WorldWideScience

Sample records for strong pulp fiber

  1. Durability of pulp fiber-cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Benjamin J.

    Wood pulp fibers are a unique reinforcing material as they are non-hazardous, renewable, and readily available at relatively low cost compared to other commercially available fibers. Today, pulp fiber-cement composites can be found in products such as extruded non-pressure pipes and non-structural building materials, mainly thin-sheet products. Although natural fibers have been used historically to reinforce various building materials, little scientific effort has been devoted to the examination of natural fibers to reinforce engineering materials until recently. The need for this type of fundamental research has been emphasized by widespread awareness of moisture-related failures of some engineered materials; these failures have led to the filing of national- and state-level class action lawsuits against several manufacturers. Thus, if pulp fiber-cement composites are to be used for exterior structural applications, the effects of cyclical wet/dry (rain/heat) exposure on performance must be known. Pulp fiber-cement composites have been tested in flexure to examine the progression of strength and toughness degradation. Based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), a three-part model describing the mechanisms of progressive degradation has been proposed: (1) initial fiber-cement/fiber interlayer debonding, (2) reprecipitation of crystalline and amorphous ettringite within the void space at the former fiber-cement interface, and (3) fiber embrittlement due to reprecipitation of calcium hydroxide filling the spaces within the fiber cell wall structure. Finally, as a means to mitigate kraft pulp fiber-cement composite degradation, the effects of partial portland cement replacement with various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) has been investigated for their effect on mitigating kraft pulp fiber-cement composite mechanical property degradation (i.e., strength and toughness

  2. Method and apparatus for assaying wood pulp fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Richard [Bellevue, WA; Callis, James B [Seattle, WA; Mathews, Jeffrey D [Neenah, WI; Robinson, John [Issaquah, WA; Bruckner, Carsten A [San Mateo, CA; Suvamakich, Kuntinee [Seattle, WA

    2009-05-26

    Paper pulp is added to a stain solution. The stain solution and pulp fibers are mixed to form a slurry. Samples are removed from the slurry and are admixed with dilution water and a bleach. Then, the fibers are moved into a flow cell where they are subjected to a light source adapted to stimulate fluorescence from the stained pulp fiber. Before the fiber slurry enters the flow cell it is mixed with a dilution water of bleach to reduce background fluorescence. The fluorescent light is collimated and directed through a dichroic filter onto a fluorescence splitting dichroic filter.

  3. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main physical and mechanical properties of hand sheets produced from acid and soda processes were evaluated on 80 g/m2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: tensile index, tear index, and brightness. The mechanical properties of soda pulps were developed by twin-roll press while it was not necessary to fibrillate acidic pulps through the beating step. The soda pulp sheets presented a lower brightness than that of acidic pulp sheets. The mechanicaland physical properties of the acidic and alkaline pulps verified that they were of an acceptable quality for papermaking.

  4. Basic effects of pulp refining on fiber properties--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharehkhani, Samira; Sadeghinezhad, Emad; Kazi, Salim Newaz; Yarmand, Hooman; Badarudin, Ahmad; Safaei, Mohammad Reza; Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd

    2015-01-22

    The requirement for high quality pulps which are widely used in paper industries has increased the demand for pulp refining (beating) process. Pulp refining is a promising approach to improve the pulp quality by changing the fiber characteristics. The diversity of research on the effect of refining on fiber properties which is due to the different pulp sources, pulp consistency and refining equipment has interested us to provide a review on the studies over the last decade. In this article, the influence of pulp refining on structural properties i.e., fibrillations, fine formation, fiber length, fiber curl, crystallinity and distribution of surface chemical compositions is reviewed. The effect of pulp refining on electrokinetic properties of fiber e.g., surface and total charges of pulps is discussed. In addition, an overview of different refining theories, refiners as well as some tests for assessing the pulp refining is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 176.260 - Pulp from reclaimed fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pulp from reclaimed fiber. 176.260 Section 176.260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: PAPER AND PAPERBOARD COMPONENTS Substances...

  6. Peel and pulp of baru (Dipteryx Alata Vog. provide high fiber, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela de Lima SANTIAGO

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Baru (Dipteryx alata Vog. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Savannah that can be used in the food industry and may contribute to the economy of the Brazilian Midwest. The proximate composition, the phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the peel, pulp and raw and roasted baru almond were examined and compared. Peel showed higher concentrations of dietary fibers (24.1 g/100 g followed by pulp and roasted almond (18 g/100 g and 16 g/100 g, respectively, and raw almond (12.0 g/100 g. However, the almonds presented the highest lipid and protein concentrations compared to baru peel and pulp. In addition, raw almond showed the highest total phenolic contents (1,107.0 mg GAE/100 g and antioxidant capacity, but the roasted almond, and baru peel with its pulp, also presented high phenolic contents. The correlation coefficients between phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (via ABTS and FRAP were strong and significant. The chemical composition of baru peel has not previously been reported. The results showed promising prospects for the consumption of baru pulp with its peel, the fruit component richest in fiber, whose phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are comparable to those of the baru almond.

  7. Investigation Characteristics Of Pulp Fibers AS Green Potential Polymer Reinforcing Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Masruchin, Nanang; Subyakto

    2012-01-01

    Three kinds of pulp fiber (i.e. kenaf, pineapple and coconut fiber)were characterized as reinforcing agents in compositematerials to be applied at automotive interior industry.Abetter understanding on characteristics of fiber will lead to enhance interface adhesion between fiber and matrices. Furthermore, it will improve the properties of polymer significantly. Chemical, surface compositions as well as morphology of pulp fiber were investigated using TAPPI standard test method, Fourier Transf...

  8. Determining the minimum conditions for soda-anthraquinone pulping of kenaf bast, core, and whole stalk fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Han; Thomas A. Rymsza

    1999-01-01

    Chemical pulping of kenaf fiber is comparatively new. In this study, bast, core, and whole stalk kenaf fibers were pulped using a soda-AQ pulping process and various pulping conditions. Handsheets were evaluated for density, Canadian standard freeness, brightness, opacity, smoothness, and tensile, burst, and tear indexes and strength. The results indicate that...

  9. Fiber length and pulping characteristics of switchgrass, alfalfa stems, hybrid poplar and willow biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jun; Tschirner, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), alfalfa stems (Medicago sativa), second year growth hybrid poplar (Populus) and willow (Salix spp.) were examined to determine fiber characteristics, pulping behavior and paper properties. Alfalfa stems and switchgrass both showed length weighted average fiber length (LWW) of 0.78 mm, a very narrow fiber length distribution and high fines content. Willow and hybrid poplar have lower fines content but a very low average fiber length (0.42 and 0.48 mm LWW). In addition, the four biomass species showed distinctly different chemical compositions. Switchgrass was defibered successfully using Soda and Soda Anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and demonstrated good paper properties. Both fast-growing wood species pulped well using the Kraft process, and showed acceptable tensile strength, but low tear strength. Alfalfa stems reacted very poorly to Soda and Soda AQ pulping but responded well to Kraft and Kraft AQ. Pulps with tensile and tear strength considerably higher than those found for commercial aspen pulps were observed for alfalfa. All four biomass species examined demonstrated low pulp yield. The highest yields were obtained with poplar and switchgrass (around 43%). Considering the short fibers and low yields, all four biomass types will likely only be used in paper manufacturing if they offer considerable economic advantage over traditional pulp wood.

  10. Improvement of Pulping Uniformity by Measurement of Single Fiber Kappa Number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Gustafson; James B. Callis

    2001-11-20

    A method to measure the kappa of single fibers by staining with a fluorescent dye, Acridine Orange (AO), has been developed. This method is now applied to develop and automated flow-through instrument that permits routine kappa analysis on thousands of images of AO stained fibers to give the fiber kappa number distribution of a pulp sample in a few minutes. The design and operation of the instrument are similar to that of a flow cytometer but with the addition of extensive fiber imaging capability. Fluorescence measurements in the flow-through instrument are found to be consistent with those made with fluorescence microscope provided the signal processing in the flow-thou instrument is handled propertly. The kappa distributions of pulps that were analyzed by means of a density gradient column are compared to those measured with the flow-through instrument with good results. The kappa distributions of various laboratory pulps and commercial pulps have been measured. It has been found that all pulps are non-uniform but that ommercial pulps generally have broader kappa distributions thatn their laboratory counterparts. The effects of different pulping methods and chip pretreatments on pulp uniformity are discussed in the report. Finally, the application of flow-through fluorescence technology to other single fiber measurements are presented.

  11. Properties of Enzyme Pretreated Wikstroemia sikokiana and Broussonetia papyrifera Bast Fiber Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang-Dong Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase, pectinase complex, and BL11 pectinase were employed for the pretreatment of gampi and paper mulberry bast fiber pulps prior to chlorine dioxide bleaching. The bleaching efficiencies of the pulps with different enzymatic pretreatments were investigated. Accelerated aging by heat-humidity treatment was also conducted to evaluate yellowing phenomena and to estimate the prevention of brightness reversion (brightness retention by enzymatic pretreatment. The order of active chlorine required with respect to pretreatment was pectinase complex > xylanase > BL11 pectinase for soda and soda/oxalate gampi pulps and pectinase complex > BL11 pectinase > xylanase for soda and soda/oxalate paper mulberry pulps. Higher brightness retention values were observed for soda/oxalate pulps compared to soda pulps. The brightness retention levels for gampi pulps and mulberry pulps after ClO2 bleaching with enzymatic pretreatment were higher than the levels of ClO2 and NaClO bleaching pulps. Enzymatic treatments were thus able to reduce the usage of ClO2 and to assist in producing photo-stable paper materials for art and artifact-repairing applications. Thus, enzymatic pretreatment of the pulp has the potential to meet world trends and environmental sustainability for pulp and paper industries.

  12. Organosolv pulping and test paper characterization of fiber hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomers, F.H.A.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Tjeerdsma, B.F.

    1995-01-01

    The autocatalyzed ethanol pulping of hemp to produce chemical-grade pulp was examined. Batch delignification conditions were developed for hemp core, hemp bast, and hemp whole stem. Although successful pulping of both hemp core and bast fibre is possible, further research is necessary.

  13. Pulping and papermaking properties of the leaf fiber and fibrous residue from Agave tequilana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurita, T.; Mitsuhashi, S.; Kanetsuna, H.; Iguchi, M.; Shirota, T.; Trujillo, J.J.; Herrera, T.

    1981-01-01

    The leaves and fibrous residue of A. tequilana had fibriles with parallel orientation and helical arrangement to the fiber axis and contained fibers in average length and width of 1.7 mm and 10.3 mu m and 0.8 mm and 25.5 mu m, respectively. The cell wall in leaves was thicker and narrower than those in fibrous residue, and leaves contained cellulose and lignin lower than fibrous residue did. Alkali sulfite cooking of leaves gave pulp, the yield of which was lower than that from fibrous residue. The H/sub 2/On retention and bulk density of leaf pulps increased rapidly on beating suggesting that an internal fibrillation in pulp occurs easily during beating. The breaking length and burst and tear factors of paper from leaf pulp were higher than those from fibrous residue.

  14. Application of cellulosic nanofibers to replace with imported long- fiber pulps in paper made from bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza ghofran

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, different additives of cellulose nanofibers, cationic starch and polyacrylamide to bagasse pulp and their impact on the handsheet strengths were investigated aiming to replace with imported long-fiber softwood pulp in Pars paper factory. For this purpose, first 3% bleached bagasse cellulose nanofibers, 3% unbleached nano-lignocellulosic fibers, 0.5, 0.7 and 1% cationic starch, and 0.03, 0.05 and 0.1% cationic polyacrylamide were added separately to bagasse pulp. In the next stage,3% bleached bagasse cellulose nanofibers and 3% unbleached nano-lignocellulosic fibers along with 0.5% cationic starch or 0.05% cationic polyacrylamide were used. The results showed, adding nano-cellulose fibers along with cationic polyacrylamide or starch have increased handsheet strengths significantly. Yet, the best treatment was the addition of 3% nano-lignocellulose along with 0.5% cationic starch which resulted in the higher tensile and burst strengths and lower tear and fold strengths than that of adding 12.5% long fibers to bagasse pulp. So that, comparing with paper made from pure bagasse pulp it showed the increase of 16.57% in tensile index, 8.47% in burst index, 9.77% in tear index, and 168.85% in folding strength.

  15. Kinetics of Strong Acid Hydrolysis of a Bleached Kraft Pulp for Producing Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianqian Wang; Xuebing Zhao; J.Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrytals (CNCs) are predominantly produced using the traditional strong acid hydrolysis process. In most reported studies, the typical CNC yield is low (approximately 30%) despite process optimization. This study investigated the hydrolysis of a bleached kraft eucalyptus pulp using sulfuric acid between 50 and 64 wt % at temperatures of 35−80 °C...

  16. Effect of depth beating on the fiber properties and enzymatic saccharification efficiency of softwood kraft pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenhua; Xiang, Zhouyang; Chen, Kefu; Yang, Rendang; Yang, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Commercial bleached softwood kraft pulp was mechanically fibrillated by a PFI-mill with beating revolution from 5000 to 30,000 r. The extent of fibrillating on the pulp was evaluated by beating degree, fiber morphological properties (fiber length, width, coarseness and curls index), water retention value (WRV) and physical properties of paper made from the pulp. Depth beating process significantly affected the pulp fibrillations as showed by the decreased fiber length and width as well as the SEM analysis, but the effects were limited after beating revolution of 15,000. Depth beating process also improved the total internal pore and inter-fibril surface areas as shown by the increased WRV values. Substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of beaten pulp at 5000 revolutions could reach 95% at cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g of glucan. After the enzymatic hydrolysis, the size of the pulp residues was reduced to micro-scale, and a relative uniform size distribution of the residues appeared at 10,000 r beating revolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alkaline peroxide treatment of ECF bleached softwood kraft pulps: part 2. effect of increased fiber charge on refining, wet-end application, and hornification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng Dang; Thomas Elder; Jeffery S. Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased fiber charge on refining, cationic starch adsorption, and hornification was examined. Two pulps were investigated: (1) a softwood (SW) kraft pulp (KP) which was bleached elementally chlorine-free (ECF) and sewed as control; and (2) a control pulp treated with alkaline peroxide, which had a higher fiber charge. It was shown that increased fiber...

  18. The Potential in Bioethanol Production From Waste Fiber Sludges in Pulp Mill-Based Biorefineries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöde, Anders; Alriksson, Björn; Jönsson, Leif J.; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof

    Industrial production of bioethanol from fibers that are unusable for pulp production in pulp mills offers an approach to product diversification and more efficient exploitation of the raw material. In an attempt to utilize fibers flowing to the biological waste treatment, selected fiber sludges from three different pulp mills were collected, chemically analyzed, enzymatically hydrolyzed, and fermented for bioethanol production. Another aim was to produce solid residues with higher heat values than those of the original fiber sludges to gain a better fuel for combustion. The glucan content ranged between 32 and 66% of the dry matter. The lignin content varied considerably (1-25%), as did the content of wood extractives (0.2-5.8%). Hydrolysates obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis were found to be readily fermentable using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hydrolysis resulted in improved heat values compared with corresponding untreated fiber sludges. Oligomeric xylan fragments in the solid residue obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight and their potential as a new product of a pulp mill-based biorefinery is discussed.

  19. Modification of NSSC pulp broke fibers using layering method and investigating its effect on paper properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza rudi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, modification of NSSC pulp broke fibers was done by forming starch polymeric multilayers, using Layer-by-Layer (LbL layering method. After fiber slushing and preparation of pulp suspension with 0.5% consistency and conductivity formation of about 437 µS/cm, adding water solution of 1 mM NaCl, the experiments of fibers treatment were conducted to build the polymeric layers (up to 5 consecutive layers. Afterward, water retention value (WRV of fibers was calculated in samples to evaluate the influence of this method on fibers hydrophilicity. The fibers were then used to prepare standard handsheets (60±3g/m2 and the physical and strength properties of sheets were evaluated as a function of the number of layers deposited on the fibers. The results showed that the WRV index of the fibers was improved by the LbL treatment of NSSC broke pulp fibers, due to the increase in starch electrostatic absorption. Successive variation in paper apparent density increase and paper thickness decrease confirmed the construction of starch multilayers on the surface of broke fibers. Formation of such multilayers on broke fibers has led to considerable improvement in tensile index (from 13.21 N.m/g to 30.65 N.m/g and burst index (from 1.23 kPa.m2/g to 2.36 kPa.m2/g. Also, the prepared SEM micrographs approve the sheet web compaction and paper mechanical improvement resulted due to an increase in inter-fiber bonding.

  20. Potassium methyl siliconate-treated pulp fibers and their effects on wood plastic composites: Water sorption and dimensional stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng Piao; Zhiyong Cai; Nicole M. Stark; Charles J. Monlezun

    2013-01-01

    Potassium methyl siliconate (PMS) was investigated as a new nano modifier of wood fiber and wood flour to improve the compatibility between the fiber/flour and the plastic matrix in fiber reinforced plastic composites. Before injection molding, bleached and brown pulp fibers and mixed species wood flour were pretreated in PMS solutions. The morphology of the treated...

  1. Know your fibers : process and properties, or, a material science approach to designing pulp molded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Hunt

    1998-01-01

    The following results are preliminary, but show some basic information that will be used in an attempt to model pulp molded structures so that by measuring several basic fundamental properties of a fiber furnish and specifying process conditions, a molded structure could be designed for a particular performance need.

  2. Combined HPLC analysis of organic acids and furans formed during organosolv pulping of fiber hemp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Zomers, F.H.A.

    1995-01-01

    During organosolv pulping of fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L) with a mixture of ethanol/water, delignification is catalyzed by released acetic acid and formic acid in the effluent. The major sources of acetic acid are the acetyl groups, as determined by means of the acetyl balance, whereas formic acid

  3. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  4. Modeling fiber motion in a pulp pressure screen: the effect of slot shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, S.; Salcudean, M.; Gartshore, I.

    2003-01-01

    A pressure screen is a piece of equipment in the pulp and paper industry used either to remove contaminants from the pulp suspension or to separate fibers having different properties. Contaminants such as fiber bundles, bark and plastic specks are introduced when fibers are separated from the wood by mechanical or chemical pulping processes. Contaminants significantly affect the strength and smoothness of the paper and must be removed before the final paper is produced. The screen plate is a critical part of the pressure screen and its design is the key to screen performance. This paper uses a new and comprehensive CFD simulation tool to examine the flow and fiber behavior in a single slot screen having any reasonable slot shape. -This simulation tool includes three coupled models: first, the flow model solves the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation using the standard k - ε turbulence model to predict the flow field in the equipment. Second, a three-dimensional flexible fiber model is used to track the fiber trajectory in the screen. Third, a very general wall model is used to deal with the case when a fiber touches the equipment wall. The simulated results show that the slot shape has a critical influence on fiber behavior and screen performance. Three general slot shapes were investigated: the smooth slot, the step-step contour slot and slope-slope contour slot. Of these the slope-slope contour slot provides the best passage for the fibers with a length of 1mm and 3mm. (author)

  5. In Situ Hybridization of Pulp Fibers Using Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Erik Lange

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic Mg2+ and Al3+ containing layered double hydroxide (LDH particles were synthesised in situ from aqueous solution onto chemical pulp fibers of pine (Pinus sylvestris. High super saturated (hss solution with sodium carbonate produced LDH particles with an average diameter of 100–200 nm. Nano-size (70 nm LDH particles were found from fibers external surface and, to a lesser degree, from the S2 cell wall after synthesis via low super saturated (lss route. The synthesis via slow urea hydrolysis (Uhyd yielded micron and clay sized LDH (2–5 μm and enabled efficient fiber densification via mineralization of S2 fiber wall layer as indicated by TEM and compliance analysis. The Uhyd method decreased fiber compliance up to 50%. Reduction in the polymerisation degree of cellulose was observed with capillary viscometry. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the hybridization with LDH reduced the exothermic heat, indicating, that this material can be incorporated in flame retardant applications. Fiber charge was assessed by Fibers 2015, 3 104 adsorption expermients with methylene blue (MB and metanil yellow (MY. Synthesis via lss route retained most of the fibres original charge and provided the highest capacity (10 μmol/g for anionic MY, indicating cationic character of hybrid fibers. Our results suggested that mineralized fibers can be potentially used in advanced applications such as biocomposites and adsorbent materials.

  6. Biocomposite of Cassava Starch Reinforced with Cellulose Pulp Fibers Modified with Deposition of Silica (SiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joabel Raabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus pulp cellulose fibers were modified by the sol-gel process for SiO2 superficial deposition and used as reinforcement of thermoplastic starch (TPS. Cassava starch, glycerol, and water were added at the proportion of 60/26/14, respectively. For composites, 5% and 10% (by weight of modified and unmodified pulp fibers were added before extrusion. The matrix and composites were submitted to thermal stability, tensile strength, moisture adsorption, and SEM analysis. Micrographs of the modified fibers revealed the presence of SiO2 nanoparticles on fiber surface. The addition of modified fibers improved tensile strength in 183% in relation to matrix, while moisture adsorption decreased 8.3%. Such improvements were even more effective with unmodified fibers addition. This result was mainly attributed to poor interaction between modified fibers and TPS matrix detected by SEM analysis.

  7. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Chiang, Lourdes; Vanhatalo, Kari; Llorca, Jordi; Dahl, Olli

    2017-07-01

    Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end-product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy. Results showed that high yields (380mL CH 4 /gVS) were achieved with bleached fibers which correlates with the lower presence of lignin. Filtrates from the hydrolysis process on the other hand, had the lowest yields (253mL CH 4 /gVS) due to the high amount of acid and lignin compounds that cause inhibition. Overall, substrates had a biodegradability above 50% which demonstrates that they can be subjected to efficient anaerobic digestion. An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro fermentation characteristics of novel fibers, coconut endosperm fiber and chicory pulp, using canine fecal inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Mitsuhashi, Y; Bauer, L L; Fahey, G C; Buff, P R; Swanson, K S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of in vitro fermentation of coconut endosperm fiber (CEF), chicory pulp (CHP), and selective blends of these substrates on SCFA production and changes in microbiota using canine fecal inocula. A total of 6 individual substrates, including short-chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS; a well-established prebiotic source), pectin (PEC; used as a positive control), pelletized cellulose (PC; used as a negative control), beet pulp (BP; considered the gold standard fiber source in pet foods), CEF, and CHP, and 3 CEF:CHP blends (75:25% CEF:CHP [B1], 50:50% CEF:CHP [B2], and 25:75% CEF:CHP [B3]) were tested. Triplicate samples of each substrate were fermented for 0, 8, and 16 h after inoculation. A significant substrate × time interaction (P fiber substrates. Future research should investigate the effects of CEF, CHP, and their blends on gastrointestinal health and fecal quality in dogs.

  9. Pulp nerve fibers distribution of human carious teeth: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human dental pulp is richly innervated by trigeminal afferent axons that subserve nociceptive function. Accordingly, they respond to stimuli that induce injury to the pulp tissue. An injury to the nerve terminals and other tissue components in the pulp stimulate metabolic activation of the neurons in the trigeminal ganglion which result in morphological changes in the peripheral nerve terminals. Purpose: The aim of the study was to observe caries-related changes in the distribution of human pulpal nerve. Methods: Under informed consents, 15 third molars with caries at various stages of decay and 5 intact third molars were extracted because of orthodontic or therapeutic reasons. All samples were observed by micro-computed tomography to confirm the lesion condition 3-dimensionally, before decalcifying with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4. The specimens were then processed for immunohistochemistry using anti-protein gene products (PGP 9.5, a specific marker for the nerve fiber. Results: In normal intact teeth, PGP 9.5 immunoreactive nerve fibers were seen concentrated beneath the odontoblast cell layer. Nerve fibers exhibited an increased density along the pulp-dentin border corresponding to the carious lesions. Conclusion: Neural density increases throughout the pulp chamber with the progression of caries. The activity and pathogenicity of the lesion as well as caries depth, might influence the degree of neural sprouting.Latar belakang: Pulpa gigi manusia diinervasi oleh serabut saraf trigeminal yang berespon terhadap stimuli penyebab perlukaan dengan menimbulkan rasa sakit. Perlukaan pada akhiran saraf dan komponen lain dari pulpa akan menstimulasi aktivasi metabolik dari neuron pada ganglion trigeminal sehingga mengakibatkan perubahan morfologi pada akhiran saraf perifer. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengamati perubahan distribusi saraf pada pulpa gigi manusia yang disebabkan oleh proses karies. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan

  10. STARCH/PULP-FIBER BASED PACKAGING FOAMS AND CAST FILMS CONTAINING ALASKAN FISH BY-PRODUCTS (WASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Syed H. Imam; Bor-Sen Chiou; Delilah Woods; Justin Shey; Gregory M. Glenn; William J. Orts; Rajnesh Narayan; Robert J. Avena-Bustillos; Tara H. McHugh; Alberto Pantoja; Peter J. Bechtel

    2008-01-01

    Baked starch/pulp foams were prepared from formulations containing zero to 25 weight percent of processed Alaskan fish by-products that consisted mostly of salmon heads, pollock heads, and pollock frames (bones and associated remains produced in the filleting operation). Fish by-products thermoformed well along with starch and pulp fiber, and the foam product (panels) exhibited useful mechanical properties. Foams with all three fish by-products, ranging between 10 and 15 wt%, showed the highe...

  11. Swelling and hydrolysis kinetics of Kraft pulp fibers in aqueous 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jia; Abushammala, Hatem; Pereira, Laura Barcellos; Laborie, Marie-Pierre

    2016-11-20

    1Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hydrogen sulfate ([Bmim]HSO4) is efficient at extracting cellulose nanocrystals from pulp fibers. To shed some light on the respective contributions of swelling and hydrolysis of pulp fibers by [Bmim]HSO4, the physical, structural and morphological characteristics of hardwood Kraft pulp fibers were monitored under various conditions of temperature, water content and time. Swelling was largely compounded by hydrolysis at the highest temperatures (120°C) as evidenced by mass loss and reduced degree of polymerization (DPn) at this temperature. At 120°C only, water content appeared to play a significant role on the extent of hydrolysis. At this temperature, a heterogeneous kinetic model involving weak links and amorphous regions best described the experimental data. Hydrolysis rates were maximum at 25% water content in the aqueous ionic liquid. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preparation nanowhiskers pulp from residue of palm fiber Attalea funifera Martius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.B.A. da; Miranda, C.S.; Jose, N.M.; Vargas, F.P.; Druzian, J.I.

    2010-01-01

    The residue from piassava fiber is higher in cellulose and lignin. This study aimed to extract the pulp and the development of methodology for preparation nanowhiskers from residue fiber. The first step extraction of cellulose, the second step to obtain the nanoparticles by acid hydrolysis (H 2 SO 4 ). The samples were characterized by: SEM, chemical composition, TGA, FTIR and XRD. The XRD result shows that cellulose is of type I and TGA shows two events at 54 deg C and 370 deg C attributed to mass loss of water and cellulose, respectively. After hydrolysis, X-ray diffraction showed an intense reflection 2θ= 22.3 deg and an increase in the degree of crystallinity to 70% which is an indication of the formation of nanowhiskers. (author)

  13. Effect of various refining processes for Kenaf Bast non-wood pulp fibers suspensions on heat transfer coefficient in circular pipe heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syed Muzamil; Kazi, S. N.; Khan, Ghulamullah; Sadri, Rad; Dahari, Mahidzal; Zubir, M. N. M.; Sayuti, M.; Ahmad, Pervaiz; Ibrahim, Rushdan

    2018-03-01

    Heat transfer coefficients were obtained for a range of non-wood kenaf bast pulp fiber suspensions flowing through a circular pipe heat exchanger test loop. The data were produced over a selected temperature and range of flow rates from the flow loop. It was found that the magnitude of the heat transfer coefficient of a fiber suspension is dependent on characteristics, concentration and pulping method of fiber. It was observed that at low concentration and high flow rates, the heat transfer coefficient values of suspensions were observed higher than that of the heat transfer coefficient values of water, on the other hand the heat transfer coefficient values of suspensions decreases at low flow rates and with the increase of their concentration. The heat transfer were affected by varying fiber characteristics, such as fiber length, fiber flexibility, fiber chemical and mechanical treatment as well as different pulping methods used to liberate the fibers. Heat transfer coefficient was decreased with the increase of fiber flexibility which was also observed by previous researchers. In the present work, the characteristics of fibers are correlated with the heat transfer coefficient of suspensions of the fibers. Deviations in fiber properties can be monitored from the flowing fiber suspensions by measuring heat transfer coefficient to adjust the degree of fiber refining treatment so that papers made from those fibers will be more uniform, consistent, within the product specification and retard the paper production loss.

  14. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bamboo Pulp Fiber Reinforced Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhan Ren

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical and thermal properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites reinforced by bamboo pulp fibers (BPF. Using a twin-screw extruder, polymer composites were fabricated using BPF and bamboo flour (BF as the reinforcement and HDPE as the matrix. Tensile and flexural tests of the HDPE composites were performed to determine the mechanical properties under different conditions. The thermal properties of HDPE composites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The results showed that BPF improved the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer composites more than did BF. The tensile and flexural strength of composites with 30 wt% BPF were increased by 61.46% and 22.94%, respectively, while the tensile and flexural modulus were increased by 84.52% and 27.30%, respectively. Compared to composites with 50 wt% BF, the T5% of composites with 50 wt% BPF increased by 20.18 °C. As the BPF content increased, the storage modulus (E’ and loss modulus (E” initially increased, followed by a decrease. Compared to the BF/HDPE composites, BPF/HDPE composites reinforced at 30 wt% had a higher storage modulus (E’ and loss modulus (E” and lower damping parameter (tanδ.

  15. Pretreatment of hemp fibers for utilization in strong biocomposite materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming

    Hemp is the common name for Cannabis sativa cultivated for industrial use. Compared to synthetic fibers (e.g. glass fiber), hemp fibers have many advantages such as low cost, low density (1.5 g/cm3) and high specific strength and stiffness. As a result of increasing environmental awareness......, interest in hemp fiber reinforced composites is increasing because of a high potential of manufacturing hemp fiber reinforced polymer composites with acceptable mechanical properties at low cost. In order to expedite the application of natural fibers in polymer composites, hemp fibers need to be treated...... before being incorporated in matrix polymers to optimize the properties of fibers and fiber reinforced composites. The overall objective of this study was therefore to focus on understanding the correlation between chemical composition and morphology of hemp fibers and mechanical properties of hemp...

  16. Maximal release of highly bifidogenic soluble dietary fibers from industrial potato pulp by minimal enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Licht, Tine Rask

    2011-01-01

    Potato pulp is a poorly utilized, high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. Potato pulp mainly consists of the tuber plant cell wall material and is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan I type pectin which has...

  17. Nonuniform Internal Structure of Fibrin Fibers: Protein Density and Bond Density Strongly Decrease with Increasing Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The major structural component of a blood clot is a meshwork of fibrin fibers. It has long been thought that the internal structure of fibrin fibers is homogeneous; that is, the protein density and the bond density between protofibrils are uniform and do not depend on fiber diameter. We performed experiments to investigate the internal structure of fibrin fibers. We formed fibrin fibers with fluorescently labeled fibrinogen and determined the light intensity of a fiber, I, as a function of fiber diameter, D. The intensity and, thus, the total number of fibrin molecules in a cross-section scaled as D1.4. This means that the protein density (fibrin per cross-sectional area, ρp, is not homogeneous but instead strongly decreases with fiber diameter as D-0.6. Thinner fibers are denser than thicker fibers. We also determined Young’s modulus, Y, as a function of fiber diameter. Y decreased strongly with increasing D; Y scaled as D-1.5. This implies that the bond density, ρb, also scales as D-1.5. Thinner fibers are stiffer than thicker fibers. Our data suggest that fibrin fibers have a dense, well-connected core and a sparse, loosely connected periphery. In contrast, electrospun fibrinogen fibers, used as a control, have a homogeneous cross-section.

  18. Flax fibers as a raw material: How to bleach efficiently a non-woody plant to obtain high-quality pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillat, Ursula; Pepio, Montserrat; Vidal, Teresa; Roncero, M. Blanca

    2010-01-01

    Fiber crops constitute a good alternative to wood fiber for manufacturing pulp and paper. In fact, fiber plants like flax surpass wood fiber in some technical respects and also in the environmental benignity of their processing. In this work, flax fiber was subjected to environmentally friendly bleaching sequences in order to obtain a high-quality pulp. The totally chlorine-free sequences (TCF) used for this purpose (LE and LRE) included an enzyme treatment with laccase in the presence of HBT as mediator (L stage), an alkaline extraction (E stage) and a reductive treatment with NaBH 4 (R stage). The operating conditions for the L stage (laccase and HBT doses, reaction time and oxygen pressure) were optimised by using a sequential statistical plan to assess their influence on pulp properties after the E stage. Mathematical models accurately predicting brightness and kappa number in terms of the previous four variables were developed based on which the most influential factors were the laccase and HBT rates, and treatment time. By contrast, oxygen pressures of 0.2-0.6 MPa in the reactor had no effect on brightness or kappa number. The flax pulp obtained contained some oxidized cellulose that was partially degraded in the alkaline extraction step and reduced viscosity as a result. The viscosity loss associated with the presence of oxidized cellulose in the control and enzyme-treated pulp samples was efficiently recovered by using a reductive stage with sodium borohydride. Effluent was also analysed in order to assess the environmental impact of the process.

  19. Chemical pulping of waste pineapple leaves fiber for kraft paper production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waham Ashaier Laftah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation of acetone as a pulping agent for pineapple leaves. Mixtures of water and acetone with concentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10% were used. The effects of soaking and delignification time on the paper properties were investigated. Thermal and physical properties of paper sheet were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and tearing resistance test respectively. The morphological properties were observed using microscope at 200× magnification. The paper sheet produced from pulping with 3% acetone concentration shows the highest mechanical properties. Papers strength was improved by increasing the delignification time. The delignification time was reduced by cooking the pineapple leaves at a temperature of 118 °C under applied pressure of 80 kPa which has remarkable effect on paper strength.

  20. Chemical pulping of waste pineapple leaves fiber for kraft paper production

    OpenAIRE

    Laftah, Waham Ashaier; Abdul Rahaman, Wan Aizan Wan

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation of acetone as a pulping agent for pineapple leaves. Mixtures of water and acetone with concentration of 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10% were used. The effects of soaking and delignification time on the paper properties were investigated. Thermal and physical properties of paper sheet were studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and tearing resistance test respectively. The morphological properties were observed using microscope...

  1. Soluble fiber extracted from potato pulp is highly fermentable but hasno effect on risk markers of diabetes and cardiovasculardisease in Goto-Kakizaki rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Meyer, Anne S; Kaack, Karl Viggo

    2007-01-01

    The cholesterol-lowering and hypoglycemic effect of dietary fiber are commonly attributed to soluble fiber fractions. By enzymatic treatment of potato pulp, which is rich in cellulose and pectin, we prepared 3 fractions with different chemical composition and solubility, and compared their effects...... with commercially available crystalline cellulose (negative control) on central parameters related to risk factors of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in diabetic prone Goto-Kakizaki rats. Forty male rats were fed a semisynthetic Western-type diet containing 5% dietary fiber in the form of concentrated...

  2. Enhanced cellulase hydrolysis of eucalyptus waste fibers from pulp mill by Tween80-assisted ferric chloride pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liheng; Fu, Shiyu

    2013-04-03

    Pretreatment combining FeCl3 and Tween80 was performed for cellulose-to-ethanol conversion of eucalyptus alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping waste fibers (EAWFs). The FeCl3 pretreatment alone showed a good effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of EAWFs, but inhibited enzyme activity to some extent. A surfactant, Tween80, added during FeCl3 pretreatment was shown to significantly enhance enzyme reaction by eluting enzymatic inhibitors such as iron(III) that are present at the surface of the pretreated biomass. Treatment temperature, liquid-solid ratio, treatment time, FeCl3 concentration, and Tween80 dosage for pretreatment were optimized as follows: 180 °C, 8:1, 30 min, 0.15 mol/L, and 1% (w/v). Pretreated EAWFs under such optimal conditions provided enzymatic glucose (based on 100 g of oven-dried feedstock) and substrate enzymatic digestibility of EAWFs of 34.8 g and 91.3% after 72 h of enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively, with an initial cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g substrate.

  3. FIBER QUALITIES OF PRETREATED BETUNG BAMBOO (Dendrocalamusasper BY MIXED CULTURE OF WHITE-ROT FUNGI WITH RESPECT TO ITS USE FOR PULP/PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on anatomical structures of pretreated large (betung bamboo (Dendrocalamusasper using single culture of white-rot fungi has been investigated, which revealed that the pretreatment caused the decrease in the Runkel ratioas well as the coefficient rigidity and the increase in the flexibility ratio of their corresponding bamboo fibers. However, there is no study reported on the anatomical structure changes of them caused by pretreatment using mixed culture of white-rot fungi. This paper reports the results of the research on paper/pulp quality after different treatments. Pretreatment that used Trametes versicolor fungi and lasted for 45 days inflicted intensive fiber damages compared with those of untreated bamboo (control. Fresh and barkless large (betung bamboo chips of 2 year's old, and 1.6 cm in length, were inoculated by 10% of mixed culture of white-rot fungi inoculums stock for 30 and 45 days in room temperature. There were four treatment groups of mixed culture, i.e T. versi color and P. ostreatus (TVPO; P. ostreatus and P. chrysosporium (POPC; P. chrysosporium and T.versi color (PCTV; and P.chrysosporium,  T.versicolorand  P.ostreatus  (TVPCPO.After  the  inoculation  period,  the  chips  weremacerated into separate fibers using Scultze method to analyze the fiber dimension and its derived values. The fibers were then observed regarding their macro and microscopic structures by optical microscope. Mixed culture pretreatment of white-rot fungi accelerated improvement of fiber morphology and fiber derived value characteristics, except for Muhlsteph ratio. The fiber derived values oftreated bamboo tended to improve compared to those of untreated bamboo, there by requiring milder pulping conditions. Accordingly, the treated bamboo would indicatively produce a good quality pulp (grade I based on FAO and LPHH (Forest Product Research Report requirements. Co-culture treatment using P. chrysosporium and P. ostreatus for

  4. Injectable calcium phosphate with hydrogel fibers encapsulating induced pluripotent, dental pulp and bone marrow stem cells for bone repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lin [VIP Integrated Department, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130011,China (China); Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zhang, Chi [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China School of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Chunyan [VIP Integrated Department, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130011,China (China); Weir, Michael D. [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wang, Ping, E-mail: pwang@umaryland.edu [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Reynolds, Mark A. [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Zhao, Liang, E-mail: lzhaonf@126.com [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515 (China); Xu, Hockin H.K. [Department of Endodontics, Periodontics and Prosthodontics, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore County, MD 21250 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs), dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) are exciting cell sources in regenerative medicine. However, there has been no report comparing hDPSCs, hBMSCs and hiPSC-MSCs for bone engineering in an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel injectable CPC containing hydrogel fibers encapsulating stem cells for bone engineering, and (2) compare cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, hiPSC-MSCs from bone marrow (BM-hiPSC-MSCs) and from foreskin (FS-hiPSC-MSCs), and hBMSCs in CPC for the first time. The results showed that the injection did not harm cell viability. The porosity of injectable CPC was 62%. All four types of cells proliferated and differentiated down the osteogenic lineage inside hydrogel fibers in CPC. hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs, and hBMSCs exhibited high alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor, collagen I, and osteocalcin gene expressions. Cell-synthesized minerals increased with time (p < 0.05), with no significant difference among hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs and hBMSCs (p > 0.1). Mineralization by hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs, and hBMSCs inside CPC at 14 d was 14-fold that at 1 d. FS-hiPSC-MSCs were inferior in osteogenic differentiation compared to the other cells. In conclusion, hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs and hBMSCs are similarly and highly promising for bone tissue engineering; however, FS-hiPSC-MSCs were relatively inferior in osteogenesis. The novel injectable CPC with cell-encapsulating hydrogel fibers may enhance bone regeneration in dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • The osteogenic differentiation of hiPSC-MSCs from different origins, hDPSCs and hBMSCs were first investigated and compared in this study. • hDPSCs and hiPSC-MSCs from bone marrow represented viable alternatives to hBMSCs in bone tissue engineering. • hi

  5. Injectable calcium phosphate with hydrogel fibers encapsulating induced pluripotent, dental pulp and bone marrow stem cells for bone repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Chi; Li, Chunyan; Weir, Michael D.; Wang, Ping; Reynolds, Mark A.; Zhao, Liang; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2016-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs), dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) are exciting cell sources in regenerative medicine. However, there has been no report comparing hDPSCs, hBMSCs and hiPSC-MSCs for bone engineering in an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel injectable CPC containing hydrogel fibers encapsulating stem cells for bone engineering, and (2) compare cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs, hiPSC-MSCs from bone marrow (BM-hiPSC-MSCs) and from foreskin (FS-hiPSC-MSCs), and hBMSCs in CPC for the first time. The results showed that the injection did not harm cell viability. The porosity of injectable CPC was 62%. All four types of cells proliferated and differentiated down the osteogenic lineage inside hydrogel fibers in CPC. hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs, and hBMSCs exhibited high alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor, collagen I, and osteocalcin gene expressions. Cell-synthesized minerals increased with time (p < 0.05), with no significant difference among hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs and hBMSCs (p > 0.1). Mineralization by hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs, and hBMSCs inside CPC at 14 d was 14-fold that at 1 d. FS-hiPSC-MSCs were inferior in osteogenic differentiation compared to the other cells. In conclusion, hDPSCs, BM-hiPSC-MSCs and hBMSCs are similarly and highly promising for bone tissue engineering; however, FS-hiPSC-MSCs were relatively inferior in osteogenesis. The novel injectable CPC with cell-encapsulating hydrogel fibers may enhance bone regeneration in dental, craniofacial and orthopedic applications. - Highlights: • The osteogenic differentiation of hiPSC-MSCs from different origins, hDPSCs and hBMSCs were first investigated and compared in this study. • hDPSCs and hiPSC-MSCs from bone marrow represented viable alternatives to hBMSCs in bone tissue engineering. • hi

  6. X-ray Studies of Regenerated Cellulose Fibers Wet Spun from Cotton Linter Pulp in NaOH/Thiourea Aqueous Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen,X.; Burger, C.; Fang, D.; Ruan, D.; Zhang, L.; Hsiao, B.; Chu, B.

    2006-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose fibers were fabricated by dissolution of cotton linter pulp in NaOH (9.5 wt%) and thiourea (4.5 wt%) aqueous solution followed by wet-spinning and multi-roller drawing. The multi-roller drawing process involved three stages: coagulation (I), coagulation (II) and post-treatment (III). The crystalline structure and morphology of regenerated cellulose fiber was investigated by synchrotron wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques. Results indicated that only the cellulose II crystal structure was found in regenerated cellulose fibers, proving that the cellulose crystals were completely transformed from cellulose I to II structure during spinning from NaOH/thiourea aqueous solution. The crystallinity, orientation and crystal size at each stage were determined from the WAXD analysis. Drawing of cellulose fibers in the coagulation (II) bath (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O) was found to generate higher orientation and crystallinity than drawing in the post-treatment (III). Although the post-treatment process also increased crystal orientation, it led to a decrease in crystallinity with notable reduction in the anisotropic fraction. Compared with commercial rayon fibers fabricated by the viscose process, the regenerated cellulose fibers exhibited higher crystallinity but lower crystal orientation. SAXS results revealed a clear scattering maximum along the meridian direction in all regenerated cellulose fibers, indicating the formation of lamellar structure during spinning.

  7. Brittle-to-ductile transition in a fiber bundle with strong heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Kornél; Hidalgo, Raul Cruz; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Kun, Ferenc

    2013-04-01

    We analyze the failure process of a two-component system with widely different fracture strength in the framework of a fiber bundle model with localized load sharing. A fraction 0≤α≤1 of the bundle is strong and it is represented by unbreakable fibers, while fibers of the weak component have randomly distributed failure strength. Computer simulations revealed that there exists a critical composition α(c) which separates two qualitatively different behaviors: Below the critical point, the failure of the bundle is brittle, characterized by an abrupt damage growth within the breakable part of the system. Above α(c), however, the macroscopic response becomes ductile, providing stability during the entire breaking process. The transition occurs at an astonishingly low fraction of strong fibers which can have importance for applications. We show that in the ductile phase, the size distribution of breaking bursts has a power law functional form with an exponent μ=2 followed by an exponential cutoff. In the brittle phase, the power law also prevails but with a higher exponent μ=9/2. The transition between the two phases shows analogies to continuous phase transitions. Analyzing the microstructure of the damage, it was found that at the beginning of the fracture process cracks nucleate randomly, while later on growth and coalescence of cracks dominate, which give rise to power law distributed crack sizes.

  8. Nutritional and sensory quality evaluation of sponge cake prepared by incorporation of high dietary fiber containing mango (Mangifera indica var. Chokanan) pulp and peel flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziah, A A Noor; Min, W Lee; Bhat, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    Sponge cake prepared by partial substitution of wheat flour with mango pulp and mango peel flours (MPuF and MPeF, respectively) at different concentrations (control, 5%, 10%, 20% or 30%) were investigated for the physico-chemical, nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. Results showed sponge cake incorporated with MPuF and MPeF to have high dietary fiber with low fat, calorie, hydrolysis and predicted glycemic index compared with the control. Increasing the levels of MPuF and MPeF in sponge cake had significant impact on the volume, firmness and color. Sensory evaluation showed sponge cake formulated with 10% MPuF and 10% MPeF to be the most acceptable. MPeF and MPuF have high potential as fiber-rich ingredients and can be utilized in the preparation of cake and other bakery products to improve the nutritional qualities.

  9. Study on microstructure of transition zone and its strong contrast of single T700 carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xinshuang; Zhang, Kexiang [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Zhen; Feng, Zhihai [National Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Composite Materials, Aerospace Research Institute of Materials and Processing Technology, Beijing 100076 (China); He, LianLong, E-mail: llhe@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2017-06-01

    Highlights: • The transition zone of T700 carbon fiber was first identified with higher density in addition to higher orientation. • The higher sample density still existed while the higher orientation disappeared after heat treatment at 2800 °C. • The strong contrast of the transition zone mainly results from its higher density. • The transition zone with higher density and orientation may exist not only in the T700 but other PAN-based carbon fibers. - Abstract: The transition zone (TZ) between the skin and core of Toray T700 carbon fiber was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The higher basal-plane orientation was identified in the TZ compared with the skin and core, but it disappeared after heat treatment at 2800 °C. Plasmon peak energy in the TZ was higher than that in the skin and core about 0.7–0.8 eV, indicating the TZ with higher density. No element concentration existed in the TZ. The TZ with strong contrast manifests itself before and after heat treatment, and formation mechanism of its strong contrast was proposed.

  10. Strongly nonlinear optical glass fibers from noncentrosymmetric phase-change chalcogenide materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, In; Jang, Joon I; Malliakas, Christos D; Ketterson, John B; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2010-01-13

    We report that the one-dimensional polar selenophosphate compounds APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), which show crystal-glass phase-change behavior, exhibit strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response in both crystal and glassy forms. The crystalline materials are type-I phase-matchable with SHG coefficients chi((2)) of 151.3 and 149.4 pm V(-1) for K(+) and Rb(+) salts, respectively, which is the highest among phase-matchable nonlinear optical (NLO) materials with band gaps over 1.0 eV. The glass of APSe(6) exhibits comparable SHG intensities to the top infrared NLO material AgGaSe(2) without any poling treatments. APSe(6) exhibit excellent mid-IR transparency. We demonstrate that starting from noncentrosymmetric phase-change materials such as APSe(6) (A = K, Rb), we can obtain optical glass fibers with strong, intrinsic, and temporally stable second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) response. The as-prepared glass fibers exhibit SHG and difference frequency generation (DFG) responses over a wide range of wavelengths. Raman spectroscopy and pair distribution function (PDF) analyses provide further understanding of the local structure in amorphous state of KPSe(6) bulk glass and glass fiber. We propose that this approach can be widely applied to prepare permanent NLO glass from materials that undergo a phase-change process.

  11. Coherent beam combination of fiber lasers with a strongly confined waveguide: numerical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rumao; Si, Lei; Ma, Yanxing; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2012-08-20

    Self-imaging properties of fiber lasers in a strongly confined waveguide (SCW) and their application in coherent beam combination (CBC) are studied theoretically. Analytical formulas are derived for the positions, amplitudes, and phases of the N images at the end of an SCW, which is important for quantitative analysis of waveguide CBC. The formulas are verified with experimental results and numerical simulation of a finite difference beam propagation method (BPM). The error of our analytical formulas is less than 6%, which can be reduced to less than 1.5% with Goos-Hahnchen penetration depth considered. Based on the theoretical model and BPM, we studied the combination of two laser beams based on an SCW. The effects of the waveguide refractive index and Gaussian beam waist are studied. We also simulated the CBC of nine and 16 fiber lasers, and a single beam without side lobes was achieved.

  12. Modeling loss and backscattering in a photonic-bandgap fiber using strong perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani Aghaie, Kiarash; Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-02-01

    We use coupled-mode theory with strong perturbation to model the loss and backscattering coefficients of a commercial hollow-core fiber (NKT Photonics' HC-1550-02 fiber) induced by the frozen-in longitudinal perturbations of the fiber cross section. Strong perturbation is used, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, because the large difference between the refractive indices of the two fiber materials (silica and air) makes conventional weak-perturbation less accurate. We first study the loss and backscattering using the mathematical description of conventional surface-capillary waves (SCWs). This model implicitly assumes that the mechanical waves on the core wall of a PBF have the same power spectral density (PSD) as the waves that develop on an infinitely thick cylindrical tube with the same diameter as the PBF core. The loss and backscattering coefficients predicted with this thick-wall SCW roughness are 0.5 dB/km and 1.1×10-10 mm-1, respectively. These values are more than one order of magnitude smaller than the measured values (20-30 dB/km and ~1.5×10-9 mm-1, respectively). This result suggests that the thick-wall SCW PSD is not representative of the roughness of our fiber. We found that this discrepancy occurs at least in part because the effect of the finite thickness of the silica membranes (only ~120 nm) is neglected. We present a new expression for the PSD that takes into account this finite thickness and demonstrates that the finite thickness substantially increases the roughness. The predicted loss and backscattering coefficients predicted with this thin-film SCW PSD are 30 dB/km and 1.3×10-9 mm-1, which are both close to the measured values. We also show that the thin-film SCW PSD accurately predicts the roughness PSD measured by others in a solid-core photonic-crystal fiber.

  13. Polpa de fruta congelada: efeito do processamento sobre o conteúdo de fibra alimentar Frozen fruit pulps: effects of the processing on dietary fiber contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Magalhães Salgado

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os efeitos do processo utilizado na obtenção de polpa de frutas congelada sobre o teor de fibras alimentares, empregando-se acerola, caju, goiaba, graviola, manga, pinha, pitanga, sapoti e uva no estágio maduro. Demonstrou-se que o processo tecnológico empregado reduziu significativamente o percentual de fibras alimentares das frutas, determinadas por método gravimétrico não enzimático, principalmente da goiaba, seguida da uva, graviola, sapoti, caju, pinha e acerola; com exceção da manga e pitanga, as demais polpas congeladas não substituem, em termos quantitativos, a fibra alimentar dos frutos in natura na dieta de indivíduos sadios. Considerando que essas perdas são variáveis face às características dos frutos processados, a inclusão de polpas congeladas na dieta em substituição às frutas dependerá de estudos qualitativos que permitam esclarecer os constituintes da referida fração.The effects of the process utilized to obtain frozen fruit pulp on the quality of dietary fibers were evaluated, using ripe samples of acerola, cashew, guava, soursop, mango, sweetsop, pitanga, sapoti and grapes. The results obtained showed that the technological process used reduced significantly the fiber percentual of the fruit, determined by gravimetric non-ensymatic method particularly the guava, followed by the grapes, soursop, saoti, cashew, sweetsop and acerola. With the exception of mango and pitanga, all the frozen pulps tested do not seem to substitute, in terms of quantity of dietary fiber, the in natura fruit in the diet of healthy individuals. Considering the fact that these losses are variable, depending on the characteristics of the fruit which was processed, the inclusion of frozen pulps in the human diet in substitution to fruits will depend on quality control studies which may lead to a classification of the components of the mentioned fraction.

