WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong-post w-beam guardrail

  1. Performance evaluation and placement analysis of w-beam guardrails behind curbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    This report summarizes the research efforts of using finite element modeling and simulations to evaluate the performance : of NCDOT W-beam guardrails behind curbs under MASH TL-2 impact conditions. A literature review is included on : performance eva...

  2. Safety performance evaluation of weak-post, w-beam guardrail attached to culvert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    A new W-beam guardrail system for use on low-fill culverts was developed and evaluated. The system was adapted from : the MGS bridge railing for attachment to the outside face of culvert headwalls. Four attachment concepts were developed : and evalua...

  3. Performance evaluation of NCDOT w-beam guardrails under MASH TL-2 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the research efforts of using finite element modeling and simulations to evaluate the performance : of W-beam guardrails for different heights under MASH Test Level 2 (TL-2) and Test Level 3 (TL-3) impact conditions. A : litera...

  4. Effect of various W-beam guardrail post spacings and rail heights on safety performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tso-Liang Teng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available W-beam guardrails are the most widely used road safety barriers worldwide. They are used for protecting vehicle occupants on dangerous areas of roadways. All road safety barriers used on European highways are designed according to the European standard EN 1317. Conventionally, such road safety barriers have the following dimensions: a 750-mm height from the top of the W-beam to the ground and a 1.33-, 2-, or 4-m post spacing. This study applied the finite element code LS-DYNA for evaluating the safety performance of an AG04-2.0 A-type barrier, which was designed using three post spacings and various rail heights, when impacted by a 900-kg small passenger car. Eight crash test simulations were conducted for evaluating the crashworthiness of the AG04-2.0 barrier according to the European Standard EN 1317. A baseline model was developed and validated against the existing crash test models. The results showed that the various post spacings (1.33, 2, and 4 m and rail heights (600, 650, 700, 750 and 800 mm enabled the AG04-2.0 barrier to withstand the impact of the 900-kg car, satisfying the EN 1317 criteria (i.e. TB11 test. The 2000-mm post spacing and 700-mm rail height were considered the optimal dimensions for AG04-2.0 road safety barriers.

  5. Two-rail steel-backed timber guardrail system : Crown Point Highway, Multnomah County, Oregon : construction report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Guardrails in Oregon have traditionally been constructed using a steel W-beam guardrail. Although the steel guardrail has functioned well in the past, it is not aesthetically pleasing. To achieve a more pleasant drive through parks and scenic highway...

  6. Safety performance evaluation of the non-blocked Midwest Guardrail System (MGS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The roadway width required to install a guardrail system with a 12-in. (305-mm) blockout is not always available. In : response, proprietary non-blocked W-beam guardrail systems were developed and successfully crash tested. However, the : use of prop...

  7. Foundation design for high tension cable guardrails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    High tension cable guardrail is becoming increasing popular in median and roadside applications due to the promise of reduced deflections upon impact and reduced maintenance. As the performance of these systems is observed in service, there is a grow...

  8. Guardrail location rating system users manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinet's Division of Maintenance is responsible for identifying and prioritizing locations in need of guardrail. A procedure used by the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet was originally developed by the Kentucky Transportat...

  9. Cost-effective treatment of existing guardrail systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    A cost-effective means for upgrading existing guardrail systems with deviations from current practice (i.e., low-rail heights, antiquated end : treatments, and improper installation) does not exist. As a result these systems remain on U.S. highways. ...

  10. Pendulum impact tests of wooden and steel highway guardrail posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Jarvis D. Michie

    1974-01-01

    Impact strength characteristics of southern pine, red oak, and steel highway guardrail posts were evaluated in destructive impact testing with a 4,000-pound pendulum at the Southwest Research Institute. Effects were recorded with high-speed motion-picture equipment. Comparisons were based on reactions to the point of major post failure. Major comparisons of 6x6-inch...

  11. Crash test and MASH TL-3 evaluation of the TxDOT short radius guardrail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    When a roadway intersects a highway with restrictive features such as a bridge rail and canal, it : becomes difficult to fit a guardrail with the proper length, transitions, and end treatment along the highway. : Possible solutions include relocating...

  12. Injury Outcome in Crashes with Guardrail End Terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas S; Gabler, Hampton C

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the crash performance of guardrail end terminals in real-world crashes. Guardrail end terminals are installed at the ends of guardrail systems to prevent the rail from spearing through the car in an end-on collision. Recently, there has been a great deal of controversy as to the safety of certain widely used end terminal designs, partly because there is surprisingly little real-world crash data for end terminals. Most existing studies of end terminal crashes used data from prior to the mid-1990s. Since then, there have been large improvements to vehicle crashworthiness and seat belt usage rates, as well as new roadside safety hardware compliant with National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 350, "Recommended Procedures for the Safety Performance Evaluation of Highway Features." Additionally, most existing studies of injury in end terminal crashes do not account for factors such as the occurrence of rollover. This analysis uses more recent crash data that represent post-1990s vehicle fleet changes and account for a number of factors that may affect driver injury outcome and rollover occurrence. Passenger vehicle crashes coded as involving guardrail end terminals were identified in the set of police-reported crashes in Michigan in 2011 and 2012. End terminal performance was expected to be a function of end terminal system design. State crash databases generally do not identify specific end terminal systems. In this study, the coded crash location was used to obtain photographs of the crash site prior to the crash from Google Street View. These site photographs were manually inspected to identify the particular end terminal system involved in the crash. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for significant differences in the odds of driver injury and rollover between different terminal types while accounting for other factors. A total of 1,001 end terminal crashes from the 2011-2012 Michigan State crash

  13. The Application of Sensors on Guardrails for the Purpose of Real Time Impact Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Make:ZigBee Model: XBee - PRO® 802.15.4 RS232 Figure 1: SV-1 or systems view of the network. 87 Road Surface Sensor Make: Vaisala Model...Regional Display System Stores/ Retrieves Stores/ Retrieves Guardrail Sensor Cluster Make: ZigBee Model: XBee -PRO® 802.15.4 - Time of incident

  14. Effectiveness of cable barriers, guardrails, and concrete barrier walls in reducing the risk of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P; Chen, Erdong; Romero, Mario A

    2014-11-01

    Roadway departure crashes tend to be severe, especially when the roadside exposes the occupants of errant vehicles to excessive injury hazards. As a cost-effective method when the clear zone width is insufficient, road barriers are often installed to prevent errant vehicles from colliding with dangerous obstacles or traversing steep slopes. This paper focuses on the safety performance of road barriers in Indiana in reducing the risk of injury. The objective of the study presented here is to compare the risk of injury among different hazardous events faced by an occupant in a single-vehicle crash. The studied hazardous events include rolling over, striking three types of barriers (guardrails, concrete barrier walls, and cable barriers) with different barrier offsets to the edge of the travelled way, and striking various roadside objects. A total of 2124 single-vehicle crashes (3257 occupants) that occurred between 2008 and 2012 on 517 pair-matched homogeneous barrier and non-barrier segments were analyzed. A binary logistic regression model with mixed effects was estimated for vehicle occupants. The segment pairing process and the use of random effects were able to handle the commonality within the same segment pair as well as the heterogeneity across segment pairs. The modeling results revealed that hitting a barrier is associated with lower risk of injury than a high-hazard event (hitting a pole, rollover, etc.). The odds of injury are reduced by 39% for median concrete barrier walls offset 15-18ft from the travelled way, reduced by 65% for a guardrail face offset 5-55ft, reduced by 85% for near-side median cable barriers (offset between 10ft and 29ft), and reduced by 78% with far-side median cable barriers (offset at least 30ft). Comparing different types of barriers is useful where some types of barriers can be used alternatively. This study found that the odds of injury are 43% lower when striking a guardrail instead of a median concrete barrier offset 15-18ft

  15. Evaluation of 12 m Long Turned Down Guardrail End Terminal Using Full-Scale Crash Testing and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali O. Atahan

    Full Text Available Abstract The beginnings and ends of guardrail designs have the function of providing adequate anchorage for the rest of the system. They should also demonstrate crashworthy performance and should not pose any hazard for errant vehicles. In Europe, the ends of guardrail systems traditionally have incorporated turned down end terminals. Due to its low cost, Turkey also adopted turned down guardrail end terminal, and the majority of these designs are 12 meters long. Accident statistics clearly demonstrate that this particular end terminal poses safety risks for impacting vehicles. However, crash tests performed on the system showed that it worked satisfactorily for cars impacting at 80 kph. In this study, a detailed finite element analysis was performed on a 12 m long turned down guardrail end treatment to fully evaluate its crashworthiness. Data obtained from previously performed TT 2.1.80 and TT 4.2.80 crash tests were used to verify the fidelity of finite element models used in the study. Further simulations performed in accordance with EN1317 part 7 at 100 kph demonstrated unacceptable performance for the end terminal. Results of the study are summarized and recommendations are presented.

  16. Validation of on-site job-built guardrails with shoring jack as supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan, A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To protect themselves against fall hazards in a slab-column frame, workers use the row of shoring jacks installed at 1 m from the edge as supports for on-site built guardrails. Inspectors of the Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST have expressed concern about the safety and compliance of these on-site built guardrails with the Quebec Safety Code for the Construction Industry (S-2.1, r.4. Some workers have also inquired if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system. The present study describes how an evaluation method and a test protocol have been used to verify if guardrails built on-site, with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with the requirements of S-2.1, r.4 and if the shoring jack can be used as an anchor point for a travel restraint system. The results of the study show 1 guardrails built on site with shoring jacks as supports, are safe and comply with S-2.1, r.4 and 2 shoring jacks used as supports for guardrails must not be used as an anchor for a travel restraint system.Para la protección contra el peligro de caída en altura durante la ejecución de la estructura de un edificio, los trabajadores utilizan puntales acodalados a dos forjados y situados a 1 metro del borde de forjado como apoyo de las barandillas de seguridad. Inspectores de la Quebec Workers Compensation Board (Commision de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (CSST han expresado su preocupación por la seguridad y el cumplimiento de estos sistemas de protección en la construcción conforme al Código de Seguridad de Quebec para la industria de la construcción (S-2.1, R.6. Así mismo algunos trabajadores han mostrado su inquietud sobre la utilización de los puntales como sistemas para limitar el desplazamiento. El presente estudio describe un método de evaluación y un procedimiento de ensayo que se han utilizado para verificar si las barandillas de seguridad

  17. Development and recommendations for a non-proprietary, high-tension, cable end terminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Cable guardrail systems have been increasing in popularity in recent years due to several perceived benefits over the : commonly used W-beam guardrail. A non-proprietary design was desired as an alternative to the many proprietary designs : available...

  18. ROADSIDE BARRIER AND PASSIVE SAFETY OF MOTORCYCLISTS ALONG EXCLUSIVE MOTORCYCLE LANES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. IBITOYE

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous increase in number of motorcycles and fatalities in some ASEAN countries is becoming a main concern for the safety of motorcyclists along exclusive motorcycle lanes. The existing w-beam guardrail system along exclusive motorcycle lanes was originally designed to reduce severity of a crash when cars and trucks involve in run-off road accident – but not specifically to protect motorcyclists during such accident. However, the consequences of this guardrail design on the passive safety of motorcyclist have been given little consideration. Thus, Probability of the motorcyclists getting injured on collision with guardrail is higher compared to other motor vehicle’s driver. In order to investigate the passive safety of motorcyclists while in collision with this guardrail, this study carried out computer simulation of typical crash scenario and conducted a physical crash test to validate the simulation model. The study examines the crash mechanism as related to injury severity when motorcyclist interacts with W-beam guardrail. A three-dimensional computer simulation of a scaled Hybrid III 50th percentile Male dummy mounted on a motorcycle and colliding with W-beam guardrail was carried out. Multi-body model of motorcycle and finite element model of guardrail were developed with commercially available software called MADYMO. The simulation model is validated with a simple crash test conducted with same initial impact configuration. The subsequent simulations were set up for impacting the existing w-beam guardrail with 110 kg motorcycle using eighteen impact conditions that consist of impact angles 15o, 30o and 45o, impact speeds of 32, 48 and 60km/h as well as post spacing of 2m and 4m. The predicted rider’s injury risk criteria were used to assess safety of guardrail response to motorcyclists. The obtained results confirmed that the existing w-beam guardrail is not safe to motorcyclist, especially for the head injury at impact speed

  19. Strong post-midnight Equatorial Ionospheric Anomaly and Equatorial spread F Observations during magnetically quiet period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldwin, M. B.; Yizengaw, E.; Sahai, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Post sunset equatorial ionospheric irregularities, especially during magnetically active periods, have been a subject of many studies. The most prominent irregularities often observed right after sunset are the resurgence of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly (EIA) and equatorial spread F (ESF). It is well understood and documented that pre-reversal enhancement, due to the ionospheric conductivity gradient at the dusk, is one of the prime triggering mechanisms for the post-sunset irregularities in the equatorial region. However, less attention has been given to the equatorial irregularities (EIA and ESF) that often occur in post-midnight, especially during magnetically quiet periods. It has been suggested that the primary process responsible for the dramatic post-midnight ESF during magnetically active periods is the change in magnitude and direction of the usual equatorial electric field. Earlier studies speculated that during magnetically active post-midnight periods the change in electric field direction from westward to eastward for a short intervals cause an upward E × B drift, resulting in increased h'F and decreased electron densities at the magnetic equator. Individual scans of Jicamarca vertical drift also often observe significant upward drift during post-midnight periods. We present a case of post-midnight strong equatorial ionospheric anomaly during a magnetically quiet (Kp < 3) period using TOPEX altimeter TEC data. Simultaneously, the ionosonde station at S.J. Campos (23.2°S, 45.9°W; dip lat. 17.6°S) observed strong ESF and unusual h'F height rise during post-midnight period, where TOPEX detected strong EIA. At the same time ROCSAT-1 and DMSP satellites also clearly show existence of EIA during post-midnight period at their orbiting altitude. The former satellite also detected post-midnight in situ density irregularities (such as bubbles) at the same time as strong EIA and ESF. The questions here are what triggers these post-midnight equatorial ionospheric irregularities? Are these post-midnight EIAs related to dusk side pre-reversal EIA? If so, what causes the post-midnight ESF and bubble formation? If, as suggested before, the electric field shifted direction from westward to eastward during post-midnight period, how does this happen and what is the physics behind this direction shift?

  20. Evaluation of guardrail embedded lighting system in Trinidad, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report provides information on the design considerations of the embedded highway lighting : design on Interstate-25 in Trinidad, Colorado, in terms of visibility. The information is based on : visibility characterizations of small targets using ...

  1. Machine driving of wooden and steel highway guardrail posts under adverse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Edwin L. Lucas; Edwin L. Lucas

    1971-01-01

    In an exploratory study, we drove 32 wooden posts and 26 steel posts into a rock-filled base that was topped with limestone gravel and shale. We found that, though both post materials perform well, wood is superior to steel in resisting damage below the groundline.

  2. Patterns of reproductive isolation in a haplodiploid - strong post-mating, prezygotic barriers among three forms of a social spider mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Sakamoto, Hironori; Gotoh, Tetsuo; Saito, Yutaka; Chao, Jung-Tai; Egas, Martijn; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2018-03-22

    In speciation research, much attention is paid to the evolution of reproductive barriers, preventing diverging groups from hybridizing back into one gene pool. The prevalent view is that reproductive barriers evolve gradually as a by-product of genetic changes accumulated by natural selection and genetic drift in groups that are segregated spatially and/or temporally. Reproductive barriers, however, can also be reinforced by natural selection against maladaptive hybridization. These mutually compatible theories are both empirically supported by studies, analysing relationships between intensity of reproductive isolation and genetic distance in sympatric taxa and allopatric taxa. Here, we present the - to our knowledge - first comparative study in a haplodiploid organism, the social spider mite Stigmaeopsis miscanthi, by measuring premating and post-mating, pre- and post-zygotic components of reproductive isolation, using three recently diverged forms of the mite that partly overlap in home range. We carried out cross-experiments and measured genetic distances (mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA) among parapatric and allopatric populations of the three forms. Our results show that the three forms are reproductively isolated, despite the absence of premating barriers, and that the post-mating, prezygotic component contributes most to reproductive isolation. As expected, the strength of post-mating reproductive barriers positively correlated with genetic distance. We did not find a clear pattern of prezygotic barriers evolving faster in parapatry than in allopatry, although one form did show a trend in line with the ecological and behavioural relationships between the forms. Our study advocates the versatility of haplodiploid animals for investigating the evolution of reproductive barriers. © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2018 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  3. Distortion of He(2l2l`) Fano lineshapes by strong post-collision interaction in H{sup +}-He collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto-Capelle, P.; Benhenni, M.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France)

    1996-05-28

    The three-body post-collisional interaction (PCI) between the scattered proton, recoil target ion and emitted electron has been investigated by electron spectrometry near the 2l2l` helium resonances, in the 20-100 keV energy range (V{sub p} 0.9-2 au). Particular attention has been paid to the PCI deformations of the Fano lineshapes when V-vector``{sub p} {approx_equal} V-vector {sub e}(2l2l`). Their angle and collision velocity dependences have been studied for the first time experimentally. A large variety of lineshapes have been observed, all of them successfully described by a single formula. At the lowest proton velocities the rescattering effect (also called Coulomb two-path scattering) is seen. (Author).

