adebimpe Adedeji, N; Adesola Ajayi, S; Poppenberger, Brigitte


    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are secondary plant metabolites with considerable hepatoxic, tumorigenic and genotoxic potential. For separation, reversed phase chromatography is commonly used because of its excellent compatibility with detection by mass spectrometry. However, reversed phase chromatography has a low selectivity for PAs. The objective of this work was to investigate the suitability of cation exchange chromatography for separation of PAs and to develop a rapid method for quantification of jacobine in Crassocephalum crepidioides that is suitable for analysis of huge sample numbers as required for mutant screening procedures. We demonstrate that cation exchange chromatography offers excellent selectivity for PAs allowing their separation from most other plant metabolites. Due to the high selectivity, plant extracts can be directly analysed after simple sample preparation. Detection with UV at 200 nm instead of mass spectrometry can be applied, which makes the method very simple and cost-effective. The recovery rate of the method exceeded 95%, the intra-day and inter-day standard deviations were below 7% and the limit of detection and quantification were 1 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, respectively. The developed method is sufficiently sensitive for reproducible detection of jacobine in C. crepidioides. Simple sample preparation and rapid separation allows for quantification of jacobine in plant material in a high-throughput manner. Thus, the method is suitable for genetic screenings and may be applicable for other plant species, for instance Jacobaea maritima. In addition, our results show that C. crepidioides cannot be considered safe for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Monoclonal antibody heterogeneity analysis and deamidation monitoring with high-performance cation-exchange chromatofocusing using simple, two component buffer systems. (United States)

    Kang, Xuezhen; Kutzko, Joseph P; Hayes, Michael L; Frey, Douglas D


    The use of either a polyampholyte buffer or a simple buffer system for the high-performance cation-exchange chromatofocusing of monoclonal antibodies is demonstrated for the case where the pH gradient is produced entirely inside the column and with no external mixing of buffers. The simple buffer system used was composed of two buffering species, one which becomes adsorbed onto the column packing and one which does not adsorb, together with an adsorbed ion that does not participate in acid-base equilibrium. The method which employs the simple buffer system is capable of producing a gradual pH gradient in the neutral to acidic pH range that can be adjusted by proper selection of the starting and ending pH values for the gradient as well as the buffering species concentration, pKa, and molecular size. By using this approach, variants of representative monoclonal antibodies with isoelectric points of 7.0 or less were separated with high resolution so that the approach can serve as a complementary alternative to isoelectric focusing for characterizing a monoclonal antibody based on differences in the isoelectric points of the variants present. Because the simple buffer system used eliminates the use of polyampholytes, the method is suitable for antibody heterogeneity analysis coupled with mass spectrometry. The method can also be used at the preparative scale to collect highly purified isoelectric variants of an antibody for further study. To illustrate this, a single isoelectric point variant of a monoclonal antibody was collected and used for a stability study under forced deamidation conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and analytical application of hybrid; Acrylamide zirconium (IV) arsenate a cation exchanger, effect of dielectric constant on distribution coefficient of metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabi, Syed A. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)], E-mail:; Shalla, Aabid H. [Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P. (India)


    A new hybrid inorganic-organic cation exchanger acrylamide zirconium (IV) arsenate has been synthesized, characterized and its analytical application explored. The effect of experimental parameters such as mixing ratio of reagents, temperature, and pH on the properties of material has been studied. FTIR, TGA, X-ray, UV-vis spectrophotometry, SEM and elemental analysis were used to determine the physiochemical properties of this hybrid ion exchanger. The material behaves as a monofunctional acid with ion-exchange capacity of 1.65 meq/g for Na{sup +} ions. The chemical stability data reveals that the exchanger is quite stable in mineral acids, bases and fairly stable in organic solvents, while as thermal analysis shows that the material retain 84% of its ion-exchange capacity up to 600 deg. C. Adsorption behavior of metal ions in solvents with increasing dielectric constant has also been explored. The sorption studies reveal that the material is selective for Pb{sup 2+} ions. The analytical utility of the material has been explored by achieving some binary separations of metal ions on its column. Pb{sup 2+} has been selectively removed from synthetic mixtures containing Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}. In order to demonstrate practical utility of the material quantitative separation of the Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+} in brass sample has been achieved on its columns.

  18. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari, E-mail: [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata [Chemical Engineering Study Program, Faculty of Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University, Jl. A. Yani Km. 36 Banjarbaru, South Kalimantan 70714 (Indonesia); Lee, Cheng-Kang, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Rd. Sec.4, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)


    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO{sub 3}H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO{sub 3}H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use.

  19. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang


    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100–500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO 3 H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO 3 H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst. - Highlights: • Carbon solid acid was successfully prepared by one-step hydrothermal carbonization. • The acrylic acid as monomer was effectively reduce the diameter size of particle. • The solid acid catalyst show good catalytic performance of starch hydrolysis. • The solid acid catalyst is not significantly deteriorated after repeated use

  20. Carbon-based strong solid acid for cornstarch hydrolysis (United States)

    Nata, Iryanti Fatyasari; Irawan, Chairul; Mardina, Primata; Lee, Cheng-Kang


    Highly sulfonated carbonaceous spheres with diameter of 100-500 nm can be generated by hydrothermal carbonization of glucose in the presence of hydroxyethylsulfonic acid and acrylic acid at 180 °C for 4 h. The acidity of the prepared carbonaceous sphere C4-SO3H can reach 2.10 mmol/g. It was used as a solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of cornstarch. Total reducing sugar (TRS) concentration of 19.91 mg/mL could be obtained by hydrolyzing 20 mg/mL cornstarch at 150 °C for 6 h using C4-SO3H as solid acid catalyst. The solid acid catalyst demonstrated good stability that only 9% decrease in TRS concentration was observed after five repeat uses. The as-prepared carbon-based solid acid catalyst can be an environmentally benign replacement for homogeneous catalyst.

  1. Unfolding and aggregation of a glycosylated monoclonal antibody on a cation exchange column. Part I. Chromatographic elution and batch adsorption behavior. (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zhang, Shaojie; Carta, Giorgio


    A glycosylated IgG2 monoclonal antibody exhibits a two-peak elution behavior when loaded on a strong cation exchange column and eluted with either a linear salt gradient or two salt steps at increasing salt concentrations. The two-peak behavior is more pronounced for conditions where the initial antibody binding is stronger, i.e. at lower pH and buffer concentration, where the hold time prior to elution is longer, where the protein mass load is lower, and where the load flow rate is higher. The effect is also dependent on the resin type, being prominent for the polymer-functionalized resin Fractogel EMD SO₃(-) and virtually absent for a macroporous resin with similar backbone but no grafted polymers. Size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering show that the early eluting peak consists exclusively of the native monomeric species while the late eluting peak is a mixture of monomeric and aggregated species. Batch adsorption/desorption experiments show that the bound protein can be desorbed in two steps, with a fraction desorbed in 0.33 M NaCl, corresponding to native monomer, and a second fraction desorbed in 1M NaCl. The latter fraction decreases with protein mass load and becomes almost negligible when the resin is initially completely saturated with protein. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that the two-peak elution/desorption behavior is related to the unique kinetics of protein binding in the Fractogel resin. Following partial loading of the resin, the bound protein migrates toward the center of the particles during a hold step and is redistributed across the particle volume attaining low local bound protein concentrations. For these conditions the protein is apparently destabilized forming a strongly-bound unfolded intermediate that, in turn, generates aggregates upon elution in high salt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of organoarsenic species in marine samples using gradient elution cation exchange HPLC-ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Julshamn, Kåre


    and dimethylarsinoylacetic acid, whereas the cationic arsenocholine ion and tetramethylarsonium ion were not affected. The accuracy of the method for DMA, AsB and TMAs was validated with the CRMs DORM-2 and BCR626 Tuna. The concentrations found for arsenobetaine, dimethylarsinic acid and tetramethylarsonium ion were within...

  3. Synthesis of novel carbon/silica composites based strong acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydrophobic acid-catalyzed reactions proceed in poor or with no catalytic activity (Nakajima et al 2009). The novel car- bon/silica composites based solid acid was synthesized for the purpose. However, the new method added the step of impregnating sucrose to the channels of SBA-15, which fur- ther added to the cost for ...

  4. chemical studies and sorption behavior of some hazardous metal ions on polyacrylamide stannic (IV) molybdophosphate as 'organic - inorganic' composite cation - exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Galil, E.A.M.


    compsite materials formed by the combination of multivalent metal acid salts and organic polymers provide a new class of (organic-inorganic) hypride ion exchangers with better mechanical and granulometric properties, good ion-exchange capacity, higher chemical and radiation stabilites, reproducibility and selectivity for heavy metals. this material was characterized using X-ray (XRD and XRF), IR, TGA-DTA and total elemental analysis studies. on the basis of distribution studies, the material has been found to be highly selective for pb(II). thermodynamic parameters (i.e δG 0 , δ S 0 and δH 0 ) have also been calculated for the adsorption of Pb 2+ , Cs + , Fe 3+ , Cd 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Co 2+ and Eu 3+ ions on polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate showing that the overall adsorption process is spontaneous endothermic. the mechanism of diffusion of Fe 3+ , Co 2+ , Cu +2 , Zn 2+ , Cd 2+ , Cs + , Pb 2+ and Eu 3+ in the H-form of polyacrylamide Sn(IV) molybdophosphate composite as cation exchanger was studied as a function of particle size, concentration of the exchanging ions, reaction temperature, dring temperature and pH. the exchange rate was controlled by particle diffusion mechanism as a limited batch techneque and is confirmed from straight lines of B versus 1/r 2 polts. the values of diffusion coefficients, activation energy and entropy of activation were calculated and their significance was discussed. the data obtained have been comared with that reported for other organic and inorganic exchangers.

  5. Reactions with 1.3 propane sultone for the synthesis of cation-exchange membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, P.M.; Rupkema, B.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.


    For several reasons it is interesting for membrane technology to introduce strongly anionic groups in membranes. Therefore the possibilities of 1.3 propane sultone were studied to modify cellulose, cellulose acetate and polyacrylonitrile. The results showed that cellulose and cellulose acetate could

  6. Kinetic Analyses of Cation Exchange Rates in Synthetic Birnessite Measured by Time- Resolved Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction (United States)

    Lopano, C. L.; Heaney, P. J.; Post, J. E.; Bandstra, J.; Brantley, S. L.


    Birnessite is the most abundant and chemically important layer-structure Mn-oxide phase found in soils, desert varnishes, and ocean nodules. It also is industrially important for use in battery technology and octahedral sieves. Due to the poorly crystalline nature of natural birnessite, synthetic analogues typically have been employed in studies that explore the structural response of birnessite to variations in interlayer composition. For this work, we measured changes in unit-cell parameters over time to quantify the degree of cation exchange as a function of concentration. Aqueous K+, Cs+, and Ba2+ cations at varying concentrations at pH 7 were exchanged for interlayer Na+ in synthetic birnessite (Na0.58(Mn4+1.42,Mn3+0.58)O4·1.5H2O) using a simple flow- through cell, and the exchange products were monitored via time-resolved X-ray powder diffraction at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were collected every 2-3 minutes. Rietveld analyses of X-ray diffraction patterns for K- and Ba-exchanged birnessite revealed a decrease in unit- cell volume over time. In contrast, Cs+ substitution increased cell volume. For all three cations, the crystallographic data indicate that exchange occurred in two stages. A rapid and dramatic change in unit-cell volume was followed by a modest adjustment over longer timescales. Fourier electron difference syntheses revealed that the rapid, initial stage of exchange was marked by re-configuration of the interlayer species, whereas the second, protracted phase of substitution represented ordering into the newly established interlayer positions. For the first time, we have modeled the kinetics of interlayer substitution in Na-birnessite. For purposes of comparison, we have employed a simple one-stage reaction (i.e., Na-birnessite → K-birnessite) and a two stage reaction (i.e,. Na-birnessite → K-birnessitedisordered → K- birnessiteordered). For exchange with 0.01 M KCl solutions, the single

  7. Investigations on complexing cation exchangers and their use for trace analysis in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, H.


    The practicability of cation preconcentrations from natural waters by use of EDTrA- and 5-s-oxine- celluloses has been studied. For that purpose the protonation constants as well as the complexation capacities were determined by use of acid/base titrations. In additional titration experiments the complex stability constants for Cu 2+ , Mn 2+ , Co 2+ , Ni 2+ and Ca 2+ were determined examplarely. The interpretation of the experiments was performed using an optimised fit between calculated and experimentally determined pH-titration curves. Calculations have been done by the computer code 'MINEQL'. The determined stability constants are in the same order of magnitude as those given in literature for the water soluble complexes of EDTA, NTA or 5-s-oxine. The preconcentration of cations from natural water samples occurs in accordance with the theoretical predictions. Not ignorable disturbances appear for cations forming hydroxides or oxides in neutral or weakly acidic solutions. By use of radioactive isotopes for Sn 2+ , Zn 4+ and Nb 5+ it can be shown that those ions may form particles or colloids in natural waters. These particles will be filtered in the columns packed with the celluloses and can hardly be removed from there. (author)

  8. Effect of ammonium salts on the solvent extraction of Zn and Cd with liquid cation exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Junji; Nishimura, Sanji; Mukai, Shigeru.


    The extraction of Zn and Cd from ammoniacal solution with D 2 EHPA and Versatic Acid 911 diluted in benzene was studied and the effect of ammonia on these extractions was clarified. The extraction of these metals with D 2 EHPA is not affected by ammonia, while the extraction with Versatic Acid 911 is considerably hindered. This is also recognized from the consideration by the average ligand number of metal ammine complex. The theoretical values obtained on the hypothesis that the metal ammine complex is not extracted into the organic phase are in good accord with the experimental results of Zn extraction. But there is a difference between the theoretical and experimental values of Cd extraction. The addition of p-nonyl phenol to the organic phase raises the extraction of these metals, especially in the pH region where the extraction is hindered by the formation of the metal ammine complex. The separation of Cd from a binary solution of Zn and Cd was tried and it was confirmed that the extraction under the optimum pH and ammonia concentration, and the scrubbing of the extract with Cd solution are required. (auth.)

  9. Investigation of methanol oxidation on unsupported platinum electrodes in strong alkali and strong acid (United States)

    Prabhuram, J.; Manoharan, R.

    Porous unsupported electrodes are made from platinum powder prepared by a room-temperature NaBH 4 reduction method. Cyclic voltammograms (CVs) are recorded in different electrolytes of high and low pH in the presence and the absence of different concentrations of methanol. Various electrochemical processes occurring in different potential regions of the CVs are discussed. Steady-state galvanostatic polarisation measurements for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) on these electrodes in different electrolyte/methanol mixtures are also carried out. The MOR performance increases from a highly acidic range to a highly alkaline range. On increasing the KOH concentration above 6 M, however, the activity declines. Also, the MOR performance changes on changing the methanol concentration in a solution of a given pH. The highest MOR activity is obtained in a 6 M KOH+6 M CH 3OH mixture. It is concluded that by choosing the proper ratio of OH - ions and CH 3OH in solution, it is possible to remove completely the intermediate organic species and/or poisonous species that retard the MOR rate on the electrode surface.

  10. Cation exchange and CaCO 3 dissolution during artificial recharge of effluent to a calcareous sandstone aquifer (United States)

    Goren, Orly; Gavrieli, Ittai; Burg, Avihu; Lazar, Boaz


    SummaryThis research describes a field study and laboratory simulations of the geochemical evolution of groundwater following a recharge of effluent into aquifers. The study was conducted in the soil aquifer treatment (SAT) system of the Shafdan sewage reclamation plant, Israel. The SAT system recharges secondary effluent into the calcareous sandstone sediments of the Israeli Coastal Aquifer as a tertiary treatment. The reclaimed effluent is recovered ca. 500 m off the recharge basin and is used for unlimited irrigation. The laboratory simulations in which effluent was pumped through experimental columns packed with pristine Shafdan sediment showed that the chemical composition of the outflowing water was controlled mainly by cation exchange and CaCO 3 dissolution. Na +, K + and Mg 2+ were adsorbed and Ca 2+ was desorbed during the initial stage of recharge. The equilibrium distribution of the adsorbed cations was: Ca 2+ ˜ 60%, Mg 2+ ˜ 20%, and Na + and K + ˜ 10% each. The Ca 2+ in the Shafdan production wells and in the experimental columns outflow (˜5 meq L -1) was always higher than the Ca 2+ in the recharged effluent (˜3.5 meq L -1), indicating continuous CaCO 3 dissolution. This study demonstrates that besides mixing, a suite of geochemical processes should be considered when assessing groundwater quality following artificial recharge of aquifers.

  11. CO 2 adsorption in mono-, di- and trivalent cation-exchanged metal-organic frameworks: A molecular simulation study

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yifei


    A molecular simulation study is reported for CO 2 adsorption in rho zeolite-like metal-organic framework (rho-ZMOF) exchanged with a series of cations (Na +, K +, Rb +, Cs +, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, and Al 3+). The isosteric heat and Henry\\'s constant at infinite dilution increase monotonically with increasing charge-to-diameter ratio of cation (Cs + < Rb + < K + < Na + < Ca 2+ < Mg 2+ < Al 3+). At low pressures, cations act as preferential adsorption sites for CO 2 and the capacity follows the charge-to-diameter ratio. However, the free volume of framework becomes predominant with increasing pressure and Mg-rho-ZMOF appears to possess the highest saturation capacity. The equilibrium locations of cations are observed to shift slightly upon CO 2 adsorption. Furthermore, the adsorption selectivity of CO 2/H 2 mixture increases as Cs + < Rb + < K + < Na + < Ca 2+ < Mg 2+ ≈ Al 3+. At ambient conditions, the selectivity is in the range of 800-3000 and significantly higher than in other nanoporous materials. In the presence of 0.1% H 2O, the selectivity decreases drastically because of the competitive adsorption between H 2O and CO 2, and shows a similar value in all of the cation-exchanged rho-ZMOFs. This simulation study provides microscopic insight into the important role of cations in governing gas adsorption and separation, and suggests that the performance of ionic rho-ZMOF can be tailored by cations. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. Soil organic matter doubles the cation exchange capacity of tropical soil under no-till farming in Brazil. (United States)

    Ramos, Fabricio T; Dores, Eliana Fg de Carvalho; Weber, Oscarlina L Dos Santos; Beber, Daniel C; Campelo, José H; Maia, João C de Souza


    Agricultural conservation practices increase total organic carbon storage in soil (T OCS ), a factor that is correlated with the physical and chemical qualities of highly weathered soils. In this study, we investigated the effects of T OCS on the physicochemical attributes of a Latosol after 10 years of no-till management in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. T COS was highly correlated (r = 0.92) with cation exchange capacity (CEC, pH = 7) and soil density. In the top 0.2 m soil layer, CEC increased by 25% with every 1.8 kg m -2 of stored organic carbon. Eliminating soil organic matter reduced CEC from an already low value of 8.40 cmol c kg -1 to 4.82 cmol c kg -1 . Humus is therefore clearly important for the formation of a negative liquid charge in a predominantly electropositive but clayey soil. We confirmed that T OCS is an indicator related to the physiochemical characteristics of weathered soils. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the increased carbon storage under non-tilling systems is essential for guaranteeing weathered soil fertility in tropical climates. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Kinetics, thermodynamics and surface heterogeneity assessment of uranium(VI) adsorption onto cation exchange resin derived from a lignocellulosic residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anirudhan, T.S., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581 (India); Radhakrishnan, P.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695581 (India)


    A new cation exchange resin (PGTFS-COOH) having a carboxylate functional group at the chain end was prepared by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto tamarind fruit shell, TFS (a lignocellulosic residue) using potassium peroxydisulphate-sodium thiosulphate redox initiator, and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent, followed by functionalisation. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of FTIR, XRD, scanning electron micrographs (SEM), and potentiometric titrations. The kinetic and isotherm data, obtained at optimum pH value 6.0 at different temperatures could be fitted with pseudo-second-order equation and Sips isotherm model, respectively. An increase in temperature induces positive effect on the adsorption process. The calculated activation energy of adsorption (E{sub a}, 18.67 kJ/mol) indicates that U(VI) adsorption was largely due to diffusion-controlled process. The values of adsorption enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy were calculated using thermodynamic function relationships. The decrease in adsorption enthalpy with increasing U(VI) uploading on the adsorbent, reflects the surface energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent. The isosteric heat of adsorption was quantitatively correlated with the fractional loading for the U(VI) ions adsorption onto PGTFS-COOH. The results showed that the PGTFS-COOH possessed heterogeneous surface with sorption sites having different activities.

  14. Kinetics, thermodynamics and surface heterogeneity assessment of uranium(VI) adsorption onto cation exchange resin derived from a lignocellulosic residue (United States)

    Anirudhan, T. S.; Radhakrishnan, P. G.


    A new cation exchange resin (PGTFS-COOH) having a carboxylate functional group at the chain end was prepared by grafting poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) onto tamarind fruit shell, TFS (a lignocellulosic residue) using potassium peroxydisulphate-sodium thiosulphate redox initiator, and in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinking agent, followed by functionalisation. The adsorbent was characterized with the help of FTIR, XRD, scanning electron micrographs (SEM), and potentiometric titrations. The kinetic and isotherm data, obtained at optimum pH value 6.0 at different temperatures could be fitted with pseudo-second-order equation and Sips isotherm model, respectively. An increase in temperature induces positive effect on the adsorption process. The calculated activation energy of adsorption ( Ea, 18.67 kJ/mol) indicates that U(VI) adsorption was largely due to diffusion-controlled process. The values of adsorption enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy were calculated using thermodynamic function relationships. The decrease in adsorption enthalpy with increasing U(VI) uploading on the adsorbent, reflects the surface energetic heterogeneity of the adsorbent. The isosteric heat of adsorption was quantitatively correlated with the fractional loading for the U(VI) ions adsorption onto PGTFS-COOH. The results showed that the PGTFS-COOH possessed heterogeneous surface with sorption sites having different activities.

  15. Highly Stereoselective Heterogeneous Diene Polymerization by Co-MFU-4l: A Single-Site Catalyst Prepared by Cation Exchange. (United States)

    Dubey, Romain J-C; Comito, Robert J; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Guanghui; Rieth, Adam J; Hendon, Christopher H; Miller, Jeffrey T; Dincă, Mircea


    Molecular catalysts offer tremendous advantages for stereoselective polymerization because their activity and selectivity can be optimized and understood mechanistically using the familiar tools of organometallic chemistry. Yet, this exquisite control over selectivity comes at an operational price that is generally not justifiable for the large-scale manufacture of polyfolefins. In this report, we identify Co-MFU-4l, prepared by cation exchange in a metal-organic framework, as a solid catalyst for the polymerization of 1,3-butadiene with high stereoselectivity (>99% 1,4-cis). To our knowledge, this is the highest stereoselectivity achieved with a heterogeneous catalyst for this transformation. The polymer's low polydispersity (PDI ≈ 2) and the catalyst's ready recovery and low leaching indicate that our material is a structurally resilient single-site heterogeneous catalyst. Further characterization of Co-MFU-4l by X-ray absorption spectroscopy provided evidence for discrete, tris-pyrazolylborate-like coordination of Co(II). With this information, we identify a soluble cobalt complex that mimics the structure and reactivity of Co-MFU-4l, thus providing a well-defined platform for studying the catalytic mechanism in the solution phase. This work underscores the capacity for small molecule-like tunability and mechanistic tractability available to transition metal catalysis in metal-organic frameworks.

  16. Purification of Monoclonal Antibodies Using a Fiber Based Cation-Exchange Stationary Phase: Parameter Determination and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Schwellenbach


    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies (mAb currently dominate the market for protein therapeutics. Because chromatography unit operations are critical for the purification of therapeutic proteins, the process integration of novel chromatographic stationary phases, driven by the demand for more economic process schemes, is a field of ongoing research. Within this study it was demonstrated that the description and prediction of mAb purification on a novel fiber based cation-exchange stationary phase can be achieved using a physico-chemical model. All relevant mass-transport phenomena during a bind and elute chromatographic cycle, namely convection, axial dispersion, boundary layer mass-transfer, and the salt dependent binding behavior in the fiber bed were described. This work highlights the combination of model adaption, simulation, and experimental parameter determination through separate measurements, correlations, or geometric considerations, independent from the chromatographic cycle. The salt dependent binding behavior of a purified mAb was determined by the measurement of adsorption isotherms using batch adsorption experiments. Utilizing a combination of size exclusion and protein A chromatography as analytic techniques, this approach can be extended to a cell culture broth, describing the salt dependent binding behavior of multiple components. Model testing and validation was performed with experimental bind and elute cycles using purified mAb as well as a clarified cell culture broth. A comparison between model calculations and experimental data showed a good agreement. The influence of the model parameters is discussed in detail.

  17. Synthesis of silver embedded poly(o-anisidine molybdophosphate nano hybrid cation-exchanger applicable for membrane electrode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Khan

    Full Text Available Poly(o-anisidine molybdophosphate was expediently obtained by sol-gel mixing of Poly(o-anisidine into the inorganic matrices of molybdophosphate, which was allowed to react with silver nitrate to the formation of poly(o-anisidine molybdophosphate embedded silver nano composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Thermogravimertic Analysis. Ion exchange capacity and distribution studies were carried out to understand the ion-exchange capabilities of the nano composite. On the basis of highest distribution studies, this nano composite cation exchanger was used as preparation of heavy metal ion selective membrane. Membrane was characterized for its performance as porosity and swelling later on was used for the preparation of membrane electrode for Hg(II, having better linear range, wide working pH range (2-4.5 with fast response in the real environment.

  18. Advanced analytical method of nereistoxin using mixed-mode cationic exchange solid-phase extraction and GC/MS. (United States)

    Park, Yujin; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Heesang; Jo, Jiyeong; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Eunmi; Pyo, Jaesung; Jung, Jee H


    Nereistoxin(NTX) was originated from a marine annelid worm Lumbriconereis heteropoda and its analogue pesticides including cartap, bensultap, thiocyclam and thiobensultap have been commonly used in agriculture, because of their low toxicity and high insecticidal activity. However, NTX has been reported about its inhibitory neuro toxicity in human and animal body, by blocking nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and it cause significant neuromuscular toxicity, resulting in respiratory failure. We developed a new method to determine NTX in biological fluid. The method involves mixed-mode cationic exchange based solid phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for final identification and quantitative analysis. The limit of detection and recovery were substantially better than those of other methods using liquid-liquid extraction or headspace solid phase microextraction. The good recoveries (97±14%) in blood samples were obtained and calibration curves over the range 0.05-20 mg/L have R2 values greater than 0.99. The developed method was applied to a fatal case of cartap intoxication of 74 years old woman who ingested cartap hydrochloride for suicide. Cartap and NTX were detected from postmortem specimens and the cause of the death was ruled to be nereistoxin intoxication. The concentrations of NTX were 2.58 mg/L, 3.36 mg/L and 1479.7 mg/L in heart, femoral blood and stomach liquid content, respectively. The heart blood/femoral blood ratio of NTX was 0.76. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Sorption of (226)Ra from oil effluents onto synthetic cation exchangers. (United States)

    Al Attar, Lina; Safia, Bassam


    Increasing environmental awareness is being urged for the safe disposal of (226)Ra-contaminated production water generated in the oil industry. Birnessite, antimony silicate and their cationic derivatives were studied for the take-up of (226)Ra using the batch-type method under experimentally determined parameters, viz. contact time, solution-solid ratio and (226)Ra concentration. Data was expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. Sorption experiments were performed in different concentrations of nitric acid in order to speculate the mechanism of (226)Ra uptake. Variation in the magnitude of sorption efficiency of the materials in the presence of the major components of waste streams, i.e. Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+), revealed that K(+) was the greatest competitor and Na(+) the least. The application of the materials to sorb (226)Ra from actual oil co-production water samples, collected from Der Ezzor and Al Fourat petroleum companies (DEZPC and AFPC), was interpreted in terms of the exchange properties of the materials and water characterisation. Of the parameters studied, the selectivity of materials was shown to be greatly dependent on the pH of wastewater to be treated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel nucleic acid analogue shows strong angiogenic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Ikuko, E-mail: [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Sakakibara, Norikazu; Maruyama, Tokumi [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, 1314-1 Shido, Sanuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Igarashi, Junsuke; Kosaka, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Kubota, Yasuo [Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Tokuda, Masaaki [Department of Cell Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan); Ashino, Hiromi [The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, 1-6 Kamikitazawa2-chome, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Hattori, Kenichi; Tanaka, Shinji; Kawata, Mitsuhiro [Teikoku Seiyaku Co., Ltd., Sanbonmatsu, Higashikagawa, Kagawa 769-2695 (Japan); Konishi, Ryoji [Department of Pharmaco-Bio-Informatics, Faculty of Medicine, Kagawa University, 1750-1 Ikenobe, Miki, Kita, Kagawa 761-0793 (Japan)


    Research highlights: {yields} A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A, m.w. 284) showed angiogenic potency. {yields} It stimulated the tube formation, proliferation and migration of HUVEC in vitro. {yields} 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced the activation of ERK1/2 and MEK in HUVEC. {yields} Angiogenic potency in vivo was confirmed in CAM assay and rabbit cornea assay. {yields} A synthesized small angiogenic agent would have great clinical therapeutic value. -- Abstract: A novel nucleic acid analogue (2Cl-C.OXT-A) significantly stimulated tube formation of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC). Its maximum potency at 100 {mu}M was stronger than that of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a positive control. At this concentration, 2Cl-C.OXT-A moderately stimulated proliferation as well as migration of HUVEC. To gain mechanistic insights how 2Cl-C.OXT-A promotes angiogenic responses in HUVEC, we performed immunoblot analyses using phospho-specific antibodies as probes. 2Cl-C.OXT-A induced robust phosphorylation/activation of MAP kinase ERK1/2 and an upstream MAP kinase kinase MEK. Conversely, a MEK inhibitor PD98059 abolished ERK1/2 activation and tube formation both enhanced by 2Cl-C.OXT-A. In contrast, MAP kinase responses elicited by 2Cl-C.OXT-A were not inhibited by SU5416, a specific inhibitor of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. Collectively these results suggest that 2Cl-C.OXT-A-induces angiogenic responses in HUVEC mediated by a MAP kinase cascade comprising MEK and ERK1/2, but independently of VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase. In vivo assay using chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and rabbit cornea also suggested the angiogenic potency of 2Cl-C.OXT-A.

  1. Synthesis and Ion-Exchange Properties of Graphene Th(IV) Phosphate Composite Cation Exchanger: Its Applications in the Selective Separation of Lead Metal Ions. (United States)

    Rangreez, Tauseef Ahmad; Asiri, Abdullah M; Alhogbi, Basma G; Naushad, Mu


    In this study, graphene Th(IV) phosphate was prepared by sol-gel precipitation method. The ion-exchange behavior of this cation-exchanger was studied by investigating properties like ion-exchange capacity for various metal ions, the effect of eluent concentration, elution behavior, and thermal effect on ion-exchange capacity (IEC). Several physicochemical properties as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, thermal studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were also carried out. The material possessed an IEC of 1.56 meq·dry·g -1 of the exchanger and was found to be nano-composite. The selectivity studies showed that the material is selective towards Pb(II) ions. The selectivity of this cation-exchanger was demonstrated in the binary separation of Pb(II) ions from mixture with other metal ions. The recovery was found to be both quantitative and reproducible.

  2. Synthesis and Ion-Exchange Properties of Graphene Th(IV) Phosphate Composite Cation Exchanger: Its Applications in the Selective Separation of Lead Metal Ions


    Rangreez, Tauseef Ahmad; Inamuddin,; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Alhogbi, Basma G.; Naushad, Mu.


    In this study, graphene Th(IV) phosphate was prepared by sol?gel precipitation method. The ion-exchange behavior of this cation-exchanger was studied by investigating properties like ion-exchange capacity for various metal ions, the effect of eluent concentration, elution behavior, and thermal effect on ion-exchange capacity (IEC). Several physicochemical properties as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) study, thermal studies, scanning electron microscopy ...

  3. Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography for variant hemoglobins and HbF/A2: What must hematopathologists know about methodology?


    Sharma, Prashant; Das, Reena


    Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) is a widely used laboratory test to detect variant hemoglobins as well as quantify hemoglobins F and A2 for the diagnosis of thalassemia syndromes. It’s versatility, speed, reproducibility and convenience have made CE-HPLC the method of choice to initially screen for hemoglobin disorders. Despite its popularity, several methodological aspects of the technology remain obscure to pathologists and this may have consequences in spec...

  4. Hydrothermal Cation Exchange Enabled Gradual Evolution of Au@ZnS–AgAuS Yolk–Shell Nanocrystals and Their Visible Light Photocatalytic Applications (United States)

    Feng, Jingwen; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng


    Abstract Yolk–shell hybrid nanoparticles with noble metal core and programmed semiconductor shell composition may exhibit synergistic effects and tunable catalytic properties. In this work, the hydrothermal cation exchange synthesis of Au@ZnS–AgAuS yolk–shell nanocrystals (Y–S NCs) with well‐fabricated void size, grain‐boundary‐architectured ZnS–AgAuS shell and in situ generated Au cocatalyst are demonstrated. Starting from the novel cavity‐free Au@AgAuS core‐shell NCs, via aqueous cation exchange reaction with Zn2+, the gradual evolution with produced Au@ZnS–AgAuS Y–S NCs can be achieved successfully. This unprecedented evolution can be reasonably explained by cation exchange initialized chemical etching of Au core, followed by the diffusion through the shell to be AgAuS and then ZnS. By hydrothermal treatment provided optimal redox environment, Au ions in shell were partially reduced to be Au NCs on the surface. The UV–vis absorption spectra evolution and visible light photocatalytic performances, including improved photodegradation behavior and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity, have demonstrated their potential applications. This new one‐pot way to get diverse heterointerfaces for better photoinduced electron/hole separation synergistically can be anticipated for more kinds of photocatalytic organic synthesis. PMID:29375968

  5. Hydrothermal Cation Exchange Enabled Gradual Evolution of Au@ZnS-AgAuS Yolk-Shell Nanocrystals and Their Visible Light Photocatalytic Applications. (United States)

    Feng, Jingwen; Liu, Jia; Cheng, Xiaoyan; Liu, Jiajia; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Jiatao


    Yolk-shell hybrid nanoparticles with noble metal core and programmed semiconductor shell composition may exhibit synergistic effects and tunable catalytic properties. In this work, the hydrothermal cation exchange synthesis of Au@ZnS-AgAuS yolk-shell nanocrystals (Y-S NCs) with well-fabricated void size, grain-boundary-architectured ZnS-AgAuS shell and in situ generated Au cocatalyst are demonstrated. Starting from the novel cavity-free Au@AgAuS core-shell NCs, via aqueous cation exchange reaction with Zn 2+ , the gradual evolution with produced Au@ZnS-AgAuS Y-S NCs can be achieved successfully. This unprecedented evolution can be reasonably explained by cation exchange initialized chemical etching of Au core, followed by the diffusion through the shell to be AgAuS and then ZnS. By hydrothermal treatment provided optimal redox environment, Au ions in shell were partially reduced to be Au NCs on the surface. The UV-vis absorption spectra evolution and visible light photocatalytic performances, including improved photodegradation behavior and photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity, have demonstrated their potential applications. This new one-pot way to get diverse heterointerfaces for better photoinduced electron/hole separation synergistically can be anticipated for more kinds of photocatalytic organic synthesis.

  6. Highly Emissive Divalent-Ion-Doped Colloidal CsPb1–xMxBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals through Cation Exchange (United States)


    Colloidal CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl, and I) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising phosphors and solar cell materials due to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. These properties can be tailored by not only controlling the size and shape of the NCs but also postsynthetic composition tuning through topotactic anion exchange. In contrast, property control by cation exchange is still underdeveloped for colloidal CsPbX3 NCs. Here, we present a method that allows partial cation exchange in colloidal CsPbBr3 NCs, whereby Pb2+ is exchanged for several isovalent cations, resulting in doped CsPb1–xMxBr3 NCs (M= Sn2+, Cd2+, and Zn2+; 0 50%), sharp absorption features, and narrow emission of the parent CsPbBr3 NCs. The blue-shift in the optical spectra is attributed to the lattice contraction that accompanies the Pb2+ for M2+ cation exchange and is observed to scale linearly with the lattice contraction. This work opens up new possibilities to engineer the properties of halide perovskite NCs, which to date are demonstrated to be the only known system where cation and anion exchange reactions can be sequentially combined while preserving the original NC shape, resulting in compositionally diverse perovskite NCs. PMID:28260380

  7. New system applying image processor to automatically separate cation exchange resin and anion exchange resin for condensate demineralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Tsuneyasu; Nagao, Nobuaki; Yoshimori, Yasuhide; Inoue, Takashi; Yoda, Shuji


    In PWR plant, condensate demineralizer is equipped to remove corrosive ion in condensate water. Mixed bed packing cation exchange resin (CER) and anion exchange resin (AER) is generally applied, and these are regenerated after separation to each layer periodically. Since the AER particle is slightly lighter than the CER particle, the AER layer is brought up onto the CER layer by feeding water upward from the bottom of column (backwashing). The separation performance is affected by flow rate and temperature of water for backwashing, so normally operators set the proper condition parameters regarding separation manually every time for regeneration. The authors have developed the new separation system applying CCD camera and image processor. The system is comprised of CCD camera, LED lamp, image processor, controller, flow control valves and background color panel. Blue color of the panel, which is corresponding to the complementary color against both ivory color of AER and brown color of CER, is key to secure the system precision. At first the color image of the CER via the CCD camera is digitized and memorized by the image processor. The color of CER in the field of vision of the camera is scanned by the image processor, and the position where the maximum difference of digitized color index is indicated is judged as the interface. The detected interface is able to make the accordance with the set point by adjusting the flow rate of backwashing. By adopting the blue background panel, it is also possible to draw the AER out of the column since detecting the interface of the CER clearly. The system has provided the reduction of instability factor concerning separation of resin during regeneration process. The system has been adopted in two PWR plants in Japan, it has been demonstrating its stable and precise performance. (author)

  8. Electrochemical characterization of mixed matrix heterogeneous cation exchange membranes modified by simultaneous using ilmenite-co-iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen; Hamidi, Alireza; Moghadassi, Abdolreza [Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madaeni, Sayed Siavash [Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Mixed matrix heterogeneous cation exchange membranes were prepared by solution casting technique. Ilmenite-co-iron oxide nanoparticle was also employed as inorganic filler additive in membrane fabrication. The effect of the used additives on membrane electrochemical properties was studied. Membrane ion exchange capacity, membrane potential, transport number and selectivity all were improved by use of FeTiO{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in membrane matrix. Utilizing FeTiO{sub 3}-co-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in the casting solution also led to increase in ionic flux obviously. The modified membranes containing FeTiO{sub 3}-co-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles showed higher transport number, selectivity and ionic flux compared to modified membrane containing ilmenite. Electrodialysis experiment in laboratory scale also showed higher cation removal for modified membrane containing FeTiO{sub 3}-co-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles compared to other modified membranes and pristine ones. Results showed that membrane areal electrical resistance declined sharply by use of FeTiO{sub 3}-co-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in membrane matrix. Moreover, modified membrane containing ilmenite showed lower electrical resistance compared to others. Results showed that oxidative stability of membranes was decreased slightly by use of FeTiO{sub 3}/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles in membrane matrix. The results revealed that modified membranes in this study are comparable with that of other commercial ones.

  9. Sorptive Removal of Cesium and Cobalt Ions in a Fixed bed Column Using Lewatit S100 Cation Exchange Resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, M.R.; Ibrahim, H.A.; El-Kamash, A.M.


    The sorptive removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions in a fixed bed column packed with Lewatit S100® cation exchange resin has been investigated. A preliminary batch studies were performed to estimate the effect of pH and contact time on the sorption process. Results indicated that Cs + and Co 2+ could be efficiently removed using Lewatit S100® at a ph range of 4-7 with more affinity towards Cs than Co 2+ . Kinetic models have been applied to the sorption rate data and the relevant parameters were determined. The obtained results indicated that the sorption of both Cs + and Co 2+ on Lewatit S100 followed pseudo second-order rather than pseudo first-order or Morris-Webber model. Fixed bed experiments were conducted at a constant initial concentration of 100 mg/l whereas the effect of bed depth (3, 4.5 and 6 cm) and volumetric flow rate (3 and 5 ml/min.) on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed bed sorption systems were determined. The experimental sorption data were fitted to the well-established column models namely; Thomas and BDST models to compute the different model parameters. The higher column sorption capacities were obtained at bed depth of 3 cm with a flow rate of 3 ml/min., for both Cs + and Co 2+ . The BDST model appeared to describe experimental results better than Thomas model. Results indicate that Lewatit S100® is an efficient material for the removal of cesium and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions.