  14. Low-fiber diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... residue; Low-fiber diet; Fiber restricted diet; Crohn disease - low fiber diet; Ulcerative colitis - low fiber diet; ... them if they do not contain seeds or pulp: Yellow squash (without seeds) Spinach Pumpkin Eggplant Potatoes, ...

  15. Laccase-Catalyzed Surface Modification of Thermo-Mechanical Pulp (TMP) for the Production of Wood Fiber Insulation Boards Using Industrial Process Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mark; Ruedin, Pascal; Civardi, Chiara; Richter, Michael; Hach, André; Christen, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Low-density wood fiber insulation boards are traditionally manufactured in a wet process using a closed water circuit (process water). The water of these industrial processes contains natural phenolic extractives, aside from small amounts of admixtures (e.g., binders and paraffin). The suitability of two fungal laccases and one bacterial laccase was determined by biochemical characterization considering stability and substrate spectra. In a series of laboratory scale experiments, the selected commercial laccase from Myceliophtora thermophila was used to catalyze the surface modification of thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP) using process water. The laccase catalyzed the covalent binding of the phenolic compounds of the process water onto the wood fiber surface and led to change of the surface chemistry directly via crosslinking of lignin moieties. Although a complete substitution of the binder was not accomplished by laccase, the combined use of laccase and latex significantly improved the mechanical strength properties of wood fiber boards. The enzymatically-treated TMP showed better interactions with the synthetic binder, as shown by FTIR-analysis. Moreover, the enzyme is extensively stable in the process water and the approach requires no fresh water as well as no cost-intensive mediator. By applying a second-order polynomial model in combination with the genetic algorithm (GA), the required amount of laccase and synthetic latex could be optimized enabling the reduction of the binder by 40%. PMID:26046652

  16. Experimental demonstration of single-mode fiber coupling over relatively strong turbulence with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Liu, Chao; Xian, Hao

    2015-10-10

    High-speed free-space optical communication systems using fiber-optic components can greatly improve the stability of the system and simplify the structure. However, propagation through atmospheric turbulence degrades the spatial coherence of the signal beam and limits the single-mode fiber (SMF) coupling efficiency. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the atmospheric turbulence on the SMF coupling efficiency over various turbulences. The results show that the SMF coupling efficiency drops from 81% without phase distortion to 10% when phase root mean square value equals 0.3λ. The simulations of SMF coupling with adaptive optics (AO) indicate that it is inevitable to compensate the high-order aberrations for SMF coupling over relatively strong turbulence. The SMF coupling efficiency experiments, using an AO system with a 137-element deformable mirror and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, obtain average coupling efficiency increasing from 1.3% in open loop to 46.1% in closed loop under a relatively strong turbulence, D/r0=15.1.

  17. Stability in a fiber bundle model: Existence of strong links and the effect of disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Subhadeep

    2018-05-01

    The present paper deals with a fiber bundle model which consists of a fraction α of infinitely strong fibers. The inclusion of such an unbreakable fraction has been proven to affect the failure process in early studies, especially around a critical value αc. The present work has a twofold purpose: (i) a study of failure abruptness, mainly the brittle to quasibrittle transition point with varying α and (ii) variation of αc as we change the strength of disorder introduced in the model. The brittle to quasibrittle transition is confirmed from the failure abruptness. On the other hand, the αc is obtained from the knowledge of failure abruptness as well as the statistics of avalanches. It is observed that the brittle to quasibrittle transition point scales to lower values, suggesting more quasi-brittle-like continuous failure when α is increased. At the same time, the bundle becomes stronger as there are larger numbers of strong links to support the external stress. High α in a highly disordered bundle leads to an ideal situation where the bundle strength, as well as the predictability in failure process is very high. Also, the critical fraction αc, required to make the model deviate from the conventional results, increases with decreasing strength of disorder. The analytical expression for αc shows good agreement with the numerical results. Finally, the findings in the paper are compared with previous results and real-life applications of composite materials.

  18. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello; Jalaluddin Harun; Rushdan Ibrahim; Hossien Resalati; Seyed Rashid Fallah Shamsi; Paridah Md Tahir; Mohd Nor Mohad Yusoff

    2010-01-01

    Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ) pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC) and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the h...

  19. The load and release characteristics on a strong cationic ion-exchange fiber: kinetics, thermodynamics, and influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Gao, Yanan; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Hongzhuo; Che, Xin; Xu, Lu; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qifang; Wang, Yan; Li, Sanming

    2014-01-01

    Ion-exchange fibers were different from conventional ion-exchange resins in their non-cross-linked structure. The exchange was located on the surface of the framework, and the transport resistance reduced significantly, which might mean that the exchange is controlled by an ionic reaction instead of diffusion. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate the load and release characteristics of five model drugs with the strong cationic ion-exchange fiber ZB-1. Drugs were loaded using a batch process and released in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) dissolution apparatus 2. Opposing exchange kinetics, suitable for the special structure of the fiber, were developed for describing the exchange process with the help of thermodynamics, which illustrated that the load was controlled by an ionic reaction. The molecular weight was the most important factor to influence the drug load and release rate. Strong alkalinity and rings in the molecular structures made the affinity between the drug and fiber strong, while logP did not cause any profound differences. The drug-fiber complexes exhibited sustained release. Different kinds and concentrations of counter ions or different amounts of drug-fiber complexes in the release medium affected the release behavior, while the pH value was independent of it. The groundwork for in-depth exploration and further application of ion-exchange fibers has been laid.

  20. The influence on biotissue laser resection of a strongly absorbing layer at the optical fiber tip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Kuznetsova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a method of laser resection using the silica glass core from which the cladding layer has been removed as the cutting part of a laser scalpel. An absorbing layer coating the silica fiber tip markedly alters its biotissue cutting characteristics. The results of histological studies of skin after exposure to a laser scalpel with and without a strongly absorbing coating (SAC at a wavelength of 0.97μm show that resection using a coated scalpel is more sparing. When an uncoated scalpel was used, skin injury was more apparent in both its surface spread and the depth of structural damage, resulting in poorer tissue regeneration.

  1. STUDIES ON HIBISCUS CANNABINUS, HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA, AND CANNABINUS SATIVA PULP TO BE A SUBSTITUTE FOR SOFTWOOD PULP- PART 1: AS-AQ DELIGNIFICATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Dharm Dutt; J. S. Upadhyaya; C. H. Tyagi

    2010-01-01

    Hibiscus cannabinus, Hibiscus sabdariffa, and Cannabinus sativa, which are renewable non-woody fiber resources having characteristics similar to that of softwood (bast fibers), when used together with hardwood (core fibers), gave higher pulp yield with good mechanical strength properties when using an alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone (AS-AQ) pulping process rather than a conventional kraft pulping process and bleached more readily than kraft and soda pulps with a CEHH bleaching sequence. A com...

  2. REPLACEMENT OF SOFTWOOD KRAFT PULP WITH ECF-BLEACHED BAMBOO KRAFT PULP IN FINE PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Zhao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-wood fibers such as bamboo and wheat straw have been playing important roles in the pulp and paper industry in China. In this study an ECF-bleached bamboo kraft pulp was compared with a bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK as the reinforcement pulp in fine paper production. Areas that were examined include the refining of pure fibers, influence of bamboo on dewatering, retention, and sizing. The influence of bamboo kraft pulp as a part of a furnish replacing NBSK was compared as well. Results show that fiber shortening was more prominent with bamboo when refined. This resulted in a higher amount of fines, and addition wet-end chemicals may be required to compensate. Handsheets with bamboo as a reinforcement fiber showed similar mechanical and optical properties to handsheets containing NBSK.

  3. Integrated fiber-mirror ion trap for strong ion-cavity coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstätter, B.; Schüppert, K.; Casabone, B.; Friebe, K.; Stute, A.; Northup, T. E.; McClung, A.; Schmidt, P. O.; Deutsch, C.; Reichel, J.; Blatt, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present and characterize fiber mirrors and a miniaturized ion-trap design developed to integrate a fiber-based Fabry-Perot cavity (FFPC) with a linear Paul trap for use in cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions. Our fiber-mirror fabrication process not only enables the construction of FFPCs with small mode volumes, but also allows us to minimize the influence of the dielectric fiber mirrors on the trapped-ion pseudopotential. We discuss the effect of clipping losses for long FFPCs and the effect of angular and lateral displacements on the coupling efficiencies between cavity and fiber. Optical profilometry allows us to determine the radii of curvature and ellipticities of the fiber mirrors. From finesse measurements, we infer a single-atom cooperativity of up to 12 for FFPCs longer than 200 μm in length; comparison to cavities constructed with reference substrate mirrors produced in the same coating run indicates that our FFPCs have similar scattering losses. We characterize the birefringence of our fiber mirrors, finding that careful fiber-mirror selection enables us to construct FFPCs with degenerate polarization modes. As FFPCs are novel devices, we describe procedures developed for handling, aligning, and cleaning them. We discuss experiments to anneal fiber mirrors and explore the influence of the atmosphere under which annealing occurs on coating losses, finding that annealing under vacuum increases the losses for our reference substrate mirrors. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that these losses may be attributable to oxygen depletion in the mirror coating. Special design considerations enable us to introduce a FFPC into a trapped ion setup. Our unique linear Paul trap design provides clearance for such a cavity and is miniaturized to shield trapped ions from the dielectric fiber mirrors. We numerically calculate the trap potential in the absence of fibers. In the experiment additional electrodes can be used to compensate

  4. Linear Transformation of the Polarization Modes in Coiled Optical Spun-Fibers with Strong Unperturbed Linear Birefringence. I. Nonresonant Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malykin, G. B.; Pozdnyakova, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    A linear transformation of orthogonal polarization modes in coiled optical spun-fibers with strong unperturbed linear birefringence, which causes the emergence of the dependences of the integrated elliptical birefringence and the ellipticity and azimuth of the major axis of the ellipse, as well as the polarization state of radiation (PSR), on the length of optical fiber has been considered. Optical spun-fibers are subjected to a strong mechanical twisting, which is frozen into the structure of the optical fiber upon cooling, in the process of being drawn out from the workpiece. Since the values of the local polarization parameters of coiled spunwaveguides vary according to a rather complex law, the calculations were carried out by numerical modeling of the parameters of the Jones matrices. Since the rotation speed of the axes of the birefringence is constant on a relatively short segment of a coiled optical spun-fiber in the accompanying torsion (helical) coordinate system, the so-called "Ginzburg helical polarization modes" (GHPMs)—two mutually orthogonal ellipses with the opposite directions of traversal, the axis of which rotate relative to the fixed coordinate system uniformly and unidirectionally—are approximately the local normal polarization modes of such optical fiber. It has been shown that, despite the fact that the unperturbed linear birefringence of the spun-fibers significantly exceeds the linear birefringence, which is caused by the winding on a coil, the integral birefringence of an extended segment of such a fiber coincides in order of magnitude with the linear birefringence, which is caused by the winding on the coil, and the integral polarization modes tend asymptotically to circular ones. It has been also shown that the values of the circular birefringence of twisted single-mode fibers, which were calculated in a nonrotating and torsion helical coordinate systems, differ significantly. It has been shown that the polarization phenomena occur

  5. Bright broadband coherent fiber sources emitting strongly blue-shifted resonant dispersive wave pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Haohua; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Zhang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    We predict and realize the targeted wavelength conversion from the 1550-nm band of a fs Er:fiber laser to an isolated band inside 370-850 nm, corresponding to a blue-shift of 700-1180 nm. The conversion utilizes resonant dispersive wave generation in widely available optical fibers with good...... efficiency (~7%). The converted band has a large pulse energy (~1 nJ), high spectral brightness (~1 mW/nm), and broad Gaussian-like spectrum compressible to clean transform-limited ~17 fs pulses. The corresponding coherent fiber sources open up portable applications of optical parametric oscillators and dual......-output synchronized ultrafast lasers....

  6. PRODUCTION OF DISSOLVING GRADE PULP FROM ALFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baya Bouiri

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alfa, also known as Stipa tenacissimaI or “halfa”, is grown in North Africa and south Spain. Due to its short fiber length, paper made from alfa pulp retains bulk and takes block letters well. In this study alfa was evaluated for bleached pulp production. Two cellulose pulps with different chemical compositions were pulped by a conventional kraft process. One sample was taken from the original alfa material and another from alfa that had been pretreated by diluted acid. The pulp produced from the pretreated alfa was bleached by the elemental-chlorine-free sequences DEPD and DEDP. The yield, Kappa number, brightness, and α- cellulose content of bleached and unbleached pulps were evaluated. The results showed that during the chemical pulping process, treated alfa cooked more easily than the original alfa. The treated alfa pulp also showed very good bleaching, reaching a brightness level of 94.8% ISO with a yield of 93.6% at an α-cellulose content 96.8(% with a DEDP bleaching sequence, compared to 83.2% ISO brightness level, 92.8% yield, and 95.1% α-cellulose content for bleached pulp with a DEPD bleaching sequence. Therefore, this alfa material could be considered as a worthwhile choice for cellulosic fiber supply.

  7. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    <strong>Abstract>

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  8. Psyllium fiber-enriched meal strongly attenuates postprandial gastrointestinal peptide release in healthy young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhunen, Leila J.; Juvonen, Kristiina R.; Flander, Sanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fiber (DF) and protein are essential constituents of a healthy diet and are well known for their high satiety impact. However, little is known about their influence on postprandial gastrointestinal (GI) peptide release. Our aim in this single-blind, randomized, cross-over study was to inv...

  9. Extended parametric gain range in photonic crystal fibers with strongly frequency-dependent field distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Sidsel R; Alkeskjold, Thomas T; Olausson, Christina B; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2014-08-15

    The parametric gain range of a degenerate four-wave mixing process is determined in the undepleted pump regime. The gain range is considered with and without taking the mode field distributions of the four-wave mixing components into account. It is found that the mode field distributions have to be included to evaluate the parametric gain correctly in dispersion-tailored speciality fibers and that mode profile engineering can provide a way to increase the parametric gain range.

  10. Preparation nanowhiskers pulp from residue of palm fiber Attalea funifera Martius; Preparacao de nanowhiskers de celulose a partir do residuo da fibra de piacava da palmeira Attalea funifera Martius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.B.A. da; Miranda, C.S.; Jose, N.M.; Vargas, F.P.; Druzian, J.I., E-mail: janiabet@yahoo.com.b [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The residue from piassava fiber is higher in cellulose and lignin. This study aimed to extract the pulp and the development of methodology for preparation nanowhiskers from residue fiber. The first step extraction of cellulose, the second step to obtain the nanoparticles by acid hydrolysis (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The samples were characterized by: SEM, chemical composition, TGA, FTIR and XRD. The XRD result shows that cellulose is of type I and TGA shows two events at 54 deg C and 370 deg C attributed to mass loss of water and cellulose, respectively. After hydrolysis, X-ray diffraction showed an intense reflection 2{theta}= 22.3 deg and an increase in the degree of crystallinity to 70% which is an indication of the formation of nanowhiskers. (author)

  11. Biodegradation behaviors and color change of composites based on type of bagasse pulp/polylactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, appearance quality and decay resistance of polylactic acid (PLA based green composites made from monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (B S bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UN S bagasse pulp (UN S bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were investigated. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers. This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA. Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber. Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability.

  12. Effect of Strongly Alkaline Electrolyzed Water on Silk Degumming and the Physical Properties of the Fibroin Fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Cao

    Full Text Available Strongly alkaline electrolyzed water (SAEW was prepared by electrolysis of tap water in a laboratory-made water electrolyzer. The pH of stored SAEW was stable for more than one month. The hardness of the electrolyzed water was 30% lower and the Na(+ concentration was 18% higher than those of the tap water. Silkworm cocoon shells were boiled in pH 11.50 SAEW at a ratio of 1∶40∼80 (W/V for 20 min and the sericin layers around the silk fibroin fibers were removed completely. The tensile properties and thermal decomposition temperature of a single filament of silk fibroin obtained by the SAEW method were almost the same as those for the fiber obtained by the neutral soap, and much higher than those for the fiber obtained by Na2CO3 degumming. The results demonstrate that SAEW is an environmentally friendly and pollution-free silk degumming agent that allows highly efficient, low cost recovery of sericin.

  13. [Vital pulp therapy of damaged dental pulp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuedong, Zhou; Dingming, Huang; Jianguo, Liu; Zhengwei, Huang; Xin, Wei; Deqin, Yang; Jin, Zhao; Liming, Chen; Lin, Zhu; Yanhong, Li; Jiyao, Li

    2017-08-01

    The development of an expert consensus on vital pulp therapy can provide practical guidance for the improvement of pulp damage care in China. Dental pulp disease is a major type of illness that adversely affects human oral health. Pulp capping and pulpotomy are currently the main methods for vital pulp therapy. Along with the development of minimal invasion cosmetic dentistry, using different treatment technologies and materials reasonably, preserving healthy tooth tissue, and extending tooth save time have become urgent problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. This paper summarizes the experiences and knowledge of endodontic experts. We develop a clinical path of vital pulp therapy for clinical work by utilizing the nature, approach, and degree of pulp damage as references, defense and self-repairing ability of pulp as guidance, and modern technologies of diagnosis and treatment as means.

  14. New process for the simultaneous manufacture of sugar alcohol, and paper pulp from sugar cane fiber in a self-sufficient factory: soda, potash, silica, and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, E A

    1960-01-01

    Details of the process of bagasse digestion with potash to form paper pulp are discussed. The pulp is washed, after digestion, with a small quantity of warm water and after separation of the pulp vinasse residues from the alcohol fermentation of molasses are added. Silica is precipitated as silicates by the addition of Ca and Mg hydroxides; this prevents difficulties due to incrustration in further processing. The black liquor is concentrated in a sextuple-effect evaporator from 15 to 20% solids to 50 to 60% solids. The mass is mixed with bagacillo, cane leaves, etc., and burned in a furnace with a movable gridiron. The temperature in the furnace should be under 1000/sup 0/ to prevent fusion of the ash. The ash, containing mainly potash and some soluble silicates, is mixed with lime and recycled. The use of silica in cane growing is briefly discussed.

  15. Ranking mechanical pulps for their potential to photoyellow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2000-01-01

    Recently found experimental evidence has provided strong support for an alternative photoyellowing mechanism that suggests that pulp- photoyellowing occurs due to direct photooxidation of hydroquinones (present in mechanical pulps) top-quinones. Because hydroquinones were found to be present in pulps, it may be possible to quantify them. Quantification of mechanical-...

  16. EVALUATION OF LINERBOARD PROPERTIES FROM MALAYSIAN CULTIVATED KENAF SODA-ANTHRAQUINONE PULPS VERSUS COMMERCIAL PULPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Azizi Mossello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysian cultivated kenaf has been identified as a suitable raw material for linerboard production. This study examines the soda-antraquinone (soda-AQ pulp of kenaf fibers versus old corrugated container (OCC and unbleached softwood kraft pulps as the main sources for linerboard production. The results showed significant differences among the pulp properties. The unbleached kraft pulp with very high freeness required high beating to reach an optimized freeness and produced paper with the highest strength properties, except for tear resistance. The OCC gave paper with the lowest strength properties. In the case of kenaf fractions, bast pulp with high freeness needed less beating than softwood and produced paper with high tear resistance. Core fiber, which had the lowest freeness and highest drainage time, led to paper with high strength but very low tear resistance. Kenaf whole stem pulp showed intermediate properties between core and bast and close to those of unbleached softwood pulp, but with very lower beating requirement. Finally, kenaf whole stem, due to its strength properties, moderate separation cost, and simple pulping process, was judged to be more suitable for commercialization for linerboard production in Malaysia.

  17. Resultados experimentais com a cultura da Crotalaria juncea L. L., como planta produtora de celulose para papel Results from field trials with Crotalaria juncea L. as fiber plant for paper pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Medina

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados e discutidos os resultados de vários experimentos de campo realizados na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, do Instituto Agronômico, com a Crotalaria juncea L. como planta produtora de celulose para papel. Êsses resultados permitem fazer recomendações úteis sôbre o melhoramento técnico da cultura e da produção, no concernente às questões de variedades, espaçamento, densidade de semeação, época de semeação e época de colheita dos caules.This paper reports the results obtained in sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. field trials carried out at the Tatui Experiment Station, São Paulo State. The trials were designed to study the effect of varieties, spacing x rate of seeding, time of sowing and time of harvesting on sunn hemp fiber production as a raw material for paper pulp. From the results achieved in these trials, the following recommendations can be made for growing sunn hemp as a fiber plant for paper pulp in the State of São Paulo. VARIETY: to use the common variety that is normally sowed for green manuring. TIME OF SOWING: to sow the seeds during october. RATE OF SEED SOWING AND SPACING: to sow the seeds at the rate of 100 lbs/ acre in rows spaced 8 inches apart. TIME OF HARVESTING: to harvest the stalks for mechanical fiber extraction when the seed pods are in the mature stage.

  18. PEMUTIHAN PULP DENGAN HIDROGEN PEROKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Fuadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bleaching agent has increased as the result of increasing of paper consumption. The conventional bleaching agent that commonly used is material containing of chlorine. This material is not environmentally friendly and should be replaced by environmentally benign chemical, such as H2O2. About 40 gram of dry Akasia pulp was mixed with 600 ml of distilled water was put into plastic bag heated in a water bath. When the temperature reached 630C, a solution of 4 % of H2O2 and distilled water was added to obtain 5 % consistency. This mixture was put into water bath and was heated for 2 hours. The same procedure was conducted with various concentration of H2O2, time and pH. At the end of the process, the pulp was dewatered and washed. The filtrate obtained from the initial dewatering was used to determine the residual of H2O2. The pulp was analyzed to determine brightness, fiber strength and kappa number. The maximum achievement of brightness was 62,1 % ISO, 6.86 of kappa number and 1.02 kg/15 mm of fiber strength, which are reached at16 % of the use of H2O2, pH 11 and 5 hours of bleaching time. This achievement is similar to bleaching result by the additional of 4% H2O2. Inefficient usage of H2O2 was caused by some metal ions in the pulp which facilitate the decomposition of H2O2 to produce oxygen and water which has not effect on increasing the brightness. To improve the bleach ability of H2O2, initial treatment to remove metal ions from pulp should be done. Seiring dengan meningkatnya kebutuhan kertas, kebutuhan bahan pemutih juga mengalami kenaikan. Saat ini bahan pemutih yang banyak digunakan adalah senyawa yang mengandung khlor. Senyawa ini sangat tidak ramah lingkungan, oleh karena itu, perlu dicari bahan yang ramah lingkungan untuk menggantikannya. Salah satunya adalah hidrogen peroksida. Pulp dari pohon akasia sebanyak 40 gram kering dicampur dengan 600 ml aquadest dimasukkan dalam kantung plastik dipanaskan dalam water bath

  19. Porous shaped photonic crystal fiber with strong confinement field in sensing applications: Design and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawrab Chowdhury

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, porous core porous cladding photonic crystal fiber (P-PCF has been proposed for aqueous analytes sensing applications. Guiding properties of the proposed P-PCF has been numerically investigated by utilizing the full vectorial finite element method (FEM. The relative sensitivity and confinement loss are obtained by varying distinct geometrical parameters like the diameter of air holes, a pitch of the core and cladding region over a wider range of wavelength. The proposed P-PCF is organized with five rings air hole in the cladding and two rings air hole in a core territory which maximizes the relative sensitivity expressively and minimizes confinement loss depressively compare with the prior-PCF structures. After completing all investigations, it is also visualized that the relative sensitivity is increasing with the increment of the wavelength of communication band (O + E + S + C + L + U. Higher sensitivity is gained by using higher band for all applied liquids. Finally the investigating effects of different structural parameters of the proposed P-PCF are optimized which shows the sensitivity of 60.57%, 61.45% and 61.82%; the confinement loss of 8.71 × 10−08 dB/m, 1.41 × 10−10 dB/m and 6.51 × 10−10 dB/m for Water (n = 1.33, Ethanol (n = 1.354 and Benzene (n = 1.366 respectively at 1.33 μm wavelength. The optimized P-PCF with higher sensitivity and lower confinement loss has high impact in the area of the chemical as well as gas sensing purposes. Keywords: Porous shaped PCF, Sensitivity, Optical sensing, Liquid sensor, Confinement loss

  20. Effect of Bagasse Chemical Pulping and Coupling Agent on the Physical - Mechanical Properties of Composites Based on Bagasse pulp/Low density polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam allahdadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of reinforcing bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers and applying coupling agent MAPE (Maleic Anhydride Polyethylene on physical-mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE composites were studided. Fresh bagasse were collected from an experimental field in Khuzestan and after investigating anatomy and chemical properties of Different pulp fibers including monoethanolamine (MEA bagasse pulp, alkaline sulfite-anthraquinone (AS bagasse pulp, bleached soda (BS bagasse pulp, unbleached soda (UNS bagasse pulp and raw bagasse fibers (B were prepared. Then, composites with 30wt.% fiber content were manufactured by twin-screw extrusion followed by compression molding processing. The mechanical and physical properties of these composites were analyzed and compared. Results revealed that the chemical pulping dissolved a fraction of lignin and hemicelluloses so that the linkage potential and aspect ratio of bagasse fibers was improved and consequently, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability. The best overall properties were achieved with MEA and AS/AQ fibers. Addition of 5% (wt/wt of coupling agent MAPE resulted in a significant enhancement in the tensile strength, tensile modulus and impact strength in line with the improvement of the fiber-matrix interfacial adhesion making more effective the transfer of stress from the matrix to the rigid reinforcement.

  1. Strong Light Localization and a Peculiar Feature of Light Leakage in the Negative Curvature Hollow Core Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey D. Pryamikov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we would like to continue a discussion started in our previous work and devoted to the mechanism of light localization in hollow core microstructured fibers with a noncircular core-cladding boundary. It has been shown in many works that, for waveguide microstructures with different types of core-cladding boundary shape, the positions of the transmission bands’ edges can be predicted by applying the well-known anti–resonant reflecting optical waveguide (ARROW model. At the same time, the ARROW model cannot explain the strong light localization and guiding at high material loss inside the transmission bands which are observed in negative curvature hollow core fibers, for example. In this paper we want to clarify our previous findings and consider the light localization process from another point of view, namely, by comparing the light leakage process in waveguide microstructures with different shapes of the core-cladding boundary. The results are discussed based on the ARROW model and a new approach associated with the consideration of spatial dispersion occurring under the interaction of the air core mode with the core-cladding boundary.

  2. Radiation -adsorption treatment of pesticides by using wood pulp and bagasse pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Aal, S.E.; Sokker, S.S.; Dessooki, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Alkaline pulping of pulp wood and bagasse using sodium hydroxide resulted in the reduction of lignin from the wood and bagasse fibers and consequently increase adsorption of the pesticide pollutants to these fibers. Three different types of pesticides were used in this study namely, metalaxyl, dicloran and arelon. which were irradiated at a dose of 4 kGy before adsorption treatment.The results show that moderate adsorption was observed for all pesticides when adsorption was carried out without alkaline pulping and irradiation. This is due to the presence of lignin which retard the adsorption process. Batch sorption experiments at different pH values (3, 7, 9) for the retention of these pesticides by pulp wood and pulp bagasse fibers indicated that sorption is governed by the interaction of the ionized form of these compounds with the polyhydroxyl structure of cellulose. The study shows that alkaline pulping of pulpwood and bagasse improves its ability towards adsorption of the radiation degraded pesticide molecules

  3. Dry Kraft Pulping at Ambient Pressure for Cost Effective Energy Saving and Pollution Deduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulin Deng; Art Ragauskas

    2012-08-28

    Sponsored by the DOE Industrial Energy Efficiency Grand Challenge program, our research team at the Georgia Institute of Technology conducted laboratory studies and confirmed the concept of making wood pulp using a dry pulping technology. This technology is a new process different from any prior pulping technology used in Kraft and CTMP pulping. Three different kinds of dry pulping methods were investigated. (a) Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure: The first one is to dry and bake the pretreated woodchips in a conventional oven at atmospheric pressure without the use of a catalyst. (b) Dry Pulping at Reduced Pressure: The second method is to dry the pretreated woodchips first in a vacuum oven in the presence of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst, followed by baking at elevated temperature. (c) Liquid Free Chemical Pulping, LFCP. The third method is to first remove the free water of pretreated woodchips, followed by dry pulping using a conventional Kraft pulping digester with AQ and triton as additives. Method one: Experimental results indicated that Dry Pulping at Atmospheric Pressure could produce pulp with higher brightness and lower bulk than conventional Kraft pulp. However, tensile strength of the acquired pulp is much lower than traditional Kraft pulp, and their Kappa number and energy consumption are higher than conventional Kraft pulp. By fully analyzing the results, we concluded that wood fibers might be damaged during the drying process at elevated temperature. The main reason for wood fiber damage is that a long drying time was used during evaporation of water from the woodchips. This resulted in an un-uniform reaction condition on the woodchips: the outside layer of the woodchips was over reacted while inside the woodchips did not reacted at all. To solve this problem, dry pulping at reduced pressure was investigated. Method two: To achieve uniform reaction throughout the entire reaction system, the water inside the pretreated woodchips was

  4. Method for rapidly determining a pulp kappa number using spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Jun Yong

    2002-01-01

    A system and method for rapidly determining the pulp kappa number through direct measurement of the potassium permanganate concentration in a pulp-permanganate solution using spectrophotometry. Specifically, the present invention uses strong acidification to carry out the pulp-permanganate oxidation reaction in the pulp-permanganate solution to prevent the precipitation of manganese dioxide (MnO.sub.2). Consequently, spectral interference from the precipitated MnO.sub.2 is eliminated and the oxidation reaction becomes dominant. The spectral intensity of the oxidation reaction is then analyzed to determine the pulp kappa number.

  5. Pemanfaatan Limbah Pulp Buah Semangka (Citrullus vulgaris, Schard) Untuk Pembuatan Nata De Watermelon Pulp Dengan Menggunakan Bakteri Acetobacter xylinum

    OpenAIRE

    Mawaddah

    2011-01-01

    This research done to know can or not the waste of watermelon pulp use to produce nata and how the effect of mass variation using to nata’s quality. This research was done with mass variation of watermelon pulp that is 10 g, 20 g, 30 g, 40 g, 50 g, 60 g, and watermelon pulp without adding sugar as control. Statistical analysis count the thickness, water content, ash content, fiber content and organoleptic test of texture, color, aroma, and taste of nata de watermelon pulp. The result show...

  6. Understanding the Nature and Reactivity of Residual Lignin for Improved Pulping and Bleaching Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan-Zong Lai

    2001-11-30

    One of the most formidable challenges in kraft pulping to produce bleached chemical pulps is how to effectively remove the last 5-10% of lignin while maintaining the fiber quality. To avoid a severe fiber degradation, kraft pulping is usually terminated in the 25-30 kappa number range and then followed by an elementally chlorine free (ECF) or a totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequence to reduce the environmental impacts.

  7. Understanding the Nature and Reactivity of Residual Lignin for Improved Pulping and Bleaching Efficiency; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan-Zong Lai

    2001-01-01

    One of the most formidable challenges in kraft pulping to produce bleached chemical pulps is how to effectively remove the last 5-10% of lignin while maintaining the fiber quality. To avoid a severe fiber degradation, kraft pulping is usually terminated in the 25-30 kappa number range and then followed by an elementally chlorine free (ECF) or a totally chlorine free (TCF) bleaching sequence to reduce the environmental impacts

  8. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the Mechanical Behavior of Strongly Anisotropic Light-Weight Metallic Fiber Structures under Static and Dynamic Compressive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Andersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rigid metallic fiber structures made from a variety of different metals and alloys have been investigated mainly with regard to their functional properties such as heat transfer, pressure drop, or filtration characteristics. With the recent advent of aluminum and magnesium-based fiber structures, the application of such structures in light-weight crash absorbers has become conceivable. The present paper therefore elucidates the mechanical behavior of rigid sintered fiber structures under quasi-static and dynamic loading. Special attention is paid to the strongly anisotropic properties observed for different directions of loading in relation to the main fiber orientation. Basically, the structures show an orthotropic behavior; however, a finite thickness of the fiber slabs results in moderate deviations from a purely orthotropic behavior. The morphology of the tested specimens is examined by computed tomography, and experimental results for different directions of loading as well as different relative densities are presented. Numerical calculations were carried out using real structural data derived from the computed tomography data. Depending on the direction of loading, the fiber structures show a distinctively different deformation behavior both experimentally and numerically. Based on these results, the prevalent modes of deformation are discussed and a first comparison with an established polymer foam and an assessment of the applicability of aluminum fiber structures in crash protection devices is attempted.

  9. Performance of Schizolobium amazonicum Wood in Bleached Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Sarto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of Schizolobium amazonicum wood, specifically its performance in bleached kraft pulp production and the characteristics of its pulp. Chips of Schizolobium amazonicum and Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus urophylla (reference were used. The following parameters were evaluated in the wood: basic density, total extractives, total lignin, holocellulose, and fiber morphology. The pulping simulations were carried out in a laboratory digester, with parameters set to obtain pulp with kappa number 19 ± 0.5. Both pulps were bleached in a PFI mill and submitted to physical-mechanical tests. The results showed that S. amazonicum wood has low basic density and higher content of extractives when compared to E. grandis x E. urophylla wood. For pulping, S. amazonicum required higher alkali charge and H factor to achieve the same delignification level of E. grandis x E. urophylla, resulting in a lower yield, pulp with lower viscosity, and higher wood specific consumption. During bleaching, the brightness gain and final viscosity of S. amazonicum pulp were lower than E. grandis x E. urophylla pulp. Moreover, S. amazonicum pulp had worse physical-mechanical characteristics than E. grandis x E. urophylla.

  10. Pulp and paper from blue agave waste from tequila production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idarraga, G; Ramos, J; Zuñiga, V; Sahin, T; Young, R A

    1999-10-01

    Pulping of blue agave waste, from the production of tequila, was evaluated by both chemical and biomechanical pulping processes. Two conventional and two organosolv systems were used to pulp the agave waste under a standard set of conditions. The soda-ethanol process was superior in terms of delignification and pulp properties in comparison to the soda and ethanol organosolv processes for pulping of agave waste; however, the kraft process gave the best strength properties. In general, the strength of the agave waste pulps was rather poor in comparison to wood and other agro-based pulps; however, the tear strength was relatively high. This result is typical of poorly bonded sheets and may be due to the coarseness of the agave fibers and/or loss of hemicelluloses in the steaming process for the tequila production. Fungal treatment of the agave waste with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora reduced the energy consumption for mechanical refining but gave biomechanical pulps with inferior strength properties. The blue agave chemical pulps should be suitable for blending with softwood kraft pulps for publication grade paper.

  11. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE PRE-IMPREGNATION AND PULPING ON MALAYSIA CULTIVATED KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Suan Ang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to identify an appropriate alkaline pulping condition for Malaysia cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.. The chemical composition of the kenaf bast and core fibers, and also whole stalk with different growing time were examined prior to pulping attempts. The results of various soda-AQ pulping showed that the degree of carbohydrate degradation and delignification increased with the increase of active alkali and cooking temperature, but decreased with the increase of liquor to material (L:M ratio. The most satisfactory properties of pulp and handsheets from bast could be attained by employing soda-AQ pulping with 19.4% active alkali, 0.10% AQ, and L:M ratio of 7:1 cooked for 2 hours at 160˚C. Besides, it was also found that a mild alkaline pre-impregnation prior pulping improved the pulp viscosity and handsheets’ strength properties, especially the tensile index and folding endurance effectively. Moreover, among the three alkaline pulping processes—kraft, kraft-AQ, and soda-AQ—the results of pulp and handsheet properties showed that the soda-AQ pulp was comparable or even slightly of higher quality than the kraft pulps. Between the unbeaten bast and core soda-AQ handsheets, the strength properties of the core were higher than the bast, as the thin-walled core fibers exhibited much better conformability than the thick-walled bast fibers.

  12. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Villela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The pulp was dried in an oven at 60-65 ºC/48h. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with 10 and 20% Annona crassiflora pulp. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value. The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers (pulp and flour, minerals (potassium, calcium, manganese and others and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.

  13. Kinetic modeling of formic acid pulping of bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Qiliang; Fu, Shiyu; Zhan, Huaiyu; Chai, Xinsheng; Lucia, Lucian A

    2008-05-14

    Organic solvent or organosolv pulping processes are alternatives to soda or kraft pulping to delignify lignocellulosic materials for the production of paper pulp. Formic acid, a typical organosolv system, has been presently examined under atmospheric pressure to pulp bagasse fibers. It was shown that efficient bagasse pulping was achieved when the formic acid concentration was limited to 90% (v/v). A statistical kinetic model based on the experimental results for the delignification of bagasse during formic acid pulping was developed that can be described as follows: D (delignification) = 0.747 x C(formicacid) (1.688) x (1 - e(-0.05171t)), an equation that can be used to predict the lignin content in formic acid during the pulping process. The delignification of bagasse by 90% formic acid was almost completed after approximately 80 min, while extended pulping did not improve the delignification but tended to degrade the carbohydrates in bagasse, especially the hemicelluloses, which were rapidly hydrolyzed at the onset of pulping.

  14. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meals instead of white rice. Add beans (kidney, black, navy, and pinto) to rice dishes for even more fiber. Spice up salads with berries and almonds, chickpeas, cooked artichokes, and beans (kidney, black, navy, or pinto). Use whole-grain (corn or ...

  15. Effect of Partial Pre-Extraction of Hemicelluloses on the Properties of Pinus radiata Chemimechanical Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reyes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of hemicelluloses prior to pulping and conversion of the extracted hemicelluloses to other bioproducts could provide additional revenue to traditional pulp and paper industries. The effect of hemicelluloses pre-extraction with a hydrothermal (HT process on Pinus radiata chemimechanical pulp (CMP properties was investigated in this study. The HT extraction resulted in a release of 7% to 58% of the initial amount of hemicelluloses from the wood. The extraction yield increased with temperature and extraction time. This hemicellulosic fraction was in the form of low molar mass oligomers with molecular weights varying from 1.5 to 100 kDa. Compared with the control (unextracted CMP pulp, the HT pre-extraction significantly reduced the refining energy to obtain a given fibrillation degree (freeness. The pulp yield with the HT/CMP process was in the range of 56% to 75%. Fiber properties of the pulps from pre-extracted wood, such as fiber length, were reduced, while increases in fiber width, fines content, fiber coarseness, and kink index were observed in comparison with the control pulps. The strength properties of CMP pulps decreased with increasing amounts of hemicellulose removal during the stage prior to pulping.

  16. Chemi-thermomechanical pulping of para rubber waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, T.; Hosokawa, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The addition of NaOH to Na/sub 2/SO/sub 3/-treated waste wood chips (Hevea brasiliensis) increased long fiber fraction, Klason lignin content and bulk density, improved breaking length and tear factor, and decreased energy consumption in refining and brightness of resulting chemithermomechanical pulp. Lowering in brightness by alkali treatment was recovered by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ bleaching, and bleaching with 8% H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ on pulp gave pulp with 61.3% brightness.

  17. Enzymatic pulp upgrade for producing high-value cellulose out of a Kraft paper pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Christian; Kliba, Gerhard; Punz, Manuel; Fackler, Karin; Potthast, Antje

    2017-07-01

    The high-yield separation of polymeric parts from wood-derived lignocellulosic material is indispensable in biorefinery concepts. For the separation of cellulose and xylan from hardwood paper pulps to obtain pulps of high cellulose contents, simple alkaline extractions were found to be the most suitable technology, although having certain limitations. These are embodied by residual alkali resistant xylan incorporated in the pulp matrix. Further purification in order to produce pure cellulose with a low uniformity could be achieved selectively degrading residual xylan and depolymerizing the cellulose macromolecules by xylanase and cellulase. The latter help to adjust cellulose chain lengths for certain dissolving pulp grades while reducing the demand for ozone in subsequent TCF bleaching. Experiments applying different commercially available enzyme preparations revealed the dependency of xylanase performance on the residual xylan content in pulps being stimulated by additional cellulase usage. The action of the latter strongly depends on the cellulose allomorphy confirming the impact of the pulp morphology. Hence, the combined application of both types of enzymes offers a high potential for upgrading pulps in order to produce a pure and high-value cellulose product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The nonlinear relationship between paper recycling and primary pulp requirements : modeling paper production and recycling in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Potting, Josepha

    Waste paper is suitable for recycling back into paper or for incineration for energy recovery. If waste paper is used for recycling, secondary pulp replaces virgin pulp. Fiber recycling is limited, however, because of physical constraints—particularly the breakage of fiber in the recycling

  19. Isolation and characterization of pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiful Azhari, S.; Suhardy, D.; Kasim, F.H; Nazry Saleh, M.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of sugarcane bagasse and rice straw in the state of Perlis (Malaysia) is abundant while its utilization is still limited. One of the alternatives for the bagasse and straw utilization is as pulp raw material. This paper reviews on pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw and its suitability for paper production. In this study, the pulp was extracted by the Soxhlet extraction method. The objective of this study was to investigate the cellulose, lignin and silica content of the pulp from sugarcane bagasse and rice straw. For rice straw, the presence of large amount of pentosanes in the pulp and black liquors, which also contain silica were decreased the using of straw in the paper industry. Therefore, formic acid pulping and NaOH treatment are studied to reduce or prevent silica. The isolated pulp samples were further characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to investigate their fiber dimensions. (Author)

  20. EFFECTS OF ALKALINE PRE-IMPREGNATION AND PULPING ON MALAYSIA CULTIVATED KENAF (HIBISCUS CANNABINUS

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Suan Ang; Cheu Peng Leh; Chong Chat Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to identify an appropriate alkaline pulping condition for Malaysia cultivated kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.). The chemical composition of the kenaf bast and core fibers, and also whole stalk with different growing time were examined prior to pulping attempts. The results of various soda-AQ pulping showed that the degree of carbohydrate degradation and delignification increased with the increase of active alkali and cooking temperature, but decreased with the increas...

  1. Proteomic analysis of human tooth pulp: proteomics of human tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Adam; Jágr, Michal; Pataridis, Statis; Mikšík, Ivan

    2014-12-01

    The unique pulp-dentin complex demonstrates strong regenerative potential, which enables it to respond to disease and traumatic injury. Identifying the proteins of the pulp-dentin complex is crucial to understanding the mechanisms of regeneration, tissue calcification, defense processes, and the reparation of dentin by dental pulp. The lack of knowledge of these proteins limits the development of more efficient therapies. The proteomic profile of human tooth pulp was investigated and compared with the proteome of human dentin and blood. The samples of tooth pulp were obtained from 5 sound permanent human third molars of 5 adults (n = 5). The extracted proteins were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, analyzed by nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and identified by correlating mass spectra to the proteomic databases. A total of 342 proteins were identified with high confidence, and 2 proteins were detected for the first time in an actual human sample. The identified tooth pulp proteins have a variety of functions: structural, catalytic, transporter, protease activity, immune response, and many others. In a comparison with dentin and blood plasma, 140 (pulp/dentin) shared proteins were identified, 37 of which were not observed in plasma. It can be suggested that they might participate in the unique pulp-dentin complex. This proteomic investigation of human tooth pulp, together with the previously published study of human dentin, is one of the most comprehensive proteome lists of human teeth to date. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dental pulp stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashri, N. Y.; Ajlan, S. A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from...... an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors....

  3. Wood-plastic composites using thermomechanical pulp made from oxalic acid-pretreated red pine chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.E. Winandy; N.M. Stark; E. Horn

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics and properties of wood fiber is one of many factors of critical importance to the performance of wood-plastic composites. In commercial thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) of wood chips to produce fibers, high temperatures (>100°C) are used to separate the fibers during TMP refining. These mechanical pressures and temperatures are usually modulated...

  4. Experimental investigation of different refining stages influences on optical and ultrasonic signals in paper pulp suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, Niemi

    2010-01-01

    An important parameter to control in papermaking is the fiber mass fraction in the pulp suspension. Poor control to an unstable process that compromises the production, quality and the energy efficiency in the pulp mill. Using optical or ultrasound measurement techniques can obtain estimation of the mass fraction. Refining is an important operation in preparing the fibers for the paper machine. Refining influence the properties of the fiber by crushing the fiber, roughens the fiber surface and occasionally cut fibers and removes parts of the outer fiber wall leading to an increasing amount of short fibers (fines). A freeness tester was used for verify the changes in fiber properties at four different refining levels. The result shows that for unbleached softwood pulp the used measurement techniques either were not observable or minor. The results indicate that refining can potentially influence accurate consistency estimation for unbleached softwood pulp but for bleached hardwood pulp the influence is believed to be minor using the investigating measurement techniques

  5. PRODUCTION OF PRINTING AND WRITING PAPER GRADE PULP FROM ELEPHANT GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to characterize chemically and morphologically elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, and evaluate the potential of its fibers for production of printing and writing paper grade pulp. The elephant grass was chemically and morphologically characterized and cooked by the soda process to two different degrees of delignification (kappa 17.5 and 10.6. The resulting pulps were fully bleached by the O-D*-(EP-D sequence and characterized for their beatability, drainability and physical-mechanical properties. The lignin content (20.2% was low, indicating that this grass should be easier to pulp. The morphological analyses of the elephant grass indicated a short fiber material, similar to hardwoods. The soda pulp from elephant grass cooked to kappa number 17.5 presented higher screened yield than 10.6 kappa pulp, with alkali demands of 15.0% and 20.0%, respectively. The total active chlorine required by the 17.5 and 10.6 kappa pulps, were 42.1 and 35.1 kg/odt pulp, respectively, to achieve an ISO brightness of approximately 90.0%. The bleached soda pulps cooked to 17.5 and 10.6 kappa number showed similar refinability and resistance to drainage, but the tensile and burst index were highest for the 17.5 kappa pulp at beating energy consumptions in the range of 0-6 Wh. It was concluded that both 10.6 and 17.5 kappa pulps from elephant grass are suitable for the production of printing and writing paper grade pulps, but the highest kappa 17.5 pulp is more economically attractive given its highest pulping yield, despite the significantly increased of chemical demand for bleaching A produção de papel para impressão e escrita Grau de celulose a partir de capim-elefante.

  6. Nemesia root hair response to paper pulp substrate for micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Pascal; Delmail, David; Decou, Raphaël; Carlué, Michel; Lhernould, Sabine; Krausz, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Agar substrates for in vitro culture are well adapted to plant micropropagation, but not to plant rooting and acclimatization. Conversely, paper-pulp-based substrates appear as potentially well adapted for in vitro culture and functional root production. To reinforce this hypothesis, this study compares in vitro development of nemesia on several substrates. Strong differences between nemesia roots growing in agar or in paper-pulp substrates were evidenced through scanning electron microscopy. Roots developed in agar have shorter hairs, larger rhizodermal cells, and less organized root caps than those growing on paper pulp. In conclusion, it should be noted that in this study, in vitro microporous substrates such as paper pulp lead to the production of similar root hairs to those found in greenhouse peat substrates. Consequently, if agar could be used for micropropagation, rooting, and plant acclimatization, enhancement could be achieved if rooting stage was performed on micro-porous substrates such as paper pulp.

  7. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material.

  8. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  9. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental pulp ECM from swine and evaluated whether it could mediate pulp regeneration. Dental pulps were acquired from the mandible anterior teeth of swine 12 months of age and decellularized with 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) combined with Triton X-100. Pulp regeneration was conducted by seeding human dental pulp stem cells into decellularized pulp and transplanted subcutaneously into nude mice for 8 weeks. The decellularized pulp demonstrated preserved natural shape and structure without any cellular components. Histological analysis showed excellent ECM preservation and pulp-like tissue, and newly formed mineralized tissues were regenerated after being transplanted in vivo. In conclusion, decellularized swine dental pulp maintains ECM components favoring stem cell proliferation and differentiation, thus representing a suitable scaffold for improving clinical outcomes and functions of teeth with dental pulp diseases.

  10. Evaluation of the impact of higher-order energy enhancement characteristics of solitons in strongly dispersion-managed optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Otero, Francisco J.; Guillán-Lorenzo, Omar; Pedrosa-Rodríguez, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Empirical model describing the pulse energy enhancement required to obtain stable pulses to higher-order polynomial equations • An improvement in the accuracy is obtained through the addition of a new quartic addend dependent on the map strength. • This conclusion is validated through a comparison in a commercial DM soliton submarine network. • The error in the interaction distance for two adjacent pulses in the same channel is of the same order as the energy error - Abstract: We study the propagation properties of nonlinear pulses with periodic evolution in a dispersion-managed transmission link by means of a variational approach. We fit the energy enhancement required for stable propagation of a single soliton in a prototypical commercial link to a polynomial approximation that describes the dependence of the energy on the map strength of the normalized unit cell. We present an improvement of a relatively old and essential result, namely, the dependence of the energy-enhancement factor of dispersion-management solitons with the square of the map strength of the fiber link. We find that adding additional corrections to the conventional quadratic formula up to the fourth order results in an improvement in the accuracy of the description of the numerical results obtained with the variational approximation. Even a small error in the energy is found to introduce large deviations in the pulse parameters during its evolution. The error in the evaluation of the interaction distance between two adjacent time division multiplexed pulses propagating in the same channel in a prototypical submarine link is of the same order as the error in the energy.

  11. The Effect of Straw Fibers in Printing Papers on Dot Reproduction Attributes, as Realized by UV Inkjet Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Plazonic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Paper performance qualities strongly depend on the origin of cellulose fibers. Awareness of environmental issues and sustainable development has led to the increase in the use of recycled printing papers. Recovered fibers are often used as a substitute for virgin wood fibers in the production of certain types of papers. As recovered fibers cannot provide the same quality level of paper products as virgin wood fibers, alternative sources of virgin cellulose fibers need to be identified. The aim of this research was to analyze the printability of laboratory papers made of different contents of straw pulp. Therefore, the printing papers were formed using straw pulp of three different cereal species (wheat, barley, and triticale and mixing them with recycled newsprint in different weight ratios. The printability of these laboratory papers was analyzed by classifying dot reproduction quality based on four dot reproduction attributes. Printed dot reproduction greatly affects the quality of reproduction in graphic products, as dots are the most important element in multi-color reproduction of texts and images. It was confirmed that laboratory papers containing straw pulp provide the same or even better dot reproduction quality than laboratory control papers formed only of recycled newsprint.

  12. Equalizer Complexity for 6-LP Mode 112 Gbit/s m-ary DP-QAM Space Division Multiplexed Transmission in Strongly Coupled Few-Mode-Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Ye, Feihong; Morioka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    12×12 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) adaptive digital signal processing (DSP). Time domain equalization (TDE) is realized to implement the linear adaptive MIMO module that is implemented in blind mode using conventional constant-modulusalgorithm (CMA) for finite impulse response (FIR) adaptive......We have quantified equalizer complexity for transmitting dual-polarized 6-LP modes (LP01, LP11a, LP11b, LP21a, LP21b and LP02) of 112 Gbit/s m-ary QAM (m=4, 16, 32, 64, 256) single carrier signals over 20 km step-index few-mode fiber. The transmitted signals are strongly coupled and recovered using...