  4. Continued development of a non-proprietary, high-tension, cable end terminal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-29

    A non-proprietary, cable guardrail system is currently under development for the Midwest States Pooled Fund Program. : A cable guardrail end terminal was necessary to accompany the cable guardrail system. The objective of this research : project was ...

  5. Lessons Learned from the Early Stages of Development of the Guardrail Common Sensor for the Radical Reduction of Cycle Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sherman, J

    2003-01-01

    .... In addition to in-depth interviews U.S. Army Communications and Electronics Command (CECOM) historical documents unclassified government reports and other public sources were reviewed for information regarding the system development...

  6. Barrier-relevant crash modification factors and average costs of crashes on arterial roads in Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaotian; Tarko, Andrew P

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors (CMFs) and estimate the average crash costs applicable to a wide range of road-barrier scenarios that involved three types of road barriers (concrete barriers, W-beam guardrails, and high-tension cable barriers) to produce a suitable basis for comparing barrier-oriented design alternatives and road improvements. The intention was to perform the most comprehensive and in-depth analysis allowed by the cross-sectional method and the crash data available in Indiana. To accomplish this objective and to use the available data efficiently, the effects of barrier were estimated on the frequency of barrier-relevant (BR) crashes, the types of harmful events and their occurrence during a BR crash, and the severity of BR crash outcomes. The harmful events component added depth to the analysis by connecting the crash onset with its outcome. Further improvement of the analysis was accomplished by considering the crash outcome severity of all the individuals involved in a crash and not just drivers, utilizing hospital data, and pairing the observations with and without road barriers along same or similar road segments to better control the unobserved heterogeneity. This study confirmed that the total number of BR crashes tended to be higher where medians had installed barriers, mainly due to collisions with barriers and, in some cases, with other vehicles after redirecting vehicles back to traffic. These undesirable effects of barriers were surpassed by the positive results of reducing cross-median crashes, rollover events, and collisions with roadside hazards. The average cost of a crash (unit cost) was reduced by 50% with cable barriers installed in medians wider than 50ft. A similar effect was concluded for concrete barriers and guardrails installed in medians narrower than 50ft. The studied roadside guardrails also reduced the unit cost by 20%-30%. Median cable barriers were found to be the most effective

  7. Determination of the maximum MGS mounting height : phase I crash testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    Post-and-rail guardrail systems encounter environmental conditions, such as severe frost heave or erosion, which : may drastically affect the post embedment depth and rail mounting height. In addition, guardrail systems may be designed : to accommoda...

  8. Aanrijdingen met in stijfheid verschillende typen geleiderailconstructies. Een beschrijving van de ernst en mate van terugkaatsing van aanrijdingen tegen geleiderailconstructies. Consult ten behoeve van de Dienst Verkeerskunde van de Rijkswaterstaat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    The road administrator often prefers a flexible construction for the guardrail. A flexible construction seems to give more protection in case of an accident for the vehicle occupants and other road users than a stiff guardrail construction. This report studies differences between type of

  9. Evaluation of Bridges Subjected to Military Loading and Dynamic Hydraulic Effects: Review of Design Regulations, Selection Criteria, and Inspection Procedures for Bridge Railing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Board. Federal Lands Highway Central Division. 2005. Barrier Guide for Low Volume and Low Speed Roads. Report FHWA-CFL/ TD -05-009. Washington, DC: U.S...Anchor and Miscellaneous Beam Guardrail Buried in Backslope Terminal Rub -rail and Post Anchors Widening for Guardrail End Terminals...to the rail. If a concrete barrier is used, smooth rub rails shall be attached to the barriers at a handlebar height of 42 in. Chain link fence may

  10. 29 CFR 1926.852 - Chutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assigned to control the operation of the gate, and the backing and loading of trucks. (d) When operations.... (e) Any chute opening, into which workmen dump debris, shall be protected by a substantial guardrail approximately 42 inches above the floor or other surface on which the men stand to dump the material. Any space...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.760 - Fall protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning device systems or fall restraint systems... feet (27.4 m) wide and 90 (27.4 m) feet deep from any leading edge. The CDZ shall be marked by the use... protection equipment. (1) Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems, positioning...

  12. Relationship between accident severity and full-scale crash test. Volume II, Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Available accident files are used to generate a 4l2-accident data base of guardrail impacts. This base is analyzed to develop a statistical model for predicting accident severity index (ASI) as a function of vehicle type or weight, impact speed, and ...

  13. Relationship between accident severity and full-scale crash test. Volume I, Technical research effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Available accident files are used to generate a 4l2-accident data base of guardrail impacts. This base is analyzed to develop a statistical model for predicting accident severity index (ASI) as a function of vehicle type or weight, impact speed, and ...

  14. 76 FR 22019 - Safety Standard for Toddler Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... falling out of bed and to ensure that guardrails remain intact when children lean against them or use them... numerous units. There also are expected to be increased costs of production. Producing toddler beds and... production, this could increase shipping costs as well. Even if these firms are able to pass on some of their...

  15. 46 CFR 163.002-13 - Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel's side rails for support; and (3) Unobstructed passage between the ladder or lift platform of the... common tools or without tools. Each machinery housing, except gear boxes and other enclosures that retain... intermediate rail must be provided between the guardrail and the platform. Each rail must be set back from the...

  16. Determination of the maximum MGS mounting height : phase II detailed analysis with LS-DYNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Determination of the maximum Midwest Guardrail System (MGS) mounting height was performed in two phases. : Phase I concentrated on crash testing: two full-scale crash tests were performed on the MGS with top-rail mounting heights : of 34 in. (864 mm)...

  17. Final report on the maintenance asset management project : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This project resulted in the development of a proof of concept for a features inventory process to be used by field staff. The resulting concept is adaptable for different asset classes (e.g. culverts, guardrail) and able to leverage existing DOT res...

  18. 75 FR 22291 - Safety Standard for Toddler Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... by industry as a minimum height for guardrails in bunk beds [Ref. 3]. c. Structural Integrity of... model number whenever a significant structural or design modification is made that affects its... firms are assumed to already use labels on both their products and their packaging, but would need to...

  19. 49 CFR 214.109 - Scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Bridge Worker Safety Standards § 214.109 Scaffolding... guardrail system and the walking/working level. (b) Scaffolds shall not be altered or moved while they are... surfaces shall be prepared and cleared to prevent injury due to laceration, puncture, tripping, or falling...

  20. 75 FR 51450 - Notice of 229 Boundary Revision for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... fence and guardrails which surround the facility. The U.S. Department of Energy installation known as... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Notice of 229 Boundary Revision for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory AGENCY: Department of Energy (DOE...

  1. 48 CFR 25.602-1 - Section 1605 of the Recovery Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Buy American Act... other components. There is no restriction on the origin or place of production or manufacture of..., in addition to the requirement to manufacture the guardrail in the United States. There would be no...

  2. Development of lane change aid system; Lane change aid system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, H.; Yoshida, T.; Butsuen, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan); Sakai, N.; Nakano, T.; Nakamoto, T.

    1997-10-01

    We have developed a lane change aid system, which detects vehicles behind in adjacent lanes with CCD images, shows the driver the information of vehicle location with a head-up display, and warns him/her if necessary. By comparing the brightness on two CCD images, distance distribution along several CCD lines is measured. To assure the effective vehicle detection on public roads, we have developed a detection algorithm which distinguishes vehicles and guard-rails by observing the patterns of measured distances. We will show the system configuration, detection logic, and the system evaluation on public road. 5 refs., 12 figs.

  3. Fall Protection Introduction, #33462

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    The proper use of fall prevention and fall protection controls can reduce the risk of deaths and injuries caused by falls. This course, Fall Protection Introduction (#33462), is designed as an introduction to various types of recognized fall prevention and fall protection systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), including guardrail systems, safety net systems, fall restraint systems, and fall arrest systems. Special emphasis is given to the components, inspection, care, and storage of personal fall arrest systems (PFASs). This course also presents controls for falling object hazards and emergency planning considerations for persons who have fallen.

  4. Comprehensive System-Based Architecture for an Integrated High Energy Laser Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Demonstrator (MLD). LaWS, is an application of fiber SSL that are widely used in industry for cutting and welding metal (Figure 1). It utilizes six... welding lasers that are incoherently combined into a 33kW beam with the capability to disable or destroy targets. The system successfully shot down...way of measuring beam diameter at various lengths along the beam. For example, slide rail detectors are common in the modern day; however, these

  5. Truck accident involving unirradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.W.; Fischer, L.E.

    1992-07-01

    In the early morning of Dec. 16, 1991, a severe accident occurred when a passenger vehicle traveling in the wrong direction collided with a tractor trailer carrying 24 nuclear fuel assemblies in 12 containers on Interstate 1-91 in Springfield, Massachusetts. This paper documents the mechanical circumstances of the accident and the physical environment to which the containers were exposed and the response of the containers and their contents. The accident involved four impacts where the truck was struck by the car, impacted on the center guardrail, impacted on the outer concrete barrier and came to rest against the center guardrail. The impacts were followed by a fire that began in the engine compartment, spread to the.tractor and cab, and eventually spread to the trailer and payload. The fire lasted for about three hours and the packages were involved in the fire for about two hours. As a result of the fire, the tractor-trailer was completely destroyed and the packages were exposed to flames with temperatures between 1300 degrees F and 1800 degrees F. The fuel assemblies remained intact during the accident and there was no release of any radioactive material during the accident. This was a very severe accident; however, the injuries were minor and at no time was the public health and safety at risk

  6. Falls in residential carpentry and drywall installation: findings from active injury surveillance with union carpenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Li, Leiming; Cameron, Wilfred

    2003-08-01

    Active injury surveillance was conducted with a large, unionized workforce of residential and drywall carpenters over a 3-year period. Injured carpenters were interviewed by trained carpenter investigators and sites were visited where falls occurred. Qualitative information was collected on exposures, risk perception, training, and mentoring. Falls accounted for 20% of injuries. Same-level falls were often related to weather, carrying objects-sometimes with an obstructed view-housekeeping, terrain of the lot, and speed of work. Falls from height occurred from a variety of work surfaces and involved ladders, scaffolding, roofs, work on other unsecured surfaces, unprotected openings, speed, and weather conditions. Recognized fall protection strategies, such as guardrails, toe boards, tying off to appropriate anchors, and guarding openings, would have prevented many of these falls; these practices were not the norm on many sites.

  7. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  8. A case-control study of risk factors for playground injuries among children in Kingston and area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowat, D.; Wang, F.; Pickett, W.; Brison, R.

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To determine the risk for injury associated with environmental hazards in public playgrounds. Setting—One hundred and seventeen playgrounds operated by municipalities or school boards in and around Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Methods—A regional surveillance database was used to identify children presenting to emergency departments who were injured on public playgrounds; each case was individually matched (by sex, age, and month of occurrence) with two controls—one non-playground injury control, and one child seen for non-injury emergency medical care. Exposure data were obtained from an audit of playgrounds conducted using Canadian and US safety guidelines. Exposure variables included the nature of playground hazards, number of hazards, frequency of play, and total family income. No difference in odds ratios (ORs) were found using the two sets of controls, which were therefore combined for subsequent analysis. Results—Multivariate analysis showed strong associations between injuries and the use of inappropriate surface materials under and around equipment (OR 21.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4 to 128.1), appropriate materials with insufficient depth (OR 18.2, 95% CI 3.3 to 99.9), and inadequate handrails or guardrails (OR 6.7, 95% CI 2.6 to 17.5). Conclusion—This study confirms the validity of guidelines for playground safety relating to the type and depth of surface materials and the provision of handrails and guardrails. Compliance with these guidelines is an important means of preventing injury in childhood. PMID:9595330

  9. Optimized 3D Street Scene Reconstruction from Driving Recorder Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an automatic region detection based method to reconstruct street scenes from driving recorder images. The driving recorder in this paper is a dashboard camera that collects images while the motor vehicle is moving. An enormous number of moving vehicles are included in the collected data because the typical recorders are often mounted in the front of moving vehicles and face the forward direction, which can make matching points on vehicles and guardrails unreliable. Believing that utilizing these image data can reduce street scene reconstruction and updating costs because of their low price, wide use, and extensive shooting coverage, we therefore proposed a new method, which is called the Mask automatic detecting method, to improve the structure results from the motion reconstruction. Note that we define vehicle and guardrail regions as “mask” in this paper since the features on them should be masked out to avoid poor matches. After removing the feature points in our new method, the camera poses and sparse 3D points that are reconstructed with the remaining matches. Our contrast experiments with the typical pipeline of structure from motion (SfM reconstruction methods, such as Photosynth and VisualSFM, demonstrated that the Mask decreased the root-mean-square error (RMSE of the pairwise matching results, which led to more accurate recovering results from the camera-relative poses. Removing features from the Mask also increased the accuracy of point clouds by nearly 30%–40% and corrected the problems of the typical methods on repeatedly reconstructing several buildings when there was only one target building.

  10. Efficient climate policies under technology and climate uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Hermann; Kriegler, Elmar; Lessmann, Kai; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2009-01-01

    This article explores efficient climate policies in terms of investment streams into fossil and renewable energy technologies. The investment decisions maximise social welfare while observing a probabilistic guardrail for global mean temperature rise under uncertain technology and climate parameters. Such a guardrail constitutes a chance constraint, and the resulting optimisation problem is an instance of chance constrained programming, not stochastic programming as often employed. Our analysis of a model of economic growth and endogenous technological change, MIND, suggests that stringent mitigation strategies cannot guarantee a very high probability of limiting warming to 2 o C since preindustrial time under current uncertainty about climate sensitivity and climate response time scale. Achieving the 2 o C temperature target with a probability P* of 75% requires drastic carbon dioxide emission cuts. This holds true even though we have assumed an aggressive mitigation policy on other greenhouse gases from, e.g., the agricultural sector. The emission cuts are deeper than estimated from a deterministic calculation with climate sensitivity fixed at the P* quantile of its marginal probability distribution (3.6 o C). We show that earlier and cumulatively larger investments into the renewable sector are triggered by including uncertainty in the technology and climate response time scale parameters. This comes at an additional GWP loss of 0.3%, resulting in a total loss of 0.8% GWP for observing the chance constraint. We obtained those results with a new numerical scheme to implement constrained welfare optimisation under uncertainty as a chance constrained programming problem in standard optimisation software such as GAMS. The scheme is able to incorporate multivariate non-factorial probability measures such as given by the joint distribution of climate sensitivity and response time. We demonstrate the scheme for the case of a four-dimensional parameter space capturing

  11. Recent developments at the TRIUMF meson factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craddock, M.K.

    1976-10-01

    The TRIUMF meson factory, which is based on a 6-sector isochronous cyclotron accelerating H - ions to 520 MeV, has been operating since December 1974. Two proton beams are extracted simultaneously to feed the two experimental areas. Characteristics of the beams and beam lines are given. Work is also proceeding on (i) additional beam lines, (ii) a 180 kW beam dump and thermal neutron source, (iii) a medium resolution proton spectrometer, and (iv) adding third harmonic flat-topping to the RF to permit separation of the internal orbits and reduction of the energy spread of the extracted beam to 0.1 MeV. (author)

  12. The Conceptional Design of the Shielding Layout and Beam Absorber at the PXIE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidelman, Yu.; Kerby, J.; Lebedev, V.; Leibfritz, J.; Leveling, T.; Nagaisev, S.; Stanek, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-14

    Project X is a high intensity proton facility conceived to support a world-leading physics program at Fermilab. Project X will provide high intensity beams for neutrino, kaon, muon, and nuclei based experiments and for studies supporting energy applications. The Project X Injector Experiment (PIXIE) is a prototype of the Project X front end. A 30 MeV 50 kW beam will be used to validate the design concept of the Project X. This paper discusses a design of the accelerator enclosure radiation shielding and the beam dump.