  10. Combined cation-exchange and extraction chromatographic method of pre-concentration and concomitant separation of Cu(II) with high molecular mass liquid cation exchanger after its online detection. (United States)

    Mandal, B; Roy, U S; Datta, D; Ghosh, N


    A selective method has been developed for the extraction chromatographic trace level separation of Cu(II) with Versatic 10 (liquid cation exchanger) coated on silanised silica gel (SSG-V10). Cu(II) has been extracted from 0.1M acetate buffer at the range of pH 4.0-5.5. The effects of foreign ions, pH, flow-rate, stripping agents on extraction and elution have been investigated. Exchange capacity of the prepared exchanger at different temperatures with respect to Cu(II) has been determined. The extraction equilibrium constant (K(ex)) and different standard thermodynamic parameters have also been calculated by temperature variation method. Positive value of ΔH (7.98 kJ mol⁻¹) and ΔS (0.1916 kJ mol⁻¹) and negative value of ΔG (-49.16 kJ mol⁻¹) indicated that the process was endothermic, entropy gaining and spontaneous. Preconcentration factor was optimized at 74.7 ± 0.2 and the desorption constants K(desorption)¹(1.4 × 10⁻²) and K(desorption)²(9.8 × 10⁻²) were determined. The effect of pH on R(f) values in ion exchange paper chromatography has been investigated. In order to investigate the sorption isotherm, two equilibrium models, the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms, were analyzed. Cu(II) has been separated from synthetic binary and multi-component mixtures containing various metal ions associated with it in ores and alloy samples. The method effectively permits sequential separation of Cu(II) from synthetic quaternary mixture containing its congeners Bi(III), Sn(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II) of same analytical group. The method was found effective for the selective detection, removal and recovery of Cu(II) from industrial waste and standard alloy samples following its preconcentration on the column. A plausible mechanism for the extraction of Cu(II) has been suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergistic effects on enantioselectivity of zwitterionic chiral stationary phases for separations of chiral acids, bases, and amino acids by HPLC. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian V; Pell, Reinhard; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Lindner, Wolfgang


    In an attempt to overcome the limited applicability scope of earlier proposed Cinchona alkaloid-based chiral weak anion exchangers (WAX) and recently reported aminosulfonic acid-based chiral strong cation exchangers (SCX), which are conceptionally restricted to oppositely charged solutes, their individual chiral selector (SO) subunits have been fused in a combinatorial synthesis approach into single, now zwitterionic, chiral SO motifs. The corresponding zwitterionic ion-exchange-type chiral stationary phases (CSPs) in fact combined the applicability spectra of the parent chiral ion exchangers allowing for enantioseparations of chiral acids and amine-type solutes in liquid chromatography using polar organic mode with largely rivaling separation factors as compared to the parent WAX and SCX CSPs. Furthermore, the application spectrum could be remarkably expanded to various zwitterionic analytes such as alpha- and beta-amino acids and peptides. A set of structurally related yet different CSPs consisting of either a quinine or quinidine alkaloid moiety as anion-exchange subunit and various chiral or achiral amino acids as cation-exchange subunits enabled us to derive structure-enantioselectivity relationships, which clearly provided strong unequivocal evidence for synergistic effects of the two oppositely charged ion-exchange subunits being involved in molecular recognition of zwitterionic analytes by zwitterionic SOs driven by double ionic coordination.

  12. Titration of strong and weak acids by sequential injection analysis technique. (United States)

    Maskula, S; Nyman, J; Ivaska, A


    A sequential injection analysis (SIA) titration method has been developed for acid-base titrations. Strong and weak acids in different concentration ranges have been titrated with a strong base. The method is based on sequential aspiration of an acidic sample zone and only one zone of the base into a carrier stream of distilled water. On their way to the detector, the sample and the reagent zones are partially mixed due to the dispersion and thereby the base is partially neutralised by the acid. The base zone contains the indicator. An LED-spectrophotometer is used as detector. It senses the colour of the unneutralised base and the signal is recorded as a typical SIA peak. The peak area of the unreacted base was found to be proportional to the logarithm of the acid concentration. Calibration curves with good linearity were obtained for a strong acid in the concentration ranges of 10(-4)-10(-2) and 0.1-3 M. Automatic sample dilution was implemented when sulphuric acid at concentration of 6-13 M was titrated. For a weak acid, i.e. acetic acid, a linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 3x10(-4)-8x10(-2) M. By changing the volumes of the injected sample and the reagent, different acids as well as different concentration ranges of the acids can be titrated without any other adjustments in the SIA manifold or the titration protocol.

  13. Insights in understanding aggregate formation and dissociation in cation exchange chromatography for a structurally unstable Fc-fusion protein. (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Huang, Chao; Chennamsetty, Naresh; Xu, Xuankuo; Li, Zheng Jian


    Cation-exchange chromatography (CEX) of a structurally unstable Fc-fusion protein exhibited multi-peak elution profile upon a salt-step elution due to protein aggregation during intra-column buffer transition where low pH and high salt coexisted. The protein exhibited a single-peak elution behavior during a pH-step elution; nevertheless, the levels of soluble aggregates (i.e. high molecular weight species, HMW) in the CEX eluate were still found up to 12-fold higher than that for the load material. The amount of the aggregates formed upon the pH-step elution was dependent on column loading with maximum HMW achieved at intermediate loading levels, supporting the hypothesis that the aggregation was the result of both the conformational changes of the bound protein and the solution concentration of the aggregation-susceptible proteins during elution. Factors such as high load pH, short protein/resin contact time, hydrophilic resin surface, and weak ionizable ligand were effective, to some extent, to reduce aggregate formation by improving the structural integrity of the bound protein. An orthogonal technique, differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) using Sypro Orange dye confirmed that the bound protein exposed more hydrophobic area than the native molecule in free solution, especially in the pH 4-5 range. The Sypro Orange dye study of resin surface property also demonstrated that the poly[styrene-divinylbenzene]-based Poros XS with polyhydroxyl surface coating is more hydrophobic compared to the agarose-based CM Sepharose FF and SP Sepharose FF. The hydrophobic property of Poros XS contributed to stronger interactions with the partially unfolded bound protein and consequently to the higher aggregate levels seen in Poros XS eluate. This work also investigates the aggregation reversibility in CEX eluate where up to 66% of the aggregates were observed to dissociate into native monomers over a period of 120h, and links the aggregate stability to such conditions as resin

  14. Kinetics of Strong Acid Hydrolysis of a Bleached Kraft Pulp for Producing Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs) (United States)

    Qianqian Wang; Xuebing Zhao; J.Y. Zhu


    Cellulose nanocrytals (CNCs) are predominantly produced using the traditional strong acid hydrolysis process. In most reported studies, the typical CNC yield is low (approximately 30%) despite process optimization. This study investigated the hydrolysis of a bleached kraft eucalyptus pulp using sulfuric acid between 50 and 64 wt % at temperatures of 35−80 °C...

  15. Near-Infrared Emitting CuInSe2/CuInS2 Dot Core/Rod Shell Heteronanorods by Sequential Cation Exchange (United States)


    The direct synthesis of heteronanocrystals (HNCs) combining different ternary semiconductors is challenging and has not yet been successful. Here, we report a sequential topotactic cation exchange (CE) pathway that yields CuInSe2/CuInS2 dot core/rod shell nanorods with near-infrared luminescence. In our approach, the Cu+ extraction rate is coupled to the In3+ incorporation rate by the use of a stoichiometric trioctylphosphine-InCl3 complex, which fulfills the roles of both In-source and Cu-extracting agent. In this way, Cu+ ions can be extracted by trioctylphosphine ligands only when the In–P bond is broken. This results in readily available In3+ ions at the same surface site from which the Cu+ is extracted, making the process a direct place exchange reaction and shifting the overall energy balance in favor of the CE. Consequently, controlled cation exchange can occur even in large and anisotropic heterostructured nanocrystals with preservation of the size, shape, and heterostructuring of the template NCs into the product NCs. The cation exchange is self-limited, stopping when the ternary core/shell CuInSe2/CuInS2 composition is reached. The method is very versatile, successfully yielding a variety of luminescent CuInX2 (X = S, Se, and Te) quantum dots, nanorods, and HNCs, by using Cd-chalcogenide NCs and HNCs as templates. The approach reported here thus opens up routes toward materials with unprecedented properties, which would otherwise remain inaccessible. PMID:26449673

  16. Treatment of infectious skin defects or ulcers with electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution. (United States)

    Sekiya, S; Ohmori, K; Harii, K


    A chronic ulcer with an infection such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is hard to heal. Plastic and reconstructive surgeons often encounter such chronic ulcers that are resistant to surgical or various conservative treatments. We applied conservative treatment using an electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution and obtained satisfactory results. The lesion was washed with the solution or soaked in a bowl of the solution for approximately 20 min twice a day. Fresh electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution is unstable and should be stored in a cool, dark site in a sealed bottle. It should be used within a week after it has been produced. Here we report on 15 cases of infectious ulcers that were treated by electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution. Of these cases, 7 patients were healed, 3 were granulated, and in 5, infection subsided. In most cases the lesion became less reddish and less edematous. Discharge or foul odor from the lesion was decreased. Electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was especially effective for treating a chronic refractory ulcer combined with diabetes melitus or peripheral circulatory insufficiency. This clinically applied therapy of electrolyzed strong acid aqueous solution was found to be effective so that this new therapeutic technique for ulcer treatment can now be conveniently utilized.

  17. Carborane acids. New "strong yet gentle" acids for organic and inorganic chemistry. (United States)

    Reed, Christopher A


    Icosahedral carborane anions such as CHB11Cl11- are amongst the least coordinating, most chemically inert anions known. They are also amongst the least basic, so their conjugate acids, H(carborane), are superacids (i.e. stronger than 100% H2SO4). Acidity scale measurements indicate that H(CHB11Cl11) is the strongest pure Brønsted acid presently known, surpassing triflic and fluorosulfuric acid. Nevertheless, it is also an extremely gentle acid--because its conjugate base engages in so little chemistry. Carborane acids separate protic acidity from anion nucleophilicity and destructive oxidative capacity in the conjugate base, to a degree not previously achieved. As a result, many long-sought, highly acidic, reactive cations such as protonated benzene (C6H7+), protonated C60(HC60+), tertiary carbocations (R3C+), vinyl cations (R2C=C(+)-R), silylium ions (R3Si+) and discrete hydronium ions (H3O+, H5O2+ etc.) can be readily isolated as carborane salts and characterized at room temperature by X-ray crystallography.

  18. Fabrication, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Ag/AgI/BiOI heteronanostructures supported on rectorite via a cation-exchange method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yunfang [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Fang, Jianzhang, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Lu, Shaoyou [Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Wu, Yan; Chen, Dazhi; Huang, Liyan [Institute of Engineering Technology of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory of Water Environmental Pollution Control of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou 510440 (China); Xu, Weicheng; Zhu, Ximiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Fang, Zhanqiang [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong (China); Guangdong Technology Research Center for Ecological Management and Remediation of Urban Water System, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    Highlights: • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared by twice cation-exchange process. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite photocatalyst possessed SPR and adsorption capacity. • Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite exhibited highly photocatalytic activity. • Trapped holes and ·O{sub 2}{sup −} were formed active species in the photocatalytic system. - Abstract: In this work, a new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/AgI/BiOI-rectorite was prepared via a cation exchange process. The photocatalyst had been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra, nitrogen sorption (BET), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). The photocatalytic activity, which was evaluated by degradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and bisphenol A (BPA) under visible light irradiation, was enhanced significantly by loading Ag/AgI/BiOI nanoparticles onto rectorite. The photogenerated holes and superoxide radical (·O{sub 2}{sup −}) were both formed as active species for the photocatalytic reactions under visible light irradiation. The existence of metallic Ag particles, which possess the surface plasmon resonance effect, acted as an indispensable role in the photocatalytic reaction.

  19. Obtention of the cation exchange capacity of a natural kaolinite with radioactive tracers; Obtencion de la capacidad de intercambio cationico de una kaolinita natural con trazadores radioactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uribe I, A.; Badillo A, V.E. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Monroy G, F. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    One of the more used techniques for the elimination of the heavy metals present in water systems is to use adsorbent mineral phases like zeolites and clays, among others. The clays are able to exchange easily the fixed ions in the external surface of its crystals or well the ions present in the interlaminar spaces of the structures, for other existent ones in the encircling aqueous solutions for that the Cation exchange capacity (CIC) is defined as the sum of all the cations exchange that a mineral can possess independent to the physicochemical conditions. The CIC is equal to the measure of the total of negative charges of the mineral by mass of the solid (meq/g). In this investigation work, the value of the CIC equal to 2.5 meq/100 g is obtained, of a natural kaolinite from the State of Hidalgo studying the retention of the sodium in the kaolinite with the aid of the radioactive isotope {sup 24} Na and of the selective electrodes technique, making vary the pH value. So is experimentally demonstrated that the CIC is an intrinsic property of the mineral independent of the pH value of the solution and of the charges origin. (Author)

  20. Microbial desalination cell with sulfonated sodium poly(ether ether ketone) as cation exchange membranes for enhancing power generation and salt reduction. (United States)

    Moruno, Francisco Lopez; Rubio, Juan E; Atanassov, Plamen; Cerrato, José M; Arges, Christopher G; Santoro, Carlo


    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a bioelectrochemical system capable of oxidizing organics, generating electricity, while reducing the salinity content of brine streams. As it is designed, anion and cation exchange membranes play an important role on the selective removal of ions from the desalination chamber. In this work, sulfonated sodium (Na + ) poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) cation exchange membranes (CEM) were tested in combination with quaternary ammonium chloride poly(2,6-dimethyl 1,4-phenylene oxide) (QAPPO) anion exchange membrane (AEM). Non-patterned and patterned (varying topographical features) CEMs were investigated and assessed in this work. The results were contrasted against a commercially available CEM. This work used real seawater from the Pacific Ocean in the desalination chamber. The results displayed a high desalination rate and power generation for all the membranes, with a maximum of 78.6±2.0% in salinity reduction and 235±7mWm -2 in power generation for the MDCs with the SPEEK CEM. Desalination rate and power generation achieved are higher with synthesized SPEEK membranes when compared with an available commercial CEM. An optimized combination of these types of membranes substantially improves the performances of MDC, making the system more suitable for real applications. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. From Binary Cu2S to ternary Cu-In-S and quaternary Cu-In-Zn-S nanocrystals with tunable composition via partial cation exchange. (United States)

    Akkerman, Quinten A; Genovese, Alessandro; George, Chandramohan; Prato, Mirko; Moreels, Iwan; Casu, Alberto; Marras, Sergio; Curcio, Alberto; Scarpellini, Alice; Pellegrino, Teresa; Manna, Liberato; Lesnyak, Vladimir


    We present an approach for the synthesis of ternary copper indium sulfide (CIS) and quaternary copper indium zinc sulfide (CIZS) nanocrystals (NCs) by means of partial cation exchange with In(3+) and Zn(2+). The approach consists of a sequential three-step synthesis: first, binary Cu2S NCs were synthesized, followed by the homogeneous incorporation of In(3+) by an in situ partial cation-exchange reaction, leading to CIS NCs. In the last step, a second partial exchange was performed where Zn(2+) partially replaced the Cu(+) and In(3+) cations at the surface, creating a ZnS-rich shell with the preservation of the size and shape. By careful tuning reaction parameters (growth and exchange times as well as the initial Cu(+):In(3+):Zn(2+) ratios), control over both the size and composition was achieved. This led to a broad tuning of photoluminescence of the final CIZS NCs, ranging from 880 to 1030 nm without altering the NCs size. Cytotoxicity tests confirmed the biocompatibility of the synthesized CIZS NCs, which opens up opportunities for their application as near-infrared fluorescent markers in the biomedical field.

  2. Reduction of trace quantities of chromium(VI by strong acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzin Sérgio H


    Full Text Available The chemical behavior of Cr(VI at low concentrations (10-4 to 10-7 mol L-1 in several strong acids was studied using high specific activity 51Cr(VI as a tracer. The speciation of the products from these systems was carried out by ion exchange chromatography with stepwise elution. The results show that trace quantities of Cr(VI, monitored by means of radiochromium (51Cr, are reduced in the presence of mineral acids such as perchloric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, nitric and trifluoromethanesulfonic acids, even in the absence of conventional reducing agents, producing different measureable Cr(III species, depending on the acid anion. Detailed studies of the reduction of low concentrations of Cr(VI with nitric acid have shown that the relative rate of reduction increases as the concentration of the acid increases or as the concentration of the Cr(VI decreases.

  3. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid as free fatty acids strongly suppresses polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice. (United States)

    Fini, Lucia; Piazzi, Giulia; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Daoud, Yahya; Belluzzi, Andrea; Munarini, Alessandra; Graziani, Giulia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Selgrad, Michael; Garcia, Melissa; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Genta, Robert M; Boland, C Richard; Ricciardiello, Luigi


    Although cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitors could represent the most effective chemopreventive tool against colorectal cancer (CRC), their use in clinical practice is hampered by cardiovascular side effects. Consumption of ω-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3-PUFAs) is associated with a reduced risk of CRC. Therefore, in this study, we assessed the efficacy of a novel 99% pure preparation of ω-3-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid as free fatty acids (EPA-FFA) on polyps in Apc(Min/+) mice. Apc(Min/+) and corresponding wild-type mice were fed control diet (Ctrl) or diets containing either EPA-FFA 2.5% or 5%, for 12 weeks while monitoring food intake and body weight. We found that both EPA-FFA diets protected from the cachexia observed among Apc(Min/+) animals fed Ctrl diet (P acid was replaced by EPA (P < 0.0001), leading to a significant reduction in COX-2 expression and β-catenin nuclear translocation. Moreover, in the EPA-FFA arms, we found a significant decrease in proliferation throughout the intestine together with an increase in apoptosis. Our data make 99% pure EPA-FFA an excellent candidate for CRC chemoprevention. ©2010 AACR.

  4. Tested Demonstrations: Comparison of Strong Acid and Weak Acid Titration Curves. (United States)

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.


    A lecture demonstration is presented for comparing titration curves. A plot of pH vs volume of strong base is produced by connecting the external output of a pH meter to a strip recorder. Thus, pH is recorded as a function of time. (BB)

  5. Design of a fixed-bed ion-exchange process for the treatment of rinse waters generated in the galvanization process using Laminaria hyperborea as natural cation exchanger. (United States)

    Mazur, Luciana P; Pozdniakova, Tatiana A; Mayer, Diego A; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P


    In this study, the removal of zinc from galvanization wastewaters was performed in a fixed bed column packed with brown macro-algae Laminaria hyperborea, acting as a natural cation exchanger (resin). The rinse wastewater presents a zinc concentration between 9 and 22 mg/L, a high concentration of light metals (mainly Na and Ca), a high conductivity (0.5-1.5 mS/cm) and a low organic content (DOC = 7-15 mg C/L). The zinc speciation diagram showed that approximately 80% of zinc is in the form of Zn(2+) and ≅20% as ZnSO4, considering the effluent matrix. From all operational conditions tested for zinc uptake (17 treatment of 2.4 m(3)/day of galvanization wastewater, resulting in an estimated reactants cost of 2.44 €/m(3). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. LA-ICP-MS of rare earth elements concentrated in cation-exchange resin particles for origin attribution of uranium ore concentrate. (United States)

    Asai, Shiho; Limbeck, Andreas


    Rare earth elements (REE) concentrated on cation-exchange resin particles were measured with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to obtain chondrite-normalized REE plots. The sensitivity of REE increased in ascending order of the atomic number, according to the sensitivity trend in pneumatic nebulization ICP-MS (PN-ICP-MS). The signal intensities of REE were nearly proportional to the concentrations of REE in the immersion solution used for particle-preparation. Minimum measurable concentration calculated from the net signals of REE was approximately 1 ng/g corresponding to 0.1 ng in the particle-preparation solution. In LA analysis, formation of oxide and hydroxide of the light REE and Ba which causes spectral interferences in the heavy REE measurement was effectively attenuated due to the solvent-free measurement capability, compared to conventional PN-ICP-MS. To evaluate the applicability of the proposed method, the REE-adsorbed particles prepared by immersing them in a U-bearing solution (commercially available U standard solution) were measured with LA-ICP-MS. Aside from the LA analysis, each concentration of REE in the same U standard solution was determined with conventional PN-ICP-MS after separating REE by cation-exchange chromatography. The concentrations of REE were ranging from 0.04 (Pr) to 1.08 (Dy) μg/g-U. The chondrite-normalized plot obtained through LA-ICP-MS analysis of the U standard sample exhibited close agreement with that obtained through the PN-ICP-MS of the REE-separated solution within the uncertainties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strong ion difference in urine: new perspectives in acid-base assessment.


    Gattinoni, L.; Carlesso, E.; Cadringher, P.; Caironi, P.


    The plasmatic strong ion difference (SID) is the difference between positively and negatively charged strong ions. At pH 7.4, temperature 37°C and partial carbon dioxide tension 40 mmHg, the ideal value of SID is 42 mEq/l. The buffer base is the sum of negatively charged weak acids ([HCO3 -], [A-], [H2PO4 -]) and its normal value is 42 mEq/l. According to the law of electroneutrality, the amount of positive and negative charges must be equal, and therefore the SID value is equal to the buffer...

  8. Purification of di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) for synergistic extraction of uranium from strong phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, D.K.; Vijayalakshmi, R.; Singh, H.; Sharma, J.N.; Ruhela, R.


    Di-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid (DNPPA) obtained from various synthesis methods is always associated with impurities such as mono-nonyl phenyl phosphoric acid and nonyl phenol which need to be separated for its effective use in the extraction of uranium from strong phosphoric acid. Two methods of purification namely liquid-solid separation method using neodymium salt and liquid-liquid separation method using methylene glycol have been described. In the liquid solid separation method the purity of DNPPA obtained was about 95% with less than 1.0% monoester, however it heavily suffers in the recovery aspect which is of the order of 50-60%. The methylene glycol treatment method, results in high purity and recovery of the product. Purity obtained was about 95.0% diester and less than 0.5% monoester and recovery was more than 90%. Analysis of DNPPA was done by potentiometric titration method using autotitrator. (author)

  9. British strong-acid leach process targeted at refractory uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The UKAEA-patented strong-acid leach process for refractory U ores is briefly outlined with emphasis on its variations from the conventional dilute-acid process and the projected economics for a processing plant using this process. The process uses 6N H 2 SO 4 with a sharply reduced leaching time over conventional processes. The solubilized U is removed by percolation and the use of only about 10 percent liquid produces less effluent. Conventional processing plant equipment can be used except at the feed preparation, acid mixing, curing, and washing stages. Ore can be processed at larger grain sizes and the milling is done in a dry rod mill. Alternatives to the percolation removal of U are listed. Other work being done by UKAEA on U recovery from ores is briefly indicated. (U.S.)

  10. Polyaniline: Aniline oxidation with strong and weak oxidants under various acidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bláha, Michal, E-mail: [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Trchová, Miroslava; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Prokeš, Jan [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)


    Aniline was oxidized with three strong inorganic oxidants (ammonium peroxydisulfate, cerium(IV) sulfate, potassium dichromate), two weak inorganic oxidants (iron(III) chloride, silver nitrate), and one organic oxidant (p-benzoquinone) in aqueous solutions of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) of various concentration. Whereas oxidation of aniline with ammonium peroxydisulfate yielded high-molecular-weight conducting polyaniline (PANI) in the whole acidity range, the oxidation with cerium(IV) sulfate led also to a single product close to PANI with considerably lower molecular weight and lower conductivity. Potassium dichromate gave PANI only at high concentration of MSA. The use of iron(III) chloride yielded composite mixtures of PANI and low-molecular-weight aniline oligomers. The oxidation of aniline with silver nitrate led to composites of silver and an organic part, which was constituted either by aniline oligomers or conducting polyaniline or both. p-Benzoquinone as oxidant produced mainly aniline oligomers with poor conductivity and 2,5-dianilino-p-benzoquinone-like structure detected in FTIR and Raman spectra when oxidation proceeded with weak oxidants. A general model of oxidation with strong and weak oxidants was formulated. - Highlights: • Comparison of aniline oxidation with oxidants of different redox potential. • UV–vis, FTIR and Raman spectroscopies combined with size-exclusion chromatography. • The contents of polymer and oligomers were analyzed and discussed. • General model of aniline oxidation with strong and weak oxidants was formulated.

  11. Effect of sulphate and chloride ions on the solvent extraction of some metal ions with liquid cation exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Junji; Nishimura, Sanji


    The extraction of the metal ions from sulphate and chloride solutions with Versatic Acid 911 and di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid in benzene was investigated in order to clarify the effect of sulphate and chloride ions on the extraction. Sulphate and chloride ions are not extracted into the organic phase, and they affect metal extraction only by forming the complexes with metal ions in the aqueous phase. The extent of the effect on metal extraction is determined by the kind of metal ions and anionic ligands, and the concentration of ligand ions. Therefore, the difference in extraction behaviour may be explained by the complexing ability of the various anionic ligands present in the aqueous phase. Formation constants of the complexes between metal ions and anionic ligands were computed from these distribution data. (auth.)

  12. Recovery of Some Radioactive Nuclides from Radioactive Waste Solution Using Silicon(IV) Antimonate as a Cation Exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, H.F.; Zakaria, E.S.; El-Shorbagy, M.M.; El-Naggar, I.M.


    A new inorganic ion exchanger, silicon(IV) antimonate was prepared by dropwise addition of antimony pentachloride and sodium silicate and shows excellent thermal and chemical stability. Ion exchange selectivities of cations Na +, Cs +, Sr 2+ and Co 2+ in nitric acid media have been exchanged with protons of silicon antimonate using batch technique, from these results, distribution coefficient, selectivity was found in the order Co 2+ > Sr 2+ > Na +> Cs +. The effective separation of Cs +, Na +, Sr 2+ and Co 2+ have been achieved with column technique from nitric acid media. The values of diffusion coefficient, energy and entropy of activation of Cs +, Na +, Sr 2+ and Co 2+ on silicon antimonate matrix were determined as a particle diffusion mechanism only and the values of diffusion inside the exchanger take the order Na +> Cs +> Co 2+ > Sr 2+

  13. Extraction of uranium: comparison of stripping with ammonia vs. strong acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, B.; Grinbaum, B.; Efraim, A.


    Following extraction of uranium in the first stage of solvent extraction using a tertiary amine, typically Alamine 336, the stripping of the extracted uranium is accomplished either by use of an aqueous solution of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 /NH 4 OH or by strong-acid stripping using 400-500 g/L H 2 SO 4 . Both processes have their merits and determine the downstream processing. The classical stripping with ammonia is followed by addition of strong base, to precipitate ammonium uranyl sulfate (NH 4 ) 2 UO 2 (SO 4 ) 2 , which yields finally the yellow cake. Conversely, stripping with H 2 SO 4 , followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yields uranyl oxide as product. At the Cameco Key Lake operation, both processes were tested on a pilot scale, using a Bateman Pulsed Column (BPC). The BPC proved to be applicable to both processes. It met the process criteria both for extraction and stripping, leaving less than 1 mg/L of U 3 O 8 in the raffinate, and product solution had the required concentration of U 3 O 8 at high flux and reasonable height of transfer unit. In the Key Lake mill, each operation can be carried out in a single column. The main advantages of the strong-acid stripping over ammonia stripping are: (1) 60% higher flux in the extraction, (2) tenfold higher concentration of the uranium in the product solution, and (3) far more robust process, with no need of pH control in the stripping and no need to add acid to the extraction in order to keep the pH above the point of precipitation of iron compounds. The advantages of the ammoniacal process are easier stripping, that is, less stages needed to reach equilibrium and lower concentration of modifier needed to prevent the creation of a third phase. (authors)

  14. Transformations of griseofulvin in strong acidic conditions--crystal structures of 2'-demethylgriseofulvin and dimerized griseofulvin. (United States)

    Leśniewska, Barbara; Jebors, Said; Coleman, Anthony W; Suwińska, Kinga


    The structure of griseofulvic acid, C16H15ClO6, at 100 K has orthorhombic (P2(1)2(1)2) symmetry. It is of interest with respect to biological activity. The structure displays intermolecular O-H...O, C-H...O hydrogen bonding as well as week C-H...pi and pi...pi interactions. In strong acidic conditions the griseofulvin undergoes dimerization. The structure of dimerized griseofulvin, C34H32C12O12 x C2H6O x H2O, at 100 K has monoclinic (P2(1)) symmetry. The molecule crystallized as a solvate with one ethanol and one water molecule. The dimeric molecules form intermolecular O-H...O hydrogen bonds to solvents molecules only but they interact via week C-H...O, C-H...pi, C-Cl...pi and pi...pi interactions with other dimerized molecules.

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Titanate as Cation Exchanger and Their Use in the Treatment of Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, I.M.; Belacy, N.; Mohamed, D.A.; Abou-Mesalam, M.M.


    Anew class of inorganic ion exchanger called crystalline silicon titanates has excellent chemical and radiation stability. The materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium and several other radionuclides from highly acidic solutions. The ion exchange capacity was determined for Na +, Cs +, Co 2+ and Sr 2+ ions and found to be 1.17 , 1.9, 1.38 and 1.52 meq./g, respectively. Besides, the drying temperature of silicon titanates have a profound effect on the ion exchange capacities and distribution coefficient values of the above mentioned cations. Moreover, the studied results of distribution coefficient indicating the ability of separation of these radionuclides from radwaste solutions

  16. On the swelling behavior of cationic exchange resins saturated with Na+ ions in a C3S paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, E.; Cau Dit Coumes, C.; Chartier, D.; Gauffinet, S.; Le Bescop, P.; Stefan, L.


    Ion exchange resins (IERs) are widely used in the nuclear industry to decontaminate radioactive effluents. Spent resins are usually encapsulated in cementitious materials. However, the solidified waste form can exhibit strong expansion, possibly leading to cracking, if the appropriate binder is not used. In this work, the interactions between cationic resins in the Na + form and tricalcium silicate are investigated during the early stages of hydration in order to gain a better understanding of the expansion process. It is shown that the IERs exhibit a transient swelling of small magnitude due to the decrease in the osmotic pressure of the external solution. This expansion, which occurs just after setting, is sufficient to damage the material which is poorly consolidated for several reasons: low degree of hydration, precipitation of poorly cohesive sodium-bearing C-S-H, and very heterogeneous microstructure with zones of high porosity. (authors)

  17. Selective sorption of lead, cadmium and zinc ions by a polymeric cation exchanger containing nano-Zr(HPO3S)2. (United States)

    Zhang, Qingrui; Pan, Bingcai; Pan, Bingjun; Zhang, Weiming; Jia, Kun; Zhang, Quanxing


    A novel polymeric hybrid sorbent, namely ZrPS-001, was fabricated for enhanced sorption of heavy metal ions by impregnating Zr(HPO3S)2 (i.e., ZrPS) nanoparticles within a porous polymeric cation exchanger D-001. The immobilized negatively charged groups bound to the polymeric matrix D-001 would result in preconcentration and permeation enhancement of target metal ions prior to sequestration, and ZrPS nanoparticles are expected to sequester heavy metals selectively through an ion-exchange process. Highly effective sequestration of lead, cadmium, and zinc ions from aqueous solution can be achieved by ZrPS-001 even in the presence of competing calcium ion at concentration several orders of magnitude greater than the target species. The exhausted ZrPS-001 beads are amenable to regeneration with 6 M HCI solution for repeated use without any significant capacity loss. Fixed-bed column treatment of simulated waters containing heavy metals at high or trace levels was also performed. The content of heavy metals in treated effluent approached or met the WHO drinking water standard.

  18. Review of the thermal stability and cation exchange properties of the zeolite minerals clinoptilolite, mordenite, and analcime; applications to radioactive waste isolation in silicic tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.R.; Caporuscio, F.A.


    Silicic tuffs of the southern Great Basin and basalts of the Columbia River Plateau are under investigation as potential host rocks for high- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes. Nonwelded and partially welded tuffs may contain major amounts (> 50%) of the zeolite minerals clinoptilolite, mordenite, and analcime. Densely welded tuffs and some basalt flows may contain clinoptilolite as fracture filling that limits the permeability of these rocks. The cation exchange properties of these zeolite minerals allow them to pose a formidable natural barrier to the migration of cationic species of various radionuclides in aqueous solutions. However, these minerals are unstable at elevated temperatures and at low water-vapor pressures and may break down either by reversible dehydration or by irreversible mineralogical reactions. All the breakdown reactions occurring at increased temperature involve a net volume reduction and evolution of fluids. Thus, they may provide a pathway (shrinkage fractures) and a driving force (fluid pressure) for release of radionuclides to the biosphere. These reactions may be avoided by keeping zeolite-bearing horizons saturated with water and below about 85 0 C. This may restrict allowable gross thermal loadings in waste repositories in volcanic rocks

  19. Cation-exchange antibody labeling for simultaneous electrochemical detection of tumor markers CA15-3 and CA19-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guangjie; Qing, Yi; Shan, Jinlu; Jin, Feng; Wang, Dong; Yuan, Ruo


    We report on a new kind of non-covalent multi-label electrochemical immunoassay that was applied to simultaneously quantify the tumor markers CA15-3 and CA19-9. The method employs a nanohybrid composed of an ionomer and conductive titanium dioxide nanoparticles that act as a matrix support for the antibodies. The two antibodies (anti-CA153 and anti-CA199) were labeled (a) with a cobaltous dipyridine complex, and (b) with methylene blue. Labeling is based on cation-exchange interaction rather than on covalent conjugation. The redox potentials of the two labels are separated by an interval of 0.3 V. The resulting sandwich-type immunosensor was read out by differential pulse voltammetry. The potential sites and currents of the two redox probes reflect the concentration of the two analytes. The two analytes were determined with a detection limit of 1.6 U mL −1 for CA19-9, and of 0.3 U mL −1 for CA15-3 (author)

  20. Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography for variant hemoglobins and HbF/A2: What must hematopathologists know about methodology? (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant; Das, Reena


    Cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (CE-HPLC) is a widely used laboratory test to detect variant hemoglobins as well as quantify hemoglobins F and A2 for the diagnosis of thalassemia syndromes. It's versatility, speed, reproducibility and convenience have made CE-HPLC the method of choice to initially screen for hemoglobin disorders. Despite its popularity, several methodological aspects of the technology remain obscure to pathologists and this may have consequences in specific situations. This paper discusses the basic principles of the technique, the initial quality control steps and the interpretation of various controls and variables that are available on the instrument output. Subsequent sections are devoted to methodological considerations that arise during reporting of cases. For instance, common problems of misidentified peaks, totals crossing 100%, causes of total area being above or below acceptable limits and the importance of pre-integration region peaks are dealt with. Ultimately, CE-HPLC remains an investigation, the reporting of which combines in-depth knowledge of the biological basics with more than a working knowledge of the technological aspects of the technique.

  1. Preparation and characterization of electrically conducting polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate cation-exchanger and its application as Mn(II ion selective membrane electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Khan


    Full Text Available Polypyrrole Sn(IV phosphate, an organic–inorganic composite cation-exchanger was synthesized via sol-gel mixing of an organic polymer, polypyrrole, into the matrices of the inorganic precipitate of Sn(IV phosphate. The physico-chemical properties of the material were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS, CHN elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, ICP-MS, UV–VIS spectrophotometry, FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy, TGA–DTA (Thermogravimetric Analysis–Differential Thermal Analysis, and XRD (X-ray diffraction. Ion-exchange behavior was observed to characterize the material. On the basis of distribution studies, the material was found to be highly selective for toxic heavy metal ion Mn2+. Due to its selective nature, the material was used as an electroactive component for the construction of an ion-selective membrane electrode. The proposed electrode shows fairly good discrimination of mercury ion over several other inorganic ions. The analytical utility of this electrode was established by employing it as an indicator electrode in electrometric titrations for Mn(II in water.

  2. Streptomyces clavuligerus shows a strong association between TCA cycle intermediate accumulation and clavulanic acid biosynthesis. (United States)

    Ramirez-Malule, Howard; Junne, Stefan; Nicolás Cruz-Bournazou, Mariano; Neubauer, Peter; Ríos-Estepa, Rigoberto


    Clavulanic acid (CA) is produced by Streptomyces clavuligerus (S. clavuligerus) as a secondary metabolite. Knowledge about the carbon flux distribution along the various routes that supply CA precursors would certainly provide insights about metabolic performance. In order to evaluate metabolic patterns and the possible accumulation of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates during CA biosynthesis, batch and subsequent continuous cultures with steadily declining feed rates were performed with glycerol as the main substrate. The data were used to in silico explore the metabolic capabilities and the accumulation of metabolic intermediates in S. clavuligerus. While clavulanic acid accumulated at glycerol excess, it steadily decreased at declining dilution rates; CA synthesis stopped when glycerol became the limiting substrate. A strong association of succinate, oxaloacetate, malate, and acetate accumulation with CA production in S. clavuligerus was observed, and flux balance analysis (FBA) was used to describe the carbon flux distribution in the network. This combined experimental and numerical approach also identified bottlenecks during the synthesis of CA in a batch and subsequent continuous cultivation and demonstrated the importance of this type of methodologies for a more advanced understanding of metabolism; this potentially derives valuable insights for future successful metabolic engineering studies in S. clavuligerus.

  3. P retention and cation exchange as affected by nanoparticle of volcanic ash and application of phosphate solubilizing bacteria on Andisol Ciater, West Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Fitriatin, Betty Natalie; Arifin, Mahfud; Devnita, Rina; Yuniarti, Anni; Haryanto, Rachmat; Setiabudi, Mariska Amalia


    Andisols is a soil with high retention of phosphate and cannot be absorbed by plants. Some of soil bacteria have the ability to solubilize P and make it available to growing plants are known phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). The research aims to study the effect of nanoparticle volcanic ash and phosphate solubilising bacteria (PSB) on P retention and cation exchangeable (CEC) in Andisol Ciater, West Java. This research was conducted from October 2016 to March 2017. The design of the analysis used was a complete randomized factorial design with two factors. The first factor was nanoparticle volcanic ash (a) consists of four dosages based on weight percentage (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%) and the second factor was PSB (h) consists of two dosages (without biofertilizer and with biofertilizer 1 g/Kg soil). The combination treatments replicated three times were incubated for 4 months. Soil samples were analyzed at first month and fourth month after incubation. The results showed that all dosages of nanoparticle volcanic ash and application of PSB decreased P retention by 75-77% at the first month after incubation. Nanoparticle volcanic ash dosage decreased to 7.5% the P retention reaches 90.36% in the fourth month after incubation. The nanoparticle of volcanic ash dosage 7.5% increased with CEC (24.787 and 16.555 at the first and fourth months after incubation. The application of PSB increased the CEC (28.606 in the first month after incubation.

  4. Prevalence of hemoglobin variants and hemoglobinopathies using cation-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography in central reference laboratory of India: A report of 65779 cases (United States)

    Warghade, Sandeep; Britto, Jyothi; Haryan, Reshma; Dalvi, Tejaswi; Bendre, Rajesh; Chheda, Pratiksha; Matkar, Sunmeet; Salunkhe, Yogita; Chanekar, Milind; Shah, Nilesh


    CONTEXT: Hemoglobinopathies constitute the world's most common genetically inherited red blood cell disorder. Screening and accurate identification of hemoglobin (Hb) variants have become increasingly important in antenatal diagnosis and prevention of Hb disorders. AIM: The aim of this study was to screen and identify Hb fractions prevalent in the Central Reference Laboratory of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 65,779 cases were screened for hemoglobinopathies on the bio-rad variant high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system by beta-thalassemia short program. The retention times, proportion of the hemoglobin (%) and the peak characteristics for all hemoglobin fractions were recorded. Molecular analysis of the beta-globin gene was carried out by DNA sequencing on eight cases. RESULTS: Total number of abnormal Hb fractions on cation exchange-HPLC (CE-HPLC) was seen in 12,131 (18.44%) cases. Beta-thalassemia trait was the predominant genetic Hb disorder accounting for 7377 cases (11.21%) of the total cases. This was followed by sickle cell trait (2.01%), sickle cell disease (1.59%), beta-thalassemia syndrome (0.80%), HbE trait (0.79%), and borderline HbA2 (0.51%). Molecular characterization of eight rare cases of hemoglobin variants by beta-globin gene sequencing identified three cases of Hb Beth Israel, two cases of Hb Hofu trait, and one case each of Hb J Cambridge, Hb Mizunami, and Hb Sherwood Forest. CONCLUSION: Superior resolution, rapid assay time, and accurate quantification make CE-HPLC suitable for the routine investigation of hemoglobinopathies. PMID:29403210

  5. Thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions onto a new cation exchanger derived from tamarind fruit shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anirudhan, T.S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695 581 (India)], E-mail:; Radhakrishnan, P.G. [Department of Chemistry, University of Kerala, Kariavattom, Trivandrum 695 581 (India)


    A novel cation exchanger (TFS-CE) having carboxylate functionality was prepared through graft copolymerization of hydroxyethylmethacrylate onto tamarind fruit shell (TFS) in the presence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linking agent using K{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8}/Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} initiator system, followed by functionalisation. The TFS-CE was used for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. At fixed solid/solution ratio the various factors affecting adsorption such as pH, initial concentration, contact time, and temperature were investigated. Kinetic experiments showed that the amount of Cu(II) adsorbed increased with increase in Cu(II) concentration and equilibrium was attained at 1 h. The kinetics of adsorption follows pseudo-second-order model and the rate constant increases with increase in temperature indicating endothermic nature of adsorption. The Arrhenius and Eyring equations were used to obtain the kinetic parameters such as activation energy (E{sub a}) and enthalpy ({delta}H'), entropy ({delta}S') and free energy ({delta}G') of activation for the adsorption process. The value of E{sub a} for adsorption was found to be 10.84 kJ . mol{sup -1} and the adsorption involves diffusion controlled process. The equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(II) was 64 . 10 mg . g{sup -1} at T = 303 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as changes in free energy ({delta}G{sup 0}), enthalpy ({delta}H{sup 0}), and entropy ({delta}S{sup 0}) were derived to predict the nature of adsorption process. The isosteric heat of adsorption increases with increase in surface loading indicating some lateral interactions between the adsorbed metal ions.