  13. Water requirements of the pulp and paper industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Orville D.

    1955-01-01

    Water, of varied qualities, is used for several purposes in the manufacture of pulp and paper, as a vehicle for transporting the constituents of paper in the paper machines; as process water for cooking wood chips to make pulp; as a medium for heat transfer; and for washing the pulpwood, the woodpulp, and the machines that handle the pulp. About 3,200 million gallons of water was withdrawn from surface- and ground-water sources each day during 1950 for the use of the pulp and paper industry. This is about 4 percent of the total estimated industrial withdrawal of water in the Nation The paper industry in the United States has been growing at a rapid rate. It has increased about tenfold in the last 50 years and has doubled every 15 years. The 1950 production of paper was about 24 million tons, which amounts to about 85 percent of the domestic consumption. In 1950, the pulp mills of the country produced more than 14 million tons of woodpulp, which supplied about 85 percent of the demand by the paper mills and other industries. The remainder of the fiber for paper manufacture was obtained from imported woodpulp, from reclaimed wastepaper, and from other fibers including rags and straw. The nationwide paper consumption for 1955 has been estimated at 31,700,000 tons. Woodpulp is classified according to the process by which it is made. Every woodpulp has characteristics that are carried over into the many and diverse grades of paper. Groundwood pulp is manufactured by simply grinding up wood and refining the resulting product. Soda, sulfite, and sulfate pulps are manufactured by chemically breaking down the lignin that cements the cellulose of the wood together and removing, cleaning, and sometimes bleaching the resulting fibers. Some woodpulp is produced by other methods. Sulfate-pulp mills are increasing in number and in rated daily capacity and are manufacturing more than half of the present domestic production of woodpulp. Most of the newer and larger woodpulp mills

  14. Mesta/Kenaf as raw material for Kraft pulping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraf, V. P.; Shiveshwar, R. M.; Meshramkar, P. M.; Deb, U. K.; Jaspal, N. S.; Biyani, B. P.

    1980-03-15

    In recent years, the shortage of conventional raw materials for pulping has intensified a world-wide search for alternate raw materials. Among other cellulosic materials, attention has focused on agricultural residues and annual plants. In this category, Kenaf, also called Mesta, has been studied as a fiber source in many countries including the USA, Phillippines and India. A comprehensive study on kraft pulping of mesta was carried out where the fiber morphology, pulping, bleaching and papermaking characteristics were investigated. Black liquor properties were also determined. The results of this study are reported and compared to the conventional raw material bamboo. The investigation has shown that mesta is easily pulped and bleached and forms sheets of excellent strength properties, comparable to or better than bamboo pulps. The black liquor from mesta is similar to bamboo in calorific value but is very low in silica, which is highly desirable from the chemical recovery point of view. As with all agricultural residues and annual plants, mesta has a high bulk per unit weight. The problems arising from this, e.g., baling, transportation, proper utilization of digester capacity, have to be studied before mesta can be widely accepted in the paper industry.

  15. Secretoneurin and PE-11 immunoreactivity in the human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, René; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Bletsa, Athanasia; Laimer, Johannes; Troger, Josef

    2018-02-01

    To explore whether there are differences in the concentration of the secretogranin II-derived peptide secretoneurin and the chromogranin B-derived peptide PE-11 between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulps. Furthermore, colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed to confirm the sensory origin of the peptidergic nerves in the dental pulp. The concentrations of secretoneurin and PE-11 were determined by highly sensitive radioimmunoassays in extracts of dental pulps, the molecular form of secretoneurin immunoreactivities by RP-HPLC with subsequent radioimmunoassay and colocalization studies with calcitonin gene-related peptide were performed by double immunofluorescence. Only secretoneurin but not PE-11 was detectable by radioimmunoassays whereas nerve fibers could be made visible for both secretoneurin and PE-11. Furthermore, there was a full colocalization of secretoneurin and PE-11 with calcitonin gene-related peptide in immunohistochemical experiments. There were no differences in the concentration of secretoneurin between the healthy and inflamed human dental pulp and moreover, the characterization of the secretoneurin immunoreactivities revealed that only authentic secretoneurin was detected with the secretoneurin antibody. There is unequivocal evidence that secretoneurin and PE-11 are constituents of the sensory innervation of the human dental pulp and although not exclusively but are yet present in unmyelinated C-fibers which transmit predominantly nociceptive impulses. Secretoneurin might be involved in local effector functions as well, particularly in neurogenic inflammation, given that this is the case despite of unaltered levels in inflamed tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biomechanical pulping of kenaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ahmed; Masood Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fungal pretreatment of whole kenaf prior to refining on refiner electrical energy consumption, paper strength, and optical properties. We also explored the suitability of whole kenaf biomechanical pulp for making newsprint in terms of ISO brightness and strength properties. Kenaf was sterilized by autoclaving...

  17. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  18. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J., E-mail: rosemarymj@lifecarehll.com

    2016-04-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  19. Biological evaluation of nanosilver incorporated cellulose pulp for hygiene products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha Sankar, P.C.; Ramakrishnan, Reshmi; Rosemary, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose pulp has a visible market share in personal hygiene products such as sanitary napkins and baby diapers. However it offers good surface for growth of microorganisms. Huge amount of research is going on in developing hygiene products that do not initiate microbial growth. The objective of the present work is to produce antibacterial cellulose pulp by depositing silver nanopowder on the cellulose fiber. The silver nanoparticles used were of less than 100 nm in size and were characterised using transmission electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction studies. Antibacterial activity of the functionalized cellulose pulp was proved by JIS L 1902 method. The in-vitro cytotoxicity, in-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies were done with silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp for introducing a new value added product to the market. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that the silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp is non-cytotoxic. No irritation and skin sensitization were identified in animals tested with specific extracts prepared from the test material in the in-vivo experiments. The results indicated that the silver nanopowder incorporated cellulose pulp meets the requirements of the standard practices recommended for evaluating the biological reactivity and has good biocompatibility, hence can be classified as a safe hygiene product. - Highlights: • Different amounts of silver nanoparticles (0.2 g–0.4 g/napkin) were added to cellulose pulp. • The silver nanoparticle incorporated cellulose pulp was proved to be antibacterial by JIS L 1902 method. • The minimum concentration of silver required for antibacterial activity with no cytotoxicity has been found out. • In-vivo vaginal irritation and intracutaneous reactivity studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the material.

  20. Characterization and sensory preference of fermented dairy beverages prepared with different concentrations of whey and araticum pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Valéria Sousa Costa de Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a fermented dairy beverage flavored with araticum pulp, assess its physicochemical characteristics, microbiological quality, and sensory preference by the consumer. Araticum pulp was prepared using two different methods: with or without bleaching (50 ºC/5 minutes. Formulations of fermented dairy beverages consisting of whey (50%, standardized pasteurized milk (50%, and seven different concentrations of bleached araticum pulp (5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5, and 20.0% w/v were prepared. In addition, seven formulations of fermented dairy beverage, without adding araticum pulp, and consisting of varying proportions of whey (40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100% were developed. In all formulations, thickeners/stabilizers were added. All araticum pulp samples (with and without bleach and fermented dairy beverages (with and without araticum pulp were analyzed for the relevant physicochemical properties: pH, titratable acidity, acidity of pulp, acidity of fermented beverage, moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, total solids, and caloric values. Microbiological counts of coliforms at 35 °C and 45 °C in the pulp and beverage, and molds and yeasts and Salmonella sp. in the pulp were obtained. Additionally, sensory analysis regarding preferences of the different fermented dairy beverage formulations was also performed. The araticum pulp samples without bleach, showed higher values of pH, moisture, protein, total fiber, and ascorbic acid, as compared to bleached pulp samples, while bleached araticum pulp showed higher values for other physicochemical parameters. Microbiological results showed that all pulps and fruit-dairy beverages were suitable for consumption. It was found that there was no significant consumer preference between different fermented beverage formulations, according to the different percentages of pulp. However, the formulations consisting of 40, 50, 60, and 70

  1. Alkaline Pulping and Bleaching of Acacia auriculiformis Grown in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    JAHAN, M. Sarwar; SABINA, Rowshan; RUBAIYAT, Arjumand

    2014-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and morphological characteristics of Acacia auriculiformis were evaluated in terms of its suitability for papermaking. The fiber length (1.1 mm) of A. auriculiformis in this study was within the range of tropical hardwoods. The lignin content in A. auriculiformis was 19.4% and a-cellulose 44.1%, which was within the range of other acacias, but that of extractives was higher. Soda, soda-AQ, and kraft processes were studied in pulping. Screened pulp yield was increased w...

  2. Microwave-assisted deposition of silver nanoparticles on bamboo pulp fabric through dopamine functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Linghui [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Guo, Ronghui, E-mail: ronghuiguo214@126.com [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Lan, Jianwu [College of Light Industry, Textile and Food Engineering, Sichuan University, No.24 South Section 1, Yihuan Road, Chengdu (China); Jiang, Shouxiang [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Shaojian [Institute for Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry, University of Hamburg Bundesstrasse 45, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric using dopamine as an adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. • Silver coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine has good UV protection and hydrophobic property. • Silver nanoparticles can be strongly fixed on dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized on bamboo pulp fabric with dopamine as the adhesive and reducing agent under microwave radiation. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Ultraviolet (UV) protection, color and water contact angles of the silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabrics were evaluated. In addition, the influences of concentrations of dopamine and treatment time on color strength (K/S values) of the silver nanoparticle coated fabric were investigated. Fastness to washing was employed to evaluate the adhesive strength between the silver coating and the bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine. The results show that the dopamine modified bamboo pulp fabric is evenly covered with silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticle coated bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine shows the excellent UV protection with an ultraviolet protection factor of 157.75 and the hydrophobicity with a water contact angle of 132.4°. In addition, the adhesive strength between the silver nanoparticles and bamboo pulp fabric is significantly improved. Silver nanoparticles coating on bamboo pulp fabric modified with dopamine is environmentally friendly, easy to carry out and highly efficient.

  3. Control of the Accumulation of Non-Process Elements in Pulp Mills with Bleach Filtrate Reuse: A Chemical Equilibrium Approach to Predicting the Partitioning of Metals in Pulp Mill and Bleach Plant Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Rudie, A.W.; Schmidl, G.W.; Sinquefield, S.A.; Rorrer, G.L.; Laver, M.L.; Yantasee, W.; Ming, D.

    2000-08-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop fundamental, experimentally based methods for predicting the solubility or organic and inorganic matter and their interactions in recycled effluent from kraft pulp mills and bleach plants. This included: characterizing the capacity of wood pulp and dissolved organic matter to bind metal ions, developing a thermodynamic database of properties needed to describe the solubility of inorganic matter in pulp mill streams, incorporation of the database into equilibrium calculation software for predicting the solubility of the metals of interest, and evaluating its capability to predict the distribution of the metals between pulp fibers, inorganic precipitates, and solution.

  4. Selection of Bacillus species for targeted in situ release of prebiotic galacto-rhamnogalacturonan from potato pulp in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jers, Carsten; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Cantor, Mette D

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs. In this s......We have previously shown that galacto-rhamnogalacturonan fibers can be enzymatically extracted from potato pulp and that these fibers have potential for exerting a prebiotic effect in piglets. The spore-forming Bacillus species are widely used as probiotics in feed supplements for pigs....... In this study, we evaluated the option for further functionalizing Bacillus feed supplements by selecting strains possessing the enzymes required for extraction of the potentially prebiotic fibers. We established that it would require production and secretion of pectin lyase and/or polygalacturonase...... of producing prebiotic fibers via a feed containing Bacillus spores and potato pulp and identified candidates for future in vivo evaluation in piglets....

  5. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>−1.5 m d−1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ∼0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8–9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  6. Plasma enhanced modification of TMP fiber and its effect on tensile strength of wood fiber/PP composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Plasma-assisted surface treatment on thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fiber and polypropylene (PP) film was investigated to obtain interfacial adhesion at the wood fiber and PP interface. A metal plate between electrodes prevented thermal damage to the TMP fiber handsheets and PP film. Oxygen-plasma treatment provided better surface activation on the TMP fiber and...

  7. Action of nitric oxide on healthy and inflamed human dental pulp tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leopoldo Penteado Nucci; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Del Bel, Elaine Aparecida

    2008-10-01

    Irreversible pulpitis has been associated with pain and an increase in the number of pulp inflammatory cells. Based on the action of nitric oxide (NO) elsewhere, NO may possibly participate in the sensory and autonomic innervation of the dental pulp, and may influence local inflammatory responses. The purpose of this study was to analyze normal and inflamed human dental pulp for the presence of NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), as an index of NO system activity. Six non-carious second premolar pulp tissue samples were obtained from young patients who required extractions for orthodontic reasons and six inflamed samples were obtained from symptomatic carious second premolars clinically diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis. Pulp tissue was carefully removed, fixed by immersion in a cold 4% PFA buffered solution for 120 min, rinsed in cold phosphate buffer, and quickly-frozen for cryostat sectioning. Pulp tissue was sectioned perpendicularly to the vertical axis of the tooth at 20 microm and processed for histochemistry. Sections of each specimen were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and other sections were subjected to histochemical NADPH-d detection. Results indicated the presence of NADPH reactivity within the pulps of both normal and carious teeth. In the normal teeth NADPH-d activity was detected in a small number of vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts. The inflammatory response of the pulp from carious premolars was detected in connective tissue by the presence of an increased number of fibroblasts, angioblasts and collagen fibers. It was possible to determine the extent of odontoblast reactivity since the odontoblast layer was usually absent in these split-peel preparations. There were no obvious signs of stained pulpal nerve fibers. Overall NADPH-d staining was significantly more intense within inflamed pulp tissues compared to normal healthy samples (Mann-Whitney test, pfunctions of NO in human dental pulp in pathophysiological situations.

  8. Statistically designed optimisation of enzyme catalysed starch removal from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Lise Vestergaard; Meyer, Anne S.

    2010-01-01

    to obtain dietary fibers is usually accomplished via a three step, sequential enzymatic treatment procedure using a heat stable alpha-amylase, protease, and amyloglucosidase. Statistically designed experiments were performed to investigate the influence of enzyme dose, amount of dry matter, incubation time...... and temperature on the amount of starch released from the potato pulp. The data demonstrated that all the starch could be released from potato pulp in one step when 8% (w/w) dry potato pulp was treated with 0.2% (v/w) (enzyme/substrate (E/S)) of a thermostable Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase (Termamyl(R) SC...

  9. Lightweight, high-opacity Bible paper by fiber loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus Doelle; Oliver Heise; John H. Klungness; Said M. AbuBakr

    2000-01-01

    This paper has been prepared in order to discuss Fiber Loading™ for lightweight, high-opacity bible paper. Incorporating fillers within pulp fibers has been subject to research since 1960 (Green et al. 1962, Scallan et al. 1985, Allen et al. 1992). Fiber Loading™ is a method for manufacturing precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) directly within the pulp processing...

  10. An experimental study on the effect of irradiation on deciduous dental pulp and periodontal membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Takehiko

    1986-01-01

    Left mandibular third deciduous molars of young dogs were irradiated for 3,000 R with 200 kVp X-ray and the effect on the dental pulp and periodontal membrane was investigated histopathologically. 1. From 3rd to 7th days after irradiation, localized inflammatory cell infiltration was observed in part in the dental pulp tissue. No abnormal findings were observed in the periodontal membrane. 2. On 14th day after irradiation in the coronal dental pulp, cells decreased; karyopycnosis occurred; cells were connected only by cellular processes, and large and small reticular networks were formed. In the periodontal membrane, fibers ran irregularly although in part and findings of atrophy were seen. Fibroblasts showed a decreasing tendency. 3. In the cases from 1 to 2 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue showed marked atrophy of odontoblasts and the dental pulp showed hyalinization-like changes. In the periodontal membrane, Sharpey's fibers ran irregularly or became indistinct, and fibroblasts decreased extensively. The periodontal membrane in general showed hyalinization. 4. In the cases of 4 months after irradiation, the pulp tissue on the whole showed marked atrophy and disappearance of odontoblast layers. In the periodontal membrane, inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in part and membrane fibers, as those in 2nd month, showed marked atrophy, became enlarged, and presented findings of hyalinization. 5. At 8th month, the necleoli nearly disappeared in the pulp tissue from the crown to the root and the cells were connected like filaments by cellular processes. Nearly all the blood vessels and fibers disappeared. In the periodontal membrane, most of Sharpey's fibers disappeared. Fibroblasts showed marked atrophy and disappearance, and few normal fibloblasts could be found. (J.P.N.)

  11. Investigation on anatomical, chemical and pulping characteristics of Silybum marianum stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Yadollahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To study the possibility of using plant Silybum marianum in paper industry, its stem yield potential, chemical properties, fiber indices and pulping was evaluated. Mean value of fiber length and diameter of Silybum marianumstem harvested in early June, were calculated 178 and 3.5 cm, respectively. Dry weight of whole stem determined 4710 kg per hectar. Mean value of fiber length, diameter, cavity diameter and wall thickness were obtained 1194, 16.06, 9.06, and 3.66 μm, respectively. Raunkel, flexibility, and slenderness ratios of its fibers were determined 80.83, 56.39, and 74.37, respectively. Results of chemical analysis showed that the stem comprises %70.35 holocellulose, %39.25 cellulose, %13.13 lignin, %3.09 acetone-soluble, %18 hot water-soluble extractives, and %11/85 ash. Soda pulp was obtained at 165 °C pulping time, 25% alkaline and 10:1 ratio of liquor to chips. Results of pulping showed that with increasing of pulping time from 30 to 210 minutes, the kappa number and yield decreased from 77.32 to 32.13 and 43.6 to 36.5, respectively; whereas accepted pulp yield (passed from 20 mesh increased from 17.4 to 35.5% paper made of pulp with kappa number 32 had 36.82 Nm/g tensile index, 3.76 km breaking length and 1.75 Kpa.m2/g burst strength. In general, achieved results have shown that the present studied species could be regarded more for papermaking because of the suitable fiber biometrical and chemical properties as compared to other non-woody plants.

  12. Is Pulp Inflammation a Prerequisite for Pulp Healing and Regeneration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Goldberg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of inflammation has been underestimated in pulpal healing, and in the past, it has been considered only as an undesirable effect. Associated with moderate inflammation, necrosis includes pyroptosis, apoptosis, and nemosis. There are now evidences that inflammation is a prerequisite for pulp healing, with series of events ahead of regeneration. Immunocompetent cells are recruited in the apical part. They slide along the root and migrate toward the crown. Due to the high alkalinity of the capping agent, pulp cells display mild inflammation, proliferate, and increase in number and size and initiate mineralization. Pulp fibroblasts become odontoblast-like cells producing type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, and SPARC/osteonectin. Molecules of the SIBLING family, matrix metalloproteinases, and vascular and nerve mediators are also implicated in the formation of a reparative dentinal bridge, osteo/orthodentin closing the pulp exposure. Beneath a calciotraumatic line, a thin layer identified as reactionary dentin underlines the periphery of the pulp chamber. Inflammatory and/or noninflammatory processes contribute to produce a reparative dentinal bridge closing the pulp exposure, with minute canaliculi and large tunnel defects. Depending on the form and severity of the inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, and according to the capping agent, pulp reactions are induced specifically.

  13. Fractionation and cellulase treatment for enhancing the properties of kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chao; Wang, Xinqi; Zhang, YanLing; Xu, Yongjian; Ni, Yonghao

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a combined process involving pulp fractionation and cellulase treatment of each fraction for improving the molecular weight distribution (MWD) and reactivity of a kraft-based dissolving pulp. Three pulp fractions, namely long-fiber, mid-fiber and short-fiber fractions (LF, MF and SF, respectively), were used as the substrates. The results showed that the SF had the highest accessibility, lowest viscosity, and highest cellulase adsorption capacity, while the opposite was true for the LF. At a given viscosity, the combined process led to a lower polydispersity index (3.71 vs 4.98) and a higher Fock reactivity (85.6% vs 76.3%), in comparison to the conventional single-stage cellulase treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chapter 6: Prehydrolysis Pulping with Fermentation Coproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H. Wegner; C.J. Houtman; A.W. Rudie; B.L. Illman; P.J. Ince; E.M. Bilek; T.W. Jeffries

    2013-01-01

    Although the term “integrateed biorefinery” is new, the concept has long been familiar to the pulp and paper industry, where processes include biomass boilers providing combined heat and power, and byproducts of pulping include turpentine, fatty acids and resin acids. In the dominant kraft (or sulfate) pulping process, dissolved lignin and chemicals from the pulp...

  15. Decellularized Swine Dental Pulp as a Bioscaffold for Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lei; Gao, Zhenhua; Xu, Junji; Zhu, Zhao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Jinsong; Wang, Songlin

    2017-01-01

    Endodontic regeneration shows promise in treating dental pulp diseases; however, no suitable scaffolds exist for pulp regeneration. Acellular natural extracellular matrix (ECM) is a favorable scaffold for tissue regeneration since the anatomical structure and ECM of the natural tissues or organs are well-preserved. Xenogeneic ECM is superior to autologous or allogeneic ECM in tissue engineering for its unlimited resources. This study investigated the characteristics of decellularized dental p...

  16. Lipophilic extractives from several nonwoody lignocellulosic crops (flax, hemp, sisal, abaca) and their fate during alkaline pulping and TCF/ECF bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gisela; del Río, José C; Gutiérrez, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The fate of lipophilic extractives from several nonwoody species (flax, hemp, sisal and abaca) used for the manufacturing of cellulose pulps, was studied during soda/anthraquinone (AQ) pulping and totally chorine free (TCF) and elemental chlorine free (ECF) bleaching. With this purpose, the lipophilic extracts from the raw materials and their unbleached and bleached industrial pulps, were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aldehydes, hydroxyfatty acids and esterified compounds such as ester waxes, sterol esters and alkylferulates strongly decreased after soda/AQ pulping while alkanes, alcohols, free sterols and sterol glycosides survived the cooking process. Among the lipophilic extractives that remained in the unbleached pulps, some amounts of free sterols were still present in the TCF pulps whereas they were practically absent in the ECF pulps. Sterol glycosides were also removed after both TCF and ECF bleaching. By contrast, saturated fatty acids, fatty alcohols and alkanes were still present in both bleached pulps.

  17. Effect of acid concentration and pulp properties on hydrolysis reactions of mercerized sisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Talita M; Zambon, Márcia D; Frollini, Elisabete

    2013-03-01

    The influence of sulfuric acid concentration (H2SO4 5-25%, 100°C), crystallinity and fibers size on the hydrolysis reaction of sisal pulps were investigated, with the goal of evaluating both the liquor composition, as an important step in the production of bioethanol, and the residual non-hydrolyzed pulp, to determine its potential application as materials. Aliquots were withdrawn from the reaction media, and the liquor composition was analyzed by HPLC. The residual non-hydrolyzed pulps were characterized by SEM, their average molar mass and crystallinity index, and their size distribution was determined using a fiber analyzer. Sulfuric acid 25% led to the highest glucose content (approximately 10gL(-1)), and this acid concentration was chosen to evaluate the influence of both the fiber size and crystallinity of the starting pulp on hydrolysis. The results showed that fibers with higher length and lower crystallinity favored glucose production in approximately 12%, with respect to the highly crystalline shorter fibers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber Bot...... Bottle, towards a sustainable packaging...

  19. Avaliação do emprego de microfiltração para remoção de fibras do efluente de branqueamento de polpa celulósica Evaluation of the use of microfiltration for removal of fiber from bleaching pulp mill effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Míriam Cristina Santos Amaral

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O processo de branqueamento é o estágio em que ocorre a maior perda de fibras durante a fabricação de polpa celulósica. Além de ser uma perda de produto, estas fibras aumentam a concentração de matéria orgânica do efluente dificultando seu tratamento. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o emprego de microfiltração (MF na remoção de fibras de efluente de branqueamento alcalino de polpa celulósica. Foi empregada membrana de poli(éter imida com tamanho médio de poros de 0,5 µm e área de filtração de 0,05 m². O efeito das condições operacionais no fluxo permeado foi avaliado através do monitoramento do perfil de fluxo durante a operação em diferentes condições de velocidade de escoamento (Reynolds de 1.226, 1.653 e 2.043, pH da alimentação (7, 10 e 10,6, temperatura (28, 43 e 48°C e pressão de operação através da avaliação da pressão crítica. Os resultados mostraram que a MF é um processo eficiente para remoção de fibras, apresentado 99% eficiência de remoção de sólidos suspensos. O melhor desempenho da operação de MF foi obtido empregando pH 7, pressão de 1 bar e Re de 1.653. Os resultados mostram que a redução do fluxo se deve principalmente à formação de torta.The bleaching process is the stage where there is the greatest loss of fibers during the pulp production. Besides being a waste of product, these fibers increase the concentration of organic matter in the effluent and make the treatment of effluent more difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of microfiltration (MF in the removal of fiber of effluent of alkaline bleaching pulp mill. The membrane employed was hollow fiber poly (ether imide, with average pore size of 0.5 µm and filtration area of 0.05 m². The effect of operating conditions on the permeate flux was evaluated by monitoring the flux profile during operation in different conditions of flow velocity (Reynolds 1,226, 1,653 and 2,043, pH of feeding (7, 10

  20. Application of Alkaline Ionic Liquids in the Pretreatment Process of Eucalyptus Kraft Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the potential application of green solvent ionic liquids (ILs in the kraft pulping process, eucalyptus wood was pretreated by [Mmim]DMP before normal pulping. The results showed that materials pretreated shortly by the ionic liquid had a higher yield and viscosity coupled with a lower potassium permanganate value and residual lignin content in the pulp, as a result of the cooking process. It was also inferred that alkaline [Mmim]DMP pretreatment could dissolve lignin effectively from fiber to result in a stronger binding force and more entangled properties. Paper tensile and burst strength were improved by about 40% and 60%, respectively. These results provide a new way for eucalyptus to be utilized in the kraft pulping process.

  1. Effect of Cellulases and Xylanases on Refining Process and Kraft Pulp Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Przybysz Buzała

    Full Text Available Samples of bleached kraft pine cellulosic pulp, either treated with an enzyme preparation (a Thermomyces lanuginosus xylanase, an Aspergillus sp. cellulase, and a multienzyme preparation NS-22086 containing both these activities or untreated, were refined in a laboratory PFI mill. The treatment with cellulases contained in the last two preparations significantly improved the pulp's susceptibility to refining (the target freeness value of 30°SR was achieved in a significantly shorter time, increased water retention value (WRV and fines contents while the weighted average fiber length was significantly reduced. These changes of pulp parameters caused deterioration of paper strength properties. The treatment with the xylanase, which partially hydrolyzed xylan, small amounts of which are associated with cellulose fibers, only slightly loosened the structure of fibers. These subtle changes positively affected the susceptibility of the pulp to refining (refining energy was significantly reduced and improved the static strength properties of paper. Thus, the treatment of kraft pulps with xylanases may lead to substantial savings of refining energy without negative effects on paper characteristics.

  2. Strategies for characterizing compositions of industrial pulp and paper sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanzadeh, Solmaz; Kemal, Rahmat A.; Pribowo, Amadeus Y.

    2018-01-01

    The large quantities of waste sludge produced by the pulp and paper industry present significant environmental challenges. In order to minimize the amounts of waste, the pulp sludge should be utilized for productive applications. In order to find feasible solutions, the sludge need to be characterized. In this study, the potential of using acid pretreatment and ashing method to determine the chemical compositions of the sludge is investigated. This study shows that acid pretreatment could be used to dissolve and determine the composition of CaCO3 in the pulp sludge. CaCO3 removal also facilitates the measurement of fiber and ash (clay) contents by using the ashing method. The optimum acid concentration used to completely dissolve CaCO3 was determined using a titration method. Using this method, the measurement of the chemical composition of the sludge sample revealed that it consisted primarily of CaCO3 (55% w/w), clay (25%, w/w), and fibers (18%, w/w). Based on these chemical compositions, potential utilization for the sludge could be determined.

  3. Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Min Ho; Lee, Yoon Woo; Lee, Chun Han; Seo, Yung Bum

    2012-12-01

    The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. Aqueous extracts obtained at 100-140 °C were subjected to saccharification, purification, fermentation, and distillation to produce ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp. An extraction process incorporating 5% sodium thiosulfate by dry weight of the algae provided optimal production conditions for the production of both strong pulp and a high ethanol yield. These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Hard tissue deposition in dental pulp canal by {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Toda, T. [Osaka Dental Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Endodontics; Mandai, Y. [Bio-Chemical Lab. of Nitta Gelatin Inc., Yao (Japan); Oonishi, H. [Osaka Minami National Hospital, Kawachi (Japan). Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery

    2001-07-01

    Canal closure by hard tissue proliferation in the pulp canal and/or apical foramen is the most ideal healing after pulp removal. Generally, Ca(OH){sub 2} may induce secondary dentine or dentine-bridge on the amputated pulp surface. However, Ca(OH){sub 2} shows strong alkalinity and may cause severe inflammatory responses in the residual pulp. Moreover, completely formed dentine-bridge at the orifice will disturb further treatment of residual pulp because of the difficulty in localizing the pathway. The purpose of this study was to see hard tissue induction using newly developed {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate cement and to recognize the morphological difference of hard tissue from that of Ca(OH){sub 2}. (orig.)

  5. Efeito da concentração de fibra e parâmetros operacionais de extrusão sobre as propriedades de pasta de misturas de fécula de mandioca e polpa cítrica Effect of the fiber content and operational extrusion parameters on the pasting characteristics of cassava starch and orange pulp mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Bronzi de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para preencher as várias demandas para funcionalidades em produtos alimentícios, a fécula de mandioca misturada à polpa de laranja desidratada foi extrusada sob diferentes condições (0 a 20% de fibras na mistura; (14,6 a 21,4% de umidade e (60,8 a 129 ºC de temperatura de extrusão, objetivando o uso em produtos instantâneos ricos em fibras. A rotação da rosca foi mantida constante em 272 rpm, a abertura da matriz foi 3 mm, a taxa de compressão da rosca foi 3:1 e a taxa de alimentação foi de 150 g/minuto. Os produtos extrusados moídos foram analisados para as propriedades de pasta: viscosidade inicial, pico de viscosidade, quebra de viscosidade, viscosidade final e tendência à retrogradação no Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA, tendo em vista a importância destes parâmetros para este tipo de utilização. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que a porcentagem de fibras foi o parâmetro de maior influência nas propriedades de pasta, e que nas condições de baixo teor de fibras, elevada temperatura e baixa umidade pode ter ocorrido degradação acentuada do amido e solubilização das fibras, levando à redução dos parâmetros de viscosidade.Due the various demands for processed foods with functional ingredients, a mixture of cassava starch and dried orange pulp was extruded under different conditions (0 to 20% of fibers in the mixture; (14.6 to 21.4% moisture; and (60.8 to 129 ºC temperature of extrusion aiming at the use in high fiber instant products. The screw speed was kept constant (272 rpm, the diameter of die was 3 mm, the compression ratio was 3:1, and the feed rate was 150 g/minute. The following pasting properties of the extruded products were analyzed: initial viscosity, peak of viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity, and retrogradation tendency using a Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA in view of the importance of these parameters for such use. The results showed that the percentage of fibers was the greatest variable of influence

  6. [Structural features of the pulp ground substance and its significance for acute and chronic pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarashvili, Capital Ka Cyrillich; Dgebuadze, M; Melikadze, E; Zhvitiashvili, T; Jandieri, K

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the research study is an analysis of amorphous material, fibers and cellular elements of the dental pulp and evaluation of their interactions with a variety of fibrouse structures in the norm and inflammation. To solve this problem used dental pulp tissue bioptats (10 cases) of patients with acute and chronic pulpitis and 10 control specimens (orthodontic operations). The material was studied by histological and electron microscopic methods of research. It was determined that in acute pulpitis develope changes promoting dissociation of fibrouse and cellular structures of pulp components, and thus, loss the cementing binding role of the ground substance. Acute pulpitis characterized by the recruitment of mast cells. ; The reorganization and remodeling of ground substance associated with neoangiogenesis, especially capillaries, and the replacement of collagen fibers by the fibrouse structures are major points in chronic pulpitis.

  7. Evaluation of a value prior to pulping-thermomechanical pulp business concept. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Bilek; Carl Houtman; Peter Ince

    2011-01-01

    Value Prior to Pulping (VPP) is a novel biorefining concept for pulp mills that includes hydrolysis extraction of hemicellulose wood sugars and acetic acid from pulpwood prior to pulping. The concept involves conversion of wood sugars via fermentation to fuel ethanol or other chemicals and the use of remaining solid wood material in the pulping process. This paper...

  8. A Method for Producing Microcrystalline Cellulose from Hemp Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii A. Barbash

    2018-03-01

    Conclusions. The proposed technology for the MCC production from hemp fibers reduces the cost of finished products by eliminating the bleaching stage of pulp as well as due to the use of domestic renewable plant raw materials, in particular hemp fibers compared with imported cotton or softwood pulp. The obtained MCC meets the requirements of technical conditions and can be used in the chemical industry as a sorbent or filler in the production of plastics and a water stabilizer for paints and emulsions.

  9. Review on Bamboo Utilization as Biocomposites, Pulp and Bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Sulaeman; Syamani, F. A.; Fatriasari, W.; Subyakto

    2018-03-01

    One of potential non wood bioresources utilized in industrial application is bamboos. Bamboos are include in graminae family which have high biomass productivity, easy and rapid production, wide avability and high holocellulose content. Indonesia has a huge potential of bamboos, more than 162 bamboo species are found however only some of them are planted that have a high economic value. Bamboos have some advantages such as can be harvested at 3 years, straight culm, high strength, easy to be processed, and relatively cheap. Research Center for Biomaterials has developed utilization of bamboo culm for ply bamboo product as alternative of plywood since 1995, using gombong bamboo, tali bamboo, sembilang bamboo, andong bamboo with PF resin as adhesive. Other biocomposite products from bamboos include particle board, cement board and polymer-bamboo fiber composites. In term of processing technique and final product quality, bamboo composites from ply bamboo are the most prospectable material to be utilized in industrial application. Yellow bamboo and betung bamboo have also been developed as pulp and paper. Biopulping using soda and kraft pulping after biological pretreatment using white rot fungi to remove lignin was used as pulping method in this conversion. Biokraft pulping with Trametes versicolor for 45 days with inoculum loading of 10% resulted better pulp quality compared to the other fungi. Betung bamboo had good morphological characteristics and chemical component content to be converted into bioenergy such as bioethanol. Several pretreatment methods have been developed in order to result high sugar yield. Microwave assisted acid hydrolysis was preferedin producing higher yield from the pretreated bamboo compared to enzymatic hydrolysis. By using this method, the bamboo pretreated by biological-microwave pretreatment results higher improvement to increase sugar yield.

  10. Cassava Pulp as a Biofuel Feedstock of an Enzymatic Hydrolysis Proces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuma’ali Djuma’ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cassava pulp, a low cost solid byproduct of cassava starch industry, has been proposed as a high potential ethanolic fermentation substrate due to its high residual starch level, low ash content and small particle size of the lignocellulosic fibers. As the economic feasibility depends on complete degradation of the polysaccharides to fermentable glucose, the comparative hydrolytic potential of cassava pulp by six commercial enzymes were studied. Raw cassava pulp (12% w/v, particle size <320 μm hydrolyzed by both commercial pectinolytic (1 and amylolytic (2 enzymes cocktail, yielded 70.06% DE. Hydrothermal treatment of cassava pulp enhanced its susceptibility to enzymatic cleavageas compared to non-hydrothermal treatment raw cassava pulp. Hydrothermal pretreatment has shown that a glucoamylase (3 was the most effective enzyme for hydrolysis process of cassava pulp at temperature 65 °C or 95 °C for 10 min and yielded approximately 86.22% and 90.18% DE, respectively. Enzymatic pretreatment increased cassava pulp vulnerability to cellulase attacks. The optimum conditions for enzymatic pretreatment of 30% (w/v cassava pulp by a potent cellulolytic/ hemicellulolytic enzyme (4 was achieves at 50 °C for 3, meanwhile for liquefaction and saccharification by a thermo-stable α-amylase (5 was achieved at 95 °C for 1 and a glucoamylase (3 at 50 °C for 24 hours, respectively, yielded a reducing sugar level up to 94,1% DE. The high yield of glucose indicates the potential use of enzymatic-hydrothermally treated cassava pulp as a cheap substrate for ethanol production.

  11. Electron beam processing technology for modification of different types of cellulose pulps for production of derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.; Kukielka, A.; Mikolajczyk, W.; Starostka, P.; Stupinska, H.

    2002-01-01

    Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Pulp and Paper Research Institute and Institute of Chemical Fibers carry out a joint research project in order to develop the radiation methods modification of cellulose pulps for production of cellulose derivatives such as carbamate (CC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and methylcellulose (MC). Three different types of textile pulps: Alicell (A); Borregaard (B), Ketchikan (K) and Kraft softwood (PSS) and hardwood (PSB) pulps have been irradiated with 10 MeV electron beam from LAE 13/9 linear accelerator with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 50 kGy. After electron beam treatment the samples of cellulose pulps have been examined by using of structural and physico-chemical methods. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and infrared spectroscopy (IRS) were applied for determination of structural changes in irradiated cellulose pulps. By means of analytical methods, such parameters as: viscosity, average degree of polymerization (DP) and α-cellulose contents were evaluated. Based on EPR and GPC investigations the relationship between concentrations of free radicals and decreasing polymerization degrees in electron beam treatment pulps has been confirmed. The carboxymethylcellulose, methylcellulose and cellulose carbamate were prepared using the raw material of radiation modified pulps. Positive results of investigations will allow for determination of optimum conditions for electron beam modification of selected cellulose paper and textile pulps. Such procedure leads to limit the amounts of chemical activators used in methods for preparation cellulose derivatives. The proposed electron beam technology is new approaches in technical solution and economic of process of cellulose derivatives preparation. (author)

  12. Effect of process parameters on the dryness of molded pulp products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Molded pulp products are made from cellulose fibers dispersed in water then formed, drained and dried. As in the conventional papermaking process, the most energ yintensive operation (including time) is drying. To gain a better understanding of the process parameters involved and to investigate...

  13. Properties of foam and composite materials made o starch and cellulose fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composite materials were made of starch and cellulose fibers. Pre-gelatinized starch was effective in dispersing pulp fiber in a starch matrix to form a viscous starch/fiber dough. The starch/fiber dough was a useful feedstock for various composite foam and plastic materials. Viscous blends of star...

  14. Kraft pulping of industrial wood waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz. Ahmed; Masood. Akhtar; Gary C. Myers; Gary M. Scott

    1998-01-01

    Most of the approximately 25 to 30 million tons of industrial wood waste generated in the United States per year is burned for energy and/or landfilled. In this study, kraft pulp from industrial wood waste was evaluated and compared with softwood (loblolly pine, Douglas-fir) and hardwood (aspen) pulp. Pulp bleachability was also evaluated. Compared to loblolly pine...

  15. Comparative pulping of sunflower stalks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Barbash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of holocellulose content determination in non-wood plant raw materials was developed. The strength properties of pulp obtained from sunflower stalks by neutral-sulphite, soda, alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol and peracetic methods of delignification were studied. Methodology of comparison of plant materials delignification methods using new lignin-carbohydrate diagram was proposed. It was shown, that the alkaline sulphite-anthraquinone-ethanol method of pulping is characterized by the highest delignification degree and is the most efficient among the studied methods

  16. Improved pulp bleaching potential of Bacillus subtilis WB800 through overexpression of three lignolytic enzymes from various bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Aysegul; Uzuner, Ugur; Guler, Halil Ibrahim; Ay Sal, Fulya; Belduz, Ali Osman; Deniz, Ilhan; Canakci, Sabriye

    2017-12-29

    A chemical bleaching process of paper pulps gives off excessive amount of chlorinated organic wastes mostly released to environment without exposing complete bioremediaton. Recent alternative and eco-friendly approaches toward pulp bleaching appear more responsive to environmental awareness. Here we report, direct use of a recombinant Bacillus subtilis bacterium for pulp bleaching, endowed with three ligninolytic enzymes from various bacteria. In addition, efficient bleaching performance from glutathione-S-transferase (GST) biocatalyst tested for the first time in pulp bleaching applications was also achieved. Simultaneous and extracellular overproduction of highly active GST, laccase, and lignin peroxidase catalysts were also performed by Bacillus cells. Both enhanced bleaching success and improved delignification rates were identified when enzyme combinations tested on both pine kraft and waste paper pulps, ranging from 69.75% to 79.18% and 60.89% to 74.65%, respectively. Furthermore, when triple enzyme combination applied onto the papers from pine kraft and waste pulps, the best ISO brightness values were identified as 66.45% and 64.67%, respectively. The delignification rates of pulp fibers exposed to various enzymatic bleaching sequences were comparatively examined under SEM. In conclusion, the current study points out that in near future, a more fined-tuned engineering of pulp-colonizing bacteria may become a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to chemical bleaching. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Mechanical and physical properties of wood fiber-reinforced, sulfur-based wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Yun Hse; Ben S. Bryant

    1993-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite was made from sulfur impregnated, oven dried, wet-formed fiber mats. The fiber mats consisted of a 50/50 mixture of recycled newsprint pulp and mechanical hardwood pulp from several species made from chips in a laboratory refiner. The thickness of the composites was 0.125 inch and the specific gravity of the unimpregnated fiber mat was 0.2. The...

  18. Influence of Heartwood on Wood Density and Pulp Properties Explained by Machine Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Iglesias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop a tool to predict some pulp properties e.g., pulp yield, Kappa number, ISO brightness (ISO 2470:2008, fiber length and fiber width, using the sapwood and heartwood proportion in the raw-material. For this purpose, Acacia melanoxylon trees were collected from four sites in Portugal. Percentage of sapwood and heartwood, area and the stem eccentricity (in N-S and E-W directions were measured on transversal stem sections of A. melanoxylon R. Br. The relative position of the samples with respect to the total tree height was also considered as an input variable. Different configurations were tested until the maximum correlation coefficient was achieved. A classical mathematical technique (multiple linear regression and machine learning methods (classification and regression trees, multi-layer perceptron and support vector machines were tested. Classification and regression trees (CART was the most accurate model for the prediction of pulp ISO brightness (R = 0.85. The other parameters could be predicted with fair results (R = 0.64–0.75 by CART. Hence, the proportion of heartwood and sapwood is a relevant parameter for pulping and pulp properties, and should be taken as a quality trait when assessing a pulpwood resource.

  19. Histological transformations of the dental pulp as possible indicator of post mortem interval: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Patricio A; Brizuela, Claudia I; Rodriguez, Ismael A; Muñoz, Samuel; Godoy, Marianela E; Inostroza, Carolina

    2017-10-01

    The correct estimation of the post mortem interval (PMI) can be crucial on the success of a forensic investigation. Diverse methods have been used to estimate PMI, considering physical changes that occur after death, such as mortis algor, livor mortis, among others. Degradation after death of dental pulp is a complex process that has not yet been studied thoroughly. It has been described that pulp RNA degradation could be an indicator of PMI, however this study is limited to 6 days. The tooth is the hardest organ of the human body, and within is confined dental pulp. The pulp morphology is defined as a lax conjunctive tissue with great sensory innervation, abundant microcirculation and great presence of groups of cell types. The aim of this study is to describe the potential use of pulp post mortem alterations to estimate PMI, using a new methodology that will allow obtainment of pulp tissue to be used for histomorphological analysis. The current study will identify potential histological indicators in dental pulp tissue to estimate PMI in time intervals of 24h, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months. This study used 26 teeth from individuals with known PMI of 24h, 1 month, 3 months or 6 months. All samples were manipulated with the new methodology (Carrasco, P. and Inostroza C. inventors; Universidad de los Andes, assignee. Forensic identification, post mortem interval estimation and cause of death determination by recovery of dental tissue. United State patent US 61/826,558 23.05.2013) to extract pulp tissue without the destruction of the tooth. The dental pulp tissues obtained were fixed in formalin for the subsequent generation of histological sections, stained with Hematoxylin Eosin and Masson's Trichrome. All sections were observed under an optical microscope using magnifications of 10× and 40×. The microscopic analysis of the samples showed a progressive transformation of the cellular components and fibers of dental pulp along PMI. These results allowed creating a

  20. Alkaline pulping of some eucalypts from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khristova, P; Kordsachia, O; Patt, R; Dafaalla, S

    2006-03-01

    Four eucalypts (Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Eucalyptus citriodora) grown in Sudan were examined for their suitability for pulping and papermaking with different alkaline methods. Their physical, morphological and chemical characteristics are reported. The pulping trials with E. citriodora and E. tereticornis were carried out using the kraft-AQ, soda-AQ, modified AS/AQ (ASA), ASAM and kraft methods. For the other two species, only the ASAM and the kraft process were applied. ASAM pulping gave the best results in terms of yield, degree of delignification, mechanical and optical pulp properties. The best pulps, obtained in kraft and ASAM cooking of E. citriodora, were bleached to 88% ISO brightness in a totally chlorine free bleaching sequence (OQ1O/PQ2P). The bleached pulps, especially the ASAM pulp, showed good papermaking properties and would be suitable for manufacture of writing and printing grades of paper.

  1. Effect of organosolv and soda pulping processes on the metals content of non-woody pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, M; Cantón, L; Rodríguez, A; Labidi, J

    2008-09-01

    In this work the effect of different pulping processes (ethyleneglycol, diethyleneglycol, ethanolamine and soda) of tow abounded raw materials (empty fruit bunches - EFB and rice straw) on the ash, silicates and metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni and Cd) content of the obtained pulps have been studied. Results showed that pulps obtained by diethyleneglycol pulping process presented lower metals content (756 microg/g and 501 microg/g for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively) than soda pulps (984 microg/g and 889 microg/g). Ethanolamine pulps presented values of holocellulose (74% and 77% for EFB and rice straw pulp, respectively), alpha-cellulose (74% and 69%), kappa number (18.7 and 18.5) and viscosity (612 and 90 6ml/g) similar to those of soda pulp, and lower lignin contents (11% and 12%).

  2. Methods to use biomass, consisting of peat and wood material, to extract fiber substance to be used to make paper pulp and a fuel product. Saett att ur biomassa, bestaaende av torv och vedmatarial, utvinna en foer tillverkning av en pappersmassaprodukt laemplig fibermassa samt en braensleprodukt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, J A.I.

    1985-12-16

    Peat cut from the upper layers is used to make paper pulp of low density. The wood material of the peat is mechanically separated three times. The result is a pulp of peat fibres and wood fibres and dewatered colloidal peat to be used as a fuel. (M.B).

  3. Pulp regeneration: Current approaches and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwen eYANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative endodontics aims to replace inflamed/necrotic pulp tissues with regenerated pulp-like tissues to revitalize teeth and improve life quality. Pulp revascularization case reports, which showed successful clinical and radiographic outcomes, indicated the possible clinical application of pulp regeneration via cell homing strategy. From a clinical point of view, functional pulp-like tissues should be regenerated with the characterization of vascularization, re-innervation, and dentin deposition with a regulated rate similar to that of normal pulp. Efficient root canal disinfection and proper size of the apical foramen are the two requisite preconditions for pulp regeneration. Progress has been made on pulp regeneration via cell homing strategies. This review focused on the requisite preconditions and cell homing strategies for pulp regeneration. In addition to the traditionally used mechanical preparation and irrigation, antibiotics, irrigation assisted with EndoVac apical negative-pressure system, and ultrasonic and laser irradiation are now being used in root canal disinfection. In addition, pulp-like tissues could be formed with the apical foramen less than 1 mm, although more studies are needed to determine the appropriate size. Moreover, signaling molecules including stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1α, basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF, Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF, stem cell factor (SCF, and Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF were used to achieve pulp-like tissue formation via a cell homing strategy. Studies on the cell sources of pulp regeneration might give some indications on the signaling molecular selection. The active recruitment of endogenous cells into root canals to regenerate pulp-like tissues is a novel concept that may offer an unprecedented opportunity for the near-term clinical translation of current biology-based therapies for dental pulp regeneration.

  4. The Use of Mg(OH2 in the Final Peroxide Bleaching Stage of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Lan Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium-based alkali is an attractive alkaline source for the peroxide bleaching of high-yield pulp. However, little information is available on Mg(OH2 application in the final peroxide bleaching stage of wheat straw pulp. The use of Mg(OH2 was demonstrated as a partial replacement for NaOH in the peroxide bleaching of a chelated oxygen-delignified wheat straw pulp. The yield, viscosity, and strength properties of bleached pulp significantly increased with increasing replacement ratio of Mg(OH2, while the chemical oxygen demand load (COD of filtrate was decreased. For similar brightness of bleached pulp at a 24% replacement ratio of Mg(OH2, the tensile and tear indices were higher, by 2.1 Nm.g-1 and 1.75 mN*m2.g-1, respectively, than that of control pulp bleached with NaOH as the sole alkaline source. When the MgSO4 was eliminated and the dosage of Na2SiO3 was decreased in the bleaching process, the tear and burst indices of the bleached pulp were also enhanced, with the brightness maintained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed that more swelling occurred in the fibers of bleached pulp from the Mg(OH2-based bleaching process. Fiber analysis indicated that peroxide bleaching with Mg(OH2 increased the proportion of fiber lengths between 0.20 to 1.20 mm and 1.20 to 7.60 mm.

  5. CD44 is involved in mineralization of dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Liang; Huang, Yu-Yuan; Lung, Jrhau; Yeh, Ying-Yi; Yuan, Kuo

    2013-03-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with various biological functions. Histologic studies have shown that CD44 is strongly expressed in odontoblasts at the appositional stage of tooth development. We investigated whether CD44 is involved in the mineralization of dental pulp cells. Ten human third molars with incomplete root formation were collected and processed for immunohistochemistry of CD44. Dental pulp cells isolated from another 5 human third molars were assayed for their viability, alkaline phosphatase activity, and alizarin red staining in vitro after silencing stably their expression of CD44 by using the short hairpin RNA technique. The CD44 knockdown cells were cultured on a collagen sponge and transplanted subcutaneously into the dorsal surfaces of immunocompromised mice. After 6 weeks, the subcutaneous tissues were processed for alizarin red staining and immunohistochemistry of human specific antigen. The dental pulp cells transduced with control short hairpin RNA were used as the control in all assays. CD44 is expressed in odontogenic cells with active mineral deposition during tooth development. Odontoblasts in the root ends of immature teeth express a stronger CD44 signal compared with those in the crown portion. When CD44 expression was stably suppressed in dental pulp cells, their mineralization activities were substantially decreased in both in vitro and in vivo assays. CD44 may play a crucial role in the initial mineralization of tooth-associated structures. However, further studies are required to clarify the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CENTRAL KALIMANTAN’S FAST GROWING SPECIES: SUITABILITY FOR PULP AND PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Sudarwoko Adi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of fast growing species grown in PT. Sari Bumi Kusuma, Central Kalimantan, show that based on their fiber dimensions there are five species, namely Endospermum diadenum, Dillenia spp., Adinandra dumosa, Adiandra sp., and Nauclea junghuhnii with good potential for pulp and paper production. The fiber length of those five wood species are was more than 2,200 µm on average. This paper studies the physical properties, fiber dimensions and their chemical contents to predict the paper and pulp quality. The result shows that all of the species were classified in the medium to high density category. All species were classified into the first class quality for pulp and paper. Based on chemical contents, Dillenia sp. is the most suitable species due to its high value of holocellulose and a-cellulose, low lignin content, and its fiber length is about 3,119 µm on average. A. dumosa also has good opportunities because it had the longest fiber lengths (3,137 µm on average and high value of holocellulose, even though it has the highest lignin content. While Nuclea junghuhnii is less suitable due to low values of holocellulose and a-cellulose.

  7. Cornstalk as a source of fiber and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Ahmed; J. Y. Zhu

    2006-01-01

    Wood is the major source of fiber supply. Non-wood fibers are mainly used in papermaking where there is a lack of forest resource such as in China and India. Cornstalk, among the agricultural residues and other non-wood fiber, is the most promising source of fiber. However, The usage of cornstalks is very limited in pulp and paper industry, although nearly 284 million...