  13. Photovoltaic-Concentrator Based Power Beaming For Space Elevator Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Daniel E.; Chiang, Richard; Keys, Catherine C.; Lyjak, Andrew W.; Starch, Michael D.; Nees, John A.

    2010-01-01

    The MClimber team, at the Student Space Systems Fabrication Laboratory of the University of Michigan, has developed a prototype robotic climber for competition in the NASA sponsored Power Beaming Challenge. This paper describes the development of the system that utilizes a simple telescope to deliver an 8 kW beam to a photovoltaic panel in order to power a one kilometer climb. Its unique approach utilizes a precision GPS signal to track the panel. Fundamental systems of the project were implemented using a design strategy focusing on robustness and modularity. Development of this design and its results are presented.

  14. 500 keV, 10 kW DC electron accelerator at BRIT, Vashi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.K.; Rajan, R.N.; Bakhtsingh, R.I.; Acharya, S.; Rajawat, R.K.

    2017-01-01

    The 500 keV DC accelerator was indigenously designed and developed by Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, BARC during 1994-97 and commissioned at REPF Hall, BRIT, Vashi on 10 th August, 1998. The accelerator operation at 3kW beam power for 8 hour shifts was established in February 2001, confirming to industrial standards for EB treatment of plastic sheets as well as various surface-treatment processes for value addition of the products and materials. Since then, this EB facility is functional and being regularly utilized for various applications

  15. Beam commissioning and operation of the J-PARC main ring synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Tadashi; Arakaki, Yoshitugu; Chin, Yong Ho; Hara, Keigo; Hasegawa, Katsushi; Hashimoto, Yoshinori; Hori, Yoichiro; Igarashi, Susumu; Ishii, Koji; Kamikubota, Norihiko; Kimura, Takuro; Koseki, Kunio; Fan, Kuanjyun; Kubota, Chikashi; Kuniyasu, Yuu; Kurimoto, Yoshinori; Lee, Seishu; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Molodozhentsev, Alexander; Morita, Yuichi; Murasugi, Shigeru; Muto, Ryotaro; Naito, Fujio; Nakagawa, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Shu; Niki, Kazuaki; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Ohmori, Chihiro; Okada, Masashi; Okamura, Katsuya; Oogoe, Takao; Ooya, Kazufumi; Sato, Kenichi; Sato, Yoichi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Satou, Kenichirou; Shimamoto, Masayuki; Shirakata, Masashi; Someya, Hirohiko; Sugimoto, Takuya; Takano, Junpei; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Takiyama, Yoichi; Tejima, Masaki; Toda, Makoto; Tomizawa, Masahito; Toyama, Takeshi; Uota, Masahiko; Yamada, Shuei; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yanaoka, Eiichi; Yoshii, Masahito; Harada, Hiroyuki; Hatakeyama, Shuichiro; Hotchi, Hideaki; Nomura, Masahiro; Schnase, Alexander; Shimada, Taihei; Tamura, Fumihiko; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Shimogawa, Tetsushi

    2012-01-01

    The slow cycling main ring synchrotron (MR) is located the furthest downstream in the J-PARC accelerator cascade. It became available for user operation in 2009 and provides high-intensity 30 GeV proton beams for various experiments on particle and nuclear physics. The MR has two beam extraction systems: a fast extraction system for beam delivery to the neutrino beam line of the Tokai-to-Kamioka (T2K) experiment and a slow extraction system for beam delivery to the hadron experimental hall. After a nine-month beam shutdown during the recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake, the J-PARC facility resumed beam operation in December 2011. The MR delivers a 160-200 kW beam to the T2K experiment and a 3.5-6 kW beam to users in the hadron experimental hall. In this paper, a brief review of the MR and the recent status of beam operation are presented. Near-future plans for a beam intensity upgrade are also discussed. (author)

  16. Teachers' Conceptualisations of the Intuitive and the Intentional in Poetry Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The status of poetry both in the writing curriculum and in wider popular culture is best described as mixed (Wilson, 2009). In spite of a strong post-war tradition of enthusiasm for the teaching of poetry writing, it is currently felt to be marginalised in the writing curriculum (Dymoke, 2007; Ofsted, 2007). This paper reports on the beliefs,…

  17. Food Production and Freshwater Use within Planetary Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerten, D.; Jägermeyr, J.; Heck, V.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of planetary boundaries (PBs) defines guardrails for 9 earth system processes that should not be transgressed by human activity to avoid undermining of earth system resilience. In addition to the scientific challenge of better (e.g. spatially explicit) estimations of PBs themselves, there is a need for assessing opportunities for humankind to stay within these guardrails - while still achieving societal goals such as producing sufficient food for a growing world population. This presentation provides study results (simulations with the LPJmL biosphere model) concerned with a new definition of the PB for human freshwater use in particular, and it addresses the question by how much food production could be increased through more effective water management while respecting this PB. Specifically, we represent this PB in more detail than in its provisional first iteration, i.e. based on spatially explicit estimations of rivers' environmental flow requirements, EFRs (with three different methods on a global 0.5° grid). A key finding is that present human water withdrawals already harm many river stretches around the world, as their EFRs are being tapped; this involves 950 km3/yr (39%) of irrigation water use and a further 226 km3/yr (22%) water use by other sectors. But, improved agricultural water management - here, a moderate upgrade of irrigation systems - could, if implemented across all irrigated regions along with policies to sustain EFRs, fully compensate for these production losses at global scale, albeit not everywhere. The overall, simulated potential of improved on-farm water management - also including measures of water harvesting and avoidance of evaporation in rainfed systems - is a 40% increase in global production. This highlights tremendous opportunities to produce more food without further compromising water systems, also buffering potential future climate change impacts. Finally, the presentation broadens the scope by considering further

  18. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    CERN Document Server

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Thomson scattering experiment pulsed by CO2 laser in FT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolini, L.; Fornetti, G.; Nardi, M.; Occhionero, G.; Ferri de Collibus, M.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment carried out to measure the plasma ion temperature Tsub(i) in the tokamak FT in Frascati by Collective Thomson Scattering. A tandem laser system generates two single mode beams (10.6μ) one of which is pulsed and amplified up to levels of 5 MW, 1μs and actively frequency locked to a second continuous wave low pressure CO 2 laser. The pulse beam crosses the plasma and the forward scattered light is collected at angles between 1 degrees centigrade and 1.6 degrees centigrade. An heterodyne technique in which the c.w. beam is the local oscillator is used to measure the Doppler enlarged spectral density of the signal. The experimental apparatus is described and the results are reported and discussed

  20. Neutron Diffraction Studies of Nuclear Magnetic Ordering in Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jyrkkiö, T.A.; Huiku, M.T.; Siemensmeyer, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have constructed a two-stage nuclear demagnetization cryostat for neutron diffraction studies of nuclear magnetism in copper. The cryostat is combined with a two-axis neutron spectrometer which can use both polarized and unpolarized neutrons. By demagnetizing highly polarized copper nuclear...... spins, the nuclei could be cooled below the ordering temperatureT N≃60 nK, while keeping the lattice at a considerably higher temperature between 50 and 100 µK. The neutron beam increases the lattice temperature in the sample by a factor of two or more, thereby considerably shortening the time...... for measurements in the ordered state; both our calculations and the experiments yield 1 nW beam heating. Polarized neutron experiments show that the scattered intensities from the strong fcc reflections are severely reduced by extinction. This makes the sample not very suitable for further studies with polarized...

  1. An Empirical Formula for the Residual Dose Rate of the Collimator Section of the J-PARC MR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Kenichirou; Sato, Yoichi; Uota, Masahiko; Shirakata, Masashi; Yoshii, Masahito

    Taking into account a hands-on maintenance scenario, a residual dose rate at a working area should be controlled to be lower than 1 mSv/h. At present, beam power loss at the collimator section due to strong activations is restricted to 300 W, rendering it impossible to reach the 750 kW beam power the J-PARC MR was designed to achieve. Severe activation control is essential for future beam intensity improvement. To obtain reasonable predictions of future activation level, an empirical formula was obtained by fitting measured data with a modified Sullivan-Overton formula. Using the formula, the activation level after 30 years of beam operations was derived. We present in this article the details of the data analysis.

  2. Mechanical Design of a High Energy Beam Absorber for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffes, C.; Church, M.; Leibfritz, J.; Oplt, S.; Rakhno, I.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-10

    A high energy beam absorber has been built for the Advanced Superconducting Test Accelerator (ASTA) at Fermilab. In the facility's initial configuration, an electron beam will be accelerated through 3 TTF-type or ILC-type SRF cryomodules to an energy of 750MeV. The electron beam will be directed to one of multiple downstream experimental and diagnostic beam lines and then deposited in one of two beam absorbers. The facility is designed to accommodate up to 6 cryomodules, which would produce a 75kW beam at 1.5GeV; this is the driving design condition for the beam absorbers. The beam absorbers consist of water-cooled graphite, aluminum and copper layers contained in a helium-filled enclosure. This paper describes the mechanical implementation of the beam absorbers, with a focus on thermal design and analysis. The potential for radiation-induced degradation of the graphite is discussed.

  3. Climbing out of the nuclear valley

    CERN Document Server

    Boutin, C

    2002-01-01

    With nuclear physics largely confined to a narrow band of stable isotopes, a new US machine aims to provide a wider nuclear perspective. An innovative, exotic-beam facility now under consideration, the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), could extend the horizons of nuclear physics greatly. RIA brings together a range of technologies to produce intense and high-quality beams of short-lived radionuclides of all of the chemical elements, from the lightest to the heaviest. The short-lived, rare isotopes are produced by a continuous-wave, superconducting 1.4 GV driver linac that will deliver 400 kW beams of any mass from 900 MeV protons to 400 MeV per nucleon uranium. The main production mechanisms are spallation and fission of heavy targets by light ions and in-flight fragmentation or fission of heavy-ion beams.

  4. The effects of the Qinghai–Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hua; Wang, Zhaofeng; Zhang, Yili; Hu, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai–Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0–10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai–Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals. -- Highlights: ► Levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in soils are affected by railway transportation. ► Cadmium enrichment is especially high. ► The affected area for these pollutants was within 20 m of the railway. ► The distributions of metal presented different characteristics in different sites.

  5. Designing a 'safe and just operating space' for the Chilika lagoon fishery of the Mahanadi delta, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory; Dearing, John

    2017-04-01

    Annual fish production from the Chilika lagoon is worth US25-million/year, underpinning the livelihoods of 35,000 fishers and 200,000 secondary dependants. The system has a legacy of collapse, transitioning from annual production rates of 9000 tonnes to 1300 tonnes during the late-1980s, with resulting livelihood losses triggering the first recorded instances of economic migration from Chilika. Despite engineered recovery since 2000, the future persistence of Chilika's resource stock is uncertain. Climate change may strengthen freshwater and sediment delivery, promoting ecohydrological degradation through tidal outlet sedimentation, reduced salinity and freshwater weed growth. Simultaneously, human population growth, fleet motorisation and consumption demands threaten overexploitation driven collapse. These critical social-ecological drivers and feedbacks are projected into future by integrating system dynamics modelling with Monte Carlo inputs. Sustainable pathways are identified from outputs producing social-ecologically desirable futures, such as mid-century catch equalling maximum sustainable yield. The 'safe and just operating space' metaphor is regionalised by the limits of sustainable trajectories, such as the permissible number of active fishers, motorised boats and juvenile catch under alternative governance scenarios. These critical thresholds suggest policy-relevant guardrails for the sustainable governance of Chilika, in order to avoid regional productivity collapse, ecological degradation and livelihood losses. Benefits and trade-offs of alternative governance approaches are also discussed, aiding the optimisation of future regulatory decision-making.

  6. Evaluation of Different Holder Devices for Freeze-Drying in Dual-Chamber Cartridges With a Focus on Energy Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpus, Christoph; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    For freeze-drying in dual-chamber cartridges, a holder device to enable handling and safe positioning in the freeze-dryer is necessary. The aim of this study was to analyze 4 different types of holder devices and to define the best system based on energy transfer. The main criteria were drying homogeneity, ability to minimize the influence of atypical radiation on product temperatures, and heat transfer effectiveness. The shell holder reduced the influence of atypical radiation by almost 60% compared to a block system and yielded the most homogenous sublimation rates. Besides the most efficient heat transfer with values of 1.58E-4 ± 2.06E-6 cal/(s*cm 2 *K) at 60 mTorr to 3.63E-4 ± 1.85E-5 cal/(s*cm 2 *K) at 200 mTorr for K tot , reaction times to shelf temperature changes were up to 4 times shorter compared to the other holder systems and even faster than for vials. The flexible holder provided a comparable shielding against atypical radiation as the shell but introduced a third barrier against energy transfer. Block and guardrail holder were the least efficient system tested. Hence, the shell holder provided the best radiation shielding, enhanced the transferability of the results to a larger scale, and improved the homogeneity between the dual-chamber cartridges. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Work-related injuries in residential and drywall carpentry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M; Li, Leiming; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis

    2003-06-01

    Findings are reported on the first two years of an active injury surveillance project designed to test the utility of active injury investigations in identifying causes of injury among a large cohort of carpenters who did residential building and drywall installation. Occupational Safety and Health Administration recordable injuries were reported by participating contractors. Injured union carpenters were interviewed by experienced journeymen trained in a standard questionnaire protocol. Enumeration of workers and hours worked were provided by the union. These data allowed the definition of a dynamic cohort of 4429 carpenters, their hours worked, detailed information on the circumstances surrounding recordable injuries, and possible preventive measures from the perspectives of the injured worker and an experienced journeyman investigator. The overall estimated injury rate (16.9 per 200,000 hours worked) was considerably higher than recent Bureau of Labor Statistics rates despite less than complete ascertainment of injuries. Injuries most commonly involved being struck by or against something, manual materials handling injuries, and falls. Manual materials handling injuries often involved very heavy objects or tasks and were injuries carpenters most often reported needs for adequate help and coordinated team work to prevent. Falls from heights occurred from a variety of surfaces and were not just injuries of inexperience. Carpenters reported the need for more attention to common fall protection practices, such as the use of more toe boards and guardrails. Poor housekeeping was involved in the majority of same level falls, as well as some manual materials handling injuries.

  8. Ergonomics in designing process: dialogue between designers, executors and users in the maintenance activity of radars in an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Fabrício Augusto; Rodrigues, Daniela da Silva; Fontes, Andréa Regina Martins; Menegon, Nilton Luiz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the role of ergonomics in design process using the dialogue developed by designers, implementers and users in an oil refinery. It was possible to identify the need of minimizing the postural constraints, risk of accidents, mechanical shocks and to enlarge safety perception in the access and permanency of the users at the workspace. It has been determined and validated by workers and managers to implement different deadlines depending on programming, viability and execution time for the improvements proposed. In a long-term: it was proposed the substitution of the ladders with time planning according to the maintenance program of the tanks; in a short-time: it was suggested the expansion of the existing platforms, implementation of a walkway connection provided with guardrails between the upper access of the side ladder and the repositioning of radar set and aerial aiming at the usage by workers at the workstation of the new platform. It was also elaborated eight typologies of intervention, according to the request, type of tank, material stored, and its setting place. The design process arises from ergonomics workplace analysis that presents concepts for solutions which was a mediator tool to be settled between users and implementers.