  6. A novel approach to measure elemental concentrations in cation exchange resins using XRF-scanning technique, and its potential in water pollution studies (United States)

    Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Lin, Sheng-Chi; Löwemark, Ludvig; Liou, Ya-Hsuan; Chang, Queenie; Chang, Tsun-Kuo; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Croudace, Ian W.


    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core-scanning is a fast, and convenient technique to assess elemental variations for a wide variety of research topics. However, the XRF scanning counts are often considered a semi-quantitative measurement due to possible absorption or scattering caused by down core variability in physical properties. To overcome this problem and extend the applications of XRF-scanning to water pollution studies, we propose to use cation exchange resin (IR-120) as an "elemental carrier", and to analyze the resins using the Itrax-XRF core scanner. The use of resin minimizes the matrix effects during the measurements, and can be employed in the field in great numbers due to its low price. Therefore, the fast, and non-destructive XRF-scanning technique can provide a quick and economical method to analyze environmental pollution via absorption in the resin. Five standard resin samples were scanned by the Itrax-XRF core scanner at different exposure times (1 s, 5 s, 15 s, 30 s, 100 s) to allow the comparisons of scanning counts with the absolute concentrations. The regression lines and correlation coefficients of elements that are generally used in pollution studies (Ca, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) were examined for the different exposure times. The result shows that within the test range (from few ppm to thousands ppm), the correlation coefficients are all higher than 0.97, even at the shortest exposure time (1 s). Therefore, we propose to use this method in the field to monitor for example sewage disposal events. The low price of resin, and fast, multi elements and precise XRF-scanning technique provide a viable, cost- and time-effective approach that allows large sample numbers to be processed. In this way, the properties and sources of wastewater pollution can be traced for the purpose of environmental monitoring and environmental forensics.

  7. An online computer method for the potentiometric titration of mixtures of a strong and a weak acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.


    A PDP-11 online computer method for the titration of mixtures or a strong and a weak acid is described.The method is based on multiparametric curve-fitting. One or the parameters found from the calculations is the dissociation constant of the weak acid, hence the method can be applied even when this

  8. Bactericidal Effect of Strong Acid Electrolyzed Water against Flow Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms. (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaogang; Tian, Yu; Zhao, Chunmiao; Qu, Tiejun; Ma, Chi; Liu, Xiaohua; Yu, Qing


    This study evaluated the bactericidal effect of strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW) against flow Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and its potential application as a root canal irrigant. Flow E. faecalis biofilms were generated under a constant shear flow in a microfluidic system. For comparison, static E. faecalis biofilms were generated under a static condition on coverslip surfaces. Both the flow and static E. faecalis biofilms were treated with SAEW. Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl, 5.25%) and normal saline (0.9%) were included as the controls. Bacterial reductions were evaluated using confocal laser scanning microscopy and the cell count method. Morphological changes of bacterial cells were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The confocal laser scanning microscopic and cell count results showed that SAEW had a bactericidal effect similar to that of 5.25% NaOCl against both the flow and static E. faecalis biofilms. The scanning electron microscopic results showed that smooth, consecutive, and bright bacteria surfaces became rough, shrunken, and even lysed after treated with SAEW, similar to those in the NaOCl group. SAEW had an effective bactericidal effect against both the flow and static E. faecalis biofilms, and it might be qualified as a root canal irrigant for effective root canal disinfection. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ion-exchange equilibrium of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid on a strong anionic exchanger. (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Ke, Xu; Zhang, Xudong; Zhuang, Wei; Zhou, Jingwei; Ying, Hanjie


    N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) is a high value-added product widely applied in the food industry. A suitable equilibrium model is required for purification of Neu5Ac based on ion-exchange chromatography. Hence, the equilibrium uptake of Neu5Ac on a strong anion exchanger, AD-1 was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The uptake of Neu5Ac by the hydroxyl form of the resin occurred primarily by a stoichiometric exchange of Neu5Ac(-) and OH(-). The experimental data showed that the selectivity coefficient for the exchange of Neu5Ac(-) with OH(-) was a non-constant quantity. Subsequently, the Saunders' model, which took into account the dissociation reactions of Neu5Ac and the condition of electroneutrality, was used to correlate the Neu5Ac sorption isotherms at various solution pHs and Neu5Ac concentrations. The model provided an excellent fit to the binary exchange data for Cl(-)/OH(-) and Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-), and an approximate prediction of equilibrium in the ternary system Cl(-)/Neu5Ac(-)/OH(-). This basic information combined with the general mass transfer model could lay the foundation for the prediction of dynamic behavior of fixed bed separation process afterwards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A radiometric microassay for glutamic acid decarboxylase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maderdrut, J.L.; North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill


    A simple method for purifying L-[ 3 H] glutamic acid and incubation conditions suitable for estimating L-glutamic acid decarboxylase activity are described. Routine and recycled cation-exchange procedure for separating γ-aminobutyric acid from L-glutamate are outlined and compared. Recycling increases the sensitivity of the cation-exchange method by 6-7 fold. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity can be measured reliably in samples of embryonic neural tissue having wet-weights of approximately 1 μg. The cation-exchange method is compared with the anion-exchange and CO 2 -trapping methods. L-Glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in the lumbar spinal cord of the chick embryo at Day 21/4 (stage 14) using the cation-exchange method. This is 5-6 days earlier than L-glutamate decarboxylase activity has been detected in embryonic neural tissue by previous investigators. L-Glutamate decarboxylase is present in the lumbar spinal cord at least as early as the birth of the first lumbar spinal cord neurons and at least 1-2 days before the initiation of synaptogenesis. (author)

  11. A contribution to the problem of strong acid determination in air (United States)

    Dieter Klockow; Helmut Denzinger; Gerhard R& #246; nicke; Gerhard nicke


    The main indicator for acidic substances in the atmosphere is, now as before, the pH of rainwater. Factors influencing the acidity of precipitation are discussed, using results of air monitoring stations in Germany.

  12. Reaction of aromatic azides with strong acids: formation of fused nitrogen heterocycles and arylamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Marcia de


    Full Text Available We describe in this paper the action of trifluoroacetic acid, trifluoromethanesulfonic acid and aluminum chloride upon ortho-substituted aryl azides to form indoles, azepines and arylamines in good yields. The protonated azides lose nitrogen to form arylnitrenium ion intermediates which undergo intramolecular aromatic N-substitution. The acid decomposition of aryl azides is compared with reported thermolyses.

  13. Isolation of a thermostable acid phytase from Aspergillus niger UFV-1 with strong proteolysis resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S. Monteiro


    Full Text Available An Aspergillus niger UFV-1 phytase was characterized and made available for industrial application. The enzyme was purified via ultrafiltration followed by acid precipitation, ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. This protein exhibited a molecular mass of 161 kDa in gel filtration and 81 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, indicating that it may be a dimer. It presented an optimum temperature of 60 °C and optimum pH of 2.0. The KM for sodium phytate hydrolysis was 30.9 mM, while the kcat and kcat/KM were 1.46 ×105 s−1 and 4.7 × 106s−1.M−1, respectively. The purified phytase exhibited broad specificity on a range of phosphorylated compounds, presenting activity on sodium phytate, p-NPP, 2- naphthylphosphate, 1- naphthylphosphate, ATP, phenyl-phosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, calcium phytate and other substrates. Enzymatic activity was slightly inhibited by Mg2+, Cd2+, K+ and Ca2+, and it was drastically inhibited by F−. The enzyme displayed high thermostability, retaining more than 90% activity at 60 °C during 120 h and displayed a t1/2 of 94.5 h and 6.2 h at 70 °C and 80 °C, respectively. The enzyme demonstrated strong resistance toward pepsin and trypsin, and it retained more than 90% residual activity for both enzymes after 1 h treatment. Additionally, the enzyme efficiently hydrolyzed phytate in livestock feed, liberating 15.3 μmol phosphate/mL after 2.5 h of treatment.

  14. Extraction characteristics of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in mixtures of dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid and carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, M.H.


    Dinonylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (HDNNS) has been shown to be an effective liquid cation exchanger for the extraction of metal ions. This extractant has proven to be successful in the extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in the pH range of 2.0 to 3.0, although it shows little selectivity for individual ions because of its strong acid character. In an effort to improve the selectivity of HDNNS between trivalent lanthanides and actinides, carboxylic acids were added to the organic phase and the effects on the extraction characteristics of HDNNS were investigated. Three carboxylic acids - nonanoic, cyclohexanecarboxylic, and cyclohexanebutyric - were studied with the following metals: Am(III), Cm(III), Ce(III), Eu(III), and Tm(III). The distributions of the metal ions were studied holding the HDNNS concentration constant while varying the carboxylic acid concentrations over a range of 1.0 x 10 -5 M to 1.0 M. Results indicated that the greatest enhancement of the extraction occurred at a carboxylic acid concentration of 1.0 x 10 -2 M with negative effects occurring at 0.5 M and 1.0 M. The effects on the extraction of the trivalent lanthanides and actinides were interpreted in terms of the structural differences of the carboxylic acids, the effect of the carboxylic acids on the HDNNS extraction mechanism, and the ionic properties of the metals studied

  15. Terrestrial ecosystem recovery - Modelling the effects of reduced acidic inputs and increased inputs of sea-salts induced by global change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, C.; Moldan, F.; Wright, R.F.


    to 3 large-scale "clean rain" experiments, the so-called roof experiments at Risdalsheia, Norway; Gardsjon, Sweden, and Klosterhede, Denmark. Implementation of the Gothenburg protocol will initiate recovery of the soils at all 3 sites by rebuilding base saturation. The rate of recovery is small...... and base saturation increases less than 5% over the next 30 years. A climate-induced increase in storm severity will increase the sea-salt input to the ecosystems. This will provide additional base cations to the soils and more than double the rate of the recovery, but also lead to strong acid pulses...... following high sea-salt inputs as the deposited base cations exchange with the acidity stored in the soil. Future recovery of soils and runoff at acidified catchments will thus depend on the amount and rate of reduction of acid deposition, and in the case of systems near the coast, the frequency...

  16. Simultaneous estimation of a binary mixture of a weak acid and a strong acid by volumetric titration and pH measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmakar, Sanat; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.


    High level liquid waste (HLLW) generated in the aqueous reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels for the separation of uranium and plutonium by PUREX process, comprises the fission and corrosion products in 4 M nitric acid. Reduction in waste volume is accomplished by destroying the acidity of the waste solution from 4 to less than 2 M by treating it with formaldehyde and subsequent concentration by evaporation. In the denitration by HCHO, nitric acid in the waste solution is reduced to NOx and water via nitrous acid as the intermediate product: whereas formaldehyde is oxidized to formic acid which is converted to CO 2 and H 2 O subsequently. The reaction is highly exothermic and the release of all gaseous products may lead to uncontrollable process conditions. Hence, for the safe operation, it is desirable to estimate the concentration of residual formic acid as well as nitric acid in the product stream as a function of time. The acidity in the feed solution is 4 M and the concentration of HNO 3 in the product solution is in the range 1- 4 M. Since the formic acid generated during the reaction will be consumed immediately, the concentration of residual acid will be in the range 0.05-0.5 M. A simultaneous titration method based on pH measurement and volumetric analysis has been developed in the present work for the quantitative determination of the weak acid (HCOOH)with known pKa value and the strong acid (HNO 3 ) in the binary mixture

  17. Serum uric acid: A strong and independent predictor of metabolic syndrome after adjusting for body composition. (United States)

    Yu, Tae Yang; Jee, Jae Hwan; Bae, Ji Cheol; Jin, Sang-Man; Baek, Jong-Ha; Lee, Moon-Kyu; Kim, Jae Hyeon


    Some observational studies have suggested that serum uric acid (SUA) levels are one of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, previous studies reported combined results for men and women after adjusting for sex and few studies take body composition into consideration. Therefore, we performed this sex-specific longitudinal study to investigate how baseline SUA levels influence incident MetS, including body composition as an adjusting factor in a large number of subjects. A total of 14,442 participants (8715 men and 5727 women) participating in a medical health check-up program without diagnosed MetS at baseline were enrolled. Separate analyses were performed for men and women including body composition as a confounding factor. Cox proportional hazards models were used to quantify independent associations between SUA levels and incident MetS. During 63,940person-years of follow-up, there were 4215 (2974 men, 1241 women) incident cases of MetS between 2006 and 2012. After adjustments for age, systolic BP, diastolic BP, BMI, eGFR, smoking status, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C, fasting glucose, and proportion of fat-free mass (100-fat mass, %), the hazard ratios (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] for incident MetS comparing the second, the third, and the fourth quartiles to the first quartile of SUA levels were 0.862 (0.770-0.965), 1.102 (0.991-1.225), and 1.246 (1.121-1.385) in men (p for trend<0.001), and 1.045 (0.862-1.266), 1.251 (1.050-1.490), and 1.321 (1.109-1.574) in women (p for trend<0.001), respectively. As a continuous variable, in fully-adjusted models, the HRs (95% CI) for incident MetS associated with each increase of 1mg/dl of SUA levels were 1.094 (1.060-1.130) in men (p<0.001) and 1.148 (1.072-1.228) in women (p<0.001), respectively. We demonstrated that SUA levels are strong and independent predictors of MetS. This relationship remained significant after full adjustments for multiple associated confounders including body composition in both

  18. Amino acid analysis (United States)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)


    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  19. Use of combined ion exchangers on the basis of KU-23 and KM-2p cation exchangers for purification of ammonium molybdate and tungstate solutions from phosphate, arsenate, and silicate impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhin, A.A.; Majorov, D.Yu.; Kopyrin, A.A.; Taushkanov, V.P.


    Using the Tracer technique ( 32 P) and elementary analysis, potentiality of using combined ionites on the basis of macroporous cation-exchange resins KU-23 or KM-2p and hydrated zirconium oxide for purification of concentrated solutions of ammonium molybdate and tungstate from phosphate-, arsenate-, and silicate-ions impurities was studied. High selectivity of the combined ionites towards impurity ions was ascertained, which permits reducing the content of impurities by a factor of 50-100 compared with the initial one [ru

  20. Strong Hydrogen Bonded Molecular Interactions between Atmospheric Diamines and Sulfuric Acid. (United States)

    Elm, Jonas; Jen, Coty N; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna


    We investigate the molecular interaction between methyl-substituted N,N,N',N'-ethylenediamines, propane-1,3-diamine, butane-1,4-diamine, and sulfuric acid using computational methods. Molecular structure of the diamines and their dimer clusters with sulfuric acid is studied using three density functional theory methods (PW91, M06-2X, and ωB97X-D) with the 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. A high level explicitly correlated CCSD(T)-F12a/VDZ-F12 method is used to obtain accurate binding energies. The reaction Gibbs free energies are evaluated and compared with values for reactions involving ammonia and atmospherically relevant monoamines (methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine). We find that the complex formation between sulfuric acid and the studied diamines provides similar or more favorable reaction free energies than dimethylamine. Diamines that contain one or more secondary amino groups are found to stabilize sulfuric acid complexes more efficiently. Elongating the carbon backbone from ethylenediamine to propane-1,3-diamine or butane-1,4-diamine further stabilizes the complex formation with sulfuric acid by up to 4.3 kcal/mol. Dimethyl-substituted butane-1,4-diamine yields a staggering formation free energy of -19.1 kcal/mol for the clustering with sulfuric acid, indicating that such diamines could potentially be a key species in the initial step in the formation of new particles. For studying larger clusters consisting of a diamine molecule with up to four sulfuric acid molecules, we benchmark and utilize a domain local pair natural orbital coupled cluster (DLPNO-CCSD(T)) method. We find that a single diamine is capable of efficiently stabilizing sulfuric acid clusters with up to four acid molecules, whereas monoamines such as dimethylamine are capable of stabilizing at most 2-3 sulfuric acid molecules.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo first order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion exchange resin, macroporous Amberlite XE 307, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. A decrease by a factor of 3 and 6 is observed in the experimentally measured

  2. Experimental Observation of Strongly Bound Dimers of Sulfuric Acid: Application to Nucleation in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petaja, Tuukka; Sipila, Mikko; Paasonen, Pauli


    Sulfuric acid is a key compound in atmospheric nucleation. Here we report on the observation of a close-to-collision-limited sulfuric acid dimer formation in atmospherically relevant laboratory conditions in the absence of measurable quantities of ammonia or organics. The observed dimer formation...... compound(s) with (a) concentration(s) high enough to prevent the dimer evaporation. Such a stabilizing compound should be abundant enough in any natural environment and would therefore not limit the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the atmosphere....

  3. Effect of Strong Acid Functional Groups on Electrode Rise Potential in Capacitive Mixing by Double Layer Expansion

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.


    © 2014 American Chemical Society. The amount of salinity-gradient energy that can be obtained through capacitive mixing based on double layer expansion depends on the extent the electric double layer (EDL) is altered in a low salt concentration (LC) electrolyte (e.g., river water). We show that the electrode-rise potential, which is a measure of the EDL perturbation process, was significantly (P = 10-5) correlated to the concentration of strong acid surface functional groups using five types of activated carbon. Electrodes with the lowest concentration of strong acids (0.05 mmol g-1) had a positive rise potential of 59 ± 4 mV in the LC solution, whereas the carbon with the highest concentration (0.36 mmol g-1) had a negative rise potential (-31 ± 5 mV). Chemical oxidation of a carbon (YP50) using nitric acid decreased the electrode rise potential from 46 ± 2 mV (unaltered) to -6 ± 0.5 mV (oxidized), producing a whole cell potential (53 ± 1.7 mV) that was 4.4 times larger than that obtained with identical electrode materials (from 12 ± 1 mV). Changes in the EDL were linked to the behavior of specific ions in a LC solution using molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations. The EDL expanded in the LC solution when a carbon surface (pristine graphene) lacked strong acid functional groups, producing a positive-rise potential at the electrode. In contrast, the EDL was compressed for an oxidized surface (graphene oxide), producing a negative-rise electrode potential. These results established the linkage between rise potentials and specific surface functional groups (strong acids) and demonstrated on a molecular scale changes in the EDL using oxidized or pristine carbons.

  4. New trends in sample preparation: on-line microextraction in packed syringe (MEPS) for LC and GC applications Part III: Determination and validation of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples using a cation-exchange sorbent, and MEPS-LC-MS-MS. (United States)

    Altun, Zeki; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed; Blomberg, Lars G


    The need for on-line sample preparation for high-throughput applications in bioanalysis has increased during the past decade. In this paper a robust and on-line sample preparation technique, micro extraction in packed syringe (MEPS) has been developed and validated. The method is a miniaturized, fully automated, solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique that can be connected on-line to GC or LC without any modification of the chromatographs. The performance of MEPS as sample preparation method is illustrated by the determination of local anaesthetics in human plasma samples on-line with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry. The sampling sorbent was 1mg silica based benzenesulphonic acid cation exchanger that was inserted in a 250 microl syringe. Ropicavine and two of its metabolites (PPX and 3-OH-ropivacine), lidocaine and bupivacine were used as model substances. The accuracy values of quality control samples (QC) were between 95% and 109%, and precision (relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) had a maximum deviation of 9% for the analytes.

  5. Comparison of three strong ion models used for quantifying the acid-base status of human plasma with special emphasis on the plasma weak acids. (United States)

    Anstey, Chris M


    Currently, three strong ion models exist for the determination of plasma pH. Mathematically, they vary in their treatment of weak acids, and this study was designed to determine whether any significant differences exist in the simulated performance of these models. The models were subjected to a "metabolic" stress either in the form of variable strong ion difference and fixed weak acid effect, or vice versa, and compared over the range 25 titration curves. The results were analyzed for linearity by using ordinary least squares regression and for collinearity by using correlation. In every case, the results revealed a linear relationship between log(Pco(2)) and pH over the range 6.8 acid-base physiology and by the ease of measurement of the independent model parameters.

  6. The tricarboxylic acid cycle activity in cultured primary astrocytes is strongly accelerated by the protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor tyrphostin 23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohnholt, Michaela C; Blumrich, Eva-Maria; Waagepetersen, Helle S


    Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases and has been considered as potential anti-cancer drug. T23 was recently reported to acutely stimulate the glycolytic flux in primary cultured astrocytes. To investigate whether T23 also affects the tricarboxylic acid (TCA...... production. In addition, T23-treatment strongly increased the molecular carbon labeling of the TCA cycle intermediates citrate, succinate, fumarate and malate, and significantly increased the incorporation of (13)C-labelling into the amino acids glutamate, glutamine and aspartate. These results clearly...... demonstrate that, in addition to glycolysis, also the mitochondrial TCA cycle is strongly accelerated after exposure of astrocytes to T23, suggesting that a protein tyrosine kinase may be involved in the regulation of the TCA cycle in astrocytes....

  7. Evaluation of DNA typing as a positive identification method for soft and hard tissues immersed in strong acids. (United States)

    Robino, C; Pazzi, M; Di Vella, G; Martinelli, D; Mazzola, L; Ricci, U; Testi, R; Vincenti, M


    Identification of human remains can be hindered by several factors (e.g., traumatic mutilation, carbonization or decomposition). Moreover, in some criminal cases, offenders may purposely adopt various expedients to thwart the victim's identification, including the dissolution of body tissues by the use of corrosive reagents, as repeatedly reported in the past for Mafia-related murders. By means of an animal model, namely porcine samples, we evaluated standard DNA typing as a method for identifying soft (muscle) and hard (bone and teeth) tissues immersed in strong acids (hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acid) or in mixtures of acids (aqua regia). Samples were tested at different time intervals, ranging between 2 and 6h (soft tissues) and 2-28 days (hard tissues). It was shown that, in every type of acid, complete degradation of the DNA extracted from soft tissues preceded tissue dissolution and could be observed within 4h of immersion. Conversely, high molecular weight DNA amenable to STR analysis could be isolated from hard tissues as long as cortical bone fragments were still present (28 days for sulfuric acid, 7 days for nitric acid, 2 days for hydrochloric acid and aqua regia), or the integrity of the dental pulp chamber was preserved (7 days, in sulfuric acid only). The results indicate that DNA profiling of acid-treated body parts (in particular, cortical bone) is still feasible at advanced stages of corrosion, even when the morphological methods used in forensic anthropology and odontology can no longer be applied for identification purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of acid rain and liming on a spruce site (Hoeglwald project). Auswirkungen von saurer Beregnung und Kalkung in einem Fichtenbestand (Hoeglwaldprojekt)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, K.; Schierl, R.; Goettlein, A. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde)


    An acid irrigation and liming experiment in an around 80 years old Norway spruce stand (Picea abies L. Karst.) on acid hapludult (pH (H{sub 2}O) 4.2, Ca/Al 0.3 at 20 cm depth) in Southern Bavaria was started in 1982. Up to now acid irrigation with 2.7 to 2.8 (mean annual input around 4 kmol H{sup +} ha{sup -1}) caused only a pH decrease of 0.3 to 0.5 pH units, confined to the upper part of the organic surface layer. Almost the entire H{sup +} addition was buffered. The main buffering reactions were cation exchange in the upper part of the mineral soil, which were contributing to the buffering to around 15 resp. 80% of the H{sup +} addition. The cation exchange was connected with a strong reduction of the cation exchange capacity due to protonation of organic functional groups. Also leaching of the released cations Ca, Mg, Mn, K occurred. In the mineral soil the Al concentration increased but no change in Ca/Al and Mg/Al ratios because of leaching input from the organic layer above. Up to now the stand shows no severe damage symptoms in contrast to the ground flora and microorganisms. The absence of tree damages may be due to the fact, that the trees have access to horizons with better nutrient supply. That enables them to develop defensive mechanisms in the 'Al stress' horizons as pH increase on the rhizoplan and Al complexation in the mucilage. Mobilization of heavy metals, due to acidic treatment, was observed. Only Mn effect on Oxalis is suggested. Liming caused strong increase of nitrification and nitrate leaching before the background of an excess N supply mainly due atmospheric N input. Al, Pb and Cu were also mobilized by liming due to a hydrolysis-induced increase of soluble organic C, forming complexes with these metals. (orig.).

  9. Solvent Extraction of Tungsten(VI) from Moderate Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with LIX 63

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, Hoai Thanh; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Jeollanamdo (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Hwan [Incheon Technology Service Centre, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    The solvent extraction of tungsten(VI) from hydrochloric acid solutions using 5,8-diethyl-7-hydroxydodecan-6-one oxime (LIX 63) was analyzed in solutions having an initial pH range from 2 to 5, by varying the concentration of metal and extractant. In our experimental range, the cationic exchange reaction as well as the solvation reaction occurred simultaneously. The cation exchange reaction was identified by applying a slope analysis method to the extraction data. The existence of cationic tungsten(VI) species was confirmed by ion exchange experiments with Diphonix resin at pH 3. Further study is needed to identify the nature of this tungsten cationic species.

  10. Binding of Sr from milk by solid phase extraction with cryptand C222 sorbed on silica gel, cation exchange, chelating or adsorbent resins for simplified 90Sr analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, David; Wiechen, Arnold; Haase, Gerhard


    Several commercially available resins have been found to bind the bicyclic polyether cryptand C222 from aqueous acetonitrile solutions. The presence of C222 on some of these resins strongly improved their affinity for Sr, so that relatively small amounts of such resins sorbed Sr from milk. The resins investigated were silica gel, polyacrylic acid crosslinked with divinylbenzene (DVB), polystyrene crosslinked with divinylbenzene (PS-DVB) and PS-DVB containing sulphonate, aminomethylphosphonate, iminodiacetate and mercapto groups. The resins for which binding of C222 resulted in the largest improvement in Sr sorption from milk were PS-DVB containing mercapto groups (Chelite S) and silica gel (Si 60). Thus, 2 ml wet volume of either Chelite S containing 133 μmol of C222, or silica gel Si-60 containing 143 μmol of C222 sorbed 90 and 48%, respectively, of the Sr from 100-ml milk samples. As the sorption of Sr from milk by these systems is relatively slow, contact times of 24-36 h are required to attain these results. The Chelite S-C222 system separates Sr effectively from Cs and Ca. Under the conditions described here some 6% of the natural 40 K in milk sorbs with Sr to the resin. Ba behaves similarly to Sr. 90 Sr/ 90 Y sorbed on the silica gel Si-60-C222 system can be measured directly and efficiently by liquid scintillation counting. If adequate specificity can be attained this system might provide a very simple method of determining 90 Sr in milk

  11. Nectar sugars and amino acids in day- and night-flowering Nicotiana species are more strongly shaped by pollinators' preferences than organic acids and inorganic ions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Tiedge

    , nectar sugars and amino acids are more strongly correlated with the preferences of predominant pollinators than organic acids and inorganic ions.

  12. The Activation Mechanism of Bi3+ Ions to Rutile Flotation in a Strong Acidic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao


    Full Text Available Lead hydroxyl compounds are known as rutile flotation of the traditional activated component, but the optimum pH range for flotation is 2–3 using styryl phosphoric acid (SPA as collector, without lead hydroxyl compounds in slurry solution. In this study, Bi3+ ions as a novel activator was investigated. The results revealed that the presence of Bi3+ ions increased the surface potential, due to the specific adsorption of hydroxyl compounds, which greatly increases the adsorption capacity of SPA on the rutile surface. Bi3+ ions increased the activation sites through the form of hydroxyl species adsorbing on the rutile surface and occupying the steric position of the original Ca2+ ions. The proton substitution reaction occurred between the hydroxyl species of Bi3+ ions (Bi(OHn+(3−n and the hydroxylated rutile surface, producing the compounds of Ti-O-Bi2+. The micro-flotation tests results suggested that Bi3+ ions could improve the flotation recovery of rutile from 61% to 90%, and from 61% to 64% for Pb2+ ions.

  13. Uric Acid Is a Strong Risk Marker for Developing Hypertension From Prehypertension: A 5-Year Japanese Cohort Study. (United States)

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Hisatome, Ichiro; Niwa, Koichiro; Hara, Shigeko; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A; Bjornstad, Petter; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Andres-Hernando, Ana; Sato, Yuka; Jensen, Thomas; Garcia, Gabriela; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Ohno, Minoru; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Johnson, Richard J


    Prehypertension frequently progresses to hypertension, a condition associated with high morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases and stroke. However, the risk factors for developing hypertension from prehypertension remain poorly understood. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the data from 3584 prehypertensive Japanese adults (52.1±11.0 years, 2081 men) found to be prehypertensive in 2004 and reexamined in 2009. We calculated the cumulative incidences of hypertension over 5 years, examined risk factors, and calculated odds ratios (ORs) for developing hypertension after adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, smoking and drinking habits, baseline systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease, and serum uric acid levels. The additional analysis evaluated whether serum uric acid (hyperuricemia) constituted an independent risk factor for developing hypertension. The cumulative incidence of hypertension from prehypertension over 5 years was 25.3%. There were no significant differences between women and men (24.4% versus 26.0%; P =0.28). The cumulative incidence of hypertension in subjects with hyperuricemia (n=726) was significantly higher than those without hyperuricemia (n=2858; 30.7% versus 24.0%; P uric acid (OR, 1.149; P uric acid is a strong risk marker for developing hypertension from prehypertension. Further studies are needed to determine whether treatment of hyperuricemia in prehypertensive subjects could impede the onset of hypertension. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Strong Quantum Confinement Effects and Chiral Excitons in Bio-Inspired ZnO–Amino Acid Cocrystals

    KAUST Repository

    Muhammed, Madathumpady Abubaker Habeeb


    Elucidating the underlying principles behind band gap engineering is paramount for the successful implementation of semiconductors in photonic and optoelectronic devices. Recently it has been shown that the band gap of a wide and direct band gap semiconductor, such as ZnO, can be modified upon cocrystallization with amino acids, with the role of the biomolecules remaining unclear. Here, by probing and modeling the light-emitting properties of ZnO-amino acid cocrystals, we identify the amino acids\\' role on this band gap modulation and demonstrate their effective chirality transfer to the interband excitations in ZnO. Our 3D quantum model suggests that the strong band edge emission blue-shift in the cocrystals can be explained by a quasi-periodic distribution of amino acid potential barriers within the ZnO crystal lattice. Overall, our findings indicate that biomolecule cocrystallization can be used as a truly bio-inspired means to induce chiral quantum confinement effects in quasi-bulk semiconductors.

  15. Recommandations pour la détermination expérimentale de la capacité d'échange de cations des milieux argileux Recommendations for Experimentally Determining the Cation-Exchange Capacity of Shaly Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambre Syndicale du Pétrole$


    Full Text Available Cet article présente une méthode relativement simple et précise destinée à la détermination de la capacité d'échanges de cations des milieux argileux qui permet de caractériser la réactivité des argiles. Cette mesure présente une certaine importance en raison des problèmes posés par les réservoirs argileux (interprétation des diagraphies, efficacité des méthodes de récupération améliorée par voie chimique. . . . Après avoir brièvement rappelé les propriétés fondamentales des argiles, la capacité d'échanges de cations (CEC est définie et la méthode recommandée de mesure de celle-ci (dosage par le chlorure de cobaltihexammine est décrite. Trois exemples viennent ensuite illustrer cette méthode dans le cas d'une argile pure, d'un sable argileux et d'un échantillon de grès argileux consolidé. This article describes a relatively simple and accurate method for determining the cation-exchange capacity of shaly media, which enables the characterization of the clay reactivity. This measurement is of some importance because of the problems posed by shaly reservoirs (interpreting well logs, effectiveness of improved-recovery methods by chemical means, etc. . After a brief review of the fondamental properties of shales, the cation-exchange capacity (CEC is defined, and the recommended measurement method by using cobaltihexammine chloride is described. Three examples are then given to illustrate this method for pure clay, for a shaly Band and for a consolidated shaly sandstone.

  16. Silylium ion-catalyzed challenging Diels-Alder reactions: the danger of hidden proton catalysis with strong Lewis acids. (United States)

    Schmidt, Ruth K; Müther, Kristine; Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Grimme, Stefan; Oestreich, Martin


    The pronounced Lewis acidity of tricoordinate silicon cations brings about unusual reactivity in Lewis acid catalysis. The downside of catalysis with strong Lewis acids is, though, that these do have the potential to mediate the formation of protons by various mechanisms, and the thus released Brønsted acid might even outcompete the Lewis acid as the true catalyst. That is an often ignored point. One way of eliminating a hidden proton-catalyzed pathway is to add a proton scavenger. The low-temperature Diels-Alder reactions catalyzed by our ferrocene-stabilized silicon cation are such a case where the possibility of proton catalysis must be meticulously examined. Addition of the common hindered base 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine resulted, however, in slow decomposition along with formation of the corresponding pyridinium ion. Quantitative deprotonation of the silicon cation was observed with more basic (Mes)(3)P to yield the phosphonium ion. A deuterium-labeling experiment verified that the proton is abstracted from the ferrocene backbone. A reasonable mechanism of the proton formation is proposed on the basis of quantum-chemical calculations. This is, admittedly, a particular case but suggests that the use of proton scavengers must be carefully scrutinized, as proton formation might be provoked rather than prevented. Proton-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions are not well-documented in the literature, and a representative survey employing TfOH is included here. The outcome of these catalyses is compared with our silylium ion-catalyzed Diels-Alder reactions, thereby clearly corroborating that hidden Brønsted acid catalysis is not operating with our Lewis acid. Several simple-looking but challenging Diels-Alder reactions with exceptionally rare dienophile/enophile combinations are reported. Another indication is obtained from the chemoselectivity of the catalyses. The silylium ion-catalyzed Diels-Alder reaction is general with regard to the oxidation level of the

  17. A study of the Lewis acid-base interactions of vinylphosphonic acid-modified polybutadiene-coated zirconia. (United States)

    Trammell, B C; Hillmyer, M A; Carr, P W


    Polybutadiene-coated zirconia (PBD-ZrO2) is very useful for reversed-phase separations under a wide variety of conditions. Its excellent chemical (pH = 1-13) and thermal (up to 150 degrees C) stability distinguish it from silica-based reversed phases. Just as with silica-based phases, zirconia's surface chemistry significantly influences the chromatography of certain classes of analytes. Zirconia's hard Lewis acid sites can be chromatographically problematic. Analytes such as carboxylic acids strongly interact with these sites on PBD-ZrO2 and do not elute. Addition of phosphate or other strong, hard Lewis bases to the eluent brings about elution, but the resulting peak is often tailed and broad. Typically, cationic solutes are more retained in the presence of phosphate or fluoride due to adsorption of the Lewis base additives and the concomitant development of a negative charge on the surface. This Coulombic interaction can be used to optimize selectivity, but the reversed-phase-cation-exchange retention can produce broad peaks with excessive retention. As an alternative to adding Lewis bases to the eluent, we studied the effect of permanently modifying PBD-ZrO2 by covalently attaching vinylphosphonic acid (VPA) to PBD which was predeposited in the pores of zirconia. We have investigated the chromatography of acids, bases, and small peptides on VPA-modified PBD-ZrO2 (VPA-PBD-ZrO2) and compared it to PBD-ZrO2. VPA-PBD-ZrO2 is a reversed-cation-exchange phase with properties quite different from PBD-ZrO2. The chemical stability of both phases led us to explore how low-pH (1.5-3), ultralow-pH (0), and high-pH (12) eluents effect the retention properties of these mixed-mode phases. Ultralow-pH eluents effectively separate small peptides on both phases. This approach gives lower retention, without sacrificing resolution, and much higher efficiency for small peptides than previously reported.

  18. α,β-D-constrained nucleic acids are strong terminators of thermostable DNA polymerases in polymerase chain reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Martínez

    Full Text Available (S(C5', R(P α,β-D- Constrained Nucleic Acids (CNA are dinucleotide building blocks that can feature either B-type torsional angle values or non-canonical values, depending on their 5'C and P absolute stereochemistry. These CNA are modified neither on the nucleobase nor on the sugar structure and therefore represent a new class of nucleotide with specific chemical and structural characteristics. They promote marked bending in a single stranded DNA so as to preorganize it into a loop-like structure, and they have been shown to induce rigidity within oligonucleotides. Following their synthesis, studies performed on CNA have only focused on the constraints that this family of nucleotides introduced into DNA. On the assumption that bending in a DNA template may produce a terminator structure, we investigated whether CNA could be used as a new strong terminator of polymerization in PCR. We therefore assessed the efficiency of CNA as a terminator in PCR, using triethylene glycol phosphate units as a control. Analyses were performed by denaturing gel electrophoresis and several PCR products were further analysed by sequencing. The results showed that the incorporation of only one CNA was always skipped by the polymerases tested. On the other hand, two CNA units always stopped proofreading polymerases, such as Pfu DNA polymerase, as expected for a strong replication terminator. Non-proofreading enzymes, e.g. Taq DNA polymerase, did not recognize this modification as a strong terminator although it was predominantly stopped by this structure. In conclusion, this first functional use of CNA units shows that these modified nucleotides can be used as novel polymerization terminators of proofreading polymerases. Furthermore, our results lead us to propose that CNA and their derivatives could be useful tools for investigating the behaviour of different classes of polymerases.

  19. Strong and long-lasting antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory conjugate of naturally occurring oleanolic acid and aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bednarczyk-Cwynar


    Full Text Available The conjugate 8 was obtained as a result of condensation of 3-hydroxyiminooleanolic acid morfolide (7 and aspirin in dioxane. Analgesic effect of OAO-ASA (8 for the range of doses 0.3 – 300.0 mg/kg (p.o. was performed in mice using a hot plate test. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats for the same range of doses. The conjugate OAO-ASA (8 did not significantly change locomotor activity of mice, therefore sedative properties of the compound should be excluded. The compound 8 proved a simple, proportional, dose-dependent analgesic action and expressed strong anti-inflammatory activity showing a reversed U-shaped, dose-dependent relation with its maximum at 30.0 mg/kg. After its combined administration with morphine (MF, 5.0 mg/kg, s.c. the lowering of antinociceptive activity was found; however, the interaction with naloxone (NL, 3.0 mg/kg, s.c. did not affect the antinociceptive effect of OAO-ASA (8, therefore its opioid mechanism of action should be rather excluded. After combined administration with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 300.0 mg/kg, p.o. in hot-plate test, the examined compound 8 enhanced the antinociceptive activity in significant way. It also shows that rather the whole molecule is responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of the tested compound 8, however it cannot be excluded that the summarizing effect is produced by ASA released from the compound 8 and the rest of triterpene derivative. The occurrence of tolerance for triterpenic derivative 8 was not observed, since the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects after chronic administration of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8 was on the same level as after its single treatment. It seemed that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of action of OAO-ASA (8 is not simple, even its chronic administration lowered both blood concentration of IL-6 and mRNA IL-6 expression. However, the effects of the conjugate OAO-ASA (8 on TNF-α level

  20. Capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of organic acids and amino acids in the presence of strongly alternating concentrations of aqueous lactic acid. (United States)

    Laube, Hendrik; Boden, Jana; Schneider, Roland


    During the production of bio-based bulk chemicals, such as lactic acid (LA), organic impurities have to be removed to produce a ready-to-market product. A capillary electrophoresis method for the simultaneous detection of LA and organic impurities in less than 10 min was developed. LA and organic impurities were detected using a direct UV detection method with micellar background electrolyte, which consisted of borate and sodium dodecyl sulfate. We investigated the effects of electrolyte composition and temperature on the speed, sensitivity, and robustness of the separation. A few validation parameters, such as linearity, limit of detection, and internal and external standards, were evaluated under optimized conditions. The method was applied for the detection of LA and organic impurities, including tyrosine, phenylalanine, and pyroglutamic acid, in samples from a continuous LA fermentation process from post-extraction tapioca starch and yeast extract.