  8. An overview of the dental pulp: its functions and responses to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C; Abbott, P V

    2007-03-01

    The dental pulp is a unique tissue and its importance in the long-term prognosis of the tooth is often ignored by clinicians. It is unique in that it resides in a rigid chamber which provides strong mechanical support and protection from the microbial rich oral environment. If this rigid shell loses its structural integrity, the pulp is under the threat of the adverse stimuli from the mouth, such as caries, cracks, fractures and open restoration margins, all of which provide pathways for micro-organisms and their toxins to enter the pulp. The pulp initially responds to irritation by becoming inflamed and, if left untreated, this will progress to pulp necrosis and infection. The inflammation will also spread to the surrounding alveolar bone and cause periapical pathosis. The magnitude of pulp-related problems should not be underestimated since their most serious consequence is oral sepsis, which can be life threatening, and hence correct diagnosis and management are essential. Clinicians must have a thorough understanding of the physiological and pathological features of the dental pulp as well as the biological consequences of treatment interventions.

  9. The pulping of esparto grass by sodium monosulfite

    OpenAIRE

    Akchiche, Omar; Messaoud, Boureghda

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, the esparto's limbs, in the manufacturing process of the cellulosic pulps, are delignified according to the process chlorinates alkaline which alternate the action of caustic's soda and chlorine; the reason is that these sheets cannot be free from the silica which they contain that only in strongly alkaline medium. In spite of the relative simplicity of implementation of this process, it does not remain free from grievance about it: low yield, an excessive consumption of bleach...

  10. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the fermentation profile of orange bagasse ensiled with three levels of dry matter (DM using citrus pulp pellets as a moisture-absorbing additive. Thirty experimental silos (3 treatments, 5 storage times, 2 replicates were prepared using 25-liter plastic buckets containing orange bagasse and three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (0, 6% and 20% as additive. A completely randomized design with repeated measures over time was used. The periods of anaerobic storage were 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. Natural orange bagasse contained 13.9% DM, which increased to 19.1% and 25.5% with the inclusion of 6% and 20% citrus pulp pellets, respectively. The apparent density was inversely correlated with DM content and a higher level of compaction (982 kg/m3 was observed in the mass ensiled with the lowest DM level (13.9%. Additionally, lower compaction (910 kg/m3 was found in the mass ensiled with the additive. The chemical composition of the mass ensiled with or without citrus pulp pellets did not differ significantly in terms of protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, lignin or in vitro DM digestibility (P≥0.05, as expected. Thus, it was possible to analyze only the effect of the inclusion of citrus pulp pellets on the increase in DM content. The inclusion of 20% of the additive reduced (P<0.01 losses due to effluent (98% less and gas production (81% less compared to the control treatment at the end of the anaerobic storage period. In this treatment, a higher (P≤0.05 log number of lactic acid bacteria (4.61 log CFU/g was also observed compared to the other treatments, indicating that the increase in DM favored the growth of these bacteria. In addition, the low yeast count (about 1 log CFU/g sample and the pH below 4.0, which were probably due to the production of lactic and acetic acids, show that the orange bagasse is rich in fermentable soluble carbohydrates and is indicated for ensiling. In conclusion, orange bagasse can be

  11. Characteristics and utilization of non-wood pulp and paper; Himokuzai pulp / kami no tokucho to sono riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, H. [Mishima Paper Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1998-09-01

    The reasons, difficulty in the usage, and the methods of use of non-wood papers are discussed. Non-wood papers sold in Japan are arranged basing on published data. The type of non-wood paper classified as special printing paper makes up the majority, and there are a variety of other products such as printing board, coated paper, thin paper, wrapping paper, functional paper, and watercolor paper. Kenaf and cotton are used in large quantities as non-wood plants for paper production, and use of bagasse and bamboo is increasing. Non-wood paper are used in consideration of environmental and resources problems and for utilizing the special features of non-wood fiber, and the characteristics of non-wood pulp and the effect of non-wood paper are discussed in this report. It is expected that papers utilizing the characteristics of non-wood paper will be developed. Non-wood papers are substitutions for various papers produced from wood pulp, and the fundamental point is the method of improving the original quality and paper quality by combining with non-wood pulp. 11 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    has to have an inner coating barrier. The most reliable solution proposed is to coat the inner walls with silicon dioxide, which is not biodegradable but rather environmentally inert. To enhance the environmental footprint and sustainability of the bottle, and to be competitive with the existing...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  13. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  14. [Daily practice and pulp diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmein, S; Claisse, A

    1990-09-01

    Constructive or destructive processes of pulp tissue depend on many factors: anatomic topography, particular physiology, or intensity and duration of infectious, mechanical and chemical aggression. Also irritation of the pulpo-dentinal complex induce histologic and physiologic changes. The positive diagnosis of hyperemia, acute or chronic pulpitis, pulpal necrosis and acute or chronic apical abscess is performed by clinical investigations which allow a differential diagnosis with other dental or extra-dental diseases. These multiple steps lead to an adapted and appropriate treatment.

  15. Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Post-harvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Kondo, Akihiko [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Thanapase, Warunee [Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Division, Kasetsart Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Product Improvement Institute (KAPI), Kasetsart University, 50 Chatuchak, Ladyao, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp, produced in large amounts as a by-product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. It contains abundant starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 20%). To effectively utilize the cassava pulp, an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 (strain K7) displaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, designated strain K7G, was constructed using the C-terminal-half region of {alpha}-agglutinin. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction (140 C for 1 h), followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample. The K7G strain fermented starch and glucose in pretreated samples without addition of amylolytic enzymes, and produced ethanol in 91% and 80% of theoretical yield from 5% and 10% cassava pulp, respectively. (author)

  16. Diabetes induces metabolic alterations in dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mariana Ferreira; Ganzerla, Emily; Marques, Márcia Martins; Nicolau, José

    2008-10-01

    Diabetes can interfere in tissue nutrition and can impair dental pulp metabolism. This disease causes oxidative stress in cells and tissues. However, little is known about the antioxidant system in the dental pulp of diabetics. Thus, it would be of importance to study this system in this tissue in order to verify possible alterations indicative of oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate some parameters of antioxidant system of the dental pulp of healthy (n = 8) and diabetic rats (n = 8). Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin in rats. Six weeks after diabetes induction, a pool of the dental pulp of the 4 incisors of each rat (healthy and diabetic) was used for the determination of total protein and sialic acid concentrations and catalase and peroxidase activities. Data were compared by a Student t test (p pulps from both groups presented similar total protein concentrations and peroxidase activity. Dental pulps of diabetic rats exhibited significantly lower free, conjugated, and total sialic acid concentrations than those of control tissues. Catalase activity in diabetic dental pulps was significantly enhanced in comparison with that of control pulps. The result of the present study is indicative of oxidative stress in the dental pulp caused by diabetes. The increase of catalase activity and the reduction of sialic acid could be resultant of reactive oxygen species production.

  17. Eucalyptus kraft pulp production: Thermogravimetry monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barneto, Agustin G.; Vila, Carlos; Ariza, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis can be used to monitor the pulping process in a pulp mill. → ECF bleaching process affects the crystalline cellulose volatilization. → The fibre size has an influence on composition and thermal behavior of pulp. - Abstract: Under oxidative environment the thermal degradation of lignocellulosic materials like wood or pulp is sensitive to slight composition changes. For this, in order to complement the chemical and X-ray diffraction results, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) were used to monitor pulp production in a modern pulp mill. Runs were carried out on crude, oxygen delignified and bleached pulps from three eucalyptus woods from different species and geographical origins. Moreover, with the modeling of thermogravimetric data, it was possible to obtain an approximate composition of samples which includes crystalline and amorphous cellulose. TGA results show that pulping has an intensive effect on bulk lignin and hemicellulose, but it has limited influence on the removal of these substances when they are linked to cellulose microfibril. The stages of oxygen delignification and bleaching, based in chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, increase the crystalline cellulose volatilization rate. These changes are compatible with a more crystalline microfibril. The influence of the fibre size on pulp composition, crystallinity and thermal degradation behavior was observed.

  18. Organo mercurials in pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouveng, H O

    1967-01-01

    Today phenyl mercury acetate (PMA) is used in the paper and pulp industry for two purposes: slime control in paper machine systems and impregnation of wet mechanical pulp. PMA is a commonly used slimicide. It is used for slime control in such a way that a minor part (5-20% depending on mill operation) will reach the watercourse with the waste water and contaminate aquatic life. PMA used for impregnation concerns wet mechanical pulp produced for export as raw material, mostly for newsprint. Treatment of this pulp with PMA is necessary to avoid changes caused by molds and rot fungi.

  19. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... optical properties of resultant paper were included to determine the properties of these pulp samples. ... pulping compounds in the kraft method are Na2S and .... Scanning electron microscope (SEM) measurement of pulp.

  20. Dental pulp stone formation during orthodontic treatment: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-21

    Jun 21, 2015 ... the presence of dental pulp stone, gender, age, tooth type and arches. Results: Dental pulp ... primary and permanent dentition.[1] Dental pulp stones .... interpretation provided training to familiarize the other observer with the ...

  1. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... pulps, which is due to pulpitis in comparison to healthy dental pulp. Key words: .... human dental pulp cells by Porphyromonas endodontalis lipopolysaccharide. J Endod ... Biology of disease: Free radicals and tissue injury.

  2. Characterizing Green Fiber Bottle Prototypes Using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Due to ever increasing demand of sustainability and biodegradability, there arises a need to develop environmental friendly packaging products. Green fiber bottle is a packaging product for carbonated beverages, made out of cellulose fibers. The production process accounts for moulding paper pulp...

  3. Characterisation and application of NovaFiber lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselink, R.J.A.; Snijder, M.H.B.; Kranenbarg, A.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Jong, de E.; Stigsson, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    Sulphur-free lignin coming from a novel alkaline-pulping process called NovaFiber, which has been developed by KIRAM AB, has been characterised and evaluated for potential applications. A Kraft lignin has been used for comparison. Considering the characterisation results of a NovaFiber softwood and

  4. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of buriti (Mauritia flexuosa and patawa (Oenocarpus bataua fruit pulp from the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Henri Darnet

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Buriti and patawa are two endemic palm trees from the Amazon region. Their pulps are traditionally consumed by the local population, but are underused and lesser known worldwide. Nutritional composition, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the two palm pulps were determined by modern analytical methods: Gas Chromatography (CG and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, based on the standards of AOCS (AMERICAN..., 2002 and AOAC (ASSOCIATION..., 1997, respectively. Buriti and patawa fruit pulps are highly nutritive, with respectively, high fat content (38.4% and 29.1% of dry matter (DM, protein content (7.6% and 7.4% of DM and dietary fibers (46% and 44.7% of DM. Buriti pulp can be considered healthy food due its high content of vitamin E (1169 µg.g-1 DM. Patawa pulp is highly oleaginous and its fatty acid composition is very similar to the ones of healthy oils, such as olive oil.

  5. In vitro penetration of bleaching agents into the pulp chamber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Valera, M C; Mancini, M N G

    2004-01-01

    To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures.......To investigate pulp chamber penetration of bleaching agents in teeth following restorative procedures....

  6. A Hyaluronan-Based Scaffold for the in Vitro Construction of Dental Pulp-Like Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letizia Ferroni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue.

  7. A hyaluronan-based scaffold for the in vitro construction of dental pulp-like tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferroni, Letizia; Gardin, Chiara; Sivolella, Stefano; Brunello, Giulia; Berengo, Mario; Piattelli, Adriano; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-03-02

    Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional (3D) hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) to produce a functional dental pulp-like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan-based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes. In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence (IF) staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp-like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue. Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue.

  8. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of Green Bamboo (Dendrocalamopsis oldhami (Munro Keng f. for Dissolving Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilin Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the sustained growth of dissolving pulp demand all over the world, the search for alternative bamboo materials has come into focus in China due to the shortage of wood and the abundance of bamboo resources. In this study, to obtain updated information concerning green bamboo growing in southeastern China and to develop its processing technologies for dissolving pulp, the fiber morphology, chemical composition, elemental composition, degree of polymerization (DP of cellulose, and crystallinity index (CrI of cellulose were investigated. The experimental results show that green bamboo has potential for use as dissolving pulp because it has a lower Runkel ratio and fines content than moso bamboo, and a much lower lignin content and similar α-cellulose and hemicellulose contents compared to softwoods and hardwoods. Compared to the cortex and culm, the node had the shortest fibers and more than 30% of fines, the highest content of extractives and lignin, and the lowest α-cellulose content. As a result, a de-knotting operation prior to cooking can contribute to the production of high-grade dissolving pulp. The DP and CrI of cellulose from the node were much lower than that of cellulose from the culm and cortex. Moreover, green bamboo had the high content of ash, primarily distributed in the cortex. The concentration of Si was 4487 ppm in the cortex, nearly five times higher than that in the culm and node.

  9. Enhancing forest value productivity through fiber quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Briggs

    2010-01-01

    Developing markets for carbon storage and bioenergy, shifting of the pulp and paper industry to biorefineries, and the potential of new technologies present the forest sector with exciting transformative opportunities and challenges. One of these challenges will be to understand the implications for fiber (wood) quality. This article provides a definitional context for...

  10. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Nanofibril Films from Bleached Eucalyptus Pulp by Endoglucanase Treatment and Microfluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangxia Wang; Ronald C. Sabo; Michael D. Mozuch; Phil Kersten; J. Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2015-01-01

    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase (Ph-GH5) from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii and a commercial endoglucanase (FR) were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) and subsequently to CNF films. TEM imaging indicated that Ph-GH5 produced longer and more entangled CNF than FR with the same number...

  11. PULP DEMAND IN THE INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmilson Santos Cruz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the international pulp market, taking into account themain exporting countries and importing regions, with the objective of estimating, for each market, theown-price and cross-price elasticity in relation to the demand of the pulp, differentiated for country oforigin. The model considers that imports are differentiated by origin; therefore they are not perfect substitutes. The demand from Europe, North America and the Rest of the World for the pulp from theUnited States,Canada, Sweden, Finland, Portugal and Brazil was inelastic. The Asian demand for thissome pulp was elastic. Europe and the Rest of the World showed negative cross-price elasticity, i. e.,and the imported pulp from other countries are complementary products. North America and Asiashowed positive crow-price elasticity, i. e., they consider the pulp produced in other countries assubstitute products. The net effect of the variation on the price of pulp in a country h, over the amountof pulp that goes to the region i depends on the matching of values related to the elasticity ofsubstitution and the price elasticity of the total demand.

  12. Pulp quality from small-diameter trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.C. Myers; S. Kumar; R.R. Gustafson; R.J. Barbour; S.M. Abubakr

    1997-01-01

    Kraft and thermomechanical (TMP) pulps were prepared and evaluated from lodgepole pine and mixed Douglas-fir/western larch sawmill residue chips; lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch submerchantable logs; and lodgepole pine, Douglas-fir, and western larch small trees and tops. Kraft pulp from small trees and tops was identical to that from submerchantable...

  13. Enzymes improve ECF bleaching of pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachenal, D.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The delignification efficiency of different laccase enzymes was examined on the eucalyptus Kraft pulp. The laccase enzyme from Trametes versicolor showing the highest delignification efficiency was selected and used in the elemental chlorine-free bleaching sequence for improving the pulp bleachability. An appreciable reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was also obtained. Further reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was obtained when the same laccase treated pulp was subjected to an acid treatment after the extraction stage followed by the DEPD sequence. Elemental-chlorine free bleaching was also performed using the xylanase-laccase treated pulp. Xylanase treatment was incorporated to the laccase mediator system in the elemental-chlorine free bleaching both sequentially and simultaneously. The bleaching sequence DEPD followed and in both the cases, the reduction in chlorine dioxide consumption was greater in comparison to the control. The chlorine dioxide consumption was reduced further when xylanase-laccase treated pulp was given an additional acid treatment. The final pulp properties of the treated pulps were comparable to the control pulp.

  14. Characteristics of dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth based on immunohistochemical and morphometric examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Joanna Maria; Miskowiak, Bogdan; Matthews-Brzozowska, Teresa; Wierzbicki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons are commonly considered as healthy. Therefore, it is possible to examine structure of the dental pulp can be fully recognized and how it is affected by malocclusion. The aim of the study was to evaluate by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and morphometry dental pulp in human upper first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. The material comprised 36 teeth of 20 patients in the age range 16-26 years. By the use of IHC markers the presence of immunocompetent cells (CD20, CD45RO, and CD68), blood vessels (CD31) and nerves (PGP9.5) were examined in the pulp. Inflammatory infiltrates and tissue atrophy were observed in 24 and 10 teeth, respectively. Strong positive correlation between the width of the odontoblastic layer, the number of rows of odontoblast nuclei and the increase of MVA (microvessel area) in the pulp of atrophic teeth was found. The cellular infiltrations found in H&E-stained sections were identified by IHC as memory T cells (CD45RO+) and B lymphocytes (CD20+) with macrophages (CD68+) present at the periphery. The CD20 antigen was intensively expressed in 13 teeth, CD45RO in 33 teeth, and CD68 in 20 teeth. Thus, despite the lack of any clinical signs of pulp disease many teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons show focal pulp inflammation and atrophy which probably results from the malocclusion stress accompanying teeth crowding.

  15. Study on the Modification of Bleached Eucalyptus Kraft Pulp Using Birch Xylan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenjia Han; Chuanshan Zhao; Thomas Elder; Rendang Yang; Dongho Kim; Yunqiao Pu; Jeffery Hsieh; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2012-01-01

    In this study, birch xylan was deposited onto elementally chlorine free (ECF) bleached eucalyptus kraft pulp, and the corresponding changes in physical properties were determined. An aqueous 5% birch xylan solution at pH 9 was added to 5 wt% slurry of bleached kraft eucalyptus fibers, with stirring at 70 C for 15 min after which the pH was adjusted to 5–6. The xylan...

  16. Evaluating chemical-, mechanical-, and bio-pulping processes and their sustainability characterization using life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapas K. Das; Carl Houtman

    2004-01-01

    Pulp and paper manufacturing constitutes one of the largest industry segments in the United States in term of water and energy usage and total discharges to the environment. More than many other industries, however, this industry plays an important role in sustainable development because its chief raw material— wood fiber—is renewable. This industry provides an example...

  17. Nutritional variation in baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) fruit pulp and seeds based on Africa geographical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthai, Kinuthia U; Karori, Mbuthia S; Muchugi, Alice; Indieka, Abwao S; Dembele, Catherine; Mng'omba, Simon; Jamnadass, Ramni

    2017-11-01

    Baobab ( Adansonia digitata L.) is an indigenous fruit tree associated with the Savannah drylands of sub-Saharan Africa. Local communities mainly utilize the leaves, pulp, and seeds of baobab as a source of food and for income generation. The present study was conducted to determine the nutritive attributes of baobab fruit pulp and seeds across provenances in east, west, and southern Africa and to determine whether the nutrient content varied with the provenance of origin. Pulp and seed proximate composition and mineral element concentration were determined using the AOAC 1984 methods and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), respectively. The results showed that there exist significant variation ( p  < .05) in pulp moisture, protein, fiber, ash, and elemental content among provenances. The highest mean pulp crude fiber (8.68 g 100 g -1 dw) was recorded in Kenya. At country level, Malawi had the highest mean pulp potassium (22.2 mg g -1 ), calcium (4,300 mg kg -1 ), magnesium (2,300 mg kg -1 ), sodium (1,000 mg kg -1 ), and phosphorus (1,100 mg kg -1 ) levels. Kenya had the highest mean pulp iron (57.4 μg g -1 ) and manganese (27.2 μg g -1 ) content, while Mali had the lowest iron (13.1 μg g -1 ) and manganese (8.6 μg g -1 ). At country level, the mean seed calcium content was highest (3,200 mg kg -1 ) in Malawi and lowest (2,000 mg kg -1 ) in Kenya. The highest mean iron content of 63.7 μg g -1 was recorded in seeds from Kenya, while the lowest (25.8 μg g -1 ) was in Mali. Baobab seed mineral and proximate content varied significantly ( p  < .001) among the selected countries. Overall, baobab fruit pulp and seeds contain significant amounts of nutritionally essential minerals and proximate components but the amounts varied significantly among the selected countries. This variation offers opportunities for selecting provenances to concentrate on during germplasm collection for conservation and

  18. Fibre Morphological Characteristics of Kraft Pulps of Acacia melanoxylon Estimated by NIR-PLS-R Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the morphological properties of fiber length (weighted in length and of fiber width of unbleached Kraft pulp of Acacia melanoxylon were determined using TECHPAP Morfi® equipment (Techpap SAS, Grenoble, France, and were used in the calibration development of Near Infrared (NIR partial least squares regression (PLS-R models based on the spectral data obtained for the wood. It is the first time that fiber length and width of pulp were predicted with NIR spectral data of the initial woodmeal, with high accuracy and precision, and with ratios of performance to deviation (RPD fulfilling the requirements for screening in breeding programs. The selected models for fiber length and fiber width used the second derivative and first derivative + multiplicative scatter correction (2ndDer and 1stDer + MSC pre-processed spectra, respectively, in the wavenumber ranges from 7506 to 5440 cm−1. The statistical parameters of cross-validation (RMSECV (root mean square error of cross-validation of 0.009 mm and 0.39 μm and validation (RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction of 0.007 mm and 0.36 μm with RPDTS (ratios of performance to deviation of test set values of 3.9 and 3.3, respectively, confirmed that the models are robust and well qualified for prediction. This modeling approach shows a high potential to be used for tree breeding and improvement programs, providing a rapid screening for desired fiber morphological properties of pulp prediction.

  19. Strategies for Industry Internationalization Brazilian Pulp and Paper the Perspective of Eclectic Paradigm: A Case Study of Pulp and Paper Company Suzano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Batista Bitencourt Fagundes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the process of internationalization of the Brazilian pulp and paper. This analysis has an economic bias, basing on the model of internationalization of Eclectic Paradigm of Dunning (1980 in order to identify the internationalization strategies, as well as the key drivers that have enabled reach new markets. We adopted a qualitative methodology, developed through a case study in the company Suzano, a Brazilian company, a global leader in the pulp and paper industry, with a strong presence in the international market. The data were obtained from literature searches, statistics, press releases and official documents of the company. For the treatment of these was used to pattern matching techniques, which enabled contrast them with the theory selected. The results revealed that Suzano differentiated adopted guidelines for the marketing of paper and pulp. The paper is intended primarily for the domestic market, whereas most of the pulp produced is intended to international trade. The company went international for having, according to the Eclectic Paradigm, the advantages of ownership and internalization over their competitors. The strategies used consists in finding markets (market seeking, search efficiency (efficiency seeking and search for strategic assets (strategic asset seeking. We conclude that the theory is Eclectic Paradigm in an appropriate tool for analyzing the internationalization process of the pulp and paper industries.

  20. Influence of Polyaniline Coated Kenaf Fiber on Kenaf Paper Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah Hisham Nur Syafiqah; Abd Razak Saiful Izwan; Mat Nayan Nadirul Hasraf; Wan Abdul Rahman Wan Aizan

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the properties of newly developed electrically conductive natural fiber paper sheet made up of kenaf fiber (KF) incorporated with polyaniline coated kenaf fiber (KF-PANI). This study proposed on dispersion of conductive filler in different amount (wt %) into kenaf pulp for developing different electrical conductivity. The conductive sheet (KF/KF-PANI) revealed a percolation concentration at 25 wt% of KF-PANI. Its scanning electron micrograph showed good paper formation with...

  1. Influence of Polyaniline Coated Kenaf Fiber on Kenaf Paper Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Hisham Nur Syafiqah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the properties of newly developed electrically conductive natural fiber paper sheet made up of kenaf fiber (KF incorporated with polyaniline coated kenaf fiber (KF-PANI. This study proposed on dispersion of conductive filler in different amount (wt % into kenaf pulp for developing different electrical conductivity. The conductive sheet (KF/KF-PANI revealed a percolation concentration at 25 wt% of KF-PANI. Its scanning electron micrograph showed good paper formation with no significant damages.

  2. AÇAÍ PULP DEMAND IN THE RETAIL MARKET OF BELÉM, STATE OF PARÁ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTÔNIO CORDEIRO DE SANTANA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this work was to estimate the parameters associated to the demand for açaí pulp in the retail market of Belém. Multiple regression analysis was applied to identify the key variables that impact on product consumption and to estimate the price and income elasticities and cross demand. The econometric estimation method applied was the least squares to correct heteroscedastic variance problems. Results have shown that the demand for açaí pulp is price and income inelastic. Fish and cassava flour were confirmed as complementary products of strong influence on the decisions of consumers. Product quality, with regard to its association to Chagas disease, also revealed a strong influence on product choice for household consumption. Finally, the socio-economic benefit of açaí pulp was R$ 762.78 million per year.

  3. Pulping Variables, Storage Time and Pitch Deposit | Ogunwusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pulp resin is also influenced by effective alkali concentration of the pulping medium. With increase in effective alkali concentration from 13% to 15%, pulp pitch is reduced. The interaction effect of storage and effective alkali concentration was not significant indicating that reduction in pulp pitch caused by effective alkali ...

  4. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CRYSTALLINITY, AND THERMAL DEGRADATION OF BLEACHED AND UNBLEACHED KENAF BAST (Hibiscus cannabinus PULP AND NANOFIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jonoobi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus nanofibers were isolated from unbleached and bleached pulp by a combination of chemical and mechanical treatments. The chemical methods were based on NaOH-AQ (anthraquinone and three-stage bleaching (DEpD processes, whereas the mechanical techniques involved refining, cryo-crushing, and high-pressure homogenization. The size and morphology of the obtained fibers were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and the studies showed that the isolated nanofibers from unbleached and bleached pulp had diameters between 10-90 nm, while their length was in the micrometer range. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the content of lignin and hemicellulose decreased in the pulping process and that lignin was almost completely removed during bleaching. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA indicated that both pulp types as well as the nanofibers displayed a superior thermal stability as compared to the raw kenaf. Finally, X-ray analyses showed that the chemo-mechanical treatments altered the crystallinity of the pulp and the nanofibers: the bleached pulp had a higher crystallinity than its unbleached counterpart, and the bleached nanofibers presented the highest crystallinity of all the investigated materials.

  5. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  6. Pulp mill as an energy producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulamo, O.

    1998-01-01

    The recovery boilers of pulp mills are today the most significant producers of wood energy. The power-to-heat ratio of the power plant process, i.e., power yield, is poor in existing applications. In the study, an alternative of improving the power yield of conventional pulp mills significantly was studied by applying solutions used in power plants to a pulp mill. Extensive conversion of wood energy into electricity is possible only in the recovery boiler of the pulp mill and in a large combustion boiler of bark, wood waste and wood chips integrated to this boiler. Hence, the harvest and transports of wood raw materials, i.e. pulp wood and energy wood, are integrated, and the fraction going to cook and the energy wood fraction are separated at the pulp mill. The method guarantees competitive supply of energy wood. As a result a SELLUPOWER mill was designed, where the recovery boiler combusting black liquor and the large power plant boiler combusting energy wood are integrated to one unit and constructed to a power plant process with a high power-to-heat ratio. Necessary technical solutions, project costs and economical feasibility compared to a conventional pulp mill were determined, and the effect of different production-economical parameters was also studied. (orig.)

  7. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  8. Recruitment of dental pulp cells by dentine and pulp extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J G; Smith, A J; Shelton, R M; Cooper, P R

    2012-11-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether dentine tissue and preparations of extracellular matrix (ECM) from pulp (pECM) and dentine (dECM), and breakdown products, influenced pulp cell migration. Chemotaxis transwell and agarose spot assays demonstrated that both dentine and pulp ECM molecules acted as chemoattractants for primary pulp cells. Chemoattractant activities of dECM and pECM were enhanced when subjected to acid and enzymatic breakdown, respectively. This enhanced activity following physiologically relevant breakdown may be pertinent to the disease environment. Pulp cell migration in response to dental ECMs was dependent on an active rho pathway. Recruited cells exhibited increased stem cell marker expression indicating that dental ECMs and their breakdown products selectively attract progenitor cells that contribute to repair processes. In conclusion, combined these results indicate that ECM molecules contribute to cell recruitment necessary for regeneration of the dentine-pulp complex after injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vital Pulp Therapy—Current Progress of Dental Pulp Regeneration and Revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibo Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and acts as biosensor to detect pathogenic stimuli. In the dental clinic, most dental pulp infections are irreversible due to its anatomical position and organization. It is difficult for the body to eliminate the infection, which subsequently persists and worsens. The widely used strategy currently in the clinic is to partly or fully remove the contaminated pulp tissue, and fill and seal the void space with synthetic material. Over time, the pulpless tooth, now lacking proper blood supply and nervous system, becomes more vulnerable to injury. Recently, potential for successful pulp regeneration and revascularization therapies is increasing due to accumulated knowledge of stem cells, especially dental pulp stem cells. This paper will review current progress and feasible strategies for dental pulp regeneration and revascularization.

  10. Optimization of pulping conditions of abaca. An alternative raw material for producing cellulose pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, L; Ramos, E; Rodríguez, A; De la Torre, M J; Ferrer, J L

    2005-06-01

    The influence of temperature (150-170 degrees C), pulping time (15-45 min) and soda concentration (5-10%) in the pulping of abaca on the yield, kappa, viscosity, breaking length, stretch and tear index of pulp and paper sheets, was studied. Using a factorial design to identify the optimum operating conditions, equations relating the dependent variables to the operational variables of the pulping process were derived that reproduced the former with errors lower than 25%. Using a high temperature, and a medium time and soda concentration, led to pulp that was difficult to bleach (kappa 28.34) but provided acceptable strength-related properties (breaking length 4728 m; stretch 4.76%; tear index 18.25 mN m2/g), with good yield (77.33%) and potential savings on capital equipment costs. Obtaining pulp amenable to bleaching would entail using more drastic conditions than those employed in this work.

  11. The relationship between pulp calcifications and salivary gland calcifications

    OpenAIRE

    Kaswan, Sumita; Patil, Santosh; Maheshwari, Sneha; Rahman, Farzan; Khandelwal, Suneet

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Pulp stones are discrete calcified bodies found in the dental pulp. Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the pulp stones and salivary gland stones. Material and Methods: 196 patients were randomly selected from the out patient department for the study. The periapical radiographs for all patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the narrowing of dental pulp chambers and pulp canals. The...

  12. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Yue; Ke-Li Chen; Fachuang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum coo...

  13. Engineering aspects of enzymatic fiber solubilization from potato pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Helle Christine

    product containg ≤200 ppm of calcium, were tested for precipitable dry matter after a 1 min. reaction at 60°C and pH 6.0 using 1% substrate and with or without enzymes. The enzymes were PL from Emericella nidulans and PG from Aspergillus aculeatus each dosed at 1.0% (w/w) enzyme/substrate [E/S]. The study...

  14. Photovoltaic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiana, Russell; Eckert, Robert; Cardone, John; Ryan, James; Montello, Alan

    2006-08-01

    It was realized early in the history of Konarka that the ability to produce fibers that generate power from solar energy could be applied to a wide variety of applications where fabrics are utilized currently. These applications include personal items such as jackets, shirts and hats, to architectural uses such as awnings, tents, large covers for cars, trucks and even doomed stadiums, to indoor furnishings such as window blinds, shades and drapes. They may also be used as small fabric patches or fiber bundles for powering or recharging batteries in small sensors. Power generating fabrics for clothing is of particular interest to the military where they would be used in uniforms and body armor where portable power is vital to field operations. In strong sunlight these power generating fabrics could be used as a primary source of energy, or they can be used in either direct sunlight or low light conditions to recharge batteries. Early in 2002, Konarka performed a series of proof-of-concept experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of building a photovoltaic cell using dye-sensitized titania and electrolyte on a metal wire core. The approach taken was based on the sequential coating processes used in making fiber optics, namely, a fiber core, e.g., a metal wire serving as the primary electrode, is passed through a series of vertically aligned coating cups. Each of the cups contains a coating fluid that has a specific function in the photocell. A second wire, used as the counter electrode, is brought into the process prior to entering the final coating cup. The latter contains a photopolymerizable, transparent cladding which hardens when passed through a UV chamber. Upon exiting the UV chamber, the finished PV fiber is spooled. Two hundred of foot lengths of PV fiber have been made using this process. When the fiber is exposed to visible radiation, it generates electrical power. The best efficiency exhibited by these fibers is 6% with an average value in the 4

  15. Innovations in papermaking: An LCA of printing and writing paper from conventional and high yield pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manda, B.M. Krishna; Blok, Kornelis; Patel, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    Pulp and paper industry is facing challenges such as resource scarcity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this research is to investigate whether the use of new coatings (micro or nano TiO 2 ) and different pulp types could bring savings in wood, energy, GHG emissions and other environmental impacts in comparison with conventional printing and writing paper. We studied three types of pulp, namely i) unbleached virgin kraft pulp, ii) recovered fiber, and iii) high yield virgin chemithermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP). A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted from cradle to grave. Applying attributional modeling, we found that wood savings amount to 60% for the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper and 35% for the micro TiO 2 coated CTMP paper. According to the ReCiPe single score impact assessment method, the new product configurations allow the reduction of the environmental impacts by 10–35% compared to conventional kraft paper. Applying consequential modeling, we found larger energy and GHG emission savings compared to attributional modeling because the saved wood is used for producing energy, thereby replacing fossil fuels. The nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered savings of non-renewable energy use (NREU) by 100% (13 GJ/ton paper) and GHG emission reduction by 75% (0.6 ton CO 2 eq./ton paper). Micro TiO 2 coated CTMP paper offered NREU savings by 25% (3 GJ/ton paper) and savings of GHG emissions by 10% (0.1 ton CO 2 eq./ton paper). The taking into account of all environmental impacts with the ReCiPe single score method leads to comparable results as that of attributional modeling. We conclude that the nanoparticle coated recovered fiber paper offered the highest savings and lowest environmental impacts. However, human toxicity and ecotoxicity impacts of the nanoparticles were not included in this analysis and need further research. If this leads to the conclusion that the toxicity impacts of the nanoparticles are serious, then

  16. Characterizing Cellulosic Fibers from Ulex europaeus

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Celis; Marco Torres; Paulina Valenzuela; Rolando Rios; William Gacitúa; Héctor Pesenti

    2014-01-01

    Information on the morphological and physical properties of biofibers is necessary to support the mechanical understanding of the biological design of plants, as well as for the development of new technology that adds value to non-traditional bioresources, such as those based on Ulex europaeus fibers. Ulex europaeus fibers were extracted through a chemical pulping process at 170 °C and with 40 g/L NaOH. The dimensions of the fibers produced were 0.97 ± 0.1 mm in length and 13 ± 2 μm in diamet...

  17. 21 CFR 872.1720 - Pulp tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... battery powered device intended to evaluate the pulpal vitality of teeth by employing high frequency current transmitted by an electrode to stimulate the nerve tissue in the dental pulp. (b) Classification...

  18. 40 CFR 63.444 - Standards for the pulping system at sulfite processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from the Pulp and Paper Industry § 63.444... section and the following equipment shall be controlled: (i) Each weak liquor storage tank; (ii) Each strong liquor storage tank; and (iii) Each acid condensate storage tank. (b) Equipment listed in...

  19. Fiber webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger M. Rowell; James S. Han; Von L. Byrd

    2005-01-01

    Wood fibers can be used to produce a wide variety of low-density three-dimensional webs, mats, and fiber-molded products. Short wood fibers blended with long fibers can be formed into flexible fiber mats, which can be made by physical entanglement, nonwoven needling, or thermoplastic fiber melt matrix technologies. The most common types of flexible mats are carded, air...

  20. Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and {beta}-glucosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Kasetsart Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Div.; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Post-Harvest Science and Technology Div.; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko [Kobe Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Science and Engineering

    2011-04-15

    In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying {alpha}-amylase ({alpha}-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and {beta}-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley {beta}-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes. (orig.)

  1. Direct ethanol production from cassava pulp using a surface-engineered yeast strain co-displaying two amylases, two cellulases, and β-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiwatanapiwat, Waraporn; Murata, Yoshinori; Kosugi, Akihiko; Yamada, Ryosuke; Kondo, Akihiko; Arai, Takamitsu; Rugthaworn, Prapassorn; Mori, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    In order to develop a method for producing fuel ethanol from cassava pulp using cell surface engineering (arming) technology, an arming yeast co-displaying α-amylase (α-AM), glucoamylase, endoglucanase, cellobiohydrase, and β-glucosidase on the surface of the yeast cells was constructed. The novel yeast strain, possessing the activities of all enzymes, was able to produce ethanol directly from soluble starch, barley β-glucan, and acid-treated Avicel. Cassava is a major crop in Southeast Asia and used mainly for starch production. In the starch manufacturing process, large amounts of solid wastes, called cassava pulp, are produced. The major components of cassava pulp are starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 30%). We attempted simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation of cassava pulp with this arming yeast. During fermentation, ethanol concentration increased as the starch and cellulose fiber substrates contained in the cassava pulp decreased. The results clearly showed that the arming yeast was able to produce ethanol directly from cassava pulp without addition of any hydrolytic enzymes.

  2. A novel role for Twist-1 in pulp homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, K M; Yasue, A; Cavender, A C; Bialek, P; Karsenty, G; D'Souza, R N

    2007-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms that maintain the equilibrium of odontoblast progenitor cells in dental pulp are unknown. Here we tested whether homeostasis in dental pulp is modulated by Twist-1, a nuclear protein that partners with Runx2 during osteoblast differentiation. Our analysis of Twist-1(+/-) mice revealed phenotypic changes that involved an earlier onset of dentin matrix formation, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and pulp stones within the pulp. RT-PCR analyses revealed Twist-1 expression in several adult organs, including pulp. Decreased levels of Twist-1 led to higher levels of type I collagen and Dspp gene expression in perivascular cells associated with the pulp stones. In mice heterozygous for both Twist-1 and Runx2 inactivation, the phenotype of pulp stones appeared completely rescued. These findings suggest that Twist-1 plays a key role in restraining odontoblast differentiation, thus maintaining homeostasis in dental pulp. Furthermore, Twist-1 functions in dental pulp are dependent on its interaction with Runx2.

  3. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fengxia; Chen, Ke-Li; Lu, Fachuang

    2016-01-13

    Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today's pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm³/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115-125 °C), this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  4. Low Temperature Soda-Oxygen Pulping of Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengxia Yue

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood shortages, environmental pollution and high energy consumption remain major obstacles hindering the development of today’s pulp and paper industry. Energy-saving and environmental friendly pulping processes are still needed, especially for non-woody materials. In this study, soda-oxygen pulping of bagasse was investigated and a successful soda-oxygen pulping process for bagasse at 100 °C was established. The pulping parameters of choice were under active alkali charge of 23%, maximum cooking temperature 100 °C, time hold at maximum temperature 180 min, initial pressure of oxygen 0.6 MPa, MgSO4 charge 0.5%, and de-pithed bagasse consistency 12%. Properties of the resultant pulp were screened yield 60.9%, Kappa number 14, viscosity 766 dm3/kg, and brightness 63.7% ISO. Similar pulps were also obtained at 110 °C or 105 °C with a cooking time of 90 min. Compared with pulps obtained at higher temperatures (115–125 °C, this pulp had higher screened yield, brightness, and acceptable viscosity, while the delignification degree was moderate. These results indicated that soda-oxygen pulping at 100 °C, the lowest cooking temperature reported so far for soda-oxygen pulping, is a suitable process for making chemical pulp from bagasse. Pulping at lower temperature and using oxygen make it an environmental friendly and energy-saving pulping process.

  5. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...

  6. Cogeneration of electric energy: The case of pulp and paper mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harberger, A.C.

    1993-01-01

    Applied welfare economics are utilized to analyze the phenomenon of cogeneration of electricity in the pulp and paper sector. Optimum levels of energy use (and of cogeneration) are defined, and the efficiency costs of various possible deviations from the optimum are shown. An economic analysis is presented of the effects of cost of electricity for the pulp and paper industry, and the impact that cogeneration can have on these costs. The social welfare impacts of cogeneration and electricity subsidies are discussed, together with the issue of crosshauling. It is shown that in Canada a policy focusing on cogeneration without crosshauling leads to optimal results. An added argument against crosshauling involves the implicit transfers involved. These transfers generate benefits for the pulp and paper mills at the expense of the electricity utility and its paying customers or taxpaying public. A strong argument is proposed against allowing of crosshauling

  7. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Stephen J.; Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla; Farman, Allan G.; Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson χ 2 were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Stephen J. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla [University of Louisville, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Louisville, KY (United States); Farman, Allan G. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-03-15

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson {chi}{sup 2} were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  9. Different expressions of connexin 43 and 32 in the fibroblasts of human dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibuki, N; Yamaoka, Y; Sawa, Y; Kawasaki, T; Yoshida, S

    2002-06-01

    The expression and localization of gap junctional proteins connexin (Cx) 26, 32, and 43 was examined in human dental pulp. Dental pulp tissues were obtained from human third molars immediately after extraction. Some pulp tissues were used for cell culture, and the rest for histological observations. Immunostaining for cultured dental pulp fibroblasts (DPFs) showed that Cx32 and 43 were expressed in human DPFs, and proteins corresponding to 27 (Cx32) and 43kDa (Cx43) were identified by Western blot analysis. Immunostaining for tissue sections showed that the expression of Cx32 and 43 was observed in the entire region of the pulp and further strong expression of Cx32 was established beneath the cell-rich zone. Considering the close relationship between Cx types and cell functions, the results indicate that DPFs beneath the cell-rich zone may have specific, Cx32-related functions. The cell rich zone is thought to contain progenitor odontoblasts that can be induced to differentiate into mature odontoblasts in response to wounding. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that DPFs just beneath the cell-rich zone produce proteins and induce odontoblast differentiation from the cells in the cell-rich zone.

  10. Integration of a kraft pulping mill into a forest biorefinery: pre-extraction of hemicellulose by steam explosion versus steam treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Eugenio, Maria E; Moreno, Jassir A; Revilla, Esteban; Villar, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Growing interest in alternative and renewable energy sources has brought increasing attention to the integration of a pulp mill into a forest biorefinery, where other products could be produced in addition to pulp. To achieve this goal, hemicelluloses were extracted, either by steam explosion or by steam treatment, from Eucalyptus globulus wood prior to pulping. The effects of both pre-treatments in the subsequent kraft pulping and paper strength were evaluated. Results showed a similar degree of hemicelluloses extraction with both options (32-67% of pentosans), which increased with the severity of the conditions applied. Although both pre-treatments increased delignification during pulping, steam explosion was significantly better: 12.9 kappa number vs 22.6 for similar steam unexploded pulps and 40.7 for control pulp. Finally, similar reductions in paper strength were found regardless of the type of treatment and conditions assayed, which is attributed to the increase of curled and kinked fibers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrothermal carbonization of autoclaved municipal solid waste pulp and anaerobically treated pulp digestate

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the autoclaved organic fraction of municipal solid waste pulp (OFMSW) and the digestate from OFMSW pulp after anaerobic digestion (AD) were processed by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) at 200, 250, and 300 °C for 30 min and 2 h. The focus of this work was to evaluate the potential fo...

  12. Extracellular matrix of dental pulp stem cells: Applications in pulp tissue engineering using somatic MSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram eRavindran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental Caries affects approximately 90% of the world’s population. At present, the clinical treatment for dental caries is root canal therapy. This treatment results in loss of tooth sensitivity and vitality. Tissue engineering can potentially solve this problem by enabling regeneration of a functional pulp tissue. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs have been shown to be an excellent source for pulp regeneration. However, limited availability of these cells hinders its potential for clinical translation. We have investigated the possibility of using somatic mesenchymal stem cells from other sources for dental pulp tissue regeneration using a biomimetic dental pulp extracellular matrix (ECM incorporated scaffold. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs and human bone marrow stromal cells (HMSCs were investigated for their ability to differentiate towards an odontogenic lineage. In vitro real-time PCR results coupled with histological and immunohistochemical examination of the explanted tissues confirmed the ability of PDLSCs and HMSCs to form a vascularized pulp-like tissue. These findings indicate that the dental pulp stem derived ECM scaffold stimulated odontogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and HMSCs without the need for exogenous addition of growth and differentiation factors. This study represents a translational perspective toward possible therapeutic application of using a combination of somatic stem cells and extracellular matrix for pulp regeneration.

  13. CP/MAS ¹³C NMR study of pulp hornification using nanocrystalline cellulose as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idström, Alexander; Brelid, Harald; Nydén, Magnus; Nordstierna, Lars

    2013-01-30

    The hornification process of paper pulp was investigated using solid-state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Nanocrystalline cellulose was used to serve as a model system of the crystalline parts of the fibrils in pulp fibers. Characterization of the nanocrystalline cellulose dimensions was carried out using scanning electron microscopy. The samples were treated by drying and wetting cycles prior to NMR analysis where the hornification phenomenon was recorded by spectral changes of the cellulose C-4 carbon signals. An increase of the crystalline signal and a decrease of the signals corresponding to the accessible amorphous domains were found for both paper pulp and nanocrystalline cellulose. These spectral changes grew stronger with repeating drying and wetting cycles. The results show that cellulose co-crystallization contribute to hornification. Another conclusion is that the surfaces of higher hydrophobicity in cellulose fibrils have an increased preference for aggregation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunocytochemical localization of the neurokinin 1 receptor in rat dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Mizuho A; Ibuki, Teiichi; Danjo, Atsushi; Kondo, Teruyoshi; Zhang, Jing-Qi; Yamaza, Takayoshi; Yamashita, Yoshio; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Teruo

    2005-12-01

    The dentin-pulp complex is a peripheral end-organ supplied by dense sensory nerve fibers. Substance P, a representative neuropeptide widely distributed in the dental pulp, has been reported to play roles in pain transmission and the amplification of inflammation. We analyzed here the expression of the neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor, preferentially activated by substance P, using immunocytochemistry in rat dental pulp at both the light and electron microscopic levels. Conspicuous NK1 receptor immunoreactivity was found in the odontoblasts; immunolabelings were present at their plasma membrane and endosomal structures, especially in their cytoplasmic processes. Immunoreactions for NK1 receptor were also detectable in a part of the nerve terminals associated with the cytoplasmic processes of the odontoblasts. Furthermore, the endothelial cells of capillaries and post-capillary venules and the fibroblasts were labeled with the NK1 receptor in the subodontoblast layer. These findings suggest that pulpal cells and nerve fibers are targets for substance P that mediate multiple functions, including a vasoactive function and the regulation of vascular permeability as well as the modulation of pain transmission.

  15. Strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froissart, Marcel

    1976-01-01

    Strong interactions are introduced by their more obvious aspect: nuclear forces. In hadron family, the nucleon octet, OMEGA - decuplet, and quark triply are successively considered. Pion wave having been put at the origin of nuclear forces, low energy phenomena are described, the force being explained as an exchange of structure corresponding to a Regge trajectory in a variable rotating state instead of the exchange of a well defined particle. At high energies the concepts of pomeron, parton and stratons are introduced, pionization and fragmentation are briefly differentiated [fr

  16. PULP OBTAINING METHOD FOR PACKAGE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzmich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a new method for obtaining pulp which is used for production of cardboard, paper and package while using carbon dioxide and hydrazine hydrate and neutral-sulfite  shive cooking. Output increase of  the desired product can be explained by reduction in destruction of plant raw material carbohydrates during its cooking process. Quality improvement of the desired product (improvement in bleaching and output is attributed to the fact that usage of carbon dioxide and hydrazine contributes to provision of polysaccharide chain resistance to destruction due to the presence of  end links having structure of metasaccharinic and aldonic acids.The author has developed a new method for pulp obtaining on the basis of the executed investigations  and literature data.  СО2 and hydrazine hydrate have been used for obtaining pulp. Method invention concerns pulp obtaining and it can be used for paper and cardboard package manufacturing in pulp and paper industry.The method is to be carried in the following way: pulp-containing plant raw material is loaded into an autoclave and then aqua solution of sodium monosulfite containing hydrazine hydrate that constitutes 4–5 % of absolute dry pulp-containing raw material mass with liquid module 1:6–1:8 is supplied into the autoclave. The autoclave is closed for operation under pressure and the solution is carbonated under pressure which constitutes 5–8 % of absolute dry plant raw material (shover. Temperature is subsequently raised up to 180 °С in the space of 2 hours and cooking is carried out in the course of 4 hours. Usage of  the proposed method for shover cooking makes it possible to reduce monosulfite cooking process and improve qualitative characteristics and output of the desired product.  In addition to above mentioned fact there is a possibility to improve bleaching and final product output. 

  17. Feeding of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp as sole supplements in high-forage diets emphasizes the potential of dairy cattle for human food supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, P; Zebeli, Q; Zollitsch, W; Knaus, W

    2016-02-01

    Besides the widely discussed negative environmental effects of dairy production, such as greenhouse gas emissions, the feeding of large amounts of potentially human-edible feedstuffs to dairy cows is another important sustainability concern. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the effects of a complete substitution of common cereal grains and pulses with a mixture of wheat bran and sugar beet pulp in a high-forage diet on cow performance, production efficiency, feed intake, and ruminating behavior, as well as on net food production potential. Thirteen multiparous and 7 primiparous mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments in a change-over design with 7-wk periods. Cows were fed a high-forage diet (grass silage and hay accounted for 75% of the dry matter intake), supplemented with either a cereal grain-based concentrate mixture (CON), or a mixture of wheat bran and dried sugar beet pulp (WBBP). Human-edible inputs were calculated for 2 different scenarios based on minimum and maximum potential recovery rates of human-edible energy and protein from the respective feedstuffs. Dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents were 3.0 and 44.1% for WBBP, compared with 10.8 and 38.2% in CON, respectively. Dietary treatment did not affect milk production, milk composition, feed intake, or total chewing activity. However, chewing index expressed in minutes per kilogram of neutral detergent fiber ingested was 12% lower in WBBP compared with CON. In comparison to CON, the human-edible feed conversion efficiencies for energy and protein, defined as human-edible output per human-edible input, were 6.8 and 5.3 times higher, respectively, in WBBP under the maximum scenario. For the maximum scenario, the daily net food production (human-edible output minus human-edible input) increased from 5.4 MJ and 250 g of crude protein per cow in CON to 61.5 MJ and 630 g of crude protein in the WBBP diet. In conclusion, our data suggest

  18. Dental pulp stem cells in regenerative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, Luciano; Cordeiro, Mabel M; Nör, Silvia A; Nör, Jacques E

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells constitute the source of differentiated cells for the generation of tissues during development, and for regeneration of tissues that are diseased or injured postnatally. In recent years, stem cell research has grown exponentially owing to the recognition that stem cell-based therapies have the potential to improve the life of patients with conditions that span from Alzheimer's disease to cardiac ischemia to bone or tooth loss. Growing evidence demonstrates that stem cells are primarily found in niches and that certain tissues contain more stem cells than others. Among these tissues, the dental pulp is considered a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells that are suitable for tissue engineering applications. It is known that dental pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into several cell types, including odontoblasts, neural progenitors, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The dental pulp stem cells are highly proliferative. This characteristic facilitates ex vivo expansion and enhances the translational potential of these cells. Notably, the dental pulp is arguably the most accessible source of postnatal stem cells. Collectively, the multipotency, high proliferation rates, and accessibility make the dental pulp an attractive source of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue regeneration. This review discusses fundamental concepts of stem cell biology and tissue engineering within the context of regenerative dentistry.

  19. Epigenetic regulation in dental pulp inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, T; Wang, C; Chen, D; Zheng, L; Huang, D; Ye, L

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries, trauma, and other possible factors could lead to injury of the dental pulp. Dental infection could result in immune and inflammatory responses mediated by molecular and cellular events and tissue breakdown. The inflammatory response of dental pulp could be regulated by genetic and epigenetic events. Epigenetic modifications play a fundamental role in gene expression. The epigenetic events might play critical roles in the inflammatory process of dental pulp injury. Major epigenetic events include methylation and acetylation of histones and regulatory factors, DNA methylation, and small non-coding RNAs. Infections and other environmental factors have profound effects on epigenetic modifications and trigger diseases. Despite growing evidences of literatures addressing the role of epigenetics in the field of medicine and biology, very little is known about the epigenetic pathways involved in dental pulp inflammation. This review summarized the current knowledge about epigenetic mechanisms during dental pulp inflammation. Progress in studies of epigenetic alterations during inflammatory response would provide opportunities for the development of efficient medications of epigenetic therapy for pulpitis. PMID:26901577

  20. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  1. Methods And Apparatus For Acoustic Fiber Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Pierre

    1999-11-09

    Methods and apparatus for acoustic fiber fractionation using a plane ultrasonic wave field interacting with water suspended fibers circulating in a channel flow using acoustic radiation forces to separate fibers into two or more fractions based on fiber radius, with applications of the separation concept in the pulp and paper industry. The continuous process relies on the use of a wall-mounted, rectangular cross-section piezoelectric ceramic transducer to selectively deflect flowing fibers as they penetrate the ultrasonic field. The described embodiment uses a transducer frequency of approximately 150 kHz. Depending upon the amount of dissolved gas in water, separation is obtained using a standing or a traveling wave field.