  9. Emission scenarios in the face of fossil-fuel peaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecha, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Emissions scenarios used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are based on detailed energy system models in which demographics, technology and economics are used to generate projections of future world energy consumption, and therefore, of greenhouse gas emissions. We propose in this paper that it is useful to look at a qualitative model of the energy system, backed by data from short- and medium-term trends, to gain a sense of carbon emission bounds. Here we look at what may be considered a lower bound for 21st century emissions given two assumptions: first, that extractable fossil-fuel resources follow the trends assumed by 'peak oil' adherents, and second, that no climate mitigation policies are put in place to limit emissions. If resources, and more importantly, extraction rates, of fossil fuels are more limited than posited in full energy-system models, a supply-driven emissions scenario results; however, we show that even in this 'peak fossil-fuel' limit, carbon emissions are high enough to surpass 550 ppm or 2 C climate protection guardrails. Some indicators are presented that the scenario presented here should not be disregarded, and comparisons are made to the outputs of emission scenarios used for the IPCC reports. (author)

  10. Infecção por Mycoplasma synoviae na vacinação da doença de Newcastle em galinhas

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rita de Cássia Figueira; Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo do; Pereira, Virgínia Léo de Almeida; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel do

    2008-01-01

    Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved du...

  11. High-frequency dynamics of ocean pH: a multi-ecosystem comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen E Hofmann

    Full Text Available The effect of Ocean Acidification (OA on marine biota is quasi-predictable at best. While perturbation studies, in the form of incubations under elevated pCO(2, reveal sensitivities and responses of individual species, one missing link in the OA story results from a chronic lack of pH data specific to a given species' natural habitat. Here, we present a compilation of continuous, high-resolution time series of upper ocean pH, collected using autonomous sensors, over a variety of ecosystems ranging from polar to tropical, open-ocean to coastal, kelp forest to coral reef. These observations reveal a continuum of month-long pH variability with standard deviations from 0.004 to 0.277 and ranges spanning 0.024 to 1.430 pH units. The nature of the observed variability was also highly site-dependent, with characteristic diel, semi-diurnal, and stochastic patterns of varying amplitudes. These biome-specific pH signatures disclose current levels of exposure to both high and low dissolved CO(2, often demonstrating that resident organisms are already experiencing pH regimes that are not predicted until 2100. Our data provide a first step toward crystallizing the biophysical link between environmental history of pH exposure and physiological resilience of marine organisms to fluctuations in seawater CO(2. Knowledge of this spatial and temporal variation in seawater chemistry allows us to improve the design of OA experiments: we can test organisms with a priori expectations of their tolerance guardrails, based on their natural range of exposure. Such hypothesis-testing will provide a deeper understanding of the effects of OA. Both intuitively simple to understand and powerfully informative, these and similar comparative time series can help guide management efforts to identify areas of marine habitat that can serve as refugia to acidification as well as areas that are particularly vulnerable to future ocean change.

  12. The effects of the Qinghai-Tibet railway on heavy metals enrichment in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hua [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Wang, Zhaofeng [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Yili, E-mail: zhangyl@igsnrr.ac.cn [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Hu, Zhongjun [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resource Research (IGSNRR), CAS, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China)

    2012-11-15

    The impact of land transportation on local soil environments is an important topic in environmental and ecological sciences. The rapid development of transportation infrastructure lends increasing importance to studies that identify and evaluate related heavy metal pollution. This paper discusses the effects of railways on soil heavy metal enrichments in the Tibetan plateau. At a representative area along the Haergai-Delingha railway, lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were measured in 127 topsoil samples (0-10 cm depth). The results indicate that railway transport has a significant effect on the concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb in the soil, with levels of enrichment ranging from no pollution to significant pollution. The affected area was within 20 m of the railway. The soil at Delingha was the most contaminated soil with heavy metals, and the enrichment level of Cd in the soil was the highest along the Qinghai-Tibet railway. The horizontal distributions of the three heavy metals present different characteristics at different sampling sites, which may be due to discrepancies in terrain and vegetation types. Alkaline soils and guardrails along the railway might reduce the effect of soil pollution on local people and animals. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levels of Zn, Cd and Pb in soils are affected by railway transportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cadmium enrichment is especially high. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The affected area for these pollutants was within 20 m of the railway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distributions of metal presented different characteristics in different sites.

  13. Mind the rate. Why rate global climate change matters, and how much

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    To assess climate policies in a cost-efficiency framework with constraints on the magnitude and rate of global climate change we have built RESPONSE, an optimal control integrated assessment model. Our results show that the uncertainty about climate sensitivity leads to significant short-term mitigation efforts all the more as the arrival of information regarding this parameter is belated. There exists thus a high opportunity cost to know before 2030 the true value of this parameter, which is not totally granted so far. Given this uncertainty, a +2 deg C objective could lead to rather stringent policy recommendations for the coming decades and might prove unacceptable. Furthermore, the uncertainty about climate sensitivity magnifies the influence of the rate constraint on short-term decision, leading to rather stringent policy recommendations for the coming decades. This result is particularly robust to the choice of discount rate and to the beliefs of the decision-maker about climate sensitivity. We finally show that the uncertainty about the rate constraint is even more important for short-term decision than the uncertainty about climate sensitivity or magnitude of warming. This means that the critical rate of climate change, i.e. a transient characteristic of climate risks, matters much more than the long-term objective of climate policy, i.e. the critical magnitude of climate change. Therefore, research should be aimed at better characterising climate change risks in view to help decision-makers in agreeing on a safe guardrail to limit the rate of global warming. (author)

  14. Extensive severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus contamination in surrounding environment in patient rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, B-H; Kim, J Y; Kim, T; Kim, M-C; Kim, M J; Chong, Y-P; Lee, S-O; Choi, S-H; Kim, Y S; Woo, J H; Kim, S-H

    2018-01-31

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne disease in Korea and China. Although there is previous evidence of person-to-person transmission via direct contact with body fluids, the role of environmental contamination by SFTS virus (SFTSV) in healthcare settings has not been established. We therefore investigated the contamination of the healthcare environment by SFTSV. We investigated the possible contamination of hospital air and surfaces with SFTSV transmission by collecting air and swabbing environmental surface samples in two hospitals treating six SFTS patients between March and September 2017. The samples were tested using real-time RT-PCR for SFTS M and S segments. Of the six SFTS patients, four received mechanical ventilation and three died. Five rooms were occupied by those using mechanical ventilation or total plasma exchange therapy in isolation rooms without negative pressure and one room was occupied by a patient bedridden due to SFTS. SFTSV was detected in 14 (21%) of 67 swab samples. Five of 24 swab samples were obtained from fomites including stethoscopes, and 9 of 43 were obtained from fixed structures including doorknobs and bed guardrails. Some samples from fixed structures such as television monitors and sink tables were obtained in areas remote from the patients. SFTSV RNA was not detected in five air samples from three patients' rooms. Our data suggest that SFTSV contamination was extensive in surrounding environments in SFTS patients' rooms. Therefore, more strict isolation methods and disinfecting procedures should be considered when managing SFTS patients. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trade-offs of Solar Geoengineering and Mitigation under Climate Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Khabbazan, M.; Stankoweit, M.; Roshan, E.; Schmidt, H.; Held, H.

    2016-12-01

    Scientific analyses have hitherto focused on the pros and cons of solar-radiation management (SRM) as a climate-policy option mainly in mere isolation. Here we put SRM into the context of mitigation by a strictly temperature-target-based approach. To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, we introduce a concept for a regional integrated analysis of SRM and mitigation in-line with the `2°C target'. We explicitly account for a risk-risk comparison of SRM and global warming, extending the applicability regime of temperature targets from mitigation-only to joint-SRM-mitigation analysis while minimizing economic costs required for complying with the 2°C target. Upgrading it to include SRM, we employ the integrated energy-economy-climate model MIND. We utilize the two-box climate model of DICE and calibrate the short and long time scales respectively into GeoMIP G3 experiment and quadrupled atmospheric CO2 concentrations experiment from CEMIP5 suite. Our results show that without risk-risk accounting SRM will displace mitigation. However, our analysis highlights that the value system enshrined in the 2°C target can almost preclude SRM; this is exemplified by one single regional climate variable, here precipitation, which is confined to regional bounds compatible with 2°C of global warming. Although about a half of policy costs can be saved, the results indicate that the additional amount of CO2 that could be released to the atmosphere corresponds to only 0.2°C of further global warming. Hence, the society might debate whether the risks of SRM should be taken for that rather small amount of additional carbon emissions. Nonetheless, our results point out a significantly larger role for SRM implementation if the guardrails of some regions are relaxed.

  16. Computing multiple aggregation levels and contextual features for road facilities recognition using mobile laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bisheng; Dong, Zhen; Liu, Yuan; Liang, Fuxun; Wang, Yongjun

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, updating the inventory of road infrastructures based on field work is labor intensive, time consuming, and costly. Fortunately, vehicle-based mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems provide an efficient solution to rapidly capture three-dimensional (3D) point clouds of road environments with high flexibility and precision. However, robust recognition of road facilities from huge volumes of 3D point clouds is still a challenging issue because of complicated and incomplete structures, occlusions and varied point densities. Most existing methods utilize point or object based features to recognize object candidates, and can only extract limited types of objects with a relatively low recognition rate, especially for incomplete and small objects. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a semantic labeling framework by combing multiple aggregation levels (point-segment-object) of features and contextual features to recognize road facilities, such as road surfaces, road boundaries, buildings, guardrails, street lamps, traffic signs, roadside-trees, power lines, and cars, for highway infrastructure inventory. The proposed method first identifies ground and non-ground points, and extracts road surfaces facilities from ground points. Non-ground points are segmented into individual candidate objects based on the proposed multi-rule region growing method. Then, the multiple aggregation levels of features and the contextual features (relative positions, relative directions, and spatial patterns) associated with each candidate object are calculated and fed into a SVM classifier to label the corresponding candidate object. The recognition performance of combining multiple aggregation levels and contextual features was compared with single level (point, segment, or object) based features using large-scale highway scene point clouds. Comparative studies demonstrated that the proposed semantic labeling framework significantly improves road facilities recognition

  17. Photon-photon collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    The study of photon-photon collisions has progressed enormously, stimulated by new data and new calculational tools for QCD. In the future we can expect precise determinations of α/sub s/ and Λ/sup ms/ from the γ*γ → π 0 form factor and the photon structure function, as well as detailed checks of QCD, determination of the shape of the hadron distribution amplitudes from γγ → H anti H, reconstruction of sigma/sub γγ/ from exclusive channels at low W/sub γγ/, definitive studies of high p/sub T/ hadron and jet production, and studies of threshold production of charmed systems. Photon-photon collisions, along with radiative decays of the psi and UPSILON, are ideal for the study of multiquark and gluonic resonances. We have emphasized the potential for resonance formation near threshold in virtually every hadronic exclusive channel, including heavy quark states c anti c c anti c, c anti c u anti u, etc. At higher energies SLC, LEP, ...) parity-violating electroweak effects and Higgs production due to equivalent Z 0 and W +- beams from e → eZ 0 and e → nu W will become important. 44 references

  18. Electron beam extraction system with a ring radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auslender, V.L.; Kuksanov, N.K.; Polyakov, V.A.; Salimov, R.A.; Chertok, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    Description and results of testings of two electron beam extraction systems for shaping of a circular irradiation field are given. One of the systems contains three 20 cm long outlet windows arranged at 120 deg angle with respect to each other. Tests at the ILU-6 accelerator have shown that the given system provides 150 mm zone irradiation from three sides. Beam utilization factor when irradiating three 40 mm dia tubes amounted to 35% which provides capacity of 2.5 txMrad/h at 20 kW beam power. The other extraction system includes two C-form magnets producing nonuniform and opposing magnetic fields. This system tests at the EhLV-2 accelerator have shown that at 0.8-1.5 MeV electron energy it is possible to irradiate of 60 and 100 mm dia objects, accordingly. The system may be used together with both constant-action and pulse-action accelerators having extraction with linear scanning [ru

  19. Investigation of Tantalum Recycling by Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Vutova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigations are carried out and obtained experimental and theoretical data for tantalum scrap recycling by electron beam melting (EBM is presented in this paper. Different thermal treatment process conditions are realized and results are discussed. A chemical analysis is performed and refining mechanisms for electron beam (EB refining of Ta are discussed. For the performed experiments the best purification of Ta (99.96 is obtained at 21.6 kW beam power for a melting time of 3 min. A statistical approach is applied for estimation of the material losses and the liquid pool characteristics based on experimentally-obtained data. The aim is to improve the EBM and choosing optimal process conditions, depending on the concrete characteristic requirements. Model-based quality optimization of electron beam melting and refining (EBMR processes of Ta is considered related to the optimization of the molten pool parameters, connected to the occurring refining processes, and to minimal material losses. Optimization of the process of EBM of Ta is based on overall criteria, giving compromised solutions, depending on the requirements concerning the quality of the performed products. The accumulated data, the obtained results, and the optimization statistical approach allow us to formulate requirements on the process parameters.

  20. Power handling capability of water-cooled beam stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran-Ngoc, T.

    1992-01-01

    Doubling the beam power on the RFQ1-1250 linear accelerator at Chalk River and designing a 40 kW beam diagnostic system for Tokamak de Varennes required a detailed investigation into the power handling capabilities of beam stops. Different techniques for augmentation of the critical heat flux on the cooling channel surface of beam stops are reviewed. In the case of a beam stop with twisted tape inserts, the swirl flow condition yields a higher critical heat flux than that of a straight axial flow. Although a critical heat flux in the order of 10 kW/cm 2 could be obtained at high flow velocities such as 45 m/s, such flows are not always practical in the design of beam stop cooling systems. At a water velocity of 4 m/s, the highest beam power density is estimated to be 1.4 kW/cm 2 for a beam stop design that uses double rows of cooling tubes. A similar design, where cooling channels are machined on a common copper block, would handle a power density up to 2.6 kW/cm 2 . Some preliminary hydraulic test results, related to a third design where high flow turbulence is created by two rows of intersected-channels, are also reported. (Author) 5 refs., 4 figs

  1. Real-time evaluation of two light delivery systems for photodynamic disinfection of Candida albicans biofilm in curved root canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, C. P.; Garcez, A. S.; Núñez, S. C.; Ribeiro, M. S.; Hamblin, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) combined with endodontic treatment has been recognized as an alternative approach to complement conventional root canal disinfection methods on bacterial biofilms. We developed an in vitro model of bioluminescent Candida albicans biofilm inside curved dental root canals and investigated the microbial reduction produced when different light delivery methods are employed. Each light delivery method was evaluated in respect to the light distribution provided inside curved root canals. After conventional endodontic preparation, teeth were sterilized before canals were contaminated by a bioluminescent strain of C. albicans (CEC789). Methylene blue (90 µM) was introduced into the canals and then irradiated (λ=660 nm, P=100 mW, beam diameter=2 mm) with laser tip either in contact with pulp chamber or within the canal using an optical diffuser fiber. Light distribution was evaluated by CCD camera, and microbial reduction was monitored through bioluminescence imaging. Our findings demonstrated that the bioluminescent C. albicans biofilm model had good reproducibility and uniformity. Light distribution in dental tissue was markedly dependent on the light delivery system, and this strategy was directly related to microbial destruction. Both light delivery systems performed significant fungal inactivation. However, when irradiation was performed with optical diffuser fiber, microbial burden reduction was nearly 100 times more effective. Bioluminescence is an interesting real-time analysis to endodontic C. albicans biofilm inactivation. APDT showed to be an effective way to inactivate C. albicans biofilms. Diffuser fibers provided optimized light distribution inside curved root canals and significantly increased APDT efficiency. PMID:25060900

  2. Experimental results of a sheet-beam, high power, FEL amplifier with application to magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, S.; Destler, W.W.; Granatstein, V.L. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The experimental study of sheet-beam FELs as candidate millimeter-wave sources for heating magnetic fusion plasmas has achieved a major milestone. In a proof-of-principle, pulsed experiment, saturated FEL amplifier operation was achieved with 250 kW of output power at 86 GHz. Input microwave power was 1 kW, beam voltage was 450 kV and beam current was 17 A. The planar wiggler had a peak value of 3.8 kG, a period of 0.96 cm and was 71 cm long. The linear gain of 30 dB, saturated gain of 24 dB and saturated efficiency of 3% all are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. Follow-on work would include development of a thermionic sheet-beam electron-gun compatible with CW FEL operation, adding a section of tapered wiggler to increase the output power to levels in excess of 1 megawatt, and increasing the FEL frequency.