  1. Catalytic performance of strong acid catalyst: Methyl modified SBA-15 loaded perfluorinated sulfonic acid obtained by the waste perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion exchange membrane (United States)

    Jiang, Tingshun; Huang, Qiuyan; Li, Yingying; Fang, Minglan; Zhao, Qian


    Mesoporous molecular sieve (SBA-15) was modified using the trimethylchlorosilane as functional agent and the silylation SBA-15 mesoporous material was prepared in this work. The alcohol solution of perfluorinated sulfonic acid dissolved from the waste perfluorinated sulfonic acid ion exchange membrane (PFSIEM) was loaded onto the resulting mesoporous material by the impregnation method and their physicochemical properties were characterized by FT-IR, N2-physisorption, XRD, TG-DSC and TEM. The catalytic activities of these synthesized solid acid catalysts were evaluated by alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol. The influence of reaction temperature, weight hour space velocity (WHSV) and reaction time on the phenol conversion and product selectivity were assessed by means of a series of experiments. The results showed that with the increase of the active component of the catalyst, these catalysts still remained good mesoporous structure, but the mesoporous ordering decreased to some extent. These catalysts exhibited good catalytic performance for the alkylation of phenol with tert-butanol. The maximum phenol conversion of 89.3% with 70.9% selectivity to 4-t-butyl phenol (4-TBP) was achieved at 120 °C and the WHSV is 4 h-1. The methyl group was loaded on the surface of the catalyst by trimethylchlorosilane. This is beneficial to retard the deactivation of the catalyst. In this work, the alkylation of phenol with tert-butyl alcohol were carried out using the methyl modified SBA-15 mesoporous materials loaded perfluorinated sulfonic acid as catalysts. The results show that the resulting catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity.

  2. The pH of very dilute solutions of strong acids – a calculation for a medical or biomedical class involving the application of simple numerical skills


    Peter Michael Barling


    This paper presents the solution to a calculationof the pH of a very dilute solution of a strong acid orbase, taking into account the effect of the hydroniumor hydroxyl ions generated from the ionisation of thestrong acid or base on the ionisation of water, as asecond very weak acid. To be solved successfully, thiscalculation involves the concepts of conservation ofcharge, pH and the application of the general solutionto a quadratic equation. Such an exercise involves theapplication of skills...

  3. The strong reactions of Lewis-base noble-metals with vanadium and other acidic transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    The noble metals often thought of as unreactive solids,react strongly with nearly 40% of the elements in the periodictable: group IIIB-VB transition metals, lanthanides, theactinides, and group IIIA-IVA non-transition metals. These strong reactions arise from increased bonding/electron transfer fromnonbonding electrons d electron pairs on the noble metal tovacant orbitals on V, etc. This effect is a generalized Lewis acid-base interaction. The partial Gibbs energy of V in the noblemetals has been measured as a function of concentration at a temperature near 1000C. Thermodynamics of the intermetallics are determined by ternary oxide equilibria, ternary carbide equilibria, and the high-temperature galvanic cell technique. These experimental methods use equilibrated solid composite mixtures in which grains of V oxides or of V carbides are interspersed with grains of V-NM(noble-metal) alloys. In equilibrium the activity of V in the oxide or the carbide equals the activity in the alloy. Consequently, the thermodynamics available in the literature for the V oxides and V carbides are reviewed. Test runs on the galvanic cell were attempted. The V oxide electrode reacts with CaF2, ThO2, YDT(0.85ThO2-0.15YO1.5), and LDT(0.85ThO2- 0.15LaO1.5) to interfere with the measured data observed toward the beginning of a galvanic cell experiment are the most accurate. The interaction of vanadium at infinite dilution in the noble-metals was determined.

  4. The strong reactions of Lewis-base noble-metals with vanadium and other acidic transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.


    The noble metals often thought of as unreactive solids,react strongly with nearly 40% of the elements in the periodictable: group IIIB-VB transition metals, lanthanides, theactinides, and group IIIA-IVA non-transition metals. These strong reactions arise from increased bonding/electron transfer fromnonbonding electrons d electron pairs on the noble metal tovacant orbitals on V, etc. This effect is a generalized Lewis acid-base interaction. The partial Gibbs energy of V in the noblemetals has been measured as a function of concentration at a temperature near 1000C. Thermodynamics of the intermetallics are determined by ternary oxide equilibria, ternary carbide equilibria, and the high-temperature galvanic cell technique. These experimental methods use equilibrated solid composite mixtures in which grains of V oxides or of V carbides are interspersed with grains of V-NM(noble-metal) alloys. In equilibrium the activity of V in the oxide or the carbide equals the activity in the alloy. Consequently, the thermodynamics available in the literature for the V oxides and V carbides are reviewed. Test runs on the galvanic cell were attempted. The V oxide electrode reacts with CaF[sub 2], ThO[sub 2], YDT(0.85ThO[sub 2]-0.15YO[sub 1.5]), and LDT(0.85ThO[sub 2]- 0.15LaO[sub 1.5]) to interfere with the measured data observed toward the beginning of a galvanic cell experiment are the most accurate. The interaction of vanadium at infinite dilution in the noble-metals was determined.

  5. Electrokinetically-driven cation-exchange chromatography of proteins and its comparison with pressure-driven high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Xu, W; Regnier, F E


    This paper examines protein ion-exchange behavior in electrokinetically-driven open-tubular chromatography with columns produced by immobilization of poly(aspartic acid) on capillary walls. Retention and selectivity are similar in the electrokinetic elution mode to that observed in HPLC. The separation mechanism was found to depend on the relationship of mobile phase pH to that of protein pI and ionic strength. Column efficiency in the electrokinetic elution mode was found to be 10-100-times higher than in HPLC. The best separations were achieved at intermediate ionic strength and high pH. The great advantage of these low-phase-ratio, high-efficiency open tubular columns is that isocratic separations in the electrokinetic elution mode were equivalent to gradient elution in the HPLC mode. Low phase ratio has the net effect of collapsing the chromatogram into a narrow elution window while the very high efficiency produces the requisite resolution.

  6. Environmental fate of Ra in cation-exchange regeneration brine waste disposed to septic tanks, New Jersey Coastal Plain, USA: migration to the water table. (United States)

    Szabo, Zoltan; Jacobsen, Eric; Kraemer, Thomas F; Parsa, Bahman


    Fate of radium (Ra) in liquid regeneration brine wastes from water softeners disposed to septic tanks in the New Jersey Coastal Plain was studied. Before treatment, combined Ra ((226)Ra plus (228)Ra) concentrations (maximum, 1.54 Bq L(-1)) exceeded the 0.185 Bq L(-1) Maximum Contaminant Level in 4 of 10 studied domestic-well waters (median pH, 4.90). At the water table downgradient from leachfields, combined Ra concentrations were low (commonly 5.3, indicating sequestration; when pH was synoptic sampling of effluents and ground waters, and large uncertainties associated with analytical methods. The trend of Ra mobilization in acidic environments does match observations from regional water-quality assessments.

  7. Chemical studies on polyaniline titanotungstate as a new composite cation exchanger and its analytical applications for removal of cesium from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.K.M.


    Polyaniline titanotungstate has been synthesized by incorporation of organic polymer polyaniline into the inorganic precipitate of titanotungstate. This material was characterized using IR, X-Ray, SEM and DTA-TGA analysis. The influences of initial concentration of metal ions, particle size and temperature have been reported. The material stability was investigated in water, acids, alkaline solutions, and at high temperature up to 850 degree C. Ion-exchange capacity and distribution coefficients (K d ) for ten metal ions have been determined. It was found that the polyaniline titanotungstate has high affinity and high selectivity for Cs + . The material has high separation for Cs + ion from other metal ions. The comparison of composite (PATiW) and inorganic material (TiW) was studied and indicated that the composite material is better than the inorganic one in selectivity of Cs + . Thermodynamic parameter of Cs + exchange process, such as changes in Gibbs free energy (δG o ), enthalpy (δH o ), and entropy (δS o ) have been calculated. It was found that numerical value of δG decrease with an increase in temperature,indicating that the sorption reaction of adsorbent was spontaneous and more favorable at higher temperature. The positive value of δH o corresponds to the endothermic nature of sorption processes and suggested that chemisorptions were the predominant mechanism. A comparison of kinetic models applied to the sorption rate data of Cs + was evaluated for the pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, homogeneous particle diffusion, shell model and intraparticle diffusion models. The results showed that Cs + is sorption onto PATiW and TiW with particle diffusion mechanism. Self diffusion coefficient (D i ), Activation energy (Ea) and entropy (δS * ) of activation were also computed from thelinearized form of Arrhenius equation. Column studies in acid and alkaline solutions were studied. A kinetic study for removal cesium from milk was investigated.

  8. Removal of CdTe in acidic media by magnetic ion-exchange resin: A potential recycling methodology for cadmium telluride photovoltaic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Teng, E-mail:; Dong, Zebin; Qu, Fei; Ding, Fazhu; Peng, Xingyu; Wang, Hongyan; Gu, Hongwei


    Highlights: • Sulfonated magnetic microsphere was prepared as one strong acid cation-exchange resin. • Cd and Te can be removed directly from the highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. • Good chemical stability, fast adsorbing rate and quick magnetic separation in strong acidic media. • A potential path for recycling CdTe photovoltaic waste. - Abstract: Sulfonated magnetic microspheres (PSt-DVB-SNa MPs) have been successfully prepared as adsorbents via an aqueous suspension polymerization of styrene-divinylbenzene and a sulfonation reaction successively. The resulting adsorbents were confirmed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The leaching process of CdTe was optimized, and the removal efficiency of Cd and Te from the leaching solution was investigated. The adsorbents could directly remove all cations of Cd and Te from a highly acidic leaching solution of CdTe. The adsorption process for Cd and Te reached equilibrium in a few minutes and this process highly depended on the dosage of adsorbents and the affinity of sulfonate groups with cations. Because of its good adsorption capacity in strong acidic media, high adsorbing rate, and efficient magnetic separation from the solution, PSt-DVB-SNa MPs is expected to be an ideal material for the recycling of CdTe photovoltaic waste.

  9. The use of cation exchange matrix separation coupled with ICP-MS to directly determine platinum group element (PGE) and other trace element emissions from passenger cars equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, Warren R.L.; Cozzi, Giulio [Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, Venice (Italy); De Boni, Antonella; Gabrieli, Jacopo [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Science, Venice (Italy); Asti, Massimo; Merlone Borla, Edoardo; Parussa, Flavio [Centro Ricerche Fiat, Orbassano (Italy); Moretto, Ezio [FIAT Powertrain Technologies S.p.A, Turin (Italy); Cescon, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo [University of Venice, Department of Environmental Science, Venice (Italy); Institute for the Dynamics of Environmental Processes-CNR, Venice (Italy); Boutron, Claude [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement, UMR CNRS 5183, B.P. 96, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)


    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry coupled with cation exchange matrix separation has been optimised for the direct determination of platinum group element (PGE) and trace element emissions from a diesel engine car. After matrix separation method detection limits of 1.6 ng g{sup -1} for Pd, 0.4 ng g{sup -1} for Rh and 4.3 ng g{sup -1} for Pt were achieved, the method was validated against the certified reference material BCR 723, urban road dust. The test vehicle was fitted with new and aged catalytic converters with and without diesel particulate filters (DPF). Samples were collected after three consecutive New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) of the particulate and ''soluble'' phases using a home-made sampler optimised for trace element analysis. Emission factors for the PGEs ranged from 0.021 ng km{sup -1} for Rh to 70.5 ng km{sup -1} for Pt; when a DPF was fitted, the emission factors for the PGEs actually used in the catalysts dropped by up to 97% (for Pt). Trace element emission factors were found to drop by a maximum of 92% for Ni to a minimum of 18% for Y when a DPF was fitted; a new DPF was also found to cause a reduction of up to 86% in the emission of particulate matter. (orig.)

  10. Optimization of elution salt concentration in stepwise elution of protein chromatography using linear gradient elution data. Reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in monoclonal antibody purification. (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Endo, Naomi; Yamamoto, Shuichi


    Our simple method for optimization of the elution salt concentration in stepwise elution was applied to the actual protein separation system, which involves several difficulties such as detection of the target. As a model separation system, reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in human monoclonal antibody (hMab) purification was chosen. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments and obtained the data for the peak salt concentration of hMab and residual protein A, respectively. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to the measurement of the residual protein A. From these data, we calculated the distribution coefficient of the hMab and the residual protein A as a function of salt concentration. The optimal salt concentration of stepwise elution to reduce the residual protein A from the hMab was determined based on the relationship between the distribution coefficient and the salt concentration. Using the optimized condition, we successfully performed the separation, resulting in high recovery of hMab and the elimination of residual protein A.

  11. The effect of Sinabung volcanic ash and rock phosphate nanoparticle on CEC (cation exchange capacity) base saturation exchange (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and base saturation at Andisol soils Ciater, West Java (United States)

    Yuniarti, Anni; Arifin, Mahfud; Sofyan, Emma Trinurasi; Natalie, Betty; Sudirja, Rija; Dahliani, Dewi


    Andisol, soil orders which covers an upland area dominantly. The aim of this research is to know the effect between the ameliorant of Sinabung volcanic ashes with the ameliorant of rock phosphatenanoparticle towards CEC and base saturation exchange (K, Na, Ca, Mg) and the base saturation on Ciater's Andisols, West Java. A randomized complete block design (RCBD) factorial with two factors was used in this research. The first factor is the volcanic ash and the second factor is rock phosphate which consists of four levels each amount of 0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% with three replications. The result showed that there was no interaction between volcanic ash and rock phosphate nanoparticle formed in first month and fourth month towards the improvement of CEC and saturation base exchange rate unless magnesium cation exchange increased in fourth month. There was independent effect of volcanic ash formed nanoparticles towards base saturation exchange increased for 5% dose. There was independent effect of rock phosphate formed nanoparticles towards base saturation exchange and increased for 5% dose. The dose combination of volcanic ashes 7.5% with phosphate rock, 5% increased the base saturation in the first month incubation.

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of the imino acids (opines) meso-alanopine and D-strombine in muscle extract of invertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandee, B.; Schipper, C.A.; Eertman, R.H.M.


    A sensitive HPLC method is presented for the determination of the imino acids alanopine and strombine, anaerobic metabolites that are formed in muscle tissue of several species of invertebrates. The separation of alanopine and strombine was achieved using the Alltech OA 2000 cation-exchange column.

  13. Comparison of the Electrochemical Behavior of Ti and Nanostructured Ti-Coated AISI 304 Stainless Steel in Strongly Acidic Solutions (United States)

    Attarzadeh, Farid Reza; Elmkhah, Hassan; Fattah-Alhosseini, Arash


    In this study, the electrochemical behaviors of pure titanium (Ti) and nanostructured (NS) Ti-coated AISI 304 stainless steel (SS) in strongly acidic solutions of H2SO4 were investigated and compared. A type of physical vapor deposition method, cathodic arc evaporation, was applied to deposit NS Ti on 304 SS. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize surface coating morphology. Potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Mott-Schottky (M-S) analysis were used to evaluate the passive behavior of the samples. Electrochemical measurements revealed that the passive behavior of NS Ti coating was better than that of pure Ti in 0.1 and 0.01 M H2SO4 solutions. M-S analysis indicated that the passive films behaved as n-type semiconductors in H2SO4 solutions and the deposition method did not affect the semiconducting type of passive films formed on the coated samples. In addition, this analysis showed that the NS Ti coating had lower donor densities. Finally, all electrochemical tests showed that the passive behavior of the Ti-coated samples was superior, mainly due to the formation of thicker, yet less defective passive films.

  14. A strategy for the preparation of thioantimonates based on the concept of weak acids and corresponding strong bases. (United States)

    Anderer, Carolin; Delwa de Alarcón, Natalie; Näther, Christian; Bensch, Wolfgang


    By following a new synthetic approach, which is based on the in situ formation of a basic medium by the reaction between the strong base Sb(V)S4 (3-) and the weak acid H2 O, it was possible to prepare three layered thioantimonate(III) compounds of composition [TM(2,2'-bipyridine)3 ][Sb6 S10 ] (TM=Ni, Fe) and [Ni(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)3 ][Sb6 S10 ] under hydrothermal conditions featuring two different thioantimonate(III) network topologies. The antimony source, Na3 SbS4 ⋅ 9 H2 O, undergoes several decomposition reactions and produces the Sb(III) S3 species, which condenses to generate the layered anion. The application of transition-metal complexes avoids crystallization of dense phases. The reactions are very fast compared to conventional hydrothermal/solvothermal syntheses and are much less sensitive to changes of the reaction parameters. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Bulk derivatization and cation exchange restricted access media-based trap-and-elute liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method for determination of trace estrogens in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beinhauer, Jana [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Bian, Liangqiao [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Fan, Hui [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Šebela, Marek [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Centre of the Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research - Department of Protein Biochemistry and Proteomics, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Šlechtitelů 11, CZ-783 71 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kukula, Maciej [Shimadzu Center for Advanced Analytical Chemistry, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); Barrera, Jose A. [Shimadzu Institute for Research Technologies, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX (United States); and others


    Highlights: • Analysis of estrogens in small volume samples at low parts-per-trillion concentration. • Charged bulk derivatization facilitates on-line ion exchange sample preparation. • On-line WCX restricted access media traps analytes, but not proteins and lipids. • Complete preparation and LC–MS/MS analysis completed in 30 min/sample. - Abstract: Estrone (E1), estradiols (α/β-E2), and estriol (E3) are four major metabolically active estrogens exerting strong biological activities at very low circulating concentrations. This paper reports a sensitive and efficient method with automated, on-line clean-up and detection to determine trace estrogens in a small volume of serum samples using liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry directly, without off-line liquid–liquid or solid-phase extraction pretreatments. Serum aliquots (charcoal stripped fetal bovine serum, 100 μL) were spiked with four estrogen standards and their corresponding isotope-labeled internal standards, then bulk derivatized with 2-fluoro-1-methyl-pyridium p-toluenesulfonate (2-FMP) to establish the calibration curves and perform method validation. Calibration was established in the concentration ranges of 5–1000 pg mL{sup −1}, and demonstrated good linearity of R{sup 2} from 0.9944 to 0.9997 for the four derivatized estrogens. The lower detection limits obtained were 3–7 pg mL{sup −1}. Good accuracy and precision in the range of 86–112% and 2.3–11.9%, respectively, were observed for the quality control (QC) samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels. The stability tests showed that the derivatized serum samples were stable 8 h after derivatization at room temperature and at least to 48 h if stored at −20 °C. The method was applied to measure trace estrogens in real human and bovine serum samples, and three of four estrogen compounds studied were observed and quantified.

  16. Quantitative physicochemical analysis of acid-base balance and clinical utility of anion gap and strong ion gap in 806 neonatal calves with diarrhea. (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I


    Acid-base abnormalities in neonatal diarrheic calves can be assessed by using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation or the simplified strong ion approach which use the anion gap (AG) or the strong ion gap (SIG) to quantify the concentration of unmeasured strong anions such as D-lactate. To determine and compare the clinical utility of AG and SIG in quantifying the unmeasured strong anion charge in neonatal diarrheic calves, and to examine the associations between biochemical findings and acid-base variables by using the simplified strong ion approach. We hypothesized that the SIG provides a more accurate prediction of unmeasured strong anions than the AG. Eight hundred and six neonatal diarrheic calves admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital. Retrospective study utilizing clinicopathologic findings extracted from medical records. Hyperphosphatemia was an important predictor of venous blood pH. Serum inorganic phosphorus and plasma D-lactate concentrations accounted for 58% of the variation in venous blood pH and 77% of the variation in AG and SIG. Plasma D- and total lactate concentrations were slightly better correlated with SIG (rs = -0.69; -0.78) than to AG (rs = 0.63; 0.74). Strong ion gap is slightly better at quantifying the unmeasured strong anion concentration in neonatal diarrheic calves than AG. Phosphorus concentrations should be included as part of the calculation of Atot when applying the simplified strong ion approach to acid-base balance to critically ill animals with hyperphosphatemia. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  17. Porous Ceramic Spheres From Cation Exchange Beads (United States)

    Dynys, Fred


    This document is a slide presentation that examines the use of a simple templating process to produce hollow ceramic spheres with a pore size of 1 to 10 microns. Using ion exchange process it was determined that the method produces porous ceramic spheres with a unique structure: (i.e., inner sphere surrounded by an outer sphere.)

  18. Identification of amino acids in Securigera securidaca, a popular medicinal herb in Iranian folk medicine


    S.E. Sadat-Ebrahimi; M. Hassanpoor Mir; G.R. Amin; H. Hajimehdipoor


    Securigera securidaca (L.) Degen & Dorfl grows in different parts of Iran. The seeds of the species are used in Iranian folk medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. Many studies have established hypoglycemic effects of amino acids and in the present investigation, amino acids of Securigera securidaca seeds have been evaluated. The ground seeds were extracted using petroleum ether, hot ethanol and ethanol 50%, respectively. ethanol 50% extract was chromatographed over cation exchanging resin and t...

  19. Separation of Am, Cm from Pm by elution chromatography with DTPA-lactic acid mixed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Liansheng; Zhang Zuyi; Zhong Jiahua


    The effect of various factors on the separation of Am and Cm from Pm in the cation exchange-DPTA (diethylenetiaminepenlaacetic acid)-lactic acid system is studied, such as the concentration of DTPA, pH of the eluant, temperature and flow rate. Separation results show that the recovery of Am and Cm is 99.18% and the decontamination factor of Am, Cm from Pm is 431

  20. Bandgap and Structure Engineering via Cation Exchange: From Binary Ag2S to Ternary AgInS2, Quaternary AgZnInS alloy and AgZnInS/ZnS Core/Shell Fluorescent Nanocrystals for Bioimaging. (United States)

    Song, Jiangluqi; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Wenzhe; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Wenting; Wu, Rongbo; Cheng, Xiangcan; Ali, Asad; Yang, Mingya; Zhu, Lixin; Xia, Ruixiang; Xu, Xiaoliang


    Attention on semiconductor nanocrystals have been largely focused because of their unique optical and electrical properties, which can be applied as light absorber and luminophore. However, the band gap and structure engineering of nanomaterials is not so easy because of their finite size. Here we demonstrate an approach for preparing ternary AgInS2 (AIS), quaternary AgZnInS (AZIS), AgInS2/ZnS and AgZnInS/ZnS nanocompounds based on cation exchange. First, pristine Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) with different sizes were synthesized in one-pot, followed by the partial cation exchange between In(3+) and Ag(+). Changing the initial ratio of In(3+) to Ag(+), reaction time and temperature can control the components of the obtained AIS QDs. Under the optimized conditions, AIS QDs were obtained for the first time with a cation disordered cubic phase and high photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) up to 32% in aqueous solution, demonstrating the great potential of cation exchange in the synthesis for nanocrystals with excellent optical properties. Sequentially, Zn(2+) ions were incorporated in situ through a second exchange of Zn(2+) to Ag(+)/In(3+), leading to distinct results under different reaction temperature. Addition of Zn(2+) precursor at room temperature produced AIS/ZnS core/shell NCs with successively enhancement of QY, while subsequent heating could obtain AZIS homogeneous alloy QDs with a successively blue-shift of PL emission. This allow us to tune the PL emission of the products from 483 to 675 nm and fabricate the chemically stable QDs core/ZnS shell structure. Based on the above results, a mechanism about the cation exchange for the ternary nanocrystals of different structures was proposed that the balance between cation exchange and diffusion is the key factor of controlling the band gap and structure of the final products. Furthermore, photostability and in vitro experiment demonstrated quite low cytotoxicity and remarkably promising applications in the


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo-first-order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion-exchange resin, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. Macroporous Amberlite XE 307 was used because of its superior catalytic activity. Chemical equilibrium

  2. Fast Hydrazone Reactants: Electronic and Acid/Base Effects Strongly Influence Rate at Biological pH


    Kool, Eric T.; Park, Do-Hyoung; Crisalli, Pete


    Kinetics studies with structurally varied aldehydes and ketones in aqueous buffer at pH 7.4 reveal that carbonyl compounds with neighboring acid/base groups form hydrazones at accelerated rates. Similarly, tests of a hydrazine with a neighboring carboxylic acid group show that it also reacts at an accelerated rate. Rate constants for the fastest carbonyl/hydrazine combinations are 2–20 M−1sec−1, which is faster than recent strain-promoted cycloaddition reactions.

  3. Lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched mayonnaise : Calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, but not gallic acid, strongly inhibited oxidative deterioration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hartvigsen, Karsten; Thomsen, Mikael Holm


    The antioxidative effects of gallic acid, EDTA, and extra emulsifier Panodan DATEM TR in mayonnaise enriched with 16% fish oil were investigated. EDTA reduced the formation of free radicals, lipid hydroperoxides, volatiles, and fishy and rancid off-flavors. The antioxidative effect of EDTA...... was attributed to its ability to chelate free metal ions and iron from egg yolk located at the oil-water interface. Gallic acid reduced the levels of both free radicals and lipid hydroperoxides but promoted slightly the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaise and influenced the profile of volatiles. Gallic...... acid may therefore promote the decomposition of lipid hydroperoxides to volatile oxidation products. Addition of extra emulsifier reduced the lipid hydroperoxide levels but did not influence the level of free radicals or the oxidative flavor deterioration in mayonnaisse; however, it appeared to alter...

  4. Geochemical modeling of reactions and partitioning of trace metals and radionuclides during titration of contaminated acidic sediments. (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C; Spalding, Brian P; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Gu, Baohua


    Many geochemical reactions that control aqueous metal concentrations are directly affected by solution pH. However, changes in solution pH are strongly buffered by various aqueous phase and solid phase precipitation/dissolution and adsorption/desorption reactions. The ability to predict acid-base behavior of the soil-solution system is thus critical to predict metal transport under variable pH conditions. This studywas undertaken to develop a practical generic geochemical modeling approach to predict aqueous and solid phase concentrations of metals and anions during conditions of acid or base additions. The method of Spalding and Spalding was utilized to model soil buffer capacity and pH-dependent cation exchange capacity by treating aquifer solids as a polyprotic acid. To simulate the dynamic and pH-dependent anion exchange capacity, the aquifer solids were simultaneously treated as a polyprotic base controlled by mineral precipitation/ dissolution reactions. An equilibrium reaction model that describes aqueous complexation, precipitation, sorption and soil buffering with pH-dependent ion exchange was developed using HydroGeoChem v5.0 (HGC5). Comparison of model results with experimental titration data of pH, Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co, and SO4(2-) for contaminated sediments indicated close agreement suggesting that the model could potentially be used to predictthe acid-base behavior of the sediment-solution system under variable pH conditions.

  5. Dissociation of strong acid revisited: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations of HNO3 in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Tanza; Winter, Berndt; Stern, Abraham C.; Baer, Marcel D.; Mundy, Christopher J.; Tobias, Douglas J.; Hemminger, J. C.


    Molecular-level insight into the dissociation of nitric acid in water is obtained from photoelectron X-ray spectroscopy and first-principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our combined studies reveal surprisingly abrupt changes in solvation configurations of undissociated nitric acid at approximately 4 M concentration. Experimentally, this is inferred from N1s binding energy shifts of HNO3(aq) as a function of concentration, and is associated with variations in the local electronic structure of the nitrogen atom. It also shows up as a discontinuity in the degree of dissociation as a function of concentration, determined here from the N1s photoelectron signal intensity, which can be separately quantified for undissociated HNO3(aq) and dissociated NO3-(aq). Intermolecular interactions within the nitric acid solution are discussed on the basis of MD simulations, which reveal that molecular HNO3 interacts remarkably weakly with solvating water molecules at low concentration; around 4 M there is a turnover to a more structured solvation shell, accompanied by an increase in hydrogen bonding between HNO3 and water. We suggest that the driving force behind the more structured solvent configuration of HNO3 is the overlap of nitric acid solvent shells that sets in around 4 M concentration. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences' Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences Division. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  6. Dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization strongly affect co2 emissions following lime application to acidic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Peng, Q.; Lin, S.; Wu, Y.


    Emission of greenhouse gases from agricultural soils has main contribution to the climatic change and global warming. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen mineralization can affect CO/sub 2/ emission from soils. Influence of DOC and nitrogen mineralization on CO/sub 2/ emissions following lime application to acidic soil was investigated in current study. Laboratory experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions with 25% moisture contents (66% water-filled pore space) at 25 degree C in the dark conditions. Different treatments of lime were applied to acidic soil as follows: CK (control), L (low rate of lime: 0.2g lime / 100 g soil) and H (high rate of lime: 0.5g lime /100g soil). CO/sub 2/ emissions were measured by gas chromatography and dissolved organic carbon, NH4 +-N, NO/sub 3/ --N and soil pH were measured during incubation study. Addition of lime to acidic soil significantly increased the concentration of DOC and N mineralization rate. Higher concentrations of DOC and N mineralization, consequently, increased the CO/sub 2/ emissions from lime treated soils. Cumulative CO/sub 2/ emission was 75% and 71% higher from L and H treatments as compared to CK. The results of current study suggest that DOC and N mineralization are critical in controlling gaseous emissions of CO/sub 2/ from acidic soils following lime application. (author)

  7. Aging rather than stress strongly influences amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs of female mice. (United States)

    Kodaira, Momoko; Nagasawa, Mao; Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ikeda, Hiromi; Minaminaka, Kimie; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro


    Aging and stress affect quality of life, and proper nourishment is one of means of preventing this effect. Today, there is a focus on the amount of protein consumed by elderly people; however, changes in the amino acid metabolism of individuals have not been fully considered. In addition, the difference between average life span and healthy life years is larger in females than it is in males. To prolong the healthy life years of females, in the present study we evaluated the influence of stress and aging on metabolism and emotional behavior by comparing young and middle-aged female mice. After 28 consecutive days of immobilization stress, behavioral tests were conducted and tissue sampling was performed. The results showed that the body weight of middle-aged mice was severely lowered by stress, but emotional behaviors were hardly influenced by either aging or stress. Aging influenced changes in amino acid metabolism in the brain and increased various amino acid levels in the uterus and ovary. In conclusion, we found that aged mice were more susceptible to stress in terms of body-weight reduction, and that amino acid metabolisms in the brain and genital organs were largely influenced by aging rather than by stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluorinated antimony(v) derivatives: strong Lewis acidic properties and application to the complexation of formaldehyde in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Tofan, Daniel; Gabbaï, François P


    As part of our ongoing studies of water tolerant Lewis acids, we have synthesized and investigated the properties of Sb(C 6 F 5 ) 3 (O 2 C 6 Cl 4 ), a fluorinated stiborane whose Lewis acidity approaches that of B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 . While chloroform solutions of this Lewis acid can be kept open to air or exposed to water for extended periods of time, this new Lewis acid reacts with P t Bu 3 and paraformaldehyde to form the corresponding formaldehyde adduct t Bu 3 P-CH 2 -O-Sb(C 6 F 5 ) 3 (O 2 C 6 Cl 4 ). To test if this reactivity can also be observed with systems that combine the phosphine and the stiborane within the same molecule, we have also prepared o -C 6 H 4 (PPh 2 )(SbAr 2 (O 2 C 6 Cl 4 )) (Ar = Ph, C 6 F 5 ). These yellow compounds, which possess an intramolecular P→Sb interaction, are remarkably inert to water but do, nonetheless, react with and accomodate formaldehyde into the P/Sb pocket. In the case of the fluorinated derivative o -C 6 H 4 (PPh 2 )(Sb(C 6 F 5 ) 2 (O 2 C 6 Cl 4 )), formaldehyde complexation, which occurs in water/dichloromethane biphasic mixtures, is accompanied by a colourimetric turn-off response thus highlighting the potential that this chemistry holds in the domain of molecular sensing.

  9. Reaction of Hydrogen Sulfide with Disulfide and Sulfenic Acid to Form the Strongly Nucleophilic Persulfide*♦ (United States)

    Cuevasanta, Ernesto; Lange, Mike; Bonanata, Jenner; Coitiño, E. Laura; Ferrer-Sueta, Gerardo; Filipovic, Milos R.; Alvarez, Beatriz


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is increasingly recognized to modulate physiological processes in mammals through mechanisms that are currently under scrutiny. H2S is not able to react with reduced thiols (RSH). However, H2S, more precisely HS−, is able to react with oxidized thiol derivatives. We performed a systematic study of the reactivity of HS− toward symmetric low molecular weight disulfides (RSSR) and mixed albumin (HSA) disulfides. Correlations with thiol acidity and computational modeling showed that the reaction occurs through a concerted mechanism. Comparison with analogous reactions of thiolates indicated that the intrinsic reactivity of HS− is 1 order of magnitude lower than that of thiolates. In addition, H2S is able to react with sulfenic acids (RSOH). The rate constant of the reaction of H2S with the sulfenic acid formed in HSA was determined. Both reactions of H2S with disulfides and sulfenic acids yield persulfides (RSSH), recently identified post-translational modifications. The formation of this derivative in HSA was determined, and the rate constants of its reactions with a reporter disulfide and with peroxynitrite revealed that persulfides are better nucleophiles than thiols, which is consistent with the α effect. Experiments with cells in culture showed that treatment with hydrogen peroxide enhanced the formation of persulfides. Biological implications are discussed. Our results give light on the mechanisms of persulfide formation and provide quantitative evidence for the high nucleophilicity of these novel derivatives, setting the stage for understanding the contribution of the reactions of H2S with oxidized thiol derivatives to H2S effector processes. PMID:26269587

  10. Effects of strong inter-hydrogen bond dynamical couplings in the polarized IR spectra of adipic acid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flakus, Henryk T., E-mail: [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Street, Pl-40-006 Katowice (Poland); Tyl, Aleksandra; Jablonska, Magdalena [Institute of Chemistry, University of Silesia, 9 Szkolna Street, Pl-40-006 Katowice (Poland)


    This paper presents the results of the re-investigation of polarized IR spectra of adipic acid and of its d{sub 2}, d{sub 8} and d{sub 10} deuterium derivative crystals. The spectra were measured at 77 K by a transmission method using polarized light for two different crystalline faces. Theoretical analysis concerned linear dichroic effects and H/D isotopic effects observed in the spectra of the hydrogen and deuterium bonds in adipic acid crystals at the frequency ranges of the {nu}{sub O-H} and the {nu}{sub O-D} bands. The two-branch fine structure pattern of the {nu}{sub O-H} and {nu}{sub O-D} bands and the basic linear dichroic effects characterizing them were ascribed to the vibronic mechanism of vibrational dipole selection rule breaking for IR transitions in centrosymmetric hydrogen bond dimers. It was proved that for isotopically diluted crystalline samples of adipic acid, a non-random distribution of protons and deuterons occurs in the dimers (H/D isotopic 'self-organization' effect). This effect results from the dynamical co-operative interactions involving the dimeric hydrogen bonds.

  11. Effects of strong inter-hydrogen bond dynamical couplings in the polarized IR spectra of adipic acid crystals (United States)

    Flakus, Henryk T.; Tyl, Aleksandra; Jablońska, Magdalena


    This paper presents the results of the re-investigation of polarized IR spectra of adipic acid and of its d2, d8 and d10 deuterium derivative crystals. The spectra were measured at 77 K by a transmission method using polarized light for two different crystalline faces. Theoretical analysis concerned linear dichroic effects and H/D isotopic effects observed in the spectra of the hydrogen and deuterium bonds in adipic acid crystals at the frequency ranges of the νO-H and the νO-D bands. The two-branch fine structure pattern of the νO-H and νO-D bands and the basic linear dichroic effects characterizing them were ascribed to the vibronic mechanism of vibrational dipole selection rule breaking for IR transitions in centrosymmetric hydrogen bond dimers. It was proved that for isotopically diluted crystalline samples of adipic acid, a non-random distribution of protons and deuterons occurs in the dimers (H/D isotopic " self-organization" effect). This effect results from the dynamical co-operative interactions involving the dimeric hydrogen bonds.

  12. Conversion of corn stalk into furfural using a novel heterogeneous strong acid catalyst in γ-valerolactone. (United States)

    Xu, Zhiping; Li, Wenzhi; Du, Zhijie; Wu, Hao; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-Min; Ma, Longlong


    A novel solid acid catalyst was prepared by the copolymerization of p-toluenesulfonic acid and paraformaldehyde and then characterized by FT-IR, TG/DTG, HRTEM and N2-BET. Furfural was successfully produced by the dehydration of xylose and xylan using the novel catalyst in γ-valerolactone. This investigation focused on effects of various reaction conditions including solvent, acid catalyst, reaction temperature, residence time, water concentration, xylose loading and catalyst dosage on the dehydration of xylose to furfural. It was found that the solid catalyst displayed extremely high activity for furfural production. 80.4% furfural yield with 98.8% xylose conversion was achieved at 170°C for 10 min. The catalyst could be recycled at least five times without significant loss of activity. Furthermore, 83.5% furfural yield and 19.5% HMF yield were obtained from raw corn stalk under more severe conditions (190°C for 100 min). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of different approaches to quantify strong organic acidity and acid-base buffering of organic-rich surface waters in Sweden. (United States)

    Köhler, Stephan; Hruska, Jakub; Jönsson, Jörgen; Lövgren, Lars; Lofts, Stephen


    The role of organic acids in buffering pH in surface waters has been studied using a small brownwater stream (26mg L(-1) TOC) draining a forested catchment in Northern Sweden. Under the conditions of elevated pressure of CO2 stream field pH was changed between 3.5 and 6.1 during the acidification and alkalinization experiment. Acid-base characteristics of the natural organic matter were also determined using a high precision potentiometric method for a concentrated sample from the same stream. We compared the predictions from the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM Model V), a model derived from the potentiometric titration (diprotic/monoprotic acid model) and a previously derived triprotic acid model which only uses alkalinity and TOC as input variables. The predicted buffering characteristics of all three models are very similar in the pH range 4.5-7 which suggests that during routine analysis alkalinity and TOC are sufficient to give a good estimate of organic acid anion charge contribution in a large range of surface waters. A slightly adjusted version of WHAM V successfully describes the organic charge contribution in a large number of sampled surface water lakes, which were previously used to calibrate the triprotic model.

  14. Methanetrisulfonic Acid: A Highly Efficient Strongly Acidic Catalyst for Wagner-Meerwein Rearrangement, Friedel-Crafts Alkylation and Acylation Reactions. Examples from Vitamin E Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pace


    Full Text Available Methanetrisulfonic acid had been prepared for the first time over 140 years ago, but it was used only scarcely in chemical transformations. In the course of our activities dealing with key-steps of industrial syntheses of vitamins, e.g. economically important vitamin E (acetate, we found that methanetrisulfonic acid is an extremely effective catalyst in a variety of reactions. Examples of its applications are Wagner-Meerwein rearrangements, Friedel-Crafts alkylations and ring closures, as well as acylation reactions. Use of this catalyst in truly catalytic amounts (0.04-1.0 mol% resulted in highly selective transformations and yields over 95%. (Remark by the authors: We are describing only one example each for the various types of reactions. Therefore, it would be more appropriate to write (here and in the Introduction and in the Conclusion sections: “Wagner-Meerwein rearrangement, Friedel-Crafts alkylation and ring closure, as well as acylation reactions”

  15. Mitochondrial oxidative stress alters a pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans strongly resembling that of bile acid biosynthesis and secretion in vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Ling Liu

    Full Text Available Mammalian bile acids (BAs are oxidized metabolites of cholesterol whose amphiphilic properties serve in lipid and cholesterol uptake. BAs also act as hormone-like substances that regulate metabolism. The Caenorhabditis elegans clk-1 mutants sustain elevated mitochondrial oxidative stress and display a slow defecation phenotype that is sensitive to the level of dietary cholesterol. We found that: 1 The defecation phenotype of clk-1 mutants is suppressed by mutations in tat-2 identified in a previous unbiased screen for suppressors of clk-1. TAT-2 is homologous to ATP8B1, a flippase required for normal BA secretion in mammals. 2 The phenotype is suppressed by cholestyramine, a resin that binds BAs. 3 The phenotype is suppressed by the knock-down of C. elegans homologues of BA-biosynthetic enzymes. 4 The phenotype is enhanced by treatment with BAs. 5 Lipid extracts from C. elegans contain an activity that mimics the effect of BAs on clk-1, and the activity is more abundant in clk-1 extracts. 6 clk-1 and clk-1;tat-2 double mutants show altered cholesterol content. 7 The clk-1 phenotype is enhanced by high dietary cholesterol and this requires TAT-2. 8 Suppression of clk-1 by tat-2 is rescued by BAs, and this requires dietary cholesterol. 9 The clk-1 phenotype, including the level of activity in lipid extracts, is suppressed by antioxidants and enhanced by depletion of mitochondrial superoxide dismutases. These observations suggest that C. elegans synthesizes and secretes molecules with properties and functions resembling those of BAs. These molecules act in cholesterol uptake, and their level of synthesis is up-regulated by mitochondrial oxidative stress. Future investigations should reveal whether these molecules are in fact BAs, which would suggest the unexplored possibility that the elevated oxidative stress that characterizes the metabolic syndrome might participate in disease processes by affecting the regulation of metabolism by BAs.