  2. Outlook for U.S. paper and paperboard sector and wood fiber supply in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince

    2000-01-01

    Consumption of wood fiber in pulp, paper and paperboard increased in the United States over the past century and is projected to increase well into the next century at a decelerating rate of growth. Harvest of pulpwood on forest land is the single largest source of wood fiber, followed by recycled paper and wood residues. In the past decade, wood residues declined in...

  3. [Chemical characteristics of the pulp and oil of the annona tree (Annona coriaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, T da S; Cecchi, H M; Barrera-Arellano, D

    1995-09-01

    Belonging to the Annonaceae family, marolo (Annona coriaceae) is a native species of the Brazilian "cerrado" región (Minas Gerais, Goiás and Distrito Federal) and can be found in South American tropical zones. Its fruits are highly consumed by local people and commercialized in markets or street stalls. There is, however, a tendency for the extinction of marolo due to deforestation and the large scale plantation of monocultures instead of native plants. The literature still offers no data on the chemical composition of the proximate composition and vitamin C, A and tannin contents were carried out on the yellow marolo pulp as well as the determination of the physico-chemical characteristics of the seed oil. Five batches of fruit from the Alfenas region--south of Minas Gerais State--were analysed in this work and their average composition were: humidity 77%, total sugar 15%, reducing sugar 11%, crude protein 1%, lipids 3%, fiber 5% and fixed mineral residue 1%. The contents of vitamin C and A were 8.2 mg/100g and 117.5 RE/100g, respectively, and the tannin content was 245 mg/100g. The results showed high fiber and lipid contents of marolo pulp in comparison with many other tropical fruit pulps. The vitamin C contents were equivalent to those found in avocado, pineapple and watermelon, while the vitamin A contents were equivalent to papaya, peach, guava and several other tropical fruits. Marolo seed contains 45% of oil on a dry basis. Its composition and physico-chemical characteristics showed the possibility of producing a good quality oil, with great potential for the fine oil market. However the presence of alkaloids in the oil needs to be further studied. Their elimination could be done by refining or extraction in a continuous press. The results exalt the high quality of marolo pulp, showing that the preservation of native species should be stimulated.

  4. Innervated boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Chiou, Tai-Fung

    2007-11-01

    The boomerang flap originates from the dorsolateral aspect of the proximal phalanx of an adjacent digit and is supplied by the retrograde blood flow through the vascular arcades between the dorsal and palmar digital arteries. To provide sensation of the boomerang flap for finger pulp reconstruction, the dorsal sensory branch of the proper digital nerve and the superficial sensory branch of the corresponding radial or ulnar nerve are included within the skin flap. After transfer of the flap to the injured site, epineural neurorrhaphies are done between the digital nerves of the pulp and the sensory branches of the flap. We used this sensory flap in five patients, with more than 1 year follow-up, and all patients achieved measurable two-points discrimination. The boomerang flap not only preserves the proper palmar digital artery but also provides an extended and innervated skin paddle. It seems to be an alternative choice for one-stage reconstruction of major pulp defect.

  5. Integrated chemical plants at the pulp mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehtonen, P.; Hurme, M.; Jaervelaeinen, M.

    1995-12-31

    The goal of this paper is to present how the chemical plants can be integrated to the pulp mill. The integration renders possible to balance the chemical consumptions. The total mass balance of a pulp mill with the incoming fuel material and the outgoing waste and flue gases are discussed. The balance figures are presented for the chemicals of the modern fibre line, which will produce fully bleached softwood pulp with an improved effluent quality. The main benefits are lower chemical and transportation costs. The principal over-all plant process block diagrams and process descriptions are presented. The presented info system provides real time information on process and production status at overall mill and department levels. (author)

  6. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim, Ana Paula; Tonoli, Gustavo Henrique Denzin; Santos, Sérgio Francisco Dos; Savastano Junior, Holmer

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana) chemical (organosolv) pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP) fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressin...

  7. Photorefractive Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuzyk, Mark G

    2003-01-01

    ... scope of the project. In addition to our work in optical limiting fibers, spillover results included making fiber-based light-sources, writing holograms in fibers, and developing the theory of the limits of the nonlinear...

  8. Arundo donax L. reed: new perspectives for pulping and bleaching. Part 4. Peroxide bleaching of organosolv pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatalov, A A; Pereira, H

    2005-05-01

    A comparative study on TCF (totally chlorine-free) bleachability of organosolv pulps from the annual fibre crop Arundo donax L. (giant reed) was carried out using a simple three-stage peroxide bleaching sequence without oxygen pre-bleaching. ASAM (alkali-sulfite-anthraquinone-methanol), Organocell (alkali-anthraquinone-methanol) and ethanol-soda organosolv pulps were bleached and compared with kraft pulp, as a reference. The final brightness of 76-78% ISO was attained for all tested pulps. The chemical charge required to reach this level of brightness varied for different pulps (despite the equal initial content of the residual lignin) and directly related to starting brightness values. No direct correlation between brightness improvement and lignin removal during bleaching was found, indicating the influence of the specific pulp properties introduced by pulping process on bleaching chemistry. The general higher bleaching response of organosolv pulps from A. donax was noted in comparison with kraft.

  9. Effects of transportation time after extraction on the magnetic cryopreservation of pulp cells of rat dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Suan Huang

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: The freezing technique used in this animal study provided positive effects on pulp cell storage. In addition, the storage time before the freezing procedure is an important issue for cryopreserving pulp cells in intact teeth.

  10. 78 FR 31315 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 100 / Thursday, May...-OAR-2012-0640; FRL-9815-9] RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection... performance standards for kraft pulp mills. These revised standards include particulate matter emission limits...

  11. Comparative study of percentage yield of pulp from various Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    also other applications like in the chemical industry. (Biermann, 1993). Therefore pulp is a very .... digester was maintained at an operating condition of. 170°C, pressure of 2 bars, with liquor to wood ratio of 4:1. Cooking ... The effects of different concentrations of pulping liquor on the yield of pulp from the wood species are ...

  12. Betatron activation analysis of cupriferous flotation pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, R.; Matenko, J.; Mencel, J.; Janiczek, J.; Kielsznia, J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of copper determination in cupriferous flotation pulp by photo-activation analysis using betatron and another equipments of existent ''analytical line'' intended for copper determination in dry samples has been described. An activation has been achieved with 14.9 MeV γ-photons. The excitation activity was investigated by using two scintillation detectors and a fast coincidence circuit with resolution time 80 ns. The precision of method was determined as +- 4.25% in 0.95 confidence level for pulp with concentration 5% Cu and +- 24% for 0.06% Cu. (author)

  13. Effect of Different Moisture Absorbents on Silage Fermentation Quality of Wet Potato Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Alipour

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using agricultural-industrial waste is one way to overcome the shortage of animal feed. Potato is one of the most important products in the world after rice, wheat and maize. Potato pulp is a by-product which remains after extraction of starch, and can be used as animal feed. Because of the high moisture content of the potato pulp, silage is the best way to maintain it. However, its high moisture content leads to inappropriate ensilage. Adding of moisture absorbents (MA not only reduce the effluents, but also improve the silage quality. Materials with high content of cell wall are suitable candidates to be used as MA. Agro-industrial co-products including raisin wastes and pomegranate seed pulp have high cell wall and no report was found for their usage as MA. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of different absorbents on potato pulp silage fermentation quality. Materials and Methods Fresh potato pulp was obtained from Alvand potato processing company (Hamedan, Iran. After transfer, the potato pulps were immediately ensiled with MAs including wheat bran, raisin pedicles, rejected raisins, pomegranate peel, wheat straw and raisin rachis. The treatments were: 100% potato pulp (control, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat bran, 80% potato pulp and 20% raisin pedicles, 71% potato pulp and 29% rejected raisin, 80% potato pulp and 20% pomegranate peel, 80% potato pulp and 20% wheat straw and 80% potato pulp and 20% rachis. After 74 days, the silos were opened for investigation. Chemical composition (i.e., dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, Fleig point, pH and lactic acid concentration were determined. In vitro gas production was used to assess fermentation parameters of treatments. Therefore, volume of gas production after 24 hours of incubation, rate of gas production, asymptotic gas production, lag phase, organic matter digestibility, metabolizable energy, partitioning factor, microbial

  14. Effects of Soda-Anthraquinone Pulping Variables on the Durian Rind Pulp and Paper Characteristics: A Preliminary Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Masrol, Shaiful; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim; Adnan, Sharmiza; Rahmad Talib, Mohd; Sian, Lau Lee

    2017-08-01

    Good combination of pulping variables is required to obtain the quality pulp and paper characteristics. Thus, in this preliminary work, naturally dried durian rind were pulped under Soda-Anthraquinone (Soda-AQ) pulping process with 18% to 22% alkali charge, 0% to 0.1% Anthraquinone (AQ) charge, 90 minutes to 150 minutes of cooking time and 150°C to 170°C to investigate the effect of pulping variables on the characteristics of the pulp and paper. Pulping condition with 0% of AQ charge was also conducted for comparison. Results indicated that the best screen yield percentage, reject yield percentage, freeness, drainage time, tear index, number of folds and optical properties were shown by the pulp produced with combination of the highest active alkali (22%), AQ charge (0.1%), cooking time (150 minutes) and cooking temperature (170°C) except apparent density, tensile index and burst index. This preliminary result shows that the optimum quality of durian rind pulp as a potential papermaking raw material pulp could be produced by selecting the good combination of pulping variables which influences the pulp and paper characteristics.

  15. Effect of Urea Addition on Soda Pulping of Oak Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Nam-Seok; Matsumoto, Yuji; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Oga, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to find a sulfur-free additive for alkaline pulping liquors that would have an effect similar to that of sulfide in kraft pulping. Some reagents that partially fulfill this role have been found, but they are too expensive to be used in the quantities required to make them effective. As an alternative method to solve air pollution problem and difficulty of pulp bleaching of kraft pulping process, NaOH-Urea pulping was applied. The properties of NaOH-Urea pul...

  16. Characterization of Coronal Pulp Cells and Radicular Pulp Cells in Human Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Sato, Momoko; Toriumi, Taku

    2017-09-01

    Dental pulp has garnered much attention as an easily accessible postnatal tissue source of high-quality mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since the discovery of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in permanent third molars, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth and from supernumerary teeth (mesiodentes) have been identified as a population distinct from DPSCs. Dental pulp is divided into 2 parts based on the developing stage: the coronal pulp and the radicular pulp. Root formation begins after the crown part is completed. We performed a sequential study to examine the differences between the characteristics of coronal pulp cells (CPCs) and radicular pulp cells (RPCs) from permanent teeth, mesiodentes, and deciduous teeth. Interestingly, although we have not obtained any data on the difference between CPCs and RPCs in permanent teeth, there are some differences between the characteristics of CPCs and RPCs from mesiodentes and deciduous teeth. The MSC characteristics differed between the RPCs and CPCs, and the reprogramming efficiency for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells was greater in RPCs than in CPCs from deciduous teeth. The proportion of CD105 + cells in CPCs versus that in RPCs varied in mesiodentes but not in permanent teeth. The results indicate that the proportion of CD105 + cells is an effective means of characterizing dental pulp cells in mesiodentes. Taken together, the stem cells in deciduous and supernumerary teeth share many characteristics, such as a high proliferation rate and an immunophenotype similar to that of DPSCs. Thus, mesiodentes accidentally encountered on radiographs by the general dental practitioner might be useful for stem cell therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulp and paper from oil palm fronds: Wavelet neural networks modeling of soda-ethanol pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Zarita Zainuddin; Wan Rosli Wan Daud; Pauline Ong; Amran Shafie

    2012-01-01

    Wavelet neural networks (WNNs) were used to investigate the influence of operational variables in the soda-ethanol pulping of oil palm fronds (viz. NaOH concentration (10-30%), ethanol concentration (15-75%), cooking temperature (150-190 ºC), and time (60-180 min)) on the resulting pulp and paper properties (viz. screened yield, kappa number, tensile index, and tear index). Performance assessments demonstrated the predictive capability of WNNs, in that the experimental results of the dependen...

  18. Fungal biomass production from coffee pulp juice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Leon, R.; Calzada, F.; Herrera, R.; Rolz, C.

    1980-01-01

    Coffee pulp or skin represents about 40% of the weight of the fresh coffee fruit. It is currently a waste and its improper handling creates serious pollution problems for coffee producing countries. Mechanical pressing of the pulp will produce two fractions: coffee pulp juice (CPJ) and pressed pulp. Aspergillus oryzae, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium crustosum and Gliocladium deliquescens grew well in supplemented CPJ. At shake flask level the optimum initial C/N ratio was found to be in the range of 8 to 14. At this scale, biomass values of up to 50 g/l were obtained in 24 hours. Biomass production and total sugar consumption were not significantly different to all fungal species tested at the bench-scale level, even when the initial C/N ratio was varied. Best nitrogen consumption values were obtained when the initial C/N ratio was 12. Maximum specific growth rates occurred between 4-12 hours for all fungal species tested. (Refs. 8).

  19. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content. (In Polish)

  20. Enrichment of coal pulps by selective flocculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaschke, Z

    1977-01-01

    The results are presented of selective flocculation of coal pulps using different reagents. In some tests the coal particles were flocculated, and in others the coal remained in suspension and the dirt was flocculated. Selective flocculation makes it possible to obtain coal concentrates with a very low ash content from slurries with a high ash content.

  1. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  2. Pulp regeneration by transplantation of dental pulp stem cells in pulpitis: a pilot clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Murakami, Masashi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Sato, Yayoi; Ariji, Yoshiko; Matsushita, Kenji

    2017-03-09

    Experiments have previously demonstrated the therapeutic potential of mobilized dental pulp stem cells (MDPSCs) for complete pulp regeneration. The aim of the present pilot clinical study is to assess the safety, potential efficacy, and feasibility of autologous transplantation of MDPSCs in pulpectomized teeth. Five patients with irreversible pulpitis were enrolled and monitored for up to 24 weeks following MDPSC transplantation. The MDPSCs were isolated from discarded teeth and expanded based on good manufacturing practice (GMP). The quality of the MDPSCs at passages 9 or 10 was ascertained by karyotype analyses. The MDPSCs were transplanted with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in atelocollagen into pulpectomized teeth. The clinical and laboratory evaluations demonstrated no adverse events or toxicity. The electric pulp test (EPT) of the pulp at 4 weeks demonstrated a robust positive response. The signal intensity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the regenerated tissue in the root canal after 24 weeks was similar to that of normal dental pulp in the untreated control. Finally, cone beam computed tomography demonstrated functional dentin formation in three of the five patients. Human MDPSCs are safe and efficacious for complete pulp regeneration in humans in this pilot clinical study.

  3. Fiber dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipowicz, P.J.; Yeh, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis is the motion of uncharged particles in nonuniform electric fields. We find that the theoretical dielectrophoretic velocity of a conducting fiber in an insulating medium is proportional to the square of the fiber length, and is virtually independent of fiber diameter. This prediction has been verified experimentally. The results point to the development of a fiber length classifier based on dielectrophoresis. (author)

  4. Potassium hydroxide pulping of rice straw in biorefinery initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M Sarwar; Haris, Fahmida; Rahman, M Mostafizur; Samaddar, Purabi Rani; Sutradhar, Shrikanta

    2016-11-01

    Rice straw is supposed to be one of the most important lignocellulosic raw materials for pulp mill in Asian countries. The major problem in rice straw pulping is silica. The present research is focused on the separation of silica from the black liquor of rice straw pulping by potassium hydroxide (KOH) and pulp evaluation. Optimum KOH pulping conditions of rice straw were alkali charge 12% as NaOH, cooking temperature 150°C for 2h and material to liquor ratio, 1:6. At this condition pulp yield was 42.4% with kappa number 10.3. KOH pulp bleached to 85% brightness by D0EpD1 bleaching sequences with ClO2 consumption of 25kg/ton of pulp. Silica and lignin were separated from the black liquor of KOH pulping. The amount of recovered silica, lignin and hemicelluloses were 10.4%, 8.4% and 13.0%. The papermaking properties of KOH pulp from rice straw were slightly better than those of corresponding NaOH pulp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pulp stem cells: implication in reparative dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova-Nakov, Sasha; Baudry, Anne; Harichane, Yassine; Kellermann, Odile; Goldberg, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Many dental pulp stem cells are neural crest derivatives essential for lifelong maintenance of tooth functions and homeostasis as well as tooth repair. These cells may be directly implicated in the healing process or indirectly involved in cell-to-cell diffusion of paracrine messages to resident (pulpoblasts) or nonresident cells (migrating mesenchymal cells). The identity of the pulp progenitors and the mechanisms sustaining their regenerative capacity remain largely unknown. Taking advantage of the A4 cell line, a multipotent stem cell derived from the molar pulp of mouse embryo, we investigated the capacity of these pulp-derived precursors to induce in vivo the formation of a reparative dentin-like structure upon implantation within the pulp of a rodent incisor or a first maxillary molar after surgical exposure. One month after the pulp injury alone, a nonmineralized fibrous matrix filled the mesial part of the coronal pulp chamber. Upon A4 cell implantation, a mineralized osteodentin was formed in the implantation site without affecting the structure and vitality of the residual pulp in the central and distal parts of the pulp chamber. These results show that dental pulp stem cells can induce the formation of reparative dentin and therefore constitute a useful tool for pulp therapies. Finally, reparative dentin was also built up when A4 progenitors were performed by alginate beads, suggesting that alginate is a suitable carrier for cell implantation in teeth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization and Degradation of Pectic Polysaccharides in Cocoa Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Struyf, Nore; Kyomugasho, Clare; Jamsazzadeh Kermani, Zahra; Santiago, Jihan Santanina; Baert, Eline; Hemdane, Sami; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M; Hendrickx, Marc; Steensels, Jan

    2017-11-08

    Microbial fermentation of the viscous pulp surrounding cocoa beans is a crucial step in chocolate production. During this process, the pulp is degraded, after which the beans are dried and shipped to factories for further processing. Despite its central role in chocolate production, pulp degradation, which is assumed to be a result of pectin breakdown, has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, this study provides a comprehensive physicochemical analysis of cocoa pulp, focusing on pectic polysaccharides, and the factors influencing its degradation. Detailed analysis reveals that pectin in cocoa pulp largely consists of weakly bound substances, and that both temperature and enzyme activity play a role in its degradation. Furthermore, this study shows that pulp degradation by an indigenous yeast fully relies on the presence of a single gene (PGU1), encoding for an endopolygalacturonase. Apart from their basic scientific value, these new insights could propel the selection of microbial starter cultures for more efficient pulp degradation.

  7. Nanofibrillated cellulose as paper additive in Eucalyptus pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel González

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the physical and mechanical properties of bleached Eucalyptus pulp reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC are compared with those of traditional beaten pulp used in the making of writing/printing and offset printing papers. For this purpose, three different types of hardwood slurries were prepared: beaten pulps, unbeaten pulps reinforced with NFC, and slightly beaten pulps also reinforced with NFC. Physical and mechanical tests were performed on handsheets from these different slurries. The results showed that adding NFC to unbeaten pulps results in physical and mechanical properties similar to those in pulps used for printing/writing papers. Nevertheless, the best results were obtained in slurries previously beaten at slight conditions and subsequently reinforced with NFC. These results demonstrate that the addition of NFC allows a reduction in beating intensity without decreasing the desired mechanical properties for this specific purpose.

  8. TESTING OF PULP VITALITY BY PULSOXIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela CIOBANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The methods applied for diagnosing the health condition of the pulp tissue are numerous, however, nowadays, an increasingly higher number of conventional tests are replaced by some objective, non-invasive, painless and reliable tests. Among them, pulse oximetry is a method for the investigation of pulp vitality based on oxygen saturation (SaO2 of the hemoglobin from the blood present in the pulp vascular bed, as a means of differentiating among the vital and the non-vital teeth. In the present study, registrations were made on a group of 120 frontal maxillary teeth, in patients with ages between 20 and 40 years, on using a digital sensor modified by the pulse oximeter with which the pulse and the values of oxygen saturation were measured at the level of both teeth and right hand finger. The mean SaO2 value in the pulp blood of the vital teeth was of 83.30% for the central incisor, of 78.51% for the lateral one and of 84.56%, respectively, for the canine; the value recorded at finger level was of 97%. In the non-vital teeth, the SaO2 value measured on the pulse oximeter was of 0%. Pulse registration showed mean values of 70.56 beatings/min at tooth level and of 70.88 beatings/min, respectively, at finger level. The results of the present study may confirm that pulse oximetry represents a simple, non-traumatic, efficient and objective method for testing the vitality condition of the dental pulp.

  9. Fiber Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The chapter provides a discussion of optical fiber amplifiers and through three sections provides a detailed treatment of three types of optical fiber amplifiers, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including...... the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifiers characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber optic communication systems and the improvement achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated....

  10. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BURITI PULP (Mauritia flexuosa COLLECTED IN THE CITY OF DIAMANTINO – MTS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE DE OLIVEIRA SANDRI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Buriti is a fruit with potential for economic exploitation due to its nutritional components; however, there are few studies about their post-harvest characteristics. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics and analyze the antioxidant activity of Buriti pulp. Fruits were harvested at full maturity stage, sanitized, pulped and stored under refrigeration until freezing. Then, pulp was submitted to the following analyses: moisture, protein, total carbohydrates and reducing carbohydrates, ashes, lipids, crude fiber, water activity, titratable acidity (TA, pH, color, ß-carotene, a-carotene, antioxidant activity and total energy value (TEV. Analyses were performed in triplicate, and the mean, standard deviation and variation coefficient were determined. Fruit pulp presented 0.98 of water activity, TA of 8.82g/100 g of citric acid, pH 3.78, 59.69% of moisture, 20.92% of fat, 8.56 % of crude fiber, 1.04% of ash, 7.28% of total carbohydrates, 4.50% of reducing carbohydrates, 9098µg/100g of ß carotene and 10086µg/100g of a-carotene. TEV found was 228.28 kcal/100g, the color analysis showed that the pulp has an average light tint value of L * = 59.69, with high hue H * = 68.36 and vivid color with C *= 62.03. Regarding the antioxidant activity, it was observed that Buriti is a fruit that can be used to combat oxidation, as it reduced by 82.42% the amount DPPH reagent used.

  11. Human dental pulp stem cells with highly angiogenic and neurogenic potential for possible use in pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Misako; Iohara, Koichiro; Sugiyama, Masahiko

    2009-01-01

    Dental caries is a common public health problem, causing early loss of dental pulp and resultant tooth loss. Dental pulp has important functions to sustain teeth providing nutrient and oxygen supply, innervation, reactionary/reparative dentin formation and immune response. Regeneration of pulp is an unmet need in endodontic therapy, and angiogenesis/vasculogenesis and neurogenesis are critical for pulp regeneration. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. In this review, we introduce some stem cell subfractions, CD31(-)/CD146(-) SP cells and CD105(+) cells with high angiogenic and neurogenic potential, derived from human adult dental pulp tissue. Potential utility of these cells is addressed as a source of cells for treatment of cerebral and limb ischemia and pulp inflammation complete with angiogenesis and vasculogenesis.

  12. The effects of apple pulp and probiotic on performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaz Noranian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Apple is one of the most important fruits that is produced in the large amount in Iran. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals and active fiber. Most of the apples that product in Iran are use in food industry for producing different kinds of apple juices. After Juicing, more than 20% of apple, remain as waste. The remained matter contain considerable amount of vitamins and minerals that usually found in fresh apple, moreover it is rich source of pectin and crude fiber. Generally this byproduct discharge to environment and cause some serious environmental problems. It is thought that use of apple pulp as a part of apple waste in laying hens diets not only prevent some environmental problems, but also can improve their performance, egg quality traits, and blood biochemical parameters and reduce the production cost. The current study has been designed to investigate these traits. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out on 192 Hi-line (W36 laying hens in a completely randomized design as (2*2 factorial arrangement with two levels of apple pulp (0 and 4% and two levels of probiotic (protexin (0 and 0.005% in 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds per replicate for 12 weeks (65-76 weeks. Results and Discussion Using apple pulp and probiotic in diets improved the egg production performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens (P0.05. Probiotic improved egg weight, egg production percentage, egg mass, feed conversion ratio and Haugh unit. In interaction effects, using apple pulp and probiotic improved the performance and egg quality traits of laying hens. The highest egg weight, egg production, egg mass and the best feed conversion were obtained with diet containing 4% apple pulp and 0.005% probiotic. Also the highest amount of albumin, eggshell thickness and Haugh unit were observed with 4% apple pulp and 0.05% probiotic. Apple pulp decreased the blood levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and albumin

  13. Viscoelastic Properties of Dental Pulp Tissue and Ramifications on Biomaterial Development for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisken, Cevat; Kalyon, Dilhan M; Zhou, Jian; Kim, Sahng G; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-10-01

    A critical step in biomaterial selection effort is the determination of material as well as the biological properties of the target tissue. Previously, the selection of biomaterials and carriers for dental pulp regeneration has been solely based on empirical experience. In this study, first, the linear viscoelastic material functions and compressive properties of miniature pig dental pulp were characterized using small-amplitude oscillatory shear and uniaxial compression at a constant rate. They were then compared with the properties of hydrogels (ie, agarose, alginate, and collagen) that are widely used in tissue regeneration. The comparisons of the linear viscoelastic material functions of the native pulp tissue with those of the 3 hydrogels revealed the gel-like behavior of the pulp tissue over a relatively large range of time scales (ie, over the frequency range of 0.1-100 rps). At the constant gelation agent concentration of 2%, the dynamic properties (ie, storage and loss moduli and the tanδ) of the collagen-based gel approached those of the native tissue. Under uniaxial compression, the peak normal stresses and compressive moduli of the agarose gel were similar to those of the native tissue, whereas alginate and collagen exhibited significantly lower compressive properties. The linear viscoelastic and uniaxial compressive properties of the dental pulp tissue reported here should enable the more appropriate selection of biogels for dental pulp regeneration via the better tailoring of gelation agents and their concentrations to better mimic the dynamic and compressive properties of native pulp tissue. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immunolocalization of bone-resorptive cytokines in rat pulp and periapical lesions following surgical pulp exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani-Ishii, N; Wang, C Y; Stashenko, P

    1995-08-01

    The bone-resorptive cytokines interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many chronic inflammatory diseases, including pulpitis and apical periodontitis.To further elucidate their role in these disorders, we have identified cells that express IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha in infected pulps and in developing rat periapical lesions after surgical pulp exposure. As detected by immunohistochemistry, IL-1 alpha- and TNF alpha-positive cells were present as early as 2 days after pulp exposure in both the pulp and periapical region. The numbers of cytokine-expressing cells increased up to day 4 in the pulp and up to day 30 in the periapex. In contrast, cells expressing IL-1 beta and TNF beta, the homologous forms of these mediators, were not found in pulp or periapical lesions during this period. Cells expressing IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha were identified primarily as macrophages and fibroblasts, with occasional staining of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were also positive, whereas lymphocytes were negative. In general, cytokine-expressing cells were located proximal to abscesses and the root apex. These findings demonstrate that cells that express bone-resorptive cytokines IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha are present immediately after pulp exposure in this model, which supports the hypothesis that these mediators play a key role in pulpal and periapical pathogenesis, including the concomitant bone destruction. They also indicate that both resident connective tissue cells as well as infiltrating cells express bone-resorptive cytokines in response to infection in these lesions.

  15. Influence of lignocellulose and low or high levels of sugar beet pulp on nutrient digestibility and the fecal microbiota in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, S; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2017-04-01

    Lignocellulose is an alternative fiber source for dogs; however, it has not yet been studied as a feed ingredient for the nutrition of dogs. Eight adult Beagles were involved in the study, which consisted of 3 feeding periods of 8 to 12 wk each. All dogs received 3 different diets, which either had the same concentration of fiber sources (2.7% sugar beet pulp or lignocellulose) or were formulated for a similar concentration of approximately 3% crude fiber: 12% sugar beet pulp (highSBP; 3.1% crude fiber), 2.7% sugar beet pulp (lowSBP; 0.96% crude fiber), or 2.7% lignocellulose (LC; 2.4% crude fiber). Feces samples were collected at the end of each feeding period, and the apparent nutrient digestibility, daily amount, and DM content of feces and fecal cell numbers of relevant bacteria were analyzed. The daily feces amount was lower and the feces DM was higher when dogs were fed the LC diet and the lowSBP diet compared with the highSBP diet ( dogs fed LC and lowSBP had lower concentrations of acetate ( dogs fed highSBP. The concentration of -butyrate was higher in the feces of dogs fed with LC compared with dogs fed high and low sugar beet pulp (SBP; dogs was highest followed by lowSBP- and highSBP-fed dogs ( dog feed has different impacts on the fecal microbiota and the apparent digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, different areas of application should be considered.

  16. Evaluation of bleachability on pine and eucalyptus kraft pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Freitas Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the pulp industry has been changing and improving its manufacturing processes in order to enhance production capacity, product quality and environmental performance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bleachability effect on the efficient washing and alkaline leaching in eucalyptus and pine Kraft pulps using three different bleaching sequences: AD(EPD, A/D(EPDP and DHT(EPDP. This study was carried out in two stages. In the first part, the optimum conditions for pulp bleaching in order to achieve a brightness of 90% ISO were established. The second step was a comparative study between the pulps that received alkaline leaching and efficient washing with reference pulp (without treatment. The brightness, viscosity, kappa number and HexA in pulp were analyzed. The three sequences studied reached the desired brightness, but the sequence AD(EPD produced a lower reagent consumption for the same brightness. In the three sequences studied, the efficient washing of the pulp after oxygen delignification has contributed significantly to the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic materials in the pulp and the alkaline leaching decreased significantly the pulp kappa number due to a higher pulp delignification and bleachability.

  17. Evaluating pulp stiffness from fibre bundles by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppinen, Timo; Montonen, Risto; Määttänen, Marjo; Ekman, Axel; Myllys, Markko; Timonen, Jussi; Hæggström, Edward

    2012-06-01

    A non-destructive ultrasonic tester was developed to measure the stiffness of pulp bundles. The mechanical properties of pulp are important when estimating the behaviour of paper under stress. Currently available pulp tests are tedious and alter the fibres structurally and mechanically. The developed tester employs (933 ± 15) kHz tweezer-like ultrasonic transducers and time-of-flight measurement through (9.0 ± 2.5) mm long and (0.8 ± 0.1) mm thick fibre bundles kept at (19.1 ± 0.4) °C and (62 ± 1)% RH. We determined the stiffness of soft wood pulps produced by three kraft pulping modifications: standard kraft pulp, (5.2 ± 0.4) GPa, prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (4.3 ± 0.4) GPa, and alkali extracted prehydrolysis kraft pulp, (3.3 ± 0.4) GPa. Prehydrolysis and alkali extraction processes mainly lowered the hemicellulose content of the pulps, which essentially decreased the fibre-wall stiffness hence impairing the stiffness of the fibre networks. Our results indicate that the method allows ranking of pulps according to their stiffness determined from bundle-like samples taken at an early phase of the papermaking process.

  18. Cellulose nanocrystals as a reinforcing material for electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) fibers: formation, properties and nanomechanical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Dong; Kenneth E. Strawhecker; James A. Snyder; Joshua A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    Uniform fibers composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) reinforced with progressively increasing contents of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), up to 41 wt% CNCs, have been successfully produced by electrospinning. The morphological, thermal and nanomechanical properties of the composite sub-micron fibers were investigated. The CNCs derived from wood pulp by sulfuric...

  19. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    agglomeration problems of the conversion of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium) titanates during gasification of black liquor in the presence of (low sodium) titanates or TiO{sub 2} (Task 2). MTCI/ThermoChem tested the performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization in their Process Development Unit (PDU) (Task 3). The specific objectives were: (1) to investigate how split sulfidity and polysulfide (+ AQ) pulping can be used to increase pulp fiber yield and properties compared to conventional kraft pulping; (2) to determine the economics of black liquor gasification combined with these pulping technologies in comparison with conventional kraft pulping and black liquor recovery; (3) to determine the effect of operating conditions on the kinetics of the titanate-based direct causticization reaction during black liquor gasification at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); (4) to determine the mechanism of particle agglomeration during gasification of black liquor in the presence of titanates at relatively low temperatures ({le} 750 C); and (5) to verify performance and operability of the combined technology of steam reforming and direct causticization of black liquor in a pilot scale fluidized bed test facility.

  20. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xufang; Jiang, Hongwei; Gong, Qimei; Fan, Chen; Huang, Yihua; Ling, Junqi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration

  1. Expression of high mobility group box 1 in inflamed dental pulp and its chemotactic effect on dental pulp cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xufang, E-mail: xufang.zhang@student.qut.edu.au [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Jiang, Hongwei, E-mail: jianghw@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Gong, Qimei, E-mail: gongqmei@gmail.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Fan, Chen, E-mail: c3.fan@student.qut.edu.au [Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059 (Australia); Huang, Yihua, E-mail: enu0701@163.com [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China); Ling, Junqi, E-mail: lingjq@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510055 (China)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • HMGB1 translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm during dental pulp inflammation. • HMGB1and its receptor RAGE were up-regulated in hDPCs under LPS stimulation. • HMGB1 enhanced hDPCs migration and induces cytoskeleton reorganization. • HMGB1 may play a critical role in dental pulp repair during inflamed state. - Abstract: High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a chromatin protein which can be released extracellularly, eliciting a pro-inflammatory response and promoting tissue repair process. This study aimed to examine the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE in inflamed dental pulp tissues, and to assess its effects on proliferation, migration and cytoskeleton of cultured human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Our data demonstrated that cytoplasmic expression of HMGB1 was observed in inflamed pulp tissues, while HMGB1 expression was confined in the nuclei in healthy dental pulp. The mRNA expression of HMGB1 and RAGE were significantly increased in inflamed pulps. In in vitro cultured DPCs, expression of HMGB1 in both protein and mRNA level was up-regulated after treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exogenous HMGB1 enhanced DPCs migration in a dose-dependent manner and induced the reorganization of f-actin in DPCs. Our results suggests that HMGB1 are not only involved in the process of dental pulp inflammation, but also play an important role in the recruitment of dental pulp stem cells, promoting pulp repair and regeneration.

  2. Pembuatan Pulp dari Alang-alang

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Wibisono Aylianawati

    2011-01-01

    Alang-alang merupakan tanaman gulma yang jumlahnya cukup besar di Indonesia. Hingga saat ini pemanfaatan dalam jumlah yang besar terhadap alang-alang di Indonesia belum ada. Alang-alang mempunyai kandungan selulosa yang cukup tinggi. Pada penelitian pendahuluan terhadap bahan baku alang-alang mengandung kadar alfa selulosa sekitar 41,7% dan mempunyai bilangan Kappa sebesar 37,1886. Maka alang-alang bisa dijadikan sebagai bahan dari pulp untuk pembuatan kertas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah ...

  3. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF PEQUI (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. PULP IS PRESERVED BY FREEZE-DRYING AND LIGHT-RESISTANT PACKAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NARA RÚBIA RODRIGUES DO NASCIMENTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pequi (Caryocar brasiliense Camb. pulp is rich in bioactive compounds. However, seasonality and perishability limit its availability in the market. This work aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics, including phenolic compounds and carotenoid concentrations, as well as the antioxidant capacity of lyophilized pequi pulp during storage in various packaging materials for 180 days. Pequi fruits were pulped, ground, freeze-dried and then vacuum packaged in transparent polyethylene (TP, polyethylene coated by aluminum foil (PA and laminated foil (LA, respectively. The samples were stored under controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity. Proximate composition, phenolic compounds and carotenoids concentrations, and antioxidant capacity (DPPH• assay were determined at the beginning of the study and the end of each month, during 180 days. Lyophilized pequi pulp had 48.87, 6.17, and 4.20 g.100 g-1 lipids, proteins, and total dietary fiber, respectively, and 556.79 kcal.100 g-1 energy. PA and LA had similar effects against light-induced carotenoid oxidation. Negative correlations between the phenolic compound concentration and storage period, and antioxidant capacity and storage period; and a positive correlation between antioxidant capacity and phenolic compound content were observed. Light-resistant packaging decreased the carotenoid loss. Among the packaging, LA preserved the phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity most effectively.

  4. High-speed double-disc TMP [thermomechanical pulp] from northern and southern softwoods: One or two refining stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.J. (Andritz Sprout-Bauer, Inc., Springfield, OH (United States)); Cort, J.B.; Musselman, R.L. (Andritz Sprout-Bauer, Inc., Muncy, PA (United States))

    1994-01-01

    Pilot-plant studies were carried out to evaluate one- and two-stage high-speed refining processes for production of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) at minimal energy consumption. Both northern (black spruce/balsam fir) and southern (lobolly pine) wood species were tested. Preliminary results indicate both one- and two-stage high-speed refining are suitable for the production of TMP from spruce and fir. Single-stage, high-speed refining of spruce/fir resulted in over 25% energy savings compared to conventional TMP production. The resulting TMP had improved optical and shive content properties, with slightly reduced pulp strength and long fiber content. Two stages of refining were necessary to optimize pulp quality from the lobolly pine furnish. A 15% energy reduction was obtained when comparing high-speed and conventional TMP pulping of lobolly pine at similar operating conditions. The high-speed pine TMP had comparable bonding strength, shive content, and lower tear than conventional two-stage lobolly pine TMP. 14 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiangou Yiangos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS, considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5 and controls (n = 12, and the other patients with BMS (n = 7 and controls (n = 10. BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS. Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS.

  6. Sodium channel Nav1.7 immunoreactivity in painful human dental pulp and burning mouth syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Voltage gated sodium channels Nav1.7 are involved in nociceptor nerve action potentials and are known to affect pain sensitivity in clinical genetic disorders. Aims and Objectives To study Nav1.7 levels in dental pulpitis pain, an inflammatory condition, and burning mouth syndrome (BMS), considered a neuropathic orofacial pain disorder. Methods Two groups of patients were recruited for this study. One group consisted of patients with dental pulpitis pain (n = 5) and controls (n = 12), and the other patients with BMS (n = 7) and controls (n = 10). BMS patients were diagnosed according to the International Association for the Study of Pain criteria; a pain history was collected, including the visual analogue scale (VAS). Immunohistochemistry with visual intensity and computer image analysis were used to evaluate levels of Nav1.7 in dental pulp tissue samples from the dental pulpitis group, and tongue biopsies from the BMS group. Results There was a significantly increased visual intensity score for Nav1.7 in nerve fibres in the painful dental pulp specimens, compared to controls. Image analysis showed a trend for an increase of the Nav1.7 immunoreactive % area in the painful pulp group, but this was not statistically significant. When expressed as a ratio of the neurofilament % area, there was a strong trend for an increase of Nav1.7 in the painful pulp group. Nav1.7 immunoreactive fibres were seen in abundance in the sub-mucosal layer of tongue biopsies, with no significant difference between BMS and controls. Conclusion Nav1.7 sodium channel may play a significant role in inflammatory dental pain. Clinical trials with selective Nav1.7 channel blockers should prioritise dental pulp pain rather than BMS. PMID:20529324

  7. Dentin and pulp sense cold stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Masayuki; Tatsuyama, Shoko; Fujisawa, Mari; Morimoto-Yamashita, Yoko; Kawakami, Yoshiko; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Torii, Mistuso

    2015-05-01

    Dentin hypersensitivity is a common symptom, and recent convergent evidences have reported transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in odontoblasts act as mechanical and thermal molecular sensor, which detect stimulation applied on the exposed dentin surface, to drive multiple odontoblastic cellular functions, such as sensory transduction and/or dentin formation. In the present study, we confirmed expression of TRP melastatin subfamily member-8 (TRPM8) channels in primary cultured cells derived from human dental pulp cells (HPCs) and mouse odontoblast-lineage cells (OLCs) as well as in dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1) and dentin sialoprotein (DSP) positive acutely isolated rat odontoblasts from dental pulp tissue slice culture by immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, we detected TRPM8 channel expression on HPCs and OLCs by RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses. These results indicated that both odontoblasts and dental pulp cells express TRPM8 channels in rat, mouse and human, and therefore we hypothesize they may contribute as cold sensor in tooth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen...... from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H-2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp...... and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production....

  9. Effect of inclusion of citrus pulp inxaraés grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Issamu Yasuoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different levels of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP on the quality of xaraés grass silage. Xaraés grass was ensiled at 54 days of growth with 0, 10, 20 and 30% PCP and divided into 20 experimental silos (five repetitions/treatment. A completely randomized design was adopted. The silos were opened after 67 days for the determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, pH, and titratable acidity of the silages. The inclusion of PCP did not influence DM content, but reduced CP content. NDF and ADF content decreased with the addition of citrus pulp. Regarding pH, a significant difference was only observed for the inclusion of 30% PCP. Titratable acidity in the silage was lower in the absence of PCP (0% compared to the treatment with 30% (P<0.05. The inclusion of 30% PCP in xaraés grass silage is indicated since it improves the quality of the fibrous fraction, while maintaining acceptable pH values.

  10. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and red...

  11. Association between dental pulp stones and calcifying nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinfeng; Yang, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Gong, Qimei; Du, Yu; Ling, Junqi

    2011-01-07

    The etiology of dental pulp stones, one type of extraskeletal calcification disease, remains elusive to date. Calcifying nanoparticles (CNPs), formerly referred to as nanobacteria, were reported to be one etiological factor in a number of extraskeletal calcification diseases. We hypothesized that CNPs are involved in the calcification of the dental pulp tissue, and therefore investigated the link between CNPs and dental pulp stones. Sixty-five freshly collected dental pulp stones, each from a different patient, were analyzed. Thirteen of the pulp stones were examined for the existence of CNPs in situ by immunohistochemical staining (IHS), indirect immunofluorescence staining (IIFS), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The remaining 52 pulp stones were used for isolation and cultivation of CNPs; the cultured CNPs were identified and confirmed via their shape and growth characteristics. Among the dental pulp stones examined in situ, 84.6% of the tissue samples staines positive for CNPs antigen by IHS; the corresponding rate by IIFS was 92.3 %. In 88.2% of the cultured samples, CNPs were isolated and cultivated successfully. The CNPs were visible under TEM as 200-400 nm diameter spherical particles surrounded by a compact crust. CNPs could be detected and isolated from a high percentage of dental pulp stones, suggesting that CNPs might play an important role in the calcification of dental pulp.

  12. The caries process and its effect on the pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The understanding of the caries process and its effect on the pulp is presented in the context that caries does develop in various rates of progression. Early in the caries process, the pulp reflects changes within lesion activity. Thus, the early pulp response is reversible. Later, the rate...... of caries progression is reflected by the quality of the tertiary dentin. Slowly progressing lesions create tertiary dentin resembling normal tubular dentin. Rapidly progressing lesions lead to the production of a tubular dentin or complete absence of tertiary dentin, as well as pulp necrosis and apical...

  13. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Maryam; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Derakhshani, Ali; Kamal-Abadi, Ali Mohammadi; Ebrahimi, Behnam; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2014-03-01

    Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1) digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2) outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3) digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS) in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2. The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  14. Method of increasing efficiency of uranium sorption from acid pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parobek, P.; Hinterholzinger, O.; Baloun, S.; Homolka, V.; Vanek, J.; Vebr, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Acid pulp containing uranium is adjusted to pH 2.5 to 4 with alkaline agents, such as alkaline pulp, lime milk, finely ground limestone or soda, or a combination thereof. The treated pulp is put into contact with an ion exchanger whose pH has been adjuste to a range of 2.5 to 4. Partial pulp neutralization causes the hydrolysis of the iron present and an overall reduction in salt contents and a significant increase in the ion exchanger sorptio capacity and thus the overall sorption efficiency. The quality o the eluate and of the uranium concentrate improves. (B.S.)

  15. Functionalized scaffolds to control dental pulp stem cell fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Evandro; Silva, Adriana F.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging understanding about interactions between stem cells, scaffolds and morphogenic factors has accelerated translational research in the field of dental pulp tissue engineering. Dental pulp stem cells constitute a sub-population of cells endowed with self-renewal and multipotency. Dental pulp stem cells seeded in biodegradable scaffolds and exposed to dentin-derived morphogenic signals give rise to a pulp-like tissue capable of generating new dentin. Notably, dentin-derived proteins are sufficient to induce dental pulp stem cell differentiation into odontoblasts. Ongoing work is focused on developing ways of mobilizing dentin-derived proteins and disinfecting the root canal of necrotic teeth without compromising the morphogenic potential of these signaling molecules. On the other hand, dentin by itself does not appear to be capable of inducing endothelial differentiation of dental pulp stem cells, despite the well known presence of angiogenic factors in dentin. This is particularly relevant in the context of dental pulp tissue engineering in full root canals, where access to blood supply is limited to the apical foramina. To address this challenge, scientists are looking at ways to use the scaffold as a controlled release device for angiogenic factors. The aim of this manuscript is to present and discuss current strategies to functionalize injectable scaffolds and customize them for dental pulp tissue engineering. The long-term goal of this work is to develop stem cell-based therapies that enable the engineering of functional dental pulps capable of generating new tubular dentin in humans. PMID:24698691

  16. Final Technical Report Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starkey, Yvonne; Salminen, Reijo; Karlsnes, Andy

    2008-09-22

    Project Abstract for “Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp” When completed, the patented SC Washer will provide an innovative, energy efficient demonstration project to wash unbleached pulp using a pressure vessel charged with steam. The Port Townsend Paper Corporation’s pulp mill in Port Townsend, WA was initially selected as the host site for conducting the demonstration of the SCW. Due to 2006 and 2007 delays in the project caused by issues with 21st Century Pulp & Paper, the developer of the SCW, and the 2007 bankruptcy proceedings and subsequent restructuring at Port Townsend Paper, the mill can no longer serve as a host site. An alternate host site is now being sought to complete the commercial demonstration of the Steam Cycle Washer for Unbleached Pulp. Additionally, estimated costs to complete the project have more than doubled since the initial estimates for the project were completed in 2002. Additional grant funding from DOE was sought and in July, 2008 the additional DOE funds were procured under a new DOE award, DE-PS36-08GO98014 issued to INL. Once the new host site is secured the completion of the project will begin under the management of INL. Future progress reports and milestone tracking will be completed under requirements of new DOE Award Number DE-PS36-08GO98014. The following are excerpts from the project Peer Review completed in 2006. They describe the project in some detail. Additional information can be found by reviewing DOE Award Number: DE-PS36-08GO98014. 5. Statement of Problem and Technical Barriers: The chemical pulping industry is one of the major users of fresh water in the United States. On average the industry uses over 80 tons of water to produce one ton of pulp, some states use up to 50% more (Washington 120 and Wisconsin 140). In order to process one ton of pulp using 80 tons of process water, a large amount of: • energy is used in process heat and • power is required for pumping the large volume of pulp slurries

  17. Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lips, S.J.J.; Bakker, R.R.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and (mixtures of) glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis

  18. INFLUENCE OF BLEACHING WITH OZONE AND PEROXIDO OF HYDROGEN IN THE YIELD AND QUALITY OF SECONDARY FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Ventorim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Total Chlorine Free (TCF bleaching processes were evaluated for bleaching a secondary fiber of different origens. The samples were bleached to a target brightness of 78 % ISO. The results were interpreted on the basis of chemical cost to reach the target brightness, bleaching yield and bleached pulp quality as measured by viscosity, fluorescence and b* color coordinate. The ozone stage was responsible for improve TCF bleaching performance. The pulp bleached by sequences contained a ozone stage followed by chelation, without interstage washing (ZQ, and a final hydrogen peroxide stage unpressurized (P or pressurized with oxygen (PO, designed as (ZQ(PO showed good results. These sequences decreased pulp b* coordinate significantly and fluorescence slightly. For  all three bleaching processes, it was determined that process yield is negatively affected by hot alkaline stages such as oxygen, O, peroxide, P, and peroxide pressurized with oxygen, (PO and also for the origin of the pulps of secondary fibers.

  19. The Effect of Wood Alignment on Wood Grinding – Part 1: Properties of Pulp and Fines Revealed in the Grinding Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Tapani Saharinen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In industrial wood grinding, logs are pressed against a rotating stone, with the logs and fiber axis parallel to the axis of the stone. The objective of this study is to clarify how the wood alignment affects the process and pulp properties. In this research, wood blocks were fed into a laboratory grinder with various alignments in relation to the surface of the grinding stone. The effects of the alignment on the properties of the pulp and the amount and quality of fines were measured. A grinding mechanism was proposed. The results show that the pulp quality is very sensitive to the angle between the stone surface and the log. In gentle refining, the fiber structure is loosened by fatigue before it is bent on the surface; pressure pulses produce fibrillar material, and fibers develop toward having good bonding ability. In forced grinding, the process is “violent”, and the fiber wears and becomes crushed immediately on the surface into small particles with low bonding ability.

  20. HS-SPME optimization and extraction of volatile compounds from soursop (Annona muricata L. pulp with emphasis on their characteristic impact compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Leticia de SANTANA

    Full Text Available Abstract Aroma and taste are decisive factors in the selection of any food. The aim of this study was to extract the volatile compounds present in soursop (Annona muricata L. pulp by Solid-phase microextraction (SPME technique using 3 different fibers (DVB/CAR/ PDMS, CAR/PDMS and PDMS/DVB. An experimental design was set up to evaluate the best extraction conditions wherein the variables were adsorption temperature, ionic strength and pulp concentration. The separation of volatiles was performed in chromatographic columns of different polarity (polar and non-polar while volatile compounds were identified by analysis in high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry. The results obtained using 3 different fibers revealed the capture of about 40 compounds. The CAR/PDMS fiber was more efficient for the capture of esters and DVB/CAR/PDMS fiber for terpenes. The optimum conditions for capture of higher number of volatiles for polar column were 45 °C for extraction, 15% of ionic strength and 50% of pulp concentration which resulted in separation of 87 compounds. Among the principal character impact compounds from soursop are (E-2-hexenoate, methyl hexenoate and linalool.

  1. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Il; Lee, Bang Yeon

    2015-09-30

    The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber's suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then the tensile strength of fiber was measured according to fiber orientation. The test results showed that basalt fiber has a strong chemical bond with the cementitious matrix, 1.88 times higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol fibers with it. However, other properties of basalt fiber such as slip-hardening coefficient and strength reduction coefficient were worse than PVA and polyethylene fibers in terms of fiber bridging capacity. Theoretical fiber-bridging curves showed that the basalt fiber reinforcing system has a higher cracking strength than the PVA fiber reinforcing system, but the reinforcing system showed softening behavior after cracking.

  2. Multifunctional Next Generation Carbon Nanotube Super Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ait-Haddou, Hassan

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this program was to produce continuous strong CNT-based fibers. The production of continuous fibers was met and we have matched 2/3 of the strength of what has been previously reported with CNT-PAN fibers...