  3. High peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state amplifier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wushouer, X; Yan, P; Yu, H; Liu, Q; Fu, X; Yan, X; Gong, M

    2010-01-01

    We report the high peak power picosecond hybrid fiber and solid-state laser amplifier system. The passively mode-locked solid-state seed source produced an average power of 1.8 W with pulse width of 14 ps and repetition rate of 86 MHz. It was directly coupled into the first Yb-doped polarized photonic crystal fiber amplifier stage. To avoid the nonlinear effects in fiber, the output power from the first stage was merely amplified to 24 W with the narrow spectra broadening of 0.21 nm. For the improvement of the peak power, the dual-end pumped composite Nd:YVO 4 amplifier system has been chosen at the second stage. To reduce the serious thermal effect, the thermally bonded composite YVO 4 – Nd:YVO 4 – YVO 4 rod crystal was used as the gain medium. The 53 W TEM 00 mode with the peak power of 40 kW, beam quality of M 2 < 1.15, corresponding to the optical-optical efficiency of 42.4% was obtained at the hybrid amplifier laser system. The system allows using a low power seed source and demonstrates an increase in the peak power beyond a fiber master oscillator power amplifier's (MOPA's) limit

  4. Solid targetry at the TESLA Accelerator Installation

    CERN Document Server

    Comor, J J; Rajcevic, M; Kosutic, D; Spasic, M; Vidovic, A; Duricic, J; Nedeljkovic, N

    2002-01-01

    According to the concept of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, the channel for production of radioisotopes has to routinely produce sup 2 sup 0 sup 1 Tl, sup 1 sup 1 sup 1 In, sup 6 sup 7 Ga, sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I and sup 1 sup 8 F, and a number of other radionuclides for experimental purposes. The production of sup 1 sup 2 sup 3 I and sup 1 sup 8 F will be performed in dedicated, commercial target stations, while a versatile solid target irradiation system is designed for the routine and experimental production of all other radioisotopes. The solid target station is designed to accept targets for both the 7 deg. and 90 deg. irradiation geometry. The targets used for the routine production will be prepared by electroplating on a silver substrate. They can be irradiated with a 1.5 kW beam using the 7 deg. geometry. The cooling of these targets is enhanced by fins on the back of the silver substrate designed so that the highest temperature on the surface of the target does not exceed 110 deg. C. The irradiation ...

  5. On-site installation and shielding of a mobile electron accelerator for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catana, D.; Panaitescu, J.; Axinescu, S.; Manolache, D.; Matei, C.; Corcodel, C.; Ulmeanu, M..; Bestea, V.

    1995-01-01

    The development of radiation processing of some bulk products, e.g. grains or potatoes, would be sustained if the irradiation had been carried out at the place of storage, i.e. silo. A promising solution is proposed consisting of a mobile electron accelerator, installed on a couple of trucks and traveling from one customer to another. The energy of the accelerated electrons was chosen at 5 MeV, with 10 to 50 kW beam power. The irradiation is possible either with electrons or with bremsstrahlung. A major problem of the above solution is the provision of adequate shielding at the customer, with a minimum investment cost. Plans for a bunker are presented, which houses the truck carrying the radiation head. The beam is vertical downwards, through the truck floor, through a transport pipe and a scanning horn. The irradiation takes place in a pit, where the products are transported through a belt. The belt path is so chosen as to minimize openings in the shielding. Shielding calculations are presented supposing a working regime with 5 MeV bremsstrahlung. Leakage and scattered radiation are taken into account. (orig.)

  6. Development and operational experience of 500 keV, 10kW DC electron accelerator at BRIT, Vashi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanu, K.; Mittal, K.C.; Jain, A.; Nagesh, K.V.; Acharya, S.; Puthran, G.P.; Bakhtsingh, R.I.; Saroj, P.C.; Srivastava, S.K.; Sharma, D.K.; Rajan, R.N.; Kumar, Mukesh; Balakrishnan, M.; Chawla, A.S.; Chindarkar, A.R.; Ghodke, S.R.; Jayaprakash, D.; Kumar, Mahendra; Mishra, R.L.; Sharma, Vijay; Agarwal, Ritu; Pandey, M.K.; Raul, S.R.; Sethi, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    A 500 keV, 10 kW DC industrial electron accelerator has been designed and developed by APPD/BARC and commissioned at BRIT Vashi. The accelerator is based on balanced Cockcroft-Walton generator, is capable of operating at beam energies from 200keV to 500keV with beam current up to 20 mA. Electron beam at 5 keV is generated in a triode electron gun using LaB 6 cathode and is injected into accelerating column at a vacuum of 10 -6 torr. After acceleration, the beam is scanned and taken out in air through a 100 cm x 7 cm titanium window for radiation processing applications. The accelerator has been operated at 200 to 500 keV and 1 mA to 10 mA levels. Three successful 8 hour test runs of the accelerator at 3 kW beam power were demonstrated. Beam energy, current and power stability was within ± 1.0% ±3.5% and ±3.8% respectively during 8-hour runs. This paper briefly describes about the accelerator system and operational experiences. The accelerator is presently employed for experiments on radiation processing of various materials. (author)

  7. Performance and Applications of the first HVE 5MV Tandetron™ at the University of Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mous, D. J. W.; Gottdang, A.; Haitsma, R. G.; Garcia Lopez, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Agulló-López, F.; Boerma, D. O.

    2003-08-01

    The first HVE Tandetron™ with a nominal terminal voltage of 5 MV has been put into operation at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Spain) as part of their new IBA facility. The accelerator features a coaxial structure in which the all-solid-state power supply is constructed around the high-energy acceleration tube, thereby avoiding the T-shaped tank that has characterized the HVE Tandetrons™ so far. The new IBA facility covers a number of different ion beam analysis techniques including ERD using heavy-element time-of-flight, RBS, as well as an external micro-beam for PIXE. During installation, tests have shown a stable terminal voltage of 5.5 MV. The terminal voltage ripple was deduced to be below 6 × 10-6 (RMS) for terminal voltages above 800 kV. Terminal voltage undershoot was measured to be 1.4 × 10-3 for a ˜1 kW beam at 3 MV and recovered to 1 × 10-4 within 800 ms. IBA experiments that require low energy hydrogen beams are supported by a stable terminal voltage down to 100 kV.

  8. Performance and Applications of the first HVE 5MV TandetronTM at the University of Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mous, D.J.W.; Gottdang, A.; Haitsma, R.G.; Garcia Lopez, G.; Climent-Font, A.; Agullo-Lopez, F.; Boerma, D.O.

    2003-01-01

    The first HVE Tandetron TM with a nominal terminal voltage of 5 MV has been put into operation at the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain) as part of their new IBA facility. The accelerator features a coaxial structure in which the all-solid-state power supply is constructed around the high-energy acceleration tube, thereby avoiding the T-shaped tank that has characterized the HVE Tandetrons TM so far. The new IBA facility covers a number of different ion beam analysis techniques including ERD using heavy-element time-of-flight, RBS, as well as an external micro-beam for PIXE. During installation, tests have shown a stable terminal voltage of 5.5 MV. The terminal voltage ripple was deduced to be below 6 x 10-6 (RMS) for terminal voltages above 800 kV. Terminal voltage undershoot was measured to be 1.4 x 10-3 for a ∼1 kW beam at 3 MV and recovered to 1 x 10-4 within 800 ms. IBA experiments that require low energy hydrogen beams are supported by a stable terminal voltage down to 100 kV

  9. R & D on Beam Injection and Bunching Schemes in the Fermilab Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, C. M. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    Fermilab is committed to upgrade its accelerator complex to support HEP experiments at the intensity frontier. The ongoing Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) enables us to reach 700 kW beam power on the NuMI neutrino targets. By the end of the next decade, the current 400 MeV normal conducting LINAC will be replaced by an 800 MeV superconducting LINAC (PIP-II) with an increased beam power >50% of the PIP design goal. Both in PIP and PIP-II era, the existing Booster is going to play a very significant role, at least for next two decades. In the meanwhile, we have recently developed an innovative beam injection and bunching scheme for the Booster called "early injection scheme" that continues to use the existing 400 MeV LINAC and implemented into operation. This scheme has the potential to increase the Booster beam intensity by >40% from the PIP design goal. Some benefits from the scheme have already been seen. In this paper, I will describe the basic principle of the scheme, results from recent beam experiments, our experience with the new scheme in operation, current status, issues and future plans. This scheme fits well with the current and future intensity upgrade programs at Fermilab.

  10. End-to-End Beam Dynamics Simulations for the ANL-RIA Driver Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ostroumov, P N

    2004-01-01

    The proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) Facility consists of a superconducting (SC) 1.4 GV driver linac capable of producing 400 kW beams of any ion from hydrogen to uranium. The driver is configured as an array of ~350 SC cavities, each with independently controllable rf phase. For the end-to-end beam dynamics design and simulation we use a dedicated code, TRACK. The code integrates ion motion through the three-dimensional fields of all elements of the driver linac beginning from the exit of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source to the production targets. TRACK has been parallelized and is able to track large number of particles in randomly seeded accelerators with misalignments and a comprehensive set of errors. The simulation starts with multi-component dc ion beams extracted from the ECR. Beam losses are obtained by tracking up to million particles in hundreds of randomly seeded accelerators. To control beam losses a set of collimators is applied in designated areas. The end-to-end simulat...

  11. High power pulsed/microwave technologies for electron accelerators vis a vis 10MeV, 10kW electron LINAC for food irradiation at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Purushottam; Mulchandani, J.; Mohania, P.; Baxy, D.; Wanmode, Y.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Use of electron accelerators for irradiation of food items is gathering momentum in India. The various technologies for powering the electron LINAC were needed to be developed in the country due to embargo situations as well as reservations of the developers worldwide to share the information related to this development. Centre for Advanced Technology, CAT, Indore, is engaged in the development of particle accelerators for medical industrial and scientific applications. Amongst other electron accelerators developed in CAT, a 10MeV, 10kW LINAC for irradiation of food items has been commissioned and tested for full rated 10kW beam power. The high power pulsed microwave driver for the LINAC was designed, developed and commissioned with full indigenous efforts, and is right now operational at CAT. It consists of a 6MW, 25kW S-band pulsed klystron, 15MW peak power pulse modulator system for the klystron, microwave driver amplifier chain, stabilized generator, protection and control electronics, waveguide system to handle the high peak and average power, gun modulator electronics, grid electronics etc. The present paper highlights various technologies like the pulsed power systems and components, microwave circuits and systems etc. Also the performance results of the high power microwave driver for the 10MeV LINAC at CAT are discussed. Future strategies for developing the state of art technologies are highlighted. (author)

  12. Experiences from operation of Pomorzany EBFGT plant and directions of technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paweleca, A.; Chmielewskia, A.G.; Tyminskia, B.; Zimek, Z.; Licki, J.; Mazurekc, L.; Sobolewskic, R.; Kostrzewskic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Electron beam flue gas treatment technology is one of the most advanced technologies among new generation air pollution control processes. It is the only one process for simultaneous removal of SO 2 and NO x , applied in the industrial scale. Moreover other pollutants as acidic compounds, VOC and dioxins can be removed in one step. Among the other advantages a fully usable by-product – a fertilizer is created in the process. The industrial demonstrational plant was constructed in EPS Pomorzany in Szczecin (Poland). The facility treats the flue gases of maximum flow of 270.000 Nm 3 /h, which are irradiated by four accelerators of 700 keV electron energy and 260 kW beam power each. The removal efficiency of SO 2 in this installation may reach 95%, while removal efficiency of NO x – 70%. Apart of technical analysis also economical calculations of investment and operational costs of EBFGT installations, based on the data obtained on the Polish installation, was performed. The results show that in the case of multi-pollutant control the electron beam technology is strongly competitive to conventional technologies. Description of the experiences obtained during the operation of the plant and further possibilities of the technology development are presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Green and sustainable median on a divided multilane highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambak, K.; Bajuri, F. A. A.; Yusoff, N. A.; Madun, A.; Prasetijo, J.

    2017-11-01

    The road system in Malaysia showed good growth with increasing number of vehicles on the road. However, statistic of road accident is still at an alarming rate. There are many factor can contribute to the occurrence of an accident. If the accident was caused by road facilities such as street furniture, it is shown that the street furniture was failed to improve the safety of the road users. In this study, a new concept of materials for the construction of road dividers was purpose. The sustainable materials such as laterite soil, Cow Grass, tires and PVC pipes was used to replace the cement and iron guardrails in road divider construction. The main objectives of this study is to design characteristics of a road divider using natural material such as laterite soil, sand, grass and recycle material like used a tyre. A series of experiments such as test liquid limit, plastic limit test, standard proctor test and observations of root growth in 30 days were conducted. The result shows that the plastic index value of 35% was obtained. From the proctor compaction test, the optimum water content was 23% and maximum dry density at 15.3 kN/m3. This value was used to build a prototype of green and sustainable raised road median. The suitability of sand used as the medium in irrigation system was approved. Permeability of sand is 10-2 mm/s to 10 mm/s which is having a high rate of flow. The growth of Cow Grass roots was increased by 4.9 cm in 30 days. This shows that, the grass is suitable to grow in laterite soil and can be used as vegetation material. Through the impact test conducted on a model with a scale of 1:7.5, indicate the initial damage occurred when a force reaches 10N. However, the condition of the model is still stable. From the impact test conducted, the prototype of green and sustainable raised road median has a good potential to be used as existing road divider as it can absorb the impact of an accident.

  14. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Reto; Cascio, Wayne E; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise, and gaseous co-pollutants. The aim was to provide a better understanding of the workers' exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health endpoints. To quantify the workers' exposure, we monitored 18 subjects during 50 non-consecutive work shifts. Exposure assessment was based on personal and work site measurements and included fine particulate matter (PM2.5), particle number concentration (PNC), noise (Leq), and the gaseous co-pollutants: carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mean work shift PM2.5 concentrations (gravimetric measurements) ranged from 20.3 to 321 μg m(-3) (mean 62 μg m(-3)) and PNC were between 1.6×10(4) and 4.1×10(5) particles cm(-3) (8.9×10(4) particles cm(-3)). Noise levels were generally high with Leq over work shifts from 73.3 to 96.0 dB(A); the averaged Leq over all work shifts was 87.2 dB(A). The highest exposure to fine and ultrafine particles was measured during grass mowing and lumbering when motorized brush cutters and chain saws were used. Highest noise levels, caused by pneumatic hammers, were measured during paving and guardrail repair. We found moderate Spearman correlations between PNC and PM2.5 (r = 0.56); PNC, PM2.5, and CO (r = 0.60 and r = 0.50) as well as PNC and noise (r = 0.50). Variability and correlation of parameters were influenced by work activities that included equipment causing combined air pollutant and noise emissions (e.g. brush cutters and chain saws). We conclude that highway maintenance workers are frequently exposed to elevated airborne particle and noise levels compared with the average population. This elevated exposure is a consequence of the permanent proximity to highway traffic with additional peak exposures caused by emissions of the work-related equipment.

  15. A comparison of the resistance of Temporary Edge Protection Systems to static and dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temporary Edge Protection Systems (TEPS are designed to withstand the impact of a worker that walks, stumbles, and falls against them. This is by nature a dynamic action; however, many standards evaluate TEPS when the surface or slope is slightly inclined (less than 10°, applying static requirements. The performance requirements demanded by these standards are assumed to be equivalent to the impact of a worker, however this point has not been tested. In this study, TEPS with tubular steel guardrails and wooden boards of different quality under two types of loads are evaluated using the static requirements detailed in standard EN 13374. TEPS are subjected to an impact energy of 180 J, simulating a worker of 90 kg walking at a speed of 2 m/s. The results demonstrate that the static requirements of EN 13374 are more demanding than the impact of 180 J in all the systems under study.Los sistemas provisionales de protección de borde (SPPB están diseñados para detener el impacto de un trabajador que camina, tropieza y golpea contra ellas. Esto supone una acción de naturaleza dinámica. Sin embargo, muchas normas evalúan SPPB utilizando requisitos de tipo estático cuando la superficie de trabajo está poco inclinada (menos de 10° suponiendo que equivalen al impacto de un trabajador. No obstante, este aspecto no se ha confirmado experimentalmente. En este trabajo SPPB con barandillas de tubos de acero y de tablas de madera se han evaluado usando los requisitos estáticos definidos por la norma EN 13374. Posteriormente, se han sometido a una energía de impacto de 180 J, que simula a un trabajador de 90 kg caminando a una velocidad de 2 m/s. Los resultados demuestran que los requisitos estáticos de la norma EN 13374 son más exigentes que el impacto de 180 J en todos los sistemas estudiados.