  16. Graphene-oxide-supported Pt nanoparticles with high activity and stability for hydrazine electro-oxidation in a strong acidic solution (United States)

    Kim, Ji Dang; Choi, Myong Yong; Choi, Hyun Chul


    Graphene-oxide-supported Pt (GO-Pt) nanoparticles were prepared by performing diimide-activated amidation and used in an electrocatalyst for hydrazine electro-oxidation in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The physico-chemical properties of the GO-Pt nanoparticles were characterized with various techniques, which revealed that highly dispersed Pt nanoparticles with an average size of 2.6 nm were densely deposited on the amidated GO due to their strong adhesion. Cyclic voltammograms were obtained and demonstrate that the GO-Pt catalyst exhibits significantly improved catalytic activity and long-term stability in hydrazine electro-oxidation in a strong acidic solution when compared to commercial Pt/C and Pt metal electrodes. These enhanced electrochemical properties are attributed to the large electrochemically active surface area that results from the smaller size and excellent dispersion of the Pt nanoparticles on amidated GO.

  17. Interactions of Verkade's Superbase with Strong Lewis Acids: From Labile Mono- and Binuclear Lewis Acid-Base Complexes to Phosphenium Cations. (United States)

    Mummadi, Suresh; Kenefake, Dustin; Diaz, Rony; Unruh, Daniel K; Krempner, Clemens


    A series of mono- and binuclear Lewis acid-base complexes of the formulas N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P→LA [LA = BH 3 (8), Ga(C 6 F 5 ) 3 (10), GaCl 3 (11)], LA←N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P [LA = Al(C 6 F 5 ) 3 (6a), AlMe 3 (6b), AlEt 3 (6c), AlBu i 3 (6d), BF 3 (13)], and LA←N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P→LA [Lewis acid (LA) = Al(C 6 F 5 ) 3 (7a), AlMe 3 (7b), AlEt 3 (7c), AlBu i 3 (7d), AlCl 3 (7e), BH 3 (9)] were generated from reactions of Verkade's base, N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P (1), with various boron-, aluminum-, and gallium-containing Lewis acids, and characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. {N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 P→C 7 H 7 }[BF 4 ] (5) was synthesized via the treatment of 1 with [C 7 H 7 ][BF 4 ]. The reaction of 1 with B(C 6 F 5 ) 3 , followed by the addition of [Ph 3 C] 2 [B 12 Cl 12 ], gave rise to the rearranged borate salt [PN 4 C 9 H 17 (Pr i ) 2 ][B 12 Cl 12 ] (3), while treating 1 with [Ph 3 C] 2 [B 12 Cl 12 ] exclusively afforded {N[CH 2 CH 2 N(Pr i )] 3 PH} 2 [B 12 Cl 12 ] (4). Reactions of 1 with 2 equiv of GaCl 3 and BF 3 , respectively, afforded the novel phosphenium gallate and borate salts 12a, 12b, and 15. The solid-state structures of 1, 3-5, 6b, 7a, 7b, 7e, 8, 10, 11, 12b, 13, and 15 were determined by X-ray crystallography.

  18. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid]. (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G


    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  19. Calculation of the total plasma concentration of nonvolatile weak acids and the effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile buffers in plasma for use in the strong ion approach to acid-base balance in cats. (United States)

    McCullough, Sheila M; Constable, Peter D


    To determine values for the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acids (Atot) and effective dissociation constant of nonvolatile weak acids (Ka) in plasma of cats. Convenience plasma samples of 5 male and 5 female healthy adult cats. Cats were sedated, and 20 mL of blood was obtained from the jugular vein. Plasma was tonometered at 37 degrees C to systematically vary PCO2 from 8 to 156 mm Hg, thereby altering plasma pH from 6.90 to 7.97. Plasma pH, PCO2, and concentrations of quantitatively important strong cations (Na+, K+, and Ca2+), strong anions (Cl-, lactate), and buffer ions (total protein, albumin, and phosphate) were determined. Strong ion difference was estimated from the measured strong ion concentrations and nonlinear regression used to calculate Atot and Ka from the measured pH and PCO2 and estimated strong ion difference. Mean (+/- SD) values were as follows: Atot = 24.3 +/- 4.6 mmol/L (equivalent to 0.35 mmol/g of protein or 0.76 mmol/g of albumin); Ka = 0.67 +/- 0.40 x 10(-7); and the negative logarithm (base 10) of Ka (pKa) = 7.17. At 37 degrees C, pH of 7.35, and a partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) of 30 mm Hg, the calculated venous strong ion difference was 30 mEq/L. These results indicate that at a plasma pH of 7.35, a 1 mEq/L decrease in strong ion difference will decrease pH by 0.020, a 1 mm Hg decrease in PCO2 will increase plasma pH by 0.011, and a 1 g/dL decrease in albumin concentration will increase plasma pH by 0.093.

  20. Effects of humic acid-based buffer + cation on chemical characteristics of saline soils and maize growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mindari


    Full Text Available Humic acid is believed to maintain the stability of the soil reaction, adsorption / fixation / chelate of cation, thereby increasing the availability of water and plant nutrients. On the other hand, the dynamics of saline soil cation is strongly influenced by the change of seasons that disrupt water and plant nutrients uptake. This experiment was aimed to examine the characteristics of the humic acid from compost, coal, and peat and its function in the adsorption of K+ and NH4+ cations, thus increasing the availability of nutrients and of maize growth. Eighteen treatments consisted of three humic acid sources (compost, peat and coal, two cation additives (K+ and NH4+, and three doses of humic acid-based buffer (10, 20, and 30 g / 3kg, were arranged in a factorial completely randomized with three replicates. The treatments were evaluated against changes in pH, electric conductivity (EC, cation exchange capacity (CEC, chlorophyll content, plant dry weight and plant height. The results showed that the addition of K+ and NH4+ affected pH, CEC, K+, NH4+, and water content of the buffer. Application of humic acid-based buffer significantly decreased soil pH from > 7 to about 6.3, decreased soil EC to 0.9 mS / cm, and increased exchangeable Na from 0.40 to 0.56 me / 100g soil, Ca from 15.57 to 20.21 me/100 g soil, Mg from 1.76 to 6.52 me/100 g soil, and K from 0.05-0.51 me / 100g soil. Plant growth (plant height, chlorophyll content, leaf area, and stem weight at 35 days after planting increased with increasing dose of humic acid. The dose of 2.0g peat humic acid + NH4+ / 3 kg of soil or 30g peat humic acid + K+ / 3 kg of oil gave the best results of maize growth.

  1. A comparison of prognostic significance of strong ion gap (SIG) with other acid-base markers in the critically ill: a cohort study. (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M; Lan, Norris S H; Williams, Teresa A; Harahsheh, Yusra; Chapman, Andrew R; Dobb, Geoffrey J; Magder, Sheldon


    This cohort study compared the prognostic significance of strong ion gap (SIG) with other acid-base markers in the critically ill. The relationships between SIG, lactate, anion gap (AG), anion gap albumin-corrected (AG-corrected), base excess or strong ion difference-effective (SIDe), all obtained within the first hour of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and the hospital mortality of 6878 patients were analysed. The prognostic significance of each acid-base marker, both alone and in combination with the Admission Mortality Prediction Model (MPM0 III) predicted mortality, were assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Of the 6878 patients included in the study, 924 patients (13.4 %) died after ICU admission. Except for plasma chloride concentrations, all acid-base markers were significantly different between the survivors and non-survivors. SIG (with lactate: AUROC 0.631, confidence interval [CI] 0.611-0.652; without lactate: AUROC 0.521, 95 % CI 0.500-0.542) only had a modest ability to predict hospital mortality, and this was no better than using lactate concentration alone (AUROC 0.701, 95 % 0.682-0.721). Adding AG-corrected or SIG to a combination of lactate and MPM0 III predicted risks also did not substantially improve the latter's ability to differentiate between survivors and non-survivors. Arterial lactate concentrations explained about 11 % of the variability in the observed mortality, and it was more important than SIG (0.6 %) and SIDe (0.9 %) in predicting hospital mortality after adjusting for MPM0 III predicted risks. Lactate remained as the strongest predictor for mortality in a sensitivity multivariate analysis, allowing for non-linearity of all acid-base markers. The prognostic significance of SIG was modest and inferior to arterial lactate concentration for the critically ill. Lactate concentration should always be considered regardless whether physiological, base excess or physical-chemical approach

  2. Fermi resonance and strong anharmonic effects in the absorption spectra of the ν-OH ( ν-OD) vibration of solid H- and D-benzoic acid (United States)

    Yaremko, A. M.; Ratajczak, H.; Barnes, A. J.; Baran, J.; Durlak, P.; Latajka, Z.


    The vibrational spectra of polycrystalline benzoic acid (BA) and its deuterated derivative were studied over the wide frequency region 4000-10 cm -1 by IR and Raman methods. A theoretical analysis of the hydrogen bond frequency region and calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d, 2p) level for the benzoic acid cyclic dimer in the gas phase were made. In order to study the dynamics of proton transfer two formalisms were applied: Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics (CPMD) and Path Integrals Molecular Dynamics (PIMD). It was shown that the experimentally observed very broad ν-OH band absorption is the result of complex anharmonic interaction: Fermi resonance between the OH-stretching and bending vibrations and strong interaction of the ν-OH stretching with the low frequency phonons. The theoretical analysis in the framework of such an approach gave a good correlation with experiment. From the CPMD calculations it was confirmed that the O-H⋯O bridge is not rigid, with the O⋯O distance being described by a large amplitude motion. For the benzoic acid dimer we observed stepwise (asynchronous) proton transfer.

  3. In-situ methylation of strongly polar organic acids in natural waters supported by ion-pairing agents for headspace GC-MSD analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, P.L.; Walther, W. [Dresden University of Technology, Institute for Groundwater Managemant, Dresden (Germany); Nestler, W. [Institute for Technology and Economics, Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Dresden (Germany)


    Strongly polar organic substances like halogenated acetic acids have been analyzed in surface water and groundwater in the catchment area of the upper Elbe river in Saxony since 1992. Coming directly from anthropogenic sources like industry, agriculture and indirectly by rainfall, their concentrations can increase up to 100 {mu}g/L in the aquatic environment of this catchment area. A new static headspace GC-MSD method without a manual pre-concentration step is presented to analyze the chlorinated acetic acids relevant to the Elbe river as their volatile methyl esters. Using an ion-pairing agent as modifier for the in-situ methylation of the analytes by dimethylsulfate, a minimal detection limit of 1 {mu}g/L can be achieved. Problems like the thermal degradation of chlorinated acetic acids to halogenated hydrocarbons and changing reaction yields during the headspace methylation, could be effectively reduced. The method has been successfully applied to monitoring bank infiltrate, surface water, groundwater and water works pumped raw water according to health provision principles. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  4. Identification and quantification of the caproic acid-producing bacterium Clostridium kluyveri in the fermentation of pit mud used for Chinese strong-aroma type liquor production. (United States)

    Hu, Xiao-Long; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan


    Chinese strong-aroma type liquor (CSAL) is a popular distilled alcoholic beverage in China. It is produced by a complex fermentation process that is conducted in pits in the ground. Ethyl caproate is a key flavor compound in CSAL and is thought to originate from caproic acid produced by Clostridia inhabiting the fermentation pit mud. However, the particular species of Clostridium associated with this production are poorly understood and problematic to quantify by culturing. In this study, a total of 28 closest relatives including 15 Clostridia and 8 Bacilli species in pit muds from three CSAL distilleries, were detected by culture-dependent and -independent methods. Among them, Clostridium kluyveri was identified as the main producer of caproic acid. One representative strain C. kluyveri N6 could produce caproic, butyric and octanoic acids and their corresponding ethyl esters, contributing significantly to CSAL flavor. A real time quantitative PCR assay of C. kluyveri in pit muds developed showed that a concentration of 1.79×10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies/g pit mud in LZ-old pit was approximately six times higher than that in HLM and YH pits and sixty times higher than that in LZ-new pit respectively. This method can be used to improve the management of pit mud microbiology and its impact on CSAL quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Micelle formation during extraction of alkali elements from strongly alkaline mediums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apanasenko, V.V.; Reznik, A.M.; Bukin, V.I.; Brodskaya, A.V.


    Extraction of potassium, rubidium and cesium by phenol reagents in hydrocarbon solvents from strongly alkakine solutions was considered. Tendency of prepared alkali metal phenolates to form micelles in aqueous and organic phases was revealed. Phenolates tendency to form micelles is dictated mainly by the size and position of hydrocarbon substituent in molecule. It is shown that when micelles form in organic phase, alkali elements can be extracted both according to cation-exchange mechanism and according to micellar one. It is noted that alkai element extraction from strongly alkaline media requires the correct choice of extractant: alkali metal phenolate shouldn't form micelles in aqueous solution. n-Alkyl- and arylphenoldisulfides and polysulfides are most preferable for solvent extraction among considered phenol derivatives

  6. Evaluation of acid-base disorders in dogs and cats presenting to an emergency room. Part 2: comparison of anion gap, strong ion gap, and semiquantitative analysis. (United States)

    Hopper, Kate; Epstein, Steven E; Kass, Philip H; Mellema, Matthew S


    To compare the diagnostic performance of the anion gap (AG) with 2 physicochemical approaches to identify unmeasured anions. Prospective cohort study. University teaching hospital. Eighty-four dogs and 14 cats presenting to a university teaching hospital emergency room. All dogs and cats in which venous blood samples for acid-base, lactate, and serum biochemical analysis were all collected within 60 minutes of each other, over a 5-month enrollment period. Unmeasured anions were quantified using each of three approaches: the anion gap (AG), strong ion gap (SIG), and a semiquantitative approach (XA). An increased AG metabolic acidosis was evident in 34/98 of cases. The Stewart approach identified an increased SIG acidosis in 49/98 of cases. There was a strong correlation between SIG and AG (r = 0.89; P anions in 68/98 of cases. There was a moderate correlation between AG and XA (r = 0.68; P anions occurred commonly in this sample of small animal emergency room patients and physiochemical approaches identified more animals with unmeasured anions than the traditional AG calculation. Further studies are needed to determine if the results of the physicochemical approach improves clinical management and warrants the associated increases in cost and complexity. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  7. Vibrational tug-of-war: The pKA dependence of the broad vibrational features of strongly hydrogen-bonded carboxylic acids (United States)

    Van Hoozen, Brian L.; Petersen, Poul B.


    Medium and strong hydrogen bonds give rise to broad vibrational features frequently spanning several hundred wavenumbers and oftentimes exhibiting unusual substructures. These broad vibrational features can be modeled from first principles, in a reduced dimensional calculation, that adiabatically separates low-frequency modes, which modulate the hydrogen bond length, from high-frequency OH stretch and bend modes that contribute to the vibrational structure. Previously this method was used to investigate the origin of an unusual vibrational feature frequently found in the spectra of dimers between carboxylic acids and nitrogen-containing aromatic bases that spans over 900 cm-1 and contains two broad peaks. It was found that the width of this feature largely originates from low-frequency modes modulating the hydrogen bond length and that the structure results from Fermi resonance interactions. In this report, we examine how these features change with the relative acid and base strength of the components as reflected by their aqueous pKA values. Dimers with large pKA differences are found to have features that can extend to frequencies below 1000 cm-1. The relationships between mean OH/NH frequency, aqueous pKA, and O-N distance are examined in order to obtain a more rigorous understanding of the origin and shape of the vibrational features. The mean OH/NH frequencies are found to correlate well with O-N distances. The lowest OH stretch frequencies are found in dimer geometries with O-N distances between 2.5 and 2.6 Å. At larger O-N distances, the hydrogen bonding interaction is not as strong, resulting in higher OH stretch frequencies. When the O-N distance is smaller than 2.5 Å, the limited space between the O and N determines the OH stretch frequency, which gives rise to frequencies that decrease with O-N distances. These two effects place a lower limit on the OH stretch frequency which is calculated to be near 700 cm-1. Understanding how the vibrational features

  8. Hidrólise parcial da superfície do polyethylene terephthalate (PET: transformando um rejeito em um material de troca catiônica para aplicação ambiental Partial hydrolysis of pet surface: transforming a plastic waste into a material with cationic exchange properties for environmental application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Rosmaninho


    Full Text Available In this work it is proposed a simple and versatile undergraduate chemical experiment in polymer and environmental technology based on the process of polyethylene terephthalate (PET hydrolysis. Polyethylene terephthalate from post-consume bottles is submitted to a controlled partial hydrolysis which allows the students to follow the reaction by a simple procedure. The students can explore the reaction kinetics, the effect of catalysts and the exposed polyethylene terephthalate surface area on the hydrolysis reaction. The second and innovative part of this experiment is the technological and environmental application of the hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate as a material with cation exchange properties. The surface hydrolyzed polyethylene terephthalate can be used as adsorbent for cationic contaminants.

  9. Analyzing Solutions High in Total Dissolved Solids for Rare Earth Elements (REEs) Using Cation Exchange and Online Pre-Concentration with the seaFAST2 Unit; NETL-TRS-7-2017; NETL Technical Report Series; U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory: Albany, OR, 2017; p 32

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science; Torres, M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Science; Verba, C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Hakala, A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)


    The accurate quantification of the rare earth element (REE) dissolved concentrations in natural waters are often inhibited by their low abundances in relation to other dissolved constituents such as alkali, alkaline earth elements, and dissolved solids. The high abundance of these constituents can suppress the overall analytical signal as well as create isobaric interferences on the REEs during analysis. Waters associated with natural gas operations on black shale plays are characterized by high salinities and high total dissolved solids (TDS) contents >150,000 mg/L. Methods used to isolate and quantify dissolved REEs in seawater were adapted in order to develop the capability of analyzing REEs in waters that are high in TDS. First, a synthetic fluid based on geochemical modelling of natural brine formation fluids was created within the Marcellus black shale with a TDS loading of 153,000 mg/L. To this solution, 1,000 ng/mL of REE standards was added based on preliminary analyses of experimental fluids reacted at high pressure and temperature with Marcellus black shale. These synthetic fluids were then run at three different dilution levels of 10, 100, and 1,000–fold dilutions through cation exchange columns using AG50-X8 exchange resin from Eichrom Industries. The eluent from the cation columns were then sent through a seaFAST2 unit directly connected to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) to analyze the REEs. Percent recoveries of the REEs ranged from 80–110% and fell within error for the external reference standard used and no signal suppression or isobaric interferences on the REEs were observed. These results demonstrate that a combined use of cation exchange columns and seaFAST2 instrumentation are effective in accurately quantifying the dissolved REEs in fluids that are >150,000 mg/L in TDS and have Ba:Eu ratios in excess of 380,000.

  10. Strong Lewis acids of air-stable metallocene bis(perfluorooctanesulfonate)s as high-efficiency catalysts for carbonyl-group transformation reactions. (United States)

    Qiu, Renhua; Xu, Xinhua; Peng, Lifeng; Zhao, Yalei; Li, Ningbo; Yin, Shuangfeng


    Strong Lewis acids of air-stable metallocene bis(perfluorooctanesulfonate)s [M(Cp)(2)][OSO(2)C(8)F(17)](2)⋅nH(2)O⋅THF (M = Zr (2 a⋅3 H(2)O⋅THF), M = Ti (2 b⋅2 H(2)O⋅THF)) were synthesized by the reaction of [M(Cp)(2)]Cl(2) (M = Zr (1 a), M = Ti (1 b)) with nBuLi and C(8)F(17)SO(3)H (2 equiv) or with C(8)F(17)SO(3)Ag (2 equiv). The hydrate numbers (n) of these complexes were variable, changing from 0 to 4 depending on conditions. In contrast to well-known metallocene triflates, these complexes suffered no change in open air for a year. thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis showed that 2 a and 2 b were thermally stable at 300 and 180 °C, respectively. These complexes exhibited unusually high solubility in polar organic solvents. Conductivity measurement showed that the complexes (2 a and 2 b) were ionic dissociation in CH(3)CN solution. X-ray analysis result confirmed 2 a⋅3 H(2)O⋅THF was a cationic organometallic Lewis acid. UV/Vis spectra showed a significant red shift due to the strong complex formation between 10-methylacridone and 2 a. Fluorescence spectra showed that the Lewis acidity of 2 a fell between those of Sc(3+) (λ(em)=474 nm) and Fe(3+) (λ(em)=478 nm). ESR spectra showed the Lewis acidity of 2 a (0.91 eV) was at the same level as that of Sc(3+) (1.00 eV) and Y(3+) (0.85 eV), while the Lewis acidity of 2 b (1.06 eV) was larger than that of Sc(3+) (1.00 eV) and Y(3+) (0.85 eV). They showed high catalytic ability in carbonyl-compound transformation reactions, such as the Mannich reaction, the Mukaiyama aldol reaction, allylation of aldehydes, the Friedel-Crafts acylation of alkyl aromatic ethers, and cyclotrimerization of ketones. Moreover, the complexes possessed good reusability. On account of their excellent catalytic efficiency, stability, and reusability, the complexes will find broad catalytic applications in organic synthesis. Copyright © 2012

  11. Effect of nicotinamide on amino acids content in bone collagen depending on biological availability of vitamins in diabetic rats. (United States)

    Guzyk, M M; Sergiichuk, Iu T; Dyakun, K O; Yanitska, L V; Kuchmerovska, T M


    Connective tissue is highly susceptible to imbalances induced by diabetes. Diabetes-related osteopenia, decreased bone strength etc. may be associated with altered metabolism of various collagens: Although it is assumed that alterations in collagen amino acids (AA) may strongly affect protein properties andphysiological functions, however, very limited evidences are present at the moment regarding AA composition of bone type I collagen and its relevance to abnormal availability of vitamins which are necessary for collagen synthesis in diabetes. We have tested whether nicotinamide (NAm) can influence type Icollagen formation and AA composition as well as vitamins availability in diabetes. After 4 weeks of STZ-induced diabetes (60 mg/ kg) male Wistar rats were injected for 2 weeks with/without NAm (200 mg/kg b. w). Acid extraction of type I collagen from the bones was performed with following stepwise salting out. The content of type I collagen after its acid extraction from the bones was estimated by the amounts of hydroxyproline. Amino acids were assayed by cation exchange chromatography Diabetes-associated changes in AA composition of type I collagen mainly affect those amino acids which are known to be involved in helix formation and cross-linking of the molecules. Diabetes was found to significantly reduce bone collagen contents of o-Pro, Gly, Ala, o-Lys and Pro, whereas Lys, His, Arg, Glu, Thr, Leu, Phe contents were elevated (P vitamin C and B3 contents were shown to be significantly lowered, whereas a-tocopherol was slightly increased compared with control (P vitamin C and B3 was observed. The data demonstrate the close relationship between the diabetes-associated decrease in type I collagen deposition, altered amino acids metabolism and impaired availability of vitamins, which are necessary for collagen synthesis. Thus, NAm might be a useful agent for treatment of bone failures related to diabetes.

  12. High night temperature strongly impacts TCA cycle, amino acid and polyamine biosynthetic pathways in rice in a sensitivity-dependent manner. (United States)

    Glaubitz, Ulrike; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hincha, Dirk K; Zuther, Ellen


    Global climate change combined with asymmetric warming can have detrimental effects on the yield of crop plants such as rice (Oryza sativa L.). Little is known about metabolic responses of rice to high night temperature (HNT) conditions. Twelve cultivars with different HNT sensitivity were used to investigate metabolic changes in the vegetative stage under HNT compared to control conditions. Central metabolism, especially TCA cycle and amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly affected particularly in sensitive cultivars. Levels of several metabolites were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Furthermore, pool sizes of some metabolites negatively correlated with HNT sensitivity under control conditions, indicating metabolic pre-adaptation in tolerant cultivars. The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine showed increased abundance in sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions. Correlations between the content of polyamines and 75 other metabolites indicated metabolic shifts from correlations with sugar-phosphates and 1-kestose under control to correlations with sugars and amino and organic acids under HNT conditions. Increased expression levels of ADC2 and ODC1, genes encoding enzymes catalysing the first committed steps of putrescine biosynthesis, were restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT. Additionally, transcript levels of eight polyamine biosynthesis genes were correlated with HNT sensitivity. Responses to HNT in the vegetative stage result in distinct differences between differently responding cultivars with a dysregulation of central metabolism and an increase of polyamine biosynthesis restricted to sensitive cultivars under HNT conditions and a pre-adaptation of tolerant cultivars already under control conditions with higher levels of potentially protective compatible solutes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Structural-phase transformations in bentonite after acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasova M.


    Full Text Available The methods of X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray microanalysis, electron microscopy, BET and cation exchange capacity (CEC were used for investigation of the structural-phase transformations in bentonite under the influence of hydrochloric acid and temperature treatment (100-800ºC. It is established that in HCl medium during temperature treatment, dehydration and dehydroxilation of montmorillonite occur. The presence of gypsum and barium chloride results in an intercalation of interlayer space of montmorillonite by Ca and Ba ions Temperature treatment of intercalated montmorillonite leads to the formation of pores.

  14. Unprecedented access to strong and ductile poly(lactic acid) by introducing In Situ Nanofibrillar Poly(butylene succinate) for green packaging. (United States)

    Xie, Lan; Xu, Huan; Niu, Ben; Ji, Xu; Chen, Jun; Li, Zhong-Ming; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Zhong, Gan-Ji


    The notion of toughening poly(lactic acid) (PLA) by adding flexible biopolymers has generated enormous interest but has yielded few desirable advances, mainly blocked by the sacrifice of strength and stiffness due to uncontrollable phase morphology and poor interfacial interactions. Here the phase control methodology, that is, intense extrusion compounding followed by "slit die extrusion-hot stretching-quenching" technique, was proposed to construct well-aligned, stiff poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) nanofibrils in the PLA matrix for the first time. We show that generating nanosized discrete droplets of PBS phase during extrusion compounding is key to enable the development of in situ nanofibrillar PBS assisted by the shearing/stretching field. The size of PBS nanofibrils strongly dependent on the PBS content, showing an increased average diameter from 83 to 116 and 236 nm for the composites containing 10, 20, and 40 wt % nanofibrils, respectively. More importantly, hybrid shish-kebab superstructure anchoring ordered PLA kebabs were induced by the PBS nanofibrils serving as the central shish, conferring the creation of tenacious interfacial crystalline ligaments. The exceptional combination of strength, modulus, and ductility for the composites loaded 40 wt % PBS nanofibrils were demonstrated, outperforming pure PLA with the increments of 31, 51, and 72% in strength, modulus, and elongation at break (56.4 MPa, 1702 MPa, and 92.4%), respectively. The high strength, modulus, and ductility are unprecedented for PLA and are in great potential need for packaging applications.

  15. Separation of acid diterpenes of Copaifera cearensis huber ex ducke by flash chromatography using potassium hydroxide impregnated silica gel

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    Pinto Angelo C.


    Full Text Available Various acid diterpenes of Copaifera cearensis Huber ex Ducke were isolated from the crude extract by flash Silica Gel/Potassium Hydroxide Chromatography. The main components were identified by GC-MS analyses. Further fractionation by reversed phase (RP semi-preparative HPLC allowed isolation and identification of minor components and provided additional spectral data of those compounds. It was possible to detect the presence of eleven acid diterpenes in addition to a sesquiterpene acid. In addition to potassium hydroxide deposition on the silica surface, the presence of Si-OK residues, resulting from a cation exchange process, was established.

  16. Chemical processes at the surface of various clays on acid-base titration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K. K.; Park, Y. S.; Jung, E. C.


    The chemical reaction of radionuclides at the interface between groundwater and geological mineral is an important process determining their retardation of transport through groundwater flow in a nuclear waste disposal. Clay minerals are major components of soil and argillaceous rock, and some of them are considered to be important base materials in the design of high-level nuclear waste repository due to their large swelling, low-permeability, large surface area, and strong and large sorption of radionuclides. Clay materials are phyllosilicates containing accessory minerals such as metal oxides, hydroxides, oxyhydroxides. Their structures are condensed 1:1 or 2:1 layers of tetrahedral SiO 3/2 OH and octahedral Al(OH) 6/2 sheets. An accurate knowledge about the properties of clay surface is required as a parameter for a long-term estimation of radionuclide retardation effects. Electric surface charge is a primary property determining ion exchange and surface complexation of radionuclides on its surface. The sources of electric surface charge are a permanent structural negative charge on a basal plane and a dissociable charge at an edge surface. Investigation of proton sorption is a prerequisite to the understanding of radionuclide sorption. The reactions on a permanently charged site and on an edge site are measured by an electrokinetic measurement and by potentiometric titration, respectively. However, side reactions such as complexation, proton/cation exchange, dissolution, hydrolysis, precipitation and re adsorption, and the reaction of secondary minerals hinder an experimental measurement of accurate acid-base properties. This presentation describes the pH change on dispersing various clays in water and adding acid, base or Eu(III) ion to these solutions, and the effect of Eu(III) ion on acid-base titration of clay solutions

  17. Serum uric acid is more strongly associated with impaired fasting glucose in women than in men from a community-dwelling population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Kawamoto

    Full Text Available Serum uric acid (SUA levels are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components such as glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether there are gender-specific differences regarding the relationship between SUA levels, impaired fasting glucose (IFG and newly detected diabetes. We recruited 1,209 men aged 60±15 (range, 19-89 years and 1,636 women aged 63±12 (range, 19-89 years during their annual health examination from a single community. We investigated the association between SUA levels and six categories according to fasting plasma glucose (FPG level {normal fasting glucose (NFG, <100 mg/dL; high NFG-WHO, 100 to 109 mg/dL; IFG-WHO, 110 to 125 mg/dL; IFG-ADA, 100 to 125 mg/dL; newly detected diabetes, ≥126 mg/dL; known diabetes} SUA levels were more strongly associated with the different FPG categories in women compared with men. In women, the associations remained significant for IFG-WHO (OR, 1.23, 95% CI, 1.00-1.50 and newly detected diabetes (OR, 1.33, 95% CI, 1.03-1.72 following multivariate adjustment. However, in men all the associations were not significant. Thus, there was a significant interaction between gender and SUA level for newly detected diabetes (P = 0.005. SUA levels are associated with different categories of impaired fasting glucose in participants from community-dwelling persons, particularly in women.

  18. Strong linkage of polar cod (Boreogadus saida) to sea ice algae-produced carbon: Evidence from stomach content, fatty acid and stable isotope analyses (United States)

    Kohlbach, Doreen; Schaafsma, Fokje L.; Graeve, Martin; Lebreton, Benoit; Lange, Benjamin Allen; David, Carmen; Vortkamp, Martina; Flores, Hauke


    The polar cod (Boreogadus saida) is considered an ecological key species, because it reaches high stock biomasses and constitutes an important carbon source for seabirds and marine mammals in high-Arctic ecosystems. Young polar cod (1-2 years) are often associated with the underside of sea ice. To evaluate the impact of changing Arctic sea ice habitats on polar cod, we examined the diet composition and quantified the contribution of ice algae-produced carbon (αIce) to the carbon budget of polar cod. Young polar cod were sampled in the ice-water interface layer in the central Arctic Ocean during late summer 2012. Diets and carbon sources of these fish were examined using 4 approaches: (1) stomach content analysis, (2) fatty acid (FA) analysis, (3) bulk nitrogen and carbon stable isotope analysis (BSIA) and (4) compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) of FAs. The ice-associated (sympagic) amphipod Apherusa glacialis dominated the stomach contents by mass, indicating a high importance of sympagic fauna in young polar cod diets. The biomass of food measured in stomachs implied constant feeding at daily rates of ∼1.2% body mass per fish, indicating the potential for positive growth. FA profiles of polar cod indicated that diatoms were the primary carbon source, indirectly obtained via amphipods and copepods. The αIce using bulk isotope data from muscle was estimated to be >90%. In comparison, αIce based on CSIA ranged from 34 to 65%, with the highest estimates from muscle and the lowest from liver tissue. Overall, our results indicate a strong dependency of polar cod on ice-algae produced carbon. This suggests that young polar cod may be particularly vulnerable to changes in the distribution and structure of sea ice habitats. Due to the ecological key role of polar cod, changes at the base of the sea ice-associated food web are likely to affect the higher trophic levels of high-Arctic ecosystems.

  19. Quantitative analysis of twelve sulfonamides in honey after acidic hydrolysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization and fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Maudens, Kristof E; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Lambert, Willy E


    A quantitative HPLC-fluorescence method for the simultaneous determination of 12 sulfonamides (sulfaguanidine, sulfanilamide, sulfacetamide, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamerazine, sulfamether, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfachloropyridazine and sulfadoxine) in honey was developed and validated. Sample pretreatment included acidic hydrolysis, followed by liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction on a strong cation exchanger. LC separation was performed in 45 min, with a total analysis time of 60 min. Identification and quantitation were based on retention time and fluorescence intensity, respectively. Peak area ratios of the target analytes and the internal standard were fit to a linear least-squares regression curve with a weighting factor of 1/x. Limits of detection and quantitation (LOQ) had values of 1 or 2 and 2 or 5 ng/g, respectively. Linearity was obtained with an average coefficient of determination (R2) higher than 0.997, over a dynamic range from the LOQ value up to 100ng/g. The method demonstrated good intra- and interbatch precision and accuracy. No interferences with the peaks of interest were observed throughout the chromatographic run. Sample pretreatment provided efficient cleanup, while post-column derivatization with fluorescamine proved to be a reproducible derivatization technique enabling a sensitive and rugged quantitative determination of sulfonamides.

  20. A unified ion chromatographic system for the determination of acidity and alkalinity. (United States)

    Hu, W; Hasebe, K; Iles, A; Tanaka, K


    A unified ion chromatographic (IC) system was developed for the determination of acidity or alkalinity. Separation column used was a reversed-phase ODS packed column, which had been modified by saturating it with lithium dodecylsulfate. A slightly acidified LiCl (50 mM LiCl and 0.05 mM H2SO4) aqueous solution was used as the eluent. By conditioning the separation column in this way, both H+ and Li+ ions became bound to the stationary phase. Dodecylsulfate groups with Li+ counterions acted as cation-exchange sites for the separation of hydrogen ions (free acidity determination). The remaining dodecylsulfate groups, with H+ counterions acted as a titrant, which reacted with basic species (total alkalinity determination). The acidity or alkalinity of each sample was measured according to the change in conductance from the eluent baseline level. A positive peak was observed from those samples with a free acidity greater than their total alkalinity, due to the separation/elution of free H+ ions. A negative peak was observed from those samples with a free acidity less than their total alkalinity. This was due to an equivalent amount of eluent H+ ions being re-supplied to the stationary phase while the "solid titrant" consumed by the acid-base reaction was regenerated. The retention time for the peak corresponding to the acidity or alkalinity was governed by the retention time for H+ ions in this IC system. Samples with a free acidity greater than 2.25 microM (tested by determination of H+ ions in pure water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2) could be analyzed by this method. A very similar detection level was obtained for alkalinity (tested by analyzing standard aqueous NaHCO3 solutions). Aqueous solutions of some strong-acid/strong-base inorganic salts were found to be slightly alkaline. This was measured as a percentage, relative to an NaHCO3 solution at the same concentration. Solutions of NaClO4, Na2SO4, NaI, NaNO3, and NaCl, gave comparative alkalinity values of 8

  1. Generation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panek-Finda, H.


    A method of producing radioisotopes for radiopharmaceutical applications is claimed. A physiological solution is used to elute a radioactive daughter isotope from a fission-produced parent isotope adsorbed on an adsorbent. The eluate containing the daughter isotope is purified with a cation-exchange material. In separate claims: the parent isotope is molybdenum-99; aluminium oxide which contains fully or partly hydrated manganese dioxide is used as the adsorbent for the parent isotope; a resin is used as the cation-exchange material; a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been neutralized is used as a resin; and a strongly acid cation-exchange resin which has been converted into the Na + , K + or NH 4 + form is used as a resin; an isotope generator system is also claimed

  2. Proton dynamics in the strong chelate hydrogen bond of crystalline picolinic acid N-oxide. A new computational approach and infrared, raman and INS study. (United States)

    Stare, Jernej; Panek, Jarosław; Eckert, Juergen; Grdadolnik, Joze; Mavri, Janez; Hadzi, Dusan


    Infrared, Raman and INS spectra of picolinic acid N-oxide (PANO) were recorded and examined for the location of the hydronic modes, particularly O-H stretching and COH bending. PANO is representative of strong chelate hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with its short O...O distance (2.425 A). H-bonding is possibly well-characterized by diffraction, NMR and NQR data and calculated potential energy functions. The analysis of the spectra is assisted by DFT frequency calculations both in the gas phase and in the solid state. The Car-Parrinello quantum mechanical solid-state method is also used for the proton dynamics simulation; it shows the hydron to be located about 99% of time in the energy minimum near the carboxylic oxygen; jumps to the N-O acceptor are rare. The infrared spectrum excels by an extended absorption (Zundel's continuum) interrupted by numerous Evans transmissions. The model proton potential functions on which the theories of continuum formation are based do not correspond to the experimental and computed characteristics of the hydrogen bond in PANO, therefore a novel approach has been developed; it is based on crystal dynamics driven hydronium potential fluctuation. The envelope of one hundred 0 --> 1 OH stretching transitions generated by molecular dynamics simulation exhibits a maximum at 1400 cm-1 and a minor hump at approximately 1600 cm-1. These positions square well with ones predicted for the COH bending and OH stretching frequencies derived from various one- and two-dimensional model potentials. The coincidences with experimental features have to be considered with caution because the CPMD transition envelope is based solely on the OH stretching coordinate while the observed infrared bands correspond to heavily mixed modes as was previously shown by the normal coordinate analysis of the IR spectrum of argon matrix isolated PANO, the present CPMD frequency calculation and the empirical analysis of spectra. The experimental infrared spectra show some

  3. Identification of amino acids in Securigera securidaca, a popular medicinal herb in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Sadat-Ebrahimi


    Full Text Available Securigera securidaca (L. Degen & Dorfl grows in different parts of Iran. The seeds of the species are used in Iranian folk medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. Many studies have established hypoglycemic effects of amino acids and in the present investigation, amino acids of Securigera securidaca seeds have been evaluated. The ground seeds were extracted using petroleum ether, hot ethanol and ethanol 50%, respectively. ethanol 50% extract was chromatographed over cation exchanging resin and the resulting amino acid fraction was subjected to HPLC after OPA derivatization and the amino acids were identified by comparing to standards. The results evidenced the presence of 19 amino acids in the plant extract including alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, citrulline, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, serine, threonine, tyrosine and valine. Considering the role of some amino acids in diabetes the above amino acids could be noted as hypoglycemic agents of the plant seeds but further studies are necessary.

  4. Metal Catalysis with Nanostructured Metals Supported Inside Strongly Acidic Cross-linked Polymer Frameworks: Influence of Reduction Conditions of AuIII-containing Resins on Metal Nanoclusters Formation in Macroreticular and Gel-Type Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Calore, L.; Cavinato, g.; Canton, P.; Peruzzo, L.; Banavali, R.; Jeřábek, Karel; Corain, B.