  3. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Histopathological Study of Direct Pulp Capping with Adhesive Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salhenejad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recently, it has been proposed that different adhesive materials can be used for direct pulp capping. Previous studies have demonstrated that multi steps dentin adhesives could form reparative dentin similar to calcium hydroxide (CH.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological pulp response of ninety mechanically exposed cat pulps to two adhesive resins (Scotch Bond MP and Single Bond 3M were compared with a calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal, Dentsply.Materials and Methods : Class V facial cavities with similar pulpal exposures were prepared in canines. In the experimental groups phosphoric acid was used to etch the enamel and dentin and pulp exposure, and after it dentin adhesives was applied. The exposure point of the control group was capped with Dycal then the remainder of the cavities was etched and a dentin adhesive (single bond was applied. All of the cavities were restored with a composite resin (Z 100 in usual manner. The animals were scarified after 7, 30 and 60 days (n=30, and the pulp evaluated histologically, statistical analysis was carried out with Kruskal- Wallis test (a=0.05.Results: The data showed that most of the cases had mild inflammation of pulp tissue.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp by Dycal and two adhesive systems, severe inflammatory reaction of pulp was observed only in most of the 30- day Single Bond group. Soft tissue organization of dentin bridge was less than ScotchBond and Dycal groups, the differentiation of dentin bridge was less than Scotch Bond group after 7 days.Conclusion: Slight inflammatory cell infiltration was the main reaction of exposed pulp when two commercially available adhesive resins were placed directly on the exposed pulp.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp between Dycal and two adhesive systems after 7 days and 60 days. After 7 days most of the specimens showed an amount of predentin

  5. Free toe pulp flap for finger pulp and volar defect reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoshid R Balan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fingertip injury requiring flap cover is very common in the modern era. The ideal cover should fulfill both functional and aesthetic improvement. Materials and Methods: From June 2015 to April 2016, we performed seven free toe pulp flaps for finger defect reconstruction. All patients were males. Five flaps were done in emergency post-traumatic cases, and two were done in elective set up. The cases included reconstruction of three thumbs, one index and one ring finger in an emergency set up and two ring fingers in the elective. Thumb reconstruction was done with great toe lateral pulp and the other digits reconstructed with second toe pulp flap. Follow-up evaluation included both functional and aesthetic assessment. Results: Five flaps survived completely, one suffered partial loss, and one flap failed completely. The median follow-up period was 9 months. The median duration of surgery was 255 min (range 210 to 300 min. The median two-point discrimination was 6.5 mm (range 4–8 mm. There was the return of temperature sensation in all patients; two had cold intolerance. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament score varied from 3.61 to 5.07 (median filament index value 4.31/pressure value of 2 g/mm2. Three patients had delayed donor site wound healing. Conclusions: The free toe pulp flap is an efficient choice for fingertip and volar finger defects reconstruction with an excellent tissue match.

  6. Cell-derived micro-environment helps dental pulp stem cells promote dental pulp regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuexin; Li, Hui; Sun, Jingjing; Luo, Xiangyou; Yang, Hefeng; Xie, Li; Yang, Bo; Guo, Weihua; Tian, Weidong

    2017-10-01

    The function of the dental pulp is closely connected to the extracellular matrix (ECM) structure, and ECM has received significant attention due to its biological functions for regulating cells. As such, the interaction between the ECM niche and cells is worth exploring for potential clinical uses. In this study, dental pulp stem cell (DPSC)-derived ECM (DPM) was prepared through cell culture and decellularization to function as the cell niche, and changes in DPSC behaviour and histological analysis of dental pulp tissue regeneration were evaluated following the DPM culture. DPM promoted the replication of DPSCs and exhibited retention of their mineralization. Then, the DPM-based culture strategy under odontogenic culture medium was further investigated, and the mineralization-related markers showed that DPSCs were regulated towards odontogenic differentiation. Dental pulp-like tissue with well-arranged ECM was harvested after a 2-month subcutaneous implantation in nude mice with DPM application. Additionally, DPSCs cultured on the plastic culture surface showed the up-regulation of mineralization makers in vitro, but there was a disorder in matrix formation and mineralization when the cells were cultured in vivo. DPM-based cultivation could serve as a cell niche and modulate DPSC behaviour, and this method also provided an alternative to harvest tissue-specific ECM and provided a strategy for ECM-cell interaction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effect of degradation of xylan constituent in Mitsumata (Edgeworthia papyrifera Sieb. et Zucc. ) bast on its pulping by pectinolytic enzymes form Erwinia carotovora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Hiroyuki; Matsuo, Ryukichi; Kobayashi, Yoshinari

    1988-01-01

    Pulping of mitsumata (Edgeworthia papyrifera Sieb. et Zucc.) bast by the crude enzyme from a bacterium Erwinia carotovora FERM P-7576, was more effective by a stepwise treatment at pH 6.5 and subsequently at pH 9.5 and eluted greater amount of xylose constituent than a constant pH treatment at pH 9.5 where only the maceration enzymes, endo-pectate lyase and endo-pectin lyase, among the crude enzyme are operative. The crude enzymes obtained from the cultivation of this bacterial strain on mitsumata bast fibers were more effective for the stepwise pH pulping method than those from the cultivation on soluble pectin. Xylanase activity in the mitsumata bast-induced enzyme at pH 6.5 was twice as high as that in the soluble pectin-induced one. The activities of other hemicellulases and cellulase were, high as that in the soluble pectin-induced one. The activities of other hemicellulases and cellulase were, however, independent on the inducing materials. Purified exo-type xylanase prepared from the crude enzyme acted comparably to the entire crude enzyme in the first step of the combination pulping, but the xylanase per se showed no maceration activity. These results suggests that the degradation of xylan constituent within the bast fibers effects the acceleration of the subsequent enzymatic pulping by the pectinolytic maceration enzymes. The maceration mechanism involving xylan degradation was also discussed.

  8. Formulation and characterization of bread using coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour composite with addition of xanthan-gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erminawati; Sidik, W.; Listanti, R.; Zulfakar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Coconut-pulp flour is coconut flour made from by-product of coconut-milk based food products. The flour contains no gluten and high fibre, which can be considered as functional potential food. Bread made from composite-flour of coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour was studied for its physic-chemical and sensory characteristics. Addition of hydrocolloid, like xanthan-gum, was aimed to provide viscoelasticity for the dough which is essential for baked product. Composite-flour proportion used in this study was; 10CPF/90WF, 15CPF/85WF and 20CPF/80WF; and xanthan gum to total flour of 0,1% and 0,4%. Variable observed were; crumb-texture, crumb-colour, taste of coconut, preference and flavour; moisture, ash, fiber and soluble-protein contents. The research showed that addition of coconut-pulp flour in the composite-flour decreased specific volume value and increased the bread texture produced. It also increased the bread moisture-content, ash-content, fibre-content and soluble protein-content. Moreover, the xanthan-gum addition resulted in decreased specific-volume value and increased texture and fiber-content of the bread produced. Overall, the sensory characteristic of crumb colour, flavour and panellist preference revealed better than control bread made from wheat flour, however its crumb texture harder compare to control bread made from wheat flour. This study showed that coconut-pulp flour potential to be developed for production of functional food.

  9. Interappointment emergencies in teeth with necrotic pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaçam, Tayfun; Tinaz, Ali Cemal

    2002-05-01

    The incidence of interappointment emergencies in symptomatic and asymptomatic teeth with necrotic pulps was evaluated, and severity of flare-ups was determined by a quantitative method using a flare-up index. There were no significant differences in the incidence of flare-ups attributable to gender, age, diameter of lesion, taking analgesics, placebos, or no medication, or preoperative symptomatic or asymptomatic tooth diagnoses (p > 0.05). There were significantly more painful flare-ups in mandibular teeth than in maxillary (p < 0.05).

  10. CD146 positive human dental pulp stem cells promote regeneration of dentin/pulp-like structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Mikiko; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Tsutsui, Takeo W

    2018-04-01

    CD146 and STRO-1 are endothelial biomarkers that are co-expressed on the cellular membranes of blood vessels within human dental pulp tissue. This study characterized the percentage of dentin-like structures produced by CD146-positive (CD146 + ) human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), compared with their CD146-negative (CD146 - ) counterparts. DPSC populations were enriched using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), yielding CD146 + and CD146 - cells, as well as mixtures composed of 25% CD146 + cells and 75% CD146 - cells (CD146 +/- ). Cell growth assays indicated that CD146 + cells exhibit an approximate 3-4 h difference in doubling time, compared with CD146 - cells. Cell cycle distributions were determined by flow cytometry analysis. The low percentage of CD146 + cells' DNA content in G 0 /G 1 phase were compared with CD146 - and non-separated cells. In contrast to CD146 - and non-separated cells, prompt mineralization was observed in CD146 + cells. Subsequently, qRT-PCR revealed high mRNA expression of CD146 and Alkaline phosphatase in mineralization-induced CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells were also observed high adipogenic ability by Oil red O staining. Histological examinations revealed an increased area of dentin/pulp-like structures in transplanted CD146 + cells, compared with CD146 - and CD146 +/- cells. Immunohistochemical studies detected dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP1) and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), as well as human mitochondria, in transplanted DPSCs. Co-expression of CD146 and GFP indicated that CD146 was expressed in transplanted CD146 + cells. CD146 + cells may promote mineralization and generate dentin/pulp-like structures, suggesting a role in self-renewal of stem cells and dental pulp regenerative therapy.

  11. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A; Boostani, H R

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended.

  12. Influence of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis on dental pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, K; Disfani, R; Zare, R; Moeintaghavi, A; Ali, Saadat A.; Boostani, H. R

    2012-01-01

    Background: The relationship between periodontal disease and dental pulp changes is controversial and has been debated for many years. This human study was performed to evaluate the possible effects of moderate to advanced periodontal disease on the different aspect of dental pulp structure. Materials and Methods: Twenty hopeless permanent teeth were extracted from systemically healthy adults because of moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis, with a bone loss of >6 mm and a mobility of grade 2 or 3. Upon extraction, the apical 2 to 3 mm of the roots were immediately sectioned. Four to five sections were mounted on each slide, and every third slide was stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were histologically processed and examined by an oral pathologist. Results: Non-inflamed pulp, with partial or complete necrosis in some sections and several non-necrotic sections, was found in only 6.3% of teeth. Most teeth (58.3%) displayed edematous pulps. Slightly fibrotic pulps were seen in 52.1% of sections. Odontoblastic integrity was seen in 31.3% of teeth. Most teeth (77.1%) displayed no pulp stones. In 43.8% of teeth, the pulp vessels displayed dilatation. Conclusions: Moderate to advanced periodontal disease can affect the dental pulp. Careful consideration of diagnostic and treatment planing in patients with endodontic-periodontal involvement is therefore recommended. PMID:23493524

  13. Differentiation ability of rat postnatal dental pulp cells in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Walboomers, X.F.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.W.; Jansen, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The current rapid progression in stem cell research has enhanced our knowledge of dental tissue regeneration. In this study, rat dental pulp cells were isolated and their differentiation ability was evaluated. First, dental pulp cells were obtained from maxillary incisors of male Wistar rats.

  14. 78 FR 38877 - Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 60 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2012-0640] FRL-9829-3 RIN 2060-AR64 Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... comments on the May 23, 2013, proposed rule titled, ``Kraft Pulp Mills NSPS Review'' is being extended by...

  15. Eggshells – assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARAKANA

    In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the ... Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. .... obtain fine powder. ..... using pig waste and cassava peels. ... from bioethanol waste: the effect of pH and urea addition to biogas.

  16. Effect of inclusion of citrus pulp in the diet of finishing swines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Watanabe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of inclusion of citrus pulp in the diet of finishing pigs. In the first trial, 16 Topigs barrows with 80.5±4.7 kg of initial BW were used to evaluate the digestibility of citrus pulp. Having 18.85% of neutral detergent fiber and 41.18% of neutral detergent soluble fiber, citrus pulp showed as a feasible alternative ingredient to be added in the diets of feed restricted finishing pigs. Second trial tested the use of 0, 10, 20, 30% of citrus pulp in the diets of 36-feed-restricted barrows with initial BW of 83.7±5.1 kg. A quadratic trend (P0.05, but a quadratic trend existed on cholesterol serological content.No primeiro ensaio foram utilizados 16 suínos machos castrados da linhagem Topigs, com peso inicial de 80,5±4,7 kg, para a avaliação biológica da polpa cítrica. Por apresentar 18,85% de fibra em detergente neutro e 41,18% de fibra solúvel em detergente neutro, a polpa cítrica mostrou-se como um ingrediente viável a ser utilizado em programas de restrição alimentar qualitativa. No segundo ensaio foram utilizados 36 suínos machos castrados, com peso inicial de 83,7±5,1 kg, recebendo rações com níveis de 0, 10, 20 e 30% de polpa cítrica. Os animais foram abatidos com peso próximo de 130 kg, sendo avaliados quanto ao desempenho e parâmetros séricos. Houve resposta quadrática (P0,05 dos níveis de polpa cítrica sobre a uréia e triacilgliceróis, porém houve resposta quadrática (P<0,05 para o colesterol em função dos níveis de polpa cítrica.

  17. Bonding Properties of Basalt Fiber and Strength Reduction According to Fiber Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Il Choi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The basalt fiber is a promising reinforcing fiber because it has a relatively higher tensile strength and a density similar to that of a concrete matrix as well as no corrosion possibility. This study investigated experimentally the bonding properties of basalt fiber with cementitious material as well as the effect of fiber orientation on the tensile strength of basalt fiber for evaluating basalt fiber’s suitability as a reinforcing fiber. Single fiber pullout tests were performed and then the tensile strength of fiber was measured according to fiber orientation. The test results showed that basalt fiber has a strong chemical bond with the cementitious matrix, 1.88 times higher than that of polyvinyl alcohol fibers with it. However, other properties of basalt fiber such as slip-hardening coefficient and strength reduction coefficient were worse than PVA and polyethylene fibers in terms of fiber bridging capacity. Theoretical fiber-bridging curves showed that the basalt fiber reinforcing system has a higher cracking strength than the PVA fiber reinforcing system, but the reinforcing system showed softening behavior after cracking.

  18. The influence of ripening stage and cultivation system on the total antioxidant activity and total phenolic compounds of yellow passion fruit pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoris, Mariana S; De Marchi, Renata; Janzantti, Natália S; Monteiro, Magali

    2012-07-01

    This work aimed to investigate the influence of both ripening stage and cultivation system on the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and total antioxidant activity (TAA) of passion fruit pulp. TPC extraction was optimized using a 2³ central composed design. The variables were fruit pulp volume, methanol volume and extraction solution volume. TPC was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction, and TAA using the ABTS radical reaction. The conditions to extract TPC were 2 mL passion fruit pulp and 9 mL extraction solution containing 40% methanol:water (v/v). TPC values increased in the passion fruit pulp during ripening for both cultivation systems, ranging from 281.8 to 361.9 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the organic pulp and from 291.0 to 338.6 mg gallic acid L⁻¹ (P ≤ 0.05) for the conventional pulp. TPC values increased during ripening for both organic and conventional passion fruit. The same was true for TAA values for conventional passion fruit. For organic passion fruit, however, TAA values were highest at the initial ripening stages. These results suggest that antioxidant compounds exert strong influence on the initial ripening stages for organic passion fruit, when TPC still did not reach its maximum level. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Path analysis for selection of feijoa with greater pulp weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Donazzolo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper was to identify the direct and indirect effects of feijoa fruits (Acca sellowiana traitson pulp weight, in order to use these traits in indirect genotypes selection. Fruits of five feijoa plants were collected in Rio Grande do Sul, in the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Six traits were evaluated: diameter, length, total weight, pulp weight, peel thickness and number of seeds per fruit. In the path analysis, with or without ridge regression, pulp weight was considered as the basic variable, and the other traits were considered as explanatory variables. Total weight and fruit diameter had high direct effect, and are the main traits associated with pulp weight. These traits may serve as criteria for indirect selection to increase feijoa pulp weight, since they are easy to be measured.

  20. Gamma ray induced chromophore modification of softwood thermomechanical pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, S.; Daneault, C.; Viel, C.; Lepine, F.

    1992-01-01

    This study focuses on bleaching a softwood (black spruce, balsam fur) thermomechanical pulp with gamma rays. Gamma rays are known for their enormous penetrating power, along with their ionizing properties. They can generate highly energetic radicals capable of oxidizing lignin chromophores. The authors studied the influence of isopropyl alcohol, sodium borohydride, oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, nitrogen dioxide and water along with gamma ray irradiation of the pulps. The authors measured the optimal dose and dose rate, along with the influence of the radical scavengers like oxygen on the bleaching effect of gamma irradiated pulps. They observe various degrees of bleaching of these pulps. Evidence relates this bleaching to the generation of perhydroxyl anions upon irradiation of water. Also, they were able to pinpoint the influence of the dose rate on the rate of formation and disappearance of these perhydroxyl anions and their influence on bleaching kinetics. Stability toward photoyellowing, and photoyellowing's kinetic of papers from these pulps was also studied

  1. Holdup time measurement by radioactive tracers in pulp production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roetzer, H.; Donhoffer, D.

    1988-12-01

    A batch of pulp was to be labelled before passing two bleaching towers of a pulp plant. Activated glass fibres were used as a tracer, which contained 24-Na with a half-life of 15 hours. It was shown in laboratory tests, that the glass fibres were suitable for transport studies of wood pulp. For use in the tests the fibres were activated and suspended in water. Due to the small diameter of the fibres (2-5 micrometers) this suspension shows physical properties very similar to the pulp. For detection six scintillation probes were mounted at different positions outside the bleaching tower. Radiation protection during the test was very easy due to the low total activity of the tracer material. Residence time distributions for both towers were measured. The successful tracer experiments show, that the method of labelling is suited for investigations of material transport in the pulp and paper industry. 3 figs., 11 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  2. Microring embedded hollow polymer fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linslal, C. L., E-mail: linslal@gmail.com; Sebastian, S.; Mathew, S.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Girijavallabhan, C. P.; Kailasnath, M. [International School of Photonics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin 22 (India)

    2015-03-30

    Strongly modulated laser emission has been observed from rhodamine B doped microring resonator embedded in a hollow polymer optical fiber by transverse optical pumping. The microring resonator is fabricated on the inner wall of a hollow polymer fiber. Highly sharp lasing lines, strong mode selection, and a collimated laser beam are observed from the fiber. Nearly single mode lasing with a side mode suppression ratio of up to 11.8 dB is obtained from the strongly modulated lasing spectrum. The microring embedded hollow polymer fiber laser has shown efficient lasing characteristics even at a propagation length of 1.5 m.

  3. Application of resin in pulp technique for ion exchange separation of uranium from alkaline leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreenivas, T.; Rajan, K.; Chakravorty, J.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical process for the recovery of uranium from different ores uses ion exchange (IX) technique for the separation of dissolved uranium values. Conventionally, the IX process is carried out on leach solution obtained after the filtration or counter-current decantation of the leach slurries. Amongst the two types of leach pulps generated in uranium ore processing, viz acidic and alkaline, the latter one consists of predominantly fine-size pulps of higher viscosity, thus making the solid-liquid separation an arduous task. Sustained research for improvising the efficiency of various unit operations in the uranium process flowsheet have resulted in advent of new generation resins which are mechanically re-silent, posses higher exchange capacity thereby enabling separation of dissolved uranium ions from the leach pulps directly. Some of the prominent low-grade uranium ore deposits in India are hosted in acid consuming gangue matrix. These ore deposits necessitate fine grinding as well as application of alkaline leaching for the dissolution of uranium values. The leach pulps analyse 500 – 600 mg/l of U3O8 and contain total dissolved solutes (TDS) to the extent of about 50 g/l. Analysis of the characteristics of the leach pulp indicated suitability of resin-in-pulp technique for the separation of uranyl carbonate anions from the leachate. This paper describes the results of the RIP test work on alkaline leach slurry using various commercially available strong base anionic exchange resins. Parametric variation studies were conducted to establish the adsorption isotherm and sorption kinetics followed by elution of loaded uranium. Based on these results semi-continuous experiments on “carousel” mode were carried out. The results indicate superiority of gel type polystyrene based resins grafted with quaternary ammonium ion in comparison to the macro-porous resins. Semi-continuous counter-current extraction and elution tests indicated that about 98% of

  4. Investigation of pulping and paper making potential of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid Ghaffarzadeh Mollabashi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of wood products accompanying with resource constraint has revealed the importance of nonwood based material. In this study, pulping and papermaking potential of three varieties of weeds including Xanthium spinosum, Carthamus tinctorius and Cyperus papyrus have been considered. At first, chemical components of the samples i.e. cellulose, lignin and extractives have been measured following TAPPI standard test methods. Afterwards, pulping process based as soda and Kraft has been carried out and the pulp properties i.e. screen yield and reject, kappa number, caliper, bust index, tear index, brightness have been considered. According to the results, the amount cellulose, lignin and extractives have been measured for the Xanthium spinosum %38.15, %13.5 and 4.72, respectively. Theses parameters have been estimated about %38.25, %10.3 and % 2.95 for Carthamus tinctorius and %38.8, %19.2 and 4.4 in case of papyrus. The yield of soda and Kraft pulp of the papyrus was more than Xanthium spinosum and Carthamus tinctorius. Among all treatments, the highest screen yield related to soda pulping of Cyperus papyrus by %39.8 which has been obtained by 175 centigrade as a maximum temperature, L/W: 6/1, active alkaline: %30 and 90 minutes as the time at temperature. The lowest and highest amounts of the tear index were related to soda pulp sample of the Carthamus tinctorius and Kraft pulp sample of Xanthium spinosum by 2.49 and 8.1, respectively. In addition, the lowest and highest amounts of the bursting index were related to soda pulp sample of the Cyperus papyrus and Kraft pulp sample of Xanthium spinosum by 0.61and 2.48, respectively. Meanwhile, soda pulp sample of the Cyperus papyrus showed the highest amount of brightness with %45 ISO.

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Cryopreserved Pulp Tissues Obtained from Teeth with Irreversible Pulpitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekfar, Azin; Valli, Kusum S; Kanafi, Mohammad Mahboob; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2016-01-01

    Human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are becoming an attractive target for therapeutic purposes because of their neural crest origin and propensity. Although DPSCs can be successfully cryopreserved, there are hardly any reports on cryopreservation of dental pulp tissues obtained from teeth diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis during endodontic treatment and isolation and characterization of DPSCs from such cryopreserved pulp. The aim of this study was to cryopreserve the said pulp tissues to propagate and characterize isolated DPSCs. A medium consisting of 90% fetal bovine serum and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide was used for cryopreservation of pulp tissues. DPSCs were isolated from fresh and cryopreserved pulp tissues using an enzymatic method. Cell viability and proliferation were determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. DPSC migration and interaction were analyzed with the wound healing assay. Mesenchymal characteristics of DPSCs were verified by flow cytometric analysis of cell surface CD markers. The osteogenic and adipogenic potential of DPSCs was shown by von Kossa and oil red O staining methods, respectively, and the polymerase chain reaction method. We found no significant difference in CD marker expression and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of DPSCs obtained from fresh and cryopreserved dental pulp tissue. Our study shows that dental pulp can be successfully cryopreserved without losing normal characteristics and differentiation potential of their DPSCs, thus making them suitable for dental banking and future therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hygroscopic behavior of lyophilized acerola pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Ribeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powder products are characterized by their practicality and long life. However, fruit powders have high hygroscopicity and tend to agglomerate due to its hydrophilic nature. The isotherms of equilibrium moisture content apply to the study of dehydrated food preservation potential. Acerola is a nutritionally rich fruit, with great economic and industrial potential. The objective of this study was to analyse acerola powder adsorption isotherms obtained by lyophilization and characterize the powder obtained from lyophilized acerola pulp. Analysis of hygroscopicity, solubility and degree of caking were performed. Isotherms were represented by the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin, at temperatures of 25, 35 and 45 °C. According to the results, the obtained powder showed hygroscopicity of 5.96 g of absorbed water 100g-1 of solids, solubility of 95.08% and caking of 14.12%. The BET model showed the best fit to the adsorption isotherms of the acerola pulp powder obtained by lyophilization. The obtained isotherm was of type III, with a "J" shape. There was an inversion of the effect of temperature on the isotherms of acerola powders.

  7. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bruun, Thomas S; Poulsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet...

  8. Valorization of residual Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF) by microfluidization: production of nanofibrillated cellulose and EPFBF nanopaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ana; Filpponen, Ilari; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Laine, Janne; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-12-01

    Different cellulose pulps were produced from sulfur-free chemical treatments of Empty Palm Fruit Bunch Fibers (EPFBF), a by-product from palm oil processing. The pulps were microfluidized for deconstruction into nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and nanopaper was manufactured by using an overpressure device. The morphological and structural features of the obtained NFCs were characterized via atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The physical properties as well as the interactions with water of sheets from three different pulps were compared with those of nanopaper obtained from the corresponding NFC. Distinctive chemical and morphological characteristics and ensuing nanopaper properties were generated by the EPFBF fibers. The NFC grades obtained compared favorably with associated materials typically produced from bleached wood fibers. Lower water absorption, higher tensile strengths (107-137 MPa) and elastic modulus (12-18 GPa) were measured, which opens the possibility for valorization of such widely available bioresource. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differential feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in pulp and peel tissues of banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Akitsugu; Liu, Xuejun; Yokotani, Naoki; Yamane, Miki; Lu, Wang-Jin; Nakano, Ryohei; Kubo, Yasutaka

    2007-01-01

    The feedback regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in banana [Musa sp. (AAA group, Cavendish subgroup) cv. Grand Nain] fruit was investigated in an attempt to clarify the opposite effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene action inhibitor, before and after the onset of ripening. 1-MCP pre-treatment completely prevented the ripening-induced effect of propylene in pre-climacteric banana fruit, whereas treatment after the onset of ripening stimulated ethylene production. In pre-climacteric fruit, higher concentrations of propylene suppressed ethylene production more strongly, despite their earlier ethylene-inducing effect. Exposure of the fruit ripened by propylene to 1-MCP increased ethylene production concomitantly with an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase activity and ACC content, and prevented a transient decrease in MA-ACS1 transcripts in the pulp tissues. In contrast, in the peel of ripening fruit, 1-MCP prevented the increase in ethylene production and subsequently the ripening process by reduction of the increase in MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 transcripts and of ACC synthase and ACC oxidase activities. These results suggest that ethylene biosynthesis in ripening banana fruit may be controlled negatively in the pulp tissue and positively in the peel tissue. This differential regulation by ethylene in pulp and peel tissues was also observed for MA-PL, MA-Exp, and MA-MADS genes.

  10. Culture medium modulates the behaviour of human dental pulp-derived cells: Technical Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Lopez-Cazaux

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In vitro approaches have extensively been developed to study reparative dentinogenesis. While dental pulp is a source of unidentified progenitors able to differentiate into odontoblast-like cells, we investigated the effect of two media; MEM (1.8mM Ca and 1mM Pi and RPMI 1640 (0.8mM Ca and 5mM Pi on the behaviour of human dental pulp cells. Our data indicate that MEM significantly increased cell proliferation and markedly enhanced the proportion of -smooth muscle actin positive cells, which represent a putative source of progenitors able to give rise to odontoblast-like cells. In addition, MEM strongly stimulated alkaline phosphatase activity and was found to induce expression of transcripts encoding dentin sialophosphoprotein, an odontoblastic marker, without affecting that of parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone related protein-receptor and osteonectin. In conclusion, these observations demonstrate that not only proliferation but also differentiation into odontoblast-like cells was induced by rich calcium and poor phosphate medium (MEM as compared to RPMI 1640. This study provides important data for the determination of the optimal culture conditions allowing odontoblast-like differentiation in human pulp cell culture.

  11. Absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients in sows as influenced by types and contents of dietary fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, A; Jørgensen, H; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2009-01-01

    crossover design. Variations in dietary concentration and solubility of dietary fiber were obtained by substituting starch-rich wheat and barley in the LF diet with dietary fiber-rich co-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, brewers spent grain, pea hulls, and seed residue, which have......The current investigation was undertaken to study the absorption and plasma concentration of carbohydrate-derived nutrients [glucose, short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and lactate] and the apparent insulin production in sows fed diets containing contrasting types and contents of dietary fiber. Six...... sows were fed 3 experimental diets, low fiber (LF; 177 g of dietary fiber and 44 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), high soluble fiber (HF-S; 429 g of dietary fiber and 111 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), and high insoluble fiber (HF-I; 455 g of dietary fiber and 74 g of soluble fiber/kg of DM), in a repeated...

  12. Whole tree chips for fuel and pulp can cut mill energy costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morey, J

    1979-01-01

    Wood that is decaying and going to waste amounts to over 5 billion tons, enough to replace the present oil consumption of the United States. Environmental thinning--removal of dead, dying, and less desirable trees--leaves room for other trees to grow. Environmental thinning should be acceptable to private landowners, making almost every stand of timber available for energy harvest. Environmental thinning uses a small feller buncher shear, a small to medium grapple skidder, and a whole tree chipper. Five or six men, two or three feller bunchers, two grapple skidders, and a whole tree chipper can produce 250 to 300 green tons of whole tree chips per day and deliver it to an energy plant for $10 to $12 per ton. Demand for wood for energy will raise pulpwood prices unless industry adopts whole tree utilization and environmental thinning. Wood energy provides a market for low grade wood. The whole tree chipper can separate stem chips for pulping and top chips, with bark and foliage, for energy uses. A dirt separator available on the Morbark total Chiparvestor helps remove sand, about 40% of the bark, and about 50% of twigs and foliage. Because the fiber has a value as energy, it will be economical to build better screening systems, providing cleaner pulp chips. After screening, bark will remain, but some mills are converting to 100% bark chips. A study indicates that converting from oil to wood and from roundwood to whole tree chips can result in a savings of $4 to $8 million per year for a 1,000 tpd pulp and paper mill.

  13. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine which resulted in 12.6—21.4% of broken beans. To reduce percentage of broken beans, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and tested a horizontal triple cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine. Material tested was fresh mature Robusta coffee cherries, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content; has classified on 3 levels i.e. unsorted, small and medium, and clean from metal and foreign materials. The result showed that the machine produced 6,340 kg/h in optimal capacity for operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 55.5% whole parchment coffee, 3.66% broken beans, and 1% beans in wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  14. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  15. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Farges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  16. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana chemical (organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process. Composites were evaluated at 28 days of age, after exposition to accelerated carbonation and after 100 soak/dry cycles. Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp. The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Accelerated carbonation promoted the densification of the composites reinforced with sisal organosolv + PP fibres.

  17. Scaffolds to Control Inflammation and Facilitate Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John S.; Moore, Amanda N.; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D.; D’Souza, Rena N.

    2014-01-01

    In dentistry, the maintenance of a vital dental pulp is of paramount importance, as teeth devitalized by root canal treatment may become more brittle and prone to structural failure over time. Advanced carious lesions can irreversibly damage the dental pulp by propagating a sustained inflammatory response throughout the tissue. While the inflammatory response initially drives tissue repair, sustained inflammation has an enormously destructive effect on the vital pulp, eventually leading to total necrosis of the tissue and necessitating its removal. The implications of tooth devitalization have driven significant interest in the development of bioactive materials that facilitate the regeneration of damaged pulp tissues by harnessing the capacity of the dental pulp for self-repair. In considering the process by which pulpitis drives tissue destruction, it is clear that an important step in supporting the regeneration of pulpal tissues is the attenuation of inflammation. Macrophages, key mediators of the immune response, may play a critical role in the resolution of pulpitis due to their ability to switch to a pro-resolution phenotype. This process can be driven by the resolvins, a family of molecules derived from fatty acids that show great promise as therapeutic agents. In this review, we outline the importance of preserving the capacity of the dental pulp to self-repair through the rapid attenuation of inflammation. Potential treatment modalities, such as shifting macrophages to a pro-resolving phenotype with resolvins are described, and a range of materials known to support the regeneration of dental pulp are presented. PMID:24698696

  18. Microarray expression profiling of human dental pulp from single subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tete, Stefano; Mastrangelo, Filiberto; Scioletti, Anna Paola; Tranasi, Michelangelo; Raicu, Florina; Paolantonio, Michele; Stuppia, Liborio; Vinci, Raffaele; Gherlone, Enrico; Ciampoli, Cristian; Sberna, Maria Teresa; Conti, Pio

    2008-01-01

    Microarray is a recently developed simultaneous analysis of expression patterns of thousand of genes. The aim of this research was to evaluate the expression profile of human healthy dental pulp in order to find the presence of genes activated and encoding for proteins involved in the physiological process of human dental pulp. We report data obtained by analyzing expression profiles of human tooth pulp from single subjects, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA. Experiments were performed on a high-density array able to analyse about 21,000 oligonucleotide sequences of about 70 bases in duplicate, using an approach based on the amplification of the total RNA from the pulp of a single tooth. Obtained data were analyzed using the S.A.M. system (Significance Analysis of Microarray) and genes were merged according to their molecular functions and biological process by the Onto-Express software. The microarray analysis revealed 362 genes with specific pulp expression. Genes showing significant high expression were classified in genes involved in tooth development, protoncogenes, genes of collagen, DNAse, Metallopeptidases and Growth factors. We report a microarray analysis, carried out by extraction of total RNA from specimens of healthy human dental pulp tissue. This approach represents a powerful tool in the study of human normal and pathological pulp, allowing minimization of the genetic variability due to the pooling of samples from different individuals.

  19. Biotechnological applications of pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Mojsov, Kiro

    2012-01-01

    This work represents a review of applications of alkaline pectinases in textile processing and bioscouring of cotton fibers, the nature of pectin and pectic supstances, and production of alkaline pectinases from various microorganisms. Over the years alkaline pectinases have been used in several industrial processes, such as textile and plant fiber processing, paper and pulp industry, oil extraction, coffee and tea fermentations,poultry feed and treatment of industrial wastewater containing p...

  20. Thermal performance of sisal fiber-cement roofing tiles for rural constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Tonoli,Gustavo Henrique Denzin; Santos,Sérgio Francisco dos; Rabi,José Antonio; Santos,Wilson Nunes dos; Savastano Junior,Holmer

    2011-01-01

    Roofing provides the main protection against direct solar radiation in animal housing. Appropriate thermal properties of roofing materials tend to improve the thermal comfort in the inner ambient. Nonasbestos fiber-cement roofing components reinforced with cellulose pulp from sisal (Agave sisalana) were produced by slurry and dewatering techniques, with an optional addition of polypropylene fibers. Nonasbestos tiles were evaluated and compared with commercially available asbestos-cement sheet...

  1. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  2. Short communication: Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs fed diet replacing corn with orange pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Paya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with orange pulp (OP) on growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs. Twenty male lambs were placed in individual pens and fed with four levels of replacement...... fiber showed a quadratic effect with the level of replacement. The results of the present study showed that replacement of corn by OP improves DMI of fattening lambs, leading to an enhancement in ADG at the replacement level of 40.3%. Also, total replacement of corn by OP did not have any adverse effect...

  3. Air-Cured Fiber-Cement Composite Mixtures with Different Types of Cellulose Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Murat Soydan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This present study was carried out to check the feasibility of different cellulose fibers obtained from cropped virgin cellulose, blenched eucalyptus, and araucaria pulps through different new environmentally friendly curing processes for fiber-cement production. The aim is to introduce the different sources of cellulose fibers with lower cost to produce the “fiber-cement without autoclave” (FCWA. The slurries used in the experiments contain approximately 8% wt. of cellulose. The influence of the waste marble powder addition to the cement mixture was also studied. The physical and mechanical properties of the products which were prepared with this method under different curing conditions were investigated. The mechanical properties of eucalyptus cellulose appear to offer the best combination, especially after longer air-cure cycles. The results showed that the production of FCWA is very economical by using waste marble powders. And moreover, two new types of cellulose fibers (eucalyptus and araucaria celluloses; EuC and ArC, resp., which provide a better density and packing in the fiber-cement leading to better modulus of rupture (MOR and modulus of elasticity (MOE values as virgin cellulose (ViC, are very usable for production of the fiber-cement in industrial scale.

  4. Synthesis and photobactericidal properties of a neutral porphyrin grafted onto lignocellulosic fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nzambe Ta keki, Jean Kerim; Ouk, Tan-Sothéa [Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Zerrouki, Rachida [Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Centre de Recherche sur les Matériaux Lignocellulosiques, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 3351 boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, QC G9A 5H7 (Canada); Faugeras, Pierre-Antoine; Sol, Vincent [Laboratoire de chimie des substances naturelles, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France); Brouillette, François [Centre de Recherche sur les Matériaux Lignocellulosiques, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, 3351 boul. des Forges, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivières, QC G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2016-05-01

    Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT), as one of the promising alternative antimicrobial treatment, has received great attention in recent years. In this work, a new antimicrobial material has been elaborated by grafting a neutral porphyrin, the metallated 5-(4-azidophenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrin, onto lignocellulosic fibers by using the Copper (I)-Catalyzed Alkyne-Azide 1,3-dipolar Cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. The cross-linked porphyrin-Kraft pulp material was characterized by infrared and by XPS spectroscopy analyses, which proved the covalent linkage between the porphyrin and propargylated Kraft pulp fibers. The antimicrobial activity of this material was tested under visible light irradiation with a low light dose (9.5 J/cm{sup 2}) against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The two bacterial strains deposited on the resulting photosensitizing Kraft pulp are efficiently killed after illumination. Such materials could find applications in industrial, household and medical environments as an alternative to overcome the widespread microbial multiresistance to classical treatments. - Highlights: • Elaboration of new antimicrobial paper • Grafting of porphyrin on lignocellulosic fibers using click chemistry • Modification of Kraft pulp fibers, using water as solvent.

  5. Production of cellulose nanofibrils from bleached eucalyptus fibers by hyperthermostable endoglucanase treatment and subsequent microfluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangxia Wang; Michael D. Mozuch; Ronald C. Sabo; Phil Kersten; J.Y. Zhu; Yongcan Jin

    2015-01-01

    A GH5 hyperthermostable endoglucanase from the archaeon Pyrococcus honkoshii (ph-GH5) and a commercial endoglucanase FR were used to treat bleached eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to produce cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) through subsequent microfluidization Enzymatic treatments facilitated CNF production due to the reduced degree of polymerization (DP)...

  6. Effects of wet-pressing-induced fiber hornification on enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.L. Luo; Junyong Zhu; Roland Gleisner; H.Y. Zhan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the effect of wet-pressing-induced fiber hornification on enzymatic saccharification of lignocelluloses. A wet cellulosic substrate of bleached kraft eucalyptus pulp and two wet sulfite-pretreated lignocellulosic substrates of aspen and lodgepole pine were pressed to various moisture (solids) contents by variation of pressing pressure and pressing...

  7. 2009 Wood and Fiber Product Seminar : VTT and USDA joint activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Harlin; Minna Vikman

    2010-01-01

    Foward -- The development of high-value wood and fiber products is one of the most important challenges currently facing the forest industry. Traditional pulp and paper products are on a critical path in developed countries with prices and markets decreasing. Finland and the USA have faced the same problem, which is a fundamental reason for Industrial Biomaterials...

  8. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1 digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2 outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3 digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2 . The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results indicated that by the first method a few cell colonies with homogenous morphology were detectable after 4 days, while in the outgrowth method more time was needed (10-12 days to allow sufficient numbers of heterogeneous phenotype stem cells to migrate out of tissue. Interestingly, with the improved third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. Conclusion: This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  9. Fiber breakage phenomena in long fiber reinforced plastic preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chao-Tsai; Tseng, Huan-Chang; Chang, Rong-Yeu; Vlcek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Due to the high demand of smart green, the lightweight technologies have become the driving force for the development of automotives and other industries in recent years. Among those technologies, using short and long fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) to replace some metal components can reduce the weight of an automotive significantly. However, the microstructures of fibers inside plastic matrix are too complicated to manage and control during the injection molding through the screw, the runner, the gate, and then into the cavity. This study focuses on the fiber breakage phenomena during the screw plastification. Results show that fiber breakage is strongly dependent on screw design and operation. When the screw geometry changes, the fiber breakage could be larger even with lower compression ratio. (paper)

  10. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF CMP PULP USING MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Zeinaly

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional bleaching of hardwood CMP pulp with magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH2 show significant benefits over bleaching with sodium hydroxide (NaOH under various conditions. Magnesium hydroxide bleaching generate higher optical properties, higher pulp yield and lower effluent COD at the same chemical charge, but the physical properties were found to be similar for both processes. The initial freeness of the bleached pulps and refining value to reach a target freeness (about 350 ml. CSF were more for the Mg(OH2-based process. The residual peroxide of filtrate from the Mg(OH2-based process was very high as compared to conventional bleaching.

  11. Enzyme Enhanced Protein Recovery from Green Biomass Pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dotsenko, Gleb; Lange, Lene

    2017-01-01

    of local protein resources based on upgrade from e.g. green plant biomass. In present work we consider different strategies for protein recovery from white clover and ryegrass screw press pulps, using aqueous extraction, as well as carbohydrases and proteases enhanced extraction. Protein recovery...... in these studies was determined as a yield of solubilized protein with regard to the total protein in a screw press pulp. Aqueous extraction at pH 8.0 resulted in approx. 40 % protein recovery, while proteases application (Savinase 16.0L, Novozymes) enabled twice higher protein yield. Application of plant cell...... pulp proteolyzates, generated by Savinase 16.0L protease....

  12. Competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naisy Silva Soares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to analyze the competitiveness of wood pulp production in different Brazilian states, in May, 2008 (Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia, using the Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The results obtained indicated that the private and social profitability of wood pulp production and commercialization was positive and greater in Bahia. The Brazilian companies were penalized by public policies adopted for the sector; the wood pulp production in São Paulo and Bahia were more competitive and less exposed to the negative effects of public policies that reduce the national company profits.

  13. Using renewable sources in the pulp and paper mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, Aneta; Hazi, Gheorghe

    2007-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry is a major consumer of natural sources (wood) and energy (fossil fuels, electricity) and a significant contributor of pollutant discharges to the environment. In this paper there are presented pulp and paper making process and steam and power generation using renewable sources. This paper includes also an exergy analysis of the steam and power generation process for a pulp and paper mill. Based on the analysis, two sustainability indicators were calculated: the exergetic efficiency and the exergy renewability. (authors)

  14. ON THE RECOVERY OF HEMICELLULOSE BEFORE KRAFT PULPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vila,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility of implementing hemicellulose recovery stages in kraft mills, Eucalyptus globulus wood samples were subjected to aqueous treatments with hot, compressed water (autohydrolysis processing to achieve partial dissolution of xylan. Autohydrolyzed solids were subjected to kraft pulping under selected conditions to yield a pulp of low kappa number, and to an optimized TCF bleaching sequence made up of three stages (alkaline oxygen delignification, chelating, and pressurized hydrogen peroxide, with minimized additions of pulping and bleaching chemicals. The final product had a relatively low kappa number (1.4, 641 mL/g ISO intrinsic viscosity, and 86.4% brightness.

  15. Optimization of Dithionite Bleaching of High Yield Bagasse Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.

    2005-01-01

    High yield bagasse pulp was prepared by soaking bagasse in 10 % cold sodium hydroxide for 24 hours and then refluxing for two hours at 95 degree C. Optimization of dithionite bleaching was attained by investigation of different parameters as consistency, temperature, time and ph. Effect of additives as chelating agent (EDTA) or stabilizing of bleaching solution (Zn compound and hexamethylene tetramine) was considered. The effect of air content was also studied. One and two stages bleaching of the pulp were investigated by using sodium dithionite (D) as a sole bleaching agent or after application of one stage bleaching by hydrogen peroxide to attain high brightness for high yield pulp

  16. Two Fiber Optical Fiber Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Mathew R.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Breeding, Shawn P.

    2000-01-01

    An optical fiber thermometer consists of an optical fiber whose sensing tip is given a metallic coating. The sensing tip of the fiber is essentially an isothermal cavity, so the emission from this cavity will be approximately equal to the emission from a blackbody. Temperature readings are obtained by measuring the spectral radiative heat flux at the end of the fiber at two wavelengths. The ratio of these measurements and Planck's Law are used to infer the temperature at the sensing tip. Optical fiber thermometers have high accuracy, excellent long-term stability and are immune to electromagnetic interference. In addition, they can be operated for extended periods without requiring re-calibration. For these reasons. it is desirable to use optical fiber thermometers in environments such as the International Space Station. However, it has recently been shown that temperature readings are corrupted by emission from the fiber when extended portions of the probe are exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper will describe several ways in which the reading from a second fiber can be used to correct the corrupted temperature measurements. The accuracy and sensitivity to measurement uncertainty will be presented for each method.

  17. Stone-ground wood pulp-reinforced polypropylene composites: Water uptake and thermal properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Pere López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two of the drawbacks of using natural-based composites in industrial applications are thermal instability and water uptake capacity. In this work, mechanical wood pulp was used to reinforce polypropylene at a level of 20 to 50 wt. %. Composites were mixed by means of a Brabender internal mixer for both non-coupled and coupled formulations. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA were used to determine the thermal properties of the composites. The water uptake behavior was evaluated by immersion of the composites in water until an equilibrium state was reached. Results of water absorption tests revealed that the amount of water absorption was clearly dependent upon the fiber content. The coupled composites showed lower water absorption compared to the uncoupled composites. The incorporation of mechanical wood pulp into the polypropylene matrix produced a clear nucleating effect by increasing the crystallinity degree of the polymer and also increasing the temperature of polymer degradation. The maximum degradation temperature for stone ground wood pulp–reinforced composites was in the range of 330 to 345 ºC.

  18. Cationic polyacrylamide enhancing cellulase treatment efficiency of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Liu, Shanshan; Yang, Guihua; Chen, Jiachuan; Ni, Yonghao

    2015-05-01

    Cellulase treatment for decreasing viscosity and increasing Fock reactivity of dissolving pulp is a promising approach to reduce the use of toxic chemicals, such as hypochlorite in the dissolving pulp manufacturing process in the industry. Improving the cellulase treatment efficiency during the process is of practical interest. In the present study, the concept of using cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) to enhance the cellulase treatment efficiency was demonstrated. This was mainly attributed to the increased cellulase adsorption onto cellulose fibers based on the patching/bridging mechanism. Results showed that the cellulase adsorption was increased by about 20% with the addition of 250 ppm of CPAM under the same conditions as those of the control. It was found that the viscosity decrease and Fock reactivity increase for the cellulase treatment was enhanced from using CPAM. The CPAM-assisted cellulase treatment concept may provide a practical alternative to the present hypochlorite-based technology for viscosity control in the industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [In vitro and in vivo effects of mango pulp (Mangifera indica cv. Azucar) in colon carcinogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Bernal, Andrea; Amparo Urango, Luz; Rojano, Benjamín; Maldonado, Maria Elena

    2014-03-01

    Mango pulp contains ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoids and fiber which are healthy and could protect against colon cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and preventive capacity of an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica cv. Azúcar on a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (SW480) and in a rodent model of colorectal cancer, respectively. The content of total phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids were also analyzed in the extract. SW480 cell growth was inhibited in a dose and time dependent manner by 22.3% after a 72h exposure to the extract (200 µg/ mL). Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Balb/c mice by two intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM) at the third and fourth week of giving mango in drinking water (0.3%, 0.6%, 1.25%). After 10 weeks of treatment, in the colon of mice receiving 0.3% mango, aberrant crypt foci formation was inhibited more than 60% (p=0,05) and the inhibition was dose-dependent when compared with controls receiving water. These results show that mango pulp, a natural food, non toxic, part of human being diet, contains bioactive compounds able to reduce growth of tumor cells and to prevent the appearance of precancerous lesions in colon during carcinogenesis initiation.

  20. Cellulose Nanocomposites by Melt Compounding of TEMPO-Treated Wood Fibers in Thermoplastic Starch Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cobut

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate melt compounding of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF based composites, wood pulp fibers were subjected to a chemical treatment whereby the fibers were oxidized using 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO. This treatment introduced negatively charged carboxylate groups to the fibers. TEMPO-treated fibers (TempoF were added to a mixture of amylopectin starch, glycerol, and water. Granules were prepared from this mixture and processed into CNF composites by extrusion. TempoF were easier to process into composites as compared with non-treated pulp fibers (PF. SEM revealed partial disintegration of TempoF during melt processing. Consequently, TempoF gave composites with much better mechanical properties than those of conventional composites prepared from pulp fibers and TPS. Particularly, at 20 wt% TempoF content in the composite, the modulus and strength were much improved. Such a continuous melt processing route, as an alternative to laboratory solvent casting techniques, may promote large-scale production of CNF-based composites as an environmentally friendly alternative to synthetic plastics/composites.

  1. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  2. Can Acceptable Pulp be Obtained from Eucalyptus globulus Wood Chips after Hemicellulose Extraction?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco López; M. Trinidad García; Vicente Mena; J. Mauricio Loaiza; Minerva A. M. Zamudio; Juan C. García

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the operating conditions used in the soda-anthraquinone pulping of Eucalyptus globulus wood after autohydrolysis pretreatment on the yield, kappa number, and brightness of the resulting unbleached pulp. Moreover, strength-related properties of the resulting handsheets was examined to identify the best pulping conditions and compare the outcome with that of a conventional soda-anthraquinone pulping process. The paper strength properties of the pulp were similar to or be...

  3. Risk factors for respiratory work disability in a cohort of pulp mill workers exposed to irritant gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torén Kjell

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between chronic respiratory diseases and work disability has been demonstrated a number of times over the past 20 years, but still little is known about work disability in occupational cohorts of workers exposed to respiratory irritants. This study investigated job or task changes due to respiratory problems as an indicator of work disability in pulp mill workers occupationally exposed to irritants. Methods Data about respiratory symptoms and disease diagnoses, socio-demographic variables, occupational exposures, gassing episodes, and reported work changes due to respiratory problems were collected using a questionnaire answered by 3226 pulp mill workers. Information about work history and departments was obtained from personnel files. Incidence and hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The incidence of respiratory work disability among these pulp mill workers was 1.6/1000 person-years. The hazard ratios for respiratory work disability were increased for workers reporting gassings (HR 5.3, 95% CI 2.7-10.5 and for those reporting physician-diagnosed asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis, when analyzed in the same model. Conclusions This cohort study of pulp mill workers found that irritant peak exposure during gassing episodes was a strong predictor of changing work due to respiratory problems, even after adjustment for asthma, chronic bronchitis, and chronic rhinitis.

  4. Overexpression of Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products and High-Mobility Group Box 1 in Human Dental Pulp Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salunya Tancharoen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, a nonhistone DNA-binding protein, is released into the extracellular space and promotes inflammation. HMGB1 binds to related cell signaling transduction receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE, which actively participate in vascular and inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether RAGE and HMGB1 are involved in the pathogenesis of pulpitis and investigate the effect of Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia lipopolysaccharide (LPS on RAGE and HMGB1 expression in odontoblast-like cells (OLC-1. RAGE and HMGB1 expression levels in clinically inflamed dental pulp were higher than those in healthy dental pulp. Upregulated expression of RAGE was observed in odontoblasts, stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells, and endothelial-like cell lining human pulpitis tissue. Strong cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity was noted in odontoblasts, whereas nuclear HMGB1 immunoreactivity was seen in stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells in human pulpitis tissue. LPS stimulated OLC-1 cells produced HMGB1 in a dose-dependent manner through RAGE. HMGB1 translocation towards the cytoplasm and secretion from OLC-1 in response to LPS was inhibited by TPCA-1, an inhibitor of NF-κB activation. These findings suggest that RAGE and HMGB1 play an important role in the pulpal immune response to oral bacterial infection.