  16. The Path Forward from Paris: the Challenge for Tropical Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, C.

    2016-12-01

    The pledges of emissions reductions put forth at the COP21 in Paris fall short of ensuring the desired guardrail of 2 C warming, let alone the more stringent, but necessary, goal of 1.5 C warming if we want to minimize the increasing risks of climate change over both the short term of decades and the long term of centuries. Decarbonization of the global economy is mandatory, which implies a gargantuan challenge of decarbonizing the energy system. Given the likelihood of decreasing strength of the natural sinks in the global oceans and land biota as warming progresses, it may be necessary to reach nearly zero net emissions by midcentury and even negative net emissions by the end of the century. In addition to massive and rapid implementation of renewable energy systems, desirable mitigation trajectories involve large-scale reforestation and ecosystem restoration and also bioenergy capture and storage systems (BECCS). Tropical countries can play an important role to meet both goals as long as they are able to implement sustainable agriculture at the large scale that is nearly carbon-neutral and resilient to unavoidable climate change. And reaching sustainability in the agricultural sector—remembering that agricultural direct emissions and indirect emissions due to deforestation account for almost one quarter of global emissions—is under the constraint to meet food security for all, that is, food production has to grow 70% by midcentury, with concomitant reduction of waste in the food chain. I will take the example of mitigation options for Brazil—a large tropical country with per capita emissions of about 7.5 ton CO2-eq—to illustrate sustainable development trajectories of reaching carbon neutrality by midcentury. That will imply developing a modern, more productive carbon-neutral agriculture within the next two decades, reducing tropical deforestation to nearly zero within a decade, restoring ecosystems and increasing renewable energy use to over 80% of its

  17. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim; Donges, Jonathan; Molkenthin, Nora

    2016-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: Which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this work, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth System modeling

  18. Evaluation of site-specific factors influencing heavy metal contents in the topsoil of vegetated infiltration swales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmeyer, Nils; Huber, Maximilian; Drewes, Jörg E.; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    Stormwater runoff of traffic areas is usually polluted by organic and inorganic substances and must be treated prior to discharge into groundwater. One widely used treatment method is infiltrating the runoff over the topsoil of vegetated swales. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing the heavy metal contents in such topsoil layers of vegetated infiltration swales near highways, roads, and parking lots. In total, 262 topsoil samples were taken from 35 sampling sites, which varied in age, traffic volume, road design, driving style, and site-specific conditions. In the evaluation of all soil samples, the median heavy metal values of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc were yielding 0.36 (mean: 1.21) mg/kg DM, 37.0 (mean: 44.5) mg/kg DM, 28.0 (mean: 61.5) mg/kg DM, 27.0 (mean: 71.9) mg/kg DM, and 120 (mean: 257) mg/kg DM, respectively. The main purpose was to evaluate the site-specific data (i.e., surrounding land use characteristics, traffic area site data, and operational characteristics). In general, heavy metal contents increased with increasing traffic volumes. However, other factors also had a notable impact. Factors such as road design (e.g., curves, crossings, and roundabouts) and grade of congestion significantly influenced the heavy metal contents. High heavy metal contents were detected for stop-and-go areas, roundabouts, crossings, and sites with traffic lights, signs, and guardrails. Findings of this study can be used to identify highly polluted traffic areas and to verify or improve standards regarding the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. - Highlights: • Correlation of contents with traffic volume, road design, and stop-and-go traffic • Increased heavy metal contents at stop-and-go sites, roundabouts, and crossings • Different soil contents and behavior of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc • Identification of factors influencing the variability of zinc in topsoil samples

  19. Managing Earth's Future: Global Self-Restraint for the Common Good or Domination by Incentive and Power?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Hartnett, H. E.; Rowan, L. R.; Caldeira, K.

    2016-12-01

    We are global in our impacts, yet local in our thoughts and feelings. The daunting challenge facing Homo sapiens is learning to cooperate at global scale for the common good. Since the invention of the steam engine, we have been developing ever more efficient ways of generating consumer products. Some of the wealth generated by these more efficient technologies was reinvested into additional capital infrastructure, such as factories and machines. We thus expanded capacity to offer goods and services to insatiable consumers, expanding the ability to extract and transform natural resources into both valuable goods and services and dangerous pollution. Improvements in medical technologies led to quasi-exponential population growth, mirroring and multiplying the quasi-exponential growth in per capita consumption. This quasi-exponential growth is starting to reach boundaries, but these boundaries are not sending signals to the market that would allow a laissez faire approach to work. The central question is: How can we continue improving well-being while diminishing material flows associated with environmental pollution? Globally, if we do not place constraints on ourselves, nature will impose constraints on us. We can impose constraints on ourselves to protect us from what nature would otherwise to do to us. To have a sustainable future, we would need to level off population at the lowest feasible levels. The difference between a future population of 6 billion and 16 billion is a half-child per family less-or-more than the central projection of demographers. Empowering women with education and technology has proven to be a most effective strategy at reducing population growth. To have a sustainable future, we would need strong disincentives on environmental damage, especially from long-lived wastes such as carbon dioxide. It is of course a huge political challenge to get such disincentives in place. If we fail to get these global self-protective guardrails established

  20. Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology: Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachan, M.

    1998-01-01

    Survey Report with a feasibility study on design and construction of such accelerators in Poland. Two types were defined as necessary: S-band linear accelerator 10 MeV,10-20 kW beam power (TAEL 10/20), Modular 300 MHz accelerator 10 MeV, 20-50 kW beam power (ATENA 10/50). It should also be emphasized that we performed: - design, manufacturing and testing of 27 pieces of polarized coaxial-waveguide couplers for superconducting resonators in HERA accelerator. This work was done for the collaboration agreement with DESY, and paid for by DESY. Preliminary assembling of couplers was done in Hamburg in December 97. Final completion, matched to HERA time schedule will take place in March 98. - design, manufacturing and testing of Pulsed Microwave Generator dedicated to beam bunches diagnostics of short beam pulses. This work was done in collaboration with LNF-INFN / Frascati, and was paid for by INFN. The generator was completed and tested in Swierk in December 97, and shipped to Fracsati in January 98. (author)

  1. Asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, R K; Graber, T J; Fernandez, P B; Mills, D M

    2012-03-01

    A novel asymmetric-cut variable-incident-angle monochromator was constructed and tested in 1997 at the Advanced Photon Source of Argonne National Laboratory. The monochromator was originally designed as a high heat load monochromator capable of handling 5-10 kW beams from a wiggler source. This was accomplished by spreading the x-ray beam out on the surface an asymmetric-cut crystal and by using liquid metal cooling of the first crystal. The monochromator turned out to be a highly versatile monochromator that could perform many different types of experiments. The monochromator consisted of two 18° asymmetrically cut Si crystals that could be rotated about 3 independent axes. The first stage (Φ) rotates the crystal around an axis perpendicular to the diffraction plane. This rotation changes the angle of the incident beam with the surface of the crystal without changing the Bragg angle. The second rotation (Ψ) is perpendicular to the first and is used to control the shape of the beam footprint on the crystal. The third rotation (Θ) controls the Bragg angle. Besides the high heat load application, the use of asymmetrically cut crystals allows one to increase or decrease the acceptance angle for crystal diffraction of a monochromatic x-ray beam and allows one to increase or decrease the wavelength bandwidth of the diffraction of a continuum source like a bending-magnet beam or a normal x-ray-tube source. When the monochromator is used in the doubly expanding mode, it is possible to expand the vertical size of the double-diffracted beam by a factor of 10-15. When this was combined with a bending magnet source, it was possible to generate an 8 keV area beam, 16 mm wide by 26 mm high with a uniform intensity and parallel to 1.2 arc sec that could be applied in imaging experiments.

  2. The effect of diode superpulsed low-level laser therapy on experimental orthodontic pain caused by elastomeric separators: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Ida; Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; Bortolotti, Francesco; Innocenti, Giulio; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of diode superpulsed low-level laser therapy (SLLLT) in reducing experimentally induced orthodontic pain. Overall, 120 subjects (23.01 ± 1.39 years) were enrolled for a clinical trial. Subjects were randomly assigned to upper (U, N = 60) or lower (L, N = 60) jaw groups. All subjects received 4 elastomeric separators mesial and distal to the upper (U group) or lower (L group) right first molar and bicuspids. Each subject of the U and L groups was randomly assigned to laser (Ul, N = 20 and Ll, N = 20), placebo (Up, N = 20 and Lp, N = 20) or control (Uc, N = 20 and Lc, N = 20) sub-groups. Subjects in laser groups received a single GaAs diode SLLLT application (910 nm, 160 mW, beam diameter of 8 mm, applied for 340 s) immediately after placing orthodontic separators. Placebo groups received a simulated SLLLT and controls did not receive any therapy. All participants compiled a survey on pain duration and a 100-mm visual analogue scale immediately after the separators placement and after 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, and 96 h. Pain intensity of laser groups was significantly lower compared to placebo and control groups (p = 0.0001). In the laser group, 70% of subjects felt pain, while in the placebo and control groups all subjects felt pain (p = 0.0001). The end of pain occurred earlier in laser compared to placebo and control groups (p = 0.021). A single-diode SLLLT application appeared to be effective in reducing the intensity and duration of experimentally induced orthodontic pain and could be used in daily orthodontic practice.

  3. Study on RFQ linacs for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nozomu.

    1990-11-01

    Study on a prototype linac 'LITL', the first Radiofrequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac that accelerated heavy ions in the world, 1.4 m in length and 0.6 m in diameter has revealed: a vane mounting method using 'base plugs' is effective to align the large vanes within a precision of 100 μm: a circle approximation of the ideal vane shape can give a satisfactory rf field distribution in the beam aperture and can yield a high surface field strength exceeding 21 kV/mm. A long RFQ linac 'TALL', 7.3 m in length, has been realized by 'vane separation' method. The cavity has been fabricated by joining four sections which had been assembled independently. The vanes are separated at the joints with gaps between them, which to tolerate machining errors and unequal thermal expansion. This method enables the precise alignment of the vane for a long RFQ. It does not decrease the sparking limit and does not increase beam loss. By devising end inductive tuners, sufficient mode separation was obtained. By compensating the capacitance errors owing to the vane misalignment with side inductive tuners, azimuthal and longitudinal field uniformities of ±1.5 % and ±5 %, respectively have been obtained. The frequency can be controlled without destroying the field uniformity. The cavity is excited stably by a simple loop coupler for a peak rf power up to 240 kW. Beam tests show the output beam characteristics which have been predicted by computer simulations are realized. Through the construction and performance studies of the two linacs, a type of the RFQ linac for heavy ions has been established. (author)

  4. TU-FG-201-09: Predicting Accelerator Dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Able, C; Nguyen, C; Baydush, A; Munley, M; Gersh, J; Ndlovu, A; Rebo, I; Booth, J; Perez, M; Sintay, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an integrated statistical process control (SPC) framework using digital performance and component data accumulated within the accelerator system that can detect dysfunction prior to unscheduled downtime. Methods: Seven digital accelerators were monitored for twelve to 18 months. The accelerators were operated in a ‘run to failure mode’ with the individual institutions determining when service would be initiated. Institutions were required to submit detailed service reports. Trajectory and text log files resulting from a robust daily VMAT QA delivery were decoded and evaluated using Individual and Moving Range (I/MR) control charts. The SPC evaluation was presented in a customized dashboard interface that allows the user to review 525 monitored parameters (480 MLC parameters). Chart limits were calculated using a hybrid technique that includes the standard SPC 3σ limits and an empirical factor based on the parameter/system specification. The individual (I) grand mean values and control limit ranges of the I/MR charts of all accelerators were compared using statistical (ranked analysis of variance (ANOVA)) and graphical analyses to determine consistency of operating parameters. Results: When an alarm or warning was directly connected to field service, process control charts predicted dysfunction consistently on beam generation related parameters (BGP)– RF Driver Voltage, Gun Grid Voltage, and Forward Power (W); beam uniformity parameters – angle and position steering coil currents; and Gantry position accuracy parameter: cross correlation max-value. Control charts for individual MLC – cross correlation max-value/position detected 50% to 60% of MLCs serviced prior to dysfunction or failure. In general, non-random changes were detected 5 to 80 days prior to a service intervention. The ANOVA comparison of BGP determined that each accelerator parameter operated at a distinct value. Conclusion: The SPC framework shows promise. Long term

  5. Commentary: Status of road safety in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismans, Jac; Skogsmo, Ingrid; Nilsson-Ehle, Anna; Lie, Anders; Thynell, Marie; Lindberg, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    hand, lack of good high-quality accident data should not be an excuse to postpone interventions. There are many opportunities for evidence-based transport safety improvements, including measures concerning the 5 key risk factors: speed, drunk driving, not wearing motorcycle helmets, not wearing seat belts, and not using child restraints in cars, as specified in the Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011-2020. In this commentary, a number of additional measures are proposed that are not covered in the Decade of Action Plan. These new measures include separate roads or lanes for pedestrians and cyclists; helmet wearing for e-bike riders; special attention to elderly persons in public transportation; introduction of emerging collision avoidance technologies, in particular automatic emergency braking (AEB) and alcohol locks; improved truck safety focusing on the other road user (including blind spot detection technology; underride protection at the front, rear, and side; and energy-absorbing fronts); and improvements in motorcycle safety concerning protective clothing, requirements for advanced braking systems, improved visibility of motorcycles by using daytime running lights, and better guardrails.

  6. Impacts of 1.5°C warming on high mountain systems: state of knowledge, challenges and the way forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Salzmann, Nadine; Allen, Simon; Frey, Holger; Haeberli, Wilfried; Linsbauer, Andreas; Paul, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Recently, both in science and policy, discussions have intensified about whether the 2°C 'guardrail' can really be considered a safety margin, i.e. natural and human systems would be reasonably safe when global warming can be limited to below 2°C with reference to preindustrial levels. Concerns about the 'safety' of the 2°C warming mounted especially with reference to highly vulnerable systems such as small islands, polar regions and high mountains where 2°C may imply crossing thresholds with major irreversible impacts. Several countries and organizations therefore called for a 1.5°C target, and it was one of the remarkable aspects of the Paris Climate Conference in December 2015 that 1.5°C was explicitly included in the Paris Agreement. However, scientifically, little is known about the difference between 1.5°C and 2°C warming in terms of impacts on natural and human systems. This was also corroborated by the final report of the UNFCCC Structured Expert Dialogue (SED) which was based on the outcomes of the IPCC 5th Assessment Report and subsequent expert discussions. Here we respond to this gap and challenge of understanding the differences of impacts as related to 1.5°C and 2°C above preindustrial levels. We concentrate on high mountains and impacts related to changes in the cryosphere because these systems are very sensitive to climatic changes (in particular to the key climate variables temperature and precipitation) and acknowledged as highly vulnerable areas. We start with a systematic literature review and find that the mountain research community has addressed this issue only in a marginal way. We then develop a conceptual but evidence-based model how this challenge could be addressed: We suggest to first study the changes and corresponding impacts seen in high mountain systems since the Little Ice Age focusing on specified periods with 0.5°C global warming (corresponding regional warming, for instance in the Swiss Alps, in these periods was

  7. The PIP-II Reference Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri, [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); et al.