    Roč. 391, AUG 30 (2012), s. 114-120 ISSN 0020-1693 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : strongly acidic cross-linked polymer * frameworks * gold(0) nanoclusters Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2012

  5. Soil properties influence kinetics of soil acid phosphatase in response to arsenic toxicity. (United States)

    Wang, Ziquan; Tan, Xiangping; Lu, Guannan; Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; He, Wenxiang


    Soil phosphatase, which plays an important role in phosphorus cycling, is strongly inhibited by Arsenic (As). However, the inhibition mechanism in kinetics is not adequately investigated. In this study, we investigated the kinetic characteristics of soil acid phosphatase (ACP) in 14 soils with varied properties, and also explored how kinetic properties of soil ACP changed with different spiked As concentrations. The results showed that the Michaelis constant (K m ) and maximum reaction velocity (V max ) values of soil ACP ranged from 1.18 to 3.77mM and 0.025-0.133mMh -1 in uncontaminated soils. The kinetic parameters of soil ACP in different soils changed differently with As contamination. The K m remained unchanged and V max decreased with increase of As concentration in most acid and neutral soils, indicating a noncompetitive inhibition mechanism. However, in alkaline soils, the K m increased linearly and V max decreased with increase of As concentration, indicating a mixed inhibition mechanism that include competitive and noncompetitive. The competitive inhibition constant (K ic ) and noncompetitive inhibition constant (K iu ) varied among soils and ranged from 0.38 to 3.65mM and 0.84-7.43mM respectively. The inhibitory effect of As on soil ACP was mostly affected by soil organic matter and cation exchange capacity. Those factors influenced the combination of As with enzyme, which resulted in a difference of As toxicity to soil ACP. Catalytic efficiency (V max /K m ) of soil ACP was a sensitive kinetic parameter to assess the ecological risks of soil As contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple, simultaneous, independent gradients for a versatile multidimensional liquid chromatography. Part II: Application 2: Computer controlled pH gradients in the presence of urea provide improved separation of proteins: Stability influenced anion and cation exchange chromatography. (United States)

    Hirsh, Allen G; Tsonev, Latchezar I


    This paper details the use of a method of creating controlled pH gradients (pISep) to improve the separation of protein isoforms on ion exchange (IEX) stationary phases in the presence of various isocratic levels of urea. The pISep technology enables the development of computer controlled pH gradients on both cationic (CEX) and anionic (AEX) IEX stationary phases over the very wide pH range from 2 to 12. In pISep, titration curves generated by proportional mixing of the acidic and basic pISep working buffers alone, or in the presence of non-buffering solutes such as the neutral salt NaCl (0-1M), polar organics such as urea (0-8M) or acetonitrile (0-80 Vol%), can be fitted with high fidelity using high order polynomials which, in turn allows construction of a mathematical manifold %A (% acidic pISep buffer) vs. pH vs. [non-buffering solute], permitting precise computer control of pH and the non-buffering solute concentration allowing formation of dual uncoupled liquid chromatographic (LC) gradients of arbitrary shape (Hirsh and Tsonev, 2012 [1]). The separation of protein isoforms examined in this paper by use of such pH gradients in the presence of urea demonstrates the fractionation power of a true single step two dimensional liquid chromatography which we denote as Stability-Influenced Ion Exchange Chromatography (SIIEX). We present evidence that SIIEX is capable of increasing the resolution of protein isoforms difficult to separate by ordinary pH gradient IEX, and potentially simplifying the development of laboratory and production purification strategies involving on-column simultaneous pH and urea unfolding or refolding of targeted proteins. We model some of the physics implied by the dynamics of the observed protein fractionations as a function of both urea concentration and pH assuming that urea-induced native state unfolding competes with native state electrostatic interaction binding to an IEX stationary phase. Implications for in vivo protein

  7. Use of the ion exchange method for the determination of stability constants of trivalent metal complexes with humic and fulvic acids--part I: Eu3+ and Am3+ complexes in weakly acidic conditions. (United States)

    Wenming, Dong; Hongxia, Zhang; Meide, Huang; Zuyi, Tao


    The conditional stability constants for tracer concentrations of Eu(III) and Am(III) with a red earth humic acid (REHA), a red earth fulvic acid (REFA) and a fulvic acid from weathered coal (WFA) were determined at pH 5.2-6.4 (such values are similar to those in non-calcareous soils) in the presence of HAc/NaAc or NaNO3 by using the cation exchange method. It was found that 1:1 complexes were predominately formed in weakly acidic conditions. The total exchangeable proton capacities and the degrees of dissociation of these humic substances were determined by using a potentiometric titration method. The key parameters necessary for the experimental determination of the conditional stability constants of metal ions with humic substances in weakly acidic conditions by using the cation exchange method were discussed. The conditional stability constants of 1:1 complexes obtained in this paper were compared with the literature data of Am(III) determined by using the ion exchange method and the solvent extraction method and with the stability constants of 1:1 complexes of UO2(2+) and Th4+ with the same soil humic substances. These results indicate the great stability of bivalent UO2(2+), trivalent Eu3+, Am3+ and tetravalent Th4+ complexes with humic and fulvic acids in weakly acidic conditions.

  8. Use of the ion exchange method for the determination of stability constants of trivalent metal complexes with humic and fulvic acids--Part I: Eu{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+} complexes in weakly acidic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Wenming E-mail:; Zhang Hongxia; Huang Meide; Tao Zuyi


    The conditional stability constants for tracer concentrations of Eu(III) and Am(III) with a red earth humic acid (REHA), a red earth fulvic acid (REFA) and a fulvic acid from weathered coal (WFA) were determined at pH 5.2-6.4 (such values are similar to those in non-calcareous soils) in the presence of HAc/NaAc or NaNO{sub 3} by using the cation exchange method. It was found that 1 : 1 complexes were predominately formed in weakly acidic conditions. The total exchangeable proton capacities and the degrees of dissociation of these humic substances were determined by using a potentiometric titration method. The key parameters necessary for the experimental determination of the conditional stability constants of metal ions with humic substances in weakly acidic conditions by using the cation exchange method were discussed. The conditional stability constants of 1 : 1 complexes obtained in this paper were compared with the literature data of Am(III) determined by using the ion exchange method and the solvent extraction method and with the stability constants of 1 : 1 complexes of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Th{sup 4+} with the same soil humic substances. These results indicate the great stability of bivalent UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, trivalent Eu{sup 3+}, Am{sup 3+} and tetravalent Th{sup 4+} complexes with humic and fulvic acids in weakly acidic conditions.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Sulfonic Acid Functionalized Silica and Its Application for the Esterification of Ethanol and Maleic Acid (United States)

    Sirsam, Rajkumar; Usmani, Ghayas


    The surface of commercially available silica gel, 60-200 mesh size, was modified with sulfonic acid through surface activation, grafting of 3-Mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane, oxidation and acidification of 3-Mercaptopropylsilica. Sulfonic Acid Functionalization of Silica (SAFS) was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. Acid-base titration was used to estimate the cation exchange capacity of the SAFS. Catalytic activity of SAFS was judged for the esterification of ethanol with maleic acid. An effect of different process parameters viz. molar ratio, catalyst loading, speed of agitation and temperature were studied and optimized by Box Behnken Design (BBD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Quadratic model developed by BBD-RSM reasonably satisfied an experimental and predicted values with correlation coefficient value R2 = 0.9504.

  10. Ligand exchange chromatography for analysis and preparative separation of tritium-labelled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotarev, Yu.A.; Zaitsev, D.A.; Penkina, V.I.; Dostavalov, I.N.; Myasoedov, N.F.


    Racemic tritium-labelled amino acids were separated into optical isomers by chromatography on a chiral polyacrylamide sorbent filled with copper ions. The polyacrylamide sorbent is synthesized by Mannich's reaction through the action of formaldehyde and L-phenylalanine upon polyacrylamide Biogel P-4 in an alkali phosphate buffer. Tritium-labelled amino acids are eluted by a weak alkali solution of ammonium carbonate. Data are presented on the ligand exchange chromatography of amino acids depending on the degree to which the sorbent is filled with copper ions and on the eluent concentration. Amino acids are isolated from the eluent on short columns filled with sulfonated cation exchanger in the H + form. HPLC on modified silica gel sorbents is also used for the analysis of tritium-labelled optically active amino acids. Amino acids are eluted by a weakly acidic water-methanol solution containing ammonium acetate. UV and scintillation flow type detectors are used. (author) 7 refs.; 8 figs

  11. A new oxidimetric reagent-potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium-VIII Potentiometric titration of molybdenum(VI) and vanadium(V). (United States)

    Muralikrishna, U; Rao, G G


    A new titrimetric method is described for the determination of molybdenum(VI) involving prior reduction to Mo(V) with an excess of Fe(II) in a concentrated phosphoric acid solution, followed by titration with dichromate. The titration can be done at room temperature and without protective atmosphere. Uranium interferes, but vanadium may be determined simultaneously.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Wyszkowski


    Full Text Available Soil plays the most important role in the cycling of elements in the terrestrial environment. Contamination of soil with heavy metals have effect on all soil organism and plants. For this reason, studies have been carried out to assess the possibility of neutralising the effect of zinc (0, 150, 300, 600 and 1200 mg Zn∙kg-1 of soil on soil properties by applying neutralising substances (compost, bentonite and zeolite. Soil acidity and sorption properties depended on zinc contamination and on the type of neutralising substances added. In the series without an addition of neutralising substances, increasing zinc soil contamination resulted in a decrease in total exchangeable bases, in cation exchange capacity and in the saturation degree of the degree of base saturation, and an increase in soil hydrolytic acidity. An addition of bentonite to zinc-contaminated soil had the most advantageous effect of all the additions of neutralising substances on the tested soil properties. It resulted in an increase in soil pH, in total exchangeable bases, in cation exchange capacity, in the degree of base saturation and simultaneously decreased soil hydrolytic acidity compared to the series without additions. Adding zeolite and compost to soil had a small and usually insignificant effect on soil acidity and soil sorption properties.

  13. PEMFC contamination model: Foreign cation exchange with ionomer protons (United States)

    St-Pierre, Jean


    A generic, transient fuel cell ohmic loss mathematical model was developed for the case of contaminants that ion exchange with ionomer protons. The model was derived using step changes in contaminant concentration, constant operating conditions and foreign cation transport via liquid water droplets. In addition, the effect of ionomer cations redistribution within the ionomer on thermodynamic, kinetic and mass transport losses and migration were neglected. Thus, a simpler, ideal, ohmic loss case is defined and is applicable to uncharged contaminant species and gas phase contaminants. The closed form solutions were validated using contamination data from a membrane exposed to NH3. The model needs to be validated against contamination and recovery data sets including an NH4+ contaminated membrane exposed to a water stream. A method is proposed to determine model parameters and relies on the prior knowledge of the initial ionomer resistivity. The model expands the number of previously derived cases. Most models in this inventory, derived with the assumption that the reactant is absent, lead to different dimensionless current vs. time behaviors similar to a fingerprint. These model characteristics facilitate contaminant mechanism identification. Separation between membrane and catalyst (electroinactive contaminant) contamination is conceivably possible using additional indicative cell resistance measurements. Contamination is predicted to be significantly more severe under low relative humidity conditions.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    stimulating properties, resulting from the presence of the phenylpropylamino alkaloids. The determination of these alkaloids is important in pharmacological, phytochemical, forensic and law enforcement environments. In this study, the use of ...

  15. Sulfonated hydrocarbon graft architectures for cation exchange membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Jankova Atanasova, Katja; Hvilsted, Søren


    A synthetic strategy to hydrocarbon graft architectures prepared from a commercial polysulfone and aimed as ion exchange membrane material is proposed. Polystyrene is grafted from a polysulfone macroinitiator by atom transfer radical polymerization, and subsequently sulfonated with acetyl sulfate...

  16. Cation exchange applications of synthetic tobermorite for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Immobilization and solidification of hazardous cations like Cs137 and Sr90 are required while handling the radioactive waste of nuclear power plants. Efforts are on to find a fail proof method of safe disposal of nuclear wastes. In this context, various materials like borosilicate glass, zeolites, cements and synthetic rocks have ...

  17. Effects of organic wastes on structural characterizations of humic acid in semiarid soil under plastic mulched drip irrigation. (United States)

    Hu, Juan; Wu, Jinggui; Qu, Xiaojing; Li, Jianming


    The objective of this work was to evaluate the variation in the amount and structure of humic acid (HA) after the application of organic wastes (OWs) in semiarid soil under plastic mulched drip irrigation, measured by elemental composition, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence, and carbon 13 nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C CPMAS NMR). The experiment involved chemical fertilizer combined with chicken manure (CM), sheep manure (SM), maize straw (MS), fodder grass (FG), and tree leaves (TL), while chemical fertilizer only was used as control (CK). The highest cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic carbon (SOC), and HA contents (P plastic mulched drip irrigation conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium-VI Potentiometric titration of vanadium(III) alone and in mixture with vanadium(IV). (United States)

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K


    Vanadium(III) can be titrated at room temperature with potassium dichromate in an 8-12M phosphoric acid medium. Two potential breaks are observed in 12M phosphoric add with 0.2N potassium dichromate, the first corresponding to the oxidation of vanadium(III) to vanadium(IV) and the second to the oxidation of vanadium(IV) to vanadium(V). In titrations with 0.05N dichromate only the first break in potential is clearly observed. The method has been extended to the titration of mixtures of vanadium(III) and vanadium(IV). Conditions have also been found for the visual titration of vanadium(III) using ferroln or barium diphenylamine sulphonate as indicator.

  19. Nine supramolecular assemblies from 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine and carboxylic acids by strong classical H-bonds and other noncovalent associations (United States)

    Ding, Aihua; Jin, Shouwen; Jin, Shide; Guo, Ming; Liu, Hui; Guo, Jianzhong; Wang, Daqi


    This article demonstrates 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine based organic salt formation in nine crystalline solids 1-9, in which the carboxylates have been integrated. Addition of equivalents of the COOH to the solution of 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine generates the singly protonated cationic species which direct the carboxylates. The nine compounds crystallize as their organic salts with the COOH proton transferred to the aromatic N of the 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine. All salts have been characterized by IR, mp, EA and XRD technique. The major driving force in 1-9 is the classical H-bonds from 5,7-dimethyl-1,8-naphthyridine-2-amine and the acids, here the Nsbnd H⋯O H-bonds were found in all salts. Other extensive non-covalent interactions also exhibit great functions in space association of the molecular counterparts in relevant crystals. Except 4, all salts had the CHsbnd O, or CH3sbnd O interactions or both. Except 9, the common R22 (8) graph set has been observed in all salts due to the H-bonds and the non-covalent associations. For the synergistic interactions of the classical H-bonds and the various non-covalent associations, the salts displayed 1D-3D structures.

  20. A novel polymyxin derivative that lacks the fatty acid tail and carries only three positive charges has strong synergism with agents excluded by the intact outer membrane. (United States)

    Vaara, Martti; Siikanen, Osmo; Apajalahti, Juha; Fox, John; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; He, Hui; Poudyal, Anima; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L; Vaara, Timo


    Polymyxins are cationic lipopeptides (five cationic charges) and the last resort for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections caused by multiresistant strains. NAB741 has a cyclic peptide portion identical to that of polymyxin B but carries in the linear peptide portion a threonyl-D-serinyl residue (no cationic charges) instead of the diaminobutyryl-threonyl-diaminobutyryl residue (two cationic charges). At the N terminus of the peptide, NAB741 carries an acetyl group instead of a mixture of methyl octanoyl and methyl heptanoyl residues. NAB741 sensitized Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Acinetobacter baumannii to antibiotics against which the intact outer membrane is an effective permeability barrier. When tested by using Etest strips on plates containing increasing concentrations of NAB741, the fractional inhibition concentration index (FICI) of the combination of NAB741 with rifampin ranged from acid, and vancomycin for E. coli strains and E. cloacae by factors ranging from 8 to 200. A sister peptide, NAB752, carrying a threonyl-aminobutyryl residue as the linear peptide portion, was inactive. Furthermore, NAB741 sensitized E. coli to the bactericidal activity of fresh guinea pig serum. The renal clearance of NAB741 was approximately 400-fold, 16-fold, and 8-fold higher than those measured for colistin, NAB7061, and NAB739, respectively.

  1. Lactic Acid Bacteria Inducing a Weak Interleukin-12 and Tumor Necrosis Alpha Response in Human Dendritic Cells Inhibit Strongly Stimulating Lactic Acid Bacteria but Act Synergistically with Gram-Negative Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Frøkiær, Hanne


    The development and maintenance of immune homeostasis indispensably depend on signals from the gut flora. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are gram-positive (G+) organisms, are plausible significant players and have received much attention. Gram-negative (G-) commensals, such as members...

  2. Experimental And Modelling Investigations on Na-Illite: Acid-Base Behaviour And the Sorption Of Strontium, Nickel, Europium And Uranyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M.H.; Baeyens, B.


    In an extensive study the physico-chemical, protolysis and sorption characteristics of Sr(II), Ni(II), Eu(III) and U(VI) have been measured on illite and modeled over a wide range of pH, sorbate and NaCI0 4 concentrations. SampIes of Illite du Puy, collected in the region of Le Puy-en- Velay, France, were carefully conditioned to the Na-form and physico-chemically characterised. Potentiometric titrations on suspensions of the Na-illite were carried out using a batch back titration technique in 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5 M NaCI0 4 background electrolytes from pH 2 to 12 in an inert atmosphere glove box. The supernatant solutions from each titration experiment in each series were analysed for K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Si, Al, Fe and Mn. The titration data were modeled in terms of the protolysis of two amphoteric edge sites (=S W1 0H and =S W2 0H) without an electrostatic term. The protonation/deprotonation constants and site capacities obtained from the titration measurements were then fixed. The sorption edge and isotherm data were modeled with strong (=S S OH) and weak (=S W1 0H) surface complexation sites, assumed to have the same protolysis constants, again without electrostatic terms. Uptake by cation exchange was included in all of the calculations. This sorption model, the 2 site protolysis non electrostatic surface complexation and cation exchange model, had been developed previously for montmorillonite and was successful in describing the sorption characteristics of Sr, Ni, Eu and U on Na-illite over a wide range of conditions. Cation exchange capacity, strong and weak site capacities and protolysis constants for Na-illite are given, together with surface complexation constants and selectivity coefficients for Sr, Ni, Eu and U. At 0.01 M NaCI0 4 and pH below 8 the sorption of Sr, Ni, Eu and U was dominated by a cation exchange mechanism. The strong dependency of sorption on pH observed under these conditions arose from the competitive effects of Ca and Al on the uptake of the

  3. Recovery process for electroless plating baths (United States)

    Anderson, Roger W.; Neff, Wayne A.


    A process for removing, from spent electroless metal plating bath solutions, accumulated byproducts and counter-ions that have deleterious effects on plating. The solution, or a portion thereof, is passed through a selected cation exchange resin bed in hydrogen form, the resin selected from strong acid cation exchangers and combinations of intermediate acid cation exchangers with strong acid cation exchangers. Sodium and nickel ions are sorbed in the selected cation exchanger, with little removal of other constituents. The remaining solution is subjected to sulfate removal through precipitation of calcium sulfate hemihydrate using, sequentially, CaO and then CaCO.sub.3. Phosphite removal from the solution is accomplished by the addition of MgO to form magnesium phosphite trihydrate. The washed precipitates of these steps can be safely discarded in nontoxic land fills, or used in various chemical industries. Finally, any remaining solution can be concentrated, adjusted for pH, and be ready for reuse. The plating metal can be removed from the exchanger with sulfuric acid or with the filtrate from the magnesium phosphite precipitation forming a sulfate of the plating metal for reuse. The process is illustrated as applied to processing electroless nickel plating baths.

  4. A comparative evaluation of different types of microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. (United States)

    Liu, Guangli; Zhou, Ying; Luo, Haiping; Cheng, Xing; Zhang, Renduo; Teng, Wenkai


    The aim of this study was to investigate different microbial electrolysis desalination cells for malic acid production. The systems included microbial electrolysis desalination and chemical-production cell (MEDCC), microbial electrolysis desalination cell (MEDC) with bipolar membrane and anion exchange membrane (BP-A MEDC), MEDC with bipolar membrane and cation exchange membrane (BP-C MEDC), and modified microbial desalination cell (M-MDC). The microbial electrolysis desalination cells performed differently in terms of malic acid production and energy consumption. The MEDCC performed best with the highest malic acid production rate (18.4 ± 0.6 mmol/Lh) and the lowest energy consumption (0.35 ± 0.14 kWh/kg). The best performance of MEDCC was attributable to the neutral pH condition in the anode chamber, the lowest internal resistance, and the highest Geobacter percentage of the anode biofilm population among all the reactors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Remediação de drenagem ácida de mina usando zeólitas sintetizadas a partir de cinzas leves de carvão Remediation of acid mine drainage using zeolites synthesized from coal fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro


    Full Text Available Zeolitic material was synthesized from coal fly ashes (baghouse filter fly ash and cyclone filter fly ash by hydrothermal alkaline activation. The potential application of the zeolitic product for decontamination of waters from acid mine drainage was evaluated. The results showed that a dose of 30 g L-1 of zeolitic material allowed the water to reach acceptable quality levels after treatment. Both precipitation and cation-exchange processes accounted for the reduction in the pollutant concentration in the treated waters.

  6. Impacts of simulated acid rain on recalcitrance of two different soils. (United States)

    Dai, Zhongmin; Liu, Xingmei; Wu, Jianjun; Xu, Jianming


    Laboratory experiments were conducted to estimate the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) on recalcitrance in a Plinthudult and a Paleudalfs soil in south China, which were a variable and a permanent charge soil, respectively. Simulated acid rains were prepared at pH 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, and 6.0, by additions of different volumes of H2SO4 plus HNO3 at a ratio of 6 to 1. The leaching period was designed to represent 5 years of local annual rainfall (1,200 mm) with a 33 % surface runoff loss. Both soils underwent both acidification stages of (1) cation exchange and (2) mineral weathering at SAR pH 2.0, whereas only cation exchange occurred above SAR pH 3.5, i.e., weathering did not commence. The cation exchange stage was more easily changed into that of mineral weathering in the Plinthudult than in the Paleudalfs soil, and there were some K(+) and Mg(2+) ions released on the stages of mineral weathering in the Paleudalfs soil. During the leaching, the release of exchangeable base cations followed the order Ca(2+) >K(+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) for the Plinthudult and Ca(2+) >Mg(2+) >Na(+) >K(+) for the Paleudalfs soil. The SARs above pH 3.5 did not decrease soil pH or pH buffering capacity, while the SAR at pH 2.0 decreased soil pH and the buffering capacity significantly. We conclude that acid rain, which always has a pH from 3.5 to 5.6, only makes a small contribution to the acidification of agricultural soils of south China in the short term of 5 years. Also, Paleudalfs soils are more resistant to acid rain than Plinthudult soils. The different abilities to prevent leaching by acid rain depend upon the parent materials, types of clay minerals, and soil development degrees.

  7. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.


    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  8. Characteristics and suitability evaluation of the “White Soils” of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... delineated mapping units classified as Kandiudalfs were deep (>100 cm in depth), well drained with loamy sand to sandy loam surface horizons overlying sandy clay loam to sandy clay subsurface horizons. The soils were extremely acid to strongly acid in reaction (pH 3.55 – 4.65), low effective cation exchange capacity ...

  9. In vitro adsorption of possible aetiological factors of hepatic encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Schoemaker, L. P.; Smit, E. M.


    Four different adsorbents (activated charcoal, XAD-4, a strong base anion and a strong acid cation-exchange resin) were tested in vitro for their capacity to remove substances that may be important in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. Separate columns packed with one of these adsorbents

  10. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Loree Joanne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); King, C. Judson [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO2 and H2S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The

  11. Purification of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from fermentation of defatted rice bran extract by using ion exchange resin (United States)

    Tuan Nha, Vi; Phung, Le Thi Kim; Dat, Lai Quoc


    Rice bran is one of the significant byproducts of rice processing with 10 %w/w of constitution of whole rice grain. It is rich in nutrient compounds, including glutamic acid. Thus, it could be utilized for the fermentation with Lactobateria for synthesis of GABA, a valuable bioactive for antihypertensive effects. However, the concentration and purity of GABA in fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract is low for production of GABA drug. This research focused on the purification of GABA from the fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract by using cation exchange resin. The results indicate that, the adsorption isotherm of GABA by Purelite C100 showed the good agreement with Freundlich model, with high adsorption capacity. The effects of pH and concentration of NaCl in eluent on the elution were also investigated. The obtained results show that, at the operating conditions of elution as follows: pH 6.5, 0.8 M of NaCl in eluent, 0.43 of bed volume; concentration of GABA in accumulative eluent, the purity and recovery yield of GABA were 743.8 ppm, 44.0% and 84.2%, respectively. Results imply that, it is feasible to apply cation exchange resin for purification of GABA from fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract.

  12. Research and development on chemical reactors made of industrial structural materials and hydriodic acid concentration technique for thermochemical hydrogen production IS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takegami, Hiroaki; Kasahara, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kamiji, Yu; Onuki, Kaoru


    Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been conducting a study on IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production in order to develop massive hydrogen production technology for hydrogen society. Integrity of the chemical reactors and concentration technology of hydrogen iodide in HIx solution were studied. In the former study, the chemical reactors were trial-fabricated using industrial materials. A test of 30 times of thermal cycle test under circulating condition of the Bunsen reaction solution showed integrity of the Bunsen reactor made of fluororesin lined steel. Also, 100 hours of reaction tests showed integrity of the sulfuric acid decomposer made of silicon carbide and of the hydrogen iodide decomposer made of Hastelloy C-276. In the latter study, concerning electro-electrodialysis using cation-exchange membrane, sulfuric acid in the anolyte had little influence on the concentration performance. These results suggest the purification system of HIx solution can be simplified. Based on the Nernst-Planck equation and the Smoluchowski equation, proton transport number, water permeance, and IR drop of the cation exchange membrane were formulated. The derived equations enable quantitative estimation for the performance indexes of Nafion ® membrane and, also, of ETFE-St membranes made by radiation-induced graft polymerization method. (author)

  13. Acceptor extraction of uranyl salts with mixtures of organophosphoric acids with neutral additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgov, V.G.; Us, T.V.; Mikhajlov, V.A.; Stoyanov, Ye.S.; Drozdova, M.K.; Bogdanova, D.D.


    Uranium solvent extraction by mixtures of organophosphoric acids (HX) with neutral additives (L) (phosphine oxides, sulfoxides, tbp) excibits, along with the widely known synergic effect at low HX saturation with uranium, a new synergic effect occurring after complete HX saturation. Three types of isotherms of uranyl salt extraction by benzene solutions of HX and mixtures of HX with L were revealed. Their forms depend on superposition of cation-exchange and noncation-exchange synergic effects. Similarity of synergic effect of acid and neutral mixture components during solvent extraction from diluted and concentrated solutions of uranyl salts testified to the same nature of these two effects; both of them are determined by acceptor properties of uranium atom in monomeric UO 2 (HX 2 ) 2 and polymeric (UO 2 X 2 ) p complexes. The established reqularities were confirmed, when studying uranyl sulfate extraction by UO 2 X 2 mixture with L

  14. Contribuição de constituintes de solo à capacidade de troca de cátions obtida por diferentes métodos de extração Contribution of soil constituents to the cation exchange capacity as determined by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Campanhola Bortoluzzi


    Full Text Available A capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC é uma propriedade físico-química intrínseca aos constituintes minerais e orgânicos do solo. Apesar do uso de diferentes extratores e procedimentos, a CTC é normalmente expressa considerando apenas o controle ou não do pH na solução extratora. O objetivo deste trabalho foi discutir o significado da contribuição da matéria orgânica do solo prepresentada pelo carbono orgânico total (COT e da argila à capacidade de troca de cátions de um Argissolo quando diferentes métodos estão envolvidos na determinação desse parâmetro. Para isso, utilizaram-se 75 amostras de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico abrúptico da área do Departamento de Solos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, representando, em triplicata, cinco profundidades e cinco sistemas de uso e manejo de solo. A CTC efetiva (CTC E foi estimada pelo cloreto de hexamina cobalto (CTC E Cohex e pela soma de cátions Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e K+ (CTC E SB + AlKCl, os três primeiros extraídos por KCl e o último por Mehlich-1; a CTC em pH 7,0 (CTC7 foi estimada por acetato de amônio (CTC7 Metson e pela soma de cátions Ca2+, Mg2+ e K+ e H + Al estimado pelo índice SMP (CTC7 SB + H + AlSMP. Os valores de CTC obtidos pelos diferentes métodos se relacionam entre si, com coeficientes de correlação linear simples acima de 0,93. Os valores de CTC7 Metson são subestimados quando comparados com o método CTC7 (SB + H + AlSMP. Nesse sentido, as contribuições da argila e do COT à CTC7 foram, respectivamente, menores para a CTC7 Metson, 19 e 256 cmol c kg-1, que para a CTC7 (SB + H + AlSMP, 23 e 399 cmol c kg-1. A contribuição dos constituintes de solo depende, então, do cátion extrator e da capacidade de extração dos métodos empregados.The cation exchange capacity (CEC is a physicochemical property dependent on mineral and organic soil constituents. Despite the use of different procedures and extractors the CEC is normally

  15. Contribuição dos constituintes da fração argila de solos subtropicais à área superficial específica e à capacidade de troca catiônica Contribution of clay fraction minerals of subtropical soils to the specific surface area and cation exchange capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Granemann de Souza Junior


    area (SSA is related to several properties that define the soil physico-chemical behavior. In this research, 23 soil samples developed from different parent materials found in the southern Brazil were used. They were evaluated for the contribution of the main soil constituents to the effective cation exchange capacity (CECe and SSA. The clay fraction minerals were identified by X ray diffraction (XRD and quantified by thermal analysis; the CECe, the SSAt (total by the ethylene glycol monoethyl ether method (EGME, the SSAe (external by the BET-N2 method, and the ASEi (internal by the difference of the values obtained with the two methods. The clay fraction samples were determined before and after the following sequential selective dissolution procedures: removal of organic matter (clay-NaOCl; removal of organic matter and free iron oxides (clay-NaOCl + DCB; removal of kaolinite, gibbsite and low cristalinity aluminosilicate minerals (clay-NaOCl+DCB + NaOH 5 mol L-1. The mineralogy of the clay fraction of the soils varied considerably, as verified by X ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, and SSA and CECe values. For most soils kaolinite is the predominant mineral in the clay fraction, followed by expandable 2:1 clay mineral or iron and aluminum oxihydroxides. SSA and CECe of the natural clay fraction were not correlated due to the occlusion of the clay surface by organic matter. Iron oxide aggregate effects reduced SSAe by 21 %. For the studied samples, the 2:1 clay minerals were present in concentrations varying from 3 to 65 % of the silicate fraction and presented average values of 1.054 mmol c kg-1 and 202 m² g-1 for CECe and SSEt, respectively. SSAi contributed with 58 % of SSAt of the clay fraction, mostly due to 2:1 clay type minerals.

  16. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators (United States)


    Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are which a topologically nontrivial quasi-flat band is fractionally filled and then subject to strong interactions. The views, opinions and/or

  17. Strong Cosmic Censorship (United States)

    Isenberg, James


    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  18. Strong Arcwise Connectedness


    Espinoza, Benjamin; Gartside, Paul; Kovan-Bakan, Merve; Mamatelashvili, Ana


    A space is `n-strong arc connected' (n-sac) if for any n points in the space there is an arc in the space visiting them in order. A space is omega-strong arc connected (omega-sac) if it is n-sac for all n. We study these properties in finite graphs, regular continua, and rational continua. There are no 4-sac graphs, but there are 3-sac graphs and graphs which are 2-sac but not 3-sac. For every n there is an n-sac regular continuum, but no regular continuum is omega-sac. There is an omega-sac ...

  19. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio


    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  20. Studies on the relationship between some soil properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies on the relationship between some soil properties and sugarcane yield was carried out in the production fields of the Nigerian Sugar Company, Bacita, Kwara State, Nigeria. The soils were found to be strongly acidic with medium organic matter while values obtained for total nitrogen and cation exchange ...

  1. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process. (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui


    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  2. A strong comeback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marier, D.


    This article presents the results of a financial rankings survey which show a strong economic activity in the independent energy industry. The topics of the article include advisor turnover, overseas banks, and the increase in public offerings. The article identifies the top project finance investors for new projects and restructurings and rankings for lenders

  3. Sorption behaviour of microelements in aqueous solutions in the presence of humic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, E.V.; Surikov, V.T.; Moskova, N.S.; Zhernakova, Z.M.


    Migration of stable and radioactive forms of microelements in soil as a result of interaction of atmosphere fallouts with monazite sand is one of the factors of a local radiological situation in Sverdlovsk Region of Urals, Russia. Though no experimental data exist on the physicochemical state in soil of such water soluble products as Th(IV), U(VI), lanthanides (REE), thermodynamic analysis predicts crucial role of humic acids (HA) in the complexation of these elements in natural heterogeneous aqueous media. The object of our research consisted in the experimental evaluation of the impact of Th(IV), U(VI), REE(III) physicochemical state on their partitioning between a cation exchanger (CE) and aqueous solution of HA (800-900 mg HA/L). Determination of equilibrium abundance of the elements in the CE, insoluble fraction of HA and water allowed us to trace both general (ε b ) and partial (ε KY2 , ε HA ) behaviour of more than 20 major and minor elements in the system 'HA-CE-HCl-NaOH-H 2 O' as a function of pH. Sorption system 'CE-HCl-NaOH-H 2 O-microelement' was selected as a reference one with regard to the chemical state of microelements. It was shown that sorption behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), lanthanides(III) and a number of other microelements toward CE in the reference system is fully determined by the formation of aqua-hydroxo- and mixed hydroxo-carbonate complexes of these elements. For example, in the case of U(VI), the partitioning of positively charged hydroxo complexes leads to cupola-shaped isotherm of sorption due to the formation of non-adsorbable uranium carbonate complexes at pH>6. Presence of HA in sorption system changes substantially the sorption behaviour of microelements due to the formation of strong HA-complexes at pH>4 and insoluble HA solid at pH<4. The peculiarities of sorption behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI) and lanthanides(III) in the investigated systems are discussed in detail. (author)

  4. Selective ion exchange recovery of rare earth elements from uranium mining solutions (United States)

    Rychkov, Vladimir N.; Kirillov, Evgeny V.; Kirillov, Sergey V.; Bunkov, Grigory M.; Mashkovtsev, Maxim A.; Botalov, Maxim S.; Semenishchev, Vladimir S.; Volkovich, Vladimir A.


    A comparative study of rare earth, ferric and aluminum ions ion exchange behavior on gel sulfonated p;olystyrene cation exchange resins depending on the degree of the matrix cross-linking and pH of the solution is presented. Selective ion exchange of REEs is possible at the pH range of 1.5-2.0 using strongly acidic cation exchange resins containing more than 8 % of DVB. The preliminary results of testing the efficiency of REEs recovery from the industrial uranium underground leaching solutions are also presented.

  5. Utilization of zeolites synthesized from coal fly ash for the purification of acid mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, N.; Querol, X.; Ayora, C.; Pereira, C.F.; Janssen-Jurkovicova, M. [CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. of Earth Sciences ' Jaume Almera'


    Two pilot plant products containing 65 and 45% NaP1 zeolite were obtained from two Spanish coal fly ashes (Narcea and Teruel Power Station, respectively). The zeolitic product obtained showed a cation exchange capacity (CEC) of 2.7 and 2.0 mequiv/g, respectively. Decontamination tests of three acid mine waters from southwestern Spain were carried out using the zeolite derived from fly ash and commercial synthetic zeolite. The results demonstrate that the zeolitic material could be employed for heavy metal uptake in the water purification process. Doses of 5-30 g of zeolite/L have been applied according on the zeolite species and the heavy metal levels. Moreover, the application of zeolites increases the pH. This causes metal-bearing solid phases to precipitate and enhances the efficiency of the decontamination process. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin


    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  7. Plasmons in strong superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo, M.; Ducoin, C.


    We present a study of the possible plasmon excitations that can occur in systems where strong superconductivity is present. In these systems the plasmon energy is comparable to or smaller than the pairing gap. As a prototype of these systems we consider the proton component of Neutron Star matter just below the crust when electron screening is not taken into account. For the realistic case we consider in detail the different aspects of the elementary excitations when the proton, electron components are considered within the Random-Phase Approximation generalized to the superfluid case, while the influence of the neutron component is considered only at qualitative level. Electron screening plays a major role in modifying the proton spectrum and spectral function. At the same time the electron plasmon is strongly modified and damped by the indirect coupling with the superfluid proton component, even at moderately low values of the gap. The excitation spectrum shows the interplay of the different components and their relevance for each excitation modes. The results are relevant for neutrino physics and thermodynamical processes in neutron stars. If electron screening is neglected, the spectral properties of the proton component show some resemblance with the physical situation in high-T c superconductors, and we briefly discuss similarities and differences in this connection. In a general prospect, the results of the study emphasize the role of Coulomb interaction in strong superconductors.

  8. An Assay of Selected Serum Amino Acids in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. (United States)

    Drábková, Petra; Šanderová, Jana; Kovařík, Jakub; kanďár, Roman


    Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. In case of insulin resistance, which is typical for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), proteolysis is increased and protein synthesis is decreased; therefore, we can observe changes in the levels of amino acids in diabetics vs. non-diabetics. The aim of this study was to find differences in the levels of selected amino acids between patients with diabetes (type 2) and a control group. Amino acids were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde in the presence of potassium cyanide to form fluorescent 1-cyanobenz(f)isoindole product. Amino acids derivatives were measured using a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The serum levels of glucose were determined using an automatic biochemistry analyzer, glycated hemoglobin HbA1c was measured by cation exchange chromatography. A total of 19 serum amino acids in T2DM patients and non-diabetics were measured. There were 9 amino acids, which were significantly different in these groups (pdiabetics were found. Significant difference in metabolism of amino acids between diabetics and non-diabetics were observed. The altered levels of amino acids in diabetic patients could be a suitable predictor of diabetes.

  9. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.


    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  10. Strong interaction and QFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebata, T.


    With an assumed weak multiplet structure for bosonic hadrons, which is consistent with the ΔI = 1/2 rule, it is shown that the strong interaction effective hamiltonian is compatible with the weak SU(2) x U(1) gauge transformation. Especially the rho-meson transforms as a triplet under SU(2)sub(w), and this is the origin of the rho-photon analogy. It is also shown that the existence of the non-vanishing Cabibbo angle is a necessary condition for the absence of the exotic hadrons. (orig.)

  11. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia


    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  12. Lectin from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia scop.). Complete amino acid sequence. (United States)

    Kouchalakos, R N; Bates, O J; Bradshaw, R A; Hapner, K D


    The complete amino acid sequence of a lectin from sainfoin ( Onobrychis viciifolia Scop . var. Eski ) has been determined by sequential Edman analyses of the intact protein and peptides derived from digests with trypsin and thermolysin. Peptides were purified by pH fractionation, by gel filtration, and by cation-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Seven segments of continuous sequence, accounting for the entire protein, were aligned through sequence comparison with several homologous leguminous lectins to give the final structure. Sainfoin lectin monomer, a glycoprotein which contains a single polypeptide chain of 236 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 26 509, has amino- and carboxyl-terminal residues of alanine and threonine, respectively. A single residue of cysteine, located at position 33, is the only sulfur-containing amino acid present. Asparagine-118 is the single oligosaccharide attachment site. At least two apparent allelomorphic forms of the protein, having valine or isoleucine at position 49 in equal amounts, were detected. The amino acid sequence of sainfoin lectin exhibits circular permutation relative to that of the homologous protein concanavalin A.

  13. Managing Actual Problems of Peatsoils Associated with Soil Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Edi Armanto


    Full Text Available The research objective is to manage actual problems of peatsoils associated with soil acidity. The research has been conducted on peatsoils in river backswamps located in Subdistricts of East Pedamaran and Pedamaran, District of OKI South Sumatra. Soil sampling was taken in cultivated and uncultivated types of landuse; cultivated peatsoils consist of Site A (intercropping between oil palm and pineapple and Site B (oil palm, uncultivated peatsoils are divided into Site C (peat forest, Site D (swamp bush and Site E (swamp grass. The research resulted that actual problems of soil acidity is associated with base saturation, cations exchange capacity, soil organic matters and C/N ratio, balances of soil nutrients, and toxicity potency. The climatic condition and drought can accelerate the occurrence of actual problems of peatsoils associated with acidity peatsoils. Some ameliorant have been applied in order of importance in the fields, namely lime/dolomite, mineral soils, organic fertilizers, combustion ash, and volcanic ash. Application of ameliorant materials is capable to minimize the actual problems of peatsoils associated with soil acidity.

  14. Purification and amino acid sequence of a bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus salivarius K7 isolated from chicken intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Sonomoto


    Full Text Available A bacteriocin-producing strain, Lactobacillus K7, was isolated from a chicken intestine. The inhibitory activity was determined by spot-on-lawn technique. Identification of the strain was performed by morphological, biochemical (API 50 CH kit and molecular genetic (16S rDNA basis. Bacteriocin purification processes were carried out by amberlite adsorption, cation exchange and reverse-phase high perform- ance liquid chromatography. N-terminal amino acid sequences were performed by Edman degradation. Molecular mass was determined by electrospray-ionization (ESI mass spectrometry (MS. Lactobacillus K7 showed inhibitory activity against Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei JCM 1157T, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides JCM 6124T and Bacillus coagulans JCM 2257T. This strain was identified as Lb. salivarius. The antimicrobial substance was destroyed by proteolytic enzymes, indicating its proteinaceous structure designated as a bacteriocin type. The purification of bacteriocin by amberlite adsorption, cation exchange, and reverse-phase chromatography resulted in only one single active peak, which was designated FK22. Molecular weight of this fraction was 4331.70 Da. By amino acid sequence, this peptide was homology to Abp 118 beta produced by Lb. salivarius UCC118. In addition, Lb. salivarius UCC118 produced 2-peptide bacteriocin, which was Abp 118 alpha and beta. Based on the partial amino acid sequences of Abp 118 beta, specific primers were designed from nucleotide sequences according to data from GenBank. The result showed that the deduced peptide was high homology to 2-peptide bacteriocin, Abp 118 alpha and beta.