  5. Evaluation of Pulp and Paper Properties obtained from Maple Juvenile Wood through Organosolv Alcohol Method Catalyzed by Calcium and Magnesium Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Naghdi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The properties of catalyzed organosolv pulp obtained from maple juvenile wood were studied. The physical properties of fiber (e.g. length, width, and cell membrane thickness and chemical composition of maple juvenile wood (e.g. average cellulose, lignin, extractives, and ash content were determined. The variables were cooking temperature (190 and 200 ºC and time (40, 60, and 80 minutes. Chemical charge ( 280 ml methanol, 70 ml water, and 0.025 mols of Calcium Chloride and Magnesium Nitrate was kept constant. Pulp screen yields (54.9 to 60.91% and Kappa No. (15.5 to 18.4 were measured. Pulp freeness was reduced to 350 ml CSF in PFI mill, and ten 60 g/m2 handsheets were made from the selected pulps. The strength properties of catalyzed organosolv handsheets including tear length (3.83 to 4.25 km, tear index (10.22 to 12.81 mN.m2/g, and burst index (1.74 to 2.15 kPa.m2/g were compared with those of the conventional Kraft handsheets of maple juvenile wood. The least allowed values of the mentioned properties in the Indian (IS and Japanese international standards (JIS reveal that while the tear length value is slightly below that of the standards, the values of tear and burst indices are well beyond the given standards, and the environmentally-friendly catalyzed organosolv pulping process (higher yield and lower Kappa No. compared to Kraft can be recommended to produce paper pulp from maple juvenile wood.

  6. [Correlation between dental pulp demyelination degree and pain visual analogue scale scores data under acute and chronic pulpitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsantiia, N B; Davarashvili, X T; Gogiashvili, L E; Mamaladze, M T; Tsagareli, Z G; Melikadze, E B

    2013-05-01

    The aim of study is the analysis of pulp nerve fibers demyelination degree and its relationship with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score that may be measured as objective criteria. Material and methods of study. Step I: electron micrografs of dental pulp simples with special interest of myelin structural changes detected in 3 scores system, obtained from 80 patients, displays in 4 groups: 1) acute and 2) chronic pulpitis without and with accompined systemic deseases, 20 patients in each group. Dental care was realized in Kutaisi N1 Dental clinic. Step II - self-reported VAS used for describing dental pain. All data were performed by SPSS 10,0 version statistics including Spearmen-rank and Mann-Whitny coefficients for examine the validity between pulp demyelination degree and pain intensity in verbal, numbered and box scales. Researched Data were shown that damaged myelin as focal decomposition of membranes and Schwann cells hyperthrophia correspond with acute dental pain intensity as Spearman index reported in VAS numbered Scales, myelin and axoplasm degeneration as part of chronic gangrenous pulpitis disorders are in direct correlation with VAS in verbal, numbered and behavioral Rating Scales. In fact, all morphological and subjective data, including psychomotoric assessment of dental painin pulpitis may be used in dental practice for evaluation of pain syndrome considered personal story.

  7. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongphitee, Kanokwan; Sommart, Kritapon; Phonbumrung, Thamrongsak; Gunha, Thidarat; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-13

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design. Three dietary treatments using different proportions of cassava pulp (100, 300 and 500 g/kg dry matter basis) instead of rice straw as a base in a fermented total mixed ration were applied. Animals were placed in a metabolic pen equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system to determine total digestibility and energy balance. The average daily weight gain, digestible intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and non-fiber carbohydrate, total protozoa, energy intake, energy retention and energy efficiency increased linearly (p energy excretion in the urine (p energy requirement for the maintenance of yearling Thai native cattle, determined by a linear regression analysis, was 399 kJ/kg BW0.75, with an efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for growth of 0.86. Our results demonstrated that increasing the proportion of cassava pulp up to 500 g/kg of dry matter as a base in a fermented total mixed ration is an effective strategy for improving productivity in zebu cattle.

  8. Nutrient contents of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of vitellaria paradoxa of Gulu District, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oryema, Christine; Oryem-Origa, Hannington; Roos, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn locally known as ‘Yaa’ in Acholi is a valuable edible indigenous wild fruit in Gulu District, northern Uganda. It is a multipurpose fruit tree and highly favoured by the inhabitants of this district. Its fruit pulps are eaten when fresh and/or made into cakes and dried....... This study determined the nutrient compositions of the fresh pulps and dried pulp cakes of V. paradoxa. Laboratory analyses were undertaken to determine the micro and macro nutrients in the samples on fresh (FM) and dry matter (DM) basis following standard procedures and protocols. The potassium, sodium...

  9. On the possibility of separation of valuable components from chloride pulps by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chub, A.V.; Zelenkov, B.N.; Zakharov, V.F.; Drobot, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility has been studied of extracting MCl 5 (M=Nb, Ta) from technical products (chloride pulps in TiCl 4 ) by filtration. It has been established that in a low temperature range (( 5 . With increasing temperature a mutual presence of niobium and tantalum chlorides decreases the total content of MCl 5 in the solution. It has also been found that the filtration rate is proportional to pressure; besides, ''the aged'' precipitates possess worse filtrating properties due to particle destruction. Materials of the fiber glass fabric type are a good base for applying the precipitate. At a layer thickness of the chloride (MCl 5 ) precipitate about 20 mm a sufficiently high filtration rate is ensured

  10. Pulp Stone, Haemodialysis, End-stage Renal Disease, Carotid Atherosclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Santosh; Sinha, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of pulp calcification and carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiographs in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients who were on haemodialysis.

  11. UTILIZATION OF Prosopis afiicana PULP FOR RABBIT FEEDING: 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBB

    The formulated diets contained similar crude protein content of 18%. The apparent ... These results indicate that Prosopis africana pulp can completely replace maize in the diets of ... serum albumin were determined by Biuret reactions. (Bush ...

  12. Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement | Ackom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Processing pineapple pulp into dietary fibre supplement. ... The pasting characteristics or properties of wheat flour fortified with the product up to 20 ... of some popular foods to help increase the fibre intake and health of the general population.

  13. Effects of feeding cassava pulp fermented with Acremonium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acer

    2017-01-27

    #, T. .... Briefly, 10 kg steamed cassava pulp (87.5% DM) was soaked with sterile water (1 : 1). .... The data on digestibility and retention of broilers are presented in Table 3. .... Taken together, the antioxidant capacity of A.

  14. Partial pulp necrosis caused by excessive orthodontic force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Young Kim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As the dental pulp is encased with a rigid, noncompliant shell, changes in pulpal blood flow or vascular tissue pressure can have serious implication for the health of pulp. Numerous studies have demonstrated that orthodontic force application may influence both blood flow and cellular metabolism, leading degenerative and/or inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. The aim of this case report is to present a case about tooth with chronic periapical abscess which showed normal vital responses. Excessive orthodontic force is thought to be the prime cause of partial pulp necrosis. Owing to remaining vital tissue, wrong dianosis can be made, and tooth falsely diagnosed as vital may be left untreated, causing the necrotic tissue to destroy the supporting tissuses. Clinician should be able to utilize various diagnostic tools for the precise diagnosis, and be aware of the endodontic-orthodontic inter-relationship.

  15. Proximate and Mineral Composition of the Pulp of Chrysophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2014-11-13

    Nov 13, 2014 ... The results showed that the fruit pulp of Chrysophyllum albidum contained essential ... seed of the plant is a good source of oil which is ... Sample Collection and Treatment ... AAS machine due to its good precision and.

  16. NIRS Characterization of Paper Pulps to Predict Kappa Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Moral

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most abundant food crops in the world and its straw stands as an important source of fibres both from an economic and an environmental point of view. Pulp characterization is of special relevance in works involving alternative raw materials, since pulp properties are closely linked to the quality of the final product. One of the analytical techniques that can be used in pulp characterization is near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. The use of NIRS has economic and technical advantages over conventional techniques. This paper aims to discuss the convenience of using NIRS to predict Kappa number in rice straw pulps produced under different conditions. We found that the resulting Kappa number can be acceptably estimated by NIRS, as the errors obtained with that method are similar to those found for other techniques.

  17. Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors influencing cassava - pulp fermentation period for gari processing among ... Result of probit model analysis at 5% significance level shows an R value ... Marital status (2.236**) and respondents' cultural influences (1.960**) were ...

  18. Claustral single cell reactions to tooth pulp stimulation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P; Sikora, M; Frydrychowski, A; Słoniewski, P

    1983-01-01

    Single unit activity in the central region of the claustrum, evoked by electrical stimulation of tooth pulp or paws was studied on cats under chloralose anesthesia. The majority of cells responded in similar manner to stimulation of tooth pulp or paws, but there were cells with clear preference to a given type of stimulation. Latencies of reactions evoked by tooth pulp stimulation were significantly shorter than those for limb stimulation. In the former case latencies as short as 8 rns were observed. It is postulated that the central region of the claustrum receives a projection from the tooth pulp, and that in those cases with very short latency the projection is direct and does not involve the cerebral cortex.

  19. Prevalence and Analysis of Factors Related to Occurrence of Pulp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    between pulp stone and pristine posterior teeth, chronic periodontitis and posterior teeth ... Conclusion: It is recommended that researchers should pay special care in case selections, and ... (1982) reported a PS prevalence rate of 20.7 % in.

  20. Celulose monossulfito a partir de Bambusa vulgaris schrad Alkaline monosulphite pulping of Bambusa vulgaris schrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anísio Azzini

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Em condições de laboratório foram produzidas pastas celulósicas pelo processo alcalino monossulfito, com várias concentrações dos reagentes químicos, sulfito de sódio e licor-verde sulfato. As propriedades dessas celuloses foram comparadas com aquelas da celulose obtida pelo processo sulfato (kraft de uso generalizado pela indústria de celulose e papel. As características físico-mecânicas e ópticas das celuloses monossulfito e sulfato foram satisfatórias e semelhantes, com exceção da resistência ao rasgo, que na celulose sulfato foi maior. Os cavacos utilizados, nas dimensões de 5,5 x 0,8 x 0,5cm, respectivamente para comprimento, largura e espessura, foram adequados ao processo sulfato e inadequados às condições do processo monossulfito, que produziu celulose com menor rendimento depurado, maior porcentagem de rejeitos e maior teor de lignina residual nas fibras, determinado pelo número kappa. A densidade básica e as dimensões das fibras variaram no sentido radial do colmo, principalmente a densidade básica, cujos valores decresceram acentuadamente da camada externa para a interna.Pulps in laboratory conditions were obtained from Bambusa vulgaris Schrad by the alkaline monosulphite process, with various concentrations of the cooking chemicals. The strength properties of these pulps were compared to those obtained by the sulphate process. The results showed that both pulps were similar, excepting the tear resistance that was higher in the sulphate one. It was observed that chips with 5.5 x 0.8 x 0.5cm, respectively to the length, width and thickness were appropriated to the sulphate process but not to the conditions of the alkaline monosulphate process, which produced pulps with low values in terms of screening yield, percentage of screenings and kappa number. The variability of bamboo culm in the radial direction was also determined regarding basic density and fiber dimensions. The results showed variations in those

  1. Timing of pulp extirpation for replanted avulsed teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stewart, Chris

    2009-01-01

    A search was performed (April 2004) across four databases, namely Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Web of Science, relevant to the proposed PICO ( Patient or problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) question: (P) for a replanted avulsed permanent tooth, (I) is early pulp extirpation within 10-14 days of replantation, (C) compared with delayed pulp extirpation, (O) associated an increased likelihood of successful periodontal healing after tooth replantation. Only articles published in the English language were considered.

  2. Pectin methyl esterase activity in apple and orange pulps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, A.; Djumaev, B.B.; Djumaev, N.B.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.

    2008-01-01

    The results of pectin methyl esterase activity from apple, orange pulp and orange peel depending of ph and temperature are discussed. It's shown that the methyl esterase activity form apple and orange pulps higher in range of temperatures from +37...+60 d ig C . The analysis of dependence of its activity from ph has shown that in both case the enzyme activity increase with increase of ph

  3. Pulp fictions of medieval England: Essays in popular romance

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Middle English popular romance is the most audacious and compendious testimony to the imaginary world of the English Middle Ages. Yet, with few exceptions, it remains under read and under studied. Pulp fictions of medieval England demonstrates that popular romance merits and rewards serious critical attention and that it is crucial to our understanding of the complex and conflicted world of medieval England. Pulp fictions of medieval England comprises ten essays on individual romances that, w...

  4. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwint?, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-01-01

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be p...

  5. Pulp-dentin Regeneration: Current State and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y; Song, M; Kim, E; Shon, W; Chugal, N; Bogen, G; Lin, L; Kim, R H; Park, N-H; Kang, M K

    2015-11-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to reinstate normal pulp function in necrotic and infected teeth that would result in reestablishment of protective functions, including innate pulp immunity, pulp repair through mineralization, and pulp sensibility. In the unique microenvironment of the dental pulp, the triad of tissue engineering would require infection control, biomaterials, and stem cells. Although revascularization is successful in resolving apical periodontitis, multiple studies suggest that it alone does not support pulp-dentin regeneration. More recently, cell-based approaches in endodontic regeneration based on pulpal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated promising results in terms of pulp-dentin regeneration in vivo through autologous transplantation. Although pulpal regeneration requires the cell-based approach, several challenges in clinical translation must be overcome-including aging-associated phenotypic changes in pulpal MSCs, availability of tissue sources, and safety and regulation involved with expansion of MSCs in laboratories. Allotransplantation of MSCs may alleviate some of these obstacles, although the long-term stability of MSCs and efficacy in pulp-dentin regeneration demand further investigation. For an alternative source of MSCs, our laboratory developed induced MSCs (iMSCs) from primary human keratinocytes through epithelial-mesenchymal transition by modulating the epithelial plasticity genes. Initially, we showed that overexpression of ΔNp63α, a major isoform of the p63 gene, led to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acquisition of stem characteristics. More recently, iMSCs were generated by transient knockdown of all p63 isoforms through siRNA, further simplifying the protocol and resolving the potential safety issues of viral vectors. These cells may be useful for patients who lack tissue sources for endogenous MSCs. Further research will elucidate the level of potency of these iMSCs and assess their

  6. Seeking optimality in fruit pulping schedules: A case study*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Van Vuuren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of scheduling fruit pulping for the production of fruit juices is of great importance in the beverage industry. Decisions have to be made regarding available processing time, the disposal of fruit that will not be pulped before stock loss due to spoilage, the fulfilment of customer demand and an optimal financial position. Sheduling depends on the capacity of the work force, pulping machine limitations and delivery deadlines. However, the situation is often encountered where the plant manager has to decide which fruit batches (usually from stock piles of overwhelming proportions during the harvesting season are to be pulped in order to minimize losses due to fruit deterioration. Such decisions are usually done manually, based on intuition and experience. A mathematical model is presented here which constructs a pulping strategy while minimising cascading financial losses associated with fruit grade drops within the stock pile. It is shown in particular that a minimisation of fruit losses is not a good criterion for optimality, and that substantial financial gains may be accomplished when minimising financial losses in stead of fruit losses, which is currently standard practice at most fruit pulping plants.

  7. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Laetitia; Offner, Damien; Schwinté, Pascale; Morand, David; Wagner, Quentin; Gros, Catherine; Bornert, Fabien; Bahi, Sophie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia; Fioretti, Florence

    2015-11-05

    The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  8. Active Nanomaterials to Meet the Challenge of Dental Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Keller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.

  9. Quantification of dislocations in hemp fibers using acid hydrolysis and fiber segment length distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht

    2008-01-01

    Natural fibers such as flax or hemp may be used in composite materials. However, their use for this purpose is hampered by the large natural variation in tensile strength and other quality parameters. The first step in managing these variations is to develop methods for fast and reliable determin......Natural fibers such as flax or hemp may be used in composite materials. However, their use for this purpose is hampered by the large natural variation in tensile strength and other quality parameters. The first step in managing these variations is to develop methods for fast and reliable...... determination of relevant parameters. One quality parameter of the fibers is the amount of structural distortions known as dislocations or kink bands. Here, a method developed for the quantification of dislocations in pulp fibers was adapted and tested successfully for hemp yarn segments. The method is based...... was correct, and furthermore results showed that fibers broke more often in large dislocations than in small ones. However, it was also found that the hemp fiber segments did not break in all dislocations, and strict standardization of the procedure for acid hydrolysis is therefore necessary if results from...

  10. The Kraft Pulp And Paper Properties of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse (Sorghum bicolor L Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widya Fatriasari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the potency of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor bagasse as raw material for pulp and paper using kraft pulping. The effects of alkali and sulfidity loading on kraft pulp and paper properties were also investigated. The pulping condition of the kraft pulp consisted of three levels of alkali loading (17, 19 and 22% and sulfidity loading (20, 22 and 24%. The maximum cooking temperature was 170°C for 4 h with a liquid to wood ratio of 10:1. Kraft pulping of this Numbu bagasse produced good pulp indicated by high screen yield and delignification selectivity with a low Kappa number (< 10. The unbleached pulp sheet produced a superior brightness level and a high burst index. The increase of active alkali loading tended to produce a negative effect on the pulp yield, Kappa number and paper sheet properties. Therefore, it is suggested to use a lower active alkaline concentration.

  11. The Effects of Ensiled Berseem Clover and Citrus Pulp Mixture on Performance of Zel Fattened Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maedeh feyz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Feed contributes about 75% of the total cost of animal production, therefore utilizing of by-products such as Berseem clover and citrus pulp, as nutritive and low cost components of rations would decrease the production cost. In north of Iran over autumn and winter, utilizing of these by-products in making of silage as feed for ruminants provides good feed ingredient especially in feedlot operations, also eliminates pathogens, and reduces the effect of drugs and pesticides that are used locally without a serious control or discipline. However, little information available on utilizing silage made from these local by-products. The objectives of this research were to investigate the effects of ensiled Berseem clover and orange peels mixture on intake, digestibility, chewing behavior and performance of Zel fattening lambs. Materials and methods Twenty male Zel lambs fed with five experimental rations containing basal concentrate and 35% Berseem clover silage as: 1 without additives, 2 supplemented with 40% dried orange peels, 3 supplemented with 40% dried tangerine peel, 4 supplemented with 35% dried tangerine peel and 5% ground barley and 5 supplemented with 35% dried orange peels and 5% ground barley. Lambs were housed in individual box and fed ad libitum, twice daily at 09:00 and 21:00 h with total mixed rations as experimental treatments, allowing for at least 10% residuals (as-fed basis. Water and mineralized salt stone were available throughout the experiment. Feed particle size distribution, geometric mean and the standard deviation of geometric mean were determined by dry sieving in four replicates, using two set of Penn State particle separator. Feed, feces and orts were analyzed for dry matter, Kjeldahl N, ether extract, organic matter and ash at 605°C, neutral and acid detergent fiber (NDF and ADF when α-amylase being added for concentrates during NDF extraction; sodium sulfite was not added. Neutral detergent fiber was

  12. Repair Responses of Dental Pulp to Tooth Injury and Biological Properties of Dentin-pulp Complex

    OpenAIRE

    大島, 勇人; Ohshima, Hayato

    2004-01-01

    Regeneration-the creation of a new tissue after the original one has been lost-is the fundamental biological capability in an organism. Numerous organs are considered to contain stem cells referred to as adult stem cells, even in the adult. Adult stem cells can give rise to a limited set of adult tissue types. In the field of clinical dentistry, it is well-known that the dentin-pulp complex is capable of repair after tooth injuries such as tooth replantation/transplantation or restorative pro...

  13. Pulp tissue inflammation and angiogenesis after pulp capping with transforming growth factor β1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kunarti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In Restorative dentistry the opportunity to develop biomemitic approaches has been signalled by the possible use of various biological macromolecules in direct pulp capping reparation. The presence of growth factors in dentin matrix and the putative role indicating odontoblast differentiation during embryogenesis has led to the examination on the effect of endogenous TGF-β1. TGF-β1 is one of the Growth Factors that plays an important role in pulp healing. The application of exogenous TGF-β1 in direct pulp capping treatment should be experimented in fibroblast tissue in-vivo to see the responses of inflammatory cells and development of new blood vessels. The increase in food supplies always occurs in the process of inflammation therefore the development of angiogenesis is required to fulfil the requirement. This in-vivo study done on orthodontic patients indicated for premolar extraction between 10–15 years of age. A class V cavity preparation was created in the buccal aspect 1 mm above gingival margin to pulp exposure. The cavity was slowly irrigated with saline solution and dried using a sterile small cotton pellet. The sterile absorbable collagen membrane was applied and soaked in 5 ml TGF-β1. It was covered by a Teflon pledge to separate from Glass Ionomer Cement restoration. Evaluation was performed on day 7; 14; and 21. All samples were histopathologycally examined and data was statistically analysed using one way ANOVA and Dunnet T3.There were no inflammatory symptoms in clinical examination on both Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1, but they increased the infiltration of inflammatory cells on histopathological examination. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 between Ca(OH2 and TGF-β1 in inflammation cell and significant differences (p < 0.05 in angiogenesis on day 7 and 14. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05 in inflammation cell with in TGF-β1 groups and significant differences (p < 0.05 with in Ca(OH2 groups on day 7

  14. Effects of diets with increasing levels of citrus pulp on the blood parameters linked to energy metabolism in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Lima Menezes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the use of alternative energy ingredients for horses has increased because these foods contain "superfibers", making safer diet for these animals. To study the influence of diets containing increasing levels of citrus pulp on albumin, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, insulin and short chain fatty acid (SCFA concentrations in the blood, five animals were used, with an average age of 3.5 years and a live weight of 460.66±76.86 kg, they were fed twice a day, at 7:00 am and 4:00 pm. The diets were formulated to meet the requirements of the animals at maintenance. 60% of the energy was obtained from forage, and 40% from concentrate, containing the following inclusion levels of citrus pulp (0, 7, 14, 21 and 28%. The area under the curve (AUC and the glucose and insulin peaks were calculated, and no differences were observed between the treatments. There was no effect of diet on the blood concentrations of the evaluated parameters tested, and there was no effect of the time of collection on the following variables: SCFAs, cholesterol, triglycerides and albumin. However, the diet did have quadratic effect on the glucose (Ŷ =-0.5327X²+4.2130X+84.5276 and insulin (Ŷ=-0.1002X² +0.8233X + 1.6336 concentrations. Up to 28% of the concentrate can be composed of citrus pulp in horse diets without causing any alterations on the concentrations of the parameters analyzed in the blood. High-fiber diets with easily fermentable fibers are beneficial because they maintain the glucose and insulin curves close to the baseline levels.

  15. The effect of lemon grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kivan Sadighi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iran has good condition in fruit production among all countries in the world. Lemon, grape and apple are fruits that are produced in large scale in our country. For economical use of these fruits, there are different factories which produce fruit juices. Pulps are the main waste that remain after juicing fruits. Pulps contain some nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and secondary substances, also in contrast to common diets ingredients, there are very cheap and using them in diets may reduce the production price. As pulps contain high level of fiber, can be easily used without any adverse effects in ruminant, but in poultry, especially in broilers using higher level of pulps may be not possible. However, using low level of pulps do not have any adverse effects on performance and blood parameters and can improve the meat quality and blood biochemical and immune parameters. Moreover discharge of these wastes to environment can cause serious environmental problems. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of lemon, grape and apple pulps on performance, carcass traits, digestive tract characteristic, intestinal morphology and immune status of broilers. Materials and Methods In this experiment 240 Ross-308 broilers were used in 5 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 chicks in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Experimental groups included: 1 control group (without using pulp, 2 group with 150 mg/kg vitamin E (as positive control group, 3 group with 3% lemon pulp, 4 group with 3% grape pulp, 5 group with 3% apple pulp. Grower diets from 11 to 24 days and finisher diets from 25 to 42 days were used by broilers. In the experimental periods all chickens in experimental groups had free accsess to feed and water. The lighting program included: 23 h light and 1 h darkness in all the experimental period.Feed intake and weight gain were measured at the end of growing and finishing and whole periods. Feed conversion

  16. Understanding about the classification of pulp inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trijoedani Widodo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Since most authors use the reversible pulpitis and irreversible pulpitis classification, however, many dentists still do not implement these new classifications. Research was made using a descriptive method by proposing questionnaire to dentists from various dental clinics. The numbers of the dentists participating in this research are 22 dentists. All respondents use the diagnosis sheet during their examinations on patients. Nonetheless, it can't be known what diagnosis card used and most of the dentists are still using the old classification. Concerning responses given towards the new classification: a the new classification had been heard, however, it was not clear (36.3%; b the new classification has never been heard at all (63.6%. Then, responses concerning whether a new development is important to be followed-up or not: a there are those who think that information concerning new development is very important (27.2%; b those who feel that it is important to have new information (68.3%; c those who think that new information is not important (8%. It concluded that information concerning the development of classification of pulp inflammation did not reach the dentists.

  17. Bacterial infections of pulp and periodontal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moles, Miguel Angel; González, Nabila M

    2004-01-01

    The anatomical and structural characteristics of the pulp make this structure prone to altering as a result of, for instance, periodontal conditions (proximity), iatrogenic alterations, infections and involvement of vascular and nerve structures (it is surrounded by hard tissues that prevent expansion), to name just a few. Pulpitis is a process that courses with pain of varying intensity that allows us to determine the location of the lesion in clinical terms. Its evolution varies and may even progress to pulpar necrosis that in turn, produces neuritis-like pain. Diagnosis is established by means of clinical symptomatology and supported by X-rays, palpation of tissues at painful sites, application of electrical stimuli, heat, etc. Periodontitis is a bacterial infection originating in the apex. The most important form is the so-called acute apical periodontitis that arises as a result of a prior episode of pulpitis. It is characterized by acute pain located in the tooth, accompanied by the feeling of having a long-tooth. The patient refers being unable to chew on that side; there may be painful mobility of the tooth and an outflow of pus that alleviates symptoms. X-rays do not provide a lot of information, but may attest to a widening of the apical space. This pathology may disseminate to surrounding tissues, leading to conditions of considerable severity.

  18. Prospect of trema orientalis as a pulping raw material in bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The pulp and paper industry in Bangladesh is looking for new raw materials with high productivity per hectare. Currently, bamboo and Gmelina arborea are the main pulping raw materials for the pulp and paper industry of the country. Trema orientalis is one of the fastest growing woods in the tropical region. This paper reviews the literature on the topic, in particular, related to the chemical, morphological and physical properties of T. orientalis and its suitability for pulping. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of various ulping processes proposed in the literature were critically analyzed. It was concluded that T. orientalis is a potential pulp wood for the Bangladesh pulp and paper industry. (author)

  19. Research on Wheat Straw Pulping with Ionic Liquid 1-Ethyl-3-Methylimidazole Bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the pulping process of wheat straw using ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([Emim]Br as the digestion liquor is presented. The influence of pulping conditions on the pulp yield are analysed by single-factor and orthogonal experiments, and optimum pulping conditions are obtained. The average pulp yield reaches 44 %, and the average recovery rate of ionic liquid is 93.5 %. The XRD pattern shows no obvious change in the crystal structure of the wheat straw cellulose. Additionally, the SEM image illustrates that there are many fine fibres in the pulp and the spaces between the fibres are large.

  20. The role of bound chlorine in the brightness reversion of bleached hardwood kraft pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Morais Eiras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous paper showed fragmentary evidence that pulp brightness reversion may be negatively affected by its organically bound chlorine (OX content. A thorough investigation on eucalyptus kraft pulp led to the conclusion that OX increases reversion of certain pulps but this trend is not universal. Alkaline bleaching stages decrease reversion regardless of pulp OX content. Pulps bleached with high temperature chlorine dioxide revert less than those bleached with conventional chlorine dioxide in sequences ending with a chlorine dioxide stage but similarly in sequences ending with a final peroxide stage. The use of secondary condensate for pulp washing decreases reversion.

  1. Cynara cardunculus L. alkaline pulps: alternatives fibres for paper and paperboard production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, S; Amaral, M E; Costa, A P; Duarte, A P

    2007-11-01

    The pulping of Cynara cardunculus L. (cardoon) was performed under conditions for kraft, kraft-AQ and soda-AQ processes. The best results in terms of delignification degree, expressed as kappa number, pulp viscosity and screened yield, were obtained for the kraft-AQ process with 0.20% of anthraquinone (AQ). The papermaking potential of the selected pulp was studied attending to biometric fibre characterisation, refining aptitude, optical and strength properties. All properties were compared against a Eucalyptus globulus pulp at different refining degrees. The cardoon pulp was also evaluated concerning its potential to board manufacture, alone and in mixtures with pine pulp, giving rise to promising results for liner manufacture.

  2. The effects of wood storage on the chemical composition and indigenous microflora of eucalyptus species used in the pulping industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramnath, L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic extractives naturally occurring in wood tend to coalesce during pulping to form pitch deposits, which have particularly undesirable effects on the pulping process and quality of pulp produced. A chemical characterization of different...

  3. Scaffold-free Prevascularized Microtissue Spheroids for Pulp Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayaka, W L; Zhu, L; Hargreaves, K M; Jin, L; Zhang, C

    2014-12-01

    Creating an optimal microenvironment that mimics the extracellular matrix (ECM) of natural pulp and securing an adequate blood supply for the survival of cell transplants are major hurdles that need to be overcome in dental pulp regeneration. However, many currently available scaffolds fail to mimic essential functions of natural ECM. The present study investigated a novel approach involving the use of scaffold-free microtissue spheroids of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) prevascularized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in pulp regeneration. In vitro-fabricated microtissue spheroids were inserted into the canal space of tooth-root slices and were implanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. Histological examination revealed that, after four-week implantation, tooth-root slices containing microtissue spheroids resulted in well-vascularized and cellular pulp-like tissues, compared with empty tooth-root slices, which were filled with only subcutaneous fat tissue. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the tissue found in the tooth-root slices was of human origin, as characterized by the expression of human mitochondria, and contained odontoblast-like cells organized along the dentin, as assessed by immunostaining for nestin and dentin sialoprotein (DSP). Vascular structures formed by HUVECs in vitro were successfully anastomosed with the host vasculature upon transplantation in vivo, as shown by immunostaining for human CD31. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that prevascularized, scaffold-free, microtissue spheroids can successfully regenerate vascular dental pulp-like tissue and also highlight the significance of the microtissue microenvironment as an optimal environment for successful pulp-regeneration strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  4. Phylogenetic characterization of fecal microbial communities of dogs fed diets with or without supplemental dietary fiber using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar S Middelbos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dogs suffer from many of the same maladies as humans that may be affected by the gut microbiome, but knowledge of the canine microbiome is incomplete. This work aimed to use 16S rDNA tag pyrosequencing to phylogenetically characterize hindgut microbiome in dogs and determine how consumption of dietary fiber affects community structure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Six healthy adult dogs were used in a crossover design. A control diet without supplemental fiber and a beet pulp-supplemented (7.5% diet were fed. Fecal DNA was extracted and the V3 hypervariable region of the microbial 16S rDNA gene amplified using primers suitable for 454-pyrosequencing. Microbial diversity was assessed on random 2000-sequence subsamples of individual and pooled DNA samples by diet. Our dataset comprised 77,771 reads with an average length of 141 nt. Individual samples contained approximately 129 OTU, with Fusobacteria (23-40% of reads, Firmicutes (14-28% of reads and Bacteroidetes (31-34% of reads being co-dominant phyla. Feeding dietary fiber generally decreased Fusobacteria and increased Firmicutes, but these changes were not equally apparent in all dogs. UniFrac analysis revealed that structure of the gut microbiome was affected by diet and Firmicutes appeared to play a strong role in by-diet clustering. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest three co-dominant bacterial phyla in the canine hindgut. Furthermore, a relatively small amount of dietary fiber changed the structure of the gut microbiome detectably. Our data are among the first to characterize the healthy canine gut microbiome using pyrosequencing and provide a basis for studies focused on devising dietary interventions for microbiome-associated diseases.

  5. Binderless MDF from Hydroxymethylated Kenaf Pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Wistara, Nyoman J; Starini, Wulan; Febrianto, Fauzi; Pari, Gustan

    2018-01-01

    Modified lignin with improved reactivity can be a potential alternative for synthetic phenol formaldehyde resin for the adhesive of wood composite. Direct hydroxymethylation of kenaf in the present experiments was intended to increase lignin reactivity, and therefore was expected to result in satisfying properties of binderless MDF. The stem of kenaf was refined in a disk refiner and the refined fibers were hydroxymethylated in various levels of alkalinity. The concentration of NaOH during hy...

  6. Production and evaluation of recycled polymers from açaí fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clívia Danúbia Pinho da Costa Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of recycling and the favorable mechanical properties of the products have encouraged the study and production of thermoplastic composites from natural fibrous waste. Açaí (cabbage palm fiber, which is removed from the seed, has been slightly investigated, as compared to what is already known about the fruit pulp. In this study, the influence of açaí fiber as an element of reinforcement in recycled everyday usage thermoplastics using simple, low cost methodology was evaluated. Recycled matrixes of high impact polystyrene and polypropylene were molded by hot compression from which the fiber composites were obtained. The FTIR technique showed that the process was efficient in preventing degradation of the açaí fibers. The influence of the fiber on the mechanical behavior of the recycled matrixes was investigated by microscopic images of compression and impact tests. The results showed better impact performance for the fiber combined with the polymeric matrixes.

  7. Testing strong interaction theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses possible tests of the current theories of the strong interaction, in particular, quantum chromodynamics. High energy e + e - interactions should provide an excellent means of studying the strong force. (W.D.L.)

  8. Photonic crystal fiber based antibody detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duval, A; Lhoutellier, M; Jensen, J B

    2004-01-01

    An original approach for detecting labeled antibodies based on strong penetration photonic crystal fibers is introduced. The target antibody is immobilized inside the air-holes of a photonic crystal fiber and the detection is realized by the means of evanescent-wave fluorescence spectroscopy...

  9. Use of Coffee Pulp and Minerals for Natural Soil Ameliorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujiyanto Pujiyanto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In coffee plantation, solid waste of coffee pulp is usually collected as heap nearby processing facilities for several months prior being used as compost. The practice is leading to the formation of odor and liquid which contaminate the environment. Experiments to evaluate the effect of natural soil ameliorant derived from coffee pulp and minerals were conducted at The Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember, East Java. The experiments were intended to optimize the use of coffee pulp to support farming sustainability and minimize negative impacts of solid waste disposal originated from coffee cherry processing. Prior to applications, coffee pulp was hulled to organic paste. The paste was then mixed with 10% minerals (b/b. Composition of the minerals was 50% zeolite and 50% rock phosphate powder. The ameliorant was characterized for their physical and chemical properties. Agronomic tests were conducted on coffee and cocoa seedling. The experiments were arranged according to Randomized Completely Design with 2 factors, consisted of natural ameliorant and inorganic fertilizer respectively. Natural ameliorant derived from coffee pulp was applied at 6 levels: 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 g dry ameliorant/seedling of 3 kg soil, equivalent to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (b/b of ameliorant respectively. Inorganic fertilizer was applied at 2 levels: 0 and 2 g fertilizer/application of N-P-K compound fertilizer of 15-15-15 respectively. The inorganic fertilizer was applied 4 times during nursery of coffee and cocoa. The result of the experiment indicated that coffee pulp may be used as natural soil ameliorant. Composition of ameliorant of 90% coffee pulp and 10% of minerals has good physical and chemical characteristics for soil amelioration. The composition has high water holding capacity; cations exchange capacity, organic carbon and phosphorus contents which are favorable to increase soil capacity to support plant growth. Application of

  10. Characterization of Cypress Wood for Kraft Pulp Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António J. A. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wood samples of Cupressus arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were evaluated for chemical, anatomical, and pulp characteristics as raw material for pulp production. Two 17-year-old trees per species were harvested, and wood samples were taken at a height of 2 m. Wood chips from Pinus pinaster (Portugal and P. sylvestris (Finland were used as references. C. arizonica differed from C. lusitanica and C. sempervirens with significantly lower (p < 0.05 tracheid diameter and wall thickness in the earlywood. The total extractives contents were 3.9%, 3.3%, and 2.5% for C. lusitanica, C. sempervirens, and C. arizonica, respectively, lower than the 5.1% for P. pinaster and 4.5% for P. sylvestris. Klason lignin content ranged from 33.0 to 35.6%, higher than the 28.0 to 28.7% for the pinewoods. The kraft pulp yields for C. arizonica, C. lusitanica, and C. sempervirens were 37.7%, 36.7%, and 38.7%, respectively, with kappa numbers of 32.0, 31.6, and 28.7, respectively; the yield values were 40.8% and 42.8%, with kappa numbers of 23.4 and 21.0, for P. pinaster and P. sylvestris, respectively. The cypress species are clearly different from pine in relation to wood pulping behavior. Among the cypress, C. sempervirens provided the best pulping results.

  11. Paleoproteomics of the Dental Pulp: The plague paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Rémi; Mekni, Rania; Levasseur, Anthony; Chabrière, Eric; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin. Human proteins consisted of conjunctive tissue and blood proteins including IgA immunoglobulins. Four peptides were indicative of three presumable Yersinia pestis proteins detected in 3/8 dental pulp specimens from the plague-positive site but not in the eight dental pulp specimens collected in the plague-negative site. Paleoproteomics applied to the dental pulp is a new and innovative approach to screen ancient individuals for the detection of blood-borne pathogens and host inflammatory response.

  12. Pulp tissue in sex determination: A fluorescent microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Amit; Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Leekha, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine and compare the reliability of pulp tissue in determination of sex and to analyze whether caries have any effect on fluorescent body test. Materials and Methods: This study was carried on 50 maxillary and mandibular teeth (25 male teeth and 25 female teeth), which were indicated for extraction. The teeth are categorized into 5 groups, 10 each (5 from males and 5 from females) on the basis of caries progression. The pulp cells are stained with quinacrine hydrochloride and observed with fluorescent microscope for fluorescent body. Gender is determined by identification of Y chromosome fluorescence in dental pulp. Results: Fluorescent bodies were found to be more in sound teeth in males as the caries increase the mean percentage of fluorescent bodies observed decreases in males. We also observed the fluorescent spots in females, and the value of the spot increases in female as the caries progresses, thereby giving false positive results in females. Conclusion: Sex determination by fluorescent staining of the Y chromosome is a reliable technique in teeth with healthy pulps or caries with enamel or up to half way of dentin. Teeth with caries involving pulp cannot be used for sex determination. PMID:25125912

  13. MOLYBDENUM CATALYZED ACID PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF EUCALYPTUS KRAFT PULP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos S. Rabelo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Molybdenum catalyzed peroxide bleaching (PMo Stage consists of pulp treatment with hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions in the presence of a molybdenum catalyst. Molybdenum is applied in catalytic doses (50-200 mg/kg pulp and may originate from various sources, including (NH46Mo7O24.4H2O, Na2MoO4.2H2O, siliconmolybdate, etc. This work is aimed at optimizing the PMo stage and evaluating its industrial application in the OAZDP sequence. Optimum PMo stage conditions for bleaching eucalyptus pulp were 90 ºC, pH 3.5, 2 h, 0.1 kg/adt Mo and 5 kg/adt H2O2. The PMo stage was more efficient to remove pulp hexenuronic acids than lignin. Its efficiency decreased with increasing pH in the range of 1.5-5.5, while it increased with increasing temperature and peroxide and molybdenum doses. The application of the PMo stage as replacement for the A-stage of the AZDP sequence significantly decreased chlorine dioxide demand. The PMo stage caused a decrease of 20-30% in the generation of organically bound chlorine. The quality parameters of the pulp produced during the PMo stage mill trial were comparable to those obtained with the reference A-stage.

  14. Radiation modification of cellulose pulps. Preparation of cellulose derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iller, E.; Zimek, Z.; Stupinska, H.; Mikolajczyk, W; Starostka, P.

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common methods of cellulose pulp modification (activation) applied in the production process of cellulose derivatives is the treatment of the pulp with NaOH solutions leading to the formation of alkalicellulose. The product then undergoes a prolonged process of maturation by its storage under specific conditions. The goal of the process is lowering of the molecular weight of cellulose down to the level resulting from various technological requirements. The process is time-consuming and costly; besides, it requires usage of large-capacity technological vessels and produces considerable amounts of liquid waste. Therefore, many attempts have been made to limit or altogether eliminate the highly disadvantageous stage of cellulose treatment with lye. One of the alternatives proposed so far is the radiation treatment of the cellulose pulp. In the pulp exposed to an electron beam, the bonds between molecules of D-antihydroglucopiranoses loosen and the local crystalline lattice becomes destroyed. This facilitates the access of chemical reagents to the inner structure of the cellulose and, in consequence, eliminates the need for the prolonged maturation of alkalicellulose, thus reducing the consumption of chemicals by the whole process. Research aimed at the application of radiation treatment of cellulose pulp for the production of cellulose derivatives has been conducted by a number of scientific institutions including the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Biopolymers and Chemical Fibres, and Pulp and Paper Research Institute. For the investigations and assessment of the molecular, hypermolecular, morphologic properties and the chemical reactivity, cellulose pulps used for chemical processing, namely Alicell, Borregaard and Ketchikan, as well as paper pulps made from pine and birch wood were selected. The selected cellulose pulps were exposed to an electron beam with an energy of 10 MeV generated in a linear electron accelerator

  15. Rice straw pulp obtained by using various methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandro; Moral, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Labidi, Jalel; Jiménez, Luis

    2008-05-01

    Rice straw was used as an alternative raw material to obtain cellulosics pulps. Pulping was done by using classics reagents as soda (with anthraquinone and parabenzoquinone as aditives), potassium hydroxide and Kraft process. The holocellulose, alpha-cellulose and lignin contents of rice straw (viz. 60.7, 41.2 and 21.9 wt%, respectively) are similar to those of some woody raw materials such as pine and eucalyptus, and various non-wood materials including olive tree prunings, wheat straw and sunflower stalks. Pulping tests were conducted by using soda, soda and anthraquinone at 1 wt%, soda and parabenzoquinone at 1 wt%, potassium hydroxide and sodium sulphate (Kraft process) under two different sets of operating conditions, namely: (a) a 10 wt% reagent concentration, 170 degrees C and 60 min; and (b) 15 wt% reagent, 180 degrees C and 90 min. The solid/liquid ratio was 6 in both cases. Paper sheets made from pulp extracted by cooking with soda (15 wt%) and AQ (1 wt%) at 180 degrees C and 90 min pulp exhibit the best drainage index, breaking length, stretch and burst index (viz. 23 degrees SR, 3494 m, 3.34% and 2.51 kN/g, respectively).

  16. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  17. Dentin and dental pulp regeneration by the patient's endogenous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sahng G; Zheng, Ying; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Embree, Mildred C; Song, Karen; Jiang, Nan; Mao, Jeremy J

    2013-03-01

    The goal of regenerative endodontics is to restore the functions of the dental pulp-dentin complex. Two approaches are being applied toward dental pulp-dentin regeneration: cell transplantation and cell homing. The majority of previous approaches are based on cell transplantation by delivering ex vivo cultivated cells toward dental pulp or dentin regeneration. Many hurdles limit the clinical translation of cell transplantation such as the difficulty of acquiring and isolating viable cells, uncertainty of what cells or what fractions of cells to use, excessive cost of cell manipulation and transportation, and the risk of immune rejection, pathogen transmission, and tumorigenesis in associated with ex vivo cell manipulation. In contrast, cell homing relies on induced chemotaxis of endogenous cells and therefore circumvents many of the difficulties that are associated with cell transplantation. An array of proteins, peptides, and chemical compounds that are yet to be identified may orchestrate endogenous cells to regenerate dental pulp-dentin complex. Both cell transplantation and cell homing are scientifically valid approaches; however, cell homing offers a number of advantages that are compatible with the development of clinical therapies for dental pulp-dentin regeneration.

  18. The annual frequency of root fillings, tooth extractions and pulp-related procedures in Danish adults during 1977-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørndal, L.; Reit, C.

    2004-01-01

    endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions......endodontic epidemiology, frequency of root fillings, pulp capping, stepwise excavation, tooth extractions...

  19. Integrated production of nano-fibrillated cellulose and cellulosic biofuel (ethanol) by enzymatic fractionation of wood fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyong Zhu; Ronald Sabo; Xiaolin Luo

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of integrating the production of nano-fibrillated cellulose (NFC), a potentially highly valuable biomaterial, with sugar/biofuel (ethanol) from wood fibers. Commercial cellulase enzymes were used to fractionate the less recalcitrant amorphous cellulose from a bleached Kraft eucalyptus pulp, resulting in a highly crystalline and...

  20. Understanding longitudinal wood fiber ultra-structure for producing cellulose nanofibrils using disk milling with diluted acid prehydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanlin Qin; Xueqing Qiu; Junyong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Here we used dilute oxalic acid to pretreat a kraft bleached Eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to facilitate mechanical fibrillation in producing cellulose nanofibrils using disk milling with substantial mechanical energy savings. We successfully applied a reaction kinetics based combined hydrolysis factor (CHFx) as a severity factor to quantitatively...

  1. The prevalence and distribution of radiopaque, calcified pulp stones: A cone-beam computed tomography study in a northern Taiwanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Hsieh

    2018-06-01

    Conclusion: Pulp stones are more frequent in maxillary teeth compared to mandibular teeth. Pulp stones in molar teeth were significantly more common than premolars and incisors. CBCT could be a sensitive tool to detect pulp stones, especially simplifying identification of pulp stones in radicular pulp. Knowledge of pulp stones distribution can aid dentists in clinical endodontic treatment.

  2. Stretching single fibrin fibers hampers their lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lucioni, Tomas; Li, Rongzhong; Bonin, Keith; Cho, Samuel S; Guthold, Martin

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots, whose main structural component is a mesh of microscopic fibrin fibers, experience mechanical strain from blood flow, clot retraction and interactions with platelets and other cells. We developed a transparent, striated and highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue (a styrenic block copolymer) to investigate how mechanical strain affects lysis of single, suspended fibrin fibers. In this suspended fiber assay, lysis manifested itself by fiber elongation, thickening (disassembly), fraying and collapse. Stretching single fibrin fibers significantly hampered their lysis. This effect was seen in uncrosslinked and crosslinked fibers. Crosslinking (without stretching) also hampered single fiber lysis. Our data suggest that strain is a novel mechanosensitive factor that regulates blood clot dissolution (fibrinolysis) at the single fiber level. At the molecular level of single fibrin molecules, strain may distort, or hinder access to, plasmin cleavage sites and thereby hamper lysis. Fibrin fibers are the major structural component of a blood clot. We developed a highly stretchable substrate made from fugitive glue and a suspended fibrin fiber lysis assay to investigate the effect of stretching on single fibrin fibers lysis. The key findings from our experiments are: 1) Fibers thicken and elongate upon lysis; 2) stretching strongly reduces lysis; 3) this effect is more pronounced for uncrosslinked fibers; and 4) stretching fibers has a similar effect on reducing lysis as crosslinking fibers. At the molecular level, strain may distort plasmin cleavage sites, or restrict access to those sites. Our results suggest that strain may be a novel mechanobiological factor that regulates fibrinolysis. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Wood Pulp Digetster Wall Corrosion Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, GE

    2003-09-18

    The modeling of the flow in a wood pulp digester is but one component of the investigation of the corrosion of digesters. This report describes the development of a Near-Wall-Model (NWM) that is intended to couple with a CFD model that determines the flow, heat, and chemical species transport and reaction within the bulk flow of a digester. Lubrication theory approximations were chosen from which to develop a model that could determine the flow conditions within a thin layer near the vessel wall using information from the interior conditions provided by a CFD calculation of the complete digester. The other conditions will be determined by coupled solutions of the wood chip, heat, and chemical species transport and chemical reactions. The NWM was to couple with a digester performance code in an iterative fashion to provide more detailed information about the conditions within the NW region. Process Simulations, Ltd (PSL) is developing the digester performance code. This more detailed (and perhaps more accurate) information from the NWM was to provide an estimate of the conditions that could aggravate the corrosion at the wall. It is intended that this combined tool (NWM-PSL) could be used to understand conditions at/near the wall in order to develop methods to reduce the corrosion. However, development and testing of the NWM flow model took longer than anticipated and the other developments (energy and species transport, chemical reactions and linking with the PSL code) were not completed. The development and testing of the NWM are described in this report. In addition, the investigation of the potential effects of a clear layer (layer reduced in concentration of wood chips) near the wall is reported in Appendix D. The existence of a clear layer was found to enhance the flow near the wall.

  4. Characterization of endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 and application in pulp industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miao; Cai, Jun; Wang, Changgao; Du, Xin; Lin, Jianguo

    2017-01-01

    β-Mannanases are the second most important enzymes for the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses. An endo-β-mannanase from Enterobacter ludwigii MY271 was purified at 11.7 ± 0.2-fold to homogeneity with a final recovery of 15.2 ± 0.2 %. Using purified β-mannanase protein and SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass was found to be 43.16 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme was found to be 7.0 and 55 °C, respectively. The β-mannanase activity was stable over a broad pH range of pH 2.0-10.0. In addition, the purified enzyme was highly activated by several metal ions and chemical reagents, such as Mg 2+ , L-cysteine, glutathione (GSH) and β-mercaptoethanol. Whereas the enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg 2+ , Cu 2+ , N-bromosuccinimide (NBS), 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl-amino-propyl)-carbodiimide (EDC), phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The β-mannanase was highly active towards glucomannan, and showed endo-activity by producing a mixture of oligosaccharides. Moreover, the enzyme displayed a classical endo-type mode on mannooligosaccharides. The β-mannanase coupled with xylanase significantly improved the brightness of kraft pulp, whereas it has no remarkable effect on the tensile strength of the pulp. Our functional studies of the purified β-mannanase indicate that the enzyme is beneficial to industrial applications, in particular, biotechnological processes, such as food, feed and pulp industry.

  5. Application of thermoalkalophilic xylanase from Arthrobacter sp. MTCC 5214 in biobleaching of kraft pulp

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Bhosle, N.B.

    released by enzyme treatment showed a characteristic peak at 280 nm indicating the presence of lignin in the released coloring matter. Enzymatic prebleaching of kraft pulp showed 20 % reduction in kappa number of the pulp without much change in viscosity...

  6. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  7. Optimization of CW Fiber Lasers With Strong Nonlinear Cavity Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtyrina, O. V.; Efremov, S. A.; Yarutkina, I. A.; Skidin, A. S.; Fedoruk, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    In present work the equation for the saturated gain is derived from one-level gain equations describing the energy evolution inside the laser cavity. It is shown how to derive the parameters of the mathematical model from the experimental results. The numerically-estimated energy and spectrum of the signal are in good agreement with the experiment. Also, the optimization of the output energy is performed for a given set of model parameters.

  8. Ultra strong polymer fibers : Ab initio calculations on polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.C.L.; Groot, R.A. de; Meier, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The Car-Parrinello technique is used to study the electronic structure of orthorhombic polyethylene as well as the elastic modulus. The theoretical band structure and density of states are in very good agreement with experiments. The best experimentally realized elastic modulus is better than 86% of

  9. Advanced Scaffolds for Dental Pulp and Periodontal Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Marco C; Pankajakshan, Divya; Nör, Jacques E

    2017-10-01

    No current therapy promotes root canal disinfection and regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex in cases of pulp necrosis. Antibiotic pastes used to eradicate canal infection negatively affect stem cell survival. Three-dimensional easy-to-fit antibiotic-eluting nanofibers, combined with injectable scaffolds, enriched or not with stem cells and/or growth factors, may increase the likelihood of achieving predictable dental pulp regeneration. Periodontitis is an aggressive disease that impairs the integrity of tooth-supporting structures and may lead to tooth loss. The latest advances in membrane biomodification to endow needed functionalities and technologies to engineer patient-specific membranes/constructs to amplify periodontal regeneration are presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of a Turbulence Generator of Medium Consistency Pulp Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulence generator is a key component of medium consistency centrifugal pulp pumps, with functions to fluidize the medium consistency pulp and to separate gas from the liquid. Structure sizes of the generator affect the hydraulic performance. The radius and the blade laying angle are two important structural sizes of a turbulence generator. Starting with the research on the flow inside and shearing characteristics of the MC pulp, a simple mathematical model at the flow section of the shearing chamber is built, and the formula and procedure to calculate the radius of the turbulence generator are established. The blade laying angle is referenced from the turbine agitator which has the similar shape with the turbulence generator, and the CFD simulation is applied to study the different flow fields with different blade laying angles. Then the recommended blade laying angle of the turbulence generator is formed to be between 60° and 75°.

  11. Electron treatment of wood pulp for the viscose process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanik, T. M.; Ewing, D. E.; Whitehouse, R.