    2015-06-01

    The Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II) is a high-intensity proton facility being developed to support a world-leading neutrino program over the next two decades at Fermilab. PIP-II is an integral part of the U.S. Intensity Frontier Roadmap as described in the Particle Physics Project Prioritization Panel (P5) report of May 2014 [1]. As an immediate goal PIP-II is focused on upgrades to the Fermilab accelerator complex capable of providing a beam power in excess of 1 MW on target at the initiation of LBNF [1,2] operations. PIP-II is a part of a longer-term concept for a sustained campaign of upgrades and improvements to achieve multi-MW capabilities at Fermilab. PIP-II is based on three major thrusts. They are (1) the recently completed upgrades to the Recycler and Main Injector (MI) for the NOvA experiment, (2) the Proton Improvement Plan [3] currently underway, and (3) the Project X Reference Design [4]. Note that: The Proton Improvement Plan (PIP) consolidates a set of improvements to the existing Linac, Booster, and Main Injector (MI) aimed at supporting 15 Hz Booster beam operation. In combination, the NOvA upgrades and PIP create a capability of delivering 700 kW beam power from the Main Injector at 120 GeV; The scope of the Project X Reference Design Report was aimed well beyond PIP. It described a complete concept for a multi-MW proton facility that could support a broad particle physics program based on neutrino, kaon, muon, and nucleon experiments [5,6]. The Project X conceptual design has evolved over a number of years, incorporating continuous input on physics research goals and advances in the underlying technology development programs [7,8,9]. PIP-II, to high degree, inherits these goals as the goals for future developments and upgrades. This document (PIP-II Reference Design Report) describes an initial step in the development of the Fermilab accelerating complex. The plan described in this Report balances the far-term goals of the Laboratory

  8. Effect of laser phototherapy on wound healing following cerebral ischemia by cryogenic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Maria S; Velasco, Irineu T; Ferreira, Leila S; Ariga, Suely K K; Abatepaulo, Fatima; Grinberg, Lea Tenenholz; Marques, Márcia M

    2011-12-02

    Laser phototherapy emerges as an alternative or auxiliary therapy for acute ischemic stroke, traumatic brain injury, degenerative brain disease, spinal cord injury, and peripheral nerve regeneration, but its effects are still controversial. We have previously found that laser phototherapy immunomodulates the response to focal brain damage. Following direct cortical cryogenic injury the effects of laser phototherapy on inflammation and repair was assessed after cryogenic injury (CI) to the central nervous system (CNS) of rats. The laser phototherapy was carried out with a 780 nm AlGaAs diode laser. The irradiation parameters were: power of 40 mW, beam area of 0.04 cm(2), energy density of 3 J/cm(2) (3s) in two points (0.12 J per point). Two irradiations were performed at 3 h-intervals, in contact mode. Rats (20 non-irradiated - controls and 20 irradiated) were used. The wound healing in the CNS was followed in 6 h, 1, 7 and 14 days after the last irradiation. The size of the lesions, the neuron cell viability percentages and the amount of positive GFAP labeling were statistically compared by ANOVA complemented by Tukey's test (p<0.05). The distribution of lymphocytes, leukocytes and macrophages were also analyzed. CI created focal lesions in the cortex represented by necrosis, edema, hemorrhage and inflammatory infiltrate. The most striking findings were: lased lesions showed smaller tissue loss than control lesions in 6 h. During the first 24 h the amount of viable neurons was significantly higher in the lased group. There was a remarkable increase in the amount of GFAP in the control group by 14 days. Moreover, the lesions of irradiated animals had fewer leukocytes and lymphocytes in the first 24 h than controls. Considering the experimental conditions of this study it was concluded that laser phototherapy exerts its effect in wound healing following CI by controlling the brain damage, preventing neuron death and severe astrogliosis that could indicate the

  9. Thermal analysis of injection beam dump of high-intensity rapid-cycling synchrotron in J-PARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, J.; Saha, P. K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kinsho, M.; Nihei, T.

    2017-10-01

    The beam dump at the beam injection area in the J-PARC 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) accepts beams that pass through the charge exchange foil without ideal electron stripping during the multi-turn beam injection. The injection beam dump consists of the beam pipe, beam stopper, radiation shield, and cooling mechanism. The ideal beam power into the injection beam dump is 400 W in the case of design RCS extraction beam power of 1 MW with a healthy foil, which has 99.7 % charge stripping efficiency. On the other hand, as a radiation generator, the RCS is permitted to be operated with maximum average beam power of 4 kW into the injection beam dump based on the radiation shielding calculation, in consideration of lower charge stripping efficiency due to the foil deterioration. In this research, to evaluate the health of the RCS injection beam dump system from the perspective of the heat generation, a thermal analysis was performed based on the actual configuration with sufficiently large region, including the surrounding concrete and soil. The calculated temperature and heat flux density distribution showed the validity of the mesh spacing and model range. The calculation result showed that the dumped 4 kW beam causes the temperature to increase up to 330, 400, and 140 °C at the beam pipe, beam stopper, and radiation shield, respectively. Although these high temperatures induce stress in the constituent materials, the calculated stress values were lower than the ultimate tensile strength of each material. Transient temperature analysis of the beam stopper, which simulated the sudden break of the charge stripper foil, demonstrated that one bunched beam pulse with the maximum beam power does not lead to a serious rise in the temperature of the beam stopper. Furthermore, from the measured outgassing rate of stainless steel at high temperature, the rise in beam line pressure due to additive outgassing from the heated beam pipe was estimated to have a negligible

  10. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    Non-traditional radioisotope production techniques using a compact, high power linear electron accelerator have been demonstrated and characterized for the production of 18F, 47Sc, 147 Pm, and 99mTc from a variety of target candidates. These isotopes are used extensively in the medical field as diagnostic and therapy radioisotopes, as well as the space industry as RTG's. Primary focus was placed on 99mTc as it constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnostic procedures in the medical community that use radioactive tracers. It was also the prime focus due to recent events at the Chalk River nuclear reactor, which caused global shortages of this isotope a few years ago. A Varian K15 LINAC was first used to show proof of principle in Las Vegas. Various samples were then taken to the Idaho Accelerator Center where they were activated using an electron LINAC capable of electron energies from 4 to 25 MeV at a beam power of approximately 1 kW. Production rates, cross sections, and viability studies were then performed and conducted to assess the effectiveness of the candidate target and the maximum production rate for each radioisotope. Production rates for 18F from lithium fluoride salts were shown to be ideal at 21MeV, namely 1.7 Ci per kg of LiF salt, per kW of beam current, per 10 hour irradiation time. As the typical hospital consumption of 18F is around 500 mCi per day, it is clear that a large amount of 18F can be made from a small (300 gram) sample of LiF salt. However, since there is no current separation process for 18F from 19F, the viability of this technique is limited until a separations technique is developed. Furthermore, the calculated cross section for this reaction is in good agreement with literature, which supports the techniques for the isotopes mentioned below. Production rates for 47Sc from vanadium oxide targets were shown to be a maximum at 25 MeV with a production rate of 2 mCi per day, assuming a 2 kW beam and a 10 kg target. While this

  11. A RECONNECTION-DRIVEN RAREFACTION WAVE MODEL FOR CORONAL OUTFLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Aulanier, G.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-01-01

    We conduct numerical experiments to determine whether interchange reconnection at high altitude coronal null points can explain the outflows observed as blueshifts in coronal emission lines at the boundaries between open and closed magnetic field regions. In this scenario, a strong, post-reconnection pressure gradient forms in the field-aligned direction when dense and hot, active region core loops reconnect with neighboring tenuous and cool, open field lines. We find that the pressure gradient drives a supersonic outflow and a rarefaction wave develops in both the open and closed post-reconnection magnetic field regions. We forward-model the spectral line profiles for a selection of coronal emission lines to predict the spectral signatures of the rarefaction wave. We find that the properties of the rarefaction wave are consistent with the observed velocity versus temperature structure of the corona in the outflow regions, where the velocity increases with the formation temperature of the emission lines. In particular, we find excellent agreement between the predicted and observed Fe XII 195.119 Å spectral line profiles in terms of the blueshift (10 km s –1 ), full width at half-maximum (83 mÅ) and symmetry. Finally, we find that T i e in the open field region, which indicates that the interchange reconnection scenario may provide a viable mechanism and source region for the slow solar wind.

  12. Sex-specific responses to winter flooding, spring waterlogging and post-flooding recovery in Populus deltoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ling-Feng; Yang, Fan; Han, Chun-Yu; Pu, Yu-Jin; Ding, Yang; Zhang, Li-Jia

    2017-05-31

    Winter flooding events are common in some rivers and streams due to dam constructions, and flooding and waterlogging inhibit the growth of trees in riparian zones. This study investigated sex-specific morphological, physiological and ultrastructural responses to various durations of winter flooding and spring waterlogging stresses, and post-flooding recovery characteristics in Populus deltoides. There were no significant differences in the morphological, ultrastructural and the majority of physiological traits in trees subjected to medium and severe winter flooding stresses, suggesting that males and females of P. deltoides were winter flooding tolerant, and insensitive to winter flooding duration. Males were more tolerant to winter flooding stress in terms of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence than females. Females displayed greater oxidative damage due to flooding stress than males. Males developed more efficient antioxidant enzymatic systems to control reactive oxygen species. Both sexes had similarly strong post-flooding recovery capabilities in terms of plant growth, and physiological and ultrastructural parameters. However, Males had better recovery capabilities in terms of pigment content. These results increase the understanding of poplars's adaptation to winter flooding stress. They also elucidate sex-specific differences in response to flooding stress during the dormant season, and during post-flooding recovery periods.

  13. Comparing differential tolerance of native and non-indigenous marine species to metal pollution using novel assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piola, Richard F.; Johnston, Emma L.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests anthropogenic disturbance may disproportionately advantage non-indigenous species (NIS), aiding their establishment within impacted environments. This study used novel laboratory- and field-based toxicity testing to determine whether non-indigenous and native bryozoans (common within marine epibenthic communities worldwide) displayed differential tolerance to the common marine pollutant copper (Cu). In laboratory assays on adult colonies, NIS showed remarkable tolerance to Cu, with strong post-exposure recovery and growth. In contrast, native species displayed negative growth and reduced feeding efficiency across most exposure levels. Field transplant experiments supported laboratory findings, with NIS growing faster under Cu conditions. In field-based larval assays, NIS showed strong recruitment and growth in the presence of Cu relative to the native species. We suggest that strong selective pressures exerted by the toxic antifouling paints used on transport vectors (vessels), combined with metal contamination in estuarine environments, may result in metal tolerant NIS advantaged by anthropogenically modified selection regimes. - Greater tolerance to pollutants in marine NIS may increase the risk of invasion in port and harbours worldwide by providing a competitive advantage over native taxa.

  14. Potential wealth creation via nuclear energy in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabar Md Hashim; Dol Malek Md Sap

    2009-01-01

    Like any other developing nation, Malaysia aspires to be an economic force to be reckoned with. A strong opportunity may be in the form of nuclear energy as can be seen from the success stories of France and South Korea. Although nuclear is not the only common parameter that make developed nations tick, the multiplier spin-off impacts of nuclear as sources of wealth creation are deliberated. Foreseeable benefits include job creation (especially highly-skilled knowledge workers), spin-off technologies and vendor development as well as the opportunity to assume regional leadership in carefully-selected sectors. Categorically in Malaysian context, introduction of nuclear energy would yield numerous benefits, i.e. as a strong catalyst to enhance country's competitiveness by raising capacity for knowledge, cutting-edge technology, and eventually, innovation (National Mission Thrust 2) beside ensuring stable electricity generation price; as an element to move up value chain by creating high-skilled knowledge workers who could help to raise country's economic profile and plant the seed for a strong post-2020 Malaysia (National Mission Thrust 1); and as an agent to enhance sustainability and quality of life through clean energy (National Mission Thrust 4) by being environmentally benign due to its low greenhouse gas emissions with very minimal impact to global warming. Our point us that, being synergistic with national aspiration, nuclear energy is a genuine national agenda. (Author)

  15. Customising PRESAGE® for diverse applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, T.; Newton, J.; Niebanck, M.; Benning, R.; Adamovics, J.; Oldham, M.

    2013-06-01

    PRESAGE® is a solid radiochromic dosimeter consisting of a polyurethane matrix, a triarylmethane leuco dye, and a trihalomethane initiator. Varying the composition and/or relative amounts of these constituents can affect the dose sensitivity, post-irradiation stability, and physical properties of the dosimeter. This allows customisation of PRESAGE® to meet application-specific requirements, such as low sensitivity for high dose applications, stability for remote dosimetry, optical clearing for reusability, and tissue-like elasticity for deformable dosimetry. This study evaluates five hard, non-deformable PRESAGE® formulations and six deformable PRESAGE® formulations and characterizes them for dose sensitivity and stability. Results demonstrated sensitivities in the range of 0.0029 - 0.0467 ΔOD/(Gy·cm) for hard formulations and 0.0003 - 0.0056 ΔOD/(Gy·cm) for deformable formulations. Exceptional stability was seen in both standard and low sensitivity non-deformable formulations, with promising applications for remote dosimetry. Deformable formulations exhibited potential for reusability with strong post-irradiation optical clearing. Tensile compression testing of the deformable formulations showed elastic response consistent with soft tissues, with further testing required for direct comparison. These results demonstrate that PRESAGE® dosimeters have the flexibility to be adapted for a wide spectrum of clinical applications.

  16. Application of a molecular biology concept for the detection of DNA damage and repair during UV disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, Jacqueline; Volz, Sabrina; Obst, Ursula; Schwartz, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    As nucleic acids are major targets in bacteria during standardised UV disinfection (254 nm), inactivation rates also depend on bacterial DNA repair. Due to UV-related DNA modifications, PCR-based approaches allow for a direct detection of DNA damage and repair during UV disinfection. By applying different primer sets, the correlation between amplicon length and PCR amplification became obvious. The longer the targeted DNA fragment was, the more UV-induced DNA lesions inhibited the PCR. Regeneration of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecium, and complex wastewater communities was recorded over a time period of 66 h. While phases of intensive repair and proliferation were found for P. aeruginosa, no DNA repair was detected by qPCR in E. faecium. Cultivation experiments verified these results. Despite high UV mediated inactivation rates original wastewater bacteria seem to express an enhanced robustness against irradiation. Regeneration of dominant and proliferation of low-abundant, probably UV-resistant species contributed to a strong post-irradiation recovery accompanied by a selection for beta-Proteobacteria.

  17. Post-midnight Bubbles and Scintillations in the Quiet-Time June Solstice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yizengaw, E.; Retterer, J. M.; Pacheco, E.; Roddy, P.; Groves, K. M.; Caton, R. G.; Baki, P.

    2013-12-01

    While the mechanism for producing plasma irregularities in the dusk-sector is believed to be fairly well understood, the cause of the formation of irregularities and bubbles during the post-midnight sector is still unknown, especially for magnetically quiet periods. This paper presents a case study of the strong post-midnight bubbles that often occur during magnetically quiet periods primarily in June solstice, along with a four year (2009-2012) statistical study of the occurrence of quiet time post-midnight bubbles using the density measurements of the C/NOFS PLP instrument. We find that a strong occurrence peak occurs during June solstice predominantly in the African sector. We also confirm, for the first time, the presence of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability during post-midnight hours by using the vertical drift velocity from the C/NOFS Ion Drift Meter (IDM) to drive the PBMOD model for plasma densities and RT growth rates. Finally, we consider several possible sources of the eastward electric fields that permit the RT instability to develop and form bubbles in the post-midnight local time sector.

  18. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  19. Acessibilidade em ambiente universitário: identificação de barreiras arquitetônicas no campus da USP de Bauru Accessibility in the university environment: identification of architectural barriers in the USP campus of Bauru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionísia Aparecida Cusin Lamônica

    2008-08-01

    with others. This study's aims were to identify, describe and map the physical barriers at the Campus of Bauru of the University of São Paulo and to introduce interventions undertaken from October 2001 to December 2005. This was a quantitative descriptive study, in which data was collected on the architectural conditions analysis of the three units that make up this campus. The norms established by the Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT were used as bases for accomplishing the interventions. Results: 72 locations were identified as having curb cut problems, 21 points of access were found to have interruptions and grade changes that required ramps; 220m² of stairs/ramps had no handrails; 658m² of stairs/ramps had handrails that were not in accord with requirements; 3 ramps had inclinations higher than stipulated by requirements of the ABNT; 10 bathrooms were partially adapted for people with disabilities; 2 parking spaces were partially adapted and there were only 2 elevators. Curb cuts were installed at 19 points, adding 115 m² with tactile lines painted on the pavement; 8 ramps were installed; 14 handrails and guardrails were installed along external stairs and ramps, 5 reserved parking places were designated and marked; 2 central phones for deaf people were installed and 3 wheelchairs were acquired. The various interventions contributed to improve accessibility for people with disabilities on campus facilitating the use of existing resources of public space.