  15. Process for separation and preconcentration of radium from water (United States)

    Dietz, M.; Horwitz, E.P.; Chiarizia, R.; Bartsch, R.A.


    A process for preconcentrating and separating radium from a contaminated solution containing at least water and radium includes the steps of adding a quantity of a water-soluble macrocyclic polyether to the contaminated solution to form a combined solution. An acid is added to the combined solution to form an acidic combined solution having an [H{sup +}] concentration of about 0.5M. The acidic combined solution is contacted with a sulfonic acid-based strong acid cation exchange medium or a organophilic sulfonic acid medium having a plurality of binding sites thereon to bind the radium thereto and to form a radium-depleted solution. The radium-depleted solution is separated from the strong acid cation exchange medium or organophilic sulfonic acid medium. The radium remaining bound to the exchange medium or organophilic reagent is then stripped from the exchange medium or organophilic medium and the activity of the radium is measured. 24 figs.

  16. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  17. Speciation of selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium by ion exchange HPLC with mass spectrometric detection and its application to yeast and algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Hansen, M.; Fan, T.


    Cation and anion exchange HPLC were used to separate a mixture of 12 selenium species comprising selenoamino acids, selenonium ions and inorganic selenium. The cationic species were separated from each other and from the co-injected anions using a cation exchange column with gradient elution...... by aqueous pyridinium formate at pH similar to 3 as the mobile phase. The anionic species were separated using an anion exchange column with isocratic elution by an aqueous salicylate-TRIS mobile phase at pH 8.5. The separated selenium species were detected as Se-80 by ICP-dynamic reaction cell (DRC...... acid extract of Chlorella algae contained dimethylselenonium propionate (DMSeP), which was verified by HPLC-ES-MS. Se-allylselenocysteine and selenoethionine was detected at the low ng g(-1) concentration level based on co-chromatography with the standard substances spiked to the algal extract....

  18. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium--VII. Photometric titration of vanadium(IV) and of cerium(III) alone and in mixtures with iroN(II). (United States)

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K


    Vanadium(IV) can be accurately titrated with potassium dichromate in media containing phosphoric acid of 3-12M concentration: the change in absorption of vanadium(IV) is followed in the region 660 mmicro using a red filter. It is more convenient to carry out the titration in 3M phosphoric acid because at higher concentrations chloride, nitrate, cerium(III) and manganese(II) may interfere. Photoelcetric titration is more convenient than potentiometric because the former can be made in a 3M phosphoric acid medium, whereas the latter is possible only in 12M phosphoric acid. The simultaneous differential photometric titration of iron(II) and vanadium(IV) is also possible. Conditions have been found for the photometric titration of cerium(III) and of cerium(III) plus iron(II). The titration is carried out (at 450 mmicro or with a blue filter) in about 10.5M phosphoric acid. Application of the method to a cerium mineral is considered.

  19. Novel Pendant Benzene Disulfonic Acid Blended SPPO Membranes for Alkali Recovery: Fabrication and Properties. (United States)

    Mondal, Abhishek N; Dai, Chunhua; Pan, Jiefeng; Zheng, Chunlei; Hossain, Md Masem; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen


    To reconcile the trade-off between separation performance and availability of desired material for cation exchange membranes (CEMs), we designed and successfully prepared a novel sulfonated aromatic backbone-based cation exchange precursor named sodium 4,4'-(((((3,3'-disulfo-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'-diyl)bis(oxy)) bis(4,1-phenylene))bis(azanediyl))bis(methylene))bis(benzene-1,3-disulfonate) [DSBPB] from 4,4'-bis(4-aminophenoxy)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3,3'-disulfonic acid [BAPBDS] by a three-step procedure that included sulfonation, Michael condensation followed by reduction. Prepared DSBPB was used to blend with sulfonated poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (SPPO) to get CEMs for alkali recovery via diffusion dialysis. Physiochemical properties and electrochemical performance of prepared membranes can be tuned by varying the dosage of DSBPB. All the thermo-mechanical properties like DMA and TGA were investigated along with water uptake (WR), ion exchange capacity (IEC), dimensional stability, etc. The effect of DSBPB was discussed in brief in connection with alkali recovery and ion conducting channels. The SPPO/DSBPB membranes possess both high water uptake as well as ion exchange capacity with high thermo-mechanical stability. At 25 °C the dialysis coefficients (UOH) appeared to be in the range of 0.0048-0.00814 m/h, whereas the separation factor (S) ranged from 12.61 to 36.88 when the membranes were tested for base recovery in Na2WO4/NaOH waste solution. Prepared membranes showed much improved DD performances compared to traditional SPPO membrane and possess the potentiality to be a promising candidate for alkali recovery via diffusion dialysis.

  20. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  1. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim


    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  2. Strong-interaction nonuniversality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkas, R.R.; Foot, R.; He, X.; Joshi, G.C.


    The universal QCD color theory is extended to an SU(3) 1 direct product SU(3) 2 direct product SU(3) 3 gauge theory, where quarks of the ith generation transform as triplets under SU(3)/sub i/ and singlets under the other two factors. The usual color group is then identified with the diagonal subgroup, which remains exact after symmetry breaking. The gauge bosons associated with the 16 broken generators then form two massive octets under ordinary color. The interactions between quarks and these heavy gluonlike particles are explicitly nonuniversal and thus an exploration of their physical implications allows us to shed light on the fundamental issue of strong-interaction universality. Nonuniversality and weak flavor mixing are shown to generate heavy-gluon-induced flavor-changing neutral currents. The phenomenology of these processes is studied, as they provide the major experimental constraint on the extended theory. Three symmetry-breaking scenarios are presented. The first has color breaking occurring at the weak scale, while the second and third divorce the two scales. The third model has the interesting feature of radiatively induced off-diagonal Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements

  3. Screening of Catalyst and Important Variable for The Esterification of Acrylic Acid with 2 Ethylhexanol (United States)

    Ahmad, M. A. A.; Chin, S. Y.


    The global demand of 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (2EHA) market has witnessed a significant growth in the past few years and this growth is anticipated to increase in the coming years. 2EHA is one of the basic organic building blocks that mainly used in the production of coatings, adhesives, superabsorbents, thickeners and plastic additives. Homogenous acid-catalysed esterification of acrylic acid (AA) with 2-ethylhexanol (2EH) is commonly used for the production of 2EHA. The homogeneous catalysts such as sulfuric and para-toluene sulfonic acid have resulted the costly and complicated downstream process that generates acidic, corrosive and non-environmental friendly waste. Therefore, it is importance to develop a cheaper process that employing heterogeneous catalysts and alternative raw material from wastewater containing acrylic acid. In this research, the study for the esterification of AA with 2EH catalysed by ion-exchange resin was conducted. The best sulfonic acid functional cation-exchange resin among SK104, SK1B, PK208, PK216, PK228, RCP145, and RCP160 was screened. PK208 outperformed the other resins and it was used subsequently in the parametric studies. The effect of important parameters (initial concentration of acrylic acid (AA), temperature, molar ratio of reactant (AA and 2EH), catalyst loading, and polymerisation inhibitor loading) was studied using 2 factorial design to determine the significant parameters to the esterification. It was found that the initial concentration of AA and temperature were most significantly affecting the esterification of AA with 2EH.

  4. Compost effect on soil humic acid: A NMR study. (United States)

    Adani, Fabrizio; Genevini, Pierluigi; Tambone, Fulvia; Montoneri, Enzo


    The humic acid (HA) fraction of a food and vegetable residues compost (CM) was taken as indicator to trace the fate of CM organic matter in four years CM amended soil. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy were used to investigate the nature of the HA isolates from CM, control soil (S(4)) and amended soil. The result indicated a significant structural difference between CM HA and S(4) HA, and supported the presence of both HA fractions in soil at the end of the amendment trials. However, the nature and content of CM HA in soil did not fully explain the increase of soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) after amendment. All CM humic fractions (i.e., fulvic acid, humic acid and humin) were found to contribute to the change of the soil organic matter composition. It is concluded that although CM HA is a suitable indicator of the survival of compost organic matter in soil during amendment, all three humic fractions should be monitored and analyzed to fully understand changes in the composition and properties of amended soil.

  5. Some thiazine dyes as redox indicators in the estimations of U(VI), Mo(VI), V(V), Cr(VI) and Cu(II) with Fe(II) in strong phosphoric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Murty, N.; Satyanarayana, V.


    U(VI) and Mo(VI) in 11.5-12.5M, Cr(VI) in 8.5 10.3M and V(V) and V(IV) in 10.5 12.0M phosphoric acid medium can be estimated with Fe(II) visually using azure A, azure B, azure C, toluidine blue and new methylene blue. (author)

  6. Metal interferences and their removal prior to the determination of As(T) and As(III) in acid mine waters by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ball, James W.


    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) is a sensitive and selective method for the determination of total arsenic (arsenic(III) plus arsenic(V)) and arsenic(III); however, it is subject to metal interferences for acid mine waters. Sodium borohydride is used to produce arsine gas, but high metal concentrations can suppress arsine production. This report investigates interferences of sixteen metal species including aluminum, antimony(III), antimony(V), cadmium, chromium(III), chromium(IV), cobalt, copper(II), iron(III), iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(IV), selenium(VI), and zinc ranging in concentration from 0 to 1,000 milligrams per liter and offers a method for removing interfering metal cations with cation exchange resin. The degree of interference for each metal without cation-exchange on the determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) was evaluated by spiking synthetic samples containing arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) with the potential interfering metal. Total arsenic recoveries ranged from 92 to 102 percent for all metals tested except antimony(III) and antimony(V) which suppressed arsine formation when the antimony(III)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 4 or the antimony(V)/total arsenic molar ratio exceeded 2. Arsenic(III) recoveries for samples spiked with aluminum, chromium(III), cobalt, iron(II), lead, manganese, nickel, selenium(VI), and zinc ranged from 84 to 107 percent over the entire concentration range tested. Low arsenic(III) recoveries occurred when the molar ratios of metals to arsenic(III) were copper greater than 120, iron(III) greater than 70, chromium(VI) greater than 2, cadmium greater than 800, antimony(III) greater than 3, antimony(V) greater than 12, or selenium(IV) greater than 1. Low recoveries result when interfering metals compete for available sodium borohydride, causing incomplete arsine production, or when the interfering metal oxidizes arsenic(III). Separation of interfering metal cations using

  7. Antifungal effects of palmitic acid salt and ultrapure soft water on Scedosporium apiospermum. (United States)

    Jung, K; Miyagawa, M; Matsuda, A; Amagai, Y; Oida, K; Okamoto, Y; Takai, M; Nishikawa, S; Jang, H; Ishizaka, S; Ahn, G; Tanaka, A; Matsuda, H


    Scedosporium apiospermum sometimes causes serious infectious diseases on the skin of immunodeficient subjects. Antifungal effects of fatty acid salts in soap against S. apiospermum were investigated under different water conditions. Ultrapure soft water (UPSW) was generated by the water softener with cation-exchange resin. The calcium and magnesium ions were replaced with sodium ions in UPSW. Scedosporium apiospermum was incubated with different fatty acid salts that constituted soap in distilled water (DW), tap water (TW) and UPSW. After incubation, the number of fungi was counted. Among the fatty acids, palmitic acid salt (C16) reduced the number of S. apiospermum. UPSW enhanced the antifungal effect of C16 on S. apiospermum. The absence of both calcium and magnesium ions and the existence of sodium chloride in UPSW were responsible for its antifungal effect. In addition, repeated short-term treatment with UPSW and C16 decreased the number of S. apiospermum. Antifungal effects of C16 on S. apiospermum were demonstrated. Moreover, the use of UPSW promoted the antifungal effect of C16. This study provides the preventive method for diseases associated with S. apiospermum infection using novel palmitic acid soap in UPSW. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurkić Lela Munjas


    Full Text Available Abstract Silicon (Si is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4, as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K, the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel, silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide, and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4 in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources.

  9. Extraction of uranium from sea water by means of fibrous complex adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamatsu, Tokuhisa; Oguchi, Noboru; Kanchiku, Yoshihiko; Aoyagi, Takanobu


    Fibrous complex adsorbents for uranium extraction from sea water were prepared by introducing titanic acid or basic zinc carbonate as effective constituents into fibrous ion exchangers. A fibrous chelate type adsorbent was also tested. Among the adsorbents examined, the following ones demonstrated excellent properties for the recovery of uranium from sea water. a) A fibrous, weakly acidic cation exchanger was treated with titanyl sulfate in aqueous sulfuric acid solution, which was followed by neutralization to afford a fibrous adsorbent containing titanic acid (QC-1f(Ti)). The adsorption capacity for uranium in sea water was estimated by extrapolation to be 50μg-U/g-Ad or 1170 μg-U/g-Ti. b) A fibrous, strongly acidic cation exchanger was treated in a similar way to afford another type of fibrous adsorbent with titanic acid incorporated (QCS-Ti). The adsorption capacity was estimated by extrapolation to be 20-30 μg-U/g-Ad. (author)

  10. Pathophysiological aspect of metabolic acid-base disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešović-Ostojić Jelena


    Full Text Available Maintaing the arterial pH values (in normal range of 7,35-7,45 is one of the main principles of homeostasis. Regulatory responses, including chemical buffering (extracellular, intracellular, sceletal, the regulation of pCO2 by the respiratory system, and the regulation of [HCO3-] by the kidneys, act in concert to maintain normal arterial pH value. The main extracellular chemical buffer is bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system. The kidneys contribute to the regulation of hydrogen (and bicarbonate in body fluids in two ways. Proximal tubules are important in bicarbonate reabsorption and distal tubules excrete hydrogen ion (as ammonium ion or titratable acid. There are four simple acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis; respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic acidosis can occur because of an increase in endogenous acid production (such as lactate and ketoacids, loss of bicarbonate (as in diarrhea, or accumulation of endogenous acids (as in renal failure. Metabolic acidosis can also be with high and normal (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis anion gap. Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is a form of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis which occurs when the renal damage primarily affects tubular function. The main problem in distal RTA is reduced H+ excretion in distal tubule. Type 2 RTA is also called proximal RTA because the main problem is greatly impaired reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal tubule. Impaired cation exchange in distal tubule is the main problem in RTA type 4. Metabolic alkalosis occurs as a result of net gain of [HCO3-] or loss of nonvolatile acid from extracellular fluids. Metabolic alkalosis can be associated with reduced or increased extracellular volume.

  11. Sodium iron EDTA and ascorbic acid, but not polyphenol oxidase treatment, counteract the strong inhibitory effect of polyphenols from brown sorghum on the absorption of fortification iron in young women. (United States)

    Cercamondi, Colin I; Egli, Ines M; Zeder, Christophe; Hurrell, Richard F


    In addition to phytate, polyphenols (PP) might contribute to low Fe bioavailability from sorghum-based foods. To investigate the inhibitory effects of sorghum PP on Fe absorption and the potential enhancing effects of ascorbic acid (AA), NaFeEDTA and the PP oxidase enzyme laccase, we carried out three Fe absorption studies in fifty young women consuming dephytinised Fe-fortified test meals based on white and brown sorghum varieties with different PP concentrations. Fe absorption was measured as the incorporation of stable Fe isotopes into erythrocytes. In study 1, Fe absorption from meals with 17 mg PP (8·5%) was higher than that from meals with 73 mg PP (3·2%) and 167 mg PP (2·7%; P< 0·001). Fe absorption from meals containing 73 and 167 mg PP did not differ (P= 0·9). In study 2, Fe absorption from NaFeEDTA-fortified meals (167 mg PP) was higher than that from the same meals fortified with FeSO₄ (4·6 v. 2·7%; P< 0·001), but still it was lower than that from FeSO₄-fortified meals with 17 mg PP (10·7%; P< 0·001). In study 3, laccase treatment decreased the levels of PP from 167 to 42 mg, but it did not improve absorption compared with that from meals with 167 mg PP (4·8 v. 4·6%; P= 0·4), whereas adding AA increased absorption to 13·6% (P< 0·001). These findings suggest that PP from brown sorghum contribute to low Fe bioavailability from sorghum foods and that AA and, to a lesser extent, NaFeEDTA, but not laccase, have the potential to overcome the inhibitory effect of PP and improve Fe absorption from sorghum foods.

  12. Acid-base status of soils in groundwater discharge zones — relation to surface water acidification (United States)

    Norrström, Ann Catrine


    Critical load calculations have suggested that groundwater at depth of 2 m in Sweden is very sensitive to acid load. As environmental isotope studies have shown that most of the runoff in streams has passed through the soil, there is a risk in the near future of accelerated acidification of surface waters. To assess the importance of the last soil horizon of contact before discharge, the upper 0-0.2m of soils in seven discharge zones were analysed for pools of base cations, acidity and base saturation. The sites were about 3-4 m 2 in size and selected from two catchments exposed to different levels of acid deposition. The soils in the seven sites had high concentrations of exchangeable base cations and consequently high base saturation. The high correlation ( r2 = 0.74) between base saturation in the soils of the discharge zones and mean pH of the runoff waters suggested that the discharge zone is important for surface water acidification. The high pool of exchangeable base cations will buffer initially against the acid load. As the cation exchange capacity (meq dm -3) and base saturation were lower in the sites from the catchment receiving lower deposition, these streams may be more vulnerable to acidification in the near future. The high concentration of base cations in non-exchangeable fractions may also buffer against acidification as it is likely that some of these pools will become exchangeable with time.

  13. Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.


    Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund

  14. Weak Organic Acids Decrease Borrelia burgdorferi Cytoplasmic pH, Eliciting an Acid Stress Response and Impacting RpoN- and RpoS-Dependent Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Dulebohn


    Full Text Available The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi survives in its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis, or within various hosts. To transition between and survive in these distinct niches, B. burgdorferi changes its gene expression in response to environmental cues, both biochemical and physiological. Exposure of B. burgdorferi to weak monocarboxylic organic acids, including those detected in the blood meal of fed ticks, decreased the cytoplasmic pH of B. burgdorferi in vitro. A decrease in the cytoplasmic pH induced the expression of genes encoding enzymes that have been shown to restore pH homeostasis in other bacteria. These include putative coupled proton/cation exchangers, a putative Na+/H+ antiporter, a neutralizing buffer transporter, an amino acid deaminase and a proton exporting vacuolar-type VoV1 ATPase. Data presented in this report suggested that the acid stress response triggered the expression of RpoN- and RpoS-dependent genes including important virulence factors such as outer surface protein C (OspC, BBA66, and some BosR (Borreliaoxidative stress regulator-dependent genes. Because the expression of virulence factors, like OspC, are so tightly connected by RpoS to general cellular stress responses and cell physiology, it is difficult to separate transmission-promoting conditions in what is clearly a multifactorial and complex regulatory web.

  15. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI


    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  16. Strong WW Interaction at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez, Jose R


    We present a brief pedagogical introduction to the Effective Electroweak Chiral Lagrangians, which provide a model independent description of the WW interactions in the strong regime. When it is complemented with some unitarization or a dispersive approach, this formalism allows the study of the general strong scenario expected at the LHC, including resonances.

  17. Strong-back safety latch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSantis, G.N.


    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch

  18. Strong-back safety latch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSantis, G.N.


    The calculation decides the integrity of the safety latch that will hold the strong-back to the pump during lifting. The safety latch will be welded to the strong-back and will latch to a 1.5-in. dia cantilever rod welded to the pump baseplate. The static and dynamic analysis shows that the safety latch will hold the strong-back to the pump if the friction clamps fail and the pump become free from the strong-back. Thus, the safety latch will meet the requirements of the Lifting and Rigging Manual for under the hook lifting for static loading; it can withstand shock loads from the strong-back falling 0.25 inch.

  19. Sulfuric acid poisoning (United States)

    Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  20. Titanium: light, strong, and white (United States)

    Woodruff, Laurel; Bedinger, George


    Titanium (Ti) is a strong silver-gray metal that is highly resistant to corrosion and is chemically inert. It is as strong as steel but 45 percent lighter, and it is twice as strong as aluminum but only 60 percent heavier. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has a very high refractive index, which means that it has high light-scattering ability. As a result, TiO2 imparts whiteness, opacity, and brightness to many products. ...Because of the unique physical properties of titanium metal and the whiteness provided by TiO2, titanium is now used widely in modern industrial societies.

  1. Linoleic acid salt with ultrapure soft water as an antibacterial combination against dermato-pathogenic Staphylococcus spp. (United States)

    Jang, H; Makita, Y; Jung, K; Ishizaka, S; Karasawa, K; Oida, K; Takai, M; Matsuda, H; Tanaka, A


    Skin colonization of Staphylococcus spp. critically affects the severity of dermatitis in humans and animals. We examined different types of fatty acid salts for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus spp. when used in ultrapure soft water (UPSW). We also evaluated their therapeutic effect on a spontaneous canine model of dermatitis. UPSW, in which Ca(++) and Mg(++) were replaced with Na(+) , was generated using a water softener with cation-exchange resin. Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. aureus), Staphylococcus intermedius (Staph. intermedius), and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Staph. pseudintermedius) were incubated with various fatty acid salts in distilled water (DW) or UPSW and the number of bacteria was counted. Among the fatty acids, oleic acid salt and linoleic acid (LA) salt reduced the number of these bacteria. Also, UPSW enhanced the antibacterial effect of LA on Staph. spp. In spontaneously developed itchy dermatitis in companion dogs, shampoo treatment with liquid soap containing 10% LA in UPSW improved skin conditions. LA salt showed antibacterial activity against Staph. spp. Treatment with soap containing LA with UPSW reduced clinical conditions in dogs with dermatitis. Because colonization of Staph. spp. on the skin exacerbates dermatitis, the use of LA-containing soap in UPSW may reduce unpleasant clinical symptoms of the skin. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Ion-Exclusion High-Performance Liquid Chromatography of Aliphatic Organic Acids Using a Surfactant-Modified C18 Column. (United States)

    Fasciano, Jennifer M; Mansour, Fotouh R; Danielson, Neil D


    Ion exclusion chromatography (IELC) of short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids is normally done using a cation exchange column under standard HPLC conditions but not in the ultra-HPLC (UHPLC) mode. A novel IELC method for the separation of this class of carboxylic acids by either HPLC or UHPLC utilizing a C18 column dynamically modified with sodium dodecyl sulfate has been developed. The sample capacity is estimated to be near 10 mM for a 20 µL injection or 0.2 µmol using a 150 × 4.6 mm column. The optimum mobile phase determined for three standard mixtures of organic acids is 1.84 mM sulfuric acid at pH 2.43 and a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. Under optimized conditions, a HPLC separation of four aliphatic carboxylic acids such as tartaric, malonic, lactic and acetic can be achieved in under 4 min and in C18 column can be easily extended when needed to IELC under either standard or UHPLC conditions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  3. Effect of blastfurnace slag addition to Portland cement for cationic exchange resins encapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan L.


    Full Text Available In the nuclear industry, cement-based materials are extensively used to encapsulate spent ion exchange resins (IERs before their final disposal in a repository. It is well known that the cement has to be carefully selected to prevent any deleterious expansion of the solidified waste form, but the reasons for this possible expansion are not clearly established. This work aims at filling the gap. The swelling pressure of IERs is first investigated as a function of ions exchange and ionic strength. It is shown that pressures of a few tenths of MPa can be produced by decreases in the ionic strength of the bulk solution, or by ion exchanges (2Na+ instead of Ca2+, Na+ instead of K+. Then, the chemical evolution of cationic resins initially in the Na+ form is characterized in CEM I (Portland cement and CEM III (Portland cement + blastfurnace slag cements at early age and an explanation is proposed for the better stability of CEM III material.

  4. Modeling of cesium sorption on biotite using cation exchange selectivity coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kylloenen, Jarkko; Hakanen, Martti; Harjula, Risto; Lehto, Jukka [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Radiochemistry; Lindberg, Antero [Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Vehkamaeki, Marko [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Lab. of Inorganic Chemistry


    For the modeling of cesium sorption on biotite, samples of natural biotite separated from gneissic rocks were converted into monoionic potassium, sodium, and calcium forms, and sorption isotherms for Cs/K, Cs/Na and Cs/Ca exchange were determined at pH 6 and 8 in 10{sup -4}-10{sup -8} M Cs solutions. Selectivity coefficients for Cs/K, Cs/Na, and Cs/Ca ion exchange reactions were calculated from the isotherm data, using the Gaines-Thomas convention. At Cs loadings below 1% of the total ion exchange capacity, the overall selectivity coefficient for Cs/Ca exchange was approximately five and seven orders of magnitude higher than those for Cs/Na and Cs/K exchange, respectively. Based on the selectivity coefficients, the ion exchange isotherms were modeled with the U.S. Geological Survey PhreeqC program, assuming three different types of ion exchange site: sites on the basal planes on biotite crystal surfaces with 95% site abundance, probable interlayer sites on crystal edges [frayed edge sites (FESs)] (0.02%) and third-type sites (5%), the physical background of which is unclear. Of these three types, the FES sites were superior in Cs selectivity, while the planar sites exhibited the lowest selectivity, and the third-type sites had selectivity between these two. The functionality of the model was successfully verified by modeling the Cs sorption isotherms on crushed mica gneiss rock in saline groundwater. Determination of the exchangeable ions K, Na, Ca, and Cs on the basal plane and edge surfaces by scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) supports the results of modeling: edge sites highly prefer Cs ions and also Ca and Na ions but not K ions.

  5. PEDOT/PAMPS: an electrically conductive polymer composite with electrochromic and cation exchange properties


    Sönmez, Gürsel; Sonmez, Gursel; Schottland, Philippe; Reynolds, John R.


    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)/poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-l-propane sulfonate) (PAMPS) composite films were electrochemically prepared from a mixture of water and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) containing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) and the polyelectrolyte, PAMPS. The presence of PAMPS in the PEDOT matrix was confirmed by spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. Depending on the current density, the conductivity of PEDOT/PAMPS free standing composite films reached values of 80 ...

  6. Effect of cation exchange on the subsequent reactivity of lignite chars to steam. [108 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippo, E. J.; Walker, Jr., P. L.


    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the role which cations in coal play in the subsequent reactivity of chars. It is hoped that this investigation will aid in an understanding of the catalytic nature of inorganic constituents in coal during its gasification. It was found that increased heat treatment temperature decreased reactivity. The decrease in reactivity was shown to be due, at least in part, to the changes in the nature of the cation with increased heat treatment temperature. Reactivity was found to be a linear function of the amount of Ca(++) exchange on the demineralized coal. The constant utilization factor over the wide range of loadings employed indicated that below 800/sup 0/C the calcium did not markedly sinter. Potassium, sodium, and calcium-containing chars were found to be much more reactive than the iron and magnesium-containing chars. However, the iron and magnesium containing chars were more reactive than chars produced from the demineralized coal. The iron char was highly active at first but the iron phase was quickly oxidized to a comparatively unreactive ..gamma..Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/-Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/ phase. The state of magnesium was found to be MgO. Sodium and calcium were equally active as catalysts but not as active as potassium.

  7. Use of Novel Reinforced Cation Exchange Membranes for Microbial Fuel Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaraj, Sathish-Kumar; Romano, Sergio Mollá; Moreno, Vicente Compañ; Poggi-Varaldo, H.M.; Solorza-Feria, O.


    This work has been focused on the synthesis and characterization of different blended membranes SPEEK-35PVA (Water), SPEEK-35PVA (DMAc) prepared by casting and nanofiber-reinforced proton exchange membranes Nafion-PVA-15, Nafion-PVA-23 and SPEEK/PVA-PVB. The two first reinforced membranes were made up of Nafion® polymer deposited between polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers. The last composite membrane is considered because the PVA is a hydrophilic polymer which forms homogeneous blends with SPEEK suitable to obtain high proton conductivity, while the hydrophobic PVB can produce blends in a phase separation morphology in which very low water uptake can be found. The synthesized membranes showed an outstanding stability, high proton conductivity, and enhanced mechanical and barrier properties. The membranes were characterized in single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) using electrochemically enriched high sodic saline hybrid H-inocula (Geobacter metallireducen, Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus, and Marinobacter adhaerens) as biocatalyst. The best performance was obtained with Nafion-PVA-15 membrane, which achieved a maximum power density of 1053 mW/m 3 at a cell voltage of 340 mV and displayed the lowest total internal resistance (Rint ≈ 522 Ω). This result is in agreement with the low oxygen permeability and the moderate conductivity found in this kind of membranes. These results are encouraging towards obtaining high concentrated sodic saline model wastewater exploiting MFCs

  8. Cation Exchange Resins and colonic perforation. What surgeons need to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rita Rodríguez-Luna


    Conclusion: Despite the low incidence of colonic complication and lethal colonic necrosis associated with the CER clinical use, the general surgeon needs a high index of suspicion when dealing with patients treated with CER and abdominal pain.

  9. Modification of Nafion Membranes by IL-Cation Exchange: Chemical Surface, Electrical and Interfacial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romero


    A study of time evolution of the impedance curves measured in the system “IL aqueous solution/Nafion-112 membrane/IL aqueous solution” was also performed. This study allows us monitoring the electrical changes associated to the IL-cation incorporation in both the membrane and the membrane/IL solution interface, and it provides supplementary information on the characteristic of the Nafion/DTA+ hybrid material. Moreover, the results also show the significant effect of water on the electrical resistance of the Nafion-112/IL-cation-modified membrane.

  10. Cation exchange in a temporally fluctuating thin freshwater lens on top of saline groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeman, S.; Louw, de P.G.B.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.


    In coastal-zone fields with a high groundwater level and sufficient rainfall, freshwater lenses are formed on top of saline or brackish groundwater. The fresh and the saline water meet at shallow depth, where a transition zone is found. This study investigates the mixing zone that is characterized

  11. Tests of the use of cation exchange organic resins for the decontamination of radioactive aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdrez, Jean; Girault, Jacques; Wormser, Gerald


    The authors report tests performed in laboratory and results obtained during an investigation of the use of synthetic ion exchangers for the decontamination of radioactive effluents of moderate activity level and with a non neglectable salt loading. Resins are used under sodium form and regenerated after each fixing operation. Once decontaminated and free of its disturbing ions, the regenerating agent (NaCl) is used for several operations. The authors present the used resins, the treated effluents, describe the tests, and discuss the obtained results [fr

  12. Reach-scale cation exchange controls on major ion chemistry of an Antarctic glacial meltwater stream (United States)

    Gooseff, Michael N.; McKnight, Diane M.; Runkel, Robert L.


    McMurdo dry valleys of Antarctica represent the largest of the ice-free areas on the Antarctic continent, containing glaciers, meltwater streams, and closed basin lakes. Previous geochemical studies of dry valley streams and lakes have addressed chemical weathering reactions of hyporheic substrate and geochemical evolution of dry valley surface waters. We examine cation transport and exchange reactions during a stream tracer experiment in a dry valley glacial meltwater stream. The injection solution was composed of dissolved Li+, Na+, K+, and Cl-. Chloride behaved conservatively in this stream, but Li+, Na+, and K+ were reactive to varying degrees. Mass balance analysis indicates that relative to Cl-, Li+ and K+ were taken up in downstream transport and Na+ was released. Simulations of conservative and reactive (first-order uptake or generation) solute transport were made with the OTIS (one-dimensional solute transport with inflow and storage) model. Among the four experimental reaches of Green Creek, solute transport simulations reveal that Li+ was removed from stream water in all four reaches, K+ was released in two reaches, taken up in one reach, and Na+ was released in all four reaches. Hyporheic sediments appear to be variable with uptake of Li+ in two reaches, uptake of K+ in one reach, release of K+ in two reaches, and uptake of Na+ in one reach. Mass balances of the conservative and reactive simulations show that from 1.05 to 2.19 moles of Li+ was adsorbed per reach, but less than 0.3 moles of K+ and less than 0.9 moles of Na+ were released per reach. This suggests that either (1) exchange of another ion which was not analyzed in this experiment or (2) that both ion exchange and sorption control inorganic solute transport. The elevated cation concentrations introduced during the experiment are typical of initial flows in each flow season, which flush accumulated dry salts from the streambed. We propose that the bed sediments (which compose the hyporheic zone) modulate the flushing of these salts during initial flows each season, due to ion exchange and sorption reactions.

  13. 3D Digital Mapping of Soil Cation Exchange Capacity in Dorud, Lorestan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taghizadeh Mehrjerdi


    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for reliable large-scale soil datato meet the requirements of models for planning of land-usesystems, characterization of soil pollution, and prediction ofland degradation. Cation exchangecapacity (CEC is among the most important soil propertiesthat are required in soil databases. This paper applied a novel method for whole-soil profile predictions of CEC (to 1 m across Dorudlocated in LorestanProvince. At present research, we combined equal-area spline depth functions with digital soil mapping techniques to predict the vertical and lateral variations of CEC across the study area where limited soil information exists (103 soil profiles. To model the relationship between CEC and environmental factors (i.e. Representative soil forming factors, derived from a digital elevation model and Landsat imagery, a regression tree was applied. Results indicated that some auxiliary data had more influence on the prediction model (i.e. B3 and modified catchment area. Our results also confirmed the regression tree model predicted target variable at the five specific depths with coefficient of determination of 0.84, 0.84, 0.84, 0.66, 0.27 and root mean square of 1.75, 1.84, 1.84, 2.11, and 2.16, respectively. Results showed a reasonable R2 in first four depths ranged from 0.66 to 0.84; while, it decreases to 0.27 in the last depth. Our results also confirmed that the regression tree as a predictive model, digital soil mappingtechniqueand equal area splinesare powerful tools to predict lateral and vertical variation of CEC.

  14. Magnetic cation exchange isolation of lysozyme from native hen egg white

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Maděrová, Zdeňka; Tokar, O.; Šafaříková, Miroslava


    Roč. 45, - (2007), s. 355-359 ISSN 1330-9862 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1P05OC053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : magnetic separation * lysozyme * hen egg white Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 0.906, year: 2007

  15. Acute Hypocalcemia and Metabolic Alkalosis in Children on Cation-Exchange Resin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Kakajiwala


    Full Text Available Background. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS is a chelating agent used for the treatment of hyperkalemia. SPS has a wide range of exchange capacity requiring close monitoring of serum electrolytes. We observed two patients who developed acute hypocalcemia and increased metabolic alkalosis after initiating SPS therapy. We report these cases to draw attention to the potential risk of this medication in pediatric patients. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Two children with chronic kidney disease on dialysis were started on SPS for hyperkalemia. Within a week after initiation of the medication, both patients developed hypocalcemia on routine labs without overt clinical manifestations. The hypocalcemia was rapidly corrected with oral supplementation and discontinuation of SPS. Conclusions. Severe hypocalcemia can develop after SPS therapy. The metabolic alkalosis in these patients associated with the hypocalcemia put them at increased risk for complications. Hence, careful attention must be paid to the state of calcium metabolism in all patients receiving SPS. Often calcium supplementation is required to maintain normal calcium levels.

  16. Synergistic extraction and separation of yttrium from heavy rare earths using mixture of sec-octylphenoxy acetic acid and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaobo; Zhao Junmei; Meng Shulan; Li Deqian


    Synergistic extraction and separation of yttrium (Y) from heavy rare earths (HRE) in chloride medium using mixture of sec-octylphenoxy acetic acid (CA-12, HA) and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinic acid (Cyanex272, HL) in n-heptane has been investigated. The synergistic enhancement coefficients, R max , were obtained for Ho 3+ (5.12), Y 3+ (5.34), Er 3+ (7.04), Tm 3+ (7.50), Yb 3+ (13.12) and Lu 3+ (17.58). The separation factors (SF) between Y 3+ and HRE were obtained, and it was found that Er 3+ would form the new complex as ErH 6 A 4 L 5 in the mixture system. A cation exchange mechanism was proposed. The equilibrium constant, formation constant and thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG = -18.48 kJ/mol, ΔH = -1.36 kJ/mol and ΔS = 0.058 kJ/mol were determined. The CA-12 and Cyanex272 mixture system showed higher extraction efficiency, larger separation factors as well as excellent stripping behaviors. The application potential of the mixture system to separate Y from HRE has been discussed

  17. Extraction of molybdenum by the di-n-butyl 2.2.N.hydroxyhexanamide (tri-n-butylacetohydroxamic acid) from aqueous acidic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landesman, C.


    The design of a new industrial process for the production of the fission product 99 Mo, led to study of the extraction of 99 Mo(VI) by the tri-n-butylacetohydroxamic acid (TBAH). Due to the large affinity of TBAH for Mo(VI), the study was conducted with unusual experimental conditions : the concentrations of the extracting molecule and metallic ion were very low, typically CTBAH = 10 -5 M and CMo(VI) = 10 -8 M. The overall extraction system was described using a mathematical model quite simple, which, in particular, takes into account all the Mo(VI) species present in the aqueous phase. When the extractions were carried out from a perchloric acid medium, two different extraction mechanisms of Mo(VI) were identified : for C HC10 4 3 , the extraction of Mo(VI) corresponds to a cationic exchange, whereas for C HC10 4 > 3 mol/dm 3 , a neutral Mo(VI) compound is extracted. Moreover it was found that the extracting system Mo(VI)/TBAH is extremely sensitive to the temperature. It is thus possible to change the way of the transfer of Mo(VI) between the two phases, by control of the temperature of the mixture : the extraction is carried out at room temperature and the back-extraction at elevated temperature

  18. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.


    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  19. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi


    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  20. Elucidating the effects of pH shift on IgG1 monoclonal antibody acidic charge variant levels in Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures. (United States)

    Xie, Panpan; Niu, Huijie; Chen, Xinning; Zhang, Xintao; Miao, Shiwei; Deng, Xiancun; Liu, Xuping; Tan, Wen-Song; Zhou, Yan; Fan, Li


    Charge variants, especially acidic charge variants, in recombinant monoclonal antibodies are critical quality attributes, which can affect antibodies' properties in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, charge variants are cumulative effects of various post-translational modifications and chemical degradations on antibody. In this work, to investigate the effect of lowering culture pH in the stationary phase on acidic charge variant contents in fed-batch cultures and its mechanism, cell culture experiments in 2-L bioreactors were firstly performed to explore the changes in the charge distribution under the pH downshift condition using weak cation exchange chromatography. It is found that acidic charge variant contents were significantly decreased by pH downshift. Then, to reveal the mechanism by which the content of acidic charge variants is reduced under pH downshift condition, the variation of post-translational modifications and chemical degradations under the pH downshift condition was explored. Meanwhile, the structure of the acidic charge variants was characterized. Several analysis experiments including size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate under non-reducing conditions, tryptic peptide map, and reduced antibody mass were applied in this study. The results show that the mechanism by which the content of acidic charge variants is reduced is that the contents of disulfide bond reduction, galactosylation, and asparagine deamination of the HC-N388 in the Fc domain were reduced by pH downshift.

  1. Lysimeter study with a cambric arenosol exposed to artificial acid rain: I. Concentrations of ions in leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogn, T.A.; Abrahamsen, G.; Stuanes, A.O.


    The effects of artificial acid rain on soil leachate composition were studied in a lysimeter experiment. Cambic Arenosol (Typic Udipsamment) in monolith lysimeters was treated for 6 1/2 year with 125 mm yr -1 artificial rain in addition to natural precipitation. Artificial acid rain was produced from groundwater with H 2 SO 4 added. pH levels of 6.1, 4 and 3 were used. Increasing content of H 2 SO 4 in the artificial rain increased the concentration of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in the leachate significantly. The pH of the leachate was slightly reduced only by the most acidic treatment (pH 3). The H + retention was not accompanied by a proportionate increase in the Al ion concentration. A slight increase in the Al ion concentration was only observed in the leachate from the pH 3-treated lysimeter. It is concluded that cation exchange and/or weathering were the main buffer mechanisms in the soil. The study supports conclusions from other acidification studies, that acidic precipitation is likely to increase the leaching of Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ from soils. 25 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Studies on rapid ion-exchange separation of the transplutonium elements with mineral acid-methanol mixed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usuda, Shigekazu


    In order to study properties of short-lived transplutonium nuclides synthesized by heavy-ion bombardment, three methods for rapid separation of tri-valent transplutonium elements by ion-exchange chromatography with mineral acid-methanol mixed media at elevated temperature were investigated. The first separation method was anion-exchange chromatography with nitric acid-methanol mixed media. The second method was anion-exchange choromatography with dilute hydrochloric acid-methanol mixed media. The third method was improved cation-exchange chromatography with single-column operation using the mixed media of hydrochloric acid and methanol. The separation methods developed were found applicable to studies on synthesis of the trans-plutonium nuclides, 250 Fm (T 1/2 :30 min), 244,245,246 Cf (T 1/2 :20 min, 46 min and 35.7 h, respectively) from the 16 O + 238 U and 12 C + 242 Pu reactions, and on the decay property of 245 Cf. Attempts to search for new actinide nuclides, such as 240 U and neutron deficient nuclides of Am, Cm and Bk, were made by a quick purification. The separation system was also applied to the rapid and effective separation of Nd, Am and Cm from spent nuclear fuel samples, for burn-up determination. (J.P.N.) 242 refs

  3. Acidity and origin of dissolved organic carbon in different vegetation zones (United States)

    Hruška, Jakub; Oulehle, Filip; Myška, Oldřích; Chuman, Tomáš


    The acid/base character of aquatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been studied intensively during recent decades with regard to the role of DOC in stream water acidity and the balance between natural acidity and anthropogenic acidification. Recently, DOC has been shown to play an important role in preindustrial surface waters. Studies focused on the acid/base properties of DOC have been carried out in mainly in Europe and North America and paint a conflicting picture. Some studies reported large differences in acid base properties, sometimes between quite similar and nearby localities, or between seasons at the same site. Other studies, however, found similar acid/base properties in waters from a variety of sites, sometimes far from each other as well as stable acid/base properties at the same site through different seasons or runoff events. Site density of DOC (amount of carboxylic groups per milligram of DOC) and SUVA was measured for streams (or small tundra ponds respectively) from the tundra in northern Alaska, boreal zone of Sweden, western Czech Republic (temperate region), and tropical Congo rain forest in central Africa. At least 10 samples from each region were taken from surface waters during the growing season. Titration of carboxylic groups after proton saturation on cation-exchange resin was used for site density determination. Despite very different climatic and vegetation properties and internal variation within a region, there was no statistically significant difference among regions for site density (it varied between 10.2-10.5 ueq/mg DOC) as well as for SUVA (tested by ANOVA). Results suggest that different vegetation and climate produced generally the same DOC in respect of acid/base character and SUVA. It also suggests that use of the one analytical technique was more important than differences between climatic zones itself.