    2000-03-01

    Electron processing is currently being evaluated by several viscose producers for integration into their process. The viscose industry converts dissolving wood pulp into products such as staple fibre, filament, cord, film, packaging, and non-edible sausage casings. These materials are used in the clothing, drapery, hygiene, automobile, food, and packaging industries. Viscose producers are facing increasingly high production costs and stringent environmental regulations that have forced some plants to close. Electron treatment of wood pulp can significantly reduce the amounts of chemicals used for producing viscose and the production of hazardous pollutants. Acsion Industries has worked with companies worldwide to demonstrate the benefits of using electron treated pulp for producing viscose (rayon). This paper describes the viscose process, the benefits of using electron treatment in the viscose process, and Acsion's efforts in developing this technology.

  12. Magnet options for sensors for the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.; Barale, P.J.; Fong, C.G.; Luft, P.A.; Reimer, J.A.; Yahnke, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been developing sensors for the pulp and paper industry that uses a magnetic field. The applications for magnetic sensors that have studied include (1) sensors for the measurement of the water and ice content of wood chips entering the pulping mill, (2) sensors for measuring the water content and other constituents of the black liquor leaving the paper digester, and (3) sensors for measuring paper thickness and water content as the paper is being processed. These tasks can be done using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The magnetic field used for doing the NMR can come from either permanent magnets or superconducting magnets. The choice of the magnet is dependent on a number of factors, which include the size of the sample and field strength needed to do the sensing task at hand. This paper describes some superconducting magnet options that can be used in the pulp and paper industry.

  13. Engineering structural integrity issues in the pulp and paper industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, A.; Singbeil, D.

    2002-01-01

    ESI issues for Pulp and Paper (P and P) plant are reviewed. Five typical processes are covered, namely: Chemical Pulping, Bleaching, Chemical Recovery, Mechanical Pulping and Papermaking. Equipment, chemical environments and failure modes are summarized with examples from each process. Pressure, temperature, corrosion and rotation are typical sources of risk, which is managed by appropriate inspection. The nature of the P and P Industry and its technology supply is summarized: current trends are consolidation and outsourcing. Three examples are presented to illustrate typical ESI issues: deaerator cracking where the P and P Industry alerted others to this serious cross-industry problem; pressure vessel safety factors and inconsistent international codes; and caustic cracking in continuous kraft digesters, which required rapid and concerted action to diagnose and control. In the future better predictability, data-bases, more formal risk based inspection and fitness-for-service assessments are envisaged. (author)

  14. Outcomes of Different Vital Pulp Therapy Techniques on Symptomatic Permanent Teeth: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta; Sabbagh, Sedigheh; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In modern endodontics, vital pulp therapy (VPT) has been considered an ultra-conservative treatment modality. Based on the level of pulp preservation, VPT includes stepwise excavation, indirect pulp capping (IDPC), direct pulp capping (DPC), miniature pulpotomy (MP), partial/Cvek pulpotomy and coronal/complete pulpotomy (CP). The present article reviews the treatment outcomes of 94 permanent teeth with irreversible pulpitis treated with either IDPC (n=28), DPC (n=28), MP (n=29) or CP (n=9) us...

  15. Effect of gamma radiation from 60C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the antioxidant

  16. Tunable Beam Diffraction in Infiltrated Microstructured Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Christian Romer; Bennet, Francis H.; Neshev, Dragomir N.

    We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites.......We experimentally study beam propagation in two dimensional photonic lattices in microstructured optical fibers infiltrated with high index liquids. We demonstrate strongly tunable beam diffraction by dynamically varying the coupling between individual lattice sites....

  17. Anthraquinone-A Review of the Rise and Fall of a Pulping Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter W. Hart; Alan W. Rudie

    2014-01-01

    The application of anthraquinone (AQ) as a pulping catalyst has been well documented in scientific studies and mill applications. AQ is known to increase the rate of delignification, enabling a reduction in pulping time, temperature, or chemical charge and an increase in pulp yield. Specific details of AQ use are not extensively reviewed in this work. The review...

  18. Studies of lignin transformation in polyoxometalate (POM) bleaching of kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biljana Bujanovic; Richard S. Reiner; Kolby C. Hirth; Sally A. Ralph; Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    In order to elucidate changes occurring in lignin during polyoxometalate delignification of kraft pulp, residual lignins of a series of POM- delignified kraft pulps of decreasing kappa number were isolated and characterized. Oxidative treatment of commercial unbleached kraft pulp was performed using complex POM solutions containing the active [SiVW11O40]anion. For...

  19. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  20. Polymer optical fiber with Rhodamine doped cladding for fiber light systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narro-García, R., E-mail: roberto.narro@gmail.com [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Quintero-Torres, R. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Domínguez-Juárez, J.L. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Cátedras CONACyT, Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico); Ocampo, M.A. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Querétaro 76230 (Mexico)

    2016-01-15

    Both preform and polymer optical fiber with a Poly(methyl methacrylate) core and THV–Rhodamine 6G cladding were characterized. UV–vis absorbance, photoluminescence spectra and lifetime of the preform were measured. Axial and lateral photoluminescence spectra of the polymer optical fiber were studied under 404 nm excitation in order to study the illumination performance of the fiber. It was observed that the peak wavelength from the fiber photoluminescence spectra is higher than the peak wavelength from the fiber preform and that the peak wavelength from the fiber photoluminescence spectra is red shifted with the fiber length in the case of axial emission. The obtained results suggest the influence of self-absorption on the photoluminescence shape. Strong lateral emission along the fiber was observed with the naked eyes in all the cases. The lateral photoluminescence spectra show that the lateral emission is a combination between the pump laser and the Rh6G molecule photoluminescence. The results suggest that this polymer optical fiber could be a potential candidate for the development of fiber lighting systems. - Highlights: • Axial and lateral emission along the fiber was studied. • Self-absorption effect was confirmed in the case of axial photoluminescence. • The lateral emission is a combination between the laser and the RhG6 emission. • This fiber could be a potential candidate for the development of lighting systems.

  1. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  2. Nutritional Value of Tamarindus Indica Fruit Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiteva, R.; Kitui, J.L

    2007-01-01

    In Kenya Tamarindus Indica (Tamarind) fruits are not fully utilized despite their abundance in Nyanza, Rift Valley and Eastern provinces. This study determined the nutritional composition of the edible fruit pulp to enhance utilization. The edible portion of Tamarindus indica fruit ('Ukwaju' in Kiswahili) was analysed for it's chemical and nutritional composition. The fruit was sampled from Kitui, Mwingi and Makueni districts of Ukambani, with an assumption that they could be climatically different. The analysis carried out included moisture content, sulphated ash, Vitamin C content, crude protein and minerals namely Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The energy contents were determined and total carbohydrates calculated. The results showed very low protein content of 0.01% for Kvisuni and Makindu divisions, while Katse and Kyanundu in Mwingi and TARDA in Makueni districts gave the highest value of 0.02% . This is a fairly low protein content compared with other indigenous fruits like Andasonia digitata (Baobab) with a value of 2.9%. The fat content was also low, especially for Makueni that had a value of 0.04% for the unripe fruits while Mwingi gave 0.04% for those fruits that were ripe. Vitamin C content was similar for the fruit from the three districts (8mg100g-1 ) sample. The fruits also contained an appreciable high internal energy level with Mbitini recording highest at 2.94 kcal. All samples had levels of Fe above 1mg100g-1 . Sodium was also available in all samples with TARDA sample having the highest (0.8mg/100g-1 ) . Potassium values were over 200 mg100g-1 s ample for all samples with TARDA leading (1050 mg100g-1 ) . Calcium in all samples was over 20 mg100g-1 w hile mg was 30 mg100g-1 w ith Makindu having the highest value of 75.2mg100g-1 . This fruit, therefore has the potential of providing nutrients and can be used as a food supplement

  3. Adhesion of cellulose fibers in paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Bo N J; Ganser, Christian; Schmied, Franz; Teichert, Christian; Schennach, Robert; Gilli, Eduard; Hirn, Ulrich

    2013-01-30

    The surface topography of paper fibers is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), and thus the surface roughness power spectrum is obtained. Using AFM we have performed indentation experiments and measured the effective elastic modulus and the penetration hardness as a function of humidity. The influence of water capillary adhesion on the fiber-fiber binding strength is studied. Cellulose fibers can absorb a significant amount of water, resulting in swelling and a strong reduction in the elastic modulus and the penetration hardness. This will lead to closer contact between the fibers during the drying process (the capillary bridges pull the fibers into closer contact without storing up a lot of elastic energy at the contacting interface). In order for the contact to remain good in the dry state, plastic flow must occur (in the wet state) so that the dry surface profiles conform to each other (forming a key-and-lock type of contact).

  4. Uncladded sensing fiber for refractive index measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, V.; Gangwar, R. K.; Pathak, A. K.; Singh, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of chemically etched optical fiber for use in refractive index sensor is addressed. This presented design of a refractive index (RI) sensor is based on recording the power loss exhibited by radiation propagating through an etched multimode fiber (MMF) immersed in the liquid under study. The decreasing diameters of fibers are found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and etchant composition. This experiment was performed for different unclad etched fibers for same sensing length and the RI changes from 1.33 RIU to 1.38 RIU. When the multimode fiber (MMF) is etched for 12 hours the sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 204.25dBm/RIU, which is larger than without etched fiber having sensitivity 127.2dBm/RIU.

  5. Uncladded sensing fiber for refractive index measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, V.; Gangwar, R. K.; Pathak, A. K.; Singh, V. K.

    2016-05-01

    The formation of chemically etched optical fiber for use in refractive index sensor is addressed. This presented design of a refractive index (RI) sensor is based on recording the power loss exhibited by radiation propagating through an etched multimode fiber (MMF) immersed in the liquid under study. The decreasing diameters of fibers are found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and etchant composition. This experiment was performed for different unclad etched fibers for same sensing length and the RI changes from 1.33 RIU to 1.38 RIU. When the multimode fiber (MMF) is etched for 12 hours the sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 204.25dBm/RIU, which is larger than without etched fiber having sensitivity 127.2dBm/RIU.

  6. Uncladded sensing fiber for refractive index measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, V., E-mail: bhardwajphyism@gmail.com; Gangwar, R. K.; Pathak, A. K.; Singh, V. K. [Department of Applied Physics Indian School of Mines Dhanbad, Jharkhand (India)

    2016-05-06

    The formation of chemically etched optical fiber for use in refractive index sensor is addressed. This presented design of a refractive index (RI) sensor is based on recording the power loss exhibited by radiation propagating through an etched multimode fiber (MMF) immersed in the liquid under study. The decreasing diameters of fibers are found to be strongly dependent on the temperature and etchant composition. This experiment was performed for different unclad etched fibers for same sensing length and the RI changes from 1.33 RIU to 1.38 RIU. When the multimode fiber (MMF) is etched for 12 hours the sensitivity of the sensor is approximately 204.25dBm/RIU, which is larger than without etched fiber having sensitivity 127.2dBm/RIU.

  7. Nav1.7 expression is increased in painful human dental pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levinson S Rock

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal studies and a few human studies have shown a change in sodium channel (NaCh expression after inflammatory lesions, and this change is implicated in the generation of pain states. We are using the extracted human tooth as a model system to study peripheral pain mechanisms and here examine the expression of the Nav1.7 NaCh isoform in normal and painful samples. Pulpal sections were labeled with antibodies against: 1 Nav1.7, N52 and PGP9.5, and 2 Nav1.7, caspr (a paranodal protein used to identify nodes of Ranvier, and myelin basic protein (MBP, and a z-series of optically-sectioned images were obtained with the confocal microscope. Nav1.7-immunofluorescence was quantified in N52/PGP9.5-identified nerve fibers with NIH ImageJ software, while Nav1.7 expression in myelinated fibers at caspr-identified nodal sites was evaluated and further characterized as either typical or atypical as based on caspr-relationships. Results Results show a significant increase in nerve area with Nav1.7 expression within coronal and radicular fiber bundles and increased expression at typical and atypical caspr-identified nodal sites in painful samples. Painful samples also showed an augmentation of Nav1.7 within localized areas that lacked MBP, including those associated with atypical caspr-identified sites, thus identifying NaCh remodeling within demyelinating axons as the basis for a possible pulpal pain mechanism. Conclusion This study identifies the increased axonal expression and augmentation of Nav1.7 at intact and remodeling/demyelinating nodes within the painful human dental pulp where these changes may contribute to constant, increased evoked and spontaneous pain responses that characterize the pain associated with toothache.

  8. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  9. Strong Langmuir turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, M.V.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief discussion of beam-excited Langmuir turbulence in the solar wind, we explain the criteria for wave-particle, three-wave and strong turbulence interactions. We then present the results of a numerical integration of the Zakharov equations, which describe the strong turbulence saturation of a weak (low-density) high energy, bump-on-tail beam instability. (author)

  10. Microarray evaluation of gene expression profiles in inflamed and healthy human dental pulp: the role of IL1beta and CD40 in pulp inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, V; Zizzari, V L; Dd ' Amico, V; Salini, L; D' Aurora, M; Franchi, S; Antonucci, I; Sberna, M T; Gherlone, E; Stuppia, L; Tetè, S

    2012-01-01

    Dental pulp undergoes a number of changes passing from healthy status to inflammation due to deep decay. These changes are regulated by several genes resulting differently expressed in inflamed and healthy dental pulp, and the knowledge of the processes underlying this differential expression is of great relevance in the identification of the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, the gene expression profile of inflamed and healthy dental pulps were compared by microarray analysis, and data obtained were analyzed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) software. This analysis allows to focus on a variety of genes, typically expressed in inflamed tissues. The comparison analysis showed an increased expression of several genes in inflamed pulp, among which IL1β and CD40 resulted of particular interest. These results indicate that gene expression profile of human dental pulp in different physiological and pathological conditions may become an useful tool for improving our knowledge about processes regulating pulp inflammation.

  11. Transplantation of Human Dental Pulp-Derived Stem Cells or Differentiated Neuronal Cells from Human Dental Pulp-Derived Stem Cells Identically Enhances Regeneration of the Injured Peripheral Nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Imran; Park, Ju-Mi; Kang, Young-Hoon; Byun, June-Ho; Kim, Dae-Geon; Kim, Joo-Heon; Kang, Dong-Ho; Rho, Gyu-Jin; Park, Bong-Wook

    2017-09-01

    Human dental mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the dental follicle, pulp, and root apical papilla of extracted wisdom teeth have been known to exhibit successful and potent neurogenic differentiation capacity. In particular, human dental pulp-derived stem cells (hDPSCs) stand out as the most prominent source for in vitro neuronal differentiation. In this study, to evaluate the in vivo peripheral nerve regeneration potential of hDPSCs and differentiated neuronal cells from DPSCs (DF-DPSCs), a total of 1 × 10 6 hDPSCs or DF-hDPSCs labeled with PKH26 tracking dye and supplemented with fibrin glue scaffold and collagen tubulization were transplanted into the sciatic nerve resection (5-mm gap) of rat models. At 12 weeks after cell transplantation, both hDPSC and DF-hDPSC groups showed notably increased behavioral activities and higher muscle contraction forces compared with those in the non-cell transplanted control group. In immunohistochemical analysis of regenerated nerve specimens, specific markers for angiogenesis, axonal fiber, and myelin sheath increased in both the cell transplantation groups. Pretransplanted labeled PKH26 were also distinctly detected in the regenerated nerve tissues, indicating that transplanted cells were well-preserved and differentiated into nerve cells. Furthermore, no difference was observed in the nerve regeneration potential between the hDPSC and DF-hDPSC transplanted groups. These results demonstrate that dental pulp tissue is an excellent stem cell source for nerve regeneration, and in vivo transplantation of the undifferentiated hDPSCs could exhibit sufficient and excellent peripheral nerve regeneration potential.

  12. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  13. Vital pulp therapy in symptomatic immature permanent molars: Report of 3 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SheikhRezaie MS.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available "nEndodontic treatment of immature permanent teeth accompanies with several issues. The primary goal when treating such teeth is to maintain pulp vitality so that root development can occur normally. Indications and requirements for vital pulp therapy include asymptomatic and reversible pulpitis. Also there are controversial opinions regarding the ultimate clinical treatment of the vital pulp therapy techniques. In this manuscript we report 3 cases of immature symptomatic permanent molars with irreversible pulpitis caused by caries exposure of the pulp that have been undergone vital pulp therapy successfully.

  14. Recuperation of uranium and gold in mineral pulps by adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, J.B.; Amorim, L.O.

    1985-06-01

    The technological routes for the treatment of the gold and uranium ores are presented. The results obtained during the continuous tests with the uraniferous Ores of Wabo in Somalia are presented. The utilization of 99% of the uranium content in the alkaline pulp is obtained. (C.B.) [pt

  15. Pequi pulp ( Caryocar brasiliense Cambess): Drying kinetics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The entropy values found were -251.01, -250.38 and -250.05 (J.Mol-1K-1) for the same temperatures. The values obtained from the Gibbs free energy for the drying of Pequi pulp increased with increasing temperature. The obtained data were consistent to the drying process, and the mathematical equations were effective ...

  16. Incidence and Distribution of Pulp Stones Found in Radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or more in a single tooth, their size varying from minute particles to large masses ... between pulp stones and sex, tooth type, dental arch, side and .... attended Kırıkkale University Dental School (KUDS).Caution .... Beside these disadvantages,.

  17. Comparison of various pulping characteristic of Fraxinus angustifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Handsheets made from different pulping methods were compared with each other for strength and optical properties. Strength properties were found to be higher for kraft and kraft + anthraquinone processes, while optical properties were found to be higher for cold soda and NSSC processes. Key words: Ash, Fraxinus ...

  18. Selection of Corymbia citriodora for pulp productivity | Brawner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of a series of spotted gum (Corymbia citirodora) progeny trials, established in the subtropical region of Queensland, Australia, was undertaken to provide information for the development of advanced-generation breeding populations suitable for pulp production. Measurements of growth at two ages were ...

  19. Enzymatic modification of pectic polysaccharides obtained from sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonans and arabinans, purified from an autoclave extract of sugar beet pulp, as well as an acid extracted beet pectin (ABP) were treated with enzymes in order to modify their physico-chemical properties. The enzymes used were arabinofuranosidase B (AF), endo-arabinanase plus

  20. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging analysis of dental pulp inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, E; Sabbatini, S; Conti, C; Rubini, C; Rocchetti, R; Fioroni, M; Memè, L; Orilisi, G

    2017-05-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared microspectroscopy let characterize the macromolecular composition and distribution of tissues and cells, by studying the interaction between infrared radiation and matter. Therefore, we hypothesize to exploit this analytical tool in the analysis of inflamed pulps, to detect the different biochemical features related to various degrees of inflammation. IR maps of 13 irreversible and 12 hyperplastic pulpitis, together with 10 normal pulps, were acquired, compared with histological findings and submitted to multivariate (HCA, PCA, SIMCA) and statistical (one-way ANOVA) analysis. The fit of convoluted bands let calculate meaningful band area ratios (means ± s.d., P < 0.05). The infrared imaging analysis pin-pointed higher amounts of water and lower quantities of type I collagen in all inflamed pulps. Specific vibrational markers were defined for irreversible pulpitis (Lipids/Total Biomass, PhII/Total Biomass, CH 2 /CH 3 , and Ty/AII) and hyperplastic ones (OH/Total Biomass, Collagen/Total Biomass, and CH 3 Collagen/Total Biomass). The study confirmed that FTIR microspectroscopy let discriminate tissues' biological features. The infrared imaging analysis evidenced, in inflamed pulps, alterations in tissues' structure and composition. Changes in lipid metabolism, increasing amounts of tyrosine, and the occurrence of phosphorylative processes were highlighted in irreversible pulpitis, while high amounts of water and low quantities of type I collagen were detected in hyperplastic samples. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Relaxant effect of Lagenaria breviflora Roberty fruit pulp and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lagenaria breviflora roberty is used in West Africa as traditional remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhoea. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of the pulp and seed extract of L. breviflora on the contractile activity of isolated rabbit ileum. Rabbits of both sexes were used for the study ...

  2. Mechanical pulping with a sequential velocity refiner- a new concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. McMillin

    1978-01-01

    In previous research with refiner mechanical pulps, a theoretical stress analysis indicated that longitudinal tracheids of Pinus taeda L. fail while under torsional stress and unwind into ribbonlike elements that provide the coherence necessary for strength development. When macerated tracheids of loblolly pine were individually stressed in torsion...

  3. Catalase activity in healthy and inflamed pulp tissues of permanent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To evaluate catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity in healthy and inflamed dental pulp of young patient's teeth and to investigate if an active defense system oxidizing agents is present as a response to bacterial invasion. Materials and Methods: Twenty young patients between 15 and 25 ages, who were diagnosed to be ...

  4. Antimicrobial screening and effect of the pulp extracts of Zizyphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Groups of rats were orally administered 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg body weight of extracts daily for three (3) weeks. The animals were sacrificed by decapitation and blood collected for biochemical analysis. The pulp aqueous extract showed more susceptibility on E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans which is a ...

  5. Assessment of Antioxidant Properties of Tamarind Fruit Pulp and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both seed dhal and flour treated with tamarind fruit pulp had lower mean TBA values ranging from 2.80 to 4.12 ppm Malonaldehyde as against 4.55 to 4.91 ppm for untreated samples. Tamarind fruit can thus be further studied for possible exploitation as a natural antioxidant for use in food, drug and cosmetic products.

  6. Incidence and Distribution of Pulp Stones Found in Radiographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall incidence of pulp stones in the patients and their correlations between female and male patients and between the right‑side and left‑side occurrences were analyzed by computer program, SPSS 15. (SPSS Inc. Chicago, USA) with using the χ2 test. Differences were considered as significant when P < 0.05.

  7. Sequenced anaerobic - aerobic treatment of hemp pulping wastewaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, S.

    1998-01-01

    Biological treatment is an indispensable instrument for water management of non-wood pulp mills, either as internal measure to enable progressive closure of water cycles, or as end of pipe treatment. In this thesis, the sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of hemp ( Cannabis

  8. Allogenic banking of dental pulp stem cells for innovative therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart-Dutilleul, Pierre-Yves; Chaubron, Franck; De Vos, John; Cuisinier, Frédéric J

    2015-08-26

    Medical research in regenerative medicine and cell-based therapy has brought encouraging perspectives for the use of stem cells in clinical trials. Multiple types of stem cells, from progenitors to pluripotent stem cells, have been investigated. Among these, dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are mesenchymal multipotent cells coming from the dental pulp, which is the soft tissue within teeth. They represent an interesting adult stem cell source because they are recovered in large amount in dental pulps with non-invasive techniques compared to other adult stem cell sources. DPSCs can be obtained from discarded teeth, especially wisdom teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons. To shift from promising preclinical results to therapeutic applications to human, DPSCs must be prepared in clinical grade lots and transformed into advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP). As the production of patient-specific stem cells is costly and time-consuming, allogenic biobanking of clinical grade human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed DPSC lines provides efficient innovative therapeutic products. DPSC biobanks represent industrial and therapeutic innovations by using discarded biological tissues (dental pulps) as a source of mesenchymal stem cells to produce and store, in good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions, DPSC therapeutic batches. In this review, we discuss about the challenges to transfer biological samples from a donor to HLA-typed DPSC therapeutic lots, following regulations, GMP guidelines and ethical principles. We also present some clinical applications, for which there is no efficient therapeutics so far, but that DPSCs-based ATMP could potentially treat.

  9. Measurement of cellulose content, Kraft pulp yield and basic density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous descriptions of multisite and multispecies near infra-red (NIR) spectroscopic calibrations for predicting cellulose content (CC) and Kraft pulp yield (KPY) in eucalypt woodmeal demonstrated that large, single calibrations provide precise predictions for a wide range of sites and species. These have since been used ...

  10. Natural and recombinant fungal laccases for paper pulp bleaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigoillot, C.; Record, E.; Belle, V.; Robert, J.L.; Levasseur, A.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Fournel, A.; Sigoillot, J.C.; Asther, M.

    2004-01-01

    Three laccases, a natural form and two recombinant forms obtained from two different expression hosts, were characterized and compared for paper pulp bleaching. Laccase from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, a well known lignolytic fungus, was selected as a reference for this study. The corresponding

  11. Possible mechanism for anthraquinone species diffusion in alkaline pulping

    Science.gov (United States)

    X.-S. Chai; J. Samp; Q.X. Hou; S.-H Yoon; J.Y. Zhu

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of anthraquinone (AQ) in kraft-AQ pulping in terms of its mechanism of transport has been conducted. Our previous work showed that caustic solutions of wood lignin can decrease the membrane exclusion for anthraquinones, i.e., the presence of wood lignin enhances the ability of AQ to pass through a membrane when a reducing agent is...

  12. Purified Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Promote Osteogenic Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, T; Mabuchi, Y; Toriumi, H; Ebine, T; Niibe, K; Houlihan, D D; Morikawa, S; Onizawa, K; Kawana, H; Akazawa, C; Suzuki, N; Nakagawa, T; Okano, H; Matsuzaki, Y

    2016-02-01

    Human dental pulp stem/progenitor cells (hDPSCs) are attractive candidates for regenerative therapy because they can be easily expanded to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) on plastic and the large cell numbers required for transplantation. However, isolation based on adherence to plastic inevitably changes the surface marker expression and biological properties of the cells. Consequently, little is currently known about the original phenotypes of tissue precursor cells that give rise to plastic-adherent CFU-Fs. To better understand the in vivo functions and translational therapeutic potential of hDPSCs and other stem cells, selective cell markers must be identified in the progenitor cells. Here, we identified a dental pulp tissue-specific cell population based on the expression profiles of 2 cell-surface markers LNGFR (CD271) and THY-1 (CD90). Prospectively isolated, dental pulp-derived LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) cells represent a highly enriched population of clonogenic cells--notably, the isolated cells exhibited long-term proliferation and multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. The cells also expressed known mesenchymal cell markers and promoted new bone formation to heal critical-size calvarial defects in vivo. These findings suggest that LNGFR(Low+)THY-1(High+) dental pulp-derived cells provide an excellent source of material for bone regenerative strategies. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  13. Pulp antioxidant activities, mineral contents and juice nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical differences among the citrus pulps were established for the contents of phenols, flavonoids and carotenoids, the quantification of bioactive compounds revealed distinct contents amongst the analysed materials. Phenolic and flavonoid contents presented a value between 3108.78 and 4046.20 mg gallic acid/100 g ...

  14. Fatty acids profile of pulp and nuts of Brazilian fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and nuts from the North and Northeast regions of Brazil were collected to determine the fatty acid profile of their oils. The species studied were Brazil (Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K., Mucajá (Couma rigida M., Inajá (Maximiliana maripa D., Jenipapo (Genipa Americana L., and Buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. nuts. Fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Brazil nut major fatty acid was 18:3n-3 (α-linolenic acid, and Buriti nut had approximately 23 times more 18:3n-3 than the pulp. Mucajá nut presented high content of 12:0 (lauric acid and 16:0 (palmitic acid, and Mucajá pulp showed significant levels of 18:2n-6 (linoleic acid. Considering the PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acid sum values, almost all fruits and nuts analyzed presented very high levels of these compounds. Regarding n-6/n-3 ratio, only Brazil Nut, Buriti Nut, Inajá pulp, and Jenipapo pulp corresponded to the desired profile. These Brazilian fruits and nuts could be of potential interest due to their high nutritive value and lipid content.

  15. Swedish Pulp Mill Biorefineries. A vision of future possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsson, Thore (Chamers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Axegaard, Peter; Backlund, Birgit; Samuelsson, Aasa; Berglin, Niklas; Lindgren, Karin (STFI-Packforsk, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-07-01

    Today, modern science could make it possible to develop techniques for refining almost the whole wood-matter, pulp mill side streams and bark compounds into platform chemicals, electricity, high quality fuels and structured feed-stock for chemicals and materials. The major challenge is to convert the state of basic scientific knowledge into industrial practise. Our definition of an integrated biorefinery is: 'Full utilization of the incoming biomass and other raw materials for simultaneous and economically optimized production of fibres, chemicals and energy'. Examples of products from a pulp mill biorefinery are: Chemicals and Materials (Phenols, adhesives, carbon fibres, activated carbon, binders, barriers, adhesives, antioxidants, surfactants, chelants, solvents, adhesives surfactants, descaling agents, specialty polymers, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics etc., Biofuels (pellets, lignin fuel, methanol, DME, ethanol etc), Electricity (BLGCC, condensing power etc.). The new or increased amounts of traditional products can be made from internal and/or external biomass. Three different levels can be identified: A high degree of energy saving in future mills, especially chemical pulp mills, will lead to large amounts of excess internal biomass which can be transferred to products mentioned above, Components in e.g. the black liquor, forest residues and bark can be upgraded to more valuable ones and the energy balance of the mill is kept through fuel import, wholly or partly depending on the level of mill energy efficiency. This imported fuel can be biomass or other types. External (imported) biomass (in some cases together with excess internal biomass) can be upgraded using synergy effects of docking this upgrading to a pulp mill. Electricity has been included as one of the possible biorefinery products. The electricity production in a mill can be increased in several ways which cannot be directly considered as biorefineries, e.g. recovery boiler

  16. Assessment of oxygen saturation in dental pulp of permanent teeth with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, Larissa Bergesch; Barletta, Fernando Branco; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Bruno, Kely Firmino; de Alencar, Ana Helena Gonçalves; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    In individuals with periodontal disease, dental pulp status should be determined before a treatment plan is made. Pulse oximeters are promising diagnostic tools to evaluate pulp vascularization. This study used pulse oximetry to determine the level of oxygen saturation in dental pulp of intact permanent teeth with periodontal attachment loss (PAL) and gingival recession (GR) and to evaluate the correlation between periodontal disease and level of oxygen saturation in the pulp. This study included 67 anterior teeth of 35 patients; all teeth showed intact crowns, PAL, a periodontal pocket (PP), and GR. The teeth underwent periodontal examination, cold and electric pulp testing, and pulse oximetry measurements. The Pearson correlation coefficient and a linear regression coefficient were calculated to evaluate the degree of correlation between periodontal disease markers (PAL, PP, and GR) and the level of oxygen saturation in dental pulp. These tests also evaluated possible associations between oxygen saturation and cold and electric pulp testing. PAL, PP, and GR had negative correlations with oxygen saturation in dental pulp. Conversely, no statistically significant association was found between oxygen saturation in dental pulp and the response to electric sensibility testing. Oxygen saturation was lower in the pulp of permanent teeth with PAL, PP, and GR, indicating that periodontal disease correlates with the level of oxygen saturation in the pulp. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheeshkumar, P S; Mohan, Minu P; Saji, Sweta; Sadanandan, Sudheesh; George, Giju

    2013-01-01

    Dental pulp calcifications are unique and represent the dental pulp regenerative process. Dental pulp calcifications are sometimes routine findings in oral radiographs and may later serve as an important diagnostic criterion for a hidden aspect of systemic illness. The purpose of this study was to assess the patterns and prevalence of idiopathic dental pulp calcifications in a tertiary care setting in South India. A total of 227 patients were included in the study fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Age range of the study population was from 15 to 70 years. Teeth were examined under digital panoramic radiograph. The presence or absence of pulp stones was recorded. The presence of pulp stone were categorized according to the types classified as Type I, Type IA, Type II, Type IIA, Type II B, and Type III. The frequency of occurrence of pulp stones with sex, tooth type, dental arches, and types were compared with the types of calcification. Total no. of patients with pulpal calcification were 227 [females 133 (58.59%) and males 94 (41.40%)]. The most common type between both sexes was Type I (48%). Total no. of teeth with calcification was 697; maxilla (48%), mandible (52%). The prevalence of pulp stone was found to be higher in the molars in both the arches. Most no. of pulp stones are reported at the third and fourth decade of life. Idiopathic dental pulp calcifications are incidental radiographic findings of the pulp tissue and also may be an indicator of underlying disease.

  18. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustercic, Dusan; Sersa, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  19. The effects of high energy radiation on the pulping properties of Pinus radiation and Eucalyptus regnans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, K.G.; Garland, C.P.; Higgins, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    Studies have been made of the effects of high energy radiation on the pulping behaviour of Eucalyptus regnans and Pinus radiata. Pre-irradiation of wood chips with small doses of 60 Co gamma radiation (up to about 0.2 Mrad) caused little degradation of the cellulose, and had only minor effects on the kraft pulping properties of both wood species. Pulp yield, Kappa number and strength properties of the pulps showed little change. There was also little effect on the bisulphite cooking of Pinus radiata. As the dose was increased to 1 Mrad, degradation of cellulose (as indicated by degree of polymerisation measurements) became significant, and Kraft pulp yields from both woods showed small reductions. The Kappa number and physical properties of these pulps were little affected at this dose level. A gamma radiation dose of 10 Mrad produced marked depolymerisation of the cellulose, and big reductions in kraft and neutral sulphite semi-chemical pulp yields. The kraft pulps showed a much higher lignin content. Some low dose (0.15 Mrad) irradiations on thin chips were carried out with a 1 MeV electron accelerator. In contrast to comparable gamma irradiations, this treatment produced discernible changes in kraft pulping behaviour. The pulp yield, under the same cooking conditions, appears to be slightly higher, but the Lignin content of the pulp was increased. (Author)

  20. Tropical Fruit Pulps: Processing, Product Standardization and Main Control Parameters for Quality Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fruit pulp is the most basic food product obtained from fresh fruit processing. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts. However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry. There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards (IQSs and standardized good manufacturing practices (GMP for fruit pulps, which also embrace standard operating procedures (SOPs and hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP, although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps. It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.

  1. Relationship between lignin structure and delignification degree in Pinus pinaster kraft pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Robert, D; Duarte, A P

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the structure of residual and dissolved lignins from Pinus pinaster pulps obtained at different degrees of delignification by laboratory conventional kraft pulping. The cooking H factor was varied from 85 to 8049. The residual and dissolved lignin samples were characterised by elemental analysis, residual carbohydrate content, permanganate oxidation and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The reflectance factor of the pulps was also determined in order to tentatively correlate the delignification degree and residual lignin structure with the pulp colour. The obtained results confirmed that the delignification degree increases the condensation of the lignin structure, which might have an influence upon the observed increased pulp colour. The lack of selectivity of kraft pulping process in the case of more delignified pulps was also shown.

  2. Positive and negative aspects of soda/anthraquinone pulping of hardwoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, R C; Bolton, T S; Abdoulmoumine, N; Lavrykova, N; Bose, S K

    2008-11-01

    The positive aspects of the non-sulfur soda/anthraquinone (SAQ) process are mostly tied to improved energy efficiency while lower pulp brightness after bleaching is its most significant drawback. A credible method that quantifies bleachability as well as an approach that solves the problem for SAQ pulps from hardwoods will be described. A straight line correlation (R2=0.904) was obtained between O2 kappa number and final light absorption coefficient (LAC) value after standardized OD0EpD1 bleaching of nine hardwood kraft pulps from three laboratories and one pulp mill. The bleachability of pulps from four different soda processes catalyzed by anthraquinone (AQ) and 2-methylanthraquinone (MAQ) was compared to that of conventional kraft pulps by comparing O2 kappa number decrease and final LAC values. It was observed that a mild hot water pre-hydrolysis improved the bleachability of SAQ pulps to a level equal to that of kraft.

  3. Strong intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dessi, Roberta; Rustichini, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    A large literature in psychology, and more recently in economics, has argued that monetary rewards can reduce intrinsic motivation. We investigate whether the negative impact persists when intrinsic motivation is strong, and test this hypothesis experimentally focusing on the motivation to undertake interesting and challenging tasks, informative about individual ability. We find that this type of task can generate strong intrinsic motivation, that is impervious to the effect of monetary incen...

  4. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  5. Strong gravity and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Salam, A.; Strathdee, J.

    1977-11-01

    A supersymmetric theory is constructed for a strong f plus a weak g graviton, together with their accompanying massive gravitinos, by gaugin the gradel 0Sp(2,2,1)x 0Sp(2,2,1) structure. The mixing term between f and g fields, which makes the strong graviton massive, can be introduced through a spontaneous symmetry-breaking mechanism implemented in this note by constructing a non-linear realization of the symmetry group

  6. An approach to industrial application: influence of black liquor and pH on xylanase efficiency in bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Fillat Latorre, Úrsula; Roncero Vivero, María Blanca; Bassa, Alexandre; Sacón, Vera Maria

    2010-01-01

    To obtain a more realistic appraisal of the potential efficiency of xylanases in the industrial bleaching, the influence of pH and the presence of black liquor (measured as COD) on the bleaching efficiency of two commercial xylanases was studied at high temperature. These pH’s, CODs, and temperatures are close to those used in the storage tower of the B fiber line in Jacareı´ unit of Fibria (Brazil). The pulp samples obtained after each bleaching stage were analyzed for kappa number, brigh...

  7. Generation of biogas from coffee-pulp and cow-dung co-digestion: Infrared studies of postcombustion emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corro, Grisel; Paniagua, Laura; Pal, Umapada; Bañuelos, Fortino; Rosas, Minerva

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Batch digester with coffee pulp/cow dung produced high amounts of methane for 8 months. The FTIR gas spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of over 70 chemical compounds in biogas generated after 4 months of coffee pulp and cow dung mixture co-digestion, several being hazardous to environment and human and animal health (e.g. isocyanic acid, bromomethane). Biogas produced was burned in a laboratory combustor. The FTIR gas spectroscopy analysis showed that combustion emissions contained: CH 4 , C 3 H 8 , CO, SO 2 , HI, and probably Br 2 which are strongly harmful to human and animal health. - Highlights: • Batch digester with coffee pulp/cow dung produced high amounts of methane for 8 months. • Biogas from coffee pulp/cow dung codigestion contained 60% methane and 20% propane. • Biogas FTIR analysis revealed the presence of isocyanic acid and bromomethane. • Biogas FTIR analysis showed also the presence of HI. • Biogas combustion emissions contained CH 4 , HI, SO 2 and probably Br 2 . - Abstract: Biogas could be produced by the co-digestion of coffee-pulp and cow-dung mixture under solar radiation. Gas chromatography and FTIR spectroscopy were used to analyze the chemical compositions of the generated biogas and its postcombustion emissions. From the first month of co-digestion at mesophylic conditions, methane content in the biogas attains 50% of the yield. This content increased up to 60% and remained almost constant for at least 8 months of further digestion. The FTIR gas spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of over 70 chemical compounds in the biogas generated after 4 months of co-digestion along with several compounds hazardous to environment and animal health like isocyanic acid, and bromomethane. Combustion emission of the biogas contained several components like CH 4 , C 3 H 8 , CO, SO 2 , HI, and probably Br 2 which are strongly harmful to human and animal health. Results presented in this work indicate that if the

  8. Optical and Physical Properties of ONP Deinked Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Akbarpoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are protein molecules with complex structures that accelerate the biochemical reactions. Activity of these chemical compounds is accomplished at limited range of pH, temperature and concentration. In this study, the effects of different concentrations of cellulose enzyme were investigated on deinking of old newsprint. Old newsprint (ONP was repulped at 5% consistency for 10 minutes in disintegrator with total revolution number of 26500. Enzymatic treatments of recycled ONP pulp were done under constant conditions (10% consistency,treatment time of 15 minutes, pH range of 5-5.5 at different cellulose concentrations of 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% (based on oven-dry waste paper. The optical and physical properties of the standard paper (60g/m2 made at different concentrations of cellulose were evaluated in comparison with control pulp (untreated ONP pulp with cellulase. Overall, the results achieved by comparison the optical properties of the paper produced indicated that using cellulase in deinking of ONP led to increase the brightness and the yellowness and decrease the opacity. The brightness was improved to a maximum level of 47.5 ISO %, but the yellowness was decreased to a minimum level of 11.3 ISO %, while the brightness reduced and the yellowness increased at higher concentrations than 0.05% cellulase. The highest opacity of 99.3 ISO % was achieved using 0.1% cellulase even higher than control pulp. The results gained by comparison the physical properties of the paper showed that using cellulase resulted in decrease of paper calliper, air resistance and density and improve the freeness of pulp

  9. EVALUATION OF CONDITION OF THE PULP BY PULSE OXIMETRY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Kosturkov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To conduct pulse oximetry (PO and electric pulp test (EPT on intact frontal teeth in clinically healthy patients aged between 18 and 25 years who do not have periodontal disease. Material/Methods: To achieve the aim 1058 teeth of 31 patients were studied. The following inclusion criteria for the study were set: 1. Age – 18-25 years. 2. Clinically healthy patient, who does not have any systemic diseases, do not take any medicine systematically. 3. Intact frontal teeth – without carious lesions, restorations or root canal treatment. 4. Lack of periodontal disease. Research was conducted with a pulse oximeter Contec™ - CMS60D and a custom made probe holder. Results: Average values obtained by pulse oximetry in upper jaw vary between 83% and 85%. In lower jaw – between 82% and 85%. 99% is the maximum and 48% is the minimum registered value. The average value of the measurement of all the teeth is 84%. The average saturation measured on the small finger of the right hand of the patient is 98%. The average value of EPT for all teeth is 4 μA. The maximum measured value is 20 μA, and the minimum - 1 μA. Conclusions: 1. Adequate study of the pulp includes two complementary methods – electric pulp test (evaluation of innervation and pulse oximetry (assessment of pulp microcirculation. 2. Teeth that are larger in size have larger values of PO and EPT, which is in direct relation to the size of their pulp chamber. 3. The total saturation, measured in the little finger of the right hand is greater than the one of the teeth.

  10. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Deciduous Teeth Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen I. Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify predictors of success rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC isolation from human deciduous teeth pulp. A total of 161 deciduous teeth were extracted at the dental clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The MSCs were isolated from dental pulps using a standard protocol. In total, 128 colonies of MSCs were obtained and the success rate was 79.5%. Compared to teeth not yielding MSCs successfully, those successfully yielding MSCs were found to have less severe dental caries (no/mild-to-moderate/severe: 63.3/24.2/12.5% versus 12.5/42.4/42.4%, P<0.001 and less frequent pulpitis (no/yes: 95.3/4.7% versus 51.5/48.5%, P<0.001. In a multivariate regression model, it was confirmed that the absence of dental caries (OR = 4.741, 95% CI = 1.564–14.371, P=0.006 and pulpitis (OR = 9.111, 95% CI = 2.921–28.420, P<0.001 was significant determinants of the successful procurement of MSCs. MSCs derived from pulps with pulpitis expressed longer colony doubling time than pulps without pulpitis. Furthermore, there were higher expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin- (IL- 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP- 1, P<0.01, and innate immune response [toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 and TLR8, P<0.05; TLR2, TLR3, and TLR6, P<0.01] in the inflamed than noninflamed pulps. Therefore, a carious deciduous tooth or tooth with pulpitis was relatively unsuitable for MSC processing and isolation.

  11. Isolation and characterization of microcrystalline cellulose from roselle fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kian, Lau Kia; Jawaid, Mohammad; Ariffin, Hidayah; Alothman, Othman Y

    2017-10-01

    In this study, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was extracted from roselle fiber through acid hydrolysis treatment and its properties were compared with those of commercially available MCC. The physicochemical and morphological characteristics, elemental composition, size distribution, crystallinity and thermal properties of the obtained MCC were analyzed in this work. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provided clear evidence that the characteristic peak of lignin was absent in the spectrum of the MCC prepared from roselle fiber. Rough surface and slight aggregation of MCC were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis showed that pure MCC with small quantities of residues and impurities was obtained, with a similar elemental composition to that of commercial MCC. A mean diameter of approximately 44.28μm was measured for MCC by using a particle size analyzer (PSA). X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the crystallinity increased from 63% in roselle pulp to 78% in roselle MCC, the latter having a slightly higher crystallinity than that of commercial MCC (74%). TGA and DSC results indicated that the roselle MCC had better thermal stability than the roselle pulp, whereas it had poorer thermal stability in comparison with commercial MCC. Thus, the isolated MCC from roselle fibers will be going to use as reinforcing element in green composites and may be a precursor for future roselle derived nanocellulose, and thus a promising subject in nanocomposite research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Semaphorin 3A Induces Odontoblastic Phenotype in Dental Pulp Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S; Wada, N; Hasegawa, D; Miyaji, H; Mitarai, H; Tomokiyo, A; Hamano, S; Maeda, H

    2016-10-01

    In cases of pulp exposure due to deep dental caries or severe traumatic injuries, existing pulp-capping materials have a limited ability to reconstruct dentin-pulp complexes and can result in pulpectomy because of their low potentials to accelerate dental pulp cell activities, such as migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, the development of more effective therapeutic agents has been anticipated for direct pulp capping. Dental pulp tissues are enriched with dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Here, the authors investigated the effects of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) on various functions of human DPSCs in vitro and reparative dentin formation in vivo in a rat dental pulp exposure model. Immunofluorescence staining revealed expression of Sema3A and its receptor Nrp1 (neuropilin 1) in rat dental pulp tissue and human DPSC clones. Sema3A induced cell migration, chemotaxis, proliferation, and odontoblastic differentiation of DPSC clones. In addition, Sema3A treatment of DPSC clones increased β-catenin nuclear accumulation, upregulated expression of the FARP2 gene (FERM, RhoGEF, and pleckstrin domain protein 2), and activated Rac1 in DPSC clones. Furthermore, in the rat dental pulp exposure model, Sema3A promoted reparative dentin formation with dentin tubules and a well-aligned odontoblast-like cell layer at the dental pulp exposure site and with novel reparative dentin almost completely covering pulp tissue at 4 wk after direct pulp capping. These findings suggest that Sema3A could play an important role in dentin regeneration via canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Sema3A might be an alternative agent for direct pulp capping, which requires further study. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics of the coconut pulp (Acrocomia aculeata) for use as support of proteins and metal material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yubero, F.; Ayala, J.; Lopez, M.; Valdovinos, V.; Monteiro, M.; Gonzalez, Y.; Thompson, W.; Arguello, J.

    2016-01-01

    The fruit of the Acrocomia aculeata, native palm tree typical of the tropical region, is exploited mainly for the manufacture of oils and animal consumption. This study was aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the residue of the Acrocomia aculeata coconut pulp in order to apply it in the development of new materials. Therefore fruits collected for the production of pulp were drying and pulverized, the chemical and mineral compositions were studied by GAFTA standardized techniques for the analysis of crude fiber, protein, fat and calories and INAA respectively. Subsequently, the initial material was chemically modified and assessed the solubilities of the native material and the obtained modified material proving to be completely insoluble in solvents organic and aqueous (water, ethanol, terbutanol, isobutanol and hexane), the materials were analyzed by IR with Transformed Fourier and the results showed the existence of changes in the double link lengthening conjugated and aromatic; and link double nitrogen C=N/N=O. EPR analysis indicated that the materials obtained are not paramagnetic at room temperature, however can incorporate magnetite and Fe 0 . These preliminary studies concluded that this eco material could be applied as support of proteins and metals. (author)

  14. Physicochemical characteristics of the coconut pulp (Acrocomia aculeata) for use as support of proteins and metal material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yubero, F.; Ayala, J.; Lopez, M.; Valdovinos, V.; Monteiro, M.; Gonzalez, Y., E-mail: fyubero@qui.una.py [National University of Asunción (Paraguay); Thompson, W. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica; Arguello, J. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    The fruit of the Acrocomia aculeata, native palm tree typical of the tropical region, is exploited mainly for the manufacture of oils and animal consumption. This study was aimed to determine the physicochemical characteristics of the residue of the Acrocomia aculeata coconut pulp in order to apply it in the development of new materials. Therefore fruits collected for the production of pulp were drying and pulverized, the chemical and mineral compositions were studied by GAFTA standardized techniques for the analysis of crude fiber, protein, fat and calories and INAA respectively. Subsequently, the initial material was chemically modified and assessed the solubilities of the native material and the obtained modified material proving to be completely insoluble in solvents organic and aqueous (water, ethanol, terbutanol, isobutanol and hexane), the materials were analyzed by IR with Transformed Fourier and the results showed the existence of changes in the double link lengthening conjugated and aromatic; and link double nitrogen C=N/N=O. EPR analysis indicated that the materials obtained are not paramagnetic at room temperature, however can incorporate magnetite and Fe{sup 0}. These preliminary studies concluded that this eco material could be applied as support of proteins and metals. (author)

  15. Forestry and fiber crop production in the higher rainfall areas of tropical Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, I.M.; Volck, H.E.; Cameron, D.M.; Thomson, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of the nearly 1 million square km of higher rainfall area shows that less than 4% has potential for arable agriculture or commercial forestry. Except for rain forest on the eastern Queensland coast (now largely protected), native forest has little potential for timber or pulp. Plantations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis offer the best potential for forest production in Queensland and Northern Territory. The most promising agricultural fiber crops for paper pulp are bagasse, which could be upgraded by mixing with pine mill wastes, and kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus). The freight costs involved in a forestry and fiber project in northern Australia are analyzed and the possibility of some local processing is considered. (Refs. 33).

  16. Ecto-mesenchymal stem cells from dental pulp are committed to differentiate into active melanocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Paino

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are multipotent stem cells derived from neural crest and mesenchyme and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. It has already been demonstrated that DPSCs differentiate into melanocyte-like cells but only when cultivated in a specific melanocyte differentiating medium. In this study we have shown, for the first time, that DPSCs are capable of spontaneously differentiating into mature melanocytes, which display molecular and ultrastructural features of full development, including the expression of melanocyte specific markers and the presence of melanosomes up to the terminal stage of maturation. We have also compared the differentiating features of DPSCs grown in different culture conditions, following the timing of differentiation at molecular and cytochemical levels and found that in all culture conditions full development of these cells was obtained, although at different times. The spontaneous differentiating potential of these cells strongly suggests their possible applications in regenerative medicine.

  17. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  18. The physical properties, lignin distribution, chemical composition of fibers and gas exchange rate of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) varieties under prolonged water deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Khalatbari, A.M; Jaafar, Z.E; Khalatbari, A. A; Hazandy, A.H; Mohd Ridzwan, A. H

    2016-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics and physical properties of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fibers cultivated and subjected to three different water frequencies in Universiti Putra Malaysia, were analyzed. For deep analysis, which includes micro-scale viewing for identification of kenaf cell wall structure, fibers were viewed in order to study the physical characteristics, anatomy, and lignin distribution. The chemical composition was determined considering Technical Association of Pulp and Pap...

  19. Enzymatic Extraction of Hydroxycinnamic Acids from Coffee Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Favela-Torres

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids are classified as hydroxycinnamic acids, presenting anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this work, enzymatic extraction has been studied in order to extract high value-added products like hydroxycinnamic acids from coffee pulp. A commercial pectinase and enzyme extract produced by Rhizomucor pusillus strain 23aIV in solid-state fermentation using olive oil or coffee pulp (CP as an inducer of the feruloyl esterase activity were evaluated separately and mixed. The total content (covalently linked and free of ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids was 5276 mg per kg of coffee pulp. Distribution was as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 58.7, caffeic acid 37.6, ferulic acid 2.1 and p-coumaric acid 1.5. Most of the hydroxycinnamic acids were covalently bound to the cell wall (in %: p-coumaric acid 97.2, caffeic acid 94.4, chlorogenic acid 76.9 and ferulic acid 73.4. The content of covalently linked hydroxycinnamic acid was used to calculate the enzyme extraction yield. The maximum carbon dioxide rate for the solid-state fermentation using olive oil as an inducer was higher and it was reached in a short cultivation time. Nevertheless, the feruloyl esterase (FAE activity (units per mg of protein obtained in the fermentation using CP as an inducer was 31.8 % higher in comparison with that obtained in the fermentation using olive oil as the inducer. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating the composition of both esterified and free ferulic, caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids in coffee pulp. The highest yield of extraction of hydroxycinnamic acids was obtained by mixing the produced enzyme extract using coffee pulp as an inducer and a commercial pectinase. Extraction yields were as follows (in %: chlorogenic acid 54.4, ferulic acid 19.8, p-coumaric acid 7.2 and caffeic acid 2.3. An important increase in the added value of coffee pulp was mainly

  20. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.