  20. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Devonian Xiqin A-type granite in the northeastern Cathaysia Block, SE China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Da-wei; Tang, Yong; Zhang, Hui; Lv, Zheng-Hang; Liu, Yun-long

    2017-06-01

    Most Silurian-Devonian granites in South China are S- or I-type granites, which are suggested to be petrogenetically related to the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny. In this paper, we present the detailed LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating, major and trace element geochemical, and Nd-Hf isotopic data for Xiqin A-type granites in the northeastern Cathaysia Block, SE China. Zircon U-Pb dating results show that the Xiqin granites were emplaced at about 410 Ma, indicating that they were generated at the end of Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny. These granites are high in K2O + Na2O (6.31-8.79 wt%), high field strength elements (Zr + Nb + Ce + Y = 427-699 ppm), rare earth elements (total REE = 221-361 ppm) as well as high Ga/Al ratios (10,000 Ga/Al = 2.50-3.10), and show characteristics typical of A-type granites. εHf(t) values of the Xiqin granites mainly vary from -0.4 to -3.1 and yield Mesoproterozoic T2DM(Hf) (mainly ranging from 1.29 to 1.45 Ga). The εNd(t) values are from -1.23 to -2.11 and T2DM(Nd) vary from 1.25 to 1.32 Ga. These isotopic data suggest that the Xiqin granites were generated by partial melting of metavolcanic rocks with minor metasedimentary rocks in the lower crust. Our data on the Xiqin granites, coupled with previous studies of Silurian-Devonian magmatism, suggest that the tectonic regime had changed to a strongly post-collisional extension environment in the Wuyi-Yunkai orogen at least since 410 Ma, and that delamination, which accounts for the change in stress from the compression to extension and asthenospheric upwelling during the early Paleozoic, plays a significant role in the generation of Xiqin A-type granites.

  1. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of the Involvement of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase A during the Early Development of Tomato Fruit1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubès, Jérôme; Phan, Thi-Hai; Just, Daniel; Rothan, Christophe; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raymond, Philippe; Chevalier, Christian

    1999-01-01

    Following fruit set, the early development of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit comprises two distinct phases: a cell division phase and a consecutive phase of cell expansion until the onset of ripening. In this study, we analyzed cytological and molecular changes characterizing these early phases of tomato fruit development. First we investigated the spatial and temporal regulation of the mitotic activity during fruit development. The DNA content of isolated nuclei from the different fruit tissues was determined by flow cytometry analysis. The results confirm the data of mitotic activity measurements and show that cell differentiation, leading to expanded cells, is characterized by endoreduplication. Second, we isolated two cDNAs, named Lyces;CDKA1 (accession no. Y17225) and Lyces;CDKA2 (accession no. Y17226), encoding tomato homologs of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) p34cdc2. Tomato CDKA gene expression was followed at both the transcriptional and translational levels during fruit development. The transcripts for Lyces;CDKA1 and Lyces;CDKA2 and the corresponding CDKA proteins are predominantly accumulated during the phase of cell division between anthesis and 5 d post anthesis (DPA). In whole fruits, the maximum CDK activity was obtained between 5 and 10 DPA. The determination of the kinase activity using protein extracts from the different fruit tissues was in agreement with mitotic activity analysis. It showed the particular disappearance of the activity in the gel tissue as early as 15 DPA. The overall data of CDK activity measurements suggest a strong post-translational regulation of CDK at the temporal and spatial levels during early tomato fruit development. PMID:10557234

  2. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    proposed solutions—innovations—between interest groups, has been in far too short supply recently. One promising example has been the science/action dialog between a leading climate research center and the World Bank [2]. 'The Earth system's responses to climate change appear to be non-linear', points out Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) Director, John Schellnhuber. 'If we venture far beyond the 2° guardrail, towards the 4° line, the risk of crossing tipping points rises sharply. The only way to avoid this is to break the business-as-usual pattern of production and consumption'. This assessment came in a report on climate science commissioned by the World Bank. Dr Jim Yong Kim, president of the World Bank noted succinctly and critically that: '... most importantly, a 4 °C world is so different from the current one that it comes with high uncertainty and new risks that threaten our ability to anticipate and plan for future adaptation needs.' This statement warrants careful discussion. Not only is World Bank President Kim affirming the results of the PIK study, and by direct extension the IPCC (because the same authors at PIK are also central to the work of the IPCC), but he is clearly noting that while many climate analysts rightly talk about the need to not exceed a 2° temperature increase, the path the world is currently on, namely 4°-6° will be catastrophic. This may come as too soft a statement to many in the scientific community, but it opens the door to an increasingly detailed dialog between climate change science and agencies engaged in action. Where ERL and other outlets for this conversation can play a critical role is in the many dimensions of climate change and response. The story is far from one only at the global level. As http://climatehotmap.org and many other location specific assessments detail, the environmental change story is playing out in millions of critical cases. Each warrants reporting and action, as well as

  3. PURIFIED IGG F C-BINDING PROTEINS FROM M22 GROUP A STREPTOCOCCUS ARE ABLE TO INDUCE EXPERIMENTAL GLOMERULONEPHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Burova

    2012-01-01

    -binding proteins (А and G, respectively. These results support the idea that GAS IgG FcBPs are unique in their ability to initiate strong post-streptococcal glomerular changes and could be considered as important factors in pathogenesis of APSGN similar to acute post-streptococcal GN in humans.

  4. Reproductive protein evolution in two cryptic species of marine chordate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Richard G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reproductive character displacement (RCD is a common and taxonomically widespread pattern. In marine broadcast spawning organisms, behavioral and mechanical isolation are absent and prezygotic barriers between species often operate only during the fertilization process. Such barriers are usually a consequence of differences in the way in which sperm and egg proteins interact, so RCD can be manifest as faster evolution of these proteins between species in sympatry than allopatry. Rapid evolution of these proteins often appears to be a consequence of positive (directional selection. Here, we identify a set of candidate gamete recognition proteins (GRPs in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and showed that these GRPs evolve more rapidly than control proteins (those not involved in gamete recognition. Choosing a subset of these gamete recognition proteins that show evidence of positive selection (CIPRO37.40.1, CIPRO60.5.1, CIPRO100.7.1, we then directly test the RCD hypothesis by comparing divergence (omega and polymorphism (McDonald-Kreitman, Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D and F, Fay and Wu's H statistics in sympatric and allopatric populations of two distinct forms of C. intestinalis (Types A and B between which there are strong post-zygotic barriers. Results Candidate gamete recognition proteins from two lineages of C. intestinalis (Type A and B are evolving more rapidly than control proteins, consistent with patterns seen in insects and mammals. However, ω (dN/dS is not significantly different between the sympatric and allopatric populations, and none of the polymorphism statistics show significant differences between sympatric and allopatric populations. Conclusions Enhanced prezygotic isolation in sympatry has become a well-known feature of gamete recognition proteins in marine broadcast spawners. But in most cases the evolutionary process or processes responsible for this pattern have not been identified. Although gamete

  5. Late Veneer collisions and their impact on the evolution of Venus (PS Division Outstanding ECS Award Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmann, Cedric; Golabek, Gregor; Tackley, Paul; Raymond, Sean

    2017-04-01

    During the end of the accretion, the so-called Late Veneer phase, while the bulk of the mass of terrestrial planets is already in place, a substantial number of large collisions can still occur. Those impacts are thought to be responsible for the repartition of the Highly Siderophile Elements. They are also susceptible to have a strong effect on volatile repartition and mantle convection. We study how Late Veneer impacts modify the evolution of Venus and its atmosphere, using a coupled numerical simulation. We focus on volatile exchanges and their effects on surface conditions. Mantle dynamics, volcanism and degassing processes lead to an input of gases in the atmosphere and are modeled using the StagYY mantle convection code. Volatile losses are estimated through atmospheric escape modeling. It involves two different aspects: hydrodynamic escape (0-500 Myr) and non-thermal escape. Hydrodynamic escape is massive but occurs only when the solar energy input is strong. Post 4 Ga escape from non-thermal processes is comparatively low but long-lived. The resulting state of the atmosphere is used to the calculate greenhouse effect and surface temperature, through a one-dimensional gray radiative-convective model. Large impacts are capable of contributing to (i) atmospheric escape, (ii) volatile replenishment and (iii) energy transfer to the mantle. We test various impactor compositions, impact parameters (velocity, location, size, and timing) and eroding power. Scenarios we tested are adapted from numerical stochastic simulations (Raymond et al., 2013). Impactor sizes are dominated by large bodies (R>500 km). Erosion of the atmosphere by a few large impacts appears limited. Swarms of smaller more mass-effective impactors seem required for this effect to be significant. Large impactors have two main effects on the atmosphere. They can (i) create a large input of volatile from the melting they cause during the impact and through the volatiles they carry. This leads to an

  6. The Effect of Dorsal Hippocampal α2-Adrenegic Receptors on WIN55,212-2 State-Dependent Memory of Passive Avoidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Piri

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cannabinoids are a class of psychoactive compounds that produce a wide array of effects in a large number of species. In the present study, the effects of bilateral intra-CA1 injections of an α2-adrenergic receptor agents, on WIN55,212-2 state-dependent learning were examined in adult male Wistar rats. Methods: The animals were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulae in the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus, trained in a step-down type inhibitory avoidance task, and tested 24h after training to measure step-down latency. Results: strong>Post-training intra-CA1 injection of WIN55,212-2 (0.25 and 0.5µg/rat induced impairment of memory retention. Amnesia produced by post-training WIN55,212-2 (0.5µg/rat was reversed by pre-test administration of the same dose of WIN55,212-2 that is due to a state-dependent effect. Pre-test intra-CA1 injection of clonidine (0.5 and 0.75µg/rat, intra-CA1 improved post-training WIN55,212-2 (0.5µg/rat, intra-CA1-induced retrieval impairment, while pre-test intra-CA1 injection of yohimbine (1µg/rat, intra-CA1 2min before the administration of WIN55,212-2 (0.5µg/rat, intra-CA1 inhibited WIN55,212-2 state-dependent memory. Conclusion: These results suggest that α2-adrenergic receptors of the dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions may play an important role in Win55,212-2-induced amnesia and WIN55,212-2 state-dependent memory

  7. Investigating the Role of Gravity Wave on Equatorial Ionospheric Irregularities using SABER and C/NOFS Satellites Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, M.; Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M.; Yizengaw, E.; Tesema, F.; Tebabal, A.

    2017-12-01

    Theoretical simulations have shown that gravity wave (GW) seeded perturbations amplified by Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) results in ESF (equatorial spread F); however, there have been limited observational studies using simultaneous observations of GW and ionospheric parameters. In this paper, for the fist time, simultaneous atmospheric temperature perturbation profiles that are due to GWs obtained from Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on-board the TIMED satellite and equatorial in -situ ion density and vertical plasma drift velocity observations with and without ESF activity obtained from C/NOFS satellites are used to investigate the effect of GW on the generation of ESF. The horizontal and vertical wavelengths of ionospheric oscillations and GWs respectively have been estimated applying wavelet transforms. Cross wavelet analysis has also been applied between two closely observed profiles of temperature perturbations to estimate the horizontal wavelength of the GWs. Moreover, vertically propagating GWs that dissipate energy at the upper atmosphere have been investigated using spectral analysis compared with theoretical results. The analysis show that when the ion density shows strong post sunset irregularity between 20 and 24 LT, vertically upward drift velocities increase between 17 and 19 LT, but it becomes vertically downward when the ion density shows smooth variation. The horizontal wavelengths estimated from C/NOFS and SABER observations show excellent agreement when ion density observations show strong fluctuations; otherwise, they have poor agreement. It is also found that altitude profiles of potential energy of GW increases up to 90 km and then decreases significantly. It is found that the vertical wavelength of GW, corresponding to the dominant spectral power, ranges from about 7 km to 20 km regardless of the situation of the ionosphere; however, GWs with vertical wavelengths between 100 m to 1 km are found to

  8. Mycoplasma synoviae infection on Newcastle disease vaccination of chickens Infecção por Mycoplasma synoviae na vacinação da doença de Newcastle em galinhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Figueira Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus, previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds.A doença de Newcastle é caracterizada por manifestações respiratórias associadas a sintomas nervosos e/ou digestivos. Sua prevenção é feita pela vacinação com vacinas vivas atenuadas (cepas lentogênicas e/ou inativadas. As cepas lentog

  9. TRASTORNO DE ESTRÉS POSTRAUMÁTICO, ANSIEDAD Y DEPRESIÓN EN ADOLESCENTES Y ADULTOS EXPUESTOS AL CONFLICTO ARMADO EN COLOMBIA 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sarmiento Suárez

    2016-04-01

    ón a otros tipos de violencia (OR=1,8, IC 95% 1,2-2,8. La población vulnerable, sin seguro de salud, fue la más afectada por ansiedad (OR=1,5, IC 95% 1,1-2,2. La exposición al conflicto armado (OR=2,0, IC 95% 1,5-2,7 y la exposición a otros tipos de violencia (OR=1,5, IC 95% 1,1-2,2 fueron predictores positivos de ansiedad, mientras la violencia doméstica (OR=0,29, IC 95% 0,1-0,49 y la disfunción familiar (OR=0,61, IC 95% 0,4-0,8 mostraron una relación inversa.

    Conclusiones: El impacto del conflicto armado y de la violencia sobre la salud mental es significativo. Hay una alta heterogeneidad en los predictores, de acuerdo con el tipo de trastorno, la región examinada y el tipo de exposi ción al conflicto, lo cual fue confirmado por la información recogida en las historias clínicas.

    Las desigualdades sociales agravan estos impactos, por lo que es necesaria la inclusión de intervenciones de salud mental en la atención primaria en salud para reducir los efectos del conflicto armado sobre la salud mental.

    <strong>POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER, ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION IN TEENAGERS AND ADULTS EXPOSED TO THE CONFLICT ARMED IN COLOMBIA 2005-2008

    ABSTRACT

    Objective: Violence has been exacerbated by armed conflict and currently is the main cause of premature deaths and disability according to Global Burden of Disease Study. The aims of this study were to identify the predictors of Post traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD, Depression and Anxiety and their distribution among adolescent and adult outpatients from primary health clinics in different localities that were exposed to the internal armed conflict.

    Methods: the data were collected from 2005 to 2008 in four different projects of Doctors without Borders (Bogotá-Soacha, Caquetá, Barbacoas-Nariño and Cauca-Putumayo. The sample includes 4420 people aged from 13 to 89 years-old. The diagnosis was made

  10. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    forests infested by pine bark beetles (Kurz et al 2008) and the Amazon rain forest suffering from drought (Lewis et al 2011), have not produced an obvious impact on atmospheric CO2. However, increased CO2 uptake does not necessarily mean that the biosphere is healthier or that the increased carbon uptake will continue indefinitely (Matson et al 2002, Galloway et al 2002, Heimann and Reichstein 2008, Gruber and Galloway 2008). Nor does it change the basic facts about the potential magnitude of the fossil fuel carbon source (figure 6) and the long lifetime of the CO2 in the surface carbon reservoirs (atmosphere, ocean, soil, biosphere) once the fossil fuels are burned (Archer 2005). Fertilization of the biosphere affects the distribution of the fossil fuel carbon among these reservoirs, at least on the short run, but it does not alter the fact that the fossil carbon will remain in these reservoirs for millennia. Figure 6. Figure 6. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions and carbon content (1 ppm atmospheric CO2~2.12 GtC). Historical emissions are from Boden et al (2012). Estimated reserves and potentially recoverable resources are based on energy content values of Energy Information Administration (EIA 2011), German Advisory Council (GAC 2011), and Global Energy Assessment (GEA 2012). We convert energy content to carbon content using emission factors of Table 4.2 of IPCC (2007) for coal, gas, and conventional oil, and, following IPCC, we use an emission factor of unconventional oil the same as that for coal. Humanity, so far, has burned only a small portion (purple area in figure 6) of total fossil fuel reserves and resources. Yet deleterious effects of warming are apparent (IPCC 2007), even though only about half of the warming due to gases now in the air has appeared, the remainder still 'in the pipeline' due to the inertia of the climate system (Hansen et al 2011). Already it seems difficult to avoid passing the 'guardrail' of no more than 2 °C global warming that was agreed in the