  4. Effect of soil acidity factors on yields and foliar composition of tropical root crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruna-Rodriguez, F.; Vicente-Chandler, J.I. Rivera, E.; Rodriguez, J.


    Tropical root crops, a major source of food for subsistence farmers, varied in their sensitivity to soil acidity factors. Tolerance to soil acidity is an important characteristic of crops for the humid tropics where soils are often very acid and lime-scarce and expensive. Experiments on two Ultisols and an Oxisol showed that three tropical root crops differed markedly in sensitivity to soil acicity factors. Yams (Dioscorea alata L.) were very sensitive to soil acidity with yields on a Ultisol decreasing from 70% of maximum when Al saturation of the effective cation exchange capacity of the soil was 10 to 25% of maximum when Al saturation was 40%. On the other hand, cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) was very tolerant to high levels of soil acidity, yielding about 85% of maximum with 60% Al saturation. Taniers (Xanthosoma sp.) were intermediate between yams and cassava in their tolerance to soil acidity yielding about 60% of maximum with 50% Al saturation of the soil. Foliar composition of cassava was not affected by soil acidity levels and that of yams and taniers was also unaffected except for Ca content which decreased with decreasing soil pH and increasing Al saturation.Response of these tropical root crops to soil acidity components was far more striking on Ultisols than on the Oxisol. For yams, soils should be limed to about pH 5.5 with essentially no exhangeable Al/sup 3 +/ present whereas high yields of taniers can be obtained at about pH 4.8 with 20% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/ and of cassava at pH as low as 4.5 with 60% exchangeable Al/sup 3 +/.

  5. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.


    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...

  6. Strong interaction at finite temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We review two methods discussed in the literature to determine the effective parameters of strongly interacting particles as they move through a heat bath. The first one is the general method of chiral perturbation theory, which may be readily applied to this problem. The other is the method of thermal QCD sum rules ...

  7. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji


    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders.

  8. Strong-strong beam-beam simulation on parallel computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Ji


    The beam-beam interaction puts a strong limit on the luminosity of the high energy storage ring colliders. At the interaction points, the electromagnetic fields generated by one beam focus or defocus the opposite beam. This can cause beam blowup and a reduction of luminosity. An accurate simulation of the beam-beam interaction is needed to help optimize the luminosity in high energy colliders

  9. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.


    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  10. On synergistic effects in uranyl sulfate extraction by mixtures of organophosphoric acids with oil sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgov, V.G.; Us, T.V.


    Extraction properties of mixtures of organophosphoric acids (HX) of different compositions (di-2-ethylhexyldithiophosphoric (D2EHDTPA), di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric (D2EHPA), amyl-2-ethylhexylphosphonic (A2EHPA) and diheptylphosphinic (DHPA)) with oil sulfoxides (B) with respect to uranyl sulfate in an iodide range of its concentrations were compared. The presence of cation-exchange (at low HX saturations) and noncation-exchange (after HX saturations) synergistic effects was established. Their nature is the same one and is related with urabium atom acceptor ability in acid and neutral uranyl salts to add B and UO 2 SO 4 xB respectively. HX are arranged in the following series with respect to synergistic effect: D2EHDTPA > D2EHPA > A2EHPA > DHPA. The series is opposite to the stability series of intracomplexes (IC) of HX with uranyl. A quantitative description of the process of UO 2 SO 4 xB addition to IC was given and corresponding extraction constants were determined

  11. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando


    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  12. Strongly Correlated Systems Theoretical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Avella, Adolfo


    The volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern theoretical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciates consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as po...

  13. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando


    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  14. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija


    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  15. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven


    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  16. Interaction between uranium and humic acid (II): complexation, precipitation and migration behavior of U(VI) in the presence of humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Jiali; Li Bing; Yang Yuanyou; Jin Jiannan; Liu Ning; Wen Wei; Zhang Dong; Kang Houjun; Yang Yong


    The complexation, precipitation, and migration behavior of uranium in the presence of humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA) were investigated by cation exchange, ultrafiltration and dynamic experiment, respectively. The results showed that (i) complex equilibrium between the uranium and humic substances was achieved at approximately 72 h, (ii) the coordination number varied from 1:1 to 1:2 (U(VI): humic acid) as pH increased from 3 to 6; and (iii), while the complex stability constant decreased when temperature increased, but increased with pH value. We found that the precipitation of uranyl could only be observed in presence of HA, and the precipitation was influenced by conditions, such as pH, uranium concentration, temperature, and the HA concentration. The maximum precipitation proportion up to 60% could be achieved in the condition of 40 mg/L HA solution at pH 6. We further observed that the migration behavior of uranium in soil in the presence of humic acid (HA) or fulvic acid (FA) was different from that in the presence of inorganic colloid, and the effect of humic substances (HS) was limited. (authors)

  17. Production of L-malic acid with fixation of HCO3(-) by malic enzyme-catalyzed reaction based on regeneration of coenzyme on electrode modified by layer-by-layer self-assembly method. (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; Ohno, Yoko; Nakamori, Toshihiko; Suye, Shin-Ichiro


    Malic enzyme prepared and purified from Brevundimonas diminuta IFO13182 catalyzed the decarboxylation reaction of malate to pyruvate and CO2 using NAD+ as the coenzyme, and the reverse reaction was used in the present study for L-malic acid production with fixation of HCO3(-) as a model compound for carbon source. The L-malic acid production was based on electrochemical regeneration of NADH on a carbon plate electrode modified by layer-by-layer adsorption of polymer-bound mediator (Alginic acid bound viologen derivative, Alg-V), polymer-bound coenzyme (Alginic acid bound NAD+, Alg-NAD+), and lipoamide dehydrogenase (LipDH). Electrochemical reduction of immobilized NAD+ catalyzed by LipDH in a multilayer film was achieved, and the L-malic acid production with HCO3(-) fixation system with layer-by-layer immobilization of Alg-V/LipDH/Alg-NAD+/malic enzyme multilayer film on the electrode gave an L-malic acid production of nearly 11.9 mmol and an HCO3(-) fixation rate of nearly 47.4% in a buffer containing only KHCO3 and pyruvic acid potassium salt, using a cation exchange membrane. The total turnover number of NADH within 48 h was about 19,000, which suggests that efficient NADH regeneration and fast electron transfer were achieved within the multilayer film, and that the modified electrode is a potential method for the fixation of HCO3(-) without addition of free coenzyme.

  18. Ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kunio


    Radiation grafting is gaining attention as a method for producing high performance materials. This method can be applied to add functions to existing polymer plastics. The author participated in the research program on the production of ion exchange fiber by radiation grafting and its applicability at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment. Consequently, it was clarified that it was possible to introduce the cation exchange group, represented by sulfonic and carboxyl groups, and the anion exchange group, represented by the quarternary ammonium group, to polypropylene fiber available on the market. The ion exchange capacity was able to be controlled by the degree of grafting, i.e. approximately up to 3 meq/g in both strong acid and strong base and approximately up to 5 meq/g in weak acid were obtained. The adsorption performance of ammonia, a representative malodorous substance, was also studied using test cation exchange fiber. The adsorption rate of H type strong acid cation exchange fiber was great, due to the H type having neutral reaction, and the adsorption capacity matched the ion exchange capacity. Although the Cu and Ni types features coordinated adsorption and their adsorption rates were from 1/2 to 1/3 of that of the H type, their adsorption capacities showed increase along with the metal adsorbed. (author)

  19. Synthesis and implication of novel poly(acrylic acid)/nanosorbent embedded hydrogel composite for lead ion removal. (United States)

    Bhatia, Mayuri; Rajulapati, Satish Babu; Sonawane, Shirish; Girdhar, Amandeep


    Lead stands second among the deadly heavy metal pollutants owing to the incompetent mechanism possessed by the human body for its removal. A polymeric hydrogel in the form of composite was prepared using acrylic acid (monomer) and novel nanofiller that possess super adsorbent properties with restricted gel seepage into flowing ionic liquid. The filler used is an adsorbent which is biocompatible, biodegradable, economical, abundant, non-hazardous and easy to synthesize. The invariably porous nanofiller, the Nanobentonite(clay), was synthesized using ion exchange reaction by creating acidic environment for accelerated dispersion with exfoliation by CTAB to enhance cation exchange capacity. NanobentoFnite was capable of removing >97% lead ion in batch adsorption study and followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Freundlich isotherm suggested a removal capacity of ~20 mg/g. Thus, the successfully experimented adsorbent was implicated as filler to form polyacrylic acid nanoclay hydrogel polymerized in ultrasonic bath. The amount of filler was varied from 0.25 to 2 wt% to get 94% removal, analyzed using ICP-OES. The prepared adsorbents were characterized before and after adsorption using TEM, FESEM, XRD, FTIR and DSC to understand the structural changes and metal-sorbent interaction. Thus, the novel nanosorbent/composite are promiscuous and competent in terms of availability, reusability and longevity to remove heavy metal ions.

  20. Atoms in strong laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, A.


    When a high-power laser focuses into a gas of atoms, the electromagnetic field becomes of the same magnitude as the Coulomb field which binds a 1s electron in a hydrogen atom. 3 highly non-linear phenomena can happen: 1) ATI (above threshold ionization): electrons initially in the ground state absorb a large number of photons, many more than the minimum number required for ionization; 2) multiple ionization: many electrons can be emitted one at a time, in a sequential process, or simultaneously in a mechanism called direct or non-sequential; and 3) high order harmonic generation (HHG): efficient photon emission in the extreme ultraviolet range, in the form of high-order harmonics of the fundamental laser field can occur. The theoretical problem consists in solving the time dependent Schroedinger equation (TDSE) that describes the interaction of a many-electron atom with a laser field. A number of methods have been proposed to solve this problem in the case of a hydrogen atom or a single-active electron atom in a strong laser field. A large effort is presently being devoted to go beyond the single-active approximation. The understanding of the physics of the interaction between atoms and strong laser fields has been provided by a very simple model called ''simple man's theory''. A unified view of HHG, ATI, and non-sequential ionization, originating from the simple man's model and the strong field approximation, expressed in terms of electrons trajectories or quantum paths is slowly emerging. (A.C.)

  1. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Bruggisser, Francesco Riva, Alfredo Urbano


    Full Text Available In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  2. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo


    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  3. Rydberg atoms in strong fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppner, D.; Tsimmerman, M.


    Experimental and theoretical achievements in studying Rydberg atoms in external fields are considered. Only static (or quasistatic) fields and ''one-electron'' atoms, i.e. atoms that are well described by one-electron states, are discussed. Mainly behaviour of alkali metal atoms in electric field is considered. The state of theoretical investigations for hydrogen atom in magnetic field is described, but experimental data for atoms of alkali metals are presented as an illustration. Results of the latest experimental and theoretical investigations into the structure of Rydberg atoms in strong fields are presented

  4. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao


    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  5. Strong Plate, Weak Slab Dichotomy (United States)

    Petersen, R. I.; Stegman, D. R.; Tackley, P.


    Models of mantle convection on Earth produce styles of convection that are not observed on Earth.Moreover non-Earth-like modes, such as two-sided downwellings, are the de facto mode of convection in such models.To recreate Earth style subduction, i.e. one-sided asymmetric recycling of the lithosphere, proper treatment of the plates and plate interface are required. Previous work has identified several model features that promote subduction. A free surface or pseudo-free surface and a layer of material with a relatively low strength material (weak crust) allow downgoing plates to bend and slide past overriding without creating undue stress at the plate interface. (Crameri, et al. 2012, GRL)A low viscosity mantle wedge, possibly a result of slab dehydration, decouples the plates in the system. (Gerya et al. 2007, Geo)Plates must be composed of material which, in the case of the overriding plate, are is strong enough to resist bending stresses imposed by the subducting plate and yet, as in the case of the subducting plate, be weak enough to bend and subduct when pulled by the already subducted slab. (Petersen et al. 2015, PEPI) Though strong surface plates are required for subduction such plates may present a problem when they encounter the lower mantle.As the subducting slab approaches the higher viscosity, lower mantle stresses are imposed on the tip.Strong slabs transmit this stress to the surface.There the stress field at the plate interface is modified and potentially modifies the style of convection. In addition to modifying the stress at the plate interface, the strength of the slab affects the morphology of the slab at the base of the upper mantle. (Stegman, et al 2010, Tectonophysics)Slabs that maintain a sufficient portion of their strength after being bent require high stresses to unbend or otherwise change their shape.On the other hand slabs that are weakened though the bending process are more amenable to changes in morphology. We present the results of

  6. A Quick Reference on Anion Gap and Strong Ion Gap. (United States)

    Torrente Artero, Carlos


    Metabolic acid-base disorders are common in emergency and critically ill patients. Clinicians may have difficulty recognizing their presence when multiple acid-base derangements are present in a single patient simultaneously. The anion gap and the strong ion gap concepts are useful calculations to identify the components of complex metabolic acid-base associated to the presence of unmeasured anions. This article presents their definition, normal values, indications, limitations, and guidelines for interpretation of changes in the clinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian


    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  8. Thermoset polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites (United States)

    Wang, Zhen

    Nanocomposites are formed when phase mixing occurs on a nanometer length scale. Due to the improved phase morphology and interfacial properties, nanocomposites exhibit mechanical properties superior to conventional composites. Toyota researchers first demonstrated that organoclay could be exfoliated in a nylon-6 matrix to greatly improve the thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer, which has resulted in a practical application in the automobile industry. A great deal of research has been conducted on organic-inorganic hybrid composites in which smectite clays are used as reinforcement agents. However, little work has been devoted to derivatives of other layered inorganic solids. In the present work, the first examples of organic polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites have been prepared by formation of a cured epoxy polymer network in the presence of organo cation exchange forms of magadiite. The exfoliation of silicate nanolayers in the epoxy matrix was achieved by in-situ intragallery polymerization during the thermosetting process. In general, the tensile properties, solvent resistance, barrier properties and chemical stability of the polymer matrix are greatly improved by the embedded silicate nanolayers when the matrix is flexible (sub-ambient Tg). The improvement of properties are dependent on the silicate loading, the degree of nanolayer separation and interfacial properties. Interestingly, the exfoliation also affects the polymer elasticity in a favorable way. The mechanism leading to nanocomposite formation is proposed. One exfoliated epoxy-magadiite nanocomposite/composition possessed unique transparent optical properties. The exfoliation chemistry was successfully extended to the other members of the layered silicic acid family. A new approach also was developed to prepare thermoset epoxy polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites in which curing agents can be directly intercalated into the intragallery without the need for alkylammonium ions

  9. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)


    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  10. Method for removing cesium from aqueous liquid, method for purifying the reactor coolant in boiling water and pressurized water reactors and a mixed ion exchanged resin bed, useful in said purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otte, J.N.A.; Liebmann, D.


    The invention relates to a method for removing cesium from an aqueous liquid, and to a resin bed containing a mixture of an anion exchange resin and cation exchange resin useful in said purification. In a preferred embodiment, the present invention is a method for purifying the reactor coolant of a presurized water or boiling water reactor. Said method, which is particularly advantageously employed in purifying the reactor coolant in the primary circuit of a pressurized reactor, comprises contacting at least a portion of the reactor coolant with a strong base anion exchange resin and the strong acid cation exchange resin derived from a highly cross-linked, macroporous copolymer of a monovinylidene aromatic and a cross-linking monomer copolymerizable therewith. Although the reactor coolant can sequentially be contacted with one resin type and thereafter with the second resin type, the contact is preferably conducted using a resin bed comprising a mixture of the cation and anion exchange resins. 1 fig., refs

  11. Study of molybdenum (VI) complexation and precipitation by zirconium (IV) in strongly acid medium. Application to nuclear spent fuel dissolution; Etude de la complexation et de la precipitation du molybdene (VI) par le zirconium (IV) en milieu tres acide. Application a la dissolution du combustible nucleaire irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esbelin, E


    These last years the formation of solid deposits has been observed in the dissolution workshops of the La Hague plant. A sample of the solid was withdrawn for expertise: molybdenum and zirconium are the two major components of the solid, identified as zirconium molybdate. This thesis consisted in the approach of the mechanisms in solution liable to induce precipitate formation. After a bibliographical overview on the chemistry of Mo(VI) in highly acidic solution, this system was studied by absorption spectrophotometry in perchloric medium. The implication of two major forms of Mo(VI) in a dimerization equilibrium was confirmed by this way and by {sup 95}Mo NMR. The principal parameters governing this equilibrium were identified. It is thus shown that the molybdenum dimerization reaction is exothermic. Disturbance of the Mo(VI) system in highly acidic solution by Zr(IV) was also studied. In a restricted experimental field, for which 'conventional' exploitation methodologies had to be adapted to the system, a main complex of stoichiometry 1:1 between Mo(VI) and Zr(IV) was found. The precipitation study of Mo(VI) by Zr(IV) under conditions close to those of the dissolution medium of nuclear spent fuel was undertaken. The main parameters which control precipitation kinetics were identified. The results obtained reveal that precipitation is controlled by a single macroscopic process and therefore can be described by a single equation. The solid obtained is composed of only one phase presenting a Mo:Zr non-stoichiometry when compared to the theoretical formula ZrMo{sub 2}O{sub 7}(OH){sub 2},2H{sub 2}O. At last, on the basis of the research results, a descriptive mechanism of the system is proposed in which intervenes a 1:1 intermediate complex, much more soluble than a probable 2:1 precipitation precursor. (author)

  12. Strongly coupled dust coulomb clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Wentau; Lai Yingju; Chen Mingheng; I Lin


    The structures and motions of quasi-2-dimensional strongly coupled dust Coulomb clusters with particle number N from few to hundreds in a cylindrical rf plasma trap are studied and compared with the results from the molecular dynamic simulation using more ideal models. Shell structures with periodic packing in different shells and intershell rotational motion dominated excitations are observed at small N. As N increases, the boundary has less effect, the system recovers to the triangular lattice with isotropic vortex type cooperative excitations similar to an infinite N system except the outer shell region. The above generic behaviors are mainly determined by the system symmetry and agree with the simulation results. The detailed interaction form causes minor effect such as the fine structure of packing

  13. Probability densities in strong turbulence (United States)

    Yakhot, Victor


    In this work we, using Mellin’s transform combined with the Gaussian large-scale boundary condition, calculate probability densities (PDFs) of velocity increments P(δu,r), velocity derivatives P(u,r) and the PDF of the fluctuating dissipation scales Q(η,Re), where Re is the large-scale Reynolds number. The resulting expressions strongly deviate from the Log-normal PDF P(δu,r) often quoted in the literature. It is shown that the probability density of the small-scale velocity fluctuations includes information about the large (integral) scale dynamics which is responsible for the deviation of P(δu,r) from P(δu,r). An expression for the function D(h) of the multifractal theory, free from spurious logarithms recently discussed in [U. Frisch, M. Martins Afonso, A. Mazzino, V. Yakhot, J. Fluid Mech. 542 (2005) 97] is also obtained.

  14. Formation of uniform carrot-like Cu31S16-CuInS2 heteronanostructures assisted by citric acid at the oil/aqueous interface. (United States)

    Li, Yongjie; Tang, Aiwei; Liu, Zhenyang; Peng, Lan; Yuan, Yi; Shi, Xifeng; Yang, Chunhe; Teng, Feng


    A simple two-phase strategy was developed to prepare Cu 31 S 16 -CuInS 2 heterostructures (HNS) at the oil/aqueous interface, in which the In(OH) 3 phase was often obtained in the products due to the reaction between indium ions and hydroxyl ions in the aqueous phase. To prevent the formation of the In(OH) 3 phase, citric acid was incorporated into the aqueous phase to assist in the synthesis of uniform carrot-like Cu 31 S 16 -CuInS 2 semiconductor HNS at the oil/aqueous interface for the first time. By manipulating the dosage of citric acid and Cu/In precursor ratios, the morphology of the Cu 31 S 16 -CuInS 2 HNS could be tailored from mushroom to carrot-like, and the presence of citric acid played a critical role in the synthesis of high-quality Cu 31 S 16 -CuInS 2 HNS, which inhibited the formation of the In(OH) 3 phase due to the formation of the indium(iii)-citric acid complex. The formation mechanism was studied by monitoring the morphology and phase evolution of the Cu 31 S 16 -CuInS 2 HNS with reaction time, which revealed that the Cu 31 S 16 seeds were first formed and then the cation-exchange reaction directed the subsequent anisotropic growth of the Cu 31 S 16 -CuInS 2 HNS.

  15. Amino acid-based advanced liquid formulation development for highly concentrated therapeutic antibodies balances physical and chemical stability and low viscosity. (United States)

    Kemter, Kristina; Altrichter, Jens; Derwand, Roland; Kriehuber, Thomas; Reinauer, Eva; Scholz, Martin


    To develop highly concentrated therapeutic antibodies enabling convenient subcutaneous application, well stabilizing pharmaceutical formulations with low viscosities are considered to be key. The purpose of this study was to select specific amino acid combinations that reduce and balance aggregation, fragmentation and chemical degradation and also lower viscosity of highly concentrated liquid antibodies. As a model, the therapeutically well-established antibody trastuzumab (25 - >200 mg/mL) in liquid formulation was used. Pre-testing of formulations based on a stabilizing and protecting solutions (SPS®) platform was conducted in a thermal unfolding model using Differential Scanning Fluorimetry (DSF) and accelerated aging at 37 °C and 45 °C. Pre-selected amino acid combinations were further iteratively adjusted to obtain stable highly concentrated antibody formulations with low viscosity. Size Exclusion Chromatography (SE-HPLC) revealed significantly lower aggregation and fragmentation at specific amino acid:sugar and protein:excipient ratios. Dynamic viscosities <20 mPa∗s of highly concentrated trastuzumab (≥200 mg/mL) were measured by falling ball viscosimetry. Moreover, less chemical degradation was found by Cationic Exchange Chromatography (CEX -HPLC) even after six months liquid storage at 25 °C. In conclusion, specifically tailored and advanced amino acid-based liquid formulations avoid aggregation and enable the development of stable and low viscous highly concentrated biopharmaceuticals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  17. Strong ideal convergence in probabilistic metric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this ...

  18. Remnants of strong tidal interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcglynn, T.A.


    This paper examines the properties of stellar systems that have recently undergone a strong tidal shock, i.e., a shock which removes a significant fraction of the particles in the system, and where the shocked system has a much smaller mass than the producer of the tidal field. N-body calculations of King models shocked in a variety of ways are performed, and the consequences of the shocks are investigated. The results confirm the prediction of Jaffe for shocked systems. Several models are also run where the tidal forces on the system are constant, simulating a circular orbit around a primary, and the development of tidal radii under these static conditions appears to be a mild process which does not dramatically affect material that is not stripped. The tidal radii are about twice as large as classical formulas would predict. Remnant density profiles are compared with a sample of elliptical galaxies, and the implications of the results for the development of stellar populations and galaxies are considered. 38 refs

  19. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Document Server


    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  20. Strong seismic ground motion propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, S.; Archuleta, R.; Pecker, A.; Bouchon, M.; Mohammadioun, G.; Murphy, A.; Mohammadioun, B.


    At the McGee Creek, California, site, 3-component strong-motion accelerometers are located at depths of 166 m, 35 m and 0 m. The surface material is glacial moraine, to a depth of 30.5 m, overlying homfels. Accelerations were recorded from two California earthquakes: Round Valley, M L 5.8, November 23, 1984, 18:08 UTC and Chalfant Valley, M L 6.4, July 21, 1986, 14:42 UTC. By separating out the SH components of acceleration, we were able to determine the orientations of the downhole instruments. By separating out the SV component of acceleration, we were able to determine the approximate angle of incidence of the signal at 166 m. A constant phase velocity Haskell-Thomson model was applied to generate synthetic SH seismograms at the surface using the accelerations recorded at 166 m. In the frequency band 0.0 - 10.0 Hz, we compared the filtered synthetic records to the filtered surface data. The onset of the SH pulse is clearly seen, as are the reflections from the interface at 30.5 m. The synthetic record closely matches the data in amplitude and phase. The fit between the synthetic accelerogram and the data shows that the seismic amplification at the surface is a result of the contrast of the impedances (shear stiffnesses) of the near surface materials

  1. Fertilisation continue des Oxisols acides non humifères du

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nzabonihankuye G.


    Full Text Available Crop rotation system of maize and beans, established at Rubona (Rwanda from 1984 to 1992, was used to evaluate different types and rates of fertilizers in improving the productivity of acid Oxisols. Continuous cropping of maize followed by beans for a period of 8 years gave no yield in control plots. Asingle application of 2 t per ha of lime increased significantly (p = .01 the soil pH, Ca2+ content, cationic exchange capacity, and decreased the level of the exchangeable aluminium. This quantity of lime when applied every two years for a period of eight years led to overliming. The application of more than 8 t per ha of fresh farmyard manure (annually, combined to 300 kg per ha of NPK 17:17:17 (every six months significantly improved soil organic C and crop production at Rubona. The high rate (35 t per ha of fresh manure or the combination of “lime, manure and NPK fertilizers” gave the best crop performance. Ten tons of farmyard manure (dry matter per ha and per year seems to be the minimum acceptable amount which can effectively substitute for inorganic fertilizers.

  2. Ball-milling effect on Indonesian natural bentonite for manganese removal from acid mine drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prastistho Widyawanto


    Full Text Available The influences of mechanical milling on Indonesian Natural Bentonite (INB characteristics and manganese (Mn removal from acid mine drainage (AMD were investigated. The INB characteristics were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, nitrogen adsorption-desorption for specific surface area (SSA and microporosity measurement, cation exchange capacity (CEC and particle size distribution (PSD analyzer. Four minutes milling with frequency 20 Hz on INB caused morphological change which showed more crumbled and destructed particle, lost the (001 peak but still retained the (100 peak that indicated delamination of montmorillonite mineral without breaking the tetrahedral-octahedral-tetrahedral (T-O-T structure, rose the CEC from 28.49 meq/100g to 35.51 meq/100g, increase in the SSA from 60.63 m2/g to 104.88 m2/g, significant increase in microporosity which described in the t plots and decrease in the mean particle size distribution peak from 49.28 μm to 38.84 μm. The effect of contact time and effect of adsorbent dosage on Mn sorption was studied. Both unmilled and milled samples reached equilibrium at 24 hours and the pH rose from 4 to 7 in first 30 minutes. The Mn removal percentage increased significantly after milling. Using Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorbed metals (qmax also increased from 0.570 to 4.219 mg/g.

  3. Preparation of phenylboronic acid-silica hybrid monolithic column with one-pot approach for capillary liquid chromatography of biomolecules. (United States)

    Lin, Zian; Huang, Hui; Li, Shihua; Wang, Juan; Tan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Lan; Chen, Guonan


    A phenylboronic acid-silica hybrid monolithic column for capillary liquid chromatography (cLC) was prepared through one-pot process by using 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (VPBA) and alkoxysilanes simultaneously. The effects of the molar ratio of tetramethyloxysilane/γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (TMOS/γ-MAPS), amount of VPBA, and the volume of diethylene glycol (DEG) on the morphologies, permeabilities and pore properties of the prepared VPBA-silica hybrid monolithic columns were studied in detail. A relatively uniform monolithic structure with high porosity was obtained with optimized ingredients. A series of cis-diol-containing compounds, alkylbenzenes, amides, and anilines were utilized to evaluate the retention behaviors of the VPBA-silica hybrid monolithic column. The result demonstrated that the prepared VPBA-silica hybrid monolithic column exhibited multiple interactions including hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity, as well as cation exchange apart from the expected affinity interaction. The run-to-run, column-to-column and batch-to-batch reproducibility of the VPBA-silica hybrid monolith were satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 1.63% (n=5), 2.02% (n=3) and 2.90% (n=5), respectively, indicating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed method. In addition, the VPBA-silica hybrid monolithic column was further applied to the separation of proteins and tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin (BSA), respectively. The successful applications suggested the potential of the VPBA-silica hybrid monolith in proteome analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Thorium(IV) removal from aqueous medium by citric acid treated mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. ZZF51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S.K.; Tan, N.; Yan, X.M.; Chen, F.; Long, W.; Lin, Y.C.


    Highlights: • The mangrove endophytic fungus. They own special species and metabolic approaches. • Chemical treatment with citric acid. Improving the cation exchange capacity. • Explain adsorption mechanism combined with FTIR spectroscopy and kinetic models. -- Abstract: Thorium(IV) biosorption is investigated by citric acid treated mangrove endophytic fungus Fussarium sp. ZZF51 (CA-ZZF51) from South China Sea. The biosorption process was optimized at pH 4.5, equilibrium time 90 min, initial thorium(IV) concentration 50 mg L −1 and adsorbent dose 0.6 g L −1 with 90.87% of removal efficiency and 75.47 mg g −1 of adsorption capacity, which is obviously greater than that (11.35 mg g −1 ) of the untreated fungus Fussarium sp. ZZF51 for thorium(IV) biosorption under the condition of optimization. The experimental data are analyzed by using isotherm and kinetic models. Kinetic data follow the pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium data agree very well with the Langmuir model. In addition, FTIR analysis indicates that hydroxyl, amino, and carbonyl groups act as the important roles in the adsorption process

  5. Strongly interacting photons and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alge, W.


    This thesis contains the main results of the research topics I have pursued during the my PhD studies at the University of Innsbruck and partly in collaboration with the Institut d' Optique in Orsay, France. It is divided into three parts. The first and largest part discusses the possibility of using strong standing waves as a tool to cool and trap neutral atoms in optical cavities. This is very important in the field of nonlinear optics where several successful experiments with cold atoms in cavities have been performed recently. A discussion of the optical parametric oscillator in a regime where the nonlinearity dominates the evolution is the topic of the second part. We investigated mainly the statistical properties of the cavity output of the three interactive cavity modes. Very recently a system has been proposed which promises fantastic properties. It should exhibit a giant Kerr nonlinearity with negligible absorption thus leading to a photonic turnstile device based on cold atoms in cavity. We have shown that this model suffers from overly simplistic assumptions and developed several more comprehensive approaches to study the behavior of this system. Apart from the division into three parts of different contents the thesis is divided into publications, supplements and invisible stuff. The intention of the supplements is to reach researchers which work in related areas and provide them with more detailed information about the concepts and the numerical tools we used. It is written especially for diploma and PhD students to give them a chance to use the third part of our work which is actually the largest one. They consist of a large number of computer programs we wrote to investigate the behavior of the systems in parameter regions where no hope exists to solve the equations analytically. (author)

  6. Topics in strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoric, M.M.


    This thesis discusses certain aspects of the turbulence of a fully ionised non-isothermal plasma dominated by the Langmuir mode. Some of the basic properties of strongly turbulent plasmas are reviewed. In particular, interest is focused on the state of Langmuir turbulence, that is the turbulence of a simple externally unmagnetized plasma. The problem of the existence and dynamics of Langmuir collapse is discussed, often met as a non-linear stage of the modulational instability in the framework of the Zakharov equations (i.e. simple time-averaged dynamical equations). Possible macroscopic consequences of such dynamical turbulent models are investigated. In order to study highly non-linear collapse dynamics in its advanced stage, a set of generalized Zakharov equations are derived. Going beyond the original approximation, the author includes the effects of higher electron non-linearities and a breakdown of slow-timescale quasi-neutrality. He investigates how these corrections may influence the collapse stabilisation. Recently, it has been realised that the modulational instability in a Langmuir plasma will be accompanied by the collisionless-generation of a slow-timescale magnetic field. Accordingly, a novel physical situation has emerged which is investigated in detail. The stability of monochromatic Langmuir waves in a self-magnetized Langmuir plasma, is discussed, and the existence of a novel magneto-modulational instability shown. The wave collapse dynamics is investigated and a physical interpretation of the basic results is given. A problem of the transient analysis of an interaction of time-dependent electromagnetic pulses with linear cold plasma media is investigated. (Auth.)

  7. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills (United States)

    Narayanan, M.


    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  8. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.


    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  9. Distribution of dissolved carbohydrates and uronic acids in a tropical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Briefly,. 30 ml of estuarine water were passed through cation exchange resin column (Dowex 50W-8X, 50 to. 200 mesh, hydrogen form, Sigma Company). The ..... more labile DOC compounds (Apple et al 2006). This was also supported by the significant negative correlation between the TCHO/DOC ratio and the in situ ...

  10. Physicochemical and functional properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera L) cake dietary fibres: Effects of cellulase hydrolysis, acid treatment and particle size distribution. (United States)

    Zheng, Yajun; Li, Yan


    Effects of cellulase hydrolysis, acid treatment and particle size distribution on the structure, physicochemical and functional properties of coconut cake dietary fiber (DCCDF) were studied. Results showed that both the cellulase hydrolysis and acid treatment contributed to the structural modification of DCCDF as evident from XRD, FT-IR and SEM analysis. Moreover, the cellulase hydrolysis enhanced soluble carbohydrate content, water holding capacity (WHC) and swelling capacity (WSC), α-amylase inhibition activity (α-AAIR), glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI) and cation-exchange capacity (CEC) of DCCDF; but it had undesirable effects on colour, oil holding capacity (OHC) and emulsifying capacity (EC). On other hand, acid treatment decreased the WHC, WSC and GDRI, but improved the colour, CEC, OHC and emulsion stability of DCCDF. Furthermore, the WHC, WSC and EC of DCCDF increased as the particle size reduced from 250 to 167 μm, while the GDRI, OHC, α-AAIR and emulsion stability decreased with decreasing particle size. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sorption of tylosin and sulfamethazine on solid humic acid. (United States)

    Guo, Xuetao; Tu, Bei; Ge, Jianhua; Yang, Chen; Song, Xiaomei; Dang, Zhi


    Tylosin (TYL) and sulfamethazine (SMT) are ionizable and polar antimicrobial compounds, which have seeped into the environment in substantial amounts via fertilizing land with manure or sewage. Sorption of TYL and SMT onto humic acid (HA) may affect their environmental fate. In this study, the sorption of TYL and SMT on HA at different conditions (pH, ionic strength) was investigated. All sorption isotherms fitted well to the Henry and Freundlich models and they were highly nonlinear with values of n between 0.5 and 0.8, which suggested that the HA had high heterogeneity. The sorption of TYL and SMT on HA decreased with increasing pH (2.0-7.5), implying that the primary sorption mechanism could be due to cation exchange interactions between TYL(+)/SMT(+) species and the functional groups of HA. Increasing ionic strength resulted in a considerable reduction in the Kd values of TYL and SMT, hinting that interactions between H bonds and π-π EDA might be an important factor in the sorption of TYL and SMT on HA. Results of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis further demonstrated that carboxyl groups and O-alkyl structures in the HA could interact with TYL and SMT via ionic interactions and H bonds, respectively. Overall, this work gives new insights into the mechanisms of sorption of TYL and SMT on HA and hence aids us in assessing the environmental risk of TYL and SMT under diverse conditions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Method of processing low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Ichiro; Sugai, Hiroshi.


    Purpose: To effectively reduce the radioactivity density of low-level radioactive liquid wastes discharged from enriched uranium conversion processing steps or the likes. Method: Hydrazin is added to low-level radioactive liquid wastes, which are in contact with iron hydroxide-cation exchange resins prepared by processing strongly acidic-cation exchange resins with ferric chloride and aqueous ammonia to form hydrorizates of ferric ions in the resin. Hydrazine added herein may be any of hydrazine hydrate, hydrazine hydrochloride and hydranine sulfate. The preferred addition amount is more than 100 mg per one liter of the liquid wastes. If it is less than 100 mg, the reduction rate for the radioactivety density (procession liquid density/original liquid density) is decreased. This method enables to effectively reduce the radioactivity density of the low-level radioactive liquid wastes containing a trace amount of radioactive nucleides. (Yoshihara, H.)

  13. Extraction and separation of titanium(IV with D2EHPA and PC-88A from aqueous perchloric acid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The liquid-liquid extraction of Ti(IV from perchlorate media using, di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA and 2-ethylhexyl prosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (PC-88A in toluene as the extractant was studied. Quantitative extraction of Ti(IV was observed in the lower acidity range of 0.01 to 0.1 mol dm-3 with 0.003 mol dm-3 D2EHPA and 0.01 mol dm-3 PC-88A in toluene, respectively, and in the higher acidity range of 9.0 to 10.0 mol dm-3 with 0.1 mol dm-3 D2EHPA and PC-88A in toluene. Ti(IV was completely stripped from the metal loaded organic phase of both the extractants with 3 % H2O2 in 1 M H2SO4 and determined spectrophotometrically. The stoichiometry of the extracted species was determined on the basis of slope analysis. The extraction in the lower acidity range was found to proceed by a cation-exchange mechanism with the extracted species being TiOR2·2HR, while in the higher acidity range it was by solvation with the extracted species being Ti(OH3ClO4·4HR. Separation of Ti(IV was also carried out from some associated metals like Fe(III, Al(III, V(V, Ce(IV, Mg(II and Mn(II. The developed methods were extended for the determination of Ti(IV in real samples like ilmenite, magnetite and red mud in order to show the practical utility of the extractants.

  14. Acid Rain (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.; Dietrich, W.E.; Sposito, Garrison


    Acid deposition, or acid rain as it is more commonly referred to, has become a widely publicized environmental issue in the U.S. over the past decade. The term usually conjures up images of fish kills, dying forests, "dead" lakes, and damage to monuments and other historic artifacts. The primary cause of acid deposition is emission of S02 and NOx to the atmosphere during the combustion of fossil fuels. Oxidation of these compounds in the atmosphere forms strong acids - H2SO4 and HNO3 - which are returned to the Earth in rain, snow, fog, cloud water, and as dry deposition.Although acid deposition has only recently been recognized as an environmental problem in the U.S., it is not a new phenomenon (Cogbill & Likens 1974). As early as the middle of the 17th century in England, the deleterious effects of industrial emissions on plants, animals, and humans, and the atmospheric transport of pollutants between England and France had become issues of concern (Evelyn 1661, Graunt 1662). It is interesting that well over three hundred years ago in England, recommendations were made to move industry outside of towns and build higher chimneys to spread the pollution into "distant parts." Increasing the height of smokestacks has helped alleviate local problems, but has exacerbated others. In the U.S. the height of the tallest smokestack has more than doubled, and the average height of smokestacks has tripled since the 1950s (Patrick et al 1981). This trend occurred in most industrialized nations during the 20th century and has had the effect of transforming acid rain from a local urban problem into a problem of global scale.

  15. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  16. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  17. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  18. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  19. Discovery of novel plant peptides as strong inhibitors of metalloproteinases. (United States)

    Carrilho, Dina M; Duarte, Isabel C; Francisco, Rita; Ricardo, Cândido P P; Duque-Magalhães, Maria C


    Five novel metalloproteinase protein inhibitors (MPIs) with molecular mass between 5.6 and 8.9 kDa and acid/neutral pI were detected in lupin seeds and exhibited strong inhibitory activities against thermolysin and/or gelatinase B. These novel peptides constitute not only the first MPIs described in plants but also the first plant peptides with inhibitory activity against a matrixin.

  20. "JCE" Classroom Activity #109: My Acid Can Beat Up Your Acid! (United States)

    Putti, Alice


    In this guided-inquiry activity, students investigate the ionization of strong and weak acids. Bead models are used to study acid ionization on a particulate level. Students analyze seven strong and weak acid models and make generalizations about the relationship between acid strength and dissociation. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.)